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Sample records for acute skin irritation

  1. Comparative assessment of the acute skin irritation potential of detergent formulations using a novel human 4-h patch test method.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael K; Kruszewski, Francis H; Al-Atrash, Jenan; Blazka, Mark E; Gingell, Ralph; Heitfeld, Fred A; Mallon, David; Snyder, Neil K; Swanson, Judith E; Casterton, Phillip L

    2005-12-01

    Predictive skin irritation test methods, which do not require use of animals, are needed for the pre-market assessment of detergent formulations. The utility of a novel and ethical human acute skin irritation patch test method, originally developed for chemical skin irritation assessment, was evaluated. In this IRB-approved method, subjects were patched under occlusion for increasing periods of time up to 4h in duration. The total incidence of positive skin reactions for test products was compared to a positive control (20% aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]). Acutely irritating formulas were defined as those showing a significantly increased or equal incidence of positive responders compared with that of SDS. The time of exposure required for 50% of subjects to show a positive skin reaction (TR50 value) was calculated for each product and enabled test product comparisons within and between studies. Using this approach, 24 detergent formulations of various types were tested in seven individual studies. The skin irritation profiles were generally consistent within product types, which could be categorized as follows (by decreasing irritancy): mold/mildew removers (average TR50 = 0.37 h) > disinfectants/sanitizers (0.64 h) > fabric softener concentrate (1.09 h) = aluminum wash (1.20 h) > 20% SDS (1.81 h) > liquid laundry detergents (3.48 h) > liquid dish detergents (4.16 h) = liquid fabric softeners (4.56 h) = liquid hand soaps (4.58 h) = shampoos (5.40 h) = hard surface cleaners (6.34 h) > powder automatic dish detergents (>16 h) = powder laundry detergents (>16 h). In addition to formulation effects, some seasonal effects were noted; particularly greater winter-time reactivity to 20% SDS and the hard surface cleaner and liquid laundry formulations. These results demonstrate the utility of this patch test method for the comparative skin irritation assessment of these different product types.

  2. A strategy for skin irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael K; Perkins, Mary A

    2002-03-01

    Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test methods. Several in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been endorsed after successful validation and are gaining acceptance by regulatory authorities. In vitro test methods for acute, cumulative (repeat exposure), and chronic (prolonged exposure) skin irritation are under development. Though not yet validated, many are being used successfully for testing and risk assessment purposes as documented through an expanding literature. Likewise, a novel acute irritation patch test in human subjects is providing a valid and ethical alternative to animal testing for prediction of chemical skin irritation potential. An array of other human test methods also have been developed and used for the prediction of cumulative/chronic skin irritation and the general skin compatibility of finished products. The development of instrumental methods (e.g., transepidermal water loss, capacitance, and so on) has provided the means for analyzing various biophysical properties of human skin and changes in these properties caused by exposure to irritants. However, these methods do not directly measure skin inflammation. A recently introduced skin surface tape sampling procedure has been shown to detect changes in skin surface cytokine recovery that correlate with inflammatory skin changes associated with chemical irritant exposures or existing dermatitis. It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future.

  3. Effects of JP-8 on Molecular and Histological Parameters Related to Acute Skin Irritation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    animal was closely clipped of fur with Oster® animal clippers (McMinnville, TN) and a number 40 blade, taking care not to damage the skin. An Oster...finishing clipper (0.22mm) was used to carefully remove the fur stubble (Jepson and McDougal, 1997). A template equivalent to the diameter of the outside...In The Irritant Contact Dermatitis Syndrome , (P.G.M. van der Valk and H.I. Maibach, Eds.), pp. 95-104. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1996). Broddle, W.D

  4. Irritants and Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The barrier response to irritant challenge involves complex biologic events and can be modulated by various environmental, exposure and host-related factors. Irritant damage to the epidermal barrier elicits a cascade of homeostatic or pathologic responses that could be investigated by both in vitro and in vivo methods providing different information at biochemical and functional level. The present chapter summarizes the changes in key barrier function parameters following irritant exposure with focus on experimental controlled in vivo human skin studies.

  5. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase 1. Acute Oral Toxicity Primary Skin and Eye Irritation, Dermal Sensitization, and Disposition and Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-22

    and 6 days for 1,3-DNG and 1-MNG. WP caused depression, anorexia, and death in several days with enlarged yellow nutmeg livers. ^ 2,5-DNT was...several days. Animals that died were found to have large yellow nutmeg livers. Primary skin irritation and eye irritation tests were negative with a...amount of radioactivity is consistent with white phosphorus poisoning since enlarged nutmeg liver was observed in the acute oral toxicity study. The

  6. [Non-irritating skin protector].

    PubMed

    Gago Fornells, Manuel; García González, R Fernando; Gaztelu Valdés, Victoriana

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the authors describe the multiple uses a non irritating cutaneous protector has as an effective tool against the aggressions which peri-lesion skin and other at risk skins suffer when they are subject to constant and direct contact with secretions and liquids resulting from the use of dressings based on wet cures, or systems of continence related to ostomias, or in those patients who suffer mixed incontinence where diaper rash makes it difficult to maintain and care for the skin.

  7. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized.

  8. Skin irritation and sensitization: mechanisms and new approaches for risk assessment. 1. Skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, J W; Darlenski, R; Angelova-Fischer, I; Tsankov, N; Basketter, D

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous irritation presents a major health problem with serious social and occupational impact. The interaction between an irritant and the human skin depends on multiple factors: the intrinsic properties and the nature of the irritant itself, and specific individual- and environment-related variables. The main pathological mechanisms of irritancy include skin barrier disruption, induction of a cytokine cascade and involvement of the oxidative stress network; all of them resulting in a visible or subclinical inflammatory reaction. In vivo, different non-invasive parameters for the evaluation of skin irritation and irritant potential of compounds and their specific formulations have been introduced, such as epidermal barrier function, skin hydration, surface pH, lipid composition, skin colour and skin blood flow. The diverse physiological changes caused by irritating agents require implementation of a multiparametric approach in the evaluation of cutaneous irritancy.

  9. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods.

  10. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Sayedali; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Asilian-Mahabadi, Ali; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC) and potassium nitrate (KN) are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN), KN, and zinc chloride (ZC). Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v) concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:28250779

  11. Cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, and skin irritation of 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate and di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate.

    PubMed

    Monhaphol, Thitinun; Yibchok-Anun, Sirinthorn; Banlunara, Wijit; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Palaga, Tanapat; Asawanonda, Pravit; Wanichweacharungruang, Supason

    2008-01-01

    Safety of two new ultraviolet (UV) filters, 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (E8) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (B8), has been evaluated through the human melanoma cytotoxicity test and seven-day acute oral toxicity studies in rats. At 2.5 mg/mL, both compounds gave similar cell viability to the control. LD50 values for E8 and B8 are more than 5000 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. No significant difference in body weight and hematological parameters among the 0, 5, 50, 500, and 5000 mg/Kg E8-treated animals could be detected. Pathological examination of rat tissues collected at the end of the study period revealed no significant difference between the control and all E8-administered rats. There was no significant difference in all clinical blood chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cholesterol), except alanine aminotransferase (ALT), between the control and the E8-treated animals. All ALT values were, however, in the normal range of SD rats. E8 showed negative results for the skin irritation study on human volunteers, using patch and photopatch tests. Excitation of respiratory signs of dypsnea in 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated rats could be observed during 1-24 h. All groups were, however, normal during the second to the seventh day. Hematological parameters of the 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/Kg B8-treated animals showed no significant difference. Pathological examination revealed no significant difference between the control and all B8-administered rats. However, significant differences in some clinical blood chemistry parameters and body weights between the control and some B8-treated animals could be detected. All values, however, were in the normal ranges of the SD rats.

  12. Effect of topically applied lipids on surfactant-irritated skin.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Andersson, A C

    1996-02-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of dry skin. All of them contain lipids. It has been suggested that topically applied lipids may interfere with the structure and function of the permeability barrier. The influence of a single application of nine different lipids on normal skin and skin irritated by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was studied in 21 healthy subjects. Parameters assessed were visible signs of irritation, and objectively measured cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The substances tested were hydrocortisone, petrolatum, fish oil, borage oil, sunflower seed oil, canola oil, shea butter, and fractions of unsaponifiable lipids from canola oil and shea butter. Water was included as a control. On normal skin, no significant differences in the effects of the test substances were found, whereas significant differences were observed when they were applied to SLS-irritated skin. The visible signs of SLS-induced irritation were significantly less pronounced after treatment with the sterol-enriched fraction from canola oil than after treatment with water. This fraction, and hydrocortisone, reduced cutaneous blood flow. Furthermore, application of hydrocortisone, canola oil, and its sterol-enriched fraction, resulted in significantly lower TEWL than with water. The other lipids had no effect on the degree of irritation. In conclusion, lipids commonly used in moisturizers may reduce skin reactions to irritants. Previous studies have shown that, in barrier perturbed skin, the synthesis of sterols is increased. The observed effects of canola oil and its fraction of unsaponifiable lipids on SLS-induced irritation suggest the possibility that they assisted the skin in supplying the damaged barrier with adequate lipids.

  13. In Vitro Comparative Skin Irritation Induced by Nano and Non-Nano Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Llanas, Hector; Marics, Laura; Mitjans, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether nano-sized ZnO has the potential to cause acute cutaneous irritation using cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent as in vitro models, compared to non-nanomaterials. Commercial nano ZnO with different sizes (50 nm and 100 nm) was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and microscopy (SEM) in different media. Nano ZnO reduced the cell viability of HaCaT in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, in a similar way to macro ZnO. However, the 3D-epidermis model revealed no irritation at 1 mg/mL after 24 h of exposure. In conclusion, nano-sized ZnO does not irritate skin, in a similar manner to non-nano ZnO. PMID:28336890

  14. The effect of damaged skin barrier induced by subclinical irritation on the sequential irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yan-yu, Wu; Xue-min, Wang; Yi-Mei, Tan; Ying, Cheng; Na, Liu

    2011-12-01

    Skin damage caused by a single specific stimulus has been extensively studied. However, many additional mild skin irritants are experienced every day before obvious irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) appears. The effect that these previously experienced mild irritations have on the incidence and severity of sequential ICD remains undefined. The purpose of this work was to explore whether the effects of skin barrier damage induced by either the open patch test with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), tape stripping test (TAP) (10×), or irradiation with 0.75 median erythemal dose UVB (MED) will affect the severity of sequential irritant dermatitis induced by a 0.5% SLS occlusive patch test (PT). Nine treatments were applied to nine different locations of the ventral forearm of each subject at random. The nine treatment types were as follows: open patch test with 1% SLS; 10× TAP; UVB irradiation with 0.75 MED; open patch test with 1% SLS + PT with 0.5% SLS (SLSPT); 10× TAP + PT with 0.5% SLS (TAPPT); UVB irradiation with 0.75 MED + PT with 0.5% SLS (UVPT); PT with distilled water (DISPT); PT with 0.5% SLS (PT); and the CONTROL (no treatment). After 5 days of subclinical irritation, the PT was applied on day 6. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance (CAP), and skin color (a*) were measured at baseline and on days 6, 7, and 8. After the PT, indices of irritancy of PT, UVPT, SLSPT, and TAPPT were 60, 80, 87 and 100%, respectively. The index of irritancy of TAPPT and SLSPT were significantly higher than that of PT (p < 0.05). Clinical scores of SLSPT and TAPPT were also significantly higher than PT (p < 0.05). After 5 days of irritation, TEWL of SLS, TAP, SLSPT, and TAPPT were increased significantly compared to that of baseline. After the PT, D-value of TEWL between day 8 and day 6 ((≥6-8)TEWL) of SLSPT and TAPPT were greater than that of PT, and D-value of TEWL between day 8 and day 7 ((≥7-8)TEWL) of SLSPT and TAPPT were less than that of PT values. After the

  15. Laundry detergents and skin irritancy--a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Surface-active agents (surfactants) form the foundation of an effective detergent formulation. As such, surfactants are a major component of laundry detergents. Depending on multiple factors, the amount of residual detergent surfactants in clothing after washing varies but may be sufficient to elicit skin irritation in susceptible individuals and in patients with existing dermatologic disorders. The goal of this review is to examine the relationship between surfactants commonly used in laundry detergent formulations and their potential for skin irritancy. In this context, the role of surfactants in achieving broad-spectrum cleaning performance in laundry is discussed, and currently available methodologies to evaluate and measure the effect of surfactant exposure on the skin are reviewed.

  16. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Slotosch, Caroline M; Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the biological response of regular human skin to alcohol-based disinfectants and detergents in a repetitive test design. Using non-invasive diagnostic tools such as transepidermal water loss, laser-Doppler flowmetry and corneometry, we quantified the irritative effects of a propanol-based hand disinfectant (Sterillium), its propanol mixture (2-propanol 45% w/w and 1-propanol 30% w/w), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 0.5% and distilled water. The substances were applied in a 2-D patch test in a repetitive occlusive test design to the back. Additionally, we performed a wash test on the forearms that was supposed to mimic the skin affection in the normal daily routine of health care workers. In this controlled half-side test design, we included the single application of the hand rub, SLS 0.5% and water as well as a tandem application of the same substances. Patch test and wash test showed similar results. The alcohol-based test preparations showed minimal irritation rather comparable to the application of water. However, the detergent SLS produced stronger barrier disruption, erythema and dryness than the alcohol-based preparations. There was no additional irritation at the combined use of SLS and disinfectants. By contrary, there was even a decrease in barrier disruption and erythema induced by the tandem application of SLS followed by alcohol-based disinfection compared with the use of SLS alone. These findings show a less irritant effect of alcohol-based disinfectants on the skin than detergents. Our study shows that there is no summation of irritating effects of a common detergent and propanol and that the combination of washing and disinfection has a rather protective aspect compared with washing alone.

  17. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João A S; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A; Marques, Eduardo F; Pais, Alberto A C C

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  18. Dicationic Alkylammonium Bromide Gemini Surfactants. Membrane Perturbation and Skin Irritation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, João A. S.; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A.; Marques, Eduardo F.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of 31P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by 31P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism. PMID:22102870

  19. Assessment of phototoxicity, skin irritation, and sensitization potential of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoon-Hee; Jeong, Sang Hoon; Yi, Sang Min; Hyeok Choi, Byeong; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, In-Kyoung; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Son, Sang Wook

    2011-07-01

    The human skin equivalent model (HSEM) is well known as an attractive alternative model for evaluation of dermal toxicity. However, only limited data are available on the usefulness of an HSEM for nanotoxicity testing. This study was designed to investigate cutaneous toxicity of polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles using cultured keratinocytes, an HSEM, and an animal model. In addition, we also evaluated the skin sensitization potential of nanoparticles using a local lymph node assay with incorporation of BrdU. Findings from the present study indicate that polystyrene and TiO2 nanoparticles do not induce phototoxicity, acute cutaneous irritation, or skin sensitization. Results from evaluation of the HSEMs correspond well with those from animal models. Our findings suggest that the HSEM might be a useful alternative model for evaluation of dermal nanotoxicity.

  20. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naïve guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.

  1. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naive guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.

  2. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  3. In vitro skin irritation: facts and future. State of the art review of mechanisms and models.

    PubMed

    Welss, Thomas; Basketter, David A; Schröder, Klaus R

    2004-06-01

    The skin is the main target tissue for exogenous noxes, protecting us from harmful environmental hazards, UV-irradiation and endogenous water loss. It is composed of three layers, whereas the outermost epidermis is a squamous epithelium that mainly consists of keratinocytes. These cells execute a terminal differentiation, which finally results in the assembly of the stratum corneum. This layer, consisting of cornified keratinocytes, is an effective barrier against a vast number of substances. Apart of this, keratinocytes play crucial roles in the immune surveillance and the initiation, modulation and regulation of inflammation in the epidermis. Regarding cutaneous inflammatory reactions, skin irritation is one of the most common adverse effect in humans. For reasons of human safety assessment new chemicals are still evaluated for irritant potentials by application to animals followed by visible changes such as erythema and oedema. Testing for skin irritation in animals potentially cause them pain and discomfort. Furthermore, the results are not always predictive for those found in humans. In order to replace animal testing and to improve the prediction of irritants, the cosmetic and toiletry industry, in Europe represented by Colipa, develops and uses several alternative in vitro test systems. In this respect, the use of in vitro reconstructed organotypic skin equivalents are mostly favored, because of their increasingly close resemblance to human skin. Due to ethical and scientific questions and on account of the 7th amendment of the European Council Directive 76/768/EEC, the authors see the requirement to drive the development of alternative tests for irritants. Therefore, this article centres on cosmetic ingredients and provides the readership an overview of the state of art of cellular mechanisms of skin irritation and summarizes the results of the commonly used skin equivalents to evaluate irritation in vitro.

  4. Irritancy of low concentrations of soap and synthetic detergents as measured by skin water loss.

    PubMed

    Hassing, J H; Nater, J P; Bleumink, E

    1982-05-01

    The irritancy of low concentrations of commercially available soaps and detergents (surfactants) in bar form was determined by means of measurements of water loss of the skin. The percentage of increase of vapor (water) loss after application of the soap solutions was taken as a measure of skin irritancy. The tests were performed in 19 human volunteers with 1% solutions of Sporex, Devela, Lux, Lactacyd and Aveenoderm. Devela and Lactacyd were found to provoke marked effects, Lux was less harmful whereas Sporex and Aveenoderm did not lead to a considerable increase of skin vapor loss. Longitudinal studies showed that the irritant properties of soap solutions are additive. The results suggest that the influences of the pH of a soap solution on the skin-damaging effort is less important than assumed thus far.

  5. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part I.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-02-01

    In the present study the contact irritative--eczematogenic--effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) contained in syndet laundry detergents has been investigated. The method employed was the occlusive epicutaneous test (ET) involving the use of increasing serial dilutions of PE and various times of exposure. The tests were made on sympton-free skin, on skin showing premorbid or slight irritative changes, on skin previously acid- or base-treated, in the presence of increased skin permeability and following the skin stripping method. The results obtained in the 912 test series indicate that the PEs tested ("Tenzym prilled" Grindstedvoerkek, and "Maxatase" Gist-Brocases) caused no irritation or other damage to the intact or slightly lesioned skin even in response to close contact lasting several days. When as a result of increased irritation, or for other reasons, the PEs may be assumed to penetrate into the subcorneal layers, they may exert a proteolytic effect, as manifested in the increasing number of positive ETs. In such cases the PE concentrations exceeded by far those employed in the commercial detergents. It is most likely that the skin changes noted in connection with the use of bioactive laundry detergents are due not to the PE content of these detergents, but to other factors.

  6. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  7. Construction of three-dimensional dermo-epidermal skin equivalents using cell coating technology and their utilization as alternative skin for permeation studies and skin irritation tests.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takami; Nagura, Mayuka; Hiura, Ayami; Kojima, Hajime; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-03-23

    In vitro generated human skin equivalents are generating interest as promising tools in basic research, as alternatives to animal testing and for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. For prediction of skin irritation and corrosion, three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalents consisting of differentiated human keratinocytes have been developed and some models have been internationally accepted. However, more delicate assessments using full-thickness skin models, such as skin sensitization tests cannot be performed because of the lack of a dermis containing fibroblasts or appendages. In a previous study, we developed dermo-epidermal human skin equivalents (DESEs) using a cell coating technique, which employs cell surface coating by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled extracellular matrix (ECM) films. The DESEs with dermis consisting of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and epidermis consisting of human keratinocytes (KC) were easily fabricated by using this technology. In this study, the constructed DESEs were evaluated as an alternative skin for skin permeation and irritation tests. A good relationship of permeability coefficient of chemicals was observed between the DESEs and human skin data. We investigated whether the DESEs, a new in vitro skin model, are able to identify skin irritant and non-irritant substances among 20 reference chemicals. It was confirmed that the DESEs are applicable to skin irritation testing as defined in the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Performance Standard (OECD Test Guideline 439). We further studied the construction of the DESEs with density-controlled blood capillary networks using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results suggest that DESEs allowing incorporation of skin appendages are more promising alternatives to animal testing, and can be applied to the design of physiologically relevant in vitro skin models.

  8. Inhibition of retinoic acid-induced skin irritation in calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, James; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Fay, Kevin; Warner, Roscoe L; Hanosh, Andrew; Barron, Adam G; Miller, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Mice on a calorie-restricted (CR) diet (total calories restricted to 70% of ad libitum; AL) for periods of time ranging from 3 to 18 months were examined for response to topical treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Daily application of a 0.1% solution of RA to the shaved skin of UM-HET3 mice on an AL diet produced a severe irritation that was evident by day 4, maximal at day 7-8 and still detectable at day 14. Skin irritation was characterized by redness, dryness, flaking and failure of the hair to grow at the treated site. In CR mice, the same treatment produced little detectable irritation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the retinoid-treatment period (day 7 or day 14) and skin from these animals was examined histologically. In both AL and CR mice, a similar degree of epidermal hyperplasia was observed. Numerous inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells and granulocytes) were present in the skin of both groups. Occasional S100-positive cells (presumably Langerhans cells) were also observed in the epidermis of skin from both groups. S100-positive cells were also observed in the dermis. When skin from CR and AL mice was incubated in organ culture for 3 days (on day 7 after initiation of RA treatment), similar levels of four different pro-inflammatory cytokines were found in the conditioned medium. Soluble type I collagen levels were also similar. In contrast, the level of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was lower in the conditioned medium of skin from CR mice than in conditioned medium from skin cultures of AL mice. Taken together, these studies suggest that CR may provide a way to mitigate the irritation that normally accompanies RA treatment without compromising the beneficial effects of retinoid use. CR appears to exert a protective effect at the target tissue level rather than by a reduction in pro-inflammatory events, per se.

  9. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    PubMed Central

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  10. Evaluation of a quantitative clinical method for assessment of sensory skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Perkins, M A

    2001-10-01

    Sensory skin irritation refers to the myriad of symptomatic complaints (e.g., sting and burn) frequently associated with inflammatory skin conditions or skin intolerance to various chemicals or finished products. Sensory irritation is an important factor in consumer acceptance of the products that they buy and use; however, from a safety testing and risk assessment standpoint, it has been difficult to evaluate. Recently, methods have been developed to more quantitatively assess sensory irritation using a semantically-labeled scale of sensation intensity, the labeled magnitude (LM) scale. Using this device, studies were conducted to determine if test subjects' perceptions of recalled or imagined sensory responses (from a series of survey questions) were related to their actual sensory reactivity to chemical challenge. Subjects were presented with 15 skin sensation scenarios of varying intensities and asked to record their self-perceived recalled or imagined responses using the LM scale. Individual and mean responses to each of the 15 survey questions were compared within and across studies. Considerable variation was seen between subjects' responses to the questions, particularly for questions pertaining to stronger stimuli (e.g., scalding water or skin lacerations). There was also little consistency seen in the pattern of individual responses across the questions. However, among 4 different study populations, the group mean scores for each of the 15 survey questions showed a high degree of consistency. Also, in spite of the variability in perceived responses to the recalled/imagined skin sensations, statistically significant dose-response and time-response patterns were observed in chemical (lactic acid and capsaicin) challenge studies. In one capsaicin study, a direct relationship was observed, among 83% of the study subjects, between the mean recall intensity scores and actual responses to subsequent capsaicin challenge. This pattern was not seen in a lactic acid

  11. Innovative approaches to avoid electric shaving-induced skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Rietzler, M; Maurer, M; Siebenhaar, F; Angelino, S; Handt, J; Burghardt, R; Smetana, H

    2016-06-01

    Globally, millions of men regularly remove their facial hair using an electric shaver. Over the course of several decades, the concept of an electric shaver has evolved from a relatively simple hand-powered apparatus to a technologically advanced device designed to provide the user with an optimum shaving experience. This requires a careful balance between robust removal of hair and skin comfort. By incorporating advanced scientific measurement and imaging technology into clinical testing, insights are being gained into skin comfort issues associated with hair removal practices. This study describes new research insights that have guided the development of electric shaving technology. These innovative features are designed to maximize hair removal and minimize the impact on skin health, thus enabling new levels of shaving efficacy and comfort to be attained.

  12. Separation of retinoid-induced epidermal and dermal thickening from skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Varani, James; Fligiel, Helene; Zhang, Jian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Lu, Yi; Dehne, Lindsay A; Keller, Evan T

    2003-11-01

    The ability of the synthetic retinoid MDI-301, in which the carboxylic acid of 9- cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) is replaced with an ester linkage, to induce epidermal and dermal thickening and skin irritation (erythema and flaking) in hairless (rhino) mice following its topical application was investigated in comparison with that of 14-all- trans-retinoic acid (14-all-trans-RA) and 9-cis-RA. MDI-301 induced epidermal proliferation leading to a thickened epidermis. Treated animals also demonstrated a prominent band of organized connective tissue immediately below the epidermis. In its ability to induce epidermal thickening, MDI-301 was quantitatively similar to 14-all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA. However, unlike 14-all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA, which produced skin irritation associated with a perivascular influx of mononuclear leukocytes into the dermis, there was no evidence of irritation with MDI-301 and little leukocyte infiltration. Intraperitoneal injection of either 14-all-trans-RA or MDI-301 also resulted in epidermal and dermal thickening. Irritation of skin was not observed in these animals but splenomegaly was prominent in animals treated with either agent.

  13. Efficacy of dexpanthenol in skin protection against irritation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Biro, Kathrin; Thaçi, Diamant; Ochsendorf, Falk R; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2003-08-01

    Dexpanthenol is popular in treating various dermatoses and in skin care, but few controlled clinical trials have been performed. We investigated the efficacy of dexpanthenol in skin protection against irritation in a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. 25 healthy volunteers (age 18-45 years) were treated for the inner aspect of both forearms with either Bepanthol Handbalsam containing 5% dexpanthenol or placebo x2 daily for 26 days. From day 15-22, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 2% was applied to these areas x2 daily. Documentation comprised sebumetry, corneometry, pH value and clinical appearance (photographs). 21 volunteers completed the study, 3 were excluded because of non-compliance and 1 experienced a non-study-related, severe, adverse event. Only corneometry yielded a statistically significant difference, with decreased values following SLS challenge at the placebo sites (P < 0.05). Intraindividual comparisons showed superior results at the dexpanthenol-treated sites in 11 cases and in only 1 case at the placebo site. 6 volunteers experienced an irritant contact dermatitis, with more severe symptoms at the placebo site in 5 cases. In conclusion, dexpanthenol exhibits protective effects against skin irritation. The initiation of a study to evaluate the efficacy of dexpanthenol in preventing irritant occupational contact dermatitis under real workplace conditions is validated.

  14. In vitro human skin irritation test for evaluation of medical device extracts.

    PubMed

    Casas, J W; Lewerenz, G M; Rankin, E A; Willoughby, J A; Blakeman, L C; McKim, J M; Coleman, K P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the EpiDerm™ reconstructed human skin model (MatTek Corp.) could be an acceptable alternative to the ISO 10993-required rabbit skin irritation test for assessing medical device biocompatibility. Eleven medical device polymers were tested. Four extracts were prepared per polymer, two each with saline and sesame oil; half were spiked with two R-38 irritants, lactic acid for saline extracts and heptanoic acid for the sesame oil extracts. Tissue viability was assessed by MTT reduction and the proinflammatory response was assessed by IL-1α release. LOAELs of 2% for lactic acid in saline and 0.7% for heptanoic acid in sesame oil were determined. A cell viability reduction of >50% was indicative of skin irritation. Cells exposed to saline extracts spiked with 3.25% lactic acid had significantly reduced mean cell viabilities (12.6-17.2%). Cells exposed to sesame oil extracts spiked with 1.25% heptanoic acid also exhibited reduced mean cell viabilities (25.5%-41.7%). All spiked cells released substantial amounts of IL-1α (253.5-387.4pg/ml) signifying a proinflammatory response. These results indicate that the EpiDerm™ model may be a suitable in vitro replacement for the assessment of the irritation potential of medical device extracts.

  15. Primary irritant reactions in the skin of the pika, Ochotona rufescens rufescens.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Kodama, Y; Yamamoto, H; Horiuchi, S; Nomura, T

    1989-10-01

    The skin of the pika (Ochotona rufescens rufescens) was found to be remarkably sensitive to the primary irritation of sodium hydroxide, as compared with the skin of the rabbit. After exposure to 0.1 N sodium hydroxide for 24 hr, the pika skin showed severe erosion, ulceration and necrosis as well as crust formation and hyperkeratosis with vascular dilation, and cell infiltration. The changes appeared already within 1 hr after 1 N or 3 hr after 0.1 N sodium hydroxide application. After application of acetic acid, changes were apparent while less remarkable.

  16. Anti-melasma codrug of retinoic acid assists cutaneous absorption with attenuated skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Hung, Chi-Feng; Lin, Chih-Hung; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-05-01

    Melasma treatment with combined retinoic acid (RA) and hydroquinone (HQ) usually causes unsatisfactory outcomes and safety concerns. This study attempted to evaluate the cutaneous absorption and skin tolerance of the codrug conjugated with RA and HQ via ester linkage. The codrug's permeation of the pig skin was estimated using Franz diffusion cell. The codrug and parent drugs were comparatively examined for anti-inflammatory activity and tyrosinase inhibition. In vivo cutaneous irritation was assessed on nude mouse skin. Chemical conjugation of RA with HQ increased the lipophilicity and thus the skin absorption. The codrug absorption produced a 5.5- and a 60.8-fold increment compared to RA skin deposition at an equimolar (1.2mM) and saturated solubility dose, respectively. The cumulative amount of HQ derived from the codrug in the receptor was comparable to or less than that of topically applied HQ. The RA-HQ codrug was partly hydrolyzed on penetrating the skin. The hydrolysis rate in intact skin was significantly lower than that in esterase medium and skin homogenates. The codrug showed an interleukin (IL)-6 inhibition activity comparable to RA. A therapeutic index 6-fold greater than RA was obtained with the topical codrug. The tyrosinase inhibition percentage of the codrug and HQ was 13% and 21%, respectively. The skin tolerance test determined by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, and histopathology had exhibited minor skin irritation caused by the codrug compared to the physical mixture of RA and HQ at an equivalent dose. Topical codrug delivery not only promoted RA absorption, but also diminished the adverse effects of the parent agents.

  17. Skin Corrosion and Irritation Test of Nanoparticles Using Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Human Skin Model, EpiDermTM

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyejin; Choi, Jonghye; Lee, Handule; Park, Juyoung; Yoon, Byung-Il; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2016-01-01

    Effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on skin corrosion and irritation using three-dimensional human skin models were investigated based on the test guidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD TG431 and TG439). EpiDermTM skin was incubated with NPs including those harboring iron (FeNPs), aluminum oxide (AlNPs), titanium oxide (TNPs), and silver (AgNPs) for a defined time according to the test guidelines. Cell viabilities of EpiDermTM skins were measured by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthi-azol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide based method. FeNPs, AlNPs, TNPs, and AgNPs were non-corrosive because the viability was more than 50% after 3 min exposure and more than 15% after 60 min exposure, which are the non-corrosive criteria. All NPs were also non-irritants, based on viability exceeding 50% after 60 min exposure and 42 hr post-incubation. Release of interleukin 1-alpha and histopathological analysis supported the cell viability results. These findings suggest that FeNPs, AlNPs, TNPs, and AgNPs are ‘non-corrosive’ and ‘non-irritant’ to human skin by a globally harmonized classification system. PMID:27818733

  18. Hydrophobically modified polymers can minimize skin irritation potential caused by surfactant-based cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to cleansers that contain surfactants can create polymer–surfactant complexes that are less irritating to the skin than commercially available mild cleansers. Our objective was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of a test foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs with a commercial liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser in women with sensitive skin. Methods In this randomized, prospective, double-blind, comparative study, women (n = 20 per group) with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, acne, or rosacea used a test gentle foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs or a commercial gentle liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser daily for 3 weeks. Investigators assessed irritation and skin condition. Study subjects also assessed their skin properties and the performance of each cleanser. Results Clinicians as well as study subjects consistently rated the test cleanser as effective or slightly more effective at improving symptoms than the commercial cleanser, although no significant differences between groups were observed. At weeks 1 and 3, respectively, more users of the commercial cleanser reported irritation (20% and 10%) than users of the test cleanser (5% and 5%). In addition, subject self-assessments of skin condition and cleansing properties were slightly more improved with the test cleanser than with the commercial cleanser. Conclusions Both the test foaming cleanser containing HMPs and the commercial nonfoaming cleanser were effective and well accepted by most women in the study. Improvements were observed by both clinicians and subjects in the group using the test cleanser containing HMPs in all evaluated skin categories. PMID:24305430

  19. Encapsulation of Mentha Oil in Chitosan Polymer Matrix Alleviates Skin Irritation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Sinha, Priyam; Kanaujia, Archana; Chanda, Debabrata; Jakhmola, Apurva; Saikia, Dharmendra; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Mentha spicata L. var. viridis oil (MVO) is a potent antifungal agent, but its application in the topical treatment is limited due to its irritancy and volatility. It was aimed to develop more efficient, chitosan-incrusted MVO microspheres with reduced volatility and lesser irritancy and to dispense it in the form of ointment. Simple coacervation technique was employed to microencapsulate MVO in chitosan matrix. Morphological properties and polymer cross-linking were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Optimization was carried out on the basis of entrapment efficiency (EE) using response surface methodology. Well-designed microspheres having smooth surface and spherical shape were observed. EE (81.20%) of optimum batch (R21) was found at 1.62% w/v of cross-linker, 5.4:5 of MVO to chitosan ratio and at 1000 rpm. R21 showed 69.38 ± 1.29% in vitro MVO release in 12 h and 96.92% retention of MVO in microspheres even after 8 week. Ointments of PEG 4000 and PEG 400 comprising MVO (F1) and R21 (F2) were developed separately. F2 showed comparatively broader zone of growth inhibition (13.33 ± 1.76-18.67 ± 0.88 mm) and less irritancy (PII 0.5833, irritation barely perceptible) than that of F1. F2 was able to avoid the direct contact of mild irritant MVO with the skin and to reduce its rapid volatility. Controlled release of MVO helped in lengthening the duration of availability of MVO in agar media and hence improved its therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, a stable and non-irritant formulation with improved therapeutic potential was developed.

  20. Coumarin derivatives, but not coumarin itself, cause skin irritation via topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Leu, Yann-Lii; Hung, Yi-Yun; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-04-21

    Coumarin and its derivatives are widely employed as a fragrance in cosmetics and skin care products. The skin absorption level and possible disruption to the skin by topical application of coumarins were evaluated in this study. Percutaneous absorption of osthole, daphnoretin, coumarin, byakangelicin, and 7-hydroxycoumarin was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Skin physiology measurements and immunoblotting were utilized as methodologies for validating toxicity. The relationship between structures and permeation/toxicity of coumarins was elucidated. Both equimolar concentration and saturated solubility in 30% ethanol were used as the applied dose. Osthole with the most lipophilic characteristic demonstrated the greatest skin accumulation, followed by coumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin. Coumarin was the permeant with the highest flux across the skin. The trend of in vivo deposition was consistent with that of the in vitro profiles. Skin uptake of osthole was 8-fold higher than that of coumarin. Hair follicles played a significant role as a pathway for transport of coumarin according to the examination of follicular accumulation. Osthole and 7-hydroxycoumarin slightly, but significantly, enhanced transepidermal water loss after a consecutive 5-day administration. The immunoblotting profiling verified the role of proliferation in skin damage induced by osthole, byakangelicin, and 7-hydroxycoumarin. The proliferation-related proteins examined in this work included glucose-regulated proteins, cytokeratin, and C-myc. Daphnoretin and coumarin showed a negligible alteration on protein biomarkers. The experimental results suggested that skin irritation caused by coumarins was mainly derived from the analogs but not from coumarin itself.

  1. Effects of glycerol on human skin damaged by acute sodium lauryl sulphate treatment.

    PubMed

    Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Romagny, Céline; Padois, Karine; Denis, Alain; Haftek, Marek; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-08-01

    Glycerol, widely used as humectant, is known to protect against irritants and to accelerate recovery of irritated skin. However, most studies were done with topical formulations (i.e. emulsions) containing glycerol in relatively high amounts, preventing drawing conclusions from direct effects. In this study, acute chemical irritations were performed on the forearm with application of a 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) aqueous solution under occlusion for 3 h. Then, glycerol aqueous solutions from 1 to 10% were applied under occlusion for 3 h. After elimination of moist excess consecutive to occlusive condition, in ambient air for 15 and 30 min, skin barrier function was investigated by dual measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatments with SLS solution under occlusion significantly increased TEWL and decreased skin hydration as assessed by capacitance measurements. The SLS irritant property was raised by the occlusion and the water barrier function as well as water content appeared impaired. Recovery with glycerol at low doses was remarkable through a mechanism that implies its hygroscopic properties and which is saturable. This precocious effect acts through skin rehydration by enhancing water-holding capacity of stratum corneum that would facilitate the late physiological repair of impaired skin barrier. Thus, glycerol appears to substitute for natural moisturizing factors that have been washed out by the detergent action of SLS, enhancing skin hydration but without restoring skin barrier function as depicted by TEWL values that remained high. Thus, irritant contact dermatitis treated with glycerol application compensate for skin dehydration, favouring physiological process to restore water barrier function of the impaired skin. Empirical use of glycerol added topical formulations onto detergent altered skin was substantiated in the present physicochemical approach.

  2. Toxicity evaluation of the photoprotective compound LQFM048: Eye irritation, skin toxicity and genotoxic endpoints.

    PubMed

    de Ávila, Renato Ivan; de Sousa Vieira, Marcelo; Gaeti, Marilisa Pedroso Nogueira; Moreira, Larissa Cleres; de Brito Rodrigues, Laís; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Vinhal, Daniela Cristina; Menegatti, Ricardo; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2017-02-01

    A new molecule, LQFM048, originally designed through molecular hybridization using green chemistry approach, is in development as a photoprotective agent. Eye irritation, skin toxicity and genotoxicity evaluations are mandatory for predicting health risks. In this context, the purpose of this study was to investigate the eye irritation potential of LQFM048 by combining Short Time Exposure (STE), Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) associated with corneal histomorphometry and Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM). Additionally, skin toxicity was evaluated by interleukin-18 production in the HaCaT keratinocyte, Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA) method, 3T3 Neutral red uptake (NRU) assay and in vivo phototoxicity test. Genotoxic potential of LQFM048 was also analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (MNvit test-cytoB) in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that LQFM048 did not induce eye irritation and it was classified as UN GHS No Category for both STE and BCOP assays and non-irritating for HET-CAM test. LQFM048 showed non-potential skin sensitization with stimulation index (SI=0.7) in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method. Corroborating in vivo tests, it did not promote significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells and it showed similar levels of IL-18 when compared to control. Furthermore, LQFM048 induced non-phototoxic potential with photo-irritation factor (PIF) and mean photo effect (MPE) of 1 and -0.138, respectively, for 3T3 cells. Similarly, it was not phototoxic for in vivo testing with or without exposure to UVA, showing SI values of 1 and 1.2, respectively. The micronucleus test showed that LQFM048 was not genotoxic, under the conditions tested.In conclusion, LQFM048, a heterocyclic compound obtained through an environmentally acceptable simple synthetic route, seems to be safe for human use, especially for the development of a new sunscreen product, since it is neither an eye irritant, nor a contact allergen, nor mutagenic and nor

  3. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  4. Acute inhalation toxicity and sensory irritation of dimethylamine. [Rats, mice

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhagen, W.H.; Swenberg, J.A.; Barrow, C.S.

    1982-06-01

    The sensory irritation potential of dimethylamine (DMA) inhalation on male Fischer-344 rats and male Swiss-Webster mice was evaluated by measuring the reflex decrease in respiratory rate. In addition, the six hour LC/sub 50/ for rats exposed to dimetylamine was established. Groups of 3 or 4 rats and mice were exposed for 10 minutes to concentrations of DMA ranging from 49 to 1576 ppm during which time the respiratory rate was monitored and recorded. Sensory irritation concentration-response curves were obtained and RD/sub 50/ values (concentration which elicits a 50% decrease in respiratory rate) were determined to be 573 and 511 ppm for rats and mice, respectively. In another set of experiments seven groups of male rats were exposed to concentrations of DMA ranging from 600 to 6119 ppm for six hours. Mortality counts were made during and for 48 hours post exposure. The six hour LC/sub 50/ was determined to be 4540 ppm. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tract revealed concentration related changes ranging from ulceration and necrosis to rhinitis, tracheitis, and emphysema. Overall, DMA was found to be less potent as a sensory irritant than other airborne irritants.

  5. Skin irritation and histopathologic alterations in rats exposed to lightstick contents, UV radiation and seawater.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Rodrigues, Obirajara; Santos, Isaac R; Fillmann, Gilberto; Matthiensen, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    Lightsticks are fishing gadgets that provide fluorescent lighting when two organic solutions are mixed. In NE Brazil, low-income coastal residents ignore their conventional use and collect lightsticks stranded on beaches. The lightstick solution is then used for various purposes, including direct human skin exposure. We assessed the reactions and possible cell damages on the skin of Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to lightstick contents, UV radiation and/or seawater. Lightstick exposure led to erythemas, oedemas and vesicles. Histopathologic alterations included proliferation of the epidermis and inflammatory infiltrates. In spite of the short time of experimentation (4 days), the rats exposed to the lightstick content alone and together with UV radiation and/or seawater provided evidence of irritation/alteration reactions that may evolve into skin cancer. Our results demonstrated a few of the potential problems associated with lightstick dumping into the ocean and highlight the need for further investigations about this new type of marine pollutant.

  6. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... the development of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin...

  7. Acute local irritative effect of (2''R)-4'-O-tetrahydropyranyladriamycin, a new antitumor antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Tone, H; Kiyosaki, T; Cuthbert, J A; Carr, S M; Aitken, R

    1986-02-01

    (2"R)-4'-O-Tetrahydropyranyladriamycin hydrochloride (THP), a new antitumor antibiotic, was administered to rabbits at a concentration from 0.02 to 0.5% by instillation, or by intracutaneous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection to study its local irritative effect. The irritative effect of THP increased with concentration. At a concentration of 0.5%, THP was irritant to the eye, skin and muscle but at a concentration of 0.1% practically no effect was observed. The effect was equal to or lower than that of doxorubicin. An instillation of 0.5% THP caused reversible irritation effect on the eye. Slight conjunctival responses (redness and chemoisis) were observed. Rinsing reduced the irritative effect. Intracutaneous injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% THP caused well defined, moderate erythema, surface ulceration and dermal necrosis. Cutaneous muscle necrosis also occurred. At a concentration of 0.02%, dermal necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed. Erythema, as well as muscle necrosis and calcification with giant cell reaction and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed by an intramuscular injection at a concentration of 0.5%. Subcutaneous injection of 0.5% THP showed no irritative effect.

  8. In vitro assessment of skin irritation potential of surfactant-based formulations by using a 3-D skin reconstructed tissue model and cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Walters, Russel M; Gandolfi, Lisa; Mack, M Catherine; Fevola, Michael; Martin, Katharine; Hamilton, Mathew T; Hilberer, Allison; Barnes, Nicole; Wilt, Nathan; Nash, Jennifer R; Raabe, Hans A; Costin, Gertrude-Emilia

    2016-12-01

    The personal care industry is focused on developing safe, more efficacious, and increasingly milder products, that are routinely undergoing preclinical and clinical testing before becoming available for consumer use on skin. In vitro systems based on skin reconstructed equivalents are now established for the preclinical assessment of product irritation potential and as alternative testing methods to the classic Draize rabbit skin irritation test. We have used the 3-D EpiDerm™ model system to evaluate tissue viability and primary cytokine interleukin-1α release as a way to evaluate the potential dermal irritation of 224 non-ionic, amphoteric and/or anionic surfactant-containing formulations, or individual raw materials. As part of our testing programme, two representative benchmark materials with known clinical skin irritation potential were qualified through repeated testing, for use as references for the skin irritation evaluation of formulations containing new surfactant ingredients. We have established a correlation between the in vitro screening approach and clinical testing, and are continually expanding our database to enhance this correlation. This testing programme integrates the efforts of global manufacturers of personal care products that focus on the development of increasingly milder formulations to be applied to the skin, without the use of animal testing.

  9. Skin irritancy and sensitivity to laundry detergents containing proteolytic enzymes. Part II.

    PubMed

    Valér, M

    1975-06-01

    The late type contact sensitizing effect of alkaline protease enzymes (PE) on the intact human skin has been investigated in the present study. The immune process of sensitisation was induced with "Tenzym prilled" (TP, Grindstedvoerket) and with "Maxatase" (M, Gist-Brocades) protease enzymes in the epicutaneous test (ET), using concentration series and various durations of application. The ETs were made on the intact (symptom-free) skin, as well as under conditions promoting the subcorneal penetration of PE. Challenge was carried out at 21 to 30 days following induction of 2092 subjects, and at 2 to 5 months on 1624 subjects. Despite the large number of subjects tested, contact sensitisation developed in none of the cases, although the inducing exposure took place under conditions promoting the immune process of sensitisation. In 60 individuals suffereing from occupational dermatitis on regular contact with PE and having no symptoms of early type inhalative allergy (mucous membrane changes, bronchial asthma-like symptoms) were challenged also by the intradermal test. No reaction was noted in any of them at 10 and 30 minutes, as well as at 24 and 48 hours following the test. Next the influence of PE is analysed in the induction or increased severity of the irritation caused by bioactive laundry detergents. The studies involved the use of serial dilutions of "Biopon" (Bn) laundry detergent containing TP or M, or not containing PE, respectively, by means of the ET. A total of 740 series (5220 tests) of the three variants were applied in dilution series to intact skin surface, as well as to pathologically and arteficially lsioned skin areas. The Bn variants containing and not containing PE increased the number of irratative reactions in essentially the same degree. This suggests that the irritative effect is not due to the presence of PE, but to the laundry-active detergents (WAS) of Bn in the first place, and to a lesser extent to its other ingredients.

  10. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Ilona J; Spiekstra, Sander W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a(+) MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a(-)/CD14(+)/CD68(+) which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets.

  11. Crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) did not cause skin irritation in humans in 48-h patch test.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Andrew D; Novick, Rachel M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2017-03-13

    Crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) is an industrial chemical used to wash and clean coal. On January 9th, 2014 approximately 10,000 gallons of a mixture containing crude MCHM were released into the Elk River near Charleston, West Virginia, contaminating the local water supply. Following the spill, residents reported numerous health complaints, and sought medical attention for ailments including rashes and itching. The relationship between the complaints and the spill were unknown, as such symptoms are reported frequently in the background. In this study, the primary irritation potential of crude MCHM was evaluated in 206 individuals who underwent 48 hour semi-occluded patch testing. MCHM concentrations assessed in this study were 1, 5, 15, and 100 ppm. No appreciable skin reactions were observed in individuals at any concentration. Three of the five concentrations evaluated were above the highest measured concentration of MCHM in the tap water of residents in West Virginia (3.7 ppm). The results of this study suggest that crude MCHM would not be a dermal irritant for the vast majority, if not all, potentially exposed persons at the concentrations in the water reported after the spill.

  12. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W.; Gruijl, Tanja D. de; Gibbs, Susan

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  13. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF SKIN IRRITATION POTENTIAL, MELASMA AND SEBUM CONTENT FOLLOWING LONG TERM APPLICATION OF SKIN CARE CREAM IN HEALTHY ADULTS, USING NON-INVASIVE BIOMETROLOGICAL TECHNIQUES.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Atif I; Khan, Shoaib H M; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Asif; Sarfraz, Rai Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to evaluate non-invasively, various functional skin parameters i.e., irritation potential, melasma and sebum contents following long term application of topical cream (w/o) loaded with 2% methanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. versus placebo control (base) in healthy adults. Healthy human volunteers (n = 11, aged 20-30 years) were recruited for investigation and written informed consent was taken from each volunteer. In this single blinded study every volunteer applied formulation on one side of face and placebo on the other side of face twice daily for a period of 12 weeks (three months). Different skin parameters i.e., skin irritancy, melasma, and sebum contents were measured on both sides of face at baseline and after two weeks interval, using photometric device Mexameter and Sebumeter in a draught free room with modulated conditions of temperature (22-25°C) and humidity (55-60%). It was evident from the results that no primary skin irritancy was observed with patch test. Besides, statistical interpretation indicates that treatment with formulation is superior to placebo because it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the skin irritancy, melasma and sebum secretions throughout the study and reaching maximum -20.76 ± 0.89, -54.2 ± 0.37 and -40.71 ± 0.75%, respectively, at the end of study period. Antioxidant activity of extract was 92% compared to standard antioxidant. Conclusively, active cream loaded with fruit extract was well tolerated by all the volunteers and suitable to treat contact dermatitis, greasy skin, acne and seborrheic dermatitis and augmenting beauty and attraction by depigmentation of human skin. So, in the future, there is need to clinically evaluate these formulations in patients with compromised skin functions i.e., contact dermatitis, melasma, and acne vulgaris in order to explore the actual potential of this fruit.

  14. Skin targeting of resveratrol utilizing solid lipid nanoparticle-engrossed gel for chemically induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shrotriya, S N; Ranpise, N S; Vidhate, B V

    2017-02-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disease with severe eczematous lesions. Despite its growing prevalence, therapeutic treatments remain limited. Long-term topical corticosteroid treatment can induce skin atrophy, hypopigmentation, and increase in transepidermal water loss. An innovative dermal treatment is essential to reduce the side effects of corticosteroids. Topical resveratrol (RES), although effective for ICD, is a challenging molecule due to low solubility and poor bioavailability. The objective of this work was to build RES-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (RES-SLNs) with skin targeting. For this purpose, RES-SLNs were prepared using the probe ultrasonication method utilizing Precirol ATO 5 and Tween 20. The RES-SLNs were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Further, RES-SLNs were incorporated into Carbopol gel and investigated for ex vivo skin permeation, deposition study on human cadaver skin, and finally skin irritation study on New Zealand White rabbits. It was further assessed for possible beneficial effects on ICD using BALB/c mice. RES-SLN showed mean size below 100 nm and 68-89% EE. TEM studies confirmed spherical particles in the nanometer range. An ex vivo study of RES-SLN-loaded gel exhibited controlled drug release up to 24 h; similarly, in vitro drug deposition studies showed potential of skin targeting with no skin irritation. RES-SLN gel confirmed competent suppression of ear swelling and reduction in skin water content in the BALB/c mouse model of ICD when compared to marketed gel. Thus, the formulated RES-SLN gel would be a safe and effective alternative to conventional vehicles for treatment of ICD.

  15. Skin irritation to glass wool or continuous glass filaments as observed by a patch test among human Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Masashi; Kido, Takamasa; Mogi, Sachiyo; Sugiura, Yumiko; Miyajima, Eriko; Kudo, Yuichiro; Kumazawa, Tatenao; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical.

  16. A drug-in-adhesive matrix based on thermoplastic elastomer: evaluation of percutaneous absorption, adhesion, and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Wang, ChengXiao; Liu, Ran; Tang, XiuZhen; Han, Wei

    2012-12-01

    A novel drug-in-adhesive matrix was designed and prepared. A thermoplastic elastomer, styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) block copolymer, in combination with tackifying resin and plasticizer, was employed to compose the matrix. Capsaicin was selected as the model drug. The drug percutaneous absorption, adhesion properties, and skin irritation were investigated. The results suggested that the diffusion through SIS matrix was the rate-limiting step of capsaicin percutaneous absorption. [SI] content in SIS and SIS proportions put important effects on drug penetration and adhesion properties. The chemical enhancers had strong interactions with the matrix and gave small effect on enhancement of drug skin permeation. The in vivo absorption of samples showed low drug plasma peaks and a steady and constant plasma level for a long period. These results suggested that the possible side effects of drug were attenuated, and the pharmacological effects were enhanced with an extended therapeutic period after application of SIS matrix. The significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters produced by different formulations demonstrated the influences of SIS copolymer on drug penetrability. Furthermore, the result of skin toxicity test showed that no skin irritation occurred in guinea pig skin after transdermal administration of formulations.

  17. Relationship between the amount of propranolol permeating through the stratum corneum of guinea pig skin after application of propranolol adhesive patches and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Ueno, T; Maruo, H; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we evaluated the relationship between the cumulative amount of propranolol permeating through the stratum corneum and the formation of erythema, a skin irritation reaction, after transdermal application of adhesive patches containing propranolol to the skin of guinea pigs. The intensity of erythema was expressed in terms of a* values measured with a chromameter. The a* values increased in guinea pigs after application of the adhesive patches containing 0.4 mg/cm2 of propranolol to the skin. Since the adhesive patches showed good adhesion to the skin (propranolol content is less than the saturated concentration in the adhesive base) and the cumulative amount of propranolol permeating through the stratum corneum is small, the development of erythema was considered to be mainly due to physical factors such as peeling. Even in adhesive patches containing 0.8 mg/cm2 or 1.2 mg/cm2 of propranolol, a* values increased, although adhesion to the skin is low because of crystallization of propranolol in the adhesive base. On the other hand, in these two adhesive patches, the cumulative amount of propranolol permeating through the stratum corneum increased up to 24 h after application. These findings suggest that the skin irritation reaction is due to propranolol mainly absorbed transdermally, because there is a high correlation between the cumulative amount of propranolol permeating through the stratum corneum and the a* values (r = 0.928).

  18. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes...

  19. Evaluation of existing (Q)SAR models for skin and eye irritation and corrosion to use for REACH registration.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Geert R; Braeken, Els; Van Deun, Koen; Van Miert, Sabine

    2017-01-04

    The performance of the (Q)SAR models Derek Nexus, Toxtree and Case Ultra for the prediction of skin and eye irritation/corrosion is investigated. For irritation and corrosion of the skin, 117 compounds and for the eye, 125 compounds were listed. The balance between the groups positive and negative for irritation and corrosion was maintained. The obtained predictions were compared with experimental data and the numbers of true and false positives and negatives were determined. Based on these results several performance parameters of the tested (Q)SAR models were calculated. Despite all the efforts to make good and valid models, the results indicate a poor predictivity of the current models: a lot of compounds were not predicted, were out of the applicability domain or were predicted wrong. Considering our results, it can be concluded that the tested models are not yet sufficiently powerful for implementation. Possibly the training-sets used within the current models are not yet comprehensive enough or the incorporated data are not of enough quality. Although the use of these models as stand-alone evaluation is not recommended, these models can be of value as weight-of-evidence in the context of expert knowledge in an Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment.

  20. Prostanoid receptors and acute inflammation in skin.

    PubMed

    Hohjoh, Hirofumi; Inazumi, Tomoaki; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko

    2014-12-01

    Prostanoids such as prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes exert a wide variety of actions via nine types of G protein-coupled receptors, including four PGE2 receptors (EPs) and two PGD2 receptors (DPs). Recent studies have revealed that prostanoids trigger or modulate acute inflammation in the skin via multiple mechanisms involving distinct receptors and molecules; PGE2 elicits vascular permeability and edema formation via EP3 receptor on mast cells, and PGE2 increases blood flow by eliciting vasodilatation via EP2/EP4 receptors on smooth muscle cells. PGD2-DP1 signaling plays a role in mast cell maturation and mast cell-mediated inflammation. Therefore, the local inhibition of specific prostanoid receptor signaling is expected to be an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of acute inflammation.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Manipulation and Modeling of the Trigger for JP-8-Induced Skin Irritation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-30

    with identical exposures to octane (a minor component of JP-8) and cumene (an irritant) (McDougal et al., in preparation). Table 4 shows that the...magnitude of gene expression changes due to JP-8 was about 6-fold less than that of octane and cumene . Visual observations and histological analysis of...metabolism for cumene . In addition, Table 5 shows the relative magnitude (fold- change) of changes for representative genes related to irritation for JP-8

  2. In vitro assessment of eye irritancy using the Reconstructed Human Corneal Epithelial SkinEthic HCE model: application to 435 substances from consumer products industry.

    PubMed

    Cotovio, José; Grandidier, Marie-Hélène; Lelièvre, Damien; Bremond, Christelle; Amsellem, Carolle; Maloug, Saber; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Lee, Aline Van Der; Minondo, Anne-Marie; Capallere, Christophe; Bertino, Béatrice; Alépée, Nathalie; Tinois-Tessonneaud, Estelle; de Fraissinette, Anne De Brugerolle; Meunier, Jean-Roch; Leclaire, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    The 7th amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive led to the ban of eye irritation testing for cosmetic ingredients in animals, effective from March 11th 2009. Over the last 20years, many efforts have been made to find reliable and relevant alternative methods. The SkinEthic HCE model was used to evaluate the in vitro eye irritancy potential of substances from a cosmetic industry portfolio. An optimized protocol based on a specific 1-h treatment and a 16-h post-treatment incubation period was first assessed on a set of 102 substances. The prediction model (PM) based on a 50% viability cut-off, allowed to draw up two classes (Irritants and Non-Irritants), with good associated sensitivity (86.2%) and specificity (83.5%). To check the robustness of the method, the evaluated set was expanded up to 435 substances. Final performances maintained a high level and were characterized by an overall accuracy value > 82% when using EU or GHS classification rules. Results showed that the SkinEthic HCE test method is a promising in vitro tool for the prediction of eye irritancy. Optimization datasets were shared with the COLIPA Eye Irritation Project Team and ECVAM experts, and reviewed as part of an ongoing progression to enter an ECVAM prospective validation study for eye irritation.

  3. Effects of different base agents on prediction of skin irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate using patch testing and repeated application test.

    PubMed

    Horita, Kotomi; Horita, Daisuke; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Yagami, Akiko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2017-03-06

    Animal testing for cosmetics was banned in the European Union (EU) in 2013; therefore, human tests to predict and ensure skin safety such as the patch test or usage test are now in demand in Japan as well as in the EU. In order to investigate the effects of different bases on the findings of tests to predict skin irritation, we performed patch testing (PT) and the repeated application test (RAT) using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a well-known irritant, dissolved in 6 different base agents to examine the effects of these bases on skin irritation by SLS. The bases for PT were distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream. The concentrations of SLS were 0.2% and 0.5%. Twelve different base combinations were applied to the normal back skin of 19 individuals for 24h. RAT was performed with distilled water, 50% ethanol, 100% ethanol, a gel containing 50% ethanol, white petrolatum, and hydrophilic cream containing SLS at concentrations of 0.2%, 2%, and 5%, being applied to the arms of the same PT subjects. The test preparation of each base was applied at the same site, with 0.2% SLS being used in the first week, 2% SLS in the following week, and 5% SLS in the final week. The results of PT revealed that skin irritation scores varied when SLS at the same concentration was dissolved in a different base. The results of RAT showed that although skin irritation appeared with every base at a concentration of 5%, the positive rate was approximately the same. In conclusion, our results suggest that skin irritation elicited in PT depends on the base, while in RAT, it does not depend on the type of base employed.

  4. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie K; Hellegren, Lars I; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2011-05-01

    The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography. For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p = 0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p = 0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were found between treatment regimes. Pretreatment with betamethasone (p = 0.01) or with tacrolimus (p = 0.001) causes a decreased inflammatory response to sodium lauryl sulphate compared with emollient. In conclusion, treatment with betamethasone and tacrolimus has a positive effect on the ceramide/cholesterol ratio and susceptibility to irritant reaction compared with an emollient.

  5. [Irritative effect of aclacinomycin A on the eye mucous membrane, skin and muscle (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ohmori, K; Hirano, S; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H

    1980-04-01

    Aclacinomycin A, a new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, was given to rabbits by single instillation or single intracutaneous injection and to guinea pigs by single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection to examine the irritative effect. Slight dilatation of blood vessel and swelling in the conjunctiva and nictitating membrane were observed in the eyes of rabbits given 1% solution. Edema in the bulbar conjunctiva, iris and cornea was histologically noted. Washing of the eyes after drug instillation prevented these damages. Subcutaneous and intracutaneous injections of 1% solution (0.2 ml) gave hyperemia, swelling and necrosis at injection site. Cellular infiltration, fibrosis and necrosis were histologically detected. Intramuscular injection of 1% solution (0.2 ml) also provided induration and swelling at injection site. Histologically cellular infiltration and necrosis were observed. These irritative effects were much slighter in administration of 0.1% solution. No change was observed with 0.01% solution.

  6. Acute skin lesions after surgical procedures: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Borrego, L

    2013-11-01

    In the hospital setting, dermatologists are often required to evaluate inflammatory skin lesions arising during surgical procedures performed in other departments. These lesions can be of physical or chemical origin. Povidone iodine is the most common reported cause of such lesions. If this antiseptic solution remains in contact with the skin in liquid form for a long period of time, it can give rise to serious irritant contact dermatitis in dependent or occluded areas. Less common causes of skin lesions after surgery include allergic contact dermatitis and burns under the dispersive electrode of the electrosurgical device. Most skin lesions that arise during surgical procedures are due to an incorrect application of antiseptic solutions. Special care must therefore be taken during the use of these solutions and, in particular, they should be allowed to dry.

  7. Acute toxicity and irritation of water-based dextran-coated magnetic fluid injected in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhai; Xiaoliang, Wang; Xuman, Wang; Hong, Xie; Hongchen, Gu

    2008-06-01

    Based on the elements that magnetic nanoparticles could heat in an alternating magnetic field, magnetic fluid hyperthermia occurred to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. However, biocompatibility of those fluids as well as the fluid-body interaction remains unclear. In this article, acute toxicity and irritation of the water-based dextran-coated magnetic fluid (dextran-magnetic fluid) injected into mice subcutaneous tissues were examined. Lethal dosage 50 of single treatment with the magnetic fluid was 4409.61 +/- 514.93 mg/kg. When injected with 30 mg/0.3 mL dextran-magnetic fluid, activities of glutamicoxalacetictransaminase (AST) and glutamicpyruvictransaminase (ALT) and cell number of mice blood did not change statistically. Hemangiectasia and leucocytes infiltration were seen in subcutaneous tissues and these phenomena almost disappeared 72 h later. That is to say, the dextran-magnetic fluid was tolerable, safe, and biocompatible. The work is a basic for application of the dextran-magnetic fluid in subcutaneous tumor therapy.

  8. Managing Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis Using a Two-Step Skincare Regimen Designed to Prevent Skin Damage and Support Skin Recovery.

    PubMed

    von Grote, Erika C; Palaniswarmy, Kiruthi; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-12-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. A 2-step skin-care regimen (Excipial Daily Protection Hand Cream (EP) and Excipial Rapid Repair Hand Cream (ER), Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) has been developed as a daily-use management strategy to protect and repair vulnerable hands. The protective barrier cream is formulated with aluminum chlorohydrate and designed for pre-exposure application to enhance the skin's natural protective barrier and minimize excessive moisture while wearing protective gloves. The repair cream, a lipid-rich formulation, is intended for post-exposure application to rehydrate and facilitate the skin's natural healing process. The results of 3 clinical studies highlighted in this review demonstrate how the use of a 2-step skin-care regimen offers a greater protective effect against ICD than the use of barrier cream alone, and also how the formulation of the barrier cream used in these studies helps minimize the occlusion effect caused by gloves and does not interfere with the antibacterial efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. This 2-step skin-care regimen is effectively designed to manage and minimize the risk of ICD development in a variety of patients and provides clinicians an additional tool for helping patients manage ICD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1504-1510.

  9. Novel isotretinoin microemulsion-based gel for targeted topical therapy of acne: formulation consideration, skin retention and skin irritation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mrunali R.; Patel, Rashmin B.; Parikh, Jolly R.; Patel, Bharat G.

    2016-04-01

    Isotretinoin was formulated in novel microemulsion-based gel formulation with the aim of improving its solubility, skin tolerability, therapeutic efficacy, skin-targeting efficiency and patient compliance. Microemulsion was formulated by the spontaneous microemulsification method using 8 % isopropyl myristate, 24 % Labrasol, 8 % plurol oleique and 60 % water as an external phase. All plain and isotretinoin-loaded microemulsions were clear and showed physicochemical parameters for the desired topical delivery and stability. The permeation profiles of isotretinoin through rat skin from selected microemulsion formulation followed zero-order kinetics. Microemulsion-based gel was prepared by incorporating Carbopol®971 in optimized microemulsion formulation having suitable skin permeation rate and skin uptake. Microemulsion-based gel showed desired physicochemical parameters and demonstrated advantage over marketed formulation in improving the skin tolerability of isotretinoin, indicating its potential in improving topical delivery of isotretinoin. The developed microemulsion-based gel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne.

  10. Biocompatible microemulsions of a model NSAID for skin delivery: A decisive role of surfactants in skin penetration/irritation profiles and pharmacokinetic performance.

    PubMed

    Todosijević, Marija N; Savić, Miroslav M; Batinić, Bojan B; Marković, Bojan D; Gašperlin, Mirjana; Ranđelović, Danijela V; Lukić, Milica Ž; Savić, Snežana D

    2015-12-30

    To elaborate the decisive role of surfactants in promotion of aceclofenac' skin absorption, potentially avoiding irritation, we developed non-ionic microemulsions varying natural or synthetic surfactants: sucrose esters (laurate or myristate) vs. polysorbate 80. A comprehensive physicochemical characterization indicated no significant influence of the solubilized nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the bicontinuous structure of blank formulations. To evaluate skin tolerability of isopropyl alcohol, a sucrose ester-based microemulsion containing transcutol P as a cosurfactant was also developed. The measured skin parameters strongly depended on the (co)surfactant type, showing higher compatibility of the microemulsions containing sucrose ester and isopropyl alcohol. In vitro release results, in vivo tape stripping and pharmacokinetics in rats confirmed superiority of the sucrose ester- over polysorbate-based microemulsions (total amounts of aceclofenac penetrated 60.81±5.97 and 60.86±3.67 vs. 27.00±5.09μg/cm(2), and its maximum plasma concentrations 275.57±109.49 and 281.31±76.76 vs. 150.23±69.74ng/ml for sucrose laurate- and myristate- vs. polysorbate 80-based microemulsions, respectively). Hence, sugar-based excipients increased delivery of aceclofenac through stratum corneum by increasing its fluidity, showing overall more satisfying safety profiles. In conclusion, sucrose ester-based microemulsions proved to be promising carriers for dermal/transdermal aceclofenac delivery.

  11. Heme Attenuation Ameliorates Irritant Gas Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Lam, Adam; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Carlisle, Matthew A.; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Exposure to irritant gases, such as bromine (Br2), poses an environmental and occupational hazard that results in severe lung and systemic injury. However, the mechanism(s) of Br2 toxicity and the therapeutic responses required to mitigate lung damage are not known. Previously, it was demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme degrading enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Since heme is a major inducer of HO-1, we determined whether an increase in heme and heme-dependent oxidative injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. Results: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Br2 gas (600 ppm, 30 min) and returned to room air. Thirty minutes postexposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of the heme scavenging protein, hemopexin (Hx) (3 μg/gm body weight), or saline. Twenty-four hours postexposure, saline-treated mice had elevated total heme in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma and acute lung injury (ALI) culminating in 80% mortality after 10 days. Hx treatment significantly lowered heme, decreased evidence of ALI (lower protein and inflammatory cells in BALF, lower lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and decreased airway hyperreactivity to methacholine), and reduced mortality. In addition, Br2 caused more severe ALI and mortality in mice with HO-1 gene deletion (HO-1−/−) compared to wild-type controls, while transgenic mice overexpressing the human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) showed significant protection. Innovation: This is the first study delineating the role of heme in ALI caused by Br2. Conclusion: The data suggest that attenuating heme may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients with ALI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 99–112. PMID:26376667

  12. Histomorphology and Immunophenotype of Eczematous Skin Lesions Revisited-Skin Biopsies Are Not Reliable in Differentiating Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Irritant Contact Dermatitis, and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Frings, Verena G; Böer-Auer, Almut; Breuer, Kristine

    2017-03-10

    Lesions of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and atopic dermatitis (AD) share similar clinical features and thus, their diagnosis can be challenging. The aim of this study was to reassess histopathology and immunophenotyping properties to distinguish between ACD, ICD, and AD. Charts of patients with eczema, who had undergone complete routine diagnostic workup (skin biopsies, patch tests, skin prick tests, and respectively or serum IgE levels), were reviewed. Thirty-five skin biopsy specimens of 28 patients (mean age 64 ± 15 years; ♀ = 13 ♂ = 15) with clear diagnosis of ACD (n = 15), ICD (n = 6), or AD (n = 14) were analyzed. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD34, CD123, S100, and IL-17) parameters were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Fisher exact test, and decision tree analysis. Eosinophils were statistically significant (P = 0.0184), more often observed in AD than in ACD or ICD. No other statistically significant differences were found with regard to epidermal patterns, patterns of dermal infiltrates, or immunophenotyping. Using predictive modeling approaches, dermal eosinophils were found to be associated with AD, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes with ICD, and a focal type of parakeratosis with ACD. As an additional finding, pseudo-Pautrier microabscesses, which were present in the skin of 2 AD and 2 ACD patients, contained myeloid dendritic cells (CD11c-+). Differentiation of ACD, ICD, and AD should be based on clinical features and results of allergy tests. Histopathology does not reliably differentiate between ACD, ICD, and AD, but helps to exclude psoriasis, tinea, or T-cell lymphoma.

  13. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  14. Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  15. Evaluation of EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) as an in vitro model for skin irritation: studies on aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Ramya; Patlolla, Ram R; Agarwal, Saurab; Babu, R Jayachandra; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitchell; Singh, Mandip S

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the skin irritation effects of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs), C9-C16, found jet fuels using in vitro 3-dimensional EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) skin cultures. The EFT-300 cultures were treated with 2.5microl of HCs and the culture medium and skin samples were collected at 24 and 48h to measure the release of various inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1alpha, IL-6 and IL-8). To validate the in vitro results, in vivo skin irritation studies were carried out in hairless rats by measuring trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema following un-occlusive dermal exposure of HCs for 72h. The MTT tissue viability assay results with the EFT-300 tissue show that 2.5microl/tissue ( approximately 4.1microl/cm(2)) of the HCs did not induce any significant changes in the tissue viability for exposure times up to 48h of exposure. Microscopic observation of the EFT-300 cross-sections indicated that there were no obvious changes in the tissue morphology of the samples at 24h, but after 48h of exposure, tridecane, tetradecane and hexadecane produced a slight thickening and disruption of stratum corneum. Dermal exposures of C12-C16 HCs for 24h significantly increased the expression of IL-1alpha in the skin as well as in the culture medium. Similarly, dermal exposure of all HCs for 24h significantly increased the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the skin as well as in the culture medium in proportion to the HC chain length. As the exposure time increased to 48h, IL-6 concentrations increased 2-fold compared to the IL-6 values at 24h. The in vivo skin irritation data also showed that both TEWL and erythema scores increased with increased HCs chain length (C9-C16). In conclusion, the EFT-300 showed that the skin irritation profile of HCs was in the order of C9C10C11C12irritation and to understand the

  16. Skin Irritation and Sensitization Potential of Fixed-Dose Combination of Diclofenac 1% and Menthol 3% Topical Gel: Results of Two Phase I Patch Studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongzhou Jeffery; Collaku, Agron; Dosik, Jonathan S

    2017-02-01

    Phase I, randomized, controlled patch studies were conducted to evaluate skin sensitization and irritation potential of a new gel formulation containing 1% diclofenac and 3% menthol as a fixed-combination product.In study A, healthy volunteers were exposed to 4 test patches containing 1% diclofenac+3% menthol, diclofenac, menthol, or placebo gels during an induction (nine 48 to 72-h applications) and challenge phase (one 48-h application). Some subjects were re-challenged to evaluate suspected sensitization. Study B participants underwent 21 consecutive 24-h patch applications of the 4 treatments from study A, 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate (positive control), 0.9% saline, and a marketed gel (1% diclofenac, Voltaren). Application sites were visually scored by blinded observers for skin sensitization/irritation.In study A, 77% of participants showed minimal erythema and signs of glazing and peeling with 1% diclofenac+3% menthol by the end of the induction phase, which diminished during the challenge phase. Similar patterns were seen with menthol gel. Only 1 subject exhibited possible sensitization to 1% diclofenac+3% menthol. In study B, mean cumulative irritation score with 1% diclofenac+3% menthol was significantly higher (P<0.0001) vs. reference treatments; however, the positive control failed to produce the expected level of irritation. No treatment-related adverse events were reported.The sensitization and irritation potential of 1% diclofenac+3% menthol was greater than with the reference treatments. Comparison with positive control was not possible because it did not produce irritation under semiocclusive patch conditions.

  17. Norartocarpetin from a folk medicine Artocarpus communis plays a melanogenesis inhibitor without cytotoxicity in B16F10 cell and skin irritation in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many natural products used in preventive medicine have also been developed as cosmeceutical ingredients in skin care products, such as Scutellaria baicalensis and Gardenia jasminoides. Norartocarpetin is one of the antioxidant and antityrosinase activity compound in Artocarpus communis; however, the cytotoxicity, skin irritation and antimelanogenesis mechanisms of norartocarpetin have not been investigated yet. Methods In the present study, cell viability in vitro and skin irritation in vivo are used to determine the safety of norartocarpetin. The melanogenesis inhibition of norartocarpetin was determined by cellular melanin content and tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cell. Moreover, we examined the related-melanogenesis protein by western blot analysis for elucidating the antimelanogenesis mechanism of norartocarpin. Results The result of the present study demonstrated that norartocarpetin not only present non-cytotoxic in B16F10 and human fibroblast cells but also non-skin irritation in mice. Moreover, our result also first found that norartocarpetin downregulated phospho-cAMP response element-binding (phospho-CREB) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, which in turn decreased both synthesis of tyrosinases (TRP-1 and TRP-2) and cellular melanin content. This process is dependent on norartocarpetin phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases such as phospho-JNK and phospho-p38, and it results in decreased melanogenesis. Conclusion The present study suggests that norartocarpetin could be used as a whitening agent in medicine and/or cosmetic industry and need further clinical study. PMID:24325567

  18. Eruptive cherry angiomas and irritant symptoms after one acute exposure to the glycol ether solvent 2-butoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Raymond, L W; Williford, L S; Burke, W A

    1998-12-01

    Seven clerical workers were evaluated in 1993, 8 months after exposure to vaporized 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE; also called butyl cellosolve or ethylene glycol monobutyl ether [EGMBE or EGBE]), which had been applied overnight to strip the floor of their file room. At the time of exposure, they had noted intense eye and respiratory irritation, marked dyspnea, nausea, and faintness, suggesting a concentration of 2-BE in the air of 200-300 parts per million (ppm). All seven workers later experienced recurrent eye and respiratory irritation, dry cough, and headache. Four months after the exposure, cherry angiomas began to appear on the arms, trunk, and thighs of six workers, who voiced concerns about the possibility of cancer. Our evaluation found no evidence of hematologic, liver, lung, or renal toxicity, but elevations in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood pressure of each subject were found. Workplace air sampling found no detectable 2-BE, but traces (0.1-0.2 ppm) of formaldehyde were identified. Irritant symptoms abated after the group was moved to a room with better ventilation, and the mild hypertension gradually cleared, but new cherry angiomas have continued to appear 5 years after the acute exposure, as the initial ones persisted. These angiomas occur in healthy persons as they age but in this instance appear to have resulted from a single overexposure to 2-BE. We felt confident in reassuring the workers that they would suffer no serious consequences from this exposure.

  19. Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF.

  20. Comparison of different water/oil microemulsions containing diclofenac sodium: preparation, characterization, release rate, and skin irritation studies.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Gülten; Ozgüney, Işik; Karasulu, H Yeşim; Arzik, Sevgi; Güneri, Tamer

    2007-11-02

    The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of the in vitro release rate of diclofenac sodium (DS) from microemulsion (M) vehicles containing soybean oil, nonionic surfactants (Brij 58 and Span 80), and different alcohols (ethanol [E], isopropyl alcohol [I], and propanol [P]) as cosurfactant. The optimum surfactant:cosurfactant (S:CoS) weight ratios and microemulsion areas were detected by the aid of phase diagrams. Three microemulsion formulations were selected, and their physicochemical properties were examined for the pH, viscosity, and conductivity. According to the release rate of DS, M prepared with P showed the significantly highest flux value (0.059 +/- 0.018 mg/cm(2)/h) among all formulations (P < .05). The conductivity results showed that DS-loaded microemulsions have higher conductivity values (18.8-20.2 microsiemens/cm) than unloaded formulations (16.9-17.9 microsiemens/cm), and loading DS into the formulation had no negative effect on system stability. Moreover, viscosity measurements were examined as a function of shear rate, and Newtonian fluid characterization was observed for each microemulsion system. All formulations had appropriate observed pH values varying from 6.70 to 6.85 for topical application. A skin irritation study was performed with microemulsions on human volunteers, and no visible reaction was observed with any of the formulations. In conclusion, M prepared with P may be a more appropriate formulation than the other 2 formulations studied as drug carrier for topical application.

  1. A new parameter identification method to obtain change in smooth musclecontraction state due to mechanical skin irritation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniela

    2005-03-01

    A light scratch with a needle induces histamine and neuropetide release on the line of stroke and in the surrounding tissue. Histamine and neuropeptides are vasodilaters. They create vasodilation by changing the contraction state of the vascular smooth muscles and hence vessel compliance. Smooth muscle contraction state is very difficult to measure. We propose an identification procedure that determines change in compliance. The procedure is based on numerical and experimental results. Blood flow is measured by Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Numerical data is obtained by a continuous model of hierarchically arranged porous media of the vascular network [1]. We show that compliance increases after the stroke in the entire tissue. Then, compliance decreases in the surrounding tissue, while it keeps increasing on the line of stroke. Hence, blood is transported from the surrounding tissue to the line of stroke. Thus, higher blood volume on the line of stroke is obtained. [1] Bauer, D., Grebe, R. Ehrlacher, A., 2004. A three layer continuous model of porous media to describe the first phase of skin irritation. J. Theoret. Bio. in press

  2. In vitro and in vivo comparison of dermal irritancy of jet fuel exposure using EpiDerm (EPI-200) cultured human skin and hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Babu, R Jayachandra; Klausner, M; Singh, Mandip

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an in vitro EpiDerm human skin model (EPI-200) to study the irritation potential of jet fuels (JP-8 and JP-8+100). Parallel in vivo studies on hairless rats on the dermal irritancy of jet fuels were also conducted. Cytokines are an important part of an irritation and inflammatory cascade, which are expressed in upon dermal exposures of irritant chemicals even when there are no obvious visible marks of irritation on the skin. We have chosen two primary cytokines (IL-1alpha and TNF-1alpha) as markers of irritation response of jet fuels. Initially, the EPI-200 was treated with different quantities of JP-8 and JP-8+100 to determine quantities which did not cause significant cytotoxicity, as monitored using the MTT assay and paraffin embedded histological cross-sections. Volumes of 2.5-50 microl/tissue (approximately 4.0-78 microl/cm2) of JP-8 and JP-8+100 showed a dose dependent loss of tissue viability and morphological alterations of the tissue. At a quantity of 1.25 microl/tissue (approximately 2.0 microl/cm2), no significant change in tissue viability or morphology was observed for exposure time extending to 48 h. Nonetheless, this dose induced significant increase in IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha release versus non-treated controls after 24 and 48 h. In addition, IL-1alpha release for JP-8+100 was significantly higher than that observed for JP-8, but TNF-alpha release after 48 h exposure to these two jet fuels was the same. These findings parallel in vivo studies on hairless rats, which indicated higher irritation levels due to JP-8+100 versus JP-8. In vivo, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and IL-1alpha expression levels followed the order JP-8+100 > JP-8 > control. Further, in vivo TNF-alpha levels for JP-8 and JP-8+100 were also elevated but not significantly different from one another. In aggregate, these findings indicate that EPI-200 tissue model can be utilized as an alternative to the use of animals in evaluating dermal

  3. A catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method using reconstructed human epidermis LabCyte EPI-MODEL24.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Katoh, Masakazu; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Suzuki, Tamie; Izumi, Runa; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Maki; Kasahawa, Toshihiko; Shibai, Aya

    2014-07-01

    Three validation studies were conducted by the Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments in order to assess the performance of a skin irritation assay using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 (LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 SIT) developed by the Japan Tissue Engineering Co., Ltd. (J-TEC), and the results of these studies were submitted to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for the creation of a Test Guideline (TG). In the summary review report from the OECD, the peer review panel indicated the need to resolve an issue regarding the misclassification of 1-bromohexane. To this end, a rinsing operation intended to remove exposed chemicals was reviewed and the standard operating procedure (SOP) revised by J-TEC. Thereafter, in order to confirm general versatility of the revised SOP, a new validation management team was organized by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) to undertake a catch-up validation study that would compare the revised assay with similar in vitro skin irritation assays, per OECD TG No. 439 (2010). The catch-up validation and supplementary studies for LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 SIT using the revised SOPs were conducted at three laboratories. These results showed that the revised SOP of LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 SIT conformed more accurately to the classifications for skin irritation under the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS), thereby highlighting the importance of an optimized rinsing operation for the removal of exposed chemicals in obtaining consistent results from in vitro skin irritation assays.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE-RESPONSE MODELS FOR THE ACUTE RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INHALED IRRITANTS IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to conduct quantitative risk assessment with minimal uncertainty for short-term exposure to ozone and other respiratory irritants, one must identify exposure-response (E-R) models which accurately predict the distribution of the magnitudes of response (or the proportion ...

  5. Assessing the systemic toxicity in rabbits after sub acute exposure to ocular irritant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Reshma, Cherian Sebastian; Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-03-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario.

  6. Use of honey associated with Ananas comosus (Bromelin) in the treatment of acute irritative cough

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Rizzo, José Angelo; Schor, Deborah; Silva, Almerinda Rêgo; de Oliveira, Dinaldo Cavalcanti; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the immediate improvement rate of irritative cough in patients treated with the combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). Methods: Pragmatic, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study with children aged between 2 and 15 years, with irritative cough for at least 24hours. The double-blind assessment of cough was through the number of observed coughing episodes and intensity score for a period of 10minutes of observation. The decrease of one point in the mean total score was considered as a therapeutic effect. Results: There was a reduction in coughing episodes in both groups, as well as in the cough score after 30minutes of drug or honey administration. The change in clinical score above two points, which could indicate marked improvement, occurred in five patients in the bromelin group and only in one in the placebo group, but without significant difference. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: The immediate improvement rate of irritative cough was similar in patients treated with combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). It is possible that honey has a therapeutic effect on mucus and cough characteristics (Clinical Trials: NCT01356693). PMID:27181342

  7. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  8. Beneficial effects of a skin tolerance-tested moisturizing cream on the barrier function in experimentally-elicited irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    De Paépe, K; Hachem, J P; Vanpee, E; Goossens, A; Germaux, M A; Lachapelle, J M; Lambert, J; Matthieu, L; Roseeuw, D; Suys, E; Van Hecke, E; Rogiers, V

    2001-06-01

    In experimentally-induced irritant (ICD) and allergic (ACD) contact dermatitis, an oil-in-water (o/w) cream was applied to investigate its effects on a disturbed barrier function compared to untreated physiological barrier repair. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were performed. Before the start of the experiments, the skin tolerance of the cream was examined, revealing the non-irritating characteristics of the ingredients and the absence of any contact allergic patch test reaction. In the ICD study, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patches were applied to the forearms of young female volunteers. Consequently, it was observed that repeated cream application (14 days, 2x/day) significantly improved the TEWL of SLS-damaged skin, leading to a complete recovery on day 15. In the ACD study, disruption of skin barrier function was obtained by a nickel-mediated contact allergy patch (CAP) test. The cream was then applied 2x/day for 4 consecutive days. Assessment of TEWL clearly showed that recovery of the disrupted skin significantly improved after cream application in comparison to untreated barrier repair.

  9. Topical delivery of clobetasol propionate loaded microemulsion based gel for effective treatment of vitiligo: ex vivo permeation and skin irritation studies.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hetal K; Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Shelat, Pragna K; Shukla, Arunkumar

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate microemulsion as a vehicle for dermal drug delivery and to develop microemulsion based gel (MBC) of clobetasol propionate (CP) for the effective treatment of vitiligo. D-Optimal mixture experimental design was adopted to optimize the amount of oil (X(1)), S(mix) (mixture of surfactant and cosurfactant) (X(2)) and water (X(3)) in the microemulsion. The formulations were assessed for globule size (nm) (Y(1)) and solubility of CP in microemulsion (mg/ml) (Y(2)). The microemulsion containing 3% oil, 45% S(mix) and 50% water was selected as the optimized batch (ME). The globule size and solubility of CP in ME were 18.26 nm and 36.42 mg/ml respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that ME globules were spherical in shape. Carbopol 934P was used to convert microemulsion containing drug into gel form without affecting its structure. Ex-vivo permeation studies showed that cumulative amount of CP permeated (Q(n)) from ME, MBC and market formulation (MFCP) at 8h after application were 53.6±2.18, 28.43±0.67 and 37.73±0.77 μg cm(-2) respectively. MBC showed greater retention of CP in to skin layers than ME and MFCP. Skin irritation studies showed MBC to be significantly less irritating than MFCP. Photomicrographs and scanning electron micrographs of skin sections treated with MBC showed significant changes in the skin structure, which was attributed to the interaction of microemulsion components with skin resulting in permeation enhancement and retention of CP into skin layers. It was concluded that CP loaded gel could be a promising formulation for effective treatment of vitiligo.

  10. Hypothalamic--pituitary-- adrenal axis dysregulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome in response to acute physical stress.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Leah Z; Kehoe, Priscilla; Sinha, Karabi

    2009-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) supports the concept of a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study investigates the neuroendocrine and psychological responses to the acute physical stress of a lumbar puncture (LP) in women with diarrhea-predominant IBS by assessing central and peripheral HPA activity and affective measures. Blood samples have been collected at baseline and immediately post- and 1 hr following LP from 13 women with IBS and 13 controls. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels are analyzed. A single measure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF(CSF)) and norepinephrine(CSF) is noted. Affective assessments are used to rate anxiety and depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and acute mood state is rated using the Stress Symptom Rating questionnaire (stress, anxiety, anger, arousal). The women with IBS display blunted ACTH and cortisol responses to the LP along with a profile of affective responsiveness suggestive of chronic psychosocial stress, although no CRF(CSF) differences between groups are observed.

  11. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  12. [Cytarabine and skin reactions in acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Grille, Sofía; Guadagna, Regina; Boada, Matilde; Irigoin, Victoria; Stevenazzi, Mariana; Guillermo, Cecilia; Díaz, Lilián

    2013-01-01

    Cytarabine is an antimetabolite used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It has many adverse effects as: myelosuppression, toxic reactions involving central nervous system, liver, gastrointestinal tract, eyes or skin. Dermatologic toxicity is often described as rare; nevertheless there are differences in the reported frequency. We performed a retrospective study including all AML treated with chemotherapy that involved cytarabine between 1st July of 2006 and 1st July of 2012; 46 patients were included with a median age of 55 years. The overall incidence of skin reactions was 39% (n = 18). Sex, age, history of atopy, history of drug reactions, or dose of cytarabine used, were not associated with them. Skin reactions were observed from 2 to 8 days after treatment started. Considering injury degree: 27.8% had grade 1, 38.9% grade 2 and 33.3% grade 3. We did not find any injury grade 4 or death associated with skin toxicity. As for the type of injury: 55.6% presented macules, 22.2% papules and 22.2% erythema. Lesions distribution was diffuse in 52% of patients, acral in 39.3%, and at flexural level in 8.7%. Adverse cutaneous reactions secondary to the administration of cytarabine are frequent in our service and include some cases with severe involvement. Although these reactions usually resolve spontaneously, they determine an increased risk of infection and a compromise of the patient quality of life.

  13. Current and future trends in antibiotic therapy of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Concia, E; Cristini, F; De Rosa, F G; Esposito, S; Menichetti, F; Petrosillo, N; Tumbarello, M; Venditti, M; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Bassetti, M

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations and guidance on developing drugs for treatment of skin infection using a new definition of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection (ABSSSI). The new classification includes cellulitis, erysipelas, major skin abscesses and wound infection with a considerable extension of skin involvement, clearly referring to a severe subset of skin infections. The main goal of the FDA was to better identify specific infections where the advantages of a new antibiotic could be precisely estimated through quantifiable parameters, such as improvement of the lesion size and of systemic signs of infection. Before the spread and diffusion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in skin infections, antibiotic therapy was relatively straightforward. Using an empiric approach, a β-lactam was the preferred therapy and cultures from patients were rarely obtained. With the emergence of MRSA in the community setting, initial ABSSSI management has been changed and readdressed. Dalbavancin, oritavancin and tedizolid are new drugs, approved or in development for ABSSSI treatment, that also proved to be efficient against MRSA. Dalbavancin and oritavancin have a long half-life and can be dosed less frequently. This in turn makes it possible to treat patients with ABSSSI in an outpatient setting, avoiding hospitalization or potentially allowing earlier discharge, without compromising efficacy. In conclusion, characteristics of long-acting antibiotics could represent an opportunity for the management of ABSSSI and could profoundly modify the management of these infections by reducing or in some cases eliminating both costs and risks of hospitalization.

  14. Cosmetics Europe multi-laboratory pre-validation of the SkinEthic™ reconstituted human corneal epithelium test method for the prediction of eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Bessou-Touya, S; Cotovio, J; de Smedt, A; de Wever, B; Faller, C; Jones, P; Le Varlet, B; Marrec-Fairley, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; van Goethem, F; McNamee, P

    2013-08-01

    Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association, known as Colipa before 2012, conducted a program of technology transfer and assessment of Within/Between Laboratory (WLV/BLV) reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Corneal Epithelium (HCE) as one of two human reconstructed tissue eye irritation test methods. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method involves two exposure time treatment procedures - one for short time exposure (10 min - SE) and the other for long time exposure (60 min - LE) of tissues to test substance. This paper describes pre-validation studies of the SkinEthic™ HCE test method (SE and LE protocols) as well as the Eye Peptide Reactivity Assay (EPRA). In the SE WLV study, 30 substances were evaluated. A consistent outcome with respect to viability measurement across all runs was observed with all substances showing an SD of less than 18%. In the LE WLV study, 44 out of 45 substances were consistently classified. These data demonstrated a high level of reproducibility within laboratory for both the SE and LE treatment procedures. For the LE BLV, 19 out of 20 substances were consistently classified between the three laboratories, again demonstrating a high level of reproducibility between laboratories. The results for EPRA WLV and BLV studies demonstrated that all substances analysed were categorised similarly and that the method is reproducible. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method entered into the experimental phase of a formal ECVAM validation program in 2010.

  15. Measurement of cytotoxicity and irritancy potential of sugar-based surfactants on skin-related 3D models.

    PubMed

    Lu, Biao; Miao, Yong; Vigneron, Pascale; Chagnault, Vincent; Grand, Eric; Wadouachi, Anne; Postel, Denis; Pezron, Isabelle; Egles, Christophe; Vayssade, Muriel

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-based surfactants present surface-active properties and relatively low cytotoxicity. They are often considered as safe alternatives to currently used surfactants in cosmetic industries. In this study, four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or a maltose headgroup through an amide linkage, were synthesized and compared to two standard surfactants. The cytotoxic and irritant effects of surfactants were evaluated using two biologically relevant models: 3D dermal model (mouse fibroblasts embedded in collagen gel) and reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, multi-layered human keratinocytes). Results show that three synthesized surfactants possess lower cytotoxicity compared to standard surfactants as demonstrated in the 3D dermal model. Moreover, the IC50s of surfactants against the 3D dermal model are higher than IC50s obtained with the 2D dermal model (monolayer mouse fibroblasts). Both synthesized and standard surfactants show no irritant effects after 48h of topical application on RHE. Throughout the study, we demonstrate the difficulty to link the physico-chemical properties of surfactants and their cytotoxicity in complex models. More importantly, our data suggest that, prior to in vivo tests, a complete understanding of surfactant cytotoxicity or irritancy potential requires a combination of cellular and tissue models.

  16. Critical role of tedizolid in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Ferrández, Olivia; Urbina, Olatz; Grau, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Tedizolid phosphate has high activity against the Gram-positive microorganisms mainly involved in acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, such as strains of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, the Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis, including those with some mechanism of resistance limiting the use of linezolid. The area under the curve for time 0–24 hours/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) pharmacodynamic ratio has shown the best correlation with the efficacy of tedizolid, versus the time above MIC ratio and the maximum drug concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio. Administration of this antibiotic for 6 days has shown its noninferiority versus administration of linezolid for 10 days in patients with skin and skin structure infections enrolled in two Phase III studies (ESTABLISH-1 and ESTABLISH-2). Tedizolid’s more favorable safety profile and dosage regimen, which allow once-daily administration, versus linezolid, position it as a good therapeutic alternative. However, whether or not the greater economic cost associated with this antibiotic is offset by its shorter treatment duration and possibility of oral administration in routine clinical practice has yet to be clarified. PMID:28053508

  17. Determination of pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) prepolymers by bronchoalveolar lavage in acute rat inhalation studies according to TRGS 430.

    PubMed

    Ma-Hock, L; Gamer, A O; Deckardt, K; Leibold, E; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2007-02-01

    Pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of two hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI)-based prepolymers (I: polymeric emulsfier modified and II: oligomeric allophanate modified) were determined in acute inhalation studies according to TRGS 430 (Dangerous Substances Technical Rule, isocyanates, Germany), based on benchmark extrapolation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total protein. It was also investigated if the method is robust enough to be transferred to an independent laboratory. Five male Wistar rats per group were exposed nose-only to the test substances as liquid aerosols to concentrations of 0, 0.5, 3, 15 mg/m(3) for both test substances with an additional test group at 50 mg/m(3) for test substance I. The duration of the exposure was 6h, followed by serial sacrifices 1 day, 3 days and 7 days post exposure. BALF was analyzed for biochemical and cytological markers indicative for injury of the bronchoalveolar region. The exposure of rats to test substance I and II caused dose depended lung irritation with BALF total protein concentration being the most sensitive indicator of pulmonary effects. The extrapolated no observed adverse effect level of test substance I was 1.1 mg/m(3) and that of test substance II 2.3 mg/m(3). The acute pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations were found to be similar to those reported by [Pauluhn, J., 2004. Pulmonary irritant potency of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage. J. Appl. Toxicol. 24, 231-247] for HDI-homopolymers and other HDI-based polyisocyanates, and were at least 30 times higher than the MAK (occupational exposure limit) value for the HDI monomer (0.035 mg/m(3)). Thus the EBW (exposure assessment value) for these two HDI-based prepolymers can be established at 10x MAK, i.e. at 0.35 mg/m(3).

  18. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  19. Seeking Clearer Recommendations for Hand Hygiene in Communities Facing Ebola: A Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Six Handwashing Methods on Skin Irritation and Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Emma; Mitro, Brittany; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent disease transmission, 0.05% chlorine solution is commonly recommended for handwashing in Ebola Treatment Units. In the 2014 West Africa outbreak this recommendation was widely extended to community settings, although many organizations recommend soap and hand sanitizer over chlorine. To evaluate skin irritation caused by frequent handwashing that may increase transmission risk in Ebola-affected communities, we conducted a randomized trial with 91 subjects who washed their hands 10 times a day for 28 days. Subjects used soap and water, sanitizer, or one of four chlorine solutions used by Ebola responders (calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and generated or pH-stabilized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). Outcomes were self-reported hand feel, irritation as measured by the Hand Eczema Score Index (HECSI) (range 0–360), signs of transmission risk (e.g., cracking), and dermatitis diagnosis. All groups experienced statistically significant increases in HECSI score. Subjects using sanitizer had the smallest increases, followed by higher pH chlorine solutions (HTH and stabilized NaOCl), and soap and water. The greatest increases were among neutral pH chlorine solutions (NaDCC and generated NaOCl). Signs of irritation related to higher transmission risk were observed most frequently in subjects using soap and least frequently by those using sanitizer or HTH. Despite these irritation increases, all methods represented minor changes in HECSI score. Average HECSI score was only 9.10 at endline (range 1–33) and 4% (4/91) of subjects were diagnosed with dermatitis, one each in four groups. Each handwashing method has benefits and drawbacks: soap is widely available and inexpensive, but requires water and does not inactivate the virus; sanitizer is easy-to use and effective but expensive and unacceptable to many communities, and chlorine is easy-to-use but difficult to produce properly and distribute. Overall, we recommend Ebola responders

  20. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  1. New agents approved for treatment of acute staphylococcal skin infections

    PubMed Central

    Tatarkiewicz, Jan; Staniszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described. Dalbavancin is a once-a-week, two-dose, long-acting intravenous bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic. Oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity, was developed as a single-dose intravenous treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI), which offers simplifying treatment of infections. Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone-class bacteriostatic once-daily agent, available for intravenous as well as oral use. Increased ability to overcome bacterial resistance is the main therapeutic advantage of the novel agents over existing antibiotics. PMID:27904526

  2. Clinical efficacy of dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI)

    PubMed Central

    Leuthner, Kimberly D; Buechler, Kristin A; Kogan, David; Saguros, Agafe; Lee, H Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a common disease causing patients to seek treatment through the health care system. With the continued increase of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, these infections are becoming more difficult to successfully cure. Lipoglycopeptides have unique properties that allow the drug to remain active toward both common and challenging pathogens at the infected site for lengthy periods of time. Dalbavancin, a new lipoglycopeptide, provides two unique dosing regimens for the treatment of ABSSSI. The original regimen of 1,000 mg intravenous infusion followed by a 500 mg intravenous infusion after a week has been shown as safe and effective in multiple, randomized noninferiority trials. These studies also demonstrated that dalbavancin was similar to standard regimens in terms of both safety and tolerability. Recently a single 1,500 mg dose was demonstrated to be equivalent to the dalbavancin two-dose regimen for treating ABSSSI. With the introduction of dalbavancin, clinicians have the option to provide an intravenous antimicrobial agent shown to be as effective as traditional therapies, without requiring admission into the hospitals or prescribing a medication which may not be utilized optimally. Further understanding of dalbavancin and its unusual properties can provide unique treatment situations with potential benefits for both the patient and the overall health care system, which should be further explored. PMID:27354809

  3. Dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Ramdeen, Sheena; Boucher, Helen W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) have increased in incidence and severity. The involvement of resistant organisms, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, presents additional challenges. The lipoglycopeptide dalbavancin has a prolonged half-life, high protein binding, and excellent tissue levels which led to its development as a once-weekly treatment for ABSSSI. In the pivotal DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2 trials, dalbavancin proved non-inferior to vancomycin followed by linezolid when used sequentially for ABSSSI, forming the basis for its recent approval in the US and Europe for ABSSSI. Areas covered A literature search of published pharmacologic and clinical data was conducted to review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin. We also discuss its development process, highlighting efficacy and safety data from pertinent clinical trials and the role it could play in the current clinical landscape. Expert opinion DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2 demonstrated dalbavancin’s non-inferiority to vancomycin followed by linezolid for ABSSSI and confirmed its safety and tolerability. They were among the first trials to use new, early primary efficacy endpoints, and dalbavancin was among the first agents designated a Qualified Infectious Disease Product for expedited review. Dalbavancin may prove to be a valuable option for ABSSSI patients in whom conventional therapy is limited. PMID:26239321

  4. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part I. Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in dermatology. It compromises the majority of all occupational skin diseases in most countries. It develops as a result of the environmental or work-related exposure to irritants. Cutaneous reaction depends on the intrinsic properties of the irritant, individual skin susceptibility and environmental conditions. A great morphological variety of irritant contact dermatitis and difficulties in diagnosis may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. The prognosis is variable. Preventive measures, including education, individual skin protection and proper skin care may contribute to the reduced incidence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis.

  5. Biomimetic proopiomelanocortin suppresses capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Sayed Ali; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Asilian-Mahabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive skin is a frequently mentioned cosmetic complaint. Addition of a biomimetic of neuromediator has recently appeared as a promising new way to cure skin care product problems. This study was aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of a biomimetic lipopeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin (bPOMC) on capsaicin-induced sensory irritation in human volunteers and also to compare its protective effect with that of the well-known anti irritant strontium chloride. The effect of each test compound was studied on 28 selected healthy volunteers with sensitive skin in accordance with a double-blind vehicle-controlled protocol. From day 1 to day 13 each group was applied the test compound (bPOMC or strontium chloride) to one wing of the nose and the corresponding placebo (vehicle) to the other side twice daily. On days 0 and 14, acute skin irritation was induced by capsaicin solution and quantified using clinical stinging test assessments. Following the application of capsaicin solution, sensory irritation was evaluated using a 4-point numeric scale. The sensations perceived before and after treatment (on days 0 and 14) was calculated for the two zones (test materials and vehicle). Ultimately the percentage of variation between each sample and the placebo and also the inhibitory effect of bPOMC compared to that of strontium chloride were reported. Clinical results showed that after two weeks treatment, the levels of skin comfort reported in the group treated with bPOMC were significantly higher than those obtained in the placebo group and the inhibitory effect of bPOMC was about 47% higher than that of strontium chloride. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that biomimetic peptides may be effective on sensitive skin. PMID:28003842

  6. Differentiation between Acute Skin Rejection in Allotransplantation and T-Cell Mediated Skin Inflammation Based on Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Dolores; Morandi, Evi M.; Eberhart, Nadine; Hautz, Theresa; Hackl, Hubert; Zelger, Bettina; Riede, Gregor; Wachter, Tanja; Dubrac, Sandrine; Ploner, Christian; Pierer, Gerhard; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in microsurgical techniques and immunosuppressive medication have rendered transplantation of vascularized composite allografts possible, when autologous tissue is neither available nor sufficient for reconstruction. However, skin rejection and side effects of long-term immunosuppression still remain a major hurdle for wide adoption of this excellent reconstructive technique. Histopathologic changes during acute skin rejection in vascular composite allotransplantation often mimic inflammatory skin disorders and are hard to distinguish. Hence, the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic markers specific for skin rejection is of particular clinical need. Here we present novel markers allowing for early differentiation between rejection in hind limb allotransplantation and contact hypersensitivity. Assessment of Ccl7, Il18, and Il1b expression is most indicative of distinguishing skin rejection from skin inflammatory disorders. Gene expression levels varied significantly across skin types and regions, indicating localization specific mechanism of leukocyte migration and infiltration. Expression of Il12b, Il17a, and Il1b gene expression levels differed significantly between rejection and inflammation, independent of the skin type. In synopsis of the RNA expression profile and previously assessed protein expression, the Il1 family appears as a promising option for accurate skin rejection diagnosis and, as a following step, for development of novel rejection treatments. PMID:25756043

  7. [Spotlight on sensory irritation and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2005-10-01

    Sensory irritation is directly bound to the concept of sensitive skin. A large proportion of the population, in particular young women, is affected. The reported symptoms are those of skin discomfort without any visible alteration of the skin. According to the subjects, the timing and the cutaneous sites, various perceptions occur, including pruritus, burning and stinging sensations. Sensory irritation is difficult to quantify because it remains subjective by essence. The condition is sometimes aggravated by some cosmetics, cleaning and cleansing products, wool contact and exposure to cold and dry climate. The responsible ingredients are often agents affecting functions of stratum corneum without being obvious chemical irritants.

  8. Acute dissociation predicts rapid habituation of skin conductance responses to aversive auditory probes.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; ter Burg, Linda; Cima, Maaike; Simeon, Daphne

    2008-04-01

    The present study examined how acute dissociation, trait-like dissociative symptoms, and physiological reactivity relate to each other. Sixty-nine undergraduate students were exposed to 14 aversive auditory probes, while their skin conductance responses were measured. A combination of self-reported anxiety and trait-like dissociation was found to predict variability in peritraumatic dissociation levels induced by the aversive probes. Furthermore, high levels of acute dissociation were associated with faster habituation of skin conductance responding, while trait-like dissociation was unrelated to habituation. Interestingly, individuals who reported childhood trauma displayed elevated skin conductance responses. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that subjective feelings of acute dissociation have their objective concomitants, notably fast habituation of physiologic responses.

  9. Understanding the Acute Skin Injury Mechanism Caused by Player-Surface Contact During Soccer

    PubMed Central

    van den Eijnde, Wilbert A.J.; Peppelman, Malou; Lamers, Edwin A.D.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C.M.; van Erp, Piet E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Superficial skin injuries are considered minor, and their incidence is probably underestimated. Insight into the incidence and mechanism of acute skin injury can be helpful in developing suitable preventive measures and safer playing surfaces for soccer and other field sports. Purpose: To gain insight into the incidence and severity of skin injuries related to soccer and to describe the skin injury mechanism due to player-surface contact. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The prevention model by van Mechelen et al (1992) combined with the injury causation model of Bahr and Krosshaug (2005) were used as a framework for the survey to describe the skin injury incidence and mechanism caused by player-surface contact. Results: The reviewed literature showed that common injury reporting methods are mainly based on time lost from participation or the need for medical attention. Because skin abrasions seldom lead to absence or medical attention, they are often not reported. When reported, the incidence of abrasion/laceration injuries varies from 0.8 to 6.1 injuries per 1000 player-hours. Wound assessment techniques such as the Skin Damage Area and Severity Index can be a valuable tool to obtain a more accurate estimation of the incidence and severity of acute skin injuries. Conclusion: The use of protective equipment, a skin lubricant, or wet surface conditions has a positive effect on preventing abrasion-type injuries from artificial turf surfaces. The literature also shows that essential biomechanical information of the sliding event is lacking, such as how energy is transferred to the area of contact. From a clinical and histological perspective, there are strong indications that a sliding-induced skin lesion is caused by mechanical rather than thermal injury to the skin. PMID:26535330

  10. Profile of oritavancin and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subhashis; Saeed, Usman; Havlichek, Daniel H; Stein, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin, received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria in adults in August 2014. This novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Oritavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is rapidly bactericidal against many Gram-positive pathogens. The long half-life of this drug enables a single-dose administration. Oritavancin is not metabolized in the body, and the unchanged drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys. In two large Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trials, oritavancin was found to be non-inferior to vancomycin in achieving the primary composite end point in the treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections. Adverse effects noted were mostly mild with nausea, headache, and vomiting being the most common reported side effects. Oritavancin has emerged as another useful antimicrobial agent for treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by MRSA and VISA. PMID:26185459

  11. Viscosupplementation of the knee: Three cases of acute Pseudoseptic Arthritis with painful and irritating complications and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Toğral, Güray; Varış, Onur; Aydın, Güle

    2017-01-01

    Acute pseudoseptic arthritis is a very rare complication that is associated with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections, which normally involve minimal risk. The most common adverse events that are caused by hyaluronic acid injections are inflammatory reactions or flares at the injection site. In this study, we described three cases of acute pseudoseptic arthritis that was caused by hyaluronic acid; the symptoms in these cases were reminiscent of acute septic arthritis. Moreover, we performed a literature review on pseudoseptic arthritis following hyaluronic acid injections to determine the manner in which this condition can be described, diagnosed, and treated. PMID:28293455

  12. Viscosupplementation of the knee: Three cases of acute Pseudoseptic Arthritis with painful and irritating complications and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Toğral, Güray; Varış, Onur; Aydın, Güle

    2017-03-01

    Acute pseudoseptic arthritis is a very rare complication that is associated with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections, which normally involve minimal risk. The most common adverse events that are caused by hyaluronic acid injections are inflammatory reactions or flares at the injection site. In this study, we described three cases of acute pseudoseptic arthritis that was caused by hyaluronic acid; the symptoms in these cases were reminiscent of acute septic arthritis. Moreover, we performed a literature review on pseudoseptic arthritis following hyaluronic acid injections to determine the manner in which this condition can be described, diagnosed, and treated.

  13. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT.

  14. Relative irritancy of free fatty acids of different chain length.

    PubMed

    Stillman, M A; Maibach, H I; Shalita, A R

    1975-01-01

    Free fatty acids of human skin surface lipids have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris because of their apparent irritant and comedogenic properties. Prior studies on the relative irritancy of free fatty acids revealed the saturated C8 to C14 fatty acids and a C18 dienoic unsaturated fatty acid (linoleic) to be most irritating. Saturated free fatty acids from C3 to C18, and unsaturated C18 free fatty acids were applied daily under occlusive patch tests to human skin until detectable erythema appeared. The most irritating fatty acids were C8 through C12. Of the unsaturated fatty acids tested, only linoleic acid produced irritation.

  15. Bilayer Cryogel Wound Dressing and Skin Regeneration Grafts for the Treatment of Acute Skin Wounds.

    PubMed

    Priya, S Geetha; Gupta, Ankur; Jain, Era; Sarkar, Joyita; Damania, Apeksha; Jagdale, Pankaj R; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-06-22

    In this study, the potential of cryogel bilayer wound dressing and skin regenerating graft for the treatment of surgically created full thickness wounds was evaluated. The top layer was composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) cryogel and served as the antiseptic layer, while the bottom regenerative layer was made using gelatin cryogel. Both components of the bilayer showed typical features of a cryogel interconnected macropore network, rapid swelling, high water uptake capacity of about 90%. Both PVP and gelatin cryogel showed high tensile strength of 45 and 10 kPa, respectively. Gelatin cryogel sheets were essentially elastic and could be stretched without any visible deformation. The antiseptic PVP-I layer cryogel sheet showed sustained iodine release and suppressed microbial growth when tested with skin pathogens (zone of inhibition ∼2 cm for sheet of 0.9 cm diameter). The gelatin cryogel sheet degraded in vitro in weeks. The gelatin cryogel sheet supported cell infiltration, attachment, and proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Microparticles loaded with bioactive molecules (mannose-6-phosphate and human fibrinogen) were also incorporated in the gelatin cryogel sheets for their role in enhancing skin regeneration and scar free wound healing. In vivo evaluation of healing capacity of the bilayer cryogel was checked in rabbits by creating full thickness wound defect (diameter 2 cm). Macroscopic and microscopic observation at regular time intervals for 4 weeks demonstrated better and faster skin regeneration in the wound treated with cryogel bilayer as compared to untreated defect and the repair was comparable to commercial skin regeneration scaffold Neuskin-F. Complete skin regeneration was observed after 4 weeks of implantation with no sign of inflammatory response. Defects implanted with cryogel having mannose-6-phosphate showed no scar formation, while the wound treated with bilayer incorporated with human fibrinogen microparticles showed

  16. The irritancy of soaps and syndets.

    PubMed

    Strube, D D; Nicoll, G

    1987-06-01

    The use of soaps and synthetic detergent (syndet) bars has been associated with skin dryness and aggravation of dermatologic conditions. A number of factors, including chemical structure, pH, and cleansing ability, have been implicated in this phenomenon. Many bars contain agents designed to ameliorate the irritancy of the bar and/or provide a skin benefit. Clinical studies have shown that soaps are generally quite irritating while syndets can range from mild to harsh. The addition of skin benefit/mildness agents such as glycerin, cocoa butter, mineral oil, or lanolin has little effect on the irritancy potential of a bar since minimal amounts of these agents are deposited on the skin. The excessive removal of skin lipids by harsh soaps and detergents can result in superficial dryness. The key to gentle cleansing is to start with a mild cleansing product and avoid overuse.

  17. Caffeine protects human skin fibroblasts from acute reactive oxygen species-induced necrosis.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Patel, Mital; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in aging and carcinogenesis. Little is known about either the effects of acute ROS in necrosis and inflammation of skin or the therapeutic agents for prevention and treatment. Previously, our laboratory identified caffeine as an inhibitor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-generated lipid peroxidation products in human skin fibroblasts. Here, we study effects of caffeine on acute ROS-mediated necrosis. Human skin fibroblasts were incubated with caffeine, followed by H2O2 challenge. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell morphology, counts, apoptosis and necrosis, and ROS. We found that caffeine protects from H2O2 cell damage at lower (0.01 mM) and intermediate (0.1 mM) doses. The beneficial effects of caffeine appear to be mediated by a mechanism other than antioxidant function.

  18. Revisit the 21-day cumulative irritation test - statistical considerations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Paul; Li, Qing

    2017-03-01

    The 21-day cumulative irritation test is widely used for evaluating the irritation potential of topical skin-care products. This test consists of clinician's assessment of skin reaction of the patch sites and a classification system to categorize the test product's irritation potential. A new classification system is proposed which enables us to control the estimation error and provides a statistical confidence with regard to the repeatability of the classification.

  19. Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Agner, T

    1992-01-01

    atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease.

  20. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  1. Screening for potential hazard effects from four nitramines on human eye and skin.

    PubMed

    Fjellsbø, Lise Marie; Van Rompay, An R; Hooyberghs, Jef; Nelissen, Inge; Dusinska, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Amines have potential to be used in CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology, but as they can be released into the environment and be degraded into more toxic compounds, such as nitrosamines and nitramines, there have been concerns about their negative impact on human health. We investigated the potential toxic effects from acute exposure to dimethylnitramine (DMA-NO2), methylnitramine (MA-NO2), ethanolnitramine (MEA-NO2) and 2-methyl-2-(nitroamino)-1-propanol (AMP-NO2). The eye irritation, and skin sensitization, irritation and corrosion potential of these substances have been evaluated in vitro using the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay, VITOSENS® assay, Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) skin irritation test and Corrositex Skin corrosion test, respectively. Exposure to DMA-NO2 induced a mild eye irritation response, while MA-NO2, MEA-NO2 and AMP-NO2 were shown to be very severe eye irritants. MA-NO2 and MEA-NO2 were tested for skin sensitization and found to be non-sensitizers to the skin. In addition, none of the four test substances was irritant or corrosive to the skin.

  2. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care; Incontinence - pressure sore; Incontinence - pressure ulcer ... redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop if the person: Has ...

  3. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices.

  4. Vascular responses in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during acute mental stress in physically trained humans.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hiroki; Sone, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2009-12-01

    Acute mental stress induces sympathetic activation and influences vasomotor control in various organs. In the present study, to better understand the effect of physical training on peripheral vasomotor control during acute mental stress, we compared the skin vascular responses to mental arithmetic (MA) in physically trained and untrained humans. Eight physically trained (T group) and eight untrained (UT group) healthy volunteers performed 2 min of MA aloud in the supine position under a thermoneutral condition (28 degrees C). Skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local temperature were monitored at the glabrous (palm, sole) and nonglabrous (forearm, calf) sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was evaluated from the ratio of blood flow to mean arterial pressure (tonometry). Local sweating rate (SR) was measured in the sole and calf by the ventilated capsule method. In the T group, the CVC at glabrous sites consistently decreased (P < 0.05) during MA, while in the UT group, the stress-induced decreases in CVC were transient and gradually recovered during MA. The patterns of changes in CVC at the nonglabrous sites were substantially similar to those at the glabrous sites, but the decreases in CVC at the nonglabrous sites were smaller (P < 0.05) than those at the glabrous sites in both groups. Local temperature at the glabrous sites (especially in the sole) showed higher (P < 0.05) values in the T group compared with the UT group. The SR in the sole and calf were increased (P < 0.05) during MA but did not differ between the two groups. These findings suggest that physical training acts to heighten skin temperature at the glabrous sites but not at the nonglabrous sites. It is also suggested that the change of skin temperature by physical training modifies sympathetic vasomotor control in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during acute mental stress in the peripheral level.

  5. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-wen; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jia-an; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Permatasari, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP) in ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED) of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI), melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm2) for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage. PMID:27478534

  6. Non-thermal air plasma promotes the healing of acute skin wounds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kubinova, S.; Zaviskova, K.; Uherkova, L.; Zablotskii, V.; Churpita, O.; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has nonspecific antibacterial effects, and can be applied as an effective tool for the treatment of chronic wounds and other skin pathologies. In this study we analysed the effect of NTP on the healing of the full-thickness acute skin wound model in rats. We utilised a single jet NTP system generating atmospheric pressure air plasma, with ion volume density 5 · 1017 m−3 and gas temperature 30–35 °C. The skin wounds were exposed to three daily plasma treatments for 1 or 2 minutes and were evaluated 3, 7 and 14 days after the wounding by histological and gene expression analysis. NTP treatment significantly enhanced epithelization and wound contraction on day 7 when compared to the untreated wounds. Macrophage infiltration into the wound area was not affected by the NTP treatment. Gene expression analysis did not indicate an increased inflammatory reaction or a disruption of the wound healing process; transient enhancement of inflammatory marker upregulation was found after NTP treatment on day 7. In summary, NTP treatment had improved the healing efficacy of acute skin wounds without noticeable side effects and concomitant activation of pro-inflammatory signalling. The obtained results highlight the favourability of plasma applications for wound therapy in clinics. PMID:28338059

  7. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing-Rong; Ma, Li-Wen; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jia-An; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP) in ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED) of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI), melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Van Wart, Scott A; Forrest, Alan; Khariton, Tatiana; Rubino, Christopher M; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Reynolds, Daniel K; Riccobene, Todd; Ambrose, Paul G

    2013-11-01

    Ceftaroline, the active form of ceftaroline fosamil, is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for ceftaroline was developed in NONMEM® using data from 185 healthy subjects and 92 patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI). Data from 128 patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) were used for external model validation. Healthy subjects received 50-2,000 mg ceftaroline fosamil via intravenous (IV) infusion over 1 hour or intramuscular (IM) injection q12h or q24h. ABSSSI and CABP patients received 600 mg of ceftaroline fosamil IV over 1 hour q12h. A three-compartment model with zero-order IV or parallel first-order IM input and first-order elimination described ceftaroline fosamil PK. A two-compartment model with first-order conversion of prodrug to ceftaroline and parallel linear and saturable elimination described ceftaroline PK. Creatinine clearance was the primary determinant of ceftaroline exposure. Good agreement between the observed data and both population (r(2)  = 0.93) and individual post-hoc (r(2)  = 0.98) predictions suggests the PPK model can adequately approximate ceftaroline PK using covariate information. Such a PPK model can evaluate dose adjustments for patients with renal impairment and generate ceftaroline exposures for use in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessments of efficacy in patients with ABSSSI or CABP.

  9. Skin toxicity of propranolol in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Maruo, H; Saeki, Y; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M

    1999-05-01

    The skin toxicities of propranolol were studied in guinea pigs. In the primary and cumulative skin irritation studies, the skin reactions and the histopathological changes were observed in all animals treated with propranolol, and those tended to increase with the increase of propranolol dosage. The skin reactions increased with the application times of propranolol up to 7 days in the cumulative skin irritation study. In the skin sensitization, the phototoxicity and the skin photosensitization studies, no skin reactions were observed in any animals used in the studies. These results indicate that propranolol caused skin irritation, but was negative for skin sensitization, phototoxicity and skin photosensitization in guinea pigs.

  10. Early Clinical Response as a Predictor of Late Treatment Success in Patients With Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Retrospective Analysis of 2 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, Dilip; Corey, Ralph; Das, Anita F; Sandison, Taylor; De Anda, Carisa; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2017-01-15

    In the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, pooled data from 2 clinical trials (N = 1333 patients) showed that programmatic and investigator-assessed early treatment success both had a high positive predictive value (94.3%-100.0%) for late clinical cure, including among hospitalized patients. The negative predictive value of programmatic early success was <20%. These exploratory findings require prospective real-world evaluation.

  11. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (p<0.05) increases in immunoreactivity in the Gamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  12. Profile of tedizolid phosphate and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ronald G; Michaels, Heidi N

    2015-01-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is the first once-daily oxazolidinone approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). It is more potent in vitro than linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other gram-positive pathogens causing ABSSSI, even retaining activity against some linezolid-resistant strains. Tedizolid is approximately 90% protein bound, leading to lower free-drug concentrations than linezolid. The impact of the effect of food, renal or hepatic insufficiency, or hemodialysis on tedizolid’s pharmacokinetic have been evaluated, and no dosage adjustment is needed in these populations. In animal and clinical studies, tedizolid’s effect on bacterial killing is optimized by the free-drug area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (fAUC/MIC). The 200 mg once-daily dose is able to achieve the target fAUC/MIC ratio in 98% of simulated patients. Two Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated the noninferiority of tedizolid 200 mg once daily for 6 days to linezolid 600 mg twice daily for 10 days. In vitro, animal, and clinical studies have failed to demonstrate that tedizolid inhibits monoamine oxidase to a clinically relevant extent. Tedizolid has several key advantages over linezolid including once daily dosing, decreased treatment duration, minimal interaction with serotonergic agents, possibly associated with less adverse events associated with the impairment of mitochondrial protein synthesis (eg, myelosuppression, lactic acidosis, and peripheral/optic neuropathies), and retains in vitro activity against linezolid-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Economic analyses with tedizolid are needed to describe the cost-effectiveness of this agent compared with other options used for ABSSSI, particularly treatment options active against MRSA. PMID:25960671

  13. Sex differences in skin carotenoid deposition and acute UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice after consumption of tangerine tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Schick, Jonathan; Tober, Kathleen L.; Riedl, Ken M.; Francis, David M.; Young, Gregory S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

    2015-01-01

    Scope UVB exposure, a major factor in the development of skin cancer, has differential sex effects. Tomato product consumption reduces the intensity of UVB-induced erythema in humans, but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods and results Four week old SKH-1 hairless mice (40 females, 40 males) were divided into two feeding groups (control or with 10% tangerine tomatoes naturally rich in UV-absorbing phytoene and phytofluene) and two UV exposure groups (with or without UV). After 10 weeks of feeding, the UV group was exposed to a single UV dose and sacrificed 48 hours later. Blood and dorsal skin samples were taken for carotenoid analysis. Dorsal skin was harvested to assess sex and UV effects on carotenoid deposition, inflammation (skinfold thickness, myeloperoxidase levels) and DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, p53). Females had significantly higher levels of both skin and blood carotenoids relative to males. UV exposure significantly reduced skin carotenoid levels in females but not males. Tomato consumption attenuated acute UV-induced increases in CPD in both sexes, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity and % p53 positive epidermal cells in males. Conclusion Tangerine tomatoes mediate acute UV-induced skin damage in SKH-1 mice via reduced DNA damage in both sexes, and through reduced inflammation in males. PMID:26394800

  14. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase 3 Double-Blind, Randomized Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A 2-arm, double-blinded, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma receiving external beam radiotherapy to breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to daily apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream. Primary study end point was provider-assessed maximum grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 radiation dermatitis. Secondary end points included provider-assessed CTCAE grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse-event monitoring. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and quality of life self-assessment. Assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results In total, 176 patients were enrolled from September 21, 2007 through December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary end point showed no difference in mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs 1.3 for placebo; P=.18). CTCAE toxicity was greater in placebo group (P=.04), primarily from pruritus. For PRO measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for MMF group showed less itching (P=.008), less irritation (P=.01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (P=.02), and less annoyance with skin problems (P=.04); the group's maximum Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (P=.02) and less itching (P=.002). Conclusion Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy may experience reduced acute skin toxicity in comparison to placebo. PMID:20800381

  15. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized Trial From the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: A two-arm, double-blind, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma who were undergoing external beam radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream daily. The primary study endpoint was the provider-assessed maximal grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints included provider-assessed Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse event monitoring. The patient-reported outcome measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and a quality-of-life self-assessment. An assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled between September 21, 2007, and December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary endpoint showed no difference in the mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs. 1.3 for placebo; p = .18). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity was greater in the placebo group (p = .04), primarily from pruritus. For the patient-reported outcome measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for the MMF group showed less itching (p = .008), less irritation (p = .01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (p = .02), and less annoyance with skin problems (p = .04). The group's maximal Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (p = .02) and less itching (p = .002). Conclusion: Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy might experience reduced acute skin toxicity compared with patients receiving placebo.

  16. In Vivo Assessment of Acute UVB Responses in Normal and Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP-C) Skin-Humanized Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    García, Marta; Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Meana, Alvaro; Cuadrado, Natividad; Recasens, Mar; Puig, Susana; Nagore, Eduardo; Illera, Nuria; Jorcano, José Luis; Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In vivo studies of UVB effects on human skin are precluded by ethical and technical arguments on volunteers and inconceivable in cancer-prone patients such as those affected with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP). Establishing reliable models to address mechanistic and therapeutic matters thus remains a challenge. Here we have used the skin-humanized mouse system that circumvents most current model constraints. We assessed the UVB radiation effects including the sequential changes after acute exposure with respect to timing, dosage, and the relationship between dose and degree-sort of epidermal alteration. On Caucasian-derived regenerated skins, UVB irradiation (800 J/m2) induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and p53 expression in exposed keratinocytes. Epidermal disorganization was observed at higher doses. In contrast, in African descent–derived regenerated skins, physiological hyperpigmentation prevented tissue alterations and DNA photolesions. The acute UVB effects seen in Caucasian-derived engrafted skins were also blocked by a physical sunscreen, demonstrating the suitability of the system for photoprotection studies. We also report the establishment of a photosensitive model through the transplantation of XP-C patient cells as part of a bioengineered skin. The inability of XP-C engrafted skin to remove DNA damaged cells was confirmed in vivo. Both the normal and XP-C versions of the skin-humanized mice proved proficient models to assess UVB-mediated DNA repair responses and provide a strong platform to test novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20558577

  17. Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation.

  18. Evaluation of calcium magnesium acetate and road salt for contact hypersensitivity potential and dermal irritancy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cushman, J R; Duff, V A; Buteau, G H; Aust, L B; Caldwell, N; Lazer, W

    1991-04-01

    Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and road salt are both de-icing agents to which workers may be dermally exposed. A commercial formulation of CMA (Chevron Ice-B-Gon Deicer) and road salt were tested in a human repeat insult patch test to evaluate the contact hypersensitivity potential of these materials and to evaluate irritation following single or multiple applications. 72 of the initial 82 panelists completed the study. CMA and road salt (each at 10% and 30% w/w in distilled water; 0.3 ml) were administered under occlusive patches on the forearm for 14 h 3 x per week for 3 weeks. The panelists were challenged 2 weeks later; 2 panelists who had mild reactions were subsequently rechallenged 6 weeks later. Neither CMA nor road salt produced contact hypersensitivity in any panelists. Following the first application, moderate acute irritation was observed only at 1 skin site exposed to 30% road salt. Repeated exposure to CMA or road salt produced mild to moderate irritation. The highest incidence of moderate irritation was observed with 30% road salt. Thus, neither material is expected to cause significant dermal effects in exposed workers. CMA is expected to cause dermal irritation equivalent to or less than that caused by road salt.

  19. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... your belly area), constipation (when you can't poop), and diarrhea (when you poop too much). If you have irritable bowel syndrome, ... food particles are also known as stool, a bowel movement, or poop. Here's why an intestine gets "irritable." ...

  20. Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation

    PubMed Central

    Pisetpackdeekul, Pimolphan; Supmuang, Piyapan; Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Limcharoen, Benchaphorn; Kokpol, Chayada; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-01-01

    Despite many potent biological activities, retinoids such as retinoic acid (RA) and retinal possess dose-related broad side effects. In this study, we show that this problem, which has been unsolvable for a long time, can be tackled through a controlled release strategy in which retinal is continuously delivered to the skin via sustained release from proretinal nanoparticles. The water dispersible proretinal nanoparticles are stable when kept in water at neutral pH and at room temperature for 8 months under light-proof conditions, and show sustained release of retinal into human synthetic sebum at a pH of 5. In the daily topical application tests performed for 4 weeks on rats’ skin, the nanoparticles showed superior ability to increase epidermal thickness compared to RA and retinal, with no skin irritation observed for the proretinal particles, but severe skin irritation observed for RA and free retinal. When tested under occlusion conditions in human volunteers, insignificant skin irritation was observed for the proretinal nanoparticles. The 12-week, double-blind, split-face study on human volunteers indicates better antiaging efficacy of the particles as compared to the free RA. PMID:27499622

  1. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  2. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  3. Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2013-10-01

    Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are required for full reflex cutaneous vasodilation and are attenuated in primary aging. Acute, locally administered BH4 increases reflex vasodilation through NO-dependent mechanisms in aged skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, shelf-stable pharmaceutical formulation of BH4) would augment reflex vasodilation in aged human skin during hyperthermia. Nine healthy human subjects (76 ± 1 yr) ingested sapropterin (10 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 3 h following, ingestion of sapropterin for measurement of plasma BH4. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer's solution, 2) 10 mM BH4, and 3) 20 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit NOS. Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasodilation was induced using a water-perfused suit. At 1°C rise in oral temperature, mean body temperature was clamped and 20 mM l-NAME was perfused at each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated (CVC = LDF/MAP) and expressed as a percentage of maximum (%CVCmax 28 mM sodium nitroprusside and local heat 43°C). Plasma concentrations of BH4 were significantly elevated 3 h after ingestion of sapropterin (0 h: 19.1 ± 2 pmol/ml vs. 3 h: 43.8 ± 3 pmol/ml; P < 0.001). Sapropterin increased NO-dependent vasodilation at control site (placebo: 14 ± 1 %CVCmax vs. sapropterin: 25 ± 4 %CVCmax; P = 0.004). Local BH4 administration increased NO-dependent vasodilation compared with control in placebo trials only (control: 14 ± 1 %CVCmax vs. BH4-treated: 24 ± 3 %CVCmax; P = 0.02). These data suggest oral sapropterin increases bioavailable BH4 in aged skin microvasculature sufficiently to increase NO synthesis through NOS and that sapropterin may be a viable intervention to

  4. Modified skin window technique for the extended characterisation of acute inflammation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marks, D. J. B.; Radulovic, M.; McCartney, S.; Bloom, S.; Segal, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To modify the skin window technique for extended analysis of acute inflammatory responses in humans, and demonstrate its applicability for investigating disease. Subjects 15 healthy subjects and 5 Crohn’s patients. Treatment Skin windows, created by dermal abrasion, were overlaid for various durations with filter papers saturated in saline, 100 ng/ml muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or 10 μg/ml interleukin-8 (IL-8). Methods Exuded leukocytes were analyzed by microscopy, immunoblot, DNA-bound transcription factor arrays and RT-PCR. Inflammatory mediators were quantified by ELISA. Results Infiltrating leukocytes were predominantly neutrophils. Numerous secreted mediators were detectable. MDP and IL-8 enhanced responses. Many signalling proteins were phosphorylated with differential patterns in Crohn’s patients, notably PKC α/β hyperphosphorylation (11.3 ± 3.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.9 units, P < 0.02). Activities of 44 transcription factors were detectable, and sufficient RNA isolated for expression analysis of over 400 genes. Conclusions The modifications enable broad characterisation of inflammatory responses and administration of exogenous immunomodulators. PMID:17522815

  5. Irritantcy potential and sub acute dermal toxicity study of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil as a topical traditional remedy.

    PubMed

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Djaalab, Hdria; Riachi, Foulla; Serakta, Mennouba; Chettoum, Aziez; Maameri, Zineb; Boutobza, Badaoui; Hamdi-Pacha, Youcef

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess safety of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil (PLFO) as a topical traditional remedy. A primary skin and eye irritation tests were conducted with New Zealand white rabbits to determine the potential for PLFO to produce irritation from a single application. In addition, a sub acute dermal toxicity study was performed on 18 NZW rabbits to evaluate possible adverse effect following application of PLFO for 28 days. Based on the results of the current study, PLFO is classified as slightly irritating to the skin and the eye of rabbits (Primary Irritation Index (P.I.I.) = 1.037; Ocular Irritation Index (O.I.I.) = 5.33 at 1 h). In the sub-acute toxicity test, PLFO produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and organ weights between control group and treated rabbits. However, a reversible irritant contact dermatitis was observed in the treated areas from the end of the second week of application until the end of experiment. This local phenomenon was accompanied by a significant skin thickening (P≤0.01) since the 12(th) day (ANOVA, F = 11, 07143, P = 0, 00765) which is confirmed with an inflammatory granuloma in histological study. Haematological analysis and blood chemistry values of the 2 groups showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. In summary, PLFO is minimally irritating to the eye and skin after a single exposure, but it may cause irritant contact dermatitis and a reversible thickening of skin after prolonged use.

  6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a problem that affects the large intestine. It can cause abdominal cramping, bloating, and a change in bowel ... go back and forth between the two. Although IBS can cause a great deal of discomfort, it ...

  7. Correlation between anthropometric parameters and acute skin toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy patients: a pilot assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Méry, Benoîte; Vallard, Alexis; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Pacaut, Cécile; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Espenel, Sophie; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Ollier, Edouard; Wang, Guoping; Diao, Peng; Bigot, Lise; Mengue Ndong, Sylvie; Bosacki, Claire; Ben Mrad, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to identify acute skin toxicity risk factors linked to the anthropometric characteristics of patients with breast cancer treated with radiation therapy. Methods: Consecutive patients with breast cancer were enrolled after breast-conserving surgery and before radiotherapy course. Acute skin toxicity was assessed weekly during the 7 weeks of radiotherapy with the International Classification from National Cancer Institute. Grade 2 defined acute skin toxicity. Patient characteristics and anthropometric measurements were collected. Results: 54 patients were enrolled in 2013. Eight patients (14.8%) had grade ≥2 toxicity. The average weight and chest size were 65.5 kg and 93.6 cm, respectively. Bra cup size is significantly associated with a risk of grade 2 dermatitis [odds ratio (OR) 3.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.29–11.92), p = 0.02]. Anthropometric breast fat mass measurements, such as thickness of left [OR 2.72, 95% CI (1.08–8.26), p = 0.04] and right [OR 2.45, 95% CI (0.99–7.27), p = 0.05] axillary fat, are correlated with an increased risk. Distance between the pectoral muscle and nipple is a reproducible measurement of breast size and is associated with acute skin toxicity with significant tendency (OR = 2.21, 95% CI (0.97–5.98), p = 0.07). Conclusion: Breast size and its different anthropometric measurements (thickness of left and right axillary fat, nipple-to-pectoral muscle distance) are correlated with the risk of skin toxicity. Advances in knowledge: The present article analyses several characteristics and anthropomorphic measurements of breast in order to assess breast size. A standardized and reproducible protocol to measure breast volume is described. PMID:26394280

  8. Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Mayhew, David; Paps, Judy S; Linder, Keith E; Peredo, Carlos; Rajpal, Deepak; Hofland, Hans; Cote-Sierra, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Determining inflammation and itch pathway activation in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is fraught with the inability to precisely assess the age of skin lesions, thus affecting the analysis of time-dependent mediators. To characterize inflammatory events occurring during early experimental acute AD lesions, biopsy samples were collected 6, 24, and 48 hours after epicutaneous application of Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites to sensitized atopic dogs. The skin transcriptome was assessed using a dog-specific microarray and quantitative PCR. Acute canine AD skin lesions had a significant up-regulation of genes encoding T helper (Th) 2 (e.g., IL4, IL5, IL13, IL31, and IL33), Th9 (IL9), and Th22 (IL22) cytokines as well as Th2-promoting chemokines such as CCL5 and CCL17. Proinflammatory (e.g., IL6, LTB, and IL18) cytokines were also up-regulated. Other known pruritogenic pathways were also activated: there was significant up-regulation of genes encoding proteases cathepsin S (CTSS), mast cell chymase (CMA1), tryptase (TPS1) and mastin, neuromedin-B (NMB), nerve growth factor (NGF), and leukotriene-synthesis enzymes (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, and LTA4H). Experimental acute canine house dust mite-induced AD lesions exhibit an activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and pruritogenic pathways similar to those seen in humans with acute AD, thereby validating this model to test innovative therapeutics modalities for this disease.

  9. Telavancin for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections, a Post Hoc Analysis of the Phase 3 ATLAS Trials in Light of the 2013 FDA Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Pushkin, Richard; Barriere, Steven L.; Corey, G. Ralph; Stryjewski, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Two phase 3 ATLAS trials demonstrated noninferiority of telavancin compared with vancomycin for complicated skin and skin structure infections. Data from these trials were retrospectively evaluated according to 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. This post hoc analysis included patients with lesion sizes of ≥75 cm2 and excluded patients with ulcers or burns (updated all-treated population; n = 1,127). Updated day 3 (early) clinical response was defined as a ≥20% reduction in lesion size from baseline and no rescue antibiotic. Updated test-of-cure (TOC) clinical response was defined as a ≥90% reduction in lesion size, no increase in lesion size since day 3, and no requirement for additional antibiotics or significant surgical procedures. Day 3 (early) clinical responses were achieved in 62.6% and 61.0% of patients receiving telavancin and vancomycin, respectively (difference, 1.7%, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of −4.0% to 7.4%). Updated TOC visit cure rates were similar for telavancin (68.0%) and vancomycin (63.3%), with a difference of 4.8% (95% CI, −0.7% to 10.3%). Adopting current FDA guidance, this analysis corroborates previous noninferiority findings of the ATLAS trials of telavancin compared with vancomycin. PMID:26248356

  10. Telavancin for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections, a Post Hoc Analysis of the Phase 3 ATLAS Trials in Light of the 2013 FDA Guidance.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, Richard; Barriere, Steven L; Wang, Whedy; Corey, G Ralph; Stryjewski, Martin E

    2015-10-01

    Two phase 3 ATLAS trials demonstrated noninferiority of telavancin compared with vancomycin for complicated skin and skin structure infections. Data from these trials were retrospectively evaluated according to 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. This post hoc analysis included patients with lesion sizes of ≥75 cm(2) and excluded patients with ulcers or burns (updated all-treated population; n = 1,127). Updated day 3 (early) clinical response was defined as a ≥20% reduction in lesion size from baseline and no rescue antibiotic. Updated test-of-cure (TOC) clinical response was defined as a ≥90% reduction in lesion size, no increase in lesion size since day 3, and no requirement for additional antibiotics or significant surgical procedures. Day 3 (early) clinical responses were achieved in 62.6% and 61.0% of patients receiving telavancin and vancomycin, respectively (difference, 1.7%, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of -4.0% to 7.4%). Updated TOC visit cure rates were similar for telavancin (68.0%) and vancomycin (63.3%), with a difference of 4.8% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.3%). Adopting current FDA guidance, this analysis corroborates previous noninferiority findings of the ATLAS trials of telavancin compared with vancomycin.

  11. Characterisation of leukocytes in a human skin blister model of acute inflammation and resolution.

    PubMed

    Jenner, William; Motwani, Madhur; Veighey, Kristin; Newson, Justine; Audzevich, Tatsiana; Nicolaou, Anna; Murphy, Sharon; Macallister, Raymond; Gilroy, Derek W

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need to understand the leukocytes and soluble mediators that drive acute inflammation and bring about its resolution in humans. We therefore carried out an extensive characterisation of the cantharidin skin blister model in healthy male volunteers. A novel fluorescence staining protocol was designed and implemented, which facilitated the identification of cell populations by flow cytometry. We observed that at the onset phase, 24 h after blister formation, the predominant cells were CD16hi/CD66b+ PMNs followed by HLA-DR+/CD14+ monocytes/macrophages, CD11c+ and CD141+ dendritic cells as well as Siglec-8+ eosinophils. CD3+ T cells, CD19+ B cells and CD56+ NK cells were also present, but in comparatively fewer numbers. During resolution, 72 h following blister induction, numbers of PMNs declined whilst the numbers of monocyte/macrophages remain unchanged, though they upregulated expression of CD16 and CD163. In contrast, the overall numbers of dendritic cells and Siglec-8+ eosinophils increased. Post hoc analysis of these data revealed that of the inflammatory cytokines measured, TNF-α but not IL-1β or IL-8 correlated with increased PMN numbers at the onset. Volunteers with the greatest PMN infiltration at onset displayed the fastest clearance rates for these cells at resolution. Collectively, these data provide insight into the cells that occupy acute resolving blister in humans, the soluble mediators that may control their influx as well as the phenotype of mononuclear phagocytes that predominate the resolution phase. Further use of this model will improve our understanding of the evolution and resolution of inflammation in humans, how defects in these over-lapping pathways may contribute to the variability in disease longevity/chronicity, and lends itself to the screen of putative anti-inflammatory or pro-resolution therapies.

  12. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H

    2013-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity.

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  14. Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Theberge, Valerie; Harel, Francois; Dagnault, Anne

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

  15. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  16. Safety evaluation of perfluoropolyethers, liquid polymers used in barrier creams and other skin-care products.

    PubMed

    Malinverno, G; Pantini, G; Bootman, J

    1996-07-01

    Fomblin HC products are a 'family' of high-purity perfluoropolyethers manufactured for barrier cream and other personal care applications which involve direct application to the skin. To confirm the safety of such use, representative Fomblin HC products were tested in experimental animals for acute toxicity, primary and repeated insult irritancy, sensitization and photosensitization, subacute oral toxicity and comedogenicity; mutagenicity was examined in vitro, and irritancy or sensitization was also investigated on human skin (in patch tests with volunteers). A high molecular weight Fomblin HC only was tested in rats for subacute oral toxicity and in man for dermal effects. Single oral doses of 15 g/kg body weight were without evident toxicity to rats, as were single dermal applications or an ip injection at 5 g/kg. No primary irritant action was seen in rabbits or man, and similarly there was no evidence of skin sensitization or photosensitization in guinea pigs, or sensitization in man. No mutagenic action on Salmonella strains of tester bacteria was seen. In repeat dose irritancy or oral toxicity tests in rabbits or rats, no adverse effects of Fomblin HC products were noted; in particular, daily oral administration (1000 mg/kg/day) to rats over 28 days produced no significant reaction. No comedogenic action was found. From the known chemistry of the perfluoropolyethers, the test programme reported here and the limited published data, it is concluded that the intended use of Fomblin HC products in formulations applied to human skin has a high margin of safety.

  17. Characterization of the canine skin barrier restoration following acute disruption by tape stripping.

    PubMed

    Vidémont, Emilie; Mariani, Claire; Vidal, Stéphanie; Pin, Didier

    2012-04-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) forms the main part of the permeability barrier of the skin. In mice and in humans, cutaneous barrier disruption can be generated by removing the SC with tape stripping (TS) and the skin barrier function can be assessed by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The aim of the present study was to characterize the skin barrier restoration in the dog following mechanical disruption and to analyse the correlation between the skin barrier recovery and TEWL measurement. Thirty sequential TS were performed on 12 sites on four healthy beagle dogs. The number of TS was chosen to ensure a sufficient barrier disruption with a slow recovery. Skin repair was assessed for 72 h by clinical and histological examinations, and TEWL measurements. The results showed that performing 30 TS was adequate to disrupt the skin barrier in the dog. The homeostatic repair response, initiated in the skin, was rapid and characterized by complete restoration of the SC within 72 h, accompanied by greater basal cell proliferation, and dermal eosinophilic inflammation. TEWL was significantly increased by complete removal of the SC but recovered along with restoration of the SC (Scheffe test, P ≤ 0.05). Characterization of a canine model of barrier disruption and restoration and assessment of the skin barrier function by TEWL measurements could help better understand the events implied in skin barrier function. Development of this canine model is also necessary for future studies on the effects of treatments aimed at restoring the skin barrier.

  18. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Six Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Four Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Two Petroleum JP-8 Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    to hydrocarbon (DSHC), is very different from the other fuels. Produced from fermentation of sugar by engineered microorganisms , this fuel is more...Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-5707 Phone : (937) 904-9569 Email: David.Mattie@wpafb.af.mil 2.2 WIL Study Director: Jonathan M. Hurley, BS Staff...Toxicologist and Head of Acute Toxicology Phone : (419) 289-8700 Fax: (419) 289-3650 E-mail: jon.hurley@wilresearch.com 19 Distribution A

  19. Isolation and characterization of irritant components of Euphorbia pilulifera L.

    PubMed

    Saeed-ul-Hassan, Syed; Khalil-ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Niaz, Uzma; Saeed, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Khalid; Rao, Saeed Ahmed; Ahmed, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia pilulifera is commonly found weed along road sides and loamy soils. This weed is commonly used as treatment of female disorders and respiratory problems. The latex of this weed causes irritation on hand on contact. To evaluate its irritant potentials, the dermatological investigation of irritant principles from locally occurring Euphorbia pilulifera was carried out. For this purpose, after collection and drying, a series of solvents with increasing polarity were used for the successive extraction of non-polar compounds (petroleum ether extract), constituents of intermediate polarities (chloroform extract) and polar constituents (methanol extract) from the whole herb of Euphorbia pilulifera. The chloroform extract of this weed was found most irritant to rabbit ' s skin. Chloroform extract was further subjected to column chromatography; four fractions Ep 1 to Ep 4 were isolated from active chloroform extract by column and thin layer chromatography. The irritant potentials of these isolated fractions were evaluated on rabbit 's skin. Two fractions out of the four, Ep 1 and Ep 3 appeared to be the most irritant than others. A possible structure activity relationship of these active compounds was discussed in order to establish their activity.

  20. The developmental psychopathology of irritability

    PubMed Central

    LEIBENLUFT, ELLEN; STODDARD, JOEL

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, severe irritability is common in childhood and is very impairing. Furthermore, childhood irritability predicts suicidality, social impairment, and depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood. Focusing on both normative and pathologic development, we review the construct of irritability from its origins in aggression and disruptive behavior research to its contemporary relevance for affective psychopathology. We then describe two broad neurocognitive systems that show promise in differentiating irritable from nonirritable youths: aberrant processing of emotional stimuli and impaired context-sensitive regulation. We suggest behavioral, neurocognitive, and physiologic measures that may aid in studying severe irritability and assessing its therapeutics. Finally, we argue for therapeutic trials targeting severe irritability that address emotional aspects of irritability in addition to the associated disruptive behavior. PMID:24342851

  1. The developmental psychopathology of irritability.

    PubMed

    Leibenluft, Ellen; Stoddard, Joel

    2013-11-01

    Chronic, severe irritability is common in childhood and is very impairing. Furthermore, childhood irritability predicts suicidality, social impairment, and depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood. Focusing on both normative and pathologic development, we review the construct of irritability from its origins in aggression and disruptive behavior research to its contemporary relevance for affective psychopathology. We then describe two broad neurocognitive systems that show promise in differentiating irritable from nonirritable youths: aberrant processing of emotional stimuli and impaired context-sensitive regulation. We suggest behavioral, neurocognitive, and physiologic measures that may aid in studying severe irritability and assessing its therapeutics. Finally, we argue for therapeutic trials targeting severe irritability that address emotional aspects of irritability in addition to the associated disruptive behavior.

  2. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Assessment of Acute Ionizing Radiation Induced Skin Toxicity Using a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lee; Korpela, Elina; Kim, Anthony; Yohan, Darren; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C.; Liu, Stanley K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute skin toxicities from ionizing radiation (IR) are a common side effect from therapeutic courses of external beam radiation therapy (RT) and negatively impact patient quality of life and long term survival. Advances in the understanding of the biological pathways associated with normal tissue toxicities have allowed for the development of interventional drugs, however, current response studies are limited by a lack of quantitative metrics for assessing the severity of skin reactions. Here we present a diffuse optical spectroscopic (DOS) approach that provides quantitative optical biomarkers of skin response to radiation. We describe the instrumentation design of the DOS system as well as the inversion algorithm for extracting the optical parameters. Finally, to demonstrate clinical utility, we present representative data from a pre-clinical mouse model of radiation induced erythema and compare the results with a commonly employed visual scoring. The described DOS method offers an objective, high through-put evaluation of skin toxicity via functional response that is translatable to the clinical setting. PMID:27284926

  3. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Travis M; Johnson, Steven W; DiMondi, V Paul; Wilson, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. PMID:27354817

  4. Skin protection in the prevention of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases comprise a wide spectrum of conditions. Under epidemiological aspects, occupational contact dermatitis that is usually manifested on the hands is the most frequent occupational skin disease with an estimated average incidence rate of 0.7-1.5 cases per 1,000 workers per year. Irritant dermatitis is due to individual susceptibility and the exposure to irritants such as wet work combined with detergents or other hydrophilic irritants or solvents at the workplace. Chronic irritant dermatitis is a risk factor for delayed-type sensitization and subsequently allergic contact dermatitis. It is therefore the prevention of chronic or cumulative irritant dermatitis that is the decisive factor in the prevention of occupational skin disease. Within prevention programs at the workplace, skin protection plays an important, but limited role. Others are technical and organizational means to avoid or reduce skin exposure to irritants and allergens. Educational measures to increase the awareness of workers for workplace hazards and to motivate them to use skin protection measures appropriately are just as important as the careful selection of skin protection materials.

  5. [Irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kocián, J

    1994-04-01

    Irritable bowel is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic or relapsing symptoms of abdominal pain and impaired frequency and consistency of the faeces caused by obscure structural or biochemical deviations. The frequency of the condition in civilized countries is estimated to amount to 15-20% of the population and it accounts for 25-50% of all patients in gastroenterological ambulatory departments. From the clinical aspect the type with dominant diarrhoea, typically in the morning and very compelling, and the type with pain and constipation are known but even combinations of the two types are encountered. A psychosomatic disorder of the motility of the large bowel and its tonus is involved associated with enhanced pain perception. Despite great efforts to find aetiopathogenetic factors, knowledge still is at the level of obscure theories. The diagnosis is still established per exclusion after all organic causes are ruled out, i.e. we always have to differentiate between an irritable bowel from an irritated one. In therapy the patient's confidence in his doctor is most important and it is essential to gain the patient's active cooperation. In case of diarrhoea a low-residue diet is used, calcium carbonate, codeine, loperamide, conversely in constipation adequate dietary fibre, intake metoclopramide or cisapride. Pain is relieved by spasmolytics or Ca channel blockers in the smooth musculature of the large bowel. The associated dysbiosis is transformed into eubiosis by Lactobacillus or other bacterial products.

  6. Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome Sequentially Complicated by Acute Kidney Injury and Painful Skin Ulcers due to Calciphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ryuta; Akimoto, Tetsu; Imai, Toshimi; Nakagawa, Saki; Okada, Mari; Miki, Atsushi; Takeda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is rare cutaneous manifestation associated with painful skin ulceration and necrosis. It primarily occurs in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. In this report, we would like to show our experience with a male patient presenting with minimal change nephrotic syndrome that was sequentially complicated by acute kidney injury and painful ulcerative cutaneous lesions due to calciphylaxis. There seemed to be several contributing factors, including a disturbance of the patient's mineral metabolism and the systemic use of glucocorticoids and warfarin. Various concerns regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic conundrums that were encountered in the present case are also discussed. PMID:27853075

  7. Clinical Response of Tedizolid versus Linezolid in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections by Severity Measure Using a Pooled Analysis From Two Phase 3 Double-Blind Trials.

    PubMed

    Sandison, Taylor; De Anda, Carisa; Fang, Edward; Das, Anita F; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2017-03-06

    Tedizolid phosphate is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). In a pooled analysis of 1,333 ABSSSI patients from the ESTABLISH clinical trials, treatment with tedizolid or linezolid demonstrated similar early and posttherapy clinical responses in both non-severe and severe disease, irrespective of the parameters used to measure ABSSSI severity. Shorter 6-day treatment of ABSSSI, including severe infections, with tedizolid phosphate demonstrated comparable efficacy to 10-day treatment with linezolid.

  8. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  9. Acute exacerbation of pain in irritable bowel syndrome: efficacy of phloroglucinol/trimethylphloroglucinol. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Chassany, Olivier; Bonaz, B.; Bruley Des Varannes, S.; Bueno, L.; Cargill, Guillaume; Coffin, Benoit; Ducrotte, Philippe; Grange, V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Abdominal pain is the predominant symptom in IBS patients. Phloroglucinol (P) and its methylated derivative (TMP) are antispasmodic agents acting on smooth muscle. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of P/TMP on pain intensity during an acute exacerbation of pain of IBS over a one-week period treatment. Methods IBS Rome II patients seeking medical advice for an acute exacerbation of abdominal pain were randomised to P/TMP (62.2mg P + 80mg TMP) 2 pills tid or placebo for 7 days. Patients were included if they had a pain with a minimal intensity of 40 on a 100 mm visual analog scale, and if pain occurred at least 2 days during the week previous inclusion. Results 307 patients were included by 78 GPs. The intent to treat population included 300 patients, aged of 46.9±14.8 years (73% female). The relative decrease of pain intensity at day 7 was 57.8±31.7% vs. 46.3±34.7% (Δ=11.5±3.8%, [CI95%: 4.0; 19.1], p=0.0029) and the percentage of patients with at least a 50% decrease of pain intensity was 62.3% vs. 47.0% (Δ=15.3±5.7%, [CI95%: 4.1; 26.5], p=0.0078) in P/TMP and placebo groups respectively. Conclusions A one-week P/TMP treatment significantly reduces pain intensity in IBS patients consulting their GPs for pain exacerbation. PMID:17439513

  10. Skin discolouration with acute onset parkinsonism secondary to systemic zirconium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa J; Yoon, Su J; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Young H; Jung, Jin M; Park, Moon-Ho; Rhyu, Im J; Kwon, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with suspected parkinsonism and discolouration of the skin especially on sun-exposed areas. Thorough investigation revealed systemic zirconium intoxication due to intake of metallic colloids as a home remedy as a cause of the skin colour change. There may be an association between skin discolouration and her parkinsonism. This is unique in that various clinical manifestations developed following systemic ingestion of zirconium and this should serve as a warning on the risk of taking illicit dietary supplements.

  11. Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Rampino, Monica; Ostellino, Oliviero; Schena, Marina; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Garzino Demo, Paolo; Fasolis, Massimo; Arcadipane, Francesca; Martini, Stefania; Cavallin, Chiara; Airoldi, Mario; Ricardi, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. A consecutive series of 50 head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant radio-chemotherapy with weekly cisplatin was analyzed. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil was started in case of G2 acute skin toxicity according to the RTOG/EORTC scoring scale and continued during the whole treatment course and thereafter until complete recovery. The maximum detected acute skin toxicity included Grade 2 events in 62% of cases and G3 in 32% during treatment and G2 and G3 scores in 52 and 8%, respectively, at the end of chemo-radiation. Grade 2 toxicity was mainly observed during weeks 4-5, while G3 during weeks 5-6. Median times spent with G2 or G3 toxicity were 23.5 and 14 days. Patients with G3 toxicity were reconverted to a G2 profile in 80% of cases, while those with a G2 score had a decrease to G1 in 58% of cases. Time between maximum acute skin toxicity and complete skin recovery was 30 days. Mean worst pain score evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale-11 was 6.9 during treatment and 4.5 at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil proved to be a safe and effective option in the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients submitted to chemo-radiation with weekly cisplatin. Further studies with a control group and patient-reported outcomes are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  13. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  14. Common industrial processes and occupational irritants and allergens--an update.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L

    1994-09-01

    This paper reviews the recent development of the industrial processes in the construction, electronics and metal industries which are the predominant industries in developing countries. Common occupational irritants and allergens are presented. The information is essential for occupational dermatologists and physicians managing patients with occupational skin diseases. In the construction industry, the prefabrication construction methods are now widely used. The commonest irritant is cement and the allergens are chromate, rubber chemicals and epoxy resins. In the electronics industry, the commonest irritants include soldering flux, solvent and fibreglass, and allergens include resins and metals, rubber chemicals and amines and colophony. Cutting fluid is the commonest occupational irritant in the metal industry. Biocides and metals in The electro-discharge machining process now widely used in the metal industry for precision engineering uses the electrodischarge machining fluids (EDM fluids) which are a strong skin irritant. Preventive measures including health education are most effective against occupational dermatitis.

  15. A multicentre study of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in China: susceptibility to ceftaroline and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Zhao, Ying; Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to ceftaroline of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates causing acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in China and to examine their relationship by genotyping. A total of 251 HA-MRSA isolates causing ABSSSIs were collected from a multicentre study involving 56 hospitals in 38 large cities across 26 provinces in mainland China. All isolates were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined by broth microdilution and were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. The ceftaroline MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs that inhibit 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively) were 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively; 33.5% (n=84) of the isolates studied were ceftaroline-non-susceptible, with MICs of 2 μg/mL, but no isolate exhibited ceftaroline resistance (MIC>2 μg/mL). All of the ceftaroline-non-susceptible isolates belonged to the predominant HA-MRSA clones: 95.2% (n=80) from MLST clonal complex 8 (CC8), with the remaining 4.8% (n=4) from CC5. The high rate of non-susceptibility to ceftaroline amongst HA-MRSA causing ABSSSIs in China is concerning.

  16. Examination of hospital length of stay in Canada among patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Potashman, Michele H; Stokes, Michael; Liu, Jieruo; Lawrence, Robin; Harris, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Skin infections, particularly those caused by resistant pathogens, represent a clinical burden. Hospitalization associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major contributor to the economic burden of the disease. This study was conducted to provide current, real-world data on hospitalization patterns for patients with ABSSSI caused by MRSA across multiple geographic regions in Canada. Patients and methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients with ABSSSI due to MRSA diagnosis across four Canadian geographic regions using the Discharge Abstract Database. Patients with ICD-10-CA diagnosis consistent with ABSSSI caused by MRSA between January 2008 and December 2014 were selected and assigned a primary or secondary diagnosis based on a prespecified ICD-10-CA code algorithm. Results Among 6,719 patients, 3,273 (48.7%) and 3,446 (51.3%) had a primary and secondary diagnosis, respectively. Among patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis, the cellulitis/erysipelas subtype was most common. The majority of patients presented with 0 or 1 comorbid condition; the most common comorbidity was diabetes. The mean LOS over the study period varied by geographic region and year; in 2014 (the most recent year analyzed), LOS ranged from 7.7 days in Ontario to 13.4 days in the Canadian Prairie for a primary diagnosis and from 18.2 days in Ontario to 25.2 days in Atlantic Canada for a secondary diagnosis. A secondary diagnosis was associated with higher rates of continuing care compared with a primary diagnosis (10.6%–24.2% vs 4.6%–12.1%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the mean LOS associated with ABSSSI due to MRSA in Canada was minimally 7 days. Clinical management strategies, including medication management, which might facilitate hospital discharge, have the potential to reduce hospital LOS and related economic

  17. Acute Dermal Irritation Study In New Zealand White Rabbits: Four Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Alternative Jet Fuels Compared With Petroleum-Derived JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-19

    fuel exposures resulted in very slight to slight remaining erythema and/or edema through study day 14. Normal handling of these ATJ SPK fuels by...findings during the study consisted of very slight to moderate erythema, as well as very slight to moderate edema . All fuel exposures resulted in very...slight to slight remaining erythema and/or edema through study day 14. A score of moderately irritating, as evaluated by the Primary Dermal Irritation

  18. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  19. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  20. Sensitive skin: mechanisms and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Primavera, G; Berardesca, E

    2005-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyperreactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sunscreens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response. They include many ingredients of cosmetics such as: dimethyl sulfoxide, benzoyl peroxide preparations, salicylic acid, propylene glycol, amyldimethylaminobenzoic acid and 2-ethoxyethyl methoxycinnamate. Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. The aim of this paper is to summarize the relevant literature in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sensitive skin and the best testing methodologies for investigation of sensitive skin.

  1. Development of a cumulative irritation model for incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Larner, J; Matar, H; Goldman, V S; Chilcott, R P

    2015-01-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a painful yet preventable form of cumulative skin irritation prevalent amongst those with limited movement. Consequently, it has a significant impact on the quality of life for those affected as well as substantial cost implications. Prevention and intervention is typically through good skin hygiene regimes and regular use of barrier products. In this paper, we describe the development of an in vivo model of IAD in healthy volunteers by occluded application of alkaline synthetic urine to the volar aspect of volunteer's forearms for 6 h per day over a five-day period to reproduce the moist and irritant conditions causative of IAD. Irritation was assessed and quantified on a daily basis by a series of non-invasive biophysical measurements and compared to a contralateral saline-treated (control) site. Dermal irritation was assessed by subjective (visual) and objective measurements (laser Doppler and polarisation spectroscopic imaging, infrared thermography, skin reflectance spectroscopy, transepidermal water loss and skin surface pH). The provocation of reproducible, cumulative skin irritation was successfully demonstrated and quantified. This five-day model of irritation is considered appropriate for the initial clinical assessment of topical products to prevent or treat IAD.

  2. [Irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Truninger, K

    2007-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequent functional gastrointestinal disorders. The main symptoms are abdominal pain associated with a change in bowel habit. Headache and psychiatric disorders such as mood or anxiety disorders are often associated with IBS. Genetic predisposition, sensomotoric dysfunction, altered enteric inflammation and immune activation and disturbance of the brain-gut interaction are the most important pathogenetic factors. The diagnosis requires the new symptom-based Rome-III-criteria. Diagnostic testing primarily depends on the patients complaints, clinical and laboratory features and is then guided by the patient's age, symptom's severity and duration, alarm symptoms, psychosocial factors, and the family history for tumors. Treatment of IBS is based on an individualized evaluation and depends on disease severity, predominant symptoms and associated disorders. Treatment options include lifestyle modifications, drug therapy aimed at predominant symptoms and various forms of psychological treatments.

  3. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Reporters Calendar of Events Follow Us Home Health Information Digestive Diseases Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Related Topics Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Definition & ...

  4. TLD skin dose measurements and acute and late effects after lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Francisco . E-mail: francisco.perera@lrcc.on.ca; Chisela, Frank; Stitt, Larry; Engel, Jay; Venkatesan, Varagur

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: This report examines the relationships between measured skin doses and the acute and late skin and soft tissue changes in a pilot study of lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven of 39 women enrolled in this pilot study of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (37.2 Gy in 10 fractions b.i.d.) each had thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) at 5 points on the skin of the breast overlying the implant volume. Skin changes at TLD dose points and fibrosis at the lumpectomy site were documented every 6 to 12 months posttreatment using a standardized physician-rated cosmesis questionnaire. The relationships between TLD dose and acute skin reaction, pigmentation, or telangiectasia at 5 years were analyzed using the GEE algorithm and the GENMOD procedure in the SAS statistical package. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there were any significant associations between acute skin reaction and late pigmentation or telangiectasia or between the volumes encompassed by various isodoses and fibrosis or fat necrosis. Results: The median TLD dose per fraction (185 dose points) multiplied by 10 was 9.2 Gy. In all 37 patients, acute skin reaction Grade 1 or higher was observed at 5.9% (6 of 102) of dose points receiving 10 Gy or less vs. 44.6% (37 of 83) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.0001). In 25 patients at 60 months, 1.5% telangiectasia was seen at dose points receiving 10 Gy or less (1 of 69) vs. 18% (10 of 56) telangiectasia at dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p 0.004). Grade 1 or more pigmentation developed at 1.5% (1 of 69) of dose points receiving less than 10 Gy vs. 25% (14 of 56) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.001). A Grade 1 or more acute skin reaction was also significantly associated with development of Grade 1 or more pigmentation or telangiectasia at 60 months. This association was most significant for acute reaction and telangiectasia directly over the

  5. Acute leukemia after radiotherapy in a patient with Turcot's syndrome. Impaired colony formation in skin fibroblast cultures after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.P.; Little, J.B.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; Paterson, M.C.; Arlett, C.; Garnick, M.B.; Mayer, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    Colonic polyposis and carcinoma developed in a woman with Turcot's syndrome at the age of 31 years; astrocytoma developed when she was 37. Her brother and sister had died of astrocytoma at the ages of 18 and 33 years, respectively. Progressive neutropenia developed in the patient three months after radiotherapy for her brain tumor and acute myelomonocytic leukemia 19 months after treatment. Three laboratories independently evaluated cultures of her skin fibroblasts for in vitro sensitivity to cell killing (loss of colony-forming ability) by x-rays. Survival assays consistently revealed slight but significant radiosensitivity in an early-passage (six to 10 doublings) fibroblast subculture. A later subculture (21 to 29 doublings) showed no abnormality, a possible effect of selective in vitro loss of radiosensitive cells.

  6. Expression of growth factor and receptor mRNAs in skin epithelial cells following acute cutaneous injury.

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, H. N.; Galanopoulos, T.; Neville-Golden, J.; Kiritsy, C. P.; Lynch, S. E.

    1993-01-01

    We report that acute injury induces the expression of selective growth factor and growth factor receptors in the epithelial cells of the wounded tissue. In situ hybridization analysis of skin biopsy specimens obtained after cutaneous injury in swine demonstrated the induction of the expression of transforming growth factor-alpha, its receptor, epidermal growth factor-R, acidic fibroblast growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor messenger RNAs in the skin epithelial cells of the wounded tissue. There was no significant expression in the epithelial cells of control, uninjured tissues. The expression levels were maximal during the period of active tissue repair (1 to 5 days after injury) and were totally suppressed upon the healing of the wounded tissues. In contrast, insulinlike growth factor-I, (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor, and IGF-II receptor messenger RNAs were expressed in the epithelial cells of both the control, uninjured tissues and in tissue specimens obtained after injury. There was no significant expression of IGF-II messenger RNA in the epithelial cells before or after injury. It seems that injury induces the coordinated expression of selective growth factor and growth factor receptor genes whose products contribute to the regulation of the complex processes involved in tissue repair and remodeling. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8386442

  7. The Role of the Skin Barrier in Occupational Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Bosco, Joanna; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) are the second most common occupational diseases worldwide. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is the most frequent OSD, and comprises irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. There are many endogenous and exogenous factors which affect the development of OCD, including age, sex, ethnicity, atopic skin diathesis, certain occupations and environmental factors. One of the most important contributing causes is skin barrier dysfunction. The skin provides a first-line defense from environmental assaults and incorporates physical, chemical and biological protection. Skin barrier disturbance plays a crucial role in various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), ichthyosis, ICD and ACD. Genetic factors, such as filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, and external factors, such as skin irritants interfering with stratum corneum structure and composition, may lead to abnormalities in skin barrier function and increased vulnerability to skin diseases. FLG encodes the cornified envelope protein, filaggrin, which is involved in skin barrier function. FLG mutation is associated with the development of OCD. High-risk occupations for OCD include health care workers, hairdressers and construction workers. There are often multiple contributing causes to OCD, as workers are exposed to both irritants and allergens. AD is also associated with skin barrier disruption and plays an important role in OCD. ICD often precedes and facilitates the development of ACD, with impairment of the skin barrier contributing to the concurrence of ICD and ACD in many workers with OCD.

  8. CAMP-reaction among skin isolates obtained from a dog with an acute squamous eczema.

    PubMed

    Brückler, J; Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1990-12-01

    The primary culture of a clinical specimen obtained from a dog with an acute squamous eczema revealed 3 different bacterial cultures. Two of these cultures, a beta-hemolytic Staphylococcus aureus and a group B streptococcal culture, demonstrated synergistic hemolytic activities on this primary culture plate. The group B streptococcus had the serotype surface antigens Ib/c, protein antigen c in its c beta component.

  9. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry. A comparative assessment of the impact of surfactants on stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Haubrechts, Christelle; Léger, Didier Saint; Piérard, Gérald E

    2006-05-01

    Silicon image sensor (SIS) technology was recently introduced as an innovative tool (SkinChip, L'Oréal) providing sensitive imaging of the skin capacitance. This method can detect discrete focal variations in skin surface hydration, and thus early discrete manifestations of skin irritation induced by surfactants. In the present in vivo study, 2 neat and diluted shampoos, and 5% and 10% sodium laurylsulfate solutions were tested on human skin. Each surfactant solution was gently rubbed on the skin using wet hair wicks mimicking the casual use of a shampoo on the scalp. Clinical and SIS evaluations were carried out. In addition, the same products were tested using the ex vivo corneosurfametry bioassay performed on human stratum corneum (SC) harvested by cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings. The colourimetric index of mildness (CIM) was measured on these samples. The product reactivity with the SC was recognized by darker skin capacitance images, and by both lowered SkinChip-generated values and lowered CIM values. The extent in changes varied according to the nature of the test products and their concentrations. The SkinChip image changes likely corresponded to the acute surfactant-induced water swelling of the corneocytes. Skin capacitance imaging and corneosurfametry allow to disclose discrete surfactant-induced alterations of corneocytes.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Robin C

    2004-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common 'functional' gastrointestinal disorders accounting for 3% of all primary care consultations, with a strong female predominance. Although most of the literature comes from Western industrialized societies, when it has been looked for, this disorder appears to be equally common in the Third World. It is characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disordered bowel habit and visceral hypersensitivity. Anxiety and somatization are more common in IBS than in the general population and may encourage consultation; however, they correlate poorly with symptoms. Bacterial gastroenteritis may be followed by the development of IBS in 5-10% of patients, depending on the severity of initial illness and prior anxiety or depression. The Rome criteria allow reliable diagnosis provided that there are no 'alarm' features which mandate further investigation. Microscopic colitis and bile salt malabsorption can easily be mistaken for IBS, as can chronic infestations or infections which should be considered, while recognizing that these are extremely uncommon in westernized societies. Some patients respond to exclusion diets as lactose and wheat intolerance are common. Others with prominent anxiety and/or depression respond to psychotherapy or antidepressants. Diarrhoeal symptoms respond to loperamide and 5HT3 receptor antagonists, while constipation responds to 5HT4 agonists. Antispasmodics may have limited benefit in treating pain. Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants are also helpful in alleviating pain and anxiety, even in those without obvious psychiatric disorders. If diagnostic criteria are met, then once diagnosed, new diagnoses rarely appear.

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Aziz, Qasim; Barbara, Giovanni; Farmer, Adam D.; Fukudo, Shin; Mayer, Emeran A.; Niesler, Beate; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Schemann, Michael; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Simren, Magnus; Zipfel, Stephan; Spiller, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy. Although the underlying pathogenesis is far from understood, aetiological factors include increased epithelial hyperpermeability, dysbiosis, inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, epigenetics and genetics, and altered brain–gut interactions. IBS considerably affects quality of life and imposes a profound burden on patients, physicians and the health-care system. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of functional bowel disorders such as IBS that will be summarized in this Primer. PMID:27159638

  12. Dermal irritation of petrolatum in rabbits but not in mice, rats or minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S A; Peterson, R A; Melich, D; Merrill, C M; Bailey, D; Mellon-Kusibab, K; Adler, R

    2014-08-01

    Petrolatum is widely used in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and also as a vehicle in dermal toxicity studies. New Zealand white rabbits treated with white petrolatum (vehicle control) in a 2-week dermal irritation study exhibited moderate to severe erythema starting on Day 7 that subsided towards the end of the study. Histological examination of abraded and non-abraded petrolatum-treated skin obtained at termination (Day 15) revealed mild acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, dermal edema with mixed inflammatory cells in the dermis. Macroscopic and microscopic features noted in rabbits were consistent with dermal irritation to petrolatum. Wistar-Han rats, CD1 mice, C57/Bl/6J mice and Göttingen minipigs treated topically with white petrolatum did not exhibit clinical or histologic evidence of dermal irritation. Therapeutic agents developed for topical application are generally tested in rabbits during some point in development. Interpretation of skin irritation data from a single species can impact risk assessment for humans and on product labeling.

  13. Phenotypic characterization in situ of inflammatory cells in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L

    1984-01-01

    The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938

  14. A Complicated Course of Acute Viral Induced Pharyngitis, Icteric Hepatitis, Acalculous Cholecystitis, and Skin Rash

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Seddigheh Sadat

    2016-01-01

    This case reveals the complexities and challenges in the diagnosis of acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, indicating the potential relationship between EBV infection and severe icteric hepatitis, acalculous cholecystitis, and lymphocytic vasculitis. We suggest including EBV infectious mononucleosis in the list of differential diagnoses when any of these clinical syndromes (or a combination thereof) occurs without apparent cause, especially in the presence of lymphocytosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest the possible role of EBV in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lymphocytic vasculitis. Also it is possible that EBV infection triggered the flare-up of the underlying rheumatologic disease. Therefore, it could be assumed that a part of the clinical syndrome (e.g., dermatologic manifestations) might be related to the flare-up of the underlying rheumatologic disease. PMID:27847520

  15. Association of MHC region SNPs with irritant susceptibility in healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Barmada, M. Michael; Johnson, Victor J.; Kashon, Michael L.; Baron, Elma; Wilson, Nevin W.; Frye, Bonnie; Wang, Wei; Fluharty, Kara; Gharib, Rola; Meade, Jean; Germolec, Dori; Luster, Michael I.; Nedorost, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common work-related skin disease, especially affecting workers in “wet-work” occupations. This study was conducted to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and skin irritant response in a group of healthcare workers. 585 volunteer healthcare workers were genotyped for MHC SNPs and patch tested with three different irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). Genotyping was performed using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels. A number of SNPs within the MHC Class I (OR2B3, TRIM31, TRIM10, TRIM40 and IER3), Class II (HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1) and Class III (C2) genes were associated (p <0.001) with skin response to tested irritants in different genetic models. Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations identified two SNPs in the TRIM40 (rs1573298) and HLA-DPB1 (rs9277554) genes, with a potential impact on gene regulation. In addition, SNPs in PSMB9 (rs10046277 and ITPR3 (rs499384) were associated with hand dermatitis. The results are of interest as they demonstrate that genetic variations in inflammation-related genes within the MHC can influence chemical-induced skin irritation and may explain the connection between inflamed skin and propensity to subsequent allergic contact sensitization. PMID:27258892

  16. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  17. Skin intervention of fullerene-integrated nanoemulsion in structural and collagen regeneration against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Tripathy, Minaketan; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2015-04-05

    Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (P<0.05) from 36.53±4.39 to 48.69±5.46 with 33.29% increment at the end of the treatment. Biophysical characteristics of skin revealed that skin hydration was increased significantly (P<0.05) from 40.91±7.01 to 58.55±6.08 corneometric units (43.12% increment) and the water was able to contain within the stratum corneum without any increased in transepidermal water loss. In the in vitro safety evaluation, fullerene nanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit.

  18. Rat acute GvHD is Th1-driven and characterized by predominant donor CD4(+) T cell infiltration of skin and gut.

    PubMed

    Boieri, Margherita; Shah, Pranali; Jalapothu, Dasaradha; Zaitseva, Olena; Walter, Lutz; Rolstad, Bent; Naper, Christian; Dressel, Ralf; Inngjerdingen, Marit

    2017-02-23

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a significant hurdle to successful treatment of many hematological disorders. The disease is caused by infiltration of allo-activated donor T cells primarily into the gastrointestinal tract and skin. While cytotoxic T cells mediate direct cellular damage, T helper (Th) cells differentially secrete immunoregulatory cytokines. Acute GvHD is thought to be primarily initiated by Th1 cells but a consensus is still lacking regarding the role of Th2 and Th17 cells. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of distinct T cell subsets to aGvHD in the rat. Acute GvHD was induced by transplanting irradiated rats with T-cell depleted MHC-mismatched bone marrow, followed two weeks later by donor lymphocyte infusion. Near complete donor T cell chimerism was achieved in the blood and lymphatic tissues, in contrast to mixed chimerism in the skin and gut. Skin and gut donor T cells were predominantly CD4(+), in contrast to T cells in blood and lymphatic tissues. Genes associated with Th1 cells were up-regulated in gut, liver, lung, and skin tissues affected by aGvHD. Increased serum levels of CXCL10 and IL-18 preceded symptoms of aGvHD, accompanied by increased responsiveness to CXCL10 by blood CD4(+) T cells. No changes in expression of Th2- or Th17-associated genes were observed, indicating that aGvHD in this rat model is mainly Th1-driven. The rat model of aGvHD could be instrumental for further investigations of donor T cell subsets in the skin and gut, and for exploring therapeutic options to ameliorate symptoms of aGvHD.

  19. Acute skin toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy or EGFR inhibitors: Literature review and consensus.

    PubMed

    Russi, Elvio G; Moretto, Francesco; Rampino, Monica; Benasso, Marco; Bacigalupo, Almalina; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Numico, Gianmauro; Bossi, Paolo; Buglione, Michela; Lombardo, Antonino; Airoldi, Mario; Merlano, Marco C; Licitra, Lisa; Denaro, Nerina; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine; Bensadoun, Renè-Jean; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2015-10-01

    The adverse effects of radiation therapy, often integrated with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies, on the skin include severe acute and chronic dermatitis associated with pain, discomfort, itching, and burning, and may heavily affect patients' quality of life. The management of these skin adverse effects in head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) are very heterogeneous due to the lack of shared rigorous classification systems and evidence based treatments. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of dermatitis in HNCPs treated with radiotherapy with or without systemic therapies in order to improve skin toxicity management. The Delphi Appropriateness Method was used. External expert reviewers then evaluated the conclusions carefully according to their area of expertise. This paper offers contains seven clusters of statements about the management of dermatitis in HNCPs and a review of recent literature on these topics.

  20. Quetiapine reduces irritability and risk of suicide in patients with agitated depression.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2013-07-20

    Patients who suffer from agitated depression accompanied by psychomotor agitation and irritability are prone to suicidal ideation and attempts and must therefore be diagnosed and treated with utmost care. Clinically, there have been more than a few cases of suicidal attempts that seemed to have been provoked by careless prescription of antidepressant medication. In the present study, administration of quetiapine to 3 patients in the acute phase of agitated depression resulted in rapid improvement in irritability and alleviation of depression. Depression in these 3 patients was caused by chronic (persistent) anxiety and tension. During the acute phase, the patients evidenced psychomotor agitation and irritability, often experiencing a sudden, overwhelming urge to commit suicide. Findings from the present study suggest that treatment with quetiapine in patients with this type of agitated depression can quickly alleviate symptoms of anxiety and irritability and reduce the risk of suicide.

  1. Comparison of acute skin reaction following morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer who have undergone curative surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hyojung; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Seol, Seung Won; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between the time of radiotherapy (RT) and treatment outcomes in breast cancer. Patients with pathologic T1-2N0-1 breast cancer who received adjuvant RT in the morning (before 10:00 AM) or late afternoon (after 3:00 PM) were eligible for inclusion in this study. We retrospectively compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, acute skin reaction, and survival outcomes according to the time of RT. The median follow-up duration was 83 months (range, 10-131 months). From the 395 eligible patients, 190 (48.1%) and 205 (51.9%) patients were classified into the morning RT group and the afternoon RT group, respectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics were relatively well balanced between the treatment groups, except for pathologic N-stage (P = 0.0409). Grade 2 or higher acute skin reaction according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria was observed in 39 (9.9%) patients, with a higher frequency in the afternoon RT group than the morning RT group (13.7% vs 5.8%, respectively; P = 0.0088). There was no difference in the failure patterns or survival outcomes between the treatment groups. RT in late afternoon was associated with increased Grade 2 or more skin reaction after RT for breast cancer patients, but treatment outcomes did not differ according to the time of RT. Individualized considerations for treatment should be taken into account to reduce the risk of skin reactions.

  2. Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis.

  3. Assessment of dermal safety of Scutellaria baicalensis aqueous extract topical application on skin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Song, In-Bae; Lee, Hong-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Ham, Seoung-Ho; Cho, Jung-Hee; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2013-07-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for bronchitis, hepatitis, and allergic diseases. The root of Scutellaria baicalensis contains active flavonoid components, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and wogonin, which have pharmaceutical properties. In the present study, the antiallergic properties of a standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis were evaluated, and the skin toxicity of its dermal application was also determined. The in vivo and in vitro assays were performed by using the β-hexosaminidase assay in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) and cutaneous skin reaction in BALB/c mice, respectively. In addition, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test was carried out in New Zealand white rabbits, and the skin sensitization test was conducted by Buhler's method in Hartley guinea pigs to estimate the safety of the standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis for topical application. β-Hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 was markedly decreased following treatment with the standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis. It also ameliorated antigen-induced ear swelling compared with the control group in BALB/c mice. In the toxicological studies, it did not induce any dermal irritation/corrosion in rabbits or skin sensitization in guinea pigs. Although still limited, these results concerning the toxicological effects of S. baicalensis could be an initial step toward the topical application of S. baicalensis extracts on hypersensitive skin.

  4. Human Health Hazard Assessment of FT Jet Fuel and Sensory Irritation Study in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-08

    developed to replace or augment petroleum-derived JP-8 jet fuel for military use by the U.S. armed forces. The FT toxicity testing program results are...following studies: dermal irritation test (FT vs. JP-8 vs. 50/50 blend), in vitro genotoxicity tests , acute inhalation study, short-term inhalation...rangefinder study, in vivo genotoxicity test in tandem with the short-term study, 90-day inhalation toxicity study and sensory irritation assay. The

  5. The skin compatibility of distilled tall oils: evaluation with the bovine udder skin in vitro model system.

    PubMed

    Pittermann, Wolfgang; Hopfgarten, Fredrik; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2009-02-01

    Distilled tall oil (DTO) is a natural product, often added as an emulsifying ingredient in cutting fluids used as lubricants and coolants in metal working. The in vitro model used to test the skin compatibility of these substances, was the isolated perfused ex vivo bovine udder skin (BUS) model. After three exposure periods (0.5, 1, and 5 hours), cytotoxic effects were determined by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and tissue levels of the pre-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in treated whole skin biopsies were assessed by using an enzyme immunoassay. The BUS standard study design, involving a single application, was previously developed to investigate the skin irritation potential of cosmetics and chemicals. In the current study, four different batches of undiluted DTO, and tall oil fatty acids as a reference compound, were applied both singly and repeatedly (three times), under open conditions which were in line with the potential usage conditions in the work place. Under the standardised single application conditions, no major differences in cytotoxic effects or PGE2 levels between the samples were apparent, so no indication of a skin irritation potential could be concluded. This result is in accordance with prior in vivo studies for acute dermal toxicity. Under repeated application conditions, signs of cytotoxicity were observed after the application of one of the DTO samples, which was known to be derived from different raw materials. Therefore, it was concluded that, generally, the presence of DTO at a concentration of up to 10% in cutting fluids, is not expected to result in any DTO-related deterioration of the skin.

  6. Effects of olive leaf extract and its main component oleuroepin on acute ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin changes in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves have long been used in folk medicine and herbal tea in Europe and the Mediterranean area. The Mediterranean climate is characterized by high temperatures, and by strong ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causing the skin to age, increasing wrinkling, pigmentation and skin thickness. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an olive leaf extract and its component oleuropein on skin damage caused by acute UVB irradiation in C57BL/6J mice. The extract (300 or 1000 mg/kg) and oleuropein (25 or 85 mg/kg) were administered orally twice daily for 14 days. UVB was administered daily at a dose of 120 mJ/cm(2) for the first 5 days and then every other day for 9 days. Both treatments inhibited the increases in skin thickness induced by radiation. They also inhibited increases in the Ki-67- and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-positive cell numbers, melanin granule area and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression. These preventive effects on UVB-induced skin damage might be caused in part by inhibiting the degradation of extracellular matrixes in the corium, and by the proliferation of epidermal cells through the inhibition of increases in MMP-13 levels and reactive oxygen species induced by irradiation.

  7. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Sharan, Krishna; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  8. Unexpected skin barrier influence from nonionic emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Bárány, E; Lindberg, M; Lodén, M

    2000-02-15

    Skin disorders are often treated with creams containing various active substances. The creams also contain emulsifiers, which are surface-active ingredients used to stabilize the emulsion. Emulsifiers are potential irritants and in the present study the influence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, PEG-2, -9, -40, and -100 stearate, steareth-2, -10 and -21 on normal as well as on irritated skin have been evaluated with non-invasive measurements. Test emulsions were created by incorporating 5% emulsifiers in a water/mineral oil mixture (50:50). The emulsions and their vehicle were then applied to normal skin for 48 h and to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) damaged skin for 17 h in aluminum chambers. Twenty-four hours after removal of the chambers the test sites were evaluated for degree of irritation. In normal skin, the emulsifiers induced significant differences in TEWL but not in skin blood flow. Five of the emulsifiers increased TEWL. In SLS-damaged skin an aggravation of the irritation was expected. However, no differences regarding skin blood flow was noted from the emulsifiers. Furthermore, three emulsifiers unexpectedly decreased TEWL. These results highlight the possibility of absorption of these emulsifiers into the lipid bilayer, which increase TEWL in normal skin and decrease TEWL in damaged skin.

  9. Prevention of incontinence-related skin breakdown for acute and critical care patients: comparison of two products.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Mary; Droegemueller, Carol; Rivers, Sonja; Deuser, William E

    2012-01-01

    Perineal protection products were compared for their efficacy in preventing skin breakdown in the hospitalized patient with urinary and/or fecal incontinence. Each product was used for the duration of the hospital stay with daily observations for perineal skin condition. Results indicated the spray product and wipe product were comparable in rate of skin breakdown prevention. Findings suggest the wipe product is more cost-effective for use during hospitalization, and the spray product preserves skin integrity over a longer period of time, beyond average hospitalization duration.

  10. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles.

    PubMed

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described.

  11. IRRITABILITY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Joel; Stringaris, Argyris; Brotman, Melissa A; Montville, Daniel; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Background Our objective was to compare self- and parent-reported irritability in youths with anxiety disorders, healthy youths, and those with mood disorders characterized by irritability. Irritability is a common but relatively understudied psychiatric symptom in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. In anxious youths, little is known about the severity of irritability, its impact on functioning, or the effect of informant source on reports of irritability. Methods We compared parent- and self-report forms of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI), a validated measure of irritability, in youths ages 8–17 years with no psychopathology (healthy comparison, HC; n = 38), anxiety disorders (ANX; n = 42), bipolar disorder (BD; n = 35), or severe mood dysregulation (SMD; n = 61; a phenotype characterized by chronic, severely impairing irritability). Results Irritability was significantly higher in ANX than HC youths by both parent and self-report (partial η2 = 0.24 and 0.22, respectively, P’s < 0.001). Informant effects differed among ANX, BD, and SMD. Overall, parent-reported irritability was higher in BD with comorbid anxiety disorders and SMD with or without comorbid anxiety disorders than ANX (P’s < 0.007), but self-reported irritability was not significantly different among the three patient groups. Discussion By both parent and self-report, youths with anxiety disorders exhibit significantly more irritability and associated impairment than healthy subjects. Self-reported irritability in youths with anxiety disorders is comparable to that observed in youths with severe mood disorders, although parental reports of irritability differ among the disorders. Future research should examine the pathophysiology of anxiety-associated irritability, as well as its prognostic and treatment implications. PMID:23818321

  12. A Case of Disseminated Infection with Skin Manifestation Due to Non-neoformans and Non-gattii Cryptococcus in a Patient with Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Seob; Lee, Hyewon; Park, Weon Seo; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sang Il; Choi, Mi Hong; Lee, Si Won; Ko, Eun Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Eom, Hyeon Seok

    2017-01-16

    Cryptococcus spp. other than Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii were previously considered saprophytes and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. However, opportunistic infections associated with non-neoformans and non-gattii species, such as Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus, have increased over the past four decades. We experienced a case of cryptococcosis caused by non-neoformans and non-gattii spp. in a 47-year-old female with refractory acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent salvage chemotherapy with fluconazole prophylaxis and subsequently developed neutropenic fever with multiple erythematous umbilicated papules. A skin biopsy revealed fungal hyphae and repetitive blood cultures showed yeast microorganisms that were identified later as C. laurentii by Vitek-II®. Skin lesions and fever began to improve with conventional amphotericin B therapy. The treatment regimen was continued for 21 days until the disseminated cryptococcosis was completely controlled.

  13. Irritant contact dermatitis due to ammonium bifluoride in two infant twins.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Fernando; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Cuesta, Laura; Bañuls, José

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium bifluoride is one of the most corrosive acids that may produce severe chemical burns when in contact with skin. This hazardous chemical is widely used in household products. We report two pediatric cases of irritant contact dermatitis after exposure to a rust remover, which contained ammonium bifluoride.

  14. Purpuric irritant contact dermatitis induced by Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Cherpelis, B S; Fenske, N A

    2000-10-01

    The sap of Agave americana, a popular ornamental plant, may cause irritant contact dermatitis. This rare eruption is typically vesiculopapular; however, a new purpuric variant with evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis has recently been reported. We report an additional case of a purpuric eruption associated with severe constitutional symptoms further supporting a possible vasculitic component. Both cases resulted from direct exposure to sap propelled by a chainsaw. We speculate that oxalic acid crystals, which are recognized systemic toxins, are embedded in the skin with resulting oxalism, which may result in vascular damage.

  15. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  16. A controlled, three-part trial to investigate the barrier function and skin hydration properties of six skin protectants.

    PubMed

    Hoggarth, Andrew; Waring, Mike; Alexander, James; Greenwood, Amanada; Callaghan, Theresa

    2005-12-01

    In the treatment of incontinence dermatitis, a skin protectant primarily prevents skin breakdown due to moisture and biological irritants in urine and feces. To assess the barrier and skin hydration properties of six currently available skin protectants with different formulations, a controlled, three-phase study was conducted at a research facility in the UK among 18 healthy volunteers. The study addressed each product's efficacy against insult from a known irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate), skin hydration potential, and maintenance of skin barrier and barrier efficacy against maceration. Using white petrolatum (glycerin) as the positive control and untreated sites as the negative control, the results show that each one of the products tested has different performance properties. Products containing petrolatum demonstrated protection against irritants (P = 0.006 at 24 hours) and maceration (P < 0.005) and provided some skin hydration. Products containing dimethicone varied in protection against irritants (P < 0.005, or P > or = 0.806 at 24 hours) and have good skin hydration potential and low barrier efficacy (P > 0.500). Zinc oxide-based products showed protection against irritants (P < 0.005) but poor skin hydration and barrier properties to prevent maceration (P = 0.262). Overall, only the water-in-oil petrolatum- based product performed effectively within all the parameters tested. This study suggests that skin barrier protection involves more than the inclusion of an active barrier ingredient. Further testing and use of barrier products in the clinical setting will provide additional evidence for appropriate product selection.

  17. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  18. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  19. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  20. CANVAS 1 and 2: analysis of clinical response at day 3 in two phase 3 trials of ceftaroline fosamil versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

    PubMed

    Friedland, H David; O'Neal, Tanya; Biek, Donald; Eckburg, Paul B; Rank, Douglas R; Llorens, Lily; Smith, Alex; Witherell, Gary W; Laudano, Joseph B; Thye, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    Scientific and regulatory interest in assessing clinical endpoints after 48 to 72 h of treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) has increased. Historical, pre-antibiotic-era data suggest that a treatment effect relative to untreated controls can be discerned in this time interval. Ceftaroline fosamil, a broad-spectrum bactericidal cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative organisms was efficacious in two phase 3 trials of complicated skin infections (CANVAS 1 and 2) using clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit. To assess an early clinical response in the CANVAS trials, a retrospective analysis using a day 3 clinical endpoint was conducted. Adults with ABSSSI received intravenous ceftaroline fosamil at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) or vancomycin at 1 g plus aztreonam at 1 g (V/A) q12h for 5 to 14 days. Clinical response at day 3, defined as cessation of infection spread and absence of fever, was analyzed in patients with a lesion size of ≥ 75 cm(2) and either deep and/or extensive cellulitis, major abscess, or an infected wound. Day 3 integrated CANVAS clinical response rates were 74.0% (296/400) for ceftaroline and 66.2% (263/397) for V/A (difference, 7.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3% to 14.0%). In the individual studies, absolute treatment differences of 9.4% (CANVAS 1) and 5.9% (CANVAS 2) favoring ceftaroline were observed. For ABSSSI due to MRSA, response rates were 81.7% and 77.4% in the ceftaroline and V/A groups, respectively. In this retrospective analysis, ceftaroline fosamil monotherapy had a numerically higher clinical response than V/A at day 3 in the treatment of ABSSSI.

  1. Comparison of in vitro predictive tests for irritation induced by anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Paye, M; Piérard, G E

    1995-07-01

    Skin compatibility of anionic surfactants may often but not always be predicted by in vitro tests. For instance, the correlation between in vivo and in vitro data is classically hampered in the presence of magnesium. This ion is known to interfere with in vitro skin irritation predictive tests based on protein denaturation. This study was conducted to compare a recently introduced assay, corneosurfametry, with other in vitro tests including the pH-rise of bovine serum albumin, collagen swelling, and zein solubilization tests. Corneosurfametry entails collection of cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and short contact time with surfactants, followed by staining samples with toluidine blue and basic fuchsin dyes. Measurements are made by reflectance colorimetry. Data show that irritation potentials predicted by corneosurfametry agree with those obtained by established in vivo and in vitro irritation tests. Moreover, corneosurfametry data are not artificially lowered by addition of magnesium in surfactant solutions. In conclusion, corneosurfametry should be viewed as one of the realistic predictive tests for surfactant irritancy.

  2. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Runeman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.

  3. Pediatric Irritability: A Systems Neuroscience Approach.

    PubMed

    Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    Irritability, defined as an increased propensity to exhibit increased anger relative to one's peers, is a common clinical problem in youth. Irritability can be conceptualized as aberrant responses to frustration (where frustration is the emotional response to blocked goal attainment) and/or aberrant 'approach' responses to threat. Irritable youth show hyper-reactivity to threat mediated by dysfunction in amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, and association cortex. Irritable youth also show abnormalities in reward learning, cognitive control, and responses to frustration. These abnormalities are mediated by circuitry that includes the inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), striatum, ACC, and parietal cortex. Effective treatments for irritability are lacking, but pathophysiological research could lead to more precisely targeted interventions.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome.

  5. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide.

  6. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  7. Molecular Mechanisms and Modeling of Skin Irritation from JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    1987). The design of work teams. In J.W. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 315-342). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hackman...Grofman & G. Owen (Eds.) Decision Research (Vol. 2, pp. 129-157). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Heggestad, E.D., & Kanfer, R. (2000). Individual...In B. Staw & L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 7, pp. 297-332). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Tulving, E. (1974). Cue

  8. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  9. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  10. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  11. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  12. [Cytotoxicity of chemicals used in household products: estimation of eye irritating potency of 25 chemicals tested during 1991-1996].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Tsuchiya, T; Nakamura, A

    1997-01-01

    Cytotoxicity potential of chemicals was evaluated by determining the concentrations inducing 50% reduction of neutral red (NR) uptake into Chinese hamster fibroblast V79 cells compared with control culture (IC50). The results of cytotoxicity test for surfactants with the data produced by the in vivo Draize eye and skin irritation test were compared. There was a good correlation between cytotoxicity and eye irritation score obtained from the Draize test. In contrast, no correlation was observed between Draize skin irritation score and cytotoxic potential of chemicals. Therefore, the NR cytotoxicity test was regarded as a possible in vitro model for predicting eye irritation. Based on the IC50 values in the NR cytotoxicity test, the eye irritation classification (weak, moderate and strong) for each chemical used in household products has been established. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of 25 chemicals used for antimicrobial, rubber accelerator, rubber antioxidant, ultraviolet absorber etc. in household products, and estimated the eye irritating potency of these test chemicals according to the criterion.

  13. The Ontogeny of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

  14. Irritability in Pediatric Patients: Normal or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Usman; Dellasega, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe the concept of irritability in children and youth, which has been revisited in the DSM-5. Traditionally, this behavior has been more commonly associated with mood disorders, which may account for the rising incidence of bipolar disorder diagnosis and overuse of mood-stabilizing medications in pediatric patients. While not predictive of mania, persistent nonepisodic irritability, if undetected, may escalate to violent behavior with potentially serious outcomes. It is therefore important to educate clinicians about how to accurately assess irritability in pediatric patients. PMID:27486529

  15. Investigation of the Dermal Absorption and Irritation Potential of Sertaconazole Nitrate Anhydrous Gel

    PubMed Central

    Manian, Mahima; Madrasi, Kumpal; Chaturvedula, Ayyappa; Banga, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Effective topical therapy of cutaneous fungal diseases requires the delivery of the active agent to the target site in adequate concentrations to produce a pharmacological effect and inhibit the growth of the pathogen. In addition, it is important to determine the concentration of the drug in the skin in order to evaluate the subsequent efficacy and potential toxicity for topical formulations. For this purpose, an anhydrous gel containing sertaconazole nitrate as a model drug was formulated and the amount of the drug in the skin was determined by in vitro tape stripping. The apparent diffusivity and partition coefficients were then calculated by a mathematical model describing the dermal absorption as passive diffusion through a pseudo-homogenous membrane. The skin irritation potential of the formulation was also assessed by using the in vitro Epiderm™ model. An estimation of the dermal absorption parameters allowed us to evaluate drug transport across the stratum corneum following topical application. The estimated concentration for the formulation was found to be higher than the MIC100 at the target site which suggested its potential efficacy for treating fungal infections. The skin irritation test showed the formulation to be non-irritating in nature. Thus, in vitro techniques can be used for laying the groundwork in developing efficient and non-toxic topical products. PMID:27399763

  16. Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, J W; Kelterer, D; Fuchs, S; Kaatz, M; Grieshaber, R; Kleesz, P; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    Biogenic amines are potential irritants e.g. in fish-, meat-, milk- and egg-processing professions like cooks, butchers and bakers. The aim of this study was to test the irritative and barrier-disrupting properties of the biogenic amines ammonium hydroxide (AM), dimethylamine (DMA) and trimethylamine (TMA). A repeated sequential irritation of 30 min twice per day was performed over a total of 4 days (tandem repeated irritation test) on the back of 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes with AM, DMA, TMA and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The epidermal barrier function was assessed with a Tewameter TM 210, stratum corneum surface pH was measured with a Skin-pH-Meter 900, inflammation was assessed with a Chromameter CR-300 on the a* axis for redness and a visual score was recorded. All tested biogenic amines (AM, DMA and TMA) induced a barrier disruption and a pH increase paralleled with a 1-day-delayed onset of inflammatory signs. These effects were further enhanced and accelerated by a sequential application of SLS together with the biogenic amines, and inflammation occurred earlier than with the single compounds. Acetic acid (AA) in contrast did only show mild barrier disruption and no significant inflammatory signs. Our system allowed a ranking of the different compounds in their irritative potential in the tandem irritation with SLS: SLS > NaOH > TMA > AA > AM > DMA. The results are suggestive that in the food-processing industry the simultaneous contact with biogenic amines and harmful detergents like SLS should be minimized.

  17. Use of the cytosensor microphysiometer to predict results of a 21-day cumulative irritation patch test in humans.

    PubMed

    Landin, Wendell E; Mun, Greg C; Nims, Raymond W; Harbell, John W

    2007-09-01

    The cytosensor microphysiometer (mu phi) was investigated as a rapid, relatively inexpensive test to predict performance of skin cleansing wipes on the human 21-day cumulative irritation patch test (21CIPT). It indirectly measures metabolic rate changes in L929 cells as a function of test article dose, by measuring the acidification rate in a low-buffer medium. The dose producing a 50% reduction in metabolic rate (MRD50), relative to the baseline rate, is used as a measure of toxicity. The acute toxicity of the mu phi assay can be compared to the chronic toxicity of the 21CIPT, which is based largely on the exposure of test agents to the epidermal cells, resulting in damage and penetration of the stratum corneum leading to cell toxicity. Two series of surfactant-based cleansing wipe products were tested via the mu phi assay and 21CIPT. The first series, consisting of 20 products, was used to determine a prediction model. The second series of 38 products consisted of routine product development formulas or marketed products. Comparing the results from both tests, samples with an MRD50 greater than 50 mg/ml provided a 21CIPT score consistent with a product that performs satisfactorily in the market. When the MRD50 was greater than 78 mg/ml, the 21CIPT score was usually zero. The mu phi may be more sensitive than the 21CIPT for ranking minimally irritating materials. The mu phi assay is useful as a screen for predicting the performance of a wet wipes formula on the 21CIPT, and concurrently reduces the use of animals for safety testing in a product development program for cleansing wipes.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of AFN-1252, the First Staphylococcus-Specific Antibacterial Agent, in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections, Including Those in Patients with Significant Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, N.; Murphy, B.

    2015-01-01

    This open-label noncontrolled, phase II multicenter trial was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 200 mg of AFN-1252, a selective inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), given by mouth twice daily in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) due to staphylococci. Important aspects of the current study included a comparison of early response efficacy endpoints with end-of-treatment and follow-up endpoints. Many patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 103) had significant comorbidities. The overall early response rate at day 3 was 97.3% (wound, 100%; abscess, 96.6%; cellulitis, 94.4%) in the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population. Within the ME population, 82.9% of patients had a ≥20% decrease in the area of erythema, and 77.9% of patients had a ≥20% decrease in the area of induration, on day 3. S. aureus was detected in 97.7% of patients (n = 37 patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA], and n = 39 with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus [MSSA]). No isolates had increased AFN-1252 MICs posttreatment. Microbiologic eradication rates for S. aureus were 93.2% at short-term follow-up (STFU) and 91.9% at long-term follow-up (LTFU) in the ME population. Eradication rates for MRSA and MSSA were 91.9% and 92.3%, respectively, at STFU and 91.9% and 89.7%, respectively, at LTFU. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events, which were mostly mild or moderate, were headache (26.2%) and nausea (21.4%). These studies demonstrate that AFN-1252 is generally well tolerated and effective in the treatment of ABSSSI due to S. aureus, including MRSA. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01519492.) PMID:26711777

  19. Efficacy and Safety of AFN-1252, the First Staphylococcus-Specific Antibacterial Agent, in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections, Including Those in Patients with Significant Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Hafkin, B; Kaplan, N; Murphy, B

    2015-12-28

    This open-label noncontrolled, phase II multicenter trial was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 200 mg of AFN-1252, a selective inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), given by mouth twice daily in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) due to staphylococci. Important aspects of the current study included a comparison of early response efficacy endpoints with end-of-treatment and follow-up endpoints. Many patients in the intent-to-treat population (n = 103) had significant comorbidities. The overall early response rate at day 3 was 97.3% (wound, 100%; abscess, 96.6%; cellulitis, 94.4%) in the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population. Within the ME population, 82.9% of patients had a ≥ 20% decrease in the area of erythema, and 77.9% of patients had a ≥ 20% decrease in the area of induration, on day 3. S. aureus was detected in 97.7% of patients (n = 37 patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA], and n = 39 with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus [MSSA]). No isolates had increased AFN-1252 MICs posttreatment. Microbiologic eradication rates for S. aureus were 93.2% at short-term follow-up (STFU) and 91.9% at long-term follow-up (LTFU) in the ME population. Eradication rates for MRSA and MSSA were 91.9% and 92.3%, respectively, at STFU and 91.9% and 89.7%, respectively, at LTFU. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events, which were mostly mild or moderate, were headache (26.2%) and nausea (21.4%). These studies demonstrate that AFN-1252 is generally well tolerated and effective in the treatment of ABSSSI due to S. aureus, including MRSA. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01519492.).

  20. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization (CS) and allergy following increased penetration of potential allergens. However, the relationship between common dermatoses such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and the development of contact allergy (CA) is complex, and depends on immunologic responses and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due to increased levels of Th17 cells and its associated cytokines. As for AD, a positive association to CS has been established in epidemiological studies, but is still unresolved. Experimental studies show, however, an inverse relationship between AD and CS. The opposing and antagonistic influences of Th1 (CS) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen-presenting cells and promotes their migration to local lymph nodes, thus increasing the probability of CS and ultimately the development of CA.

  1. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore, suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Two options for hand hygiene are generally available in clinical practice: (1) hand washing with some type of soap and water or (2) hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene is around 50%, which is far too low. In addition, healthcare workers quite often wash their hands with soap and water, when they should use an alcohol-based hand rub. This not only adds to the degree of skin irritation, but is also potentially dangerous for patients, due to the low efficacy of hand washing when compared to hand disinfection with alcohol rubs. Adhering to evidence-based hand hygiene protocols and following international guidelines on hand hygiene practices therefore, can help prevent irritant contact dermatitis among healthcare workers.

  2. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  3. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Boms, Stefanie; Freitag, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis) due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists), woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists), and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters), include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods) and irritant (physical-chemical noxae) skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin"). Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads") more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological investigations have

  4. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500... eye irritants. Guidelines for in vivo and in vitro testing of ocular irritation of substances... eye irritation. Both eyes of each animal in the test group shall be examined before testing, and...

  5. Biomarkers of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hak; Lin, Eugenia; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been regarded as an organic disease, and the pathophysiology of IBS is heterogeneous. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based upon the Rome diagnostic criteria. The performance of these criteria is only modest in predicting IBS, and moreover their validation is lacking. Additionally, as functional symptoms are common in the general population, healthy controls or volunteers are difficult to define and there is currently no definition of “normal” in the Rome criteria. Due to the weaknesses of the current diagnostic criteria, patients and doctors expect new gold standard diagnostic tools. Various etiologic mechanisms result in potential biomarkers. The focus of this research has been to find non-invasive biomarkers from serum, breath gas, and fecal materials. Though biomarkers should be based on biological and pathogenic processes, most biomarkers for IBS have been developed to identify organic diseases and therefore eliminate IBS. To date, these types of biomarkers for IBS have been disappointing. The purposes of developing biomarkers include improvement of diagnosis, differentiation from other organic diseases, and discrimination of IBS subtypes. A true mechanistic biomarker would make it possible to rule in IBS, rather than to rule out other organic diseases. New serologic biomarkers for diarrhea-predominant IBS have been introduced based on the pathophysiologic findings from a rat model and validation in a large-scale clinical trial. Further investigations of abnormal organic findings from each subtype of IBS would enable the development of new, simple subtype-specific biomarkers. PMID:27817184

  6. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Grubić, Petra; Jurcić, Dragan; Ebling, Barbara; Gmajnić, Rudika; Nikolić, Bojana; Pribić, Sanda; Bilić, Ante; Levak, Maja Tolusić

    2014-06-01

    There are three epidemiological studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were conducted in Croatia (in the area of Zagreb in 2002, Bjelovarsko-bilogorska County in 2008, and finally in Osjecko-baranjska County in 2011). The aim of this study is to analyze the anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS in Croatia comparing these three studies. The studies included a questionnaire based on Rome criteria. Study population matched the adult population of Croatia according last available census (1991, 2001 resp.). Studies showed a high prevalence of IBS and some common factors relevant for development of IBS were determined such as gender, body mass index and lower level of education. There is a need for further investigations in coastal Croatia applying a uniform questionnaire on anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS and Rome III criteria, diagnostic questionnaires and scoring algorithm for functional gastrointestinal disorders developed by Rome Foundation applicable in clinical practice and population studies, regarding the significant high prevalence of IBS in our country.

  8. In vivo performance of chitosan/soy-based membranes as wound-dressing devices for acute skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tírcia C; Höring, Bernhard; Reise, Kathrin; Marques, Alexandra P; Silva, Simone S; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Mano, João F; Castro, António G; Reis, Rui L; van Griensven, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    Wound management represents a major clinical challenge on what concerns healing enhancement and pain control. The selection of an appropriate dressing plays an important role in both recovery and esthetic appearance of the regenerated tissue. Despite the wide range of available dressings, the progress in the wound care market relies on the increasing interest in using natural-based biomedical products. Herein, a rat wound-dressing model of partial-thickness skin wounds was used to study newly developed chitosan/soy (cht/soy)-based membranes as wound-dressing materials. Healing and repair of nondressed, cht/soy membrane-dressed, and Epigard(®)-dressed wounds were followed macroscopically and histologically for 1 and 2 weeks. cht/soy membranes performed better than the controls, promoting a faster wound repair. Re-epithelialization, observed 1 week after wounding, was followed by cornification of the outermost epidermal layer at the second week of dressing, indicating repair of the wounded tissue. The use of this rodent model, although in impaired healing conditions, may enclose some drawbacks regarding the inevitable wound contraction. Moreover, being the main purpose the evaluation of cht/soy-based membranes' performance in the absence of growth factors, the choice of a clinically relevant positive control was limited to a polymeric mesh, without any growth factor influencing skin healing/repair, Epigard. These new cht/soy membranes possess the desired features regarding healing/repair stimulation, ease of handling, and final esthetic appearance-thus, valuable properties for wound dressings.

  9. Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; Larosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-01-11

    The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed using the rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) assay. In the current study, we investigated whether the organotypic, highly differentiated EpiVaginal™ tissue could be used as a non-animal alternative to the RVI test. The EpiVaginal tissue was exposed to a single application of ingredients commonly found in feminine hygiene products and the effects on tissue viability (MTT assay), barrier disruption (measured by transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) leakage), and inflammatory cytokine release (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) patterns were examined. When compared to untreated controls, two irritating ingredients, nonoxynol 9 and benzalkonium chloride, reduced tissue viability to <40% and TEER to <60% while increasing NaFl leakage by 11-24% and IL-1α and IL-1β release by >100%. Four other non-irritating materials had minimal effects on these parameters. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by testing the chemicals using three different tissue production lots and by using tissues reconstructed from cells obtained from three different donors. Coefficients of variation between tissue lots reconstructed with cells obtained from the same donor or lots reconstructed with cells obtained from different donors were less than 10% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increases in IL-1α and IL-1β release appear to be useful endpoints for preclinical screening of topically applied

  10. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  11. In Vivo Performance of Chitosan/Soy-Based Membranes as Wound-Dressing Devices for Acute Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Tírcia C.; Höring, Bernhard; Reise, Kathrin; Marques, Alexandra P.; Silva, Simone S.; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Mano, João F.; Castro, António G.; van Griensven, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Wound management represents a major clinical challenge on what concerns healing enhancement and pain control. The selection of an appropriate dressing plays an important role in both recovery and esthetic appearance of the regenerated tissue. Despite the wide range of available dressings, the progress in the wound care market relies on the increasing interest in using natural-based biomedical products. Herein, a rat wound-dressing model of partial-thickness skin wounds was used to study newly developed chitosan/soy (cht/soy)-based membranes as wound-dressing materials. Healing and repair of nondressed, cht/soy membrane-dressed, and Epigard®-dressed wounds were followed macroscopically and histologically for 1 and 2 weeks. cht/soy membranes performed better than the controls, promoting a faster wound repair. Re-epithelialization, observed 1 week after wounding, was followed by cornification of the outermost epidermal layer at the second week of dressing, indicating repair of the wounded tissue. The use of this rodent model, although in impaired healing conditions, may enclose some drawbacks regarding the inevitable wound contraction. Moreover, being the main purpose the evaluation of cht/soy-based membranes' performance in the absence of growth factors, the choice of a clinically relevant positive control was limited to a polymeric mesh, without any growth factor influencing skin healing/repair, Epigard. These new cht/soy membranes possess the desired features regarding healing/repair stimulation, ease of handling, and final esthetic appearance—thus, valuable properties for wound dressings. PMID:23083058

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it “irritable brain” or “irritable bowel”?

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Mahajan, Sonali; Sinha, Saroj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26752904

  13. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients.

  14. Angiogenesis Is Induced and Wound Size Is Reduced by Electrical Stimulation in an Acute Wound Healing Model in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ud-Din, Sara; Sebastian, Anil; Giddings, Pamela; Colthurst, James; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Nuccitelli, Richard; Pullar, Christine; Baguneid, Mo; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for wound healing. Insufficient angiogenesis can result in impaired wound healing and chronic wound formation. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance angiogenesis. We previously showed that ES enhanced angiogenesis in acute wounds at one time point (day 14). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of ES in affecting angiogenesis during the acute phase of cutaneous wound healing over multiple time points. We compared the angiogenic response to wounding in 40 healthy volunteers (divided into two groups and randomised), treated with ES (post-ES) and compared them to secondary intention wound healing (control). Biopsy time points monitored were days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14. Objective non-invasive measures and H&E analysis were performed in addition to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Wound volume was significantly reduced on D7, 10 and 14 post-ES (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p<0.001 respectively), surface area was reduced on days 10 (p = 0.001) and 14 (p<0.001) and wound diameter reduced on days 10 (p = 0.009) and 14 (p = 0.002). Blood flow increased significantly post-ES on D10 (p = 0.002) and 14 (p = 0.001). Angiogenic markers were up-regulated following ES application; protein analysis by IHC showed an increase (p<0.05) in VEGF-A expression by ES treatment on days 7, 10 and 14 (39%, 27% and 35% respectively) and PLGF expression on days 3 and 7 (40% on both days), compared to normal healing. Similarly, WB demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in PLGF on days 7 and 14 (51% and 35% respectively). WB studies showed a significant increase of 30% (p>0.05) on day 14 in VEGF-A expression post-ES compared to controls. Furthermore, organisation of granulation tissue was improved on day 14 post-ES. This randomised controlled trial has shown that ES enhanced wound healing by reduced wound dimensions and increased VEGF-A and PLGF expression in acute cutaneous wounds, which further substantiates the role of ES in up

  15. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    PubMed

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials.

  16. The hardening phenomenon in irritant contact dermatitis: an interpretative update.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon A; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-03-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common and poses a significant problem in high-risk populations. In most cases, ICD resolves despite continued exposure in a process known as 'hardening', allowing individuals to continue with their work. Those who cannot clear ICD develop chronic ICD, which is a significant source of emotional, physical, and financial distress for affected individuals. While hardening is well known among labourers and clinicians, its mechanism remains to be elucidated. Much can be learned from the study of self-healing processes like the hardening phenomenon. This overview briefly documents the pathogenesis of ICD, focuses on the latest advances pertaining to the hardening phenomenon in ICD, and then highlights potential avenues of productive research. A better understanding of the 'hardening' process in the skin will hopefully lead to advances for the treatment of ICD.

  17. Metabolic fingerprint after acute and under sustained consumption of a functional beverage based on grape skin extract in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Khymenets, Olha; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Vazquez-Fresno, Rosa; Mart, Mercè Mercader; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Grape-derived polyphenols are considered to be one of the most promising ingredients for functional foods due to their health-promoting activities. We applied a HPLC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic approach in order to evaluate the impact of a functional food based on grape skin polyphenols on the urinary metabolome of healthy subjects. Thirty-one volunteers participated in two dietary crossover randomized intervention studies: with a single-dose intake (187 mL) and with a 15-day sustained consumption (twice per day, 187 mL per day in total) of a functional beverage (FB). Postprandial (4-hour) and 24-hour urine samples collected after acute consumption and on the last day of sustained FB consumption, respectively, were analysed using an untargeted HPLC-qTOF-MS approach. Multivariate modelling with subsequent application of an S-plot revealed differential mass features related to acute and prolonged consumption of FB. More than half of the mass features were shared between the two types of samples, among which several phase II metabolites of grape-derived polyphenols were identified at confidence level II. Prolonged consumption of FB was specifically reflected in urine metabolome by the presence of first-stage microbial metabolites of flavanols: hydroxyvaleric acid and hydroxyvalerolactone derivatives. Overall, several epicatechin and phenolic acid metabolites both of tissular and microbiota origin were the most representative markers of FB consumption. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies where an untargeted LC-MS metabolomic approach has been applied in nutrition research on a grape-derived FB.

  18. Amantadine Effect on Perceptions of Irritability after Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the Amantadine Irritability Multisite Study.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Flora M; Sherer, Mark; Malec, James F; Zafonte, Ross D; Whitney, Marybeth; Bell, Kathleen; Dikmen, Sureyya; Bogner, Jennifer; Mysiw, Jerry; Pershad, Rashmi

    2015-08-15

    This study examines the effect of amantadine on irritability in persons in the post-acute period after traumatic brain injury (TBI). There were 168 persons ≥6 months post-TBI with irritability who were enrolled in a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial receiving either amantadine 100 mg twice daily or equivalent placebo for 60 days. Subjects were assessed at baseline and days 28 (primary end-point) and 60 of treatment using observer-rated and participant-rated Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-I) Most Problematic item (primary outcome), NPI Most Aberrant item, and NPI-I Distress Scores, as well as physician-rated Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale. Observer ratings between the two groups were not statistically significantly different at day 28 or 60; however, observers rated the majority in both groups as having improved at both intervals. Participant ratings for day 60 demonstrated improvements in both groups with greater improvement in the amantadine group on NPI-I Most Problematic (p<0.04) and NPI-I Distress (p<0.04). These results were not significant with correction for multiple comparisons. CGI demonstrated greater improvement for amantadine than the placebo group (p<0.04). Adverse event occurrence did not differ between the two groups. While observers in both groups reported large improvements, significant group differences were not found for the primary outcome (observer ratings) at either day 28 or 60. This large placebo or nonspecific effect may have masked detection of a treatment effect. The result of this study of amantadine 100 mg every morning and noon to reduce irritability was not positive from the observer perspective, although there are indications of improvement at day 60 from the perspective of persons with TBI and clinicians that may warrant further investigation.

  19. Identification and evaluation of counter-irritant potential of crude extract of Malva parviflora L. by WHO recommended methods.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Saiqa; Hassan, Syed Saeed-ul; Niaz, Uzma; Saeed, Muhammad Asif

    2012-07-01

    Plenty of medicinal plants are available in Pakistan and are in human use as herbal medicines from ancient time. Present work is based on the evaluation of the use of Malva parviflora in skin irritation problems. For this purpose, powdered plant material (The aerial part and roots separately) was extracted by using successive solvent extraction method using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol. Resulting three crude fractions were subjected to counter-irritant investigations on rabbit's ear. Petroleum ether fraction exhibited prominent counter-irritant potential. Five compounds named, as MP-1, MP-2, MP-3, MP-4 and MP-5 were isolated from petroleum ether extract by column and thin layer chromatography. These compounds were subjected to UV spectrophotometer for detection of absorption of light, then FTIR for specific functional group identification and counter-irritant potentials was evaluated on rabbit's ear skin. The MP-1 and MP-2 exhibited excellent counter-irritant activity in different dilutions than others. However, dilution 100 μg/ml showed maximum activity.

  20. Ischemic Tissue Injury in the Dorsal Skinfold Chamber of the Mouse: A Skin Flap Model to Investigate Acute Persistent Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Yves; Schmauss, Daniel; Wettstein, Reto; Egaña, José T.; Weiss, Fabian; Weinzierl, Andrea; Schuldt, Anna; Machens, Hans-Günther; Menger, Michael D.; Rezaeian, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Despite profound expertise and advanced surgical techniques, ischemia-induced complications ranging from wound breakdown to extensive tissue necrosis are still occurring, particularly in reconstructive flap surgery. Multiple experimental flap models have been developed to analyze underlying causes and mechanisms and to investigate treatment strategies to prevent ischemic complications. The limiting factor of most models is the lacking possibility to directly and repetitively visualize microvascular architecture and hemodynamics. The goal of the protocol was to present a well-established mouse model affiliating these before mentioned lacking elements. Harder et al. have developed a model of a musculocutaneous flap with a random perfusion pattern that undergoes acute persistent ischemia and results in ~50% necrosis after 10 days if kept untreated. With the aid of intravital epi-fluorescence microscopy, this chamber model allows repetitive visualization of morphology and hemodynamics in different regions of interest over time. Associated processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, microvascular leakage and angiogenesis can be investigated and correlated to immunohistochemical and molecular protein assays. To date, the model has proven feasibility and reproducibility in several published experimental studies investigating the effect of pre-, peri- and postconditioning of ischemically challenged tissue. PMID:25489743

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  2. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  3. Comparison of Provider-Assessed and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Acute Skin Toxicity During a Phase III Trial of Mometasone Cream Versus Placebo During Breast Radiotherapy: The North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N06C4)

    SciTech Connect

    Neben-Wittich, Michelle A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Burger, Kelli N.; Martenson, James A.; Miller, Robert C.

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: Considerable interobserver variability exists among providers and between providers and patients when measuring subjective symptoms. In the recently published Phase III N06C4 trial of mometasone cream vs. placebo to prevent radiation dermatitis, the primary provider-assessed (PA) endpoint, using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), was negative. However, prospectively planned secondary analyses of patient-reported outcomes (PROs), using the Skindex-16 and Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool (STAT), were positive. This study assesses the relationship between PA outcomes and PROs. Methods and Materials: Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the three tools. Statistical correlations were defined as follows: <0.5, mild; 0.5-0.7, moderate; and >0.7, strong. Results: CTCAE dermatitis moderately correlated with STAT erythema, and CTCAE pruritus strongly correlated with STAT itching. CTCAE pruritus had a moderate correlation with Skindex-16 itching. Comparing the 2 PRO tools, Skindex-16 itching correlated moderately with STAT itching. Skindex-16 burning, hurting, irritation, and persistence all showed the strongest correlation with STAT burning; they showed moderate correlations with STAT itching and tenderness. Conclusions: The PRO Skindex-16 correlated well with the PRO portions of STAT, but neither tool correlated well with CTCAE. PROs delineated a wider spectrum of toxicity than PA measures and provided more information on rash, redness, pruritus, and annoyance measures compared with CTCAE findings of rash and pruritus. PROs may provide a more complete measure of patient experience than single-symptom, PA endpoints in clinical trials assessing radiation skin toxicity.

  4. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Brittany A.; Ly, David; Savage, Jason E.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Dan, Tu D.; Ylaya, Kris; Shankavaram, Uma; Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin; Camphausen, Kevin; Mitchell, James B.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  5. 40 CFR 156.210 - Notification-to-workers statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ingredient classified as toxicity category I for either acute dermal toxicity or skin irritation potential.... If no data on acute dermal toxicity, skin irritation potential, or acute oral toxicity are...

  6. 40 CFR 156.210 - Notification-to-workers statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ingredient classified as toxicity category I for either acute dermal toxicity or skin irritation potential.... If no data on acute dermal toxicity, skin irritation potential, or acute oral toxicity are...

  7. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    PubMed Central

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum. PMID:18655702

  8. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  9. Defining and measuring irritability: Construct clarification and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Toohey, Michael J; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences. We also reviewed potential causes and biomarkers of irritability. We found much overlap between definitions and measures of irritability and related constructs such as anger and aggression. Consequently, the validity of research on irritability needs to be questioned including the role of irritability in psychopathology and the presence of irritability as a symptom in any disorder. Research on irritability's role in behavioral disorders needs to be repeated after more well defined measures are developed. We proposed a more precise definition of irritability that clearly differentiates it from related constructs. Suggested items for measuring irritability are also provided.

  10. Effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating intestinal hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Long, Yanqin; Liu, Ying; Tong, Jingjing; Qian, Wei; Hou, Xiaohua

    2010-06-25

    Trimebutine maleate, which modulates the calcium and potassium channels, relieves abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, its effect on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome is not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating colonic hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Mice infected up to 8 weeks with T. spiralis underwent abdominal withdrawal reflex to colorectal distention to evaluate the visceral sensitivity at different time points. Tissues were examined for histopathology scores. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared in the organ bath under basal condition or to be stimulated by acetylcholine and potassium chloride, and consecutive concentrations of trimebutine maleate were added to the bath to record the strip responses. Significant inflammation was observed in the intestines of the mice infected 2 weeks, and it resolved in 8 weeks after infection. Visceral hyperalgesia and colonic muscle hypercontractility emerged after infection, and trimebutine maleate could effectively reduce the colonic hyperreactivity. Hypercontractility of the colonic muscle stimulated by acetylcholine and high K(+) could be inhibited by trimebutine maleate in solution with Ca(2+), but not in Ca(2+) free solution. Compared with 8-week postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, 2-week acute infected strips were much more sensitive to the stimulators and the drug trimebutine maleate. Trimebutine maleate was effective in reducing the colonic muscle hypercontractility of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome mice. The findings may provide evidence for trimebutine maleate to treat postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients effectively.

  11. Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potential of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Witte, Frank; Abeln, Inken; Switzer, Elinor; Kaese, Volker; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Windhagen, Henning

    2008-09-15

    Corroding metals made of magnesium alloys represent a new class of degradable implants for musculoskeletal surgery. These implants may be associated with skin sensitizing reactions because of the release of metal ions. This study was conducted to compare the sensitizing potential of four different magnesium alloys (AZ31, AZ91, WE43, and LAE442) to current implant materials such as titanium (TiAl6V4) and a degradable polymer (SR-PLA96). Solutions and solid chips of these materials were prepared and tested in 156 guinea pigs according to the Magnusson-Kligman test. A standard allergen (hydroxy-cinnamon-aldehyde) causing allergic erythema was used as positive control and a standard irritant (sodium-lauryl-sulfate) causing local skin irritation for less than 24 h was used as negative control. All erythema were graded immediately and 24 h after patch removal by three independent observers. Histomorphological analyses were performed on skin biopsies taken 24 h after patch removal. We found that initial erythema in animals treated with solid chips diminished within 24 h and were caused by local skin irritation. Local skin irritation was also determined in erythema remaining for 24 h after patch removal in animals treated with dissolved test materials. No allergenic reactions according to the histomorphological criteria were observed in skin biopsies. We conclude that no skin sensitizing potential were detected for standard materials as well as for all tested magnesium alloys by the used methods.

  12. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Misunderstood Psychophysiological Affliction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro

    1986-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is benign, chronic, gastrointestinal disorder that affects much of the general population. Misunderstanding and lack of patient education often result in increased anxiety and physical distress. Counselors can be instrumental in recognizing the condition in afflicted clients and providing emotional support and stress…

  14. Cognitive Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara; Blanchard, Edward B.

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned 20 patients with irritable bowel syndrome to intensive, individualized cognitive therapy or to daily gastrointestinal symptom monitoring. Pre- to posttreatment evaluations showed significantly greater gastrointestinal symptom reduction for those receiving cognitive therapy than for those in symptom monitoring. At posttreatment,…

  15. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C; Stenoien, David L

    2016-11-01

    In this study we utilized a systems biology approach to identify dose- (0.1, 2.0 and 10 Gy) and time- (3 and 8 h) dependent responses to acute ionizing radiation exposure in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. The low dose used here (0.1 Gy) falls within the range of certain medical diagnostic procedures. Of the two higher doses used, 2.0 Gy is typically administered for radiotherapy, while 10 Gy is lethal. Because exposure to any of these doses is possible after an intentional or accidental radiation events, biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage potentially exposed individuals. Here, tissue samples were acutely exposed to X-ray-generated low-linear-energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation, and direct RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts. The time points used for this study aid in assessing early responses to exposure, when key signaling pathways and biomarkers can be identified, which precede and regulate later phenotypic alterations that occur at high doses, including cell death. We determined that a total of 1,701 genes expressed were significantly affected by high-dose radiation, with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. Expression levels of a group of 29 genes, including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA and AEN, were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at both time points. A much larger group of upregulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after 10 Gy irradiation. At high doses, downregulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a few genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy irradiation, using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to high

  16. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500... eye irritants. (a)(1) Six albino rabbits are used for each test substance. Animal facilities for such... materials that might produce eye irritation. Both eyes of each animal in the test group shall be...

  17. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500... eye irritants. (a)(1) Six albino rabbits are used for each test substance. Animal facilities for such... materials that might produce eye irritation. Both eyes of each animal in the test group shall be...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500... eye irritants. (a)(1) Six albino rabbits are used for each test substance. Animal facilities for such... materials that might produce eye irritation. Both eyes of each animal in the test group shall be...

  19. 16 CFR 1500.42 - Test for eye irritants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test for eye irritants. 1500.42 Section 1500... eye irritants. (a)(1) Six albino rabbits are used for each test substance. Animal facilities for such... materials that might produce eye irritation. Both eyes of each animal in the test group shall be...

  20. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  1. Stratum corneum barrier integrity controls skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Smith, W

    1999-04-01

    The stratum corneum water barrier controls structural and functional properties of both the epidermis and the dermis. Treatments which chronically disrupt the stratum corneum water barrier can induce changes similar to those seen with 'anti-aging' treatments such as (-Hydroxy acids (AHAs) and Retin Atrade mark. Barrier disruption via daily tape stripping increases epidermal and dermal thickness, superficial and integral skin firmness, and improves skin surface texture. Modest or transitory disruption did not produce such effects. Similar results were observed with topical application of AHAs, retinoids or mild irritants after about 4-6 weeks provided such treatments resulted in prolonged elevation in TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). Treatments that did not chronically elevate TEWL could also produce positive cosmetic effects, but such effects were in general restricted to the skin surface or epidermis. Irritation, which was observed with some treatments, was not solely responsible for the positive effects observed.

  2. [Skin and sun exposure].

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Borgia, Francesco; Trifirò, Caterina; Aragona, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Fisherman commonly experience a significant number of cutaneous problems, related to the exposure to environmental factors due to their working conditions. Among these factors, sun exposure is able to determine both acute and chronic skin damage, mostly linked to the effects of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation on epidermal and dermal structures. In particular, UV-A appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin, while UV-B is mainly responsible for skin cancers. Peculiar clinical features of skin damage in fishermen include dryness, irregular pigmentation, wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis, inelasticity, telangiectasia, comedones and sebaceous hyperplasia. Furtheremore, the high incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers, on sun-exposed areas, confirms the need for occupational health policies focusing on issues such as photoprotection.

  3. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  4. Selected Biomarkers Revealed Potential Skin Toxicity Caused by Certain Copper Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hairui; Toh, Pei Zhen; Tan, Jia Yao; Zin, Melvin T.; Lee, Chi-Ying; Li, Bo; Leolukman, Melvina; Bao, Hongqian; Kang, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential mineral and plays important roles in skin growth and activity. Copper delivery through skin can provide beneficial effects but its potential to induce skin irritation reactions is often overlooked. Data on dermal toxicity caused by copper compounds is scant. Some recognized in vitro skin toxicity methods are unsuitable for all metal compounds. Here, we employ a keratinocyte-based model and evaluated the skin irritation potential of copper compounds at cellular, genomic and proteomic levels. We determined cell viability and cytotoxicity by using tetrazolium reduction assay and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, performed real-time PCR and protein quantification to assess the expression of biomarkers after treating cells with copper peptide (GHK-Cu), copper chloride (CuCl2) and copper acetate (Cu(OAc)2). These copper compounds exhibited different irritancy potentials at the same treatment concentrations. GHK-Cu was not cytotoxic and did not induce any significant change in the expression levels of various skin irritation-related biomarkers. IL-1α and IL-8, HSPA1A and FOSL1 were significantly upregulated following 24-h treatment with CuCl2 and Cu(OAc)2 at 58 and 580 μM without concomitant inhibition in cell viability. GHK-Cu has a low potential of inducing skin irritation and therefore provides a safer alternative for the delivery of copper through skin. PMID:27892491

  5. Skin care of the diaper area.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from the irritating effects of urine and feces and prevention of diaper dermatitis. These needs include products such as diapers that absorb the excreta, as well as products for cleansing and conditioning the skin. A number of factors play a role in development of diaper dermatitis, including prolonged exposure to excreta, alterations in skin pH or increased hydration, and changes in skin microbial flora. Recent decades have seen great improvements in our understanding of these factors and our ability to develop new and better products to protect baby skin. Better diaper designs and the development of pH-buffered baby wipes have improved the care of skin in the diaper area. Continuing research offers the promise of new products with additional benefits for caregivers and infants.

  6. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B.; Walters, Edgar T.; Carlton, Susan M.; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. PMID:23925292

  7. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B; Walters, Edgar T; Carlton, Susan M; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-09-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity.

  8. Elemental changes at irritant reactions due to chromate and nickel in guinea-pig epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.; Forslind, B.; Roomans, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to examine the possibility of using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to obtain information on epidermal reactions at irritant dermatitis. The elemental redistribution in the stratum germinativum and stratum spinosum of the guinea-pig epidermis after intradermal injection of a chromate and a nickel solution was studied in thick cryo-sections. The two solutions caused different changes in elemental content in both cell layers. Nickel sulfate caused a conspicuous decrease in K levels whereas Na and Cl were elevated in both cell layers. Potassium chromate caused an increase in Cl but lowered the P values. The result of this study show that it is possible to use EDX-analysis of thick skin sections to obtain information on physiologically relevant alterations in epidermis at irritant dermatitis.

  9. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  10. [Irritant effect of tensides on occupational dermatitis patients in hairdressing and nursing occupations. Comparative studies of healthy persons and neurodermatitis patients].

    PubMed

    Gloor, M; Völlm, P; Gehse, M; Ringelmann, R

    1985-01-01

    The irritational disposition of the skin was studied in a control group of 12 healthy persons, 8 patients with neurodermitis, 11 hairdressers with occupational dermatitis and 11 nurses with occupational dermatitis by using the Duhring-chamber-scarification test. For comparison, the alkali resistance test was also carried out. The results show that with the alkali resistance test the irritational disposition towards tensides may not be judged. The present findings show that the increased irritational disposition toward detergent substances seems to be a constitutional factor which favors the development of occupational dermatitis in hairdressing and nursing jobs; with the patient suffering from atopic dermatitis, one must presume an increased irritational disposition towards tensides in most cases.

  11. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  12. In vivo irritation study of Melastoma malabathricum cream formulation on ICR mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Rabiahtul Adarwiyah Mohd; Jemon, Khairunadwa; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md

    2016-11-01

    Melastoma malabathricum is a traditional herb that is used to treat wound on skin. It has also been proven to have antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In this study, M. malabathricum cream formulation was developed by incorporating M. malabathricum aqueous extract into cream base. The safety and biocompatibility of the formulated cream was investigated by topically applying the cream onto the back of ICR mice skin. Treatment with M. malabathricum was found to accelerate wound contraction with less scar formation. The effect of M. malabathricum has prompted a possibility that M. malabathricum might contribute in enhancing the healing process of cutaneous lesion caused by HSV-1. The formulated cream did not cause any skin irritation or adverse effect to ICR mice when topically applied within seven days of exposure.

  13. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  14. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Sang-Han

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.

  15. [New insights into the pathogenesis of sensitive skin].

    PubMed

    Proksch, E; Weidinger, S

    2011-12-01

    Many persons in the developed countries report sensitive skin. Persons with sensitive skin have a predisposition to several skin diseases, most importantly dry skin, but also atopy, seborrheic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, and perioral dermatitis. Their complaints may be triggered by environmental factors such as low temperature, wind, high temperature, sun exposure and stress. Various skin care products and cosmetics are not tolerated. A disturbed skin barrier function and reduced stratum corneum water content are most important in the pathophysiology of sensitive skin. Environmental factors and cosmetics may induce irritation of the skin because of the disturbed skin barrier. Of further importance for the pathogenesis are neurogenic factors including stress and hyper-excitability. Mechanisms in signal transduction involve cytokines and neurotransmitters, but the exact pathways are unknown.

  16. The male beard hair and facial skin - challenges for shaving.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Rietzler, M; Burghardt, R; Siebenhaar, F

    2016-06-01

    The challenge of shaving is to cut the beard hair as closely as possible to the skin without unwanted effects on the skin. To achieve this requires the understanding of beard hair and male facial skin biology as both, the beard hair and the male facial skin, contribute to the difficulties in obtaining an effective shave without shaving-induced skin irritation. Little information is available on the biology of beard hairs and beard hair follicles. We know that, in beard hairs, the density, thickness, stiffness, as well as the rates of elliptical shape and low emerging angle, are high and highly heterogeneous. All of this makes it challenging to cut it, and shaving techniques commonly employed to overcome these challenges include shaving with increased pressure and multiple stroke shaving, which increase the probability and extent of shaving-induced skin irritation. Several features of male facial skin pose problems to a perfect shave. The male facial skin is heterogeneous in morphology and roughness, and male skin has a tendency to heal slower and to develop hyperinflammatory pigmentation. In addition, many males exhibit sensitive skin, with the face most often affected. Finally, the hair follicle is a sensory organ, and the perifollicular skin is highly responsive to external signals including mechanical and thermal stimulation. Perifollicular skin is rich in vasculature, innervation and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This makes perifollicular skin a highly responsive and inflammatory system, especially in individuals with sensitive skin. Activation of this system, by shaving, can result in shaving-induced skin irritation. Techniques commonly employed to avoid shaving-induced skin irritation include shaving with less pressure, pre- and post-shave skin treatment and to stop shaving altogether. Recent advances in shaving technology have addressed some but not all of these issues. A better understanding of beard hairs, beard hair follicles and male

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome; update on pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M; Craig, Orla F

    2012-08-01

    The description of the de novo development of irritable bowel syndrome following an episode of bacterial gastroenteritis (pos-infectious irritable bowel syndrome) illustrated the potential for a luminal factor (a bacterial pathogen) to cause this common gastrointestinal ailment. As a consequence of these and other observations, as well as results of experiments involving animal models, the enteric flora and the immune response that it generates in the host have, somewhat surprisingly, come centre-stage in irritable bowel syndrome research, given their potential to induce the pathophysiological changes that are associated with irritable bowel syndrome. While evidence for immune dysfunction both in the mucosa and systemically continues to accumulate, methodological limitations have hampered a full delineation of the nature of the microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome. The latter is eagerly awaited and may yet provide a firm rationale for the use of certain probiotics and antibiotics in irritable bowel syndrome, whose benefits have now been described with some consistency. Despite its prevalence, there is a striking lack of effective therapeutic options for irritable bowel syndrome. While there is reason for optimism in the management of irritable bowel syndrome with several promising new agents currently undergoing clinical trials, confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these agents in wider patient populations is awaited. A clearer understanding of the physiopathologic mechanisms underlying irritable bowel syndrome, as well as of interrelationships between irritable bowel syndrome and other gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders, will likely be required before effective drug therapies can be found.

  18. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  19. Milnacipran is active in models of irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal visceral pain in rodents.

    PubMed

    Depoortère, Ronan; Meleine, Mathieu; Bardin, Laurent; Aliaga, Monique; Muller, Emilie; Ardid, Denis; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2011-12-15

    The role of antidepressants in the treatment of visceral pain has not been extensively examined. Milnacipran, a serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been approved in the USA for fibromyalgia, a chronic pathology characterized by diffused/chronic musculoskeletal pain, and a high prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. Here, we determined its antinociceptive efficacy in two visceral pain tests in rodents: the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice and the butyrate/colonic distension assay in rats, a model of irritable bowel syndrome. Acute milnacipran (5-40 mg/kgi.p.) significantly and dose-dependently reduced writhing (72.2 ± 3.2 versus 17.0 ± 4.1 writhes at 40 mg/kg). Following repeated administration (40 m/kgi.p. for 5 days), milnacipran preserved its ability to significantly reduce writhing (76 ± 8.3 versus 21.1 ± 6.7 writhes). Similarly, in the butyrate model, acute milnacipran (17.5 and 35 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly and dose-dependently increased cramps induction thresholds (from 45.7 ± 5.7 to 66.3 ± 4.8 and 75.6 ± 2.9 mm Hg, for 17.5 and 35 mg/kg, respectively) and reduced the number of cramps (from 3.0 ± 0.8 to 1.2 ± 0.8 and 0.3 ± 0.3 following inflation of an intra-rectal balloon. To summarise, milnacipran was efficacious in the writhing test, after acute and semi-chronic administration. This effect was confirmed after acute administration in a more specific model of colonic hypersensitivity induced by butyrate. This suggests that milnacipran has potential clinical application in the treatment of visceral pain, such as in irritable bowel syndrome, highly co-morbid with fibromyalgia.

  20. Glyphosate Poisoning with Acute Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Darshana Sudip; Khot, Rajashree; Joshi, P. P.; Pandharipande, Madhuri; Nagpure, Keshav

    2014-01-01

    GlySH-surfactant herbicide (GlySH), one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, has been considered as minimally toxic to humans. However, clinical toxicologists occasionally encounter cases of severe systemic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that ‘GlySH’ is of relatively low oral and acute dermal toxicity. It does not have anticholinesterase effect and no organophosphate-like central nervous system (CNS) effects. The clinical features range from skin and throat irritation to hypotension and death. Severe GlySH-surfactant poisoning is manifested by gastroenteritis, respiratory disturbances, altered mental status, hypotension refractory to the treatment, renal failure, and shock.[1] GlySH intoxication has a case fatality rate 3.2–29.3%. Pulmonary toxicity and renal toxicity seem to be responsible for mortality. Metabolic acidosis, abnormal chest X-ray, arrhythmias, and elevated serum creatinine levels are useful prognostic factors for predicting GlySH mortality.[2] There is no antidote and the mainstay of treatment for systemic toxicity is decontamination and aggressive supportive therapy. We report a case of acute pulmonary edema, which is a rare but severe manifestation of oral GlySH poisoning, where patient survived with aggressive supportive therapy. PMID:25948977

  1. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  2. Irritant bullous contact dermatitis caused by a rove beetle: an illustrated clinical course.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Lindsay; Piliouras, Peter; Robertson, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    A 26-year-old Australian female traveller in Sierra Leone presented with an irritant bullous contact dermatitis consistent with paederus dermatitis. The lesions were treated with a potent topical corticosteroid with good effect. The affected area resolved in 6 weeks and hyperpigmention persisted for months until complete resolution. This dermatitis occurs when beetles of the genus Paederus (rove beetles) are crushed on the skin, releasing pederin. The same dermatitis ensues with Australian Paederus species. Serial clinical photographs are presented which will aid Australian dermatologists in the diagnosis of this dermatitis, which presents in regional Australian patients and returned overseas travellers.

  3. Development of a multiparametric in vitro model of skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Gerault, Eloise; Platteel, Marion; Peschard, Olivier; Veron, Wilfried; Mondon, Philippe; Pascal, Svinareff; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2015-01-01

    Most animal experiments on cosmetics safety are prohibited and since March 2013, this obligation includes sensitization tests. However, until now there has been no validated alternative in vitro method. In this work, 400 compounds used in the cosmetic industry were selected to cover the greatest diversity of structures, biological activities and sensitizing potential. These molecules were submitted to a series of tests aimed at reproducing essential steps in sensitization and to distinguish between sensitization and irritations, i.e., transcutaneous permeation (factor A), haptenation (factor B), sensitization cytokines production (factor C) and acute toxicity (factor D). The transcutaneous diffusion was measured on human skin explants using Franz cells. Haptenation was tested in solution on human serum albumin. Sensitization cytokine production was investigated by measurement of interleukin-18 release by keratinocytes. Acute toxicity was determined using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(75) cell viability test. As only sufficiently stable, soluble and detectable compounds are usable, 33, 72, 68 and 68 molecules were finally tested on factors A, B, C and D, respectively, and 32 were completely screened by the four factors. The individual correlation of the four factors with the reference in vivo tests was limited but the combination of these factors led to a correlation between in vivo and in vitro assays of 81.2% and the safety of the test (risk of false negative) reached 96.8%. The techniques employed are simple and inexpensive and this model of four tests appears as a promising technique to evaluate in vitro the skin sensitization potential of unknown molecules.

  4. Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.

    PubMed

    Castranova, V; Frazer, D G; Manley, L K; Dey, R D

    2002-02-01

    Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.

  5. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  6. The aetiology and management of irritant diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Atherton, D J

    2001-09-01

    Irritant diaper dermatitis (IDD) is a common condition caused by the combination of wearing diapers, and incontinence of urine and faeces. The available evidence suggests that maceration of the stratum corneum by water increases susceptibility to frictional damage, and epidermal permeation of irritants. The most important irritants underlying IDD appear to be digestive enzymes persisting in faeces, particularly when these are activated by a high pH.

  7. TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkler, Phillip Edward; Ballard, Carrie Jo; Oxford, Gerry Stephen; Hurley, Joyce Harts

    2010-01-01

    The TRPA1 receptor is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels expressed in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 receptors are targeted by pungent compounds from mustard and garlic and environmental irritants such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Ingestion or inhalation of these chemical agents causes irritation and burning in the nasal and oral mucosa and respiratory lining. Headaches have been widely reported to be induced by inhalation of environmental irritants, but it is unclear how these agents produce headache. Stimulation of trigeminal neurons releases CGRP and substance P and induces neurogenic inflammation associated with the pain of migraine. Here we test the hypothesis that activation of TRPA1 receptors are the mechanistic link between environmental irritants and peptide mediated neurogenic inflammation. Known TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants stimulate CGRP release from dissociated rat trigeminal ganglia neurons and this release is blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Further, TRPA1 agonists and environmental irritants increase meningeal blood flow following intranasal administration. Prior dural application of the CGRP antagonist, CGRP8–37, or intranasal or dural administration of HC-030031, blocks the increases in blood flow elicited by environmental irritants. Together these results demonstrate that TRPA1 receptor activation by environmental irritants stimulates CGRP release and increases cerebral blood flow. We suggest that these events contribute to headache associated with environmental irritants. PMID:21075522

  8. Skin ph variations from the acute phase to re-epithelialization in burn patients treated with new materials (burnshield®, semipermeable adhesive film, dermasilk®, and hyalomatrix®). Non-invasive preliminary experimental clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Osti, E

    2008-06-30

    The aim of this trial was to measure the pH value of the skin of burn patients using a non-invasive method, from the acute phase through to complete re-epithelialization. The research was then completed by treating the patients with new materials and innovative methods to verify whether this had an effect on the skin pH and on re-epithelialization time. In this clinical trial, the patients were medicated repeatedly with hydrogel (Burnshield®) kept in place by a transparent, semipermeable adhesive film with a moisture vapour transmission rate equivalent to 1600 until day 5 or 6 post-burn. In one patient, treated silk (DermaSilk®) was applied several times until re-epithelialization; in another patient, synthetic hyaluronic acid (Hyalomatrix®) was applied. Various studies using Dermasilk® have confirmed that the fibroin in silk stimulates re-epithelialization, in addition to keeping the burned skin disinfected, thanks to the antimicrobial agent contained in the treated silk. Hyalomatrix® was used on the other patient, as in other studies, as a temporary substitute for the skin in deep burns. Late complications (keloids and hypertrophic scars) can give rise, even after prolonged periods of time, to Marjolin's ulcer (carcinoma but also melanoma and sarcoma), which can develop in the course of a year. A recent Danish trial affirms that appropriate burn treatment facilitates re-epithelialization and decreases the incidence of Marjolin's ulcer. For the trial, we used a centimetre-wide strip of reactive paper sensitive to pH variations and an acid test (Duotest® kit) as a reference, applied for more than one minute on the patient's burned and slightly damp skin. We performed control procedures on the patient's normal skin, away from the wound site. The pH was measured from day 1 post-burn and every other day thereafter until complete re-epithelialization. We found alkaline pH values for the burned skin from the day of the burn until day 12, with an alkaline pH peak

  9. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids.

  10. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Emotion Regulation, and Gut Microbiota].

    PubMed

    Fukudo, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined as a representative functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain and/or abdominal discomfort associated with abnormal bowel movement. Gut microbiota are related to the pathophysiology of IBS. In the field of IBS, post-infectious etiology, stress-induced alteration of microbiota, increased mucosal permeability, bacterial overgrowth, disease-specific microbiota, microbial products, and brain-gut interactions are being investigated. In some individuals, IBS develops after recovery from acute gastroenteritis known as post-infectious IBS. Gut microbiota in IBS patients differ from those in healthy individuals, and the profiles of gut microbiota in IBS patients also vary among IBS patients with constipation, diarrhea, and mixed subtypes. In Japan, gut microbiota in IBS patients also differ from those observed in healthy individuals, and organic acid by-products observed in the patients correlated with symptoms, quality of life, and alexithymia. Further research on gut microbiota in IBS patients is warranted.

  11. Managing irritable bowel syndrome in primary care.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Maura; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    The classic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are abdominal pain, bloating and some form of bowel dysfunction. The pain is typically colicky in nature and can occur at any site although most commonly it is on the left side. The abdomen feels flat in the morning and then gradually becomes more bloated as the day progresses reaching a peak by late afternoon or evening. It then subsides again over night. Traditionally IBS is divided into diarrhoea, constipation or alternating subtypes. IBS patients frequently complain of one or more non-colonic symptoms, these include constant lethargy, low backache, nausea, bladder symptoms suggestive of an irritable bladder, chest pain and dyspareunia in women. The traditional view that IBS is a largely psychological condition is no longer tenable. Rectal bleeding, a family history of malignancy and a short history in IBS should always be treated with suspicion. Both pain and bowel dysfunction are often made worse by eating. It is recommended that a coeliac screening test is undertaken to rule out this condition. Other routine tests should include inflammatory markers such as CRP or ESR. Calprotectin is a marker for leukocytes in the stools and detects gastrointestinal inflammation. A negative test almost certainly rules out inflammatory bowel disease, especially in conjunction with a normal CRP. Fermentable carbohydrates can have a detrimental effect on IBS and this has led to the introduction of the low FODMAP diet.

  12. In vitro alternatives for ocular irritation.

    PubMed

    Curren, R D; Harbell, J W

    1998-04-01

    The necessity of using animals to test whether new chemicals and products are eye irritants has been questioned with increasing frequency and fervor over the last 20 years. During this time many new nonanimal methods have been proposed as reliable alternatives to the traditional rabbit (Draize) test. To date, however, none of these nonanimal (in vitro) tests have become universally accepted as a complete replacement for the Draize test. To understand why a complete replacement has not been found, one has to first understand the reasonably complex structure of the eye, the standard Draize scoring scale--which is based on a qualitative evaluation of three different tissues--the differences between human and rabbit eyes, the intrinsic variability of the animal test, and the details of the different in vitro tests that have been proposed as replacements. The in vitro tests vary from relatively simple assays using single cells to more sophisticated assays that use discarded animal tissue or artificially constructed human tissue. It is clear that appropriately designed in vitro tests will eventually give more useful mechanistic information about ocular injury from which we can more comfortably predict the risk of human eye irritation from new products and ingredients.

  13. In vitro alternatives for ocular irritation.

    PubMed Central

    Curren, R D; Harbell, J W

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of using animals to test whether new chemicals and products are eye irritants has been questioned with increasing frequency and fervor over the last 20 years. During this time many new nonanimal methods have been proposed as reliable alternatives to the traditional rabbit (Draize) test. To date, however, none of these nonanimal (in vitro) tests have become universally accepted as a complete replacement for the Draize test. To understand why a complete replacement has not been found, one has to first understand the reasonably complex structure of the eye, the standard Draize scoring scale--which is based on a qualitative evaluation of three different tissues--the differences between human and rabbit eyes, the intrinsic variability of the animal test, and the details of the different in vitro tests that have been proposed as replacements. The in vitro tests vary from relatively simple assays using single cells to more sophisticated assays that use discarded animal tissue or artificially constructed human tissue. It is clear that appropriately designed in vitro tests will eventually give more useful mechanistic information about ocular injury from which we can more comfortably predict the risk of human eye irritation from new products and ingredients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9599696

  14. Halobetasol propionate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for skin targeting by topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Bikkad, Mahesh L; Nathani, Ajaz H; Mandlik, Satish K; Shrotriya, Shilpa N; Ranpise, Nisharani S

    2014-06-01

    The clinical use of halobetasol propionate (HP) is related to some adverse effects like irritation, pruritus and stinging. The purpose of this work was to construct HP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (HP-SLN) formulation with skin targeting to minimizing the adverse side effects and providing a controlled release. HP-SLN were prepared by solvent injection method and formula was optimized by the application of 3(2) factorial design. The nanoparticulate dispersion was evaluated for particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE). Optimized batch was characterized for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction study and finally incorporated into polymeric gels of carbopol for convenient application. The nanoparticulate gels were evaluated comparatively with the commercial product with respect to ex-vivo skin permeation and deposition study on human cadaver skins and finally skin irritation study. HP-SLN showed average size between 200 nm and 84-94% EE. DSC studies revealed no drug-excipient incompatibility and amorphous dispersed of HP in SLN. Ex vivo study of HP-SLN loaded gel exhibited prolonged drug release up to 12 h where as in vitro drug deposition and skin irritation studies showed that HP-SLN formulation can avoid the systemic uptake, better accumulative uptake of the drug and nonirritant to the skin compared to marketed formulation. These results indicate that the studied HP-SLN formulation represent a promising carrier for topical delivery of HP, having controlled drug release, and potential of skin targeting with no skin irritation.

  15. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  16. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  17. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  18. THE USE OF SILICONES TO PROTECT THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Grant

    1954-01-01

    Silicote® ointment was used as a protective covering for the skin in the treatment of 107 patients with various kinds of dermatologic disease. In 83 the disease was cured or effectively controlled. It was particularly effective in conditions caused or aggravated by water-soluble or oil-soluble irritants. PMID:13116024

  19. Advanced therapies of skin injuries.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Kleinschek, Karin Stana; Raščan, Irena Mlinarič; Smrke, Dragica Maja

    2015-12-01

    The loss of tissue is still one of the most challenging problems in healthcare. Efficient laboratory expansion of skin tissue to reproduce the skins barrier function can make the difference between life and death for patients with extensive full-thickness burns, chronic wounds, or genetic disorders such as bullous conditions. This engineering has been initiated based on the acute need in the 1980s and today, tissue-engineered skin is the reality. The human skin equivalents are available not only as models for permeation and toxicity screening, but are frequently applied in vivo as clinical skin substitutes. This review aims to introduce the most important recent development in the extensive field of tissue engineering and to describe already approved, commercially available skin substitutes in clinical use.

  20. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  2. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S.; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to…

  3. Natural considerations for skin of color.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie; Rodriguez, David; Taylor, Susan C; Wu, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    Changing US demographics indicate that dermatologists will treat an increasing number of individuals of color. Early research on cutaneous anatomy and physiology was performed mostly in white populations. However, new research is elucidating similarities and differences in skin of color and white skin with regard to skin barrier, pigmentation, and sensitivity. Two of the most important issues are skin lightening and brightening. Products for use on skin of color typically should be gentle because of the proclivity of more deeply pigmented skin to develop pigmentary abnormalities in response to skin irritation or trauma. Increasing patient interest in natural remedies has been matched by research on the use of natural ingredients in dermatology. The relative gentleness of many of these products, coupled with excellent efficacy, makes natural ingredients such as soy and licorice excellent choices in the treatment of disorders such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and melasma. For daily skin care, ingredients such as oatmeal and feverfew are good choices for gentle cleansing and moisturizing of dry, sensitive, or ashy skin. Sun protection is an increasing concern due to rising rates of melanoma. Several botanical products are useful in augmenting photoprotection with conventional sunscreens.

  4. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  5. Beneficial effects of softened fabrics on atopic skin.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, J F; Goffin, V; Arrese, J E; Rodriguez, C; Piérard, G E

    2001-01-01

    There is general concern about the possible cutaneous adverse effects of wearing garments treated with household laundry products, particularly on atopic skin. Our objective was to compare softened and non- softened fabrics in a forearm wet and dry test, under conditions simulating real-life conditions. Twenty atopic volunteers entered a single-blind 12-day (3 sessions per day) forearm wetting and drying test. Cotton fabrics were machine washed and liquid fabric conditioner was added or not to the final rinse. To simulate conditions of skin damage, a dilute solution of sodium lauryl sulphate was applied under occlusion to the forearm of each volunteer before the start of the study. Skin effects were evaluated by visual grading (redness, dryness and smoothness), squamometry and in vivo instrumental measurements (capacitance, transepidermal water loss and colorimetry). Rubbing of atopic skin with fabrics generally resulted in discrete to moderate alterations of the structure of the stratum corneum. Both for control and pre-irritated skin, all measured parameters indicated that softened fabric was less aggressive to the skin than unsoftened fabric. In the case of pre-irritated skin, the recovery of the skin was significantly faster when rubbed with softened than with unsoftened fabrics. In conclusion, softened fabrics help mitigate the skin condition in atopic patients.

  6. Effects of softened and unsoftened fabrics on sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Arrese, J E; Rodríguez, C; Daskaleros, P A

    1994-05-01

    The effects of softened fabrics on the skin were evaluated by a forearm wet and dry test, under conditions simulating real-life skin contact with fabrics. 15 volunteers with sensitive skin according to dermatological assessment and their own recognition entered a double-blind 12 day, 3 sessions per day, forearm wetting and drying test, using cotton fabrics washed with a powder detergent and softened or not with a liquid fabric conditioner. To simulate conditions of skin damage, a dilute solution of sodium lauryl sulfate was applied under patch to the forearm before the start of the study. Skin effects were evaluated by visual grading (redness, dryness and smoothness), by noninvasive skin stripping and measuring of Chroma C* (squamometry), and by instrumental measurements (capacitance, transepidermal water loss, and colorimetry). Both the unsoftened and softened fabrics induced no deleterious effects on control or previously irritated skin. Furthermore, a mild beneficial effect was observed with the softened fabrics, particularly on previously irritated skin. The study findings suggest that softened fabrics may exert a reduced frictional effect on the skin.

  7. Interleukin-17A Promotes Arginase-1 Production and 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Acute Hyperinflammation in Human Papillomavirus E7 Oncoprotein-Expressing Skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Frazer, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evoked numerous mechanisms to subvert host innate immunity and establish a local immunosuppressive environment to facilitate persistent virus infection. Topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was speculated to overcome this immunosuppressive environment and was employed in the immunotherapy of HPV-associated lesions. We have previously shown that DNCB treatment of skin expressing HPV16.E7 protein, the major oncogenic protein expressed in HPV-associated premalignant cervical epithelium, results in a hyperinflammatory response, with an associated induction of Th2 cytokines and infiltration of myeloid cells producing arginase-1, which also contributes to the hyperinflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying arginase-1 induction and arginase-mediated hyperinflammation in K14.E7 skin have not been elucidated. Here, we show that HPV16.E7 protein expression as a transgene in skin is associated with enhanced IL-17A production by macrophages exposed to DNCB. Interestingly, induction of arginase-1 by DNCB is not seen in K14.E7 animals unable to express IL-17A. Further, blockade of either IL-17A or arginase activity alleviates DNCB-induced hyperinflammation through reduced recruitment of neutrophils, as a consequence of decreased CXCL1 and CXCL5 chemokine production. Thus, our findings suggest that increased IL-17A expression by macrophages in E7-expressing skin exposed to DNCB promotes arginase-1 induction and contributes directly to the observed hyperinflammation.

  8. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  9. Food components and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter R; Varney, Jane; Malakar, Sreepurna; Muir, Jane G

    2015-05-01

    Ingestion of food has long been linked with gut symptoms, and there is increasing interest in using diet in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The West has developed an intense interest in specialized, restrictive diets, such as those that target multiple food groups, avoid gluten, or reduce fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols. However, most gastroenterologists are not well educated about diets or their effects on the gut. It is important to understand the various dietary approaches, their putative mechanisms, the evidence that supports their use, and the benefits or harm they might produce. The concepts behind, and delivery of, specialized diets differ from those of pharmacologic agents. High-quality research is needed to determine the efficacy of different dietary approaches and the place of specific strategies.

  10. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  12. An approach for the delineation of a generic cut-off value for local respiratory tract irritation by irritating or corrosive substances as a pragmatic tool to fulfill REACH requirements.

    PubMed

    Messinger, H

    2014-04-01

    Under the current European legislation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals (REACHs) a Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) has to be delineated for acute and chronic inhalation effects. The majority of available experimental studies are performed by the oral route of exposure. Route to route extrapolation poses particular problems for irritating or corrosive substances but the necessity for additional animal studies with inhalation exposure needs to be balanced with the regulatory information requirements. Existing occupational exposure limits (OEL) as surrogate for cut-off limits representing safe exposure under working conditions were grouped under certain criteria for substances that are legally classified in Europe as irritating or corrosive. As a result, it was shown that the OEL for irritating substances in this dataset is not lower than 10mg/m(3) and for corrosives not lower than 1mg/m(3). Under certain conditions these generic limits could be applied as a pragmatic, but still sufficiently reliable and protective upper cut-off limit approach to avoid additional animal tests with irritating or corrosive chemicals. The respective systemic toxicity profiles and physical-chemical properties need to be considered. Specific exclusion criteria for the discussed concept apply.

  13. Assessment of Acute Toxicity of Hexachloroethane in Laboratory Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-09

    camphoraceous odor, readily sublimes without meltinq and is solubl,: in alcohol. benzene, chloroform, ether and oil: insoluble in water. It is used as a solvent...in explosives, as ý camphor suostitute in celluloid, and as a rubber vulcanizing accelerator.’ It is used in veterinary practice as an anthelminthic...moderately toxic orally, produced reversible eye irritation and little or no skin irritation. Although it sublimes at room temperature

  14. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  15. Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations.

    PubMed

    Salinas, M L; Ogura, T; Soffchi, L

    2001-02-01

    It was found that needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03 ml) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500 microm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle the agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only 1/3 of workers in agave plantations who harvest agave plants, complain of the irritation. It is confirmed that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the worker's skin in the course of their work.

  16. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  17. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe; Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Kezic, Sanja; Agner, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Wet work tasks are the most common exposures leading to occupational irritant contact dermatitis. Use of liquid-proof gloves is recommended when performing wet work, however, gloves may also contribute to impairment of the skin barrier and development of irritant contact dermatitis. The aim of this study is to review the literature on the effects of glove occlusion on skin barrier function. The PubMed database was searched up to 1 February 2015 for articles on the association between glove occlusion and skin barrier function, including human studies only and in English. Only experimental studies including assessment of the skin barrier function were included in the data analysis. Thirteen articles were identified, 8 with focus on occlusion alone, 7 with focus on occlusion in combination with irritant exposure (some overlapping), and 2 field studies. In conclusion, data from the literature showed that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused by detergents/soaps in a dose-response fashion.

  18. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is a common side effect that affects the majority of cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. RISR is often characterised by swelling, redness, pigmentation, fibrosis, and ulceration, pain, warmth, burning, and itching of the skin. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of interventions which aim to prevent or manage RISR in people with cancer. Methods We searched the following databases up to November 2012: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), CINAHL (from 1981) and LILACS (from 1982). Randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for preventing or managing RISR in cancer patients were included. The primary outcomes were development of RISR, and levels of RISR and symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were time taken to develop erythema or dry desquamation; quality of life; time taken to heal, a number of skin reaction and symptom severity measures; cost, participant satisfaction; ease of use and adverse effects. Where appropriate, we pooled results of randomized controlled trials using mean differences (MD) or odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Forty-seven studies were included in this review. These evaluated six types of interventions (oral systemic medications; skin care practices; steroidal topical therapies; non-steroidal topical therapies; dressings and other). Findings from two meta-analyses demonstrated significant benefits of oral Wobe-Mugos E for preventing RISR (OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.38)) and limiting the maximal level of RISR (MD -0.92 (95% CI -1.36 to -0.48)). Another meta-analysis reported that wearing deodorant does not influence the development of RISR (OR 0.80 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.37)). Conclusions Despite the high number of trials in this area, there is limited good, comparative research that provides definitive results suggesting the

  19. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea.

    PubMed

    Nichols, K; Desai, N; Lebwohl, M G

    1998-06-01

    Patients with rosacea are particularly susceptible to the irritation caused by sunscreen ingredients. The purpose of this bilateral comparison study was to examine the effects of different ingredients found in sunscreen on facial cutaneous irritancy in patients with rosacea. patients clinically diagnosed with rosacea were asked to test different preparations of common sunscreens on their faces. The results show that the presence or absence of appropriate protective ingredients, such as dimethicone and cyclomethicone in the vehicle, may prevent irritation from other sunscreen ingredients in patients with inflammatory conditions such as rosacea.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome: modern concepts and management options.

    PubMed

    Sayuk, Gregory S; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2015-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, manifesting as abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel function. Despite affecting as many as 20% of adults, a lack of understanding of etiopathogenesis and evaluation strategies results in diagnostic uncertainty, and in turn frustration of both the physician and the patient. This review summarizes the current literature on the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome, with attention to evidence-based approaches. A 4-step treatment strategy that has been used successfully in our tertiary referral practice is presented and should lead to successful therapeutic outcomes in the majority of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  1. Non-thermic skin affections.

    PubMed

    Broz, L; Kripner, J

    2000-01-01

    The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate.

  2. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  3. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  4. Changes in skin barrier during treatment with systemic alitretinoin: focus on skin susceptibility and stratum corneum ceramides.

    PubMed

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie K; Hellgren, Lars I; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2010-11-01

    Alitretinoin is a new drug for systemic treatment of chronic hand eczema. Previous functional tests of skin topically treated with retinoids have indicated impaired skin barrier function, but no data are available on barrier parameters after systemic alitretinoin treatment. To investigate the effect of systemic alitretinoin on skin barrier function and response to irritants, a secondary objective was to determine if changes occur in the lipid profile of stratum corneum after treatment with systemic alitretinoin. We conducted an open clinical intervention study on eight people ascribed to systemic alitretinoin treatment. The criteria for being ascribed to alitretinoin were chronic hand eczema and insufficient therapeutic response to potent topical corticosteroids. Before initiation and after 2 months of systemic treatment with 30 mg alitretinoin, a challenge with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was performed on the volar forearm and evaluated by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and a cyanoacrylate skin sample was obtained for lipid analysis. We found no significant changes in response to SLS irritation as evaluated by TEWL and erythema, after treatment with alitretinoin for 2 months. No significant changes in stratum corneum lipids were found after 2 months of treatment. In conclusion, systemic alitretinoin does not influence skin susceptibility to irritants or the ceramide profile of stratum corneum.

  5. Autonomic function at rest and in response to emotional and rectal stimuli in women with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B

    2008-06-01

    Our aim was to study autonomic function in patients with Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) without constipation and psychiatric comorbidity. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) (representing cardiac vagal activity), skin conductance (representing sympathetic activity) and heart rate were measured at baseline and as a response to emotional stress and rectal discomfort in 33 women with IBS and 21 healthy women. Baseline heart rate was higher in the patients than in the healthy volunteers. Both groups had decreased RSA and increased heart rate and skin conductance level when exposed to emotional stress, but the autonomic responses did not differ significantly between the groups. At discomfort threshold the patients had increased heart rate response and skin conductance amplitude when compared to the healthy volunteers. Correlations between autonomic responses and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) score differed markedly between the diarrhea-predominant IBS patients and the IBS patients with alternating stool habits.

  6. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  7. Esophageal irritation due to alendronate sodium tablets: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Peter, C P; Handt, L K; Smith, S M

    1998-09-01

    Animal studies were done using an in vivo dog model to examine the possible mechanism for the esophageal adverse events reported with alendronate sodium tablets. These studies showed that under low pH conditions alendronate sodium can cause esophageal irritation. No esophageal irritation occurred at pH 3.5 or higher where the drug exists primarily as the sodium salt. The animal studies also showed that alendronate sodium can exacerbate preexisting esophageal damage. Exposure of the esophageal mucosa for a prolonged period to alendronate sodium tablet can also cause mild esophageal irritation. These findings suggest that the esophageal irritation in patients taking Fosamax can be from prolonged contact with the tablet, reflux of acidic gastric contents with alendronate sodium, and exacerbation of preexisting esophageal damage. The findings also suggest that other bisphosphonates can cause esophageal injury under similar conditions.

  8. Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Chilimuri, Sridhar; Bella, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors including hypersensitivity of the bowel, altered bowel motility, inflammation and stress. Initial studies have shown familial aggregation of IBS suggesting shared genetic or environmental factors. Twin studies of IBS from different parts of world have shown higher concordance rates among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, and thus suggesting a genetic component to this disorder. Multiple studies have tried to link single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to IBS but there is little evidence that these SNPs are functional. Various molecules have been studied and investigated by the researchers. Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter and a local hormone in the enteric nervous system, has been most extensively explored. At this time, the underlying gene pathways, genes and functional variants linked with IBS remain unknown and the promise of genetically-determined risk prediction and personalize medicine remain unfulfilled. However, molecular biological technologies continue to evolve rapidly and genetic investigations offer much promise in the intervention, treatment and prevention of IBS. PMID:26525775

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suares, Nicole C; Ford, Alexander C

    2011-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The exact cause is unknown. The diagnosis should be made on clinical grounds, using symptom-based criteria such as the Manning or Rome criteria, unless symptoms are thought to be atypical. Excluding celiac disease in all patients consulting with symptoms suggestive of IBS is worthwhile, but evidence for performing other investigations to exclude organic disease is not convincing. No medical therapy for IBS has been shown to alter the disease course, and treatment has traditionally been directed towards symptom relief. The aim should be to improve the predominant symptom reported by the patient. Fiber, peppermint oil, or antispasmodic agents are beneficial as first-line therapies in some patients. Where these fail, emerging data have confirmed the efficacy of antidepressants, drugs acting on the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, and probiotics in the short-term treatment of IBS. There are a number of novel therapies under development that show promise, including non-absorbable antibiotics, lubiprostone, and linaclotide. This article will provide a summary of diagnostic criteria for IBS, evidence to support investigations to exclude organic disease, and current and emerging therapies in this field.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Passananti, Valentina; De Carlo, Giovanni; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western countries. Despite the high prevalence of this disorders, the therapeutic management of these patients is often unsatisfactory. A number of factors have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS, including impaired motility and sensitivity, increased permeability, changes in the gut microbiome and alterations in the brain-gut axis. Also food seems to play a critical role: the most of IBS patients report the onset or the exacerbation of their symptoms after the meals. Recently, an increasing attention has been paid to the role of food in IBS. In this review we summarize the most recent evidences about the role of diet on IBS symptoms. A diet restricted in fermentable, poorly absorbed carbohydrates and sugar alcohols has beneficial effects on IBS symptoms. More studies are needed to improve our knowledge about the relationship between food and IBS. However, in the foreseeable future, dietary strategies will represent one of the key tools in the therapeutic management of patients with IBS.

  11. Emerging treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joseph; Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2002-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional GI disorder that is associated with abdominal discomfort and altered bowel habits. It accounts for up to 28% of patients presenting to a gastroenterology practice and poses a significant personal, societal and economic burden internationally. The Manning, Rome I and Rome II criteria were developed to identify appropriate IBS patients for entry into IBS studies in a consistent manner. Refinements in the understanding of the physiology of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which controls motility, secretion and sensation, provided the basis for our comprehension of the pathophysiology of IBS. Visceral hypersensitivity and neurotransmitter imbalance currently receive the most attention as possible mechanisms of IBS. This article outlines conventional treatments and reviews the data on emerging and experimental therapies for IBS. Emerging therapies for IBS using 5-HT mediation include 5-HT(3) antagonists, such as ondasetron, granisetron and alosetron, as well as 5-HT(4) agonists such as tegaserod and prucalopride. In addition to opioid agonists (e.g. fedotozine) several other drugs that act on other ENS receptors are being studied. In spite of significant progress in IBS research, these emerging therapies require more studies before they can be utilised as clinical treatments.

  12. The Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Kirsten; De Lee, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional bowel disorder routinely encountered by healthcare providers. Although not life-threatening, this chronic disorder reduces patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the healthcare system. IBS is no longer considered a diagnosis of exclusion that can only be made after performing a battery of expensive diagnostic tests. Rather, IBS should be confidently diagnosed in the clinic at the time of the first visit using the Rome III criteria and a careful history and physical examination. Treatment options for IBS have increased in number in the past decade and clinicians should not be limited to using only fiber supplements and smooth muscle relaxants. Although all patients with IBS have symptoms of abdominal pain and disordered defecation, treatment needs to be individualized and should focus on the predominant symptom. This paper will review therapeutic options for the treatment of IBS using a tailored approach based on the predominant symptom. Abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea are the four main symptoms that can be addressed using a combination of dietary interventions and medications. Treatment options include probiotics, antibiotics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and agents that modulate chloride channels and serotonin. Each class of agent will be reviewed using the latest data from the literature. PMID:21180545

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome and food interaction

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Passananti, Valentina; De Carlo, Giovanni; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western countries. Despite the high prevalence of this disorders, the therapeutic management of these patients is often unsatisfactory. A number of factors have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS, including impaired motility and sensitivity, increased permeability, changes in the gut microbiome and alterations in the brain-gut axis. Also food seems to play a critical role: the most of IBS patients report the onset or the exacerbation of their symptoms after the meals. Recently, an increasing attention has been paid to the role of food in IBS. In this review we summarize the most recent evidences about the role of diet on IBS symptoms. A diet restricted in fermentable, poorly absorbed carbohydrates and sugar alcohols has beneficial effects on IBS symptoms. More studies are needed to improve our knowledge about the relationship between food and IBS. However, in the foreseeable future, dietary strategies will represent one of the key tools in the therapeutic management of patients with IBS. PMID:25083057

  14. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified.

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: emerging paradigm in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Kyung Sik

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. These symptoms cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and there is no specific laboratory test or biomarker for IBS. Therefore, IBS is classified as a functional disorder with diagnosis dependent on the history taking about manifested symptoms and careful physical examination. Although a great deal of research has been carried out in this area, the pathophysiology of IBS is complex and not completely understood. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the symptoms in IBS patients; altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, and the brain-gut interaction are important classical concepts in IBS pathophysiology. New areas of research in this arena include inflammation, postinfectious low-grade inflammation, genetic and immunologic factors, an altered microbiota, dietary factors, and enteroendocrine cells. These emerging studies have not shown consistent results, provoking controversy in the IBS field. However, certain lines of evidence suggest that these mechanisms are important at least a subset of IBS patients, confirming that IBS symptoms cannot be explained by a single etiological mechanism. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that IBS requires a more holistic approach to determining effective treatment and understanding the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jasbir; Chilimuri, Sridhar; Bella, Jonathan N

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors including hypersensitivity of the bowel, altered bowel motility, inflammation and stress. Initial studies have shown familial aggregation of IBS suggesting shared genetic or environmental factors. Twin studies of IBS from different parts of world have shown higher concordance rates among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, and thus suggesting a genetic component to this disorder. Multiple studies have tried to link single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to IBS but there is little evidence that these SNPs are functional. Various molecules have been studied and investigated by the researchers. Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter and a local hormone in the enteric nervous system, has been most extensively explored. At this time, the underlying gene pathways, genes and functional variants linked with IBS remain unknown and the promise of genetically-determined risk prediction and personalize medicine remain unfulfilled. However, molecular biological technologies continue to evolve rapidly and genetic investigations offer much promise in the intervention, treatment and prevention of IBS.

  17. The Intestinal Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Yehuda; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent and the best studied functional gastrointestinal disorder. The etiology and the pathogenesis of IBS are still not clear; however, recent studies have implicated a role for alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Epidemiological observations have demonstrated that the development of IBS symptoms is often preceded by a disruption of the individual's normal intestinal microbiota, and microbiological studies have demonstrated compositional differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with IBS patients and healthy controls. In addition, animal studies and a few recent human clinical studies have demonstrated that compositional changes in the intestinal microbiota in IBS are associated with relevant abnormal gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis functions that are often observed in patients with IBS. This article discusses points of interest from the current research on the microbiota-gut-brain interactions in IBS and highlights the relevance of the emerging data to our understanding of the disorder and the clinical implications for patients' care.

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome, gut microbiota and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized.

  19. Pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol in a child.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Albayrak, Hulya; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2015-03-01

    Pustular irritant contact dermatitis is rare and unusual clinic form of contact dermatitis. Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It is widely used in cosmetics and topical medical products for several purposes. We present the case of 8-year-old girl with pustules over erythematous and eczematous areas on the face and neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported that is diagnosed as pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol.

  20. Structural elucidation and estimation of the acute toxicity of the major UV-visible photoproduct of fludioxonil - detection in both skin and flesh samples of grape.

    PubMed

    Lassalle, Yannick; Nicol, Édith; Genty, Christophe; Bourcier, Sophie; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible irradiation of fludioxonil was investigated with two photoreactors using either a mercury or xenon vapor lamp. In both cases, it led to the formation of only one photoproduct in significant amount: 2-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-4-yl)-2-(nitrosomethylene)-4-oxobutanenitrile, which has been characterized using Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution - Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS) coupling. A photolysis pathway has been proposed to rationalize its formation in degassed water. In vitro bioassays on Vibrio fischeri bacteria showed that UV-vis irradiation of an aqueous solution of fludioxonil significantly increases its toxicity. Because no other by-product was detected in significant amount, the photoproduct mentioned above may be considered mainly responsible for this increase in toxicity. Grape berries treated with a 50 ppm aqueous solution of fludioxonil were submitted to UV-visible irradiation under laboratory conditions. The fungicide and photoproduct were detected in both skin and flesh of berries, even after they have been rinsed with water. The ability of the photoproduct to pass through the fruit skin is comparable with that of fludioxonil. These results are of concern for consumers because they mean that water tap rinsing does not lead to efficient removing of both compounds.

  1. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  2. Behavioral evaluation of the irritating properties of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Tepper, J.S.; Wood, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    The sensory irritant properties of ozone have been considered to be responsible for symptoms that occur in humans after exposure. This assumption has not been studied explicitly. One way to assess the aversive properties of airborne irritants is to give the exposed individual an opportunity to control the duration of exposure, i.e., escape from the irritant. Mice were trained to turn off 1000-ppm ammonia, a concentration that, in humans, is irritating to the upper airways. Each mouse could terminate irritant delivery for 1 min by inserting its nose five times into one of two conical response sensors. After the determination of ammonia concentration-effect curves, ozone was substituted for ammonia. Ozone exposures were alternated every other day with ammonia as a control for any changes that might occur as a result of repeated ozone exposure. Ozone reliably maintained escape behavior. Additional mice with no history of ammonia termination were trained to terminate ozone exposure, indicating that the aversive properties of ozone were not dependent on previous experience with other airborne irritants. As the concentration of ozone increased from 0.25 to 24 ppm, the number of escape responses increased, and the duration of ozone tolerated decreased. Ozone concentrations of 0.5 ppm or greater were significantly more aversive than control.

  3. Executive functioning, irritability, and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior.

  4. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    PubMed

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    The notification procedure of the European Union (EU) for new chemicals requires the application of protocols on physicochemical and toxicological tests for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and probable toxic effects of each notified substance. A computerised database was developed from data sets and toxicological test protocols relating to substance properties responsible for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. To develop specific structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and to find rules for a decision support system (DSS) to predict local irritation/corrosion, physical property data, chemical structure data and toxicological data for approximately 1300 chemicals, each having a purity of 95% or more, were evaluated. The evaluation demonstrated that the lipid solubility and aqueous solubility of a chemical are relevant to, or - in some cases - responsible for, the observed local effects of a substance on the skins and eyes of rabbits. The octanol/water partition coefficient and the measured value of the surface tension of a saturated aqueous solution of the substance give additional information that permits the definition of detailed SAR algorithms that use measured solubility values. Data on melting points and vapour pressure can be used to assess the intensity and duration of local contact with a chemical. Considerations relating to the reactivity of a pure chemical can be based on molecular weight and the nature of the heteroatoms present. With respect to local lesions produced following contact with the skin and eyes of rabbits, the data evaluation revealed that no general "local irritation/corrosion potential" of a chemical can be defined. A variety of mechanisms are responsible for the formation of local lesions on the skin or in the eyes: serious lesions are produced by mechanisms different from those that cause moderate irritation in these organs. In order to develop a DSS that uses the information extracted from the database, chemical main

  5. Scabies: more than just an irritation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J; Kemp, D; Walton, S; Currie, B

    2004-01-01

    Human scabies, caused by skin infestation with the arthropod mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, typically results in a papular, intensely pruritic eruption involving the interdigital spaces, and flexure creases. Recent research has led to a reassessment of the morbidity attributable to this parasite in endemic communities, particularly resulting from secondary skin sepsis and postinfective complications including glomerulonephritis. This has led to studies of the benefits of community based control programmes, and to concerns regarding the emergence of drug resistance when such strategies are employed. The renewed research interest into the biology of this infection has resulted in the application of molecular tools. This has established that canine and human scabies populations are genetically distinct, a finding with major implications for the formulation of public health control policies. Further research is needed to increase understanding of drug resistance, and to identify new drug targets and potential vaccine candidates. PMID:15254301

  6. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep: significantly increased penetration through slightly damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-11-01

    The OECD guideline for studies on percutaneous penetration to be used in hazard and risk evaluations prescribes experimental conditions with optimal barrier integrity of the skin, which in many occupational settings probably is not true. Thus, workers may have compromised skin due to chemical or mechanical damage, due to different medical conditions (eczema, dermatitis, skin irritation) or related to occupational scenarios involving prolonged wet work. The present study used the OECD guideline procedures to study the in vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of a number of model substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present study demonstrates that a limited damage to the skin significantly increases the permeability coefficient (K (p)) as well as total percutaneous penetration of chemicals, and most significantly for those compounds that due to their physicochemical characteristics (the most hydrophilic as well as the most lipophilic) have low penetration rates through intact skin. The present experiment not only confirms the proportionality between lipophilicity and potential for percutaneous penetration, but also illustrates that at a certain degree of lipophilicity of a model compound, the different skin compartments become more attractive for temporary deposition of model compounds. Moreover, a clear change from epidermal deposition towards a dominating dermis deposition of chemicals temporarily deposited within the skin is seen following damage to the skin barrier. Thus, the distribution of chemicals within the skin compartments is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemicals as well as by the integrity of the skin. This observation may have implications when evaluating

  7. Topical application of a platelet activating factor receptor agonist suppresses phorbol ester-induced acute and chronic inflammation and has cancer chemopreventive activity in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ravi P; Rezania, Samin; Ocana, Jesus A; DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia C; Bradish, Joshua R; Richey, Justin D; Warren, Simon J; Rashid, Badri; Travers, Jeffrey B; Konger, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has long been associated with acute edema and inflammatory responses. PAF acts by binding to a specific G-protein coupled receptor (PAF-R, Ptafr). However, the role of chronic PAF-R activation on sustained inflammatory responses has been largely ignored. We recently demonstrated that mice lacking the PAF-R (Ptafr-/- mice) exhibit increased cutaneous tumorigenesis in response to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Ptafr-/- mice also exhibited increased chronic inflammation in response to phorbol ester application. In this present study, we demonstrate that topical application of the non-hydrolysable PAF mimetic (carbamoyl-PAF (CPAF)), exerts a potent, dose-dependent, and short-lived edema response in WT mice, but not Ptafr -/- mice or mice deficient in c-Kit (c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice). Using an ear inflammation model, co-administration of topical CPAF treatment resulted in a paradoxical decrease in both acute ear thickness changes associated with a single PMA application, as well as the sustained inflammation associated with chronic repetitive PMA applications. Moreover, mice treated topically with CPAF also exhibited a significant reduction in chemical carcinogenesis. The ability of CPAF to suppress acute and chronic inflammatory changes in response to PMA application(s) was PAF-R dependent, as CPAF had no effect on basal or PMA-induced inflammation in Ptafr-/- mice. Moreover, c-Kit appears to be necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPAF, as CPAF had no observable effect in c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These data provide additional evidence that PAF-R activation exerts complex immunomodulatory effects in a model of chronic inflammation that is relevant to neoplastic development.

  8. Radioprotective Properties of Indralin in Combination with Monizol in the Treatment of Local Acute and Delayed Radiation Injuries Caused by Local Skin γ-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vasin, M V; Ushakov, I B; Kovtun, V Yu; Semenova, L A; Komarova, S N; Galkin, A A; Afanas'ev, R V

    2015-10-01

    Female rats were exposed to local γ-irradiation of the right hindpaw in doses of 30-50 Gy at 131-154 sGy/min dose rate. Radioprotector indralin was administered per os 15 min prior to irradiation, monizol was injected intraperitoneally 5 min after irradiation. Indralin showed marked radioprotective properties both for acute and delayed symptoms of local radiation injuries. In combination with monizol, radioprotective effect of indralin was potentiated to dose reduction factor of 1.4-1.5 both for radiation burn severity reduction and for restriction of postradiational contracture development and amputation of the irradiated limb.

  9. Potency of irritation by benzylidenemalononitriles in humans correlates with TRPA1 ion channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Christopher D.; Green, Christopher; Bird, Mike; Jones, James T. A.; Riches, James R.; McKee, Katherine K.; Sandford, Mark S.; Wakefield, Debra A.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the physiological activity of solid aerosolized benzylidenemalononitriles (BMNs) including ‘tear gas’ (CS) in historic human volunteer trials correlates with activation of the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 ion channel (hTRPA1). This suggests that the irritation caused by the most potent of these compounds results from activation of this channel. We prepared 50 BMNs and measured their hTRPA1 agonist potencies. A mechanism of action consistent with their physiological activity, involving their dissolution in water on contaminated body surfaces, cell membrane penetration and reversible thiolation by a cysteine residue of hTRPA1, supported by data from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with a model thiol, explains the structure–activity relationships. The correlation provides evidence that hTRPA1 is a receptor for irritants on nociceptive neurons involved in pain perception; thus, its activation in the eye, nose, mouth and skin would explain the symptoms of lachrymation, sneezing, coughing and stinging, respectively. The structure–activity results and the use of the BMNs as pharmacological tools in future by other researchers may contribute to a better understanding of the TRPA1 channel in humans (and other animals) and help facilitate the discovery of treatments for human diseases involving this receptor. PMID:26064575

  10. Irritant and Sensitizing Potential of Some Common Indian Cact' Succulents, Lichens and Aquatic Plants.

    PubMed

    Bhalme, Abhay Y; Pasricha, J S

    1986-01-01

    Irritant potential of 3 cacti, Opuntia dilenii, Rhispalis baccifera and Cereus Peruvians, and 4 succulents, Euphorbia royleana, Euphorbia antiquorum,Sansevieria zeyilanica and Agave sisalana was tested by rubbing their freshly exposed pulp 10 times on the forearm skin of 10 human voluntrees. Opuntia dilenii, Euphorbia antiquorum, Rhispalis baccifera and Agave sisalana produced transitory itching and burning or dermatitis in only one patient each, indicating that these plants are not highly irritant. Patch tests undertaken with the juice, pulp or other components of these plants as well as those of 5 lichens, Parmelia trichotera, Parmelia sulcata, Parmelia quercina, Parmelia furfuracea and Parmelia verrucifera, and 6 aquatic plants Nelumbo nucifera, Eichnornia crassipes, Trapa natans, Anabaena, Salvinia auriculata and Ceratophyllam demeusam in 10 cases each revealed positive reaction with Opuntia Dilenil, Rhispalis baccifera, Cereus Peruvians, Parmelia verrucifera, Nelumbo nucifera, Trapa natans, Salvinia auriculata and Ceratophyllum demeusum in one case each. Agava sisalana and Sensevieria zeylanica in 2 cases each. Euphorbia antiquorym, Parmelia trichotera ' Parmelia quercina, Parmelia furfuracea and Eichhornia crassipes in 3 cases each and Euphorbia royleana and Parmelia sulcata in 4 cases each.

  11. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T.; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S.; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Keld A.; Wallin, Håkan; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Koponen, Ismo K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 < CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused a significant toxic effect in the airways while TiO2 gave rise to DNA-strand break as shown by the comet assay. PMID:27323801

  12. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Koponen, Ismo K

    2016-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 < CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused a significant toxic effect in the airways while TiO2 gave rise to DNA-strand break as shown by the comet assay.

  13. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  14. Irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosa LS

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a clinical challenge in the 21st century. It’s the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal condition and also the most common reason for referral to gastroenterology clinics. Its can affect up to one in five people at some point in their lives, and has a significantly impact of life quality and health care utilization. The prevalence varies according to country and criteria used to define IBS. Various mechanisms and theories have been proposed about its etiology, but the biopsychosocial model is the most currently accepted for IBS. The complex of symptoms would be the result of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, psychosocial and environmental factors. The diagnosis of IBS is not confirmed by a specific test or structural abnormality. It is made using criteria based on clinical symptoms such as Rome criteria, unless the symptoms are thought to be atypical. Today the Rome Criteria III is the current gold-standard for the diagnoses of IBS. Secure positive evidence of IBS by means of specific disease marker is currently not possible and cannot be currently recommended for routine diagnosis. There is still no clinical evidence to recommend the use of biomarkers in blood to diagnose IBS. However, a number of different changes in IBS patients were demonstrated in recent years, some of which can be used in the future as a diagnostic support. IBS has no definitive treatment but could be controlled by non-pharmacologic management eliminating of some exacerbating factors such certain drugs, stressor conditions and changes in dietary habits.The traditional pharmacologic management of IBS has been symptom based and several drugs have been used. However, the cornerstone of its therapy is a solid patient physician relationship. This review will provide a summary of pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and current and emerging therapies for IBS. PMID:25232249

  15. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H2 breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  16. Acupuncture treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A; Enck, P; Streitberger, K; Weiland, C; Bagheri, S; Witte, S; Friederich, H‐C; Herzog, W; Zipfel, S

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims Despite occasional positive reports on the efficacy of acupuncture (AC) on functions of the gastrointestinal tract, there is no conclusive evidence that AC is effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients and methods Forty three patients with IBS according to the Rome II criteria were randomly assigned to receive either AC (n = 22) or sham acupuncture (SAC) (n = 21) using the so‐called “Streitberger needle”. Treatment duration was 10 sessions with an average of two AC sessions per week. The primary end point was improvement in quality of life (QOL) using the functional digestive diseases quality of life questionnaire (FDDQL) and a general quality of life questionnaire (SF‐36), compared with baseline assessments. QOL measurements were repeated three months after treatment. Results Both the AC and SAC groups improved significantly in global QOL, as assessed by the FDDQL, at the end of treatment (p = 0.022), with no differences between the groups. SF‐36 was insensitive to these changes (except for pain). This effect was partially reversed three months later. Post hoc comparison of responders and non‐responders in both groups combined revealed a significant prediction of the placebo response by two subscales of the FDDQL (sleep, coping) (F = 6.746, p = 0.003) in a stepwise regression model. Conclusions Acupuncture in IBS is primarily a placebo response. Based on the small differences found between the AC and SAC groups, a study including 566 patients would be necessary to prove the efficacy of AC over SAC. The placebo response may be predicted by high coping capacity and low sleep quality in individual patients. PMID:16150852

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rosa L S

    2014-09-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a clinical challenge in the 21(st) century. It's the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal condition and also the most common reason for referral to gastroenterology clinics. Its can affect up to one in five people at some point in their lives, and has a significantly impact of life quality and health care utilization. The prevalence varies according to country and criteria used to define IBS. Various mechanisms and theories have been proposed about its etiology, but the biopsychosocial model is the most currently accepted for IBS. The complex of symptoms would be the result of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, psychosocial and environmental factors. The diagnosis of IBS is not confirmed by a specific test or structural abnormality. It is made using criteria based on clinical symptoms such as Rome criteria, unless the symptoms are thought to be atypical. Today the Rome Criteria III is the current gold-standard for the diagnoses of IBS. Secure positive evidence of IBS by means of specific disease marker is currently not possible and cannot be currently recommended for routine diagnosis. There is still no clinical evidence to recommend the use of biomarkers in blood to diagnose IBS. However, a number of different changes in IBS patients were demonstrated in recent years, some of which can be used in the future as a diagnostic support. IBS has no definitive treatment but could be controlled by non-pharmacologic management eliminating of some exacerbating factors such certain drugs, stressor conditions and changes in dietary habits.The traditional pharmacologic management of IBS has been symptom based and several drugs have been used. However, the cornerstone of its therapy is a solid patient physician relationship. This review will provide a summary of pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and current and emerging therapies for IBS.

  18. Exposure to acute electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone exposure range alters transiently skin homeostasis of a model of pigmented reconstructed epidermis.

    PubMed

    Simon, D; Daubos, A; Pain, C; Fitoussi, R; Vié, K; Taieb, A; de Benetti, L; Cario-André, M

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic radiations (EMR) produced by mobile phone concerns half the world's population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. In this study, we looked at the effects of mobile phone exposure (GSM basic, 900 MHz, SAR 2 mW g(-1) , 6 h) on a model of pigmented skin. We have analysed the expression and localization of various markers of keratinocyte and melanocyte differentiation 2, 6, 18 and 24 h after EMR exposure of reconstructed epidermis containing either only keratinocytes or a combination of keratinocytes and melanocytes grown on dead de-epidermized dermis, using histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. No changes were found in epidermal architecture, localization of epidermal markers, presence of apoptotic cells and the induction of p53 in both types of epidermis (with or without melanocytes) after exposure to EMR. In pigmented reconstructs, no change in the location and dendricity of melanocytes and in melanin transfer to neighbouring keratinocytes was detected after EMR exposure. Loricrin, cytokeratin 14 were significantly decreased at 6 h. The level of all markers increased at 24 h as compared to 6 h post-EMR exposure, associated with a significant decrease of the 20S proteasome activity. Our data indicate that exposure to 900 MHz frequency induces a transient alteration of epidermal homoeostasis, which may alter the protective capacity of the skin against external factors. Presence or absence of melanocytes did not modify the behaviour of reconstructs after EMR exposure.

  19. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  20. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... chap 17. Read More Burns Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Review Date 3/13/ ...

  1. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  3. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  4. Less irritative action of wine and Japanese sake in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2006-02-01

    The ingestion of alcohol, especially in excess, causes acute gastric lesions and gastritis in humans, yet the mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages remains largely unknown. We examined the mucosal irritative action of whiskey, wine and Japanese sake in the rat stomach both ex vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, then superfused with saline, and the transmucosal potential difference (PD) was measured. After the basal PD had stabilized, the mucosa was exposed for 30 min to 2 ml of 15% ethanol, whiskey (containing 15% ethanol), white wine, or Japanese sake (the ethanol concentration of the latter two is 12-15%). In the in vitro study, rat epithelial cells (RGM1) were treated with the alcoholic beverages for 5 min, and the cell viability was determined with crystal violet. Ethanol or whiskey applied to the chamber caused a decrease in PD, while wine or Japanese sake did not. Histologically, surface epithelial damage was observed after exposure to both ethanol and whiskey, yet no damage was induced by white wine and Japanese sake. Likewise, both ethanol and whiskey markedly reduced the viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min of incubation, while neither white wine nor Japanese sake had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose significantly prevented the reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less pronounced than that of ethanol or whiskey and that the less damaging action of Japanese sake and white wine may be, at least partly, accounted for by the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

  5. Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Fritz; Heller, Andreas; Rippke, Frank; Tausch, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema. Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum

  6. The inhibitory effect of some amphoteric surfactants on the irritation potential of alkylsulphates.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, J G; Balaguer, F; Parra, J L; Pelejero, C M

    1981-04-01

    Synopsis The physico-chemical and biological properties of an amphoteric/anionic system and its behaviour against a proteinic support have been thoroughly investigated. A considerable inhibition of adsorption of SLS (sodium lauryl sulphate) on human callus caused by the presence of definite amounts of AABet (alkyl-amido-betaines) in the treatment bath is observed. These physico-chemical results are in agreement with those obtained by some in vivo biological tests. A mechanism of the process via the formation of mixed micelles is postulated emphasizing the stability of such systems as a function of pH, the influence of the chain length of the amphoteric surfactant and the molar relative ratio SLS/AABet. Consequently, our work offers the possibility of a wide applicability of the synergic mixtures of both types of surfactants to inhibit considerably skin irritation of cosmetic finished products.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome in childhood: visceral hypersensitivity and psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Iovino, P; Tremolaterra, F; Boccia, G; Miele, E; Ruju, F M; Staiano, A

    2009-09-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is often considered to play a major etiologic role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome in adults, and some authors argue that this increased sensitivity is mainly due to psychological factors. In contrast, there are no data in children with irritable bowel syndrome which confirm this relationship. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial aspects and sensorymotor function in children affected by irritable bowel syndrome. Ten children fulfilling the Rome II criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and seven healthy controls were enrolled. We studied the thresholds and the perception of visceral stimuli in the rectum by means of an electronic barostat (isobaric phasic distentions, 3 mmHg/1 min, interval 1 min) and a validated questionnaire. Personality features were evaluated by means of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Sleep, mood disturbance, anxiety and individual performance (missed school days, school results and social activities) were also evaluated. Children with irritable bowel syndrome showed significantly lower thresholds for discomfort (14.8 +/- 3.5 vs 22.3 +/- 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.010) and a higher cumulative perception score (28.2 +/- 11.1 vs 12.3 +/- 8.0, P = 0.005) compared with healthy controls. A higher emotional instability (57.8 +/- 7.0 vs 48.7 +/- 10.1, P = 0.047), sleep disturbance (7.2 +/- 1.0 vs 9.3 +/- 0.5, P = 0.004) and anxiety (6.3 +/- 2.0 vs 2.3 +/- 1.7, P = 0.009) were observed in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Moreover, in a multivariate analysis, the cumulative perception score was significantly related to emotional instability (P = 0.042). In conclusion children with irritable bowel syndrome exhibit visceral hypersensitivity and psychosocial impairment. Emotional instability, as a personality feature in these children, seems to modulate the perception response to visceral stimulations.

  8. Hand hygiene and skin health.

    PubMed

    Kownatzki, E

    2003-12-01

    The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alcohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate the invasion of irritants and allergens which elicit inflammatory responses in the dermis. Among the lipids and water-soluble substances removed are natural antibacterials. Their loss leads to increased growth of transient and pathogenic micro-organisms which jeapordizes the very intention of skin hygiene. The kinetics of damage and its repair, and epidemiological evidence suggest that modern synthetic detergents as used in foaming liquid cleansers are the major offender. Conversely, the replacement of detergents with non-detergent emulsion cleansers has been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of hand problems among hospital staff. Presently recommended hand antisepsis reduces the risks to patients, but puts the burden on the health care provider. Rather than fighting micro-organisms at the expense of the skin's health, the skin and its own defences should be considered a collaborator in combating infectious diseases.

  9. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  10. Clinical approach to visceral pain in irritable bowel syndrome - pathophysiology, symptoms, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Mróz, Tomasz; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Mróz, Katarzyna; Prystupa, Tomasz; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Załuska, Wojciech; Filip, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Visceral pain has been defined as a pain resulting from activation of pain receptors localized in mucous membrane, serous membrane, and smooth muscles of hollow organs. The great majority of these organs are innervated by parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows. Afferent nerve fibres are involved in conduction of both acute and persistent pain and hyperalgesia. Visceral pain differs significantly from other types of pain in the way it originates and in clinical presentation. It can be misleading as a symptom, producing several problems in the diagnostic process. Sometimes, severe visceral pain is observed in the course of non-lifethreatening functional gastrointestinal disorders, while slight abdominal discomfort may be a first symptom of malignant tumours. For many years, the treatment of visceral pain has been considered as not satisfactory enough and covered a wide variety of pharmacological substances. For example, the complex therapy of pain and other manifestations associated with irritable bowel syndrome include psychotherapy/behavioural therapy, bulk-forming agents, probiotics, laxatives, antidiarrheals, antibacterial agents, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. The current knowledge about the pathogenesis of visceral pain gives a rationale for the development of new, more efficacious drugs with a positive benefit/risk ratio. Unfortunately, experience gained so far with the use of some agents affecting serotoninergic transmission in the gastrointestinal tract have shown a serious danger associated with their administration for patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  11. Topical azithromycin and clarithromycin inhibit acute and chronic skin inflammation in sensitized mice, with apparent selectivity for Th2-mediated processes in delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ivetić Tkalčević, Vanesa; Cužić, Snježana; Kramarić, Miroslava Dominis; Parnham, Michael J; Eraković Haber, Vesna

    2012-02-01

    Macrolide antibiotics inhibit the secretion of Th1 cytokines while their effects on the release of Th2 cytokines are variable. We investigated molecular and cellular markers of Th1- and Th2-mediated inflammatory mechanisms and the anti-inflammatory activity of azithromycin and clarithromycin in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and oxazolone (OXA)-induced skin inflammation. Dexamethasone (50 μg/ear), azithromycin, and clarithromycin (500 μg/ear) reduced TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-1β concentration in ear tissue by inhibiting inflammatory cell accumulation in PMA-induced inflammation. In OXA-induced early delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), the macrolides (2 mg/ear) and dexamethasone (25 μg/ear) reduced ear tissue inflammatory cell infiltration and secretion of IL-4 while clarithromycin also decreased IFN-γ concentration. Macrolides showed better activity when administered after the challenge. In OXA-induced chronic DTH, azithromycin (1 mg/ear) reduced the number of ear tissue mast cells and decreased the concentration of IL-4 in ear tissue and of immunoglobulin (Ig)E in serum. Clarithromycin (1 mg/ear) reduced serum IgE concentration, possibly by a mechanism independent of IL-4, while both macrolides attenuated mast cell degranulation. In conclusion, azithromycin and clarithromycin attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokine production and leukocyte infiltration during innate immune reactions, while selectively affecting Th2 rather than Th1 immunity in DTH reactions.

  12. The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.

    PubMed

    Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to

  13. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    PubMed

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results.

  14. The Influence of Humidity on Assessing Irritation Threshold of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Sucker, Kirsten; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large number of occupational exposure limit values (OELs) are based on avoiding of sensory irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. In order to investigate the chemosensory effect range of a chemical, odor and sensory irritation thresholds (lateralization thresholds, LTs) can be assessed. Humidity affects olfactory function and thus influences odor thresholds; however, a similar effect has not been shown for sensory irritation thresholds. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether LTs for ammonia vapor vary depending on the water vapor content of the inspired stimulus. Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers were simultaneously exposed to ammonia vapor through one nostril and clean air through the other and were asked to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, ascending ammonia concentrations (60–350 ppm) that were either dry or humidified were administered at fixed time intervals. Geometric mean LTs obtained at wet (181 ppm) or dry (172 ppm) conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0.19) and were within the range of those reported by previous studies. These results suggest that humidity is not a critical factor in determining sensory irritation thresholds for ammonia, and future studies will examine if these findings are transferable to sensory irritation thresholds for other chemicals. PMID:27379250

  15. The Influence of Humidity on Assessing Irritation Threshold of Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Monsé, Christian; Sucker, Kirsten; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Bünger, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large number of occupational exposure limit values (OELs) are based on avoiding of sensory irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. In order to investigate the chemosensory effect range of a chemical, odor and sensory irritation thresholds (lateralization thresholds, LTs) can be assessed. Humidity affects olfactory function and thus influences odor thresholds; however, a similar effect has not been shown for sensory irritation thresholds. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether LTs for ammonia vapor vary depending on the water vapor content of the inspired stimulus. Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers were simultaneously exposed to ammonia vapor through one nostril and clean air through the other and were asked to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, ascending ammonia concentrations (60-350 ppm) that were either dry or humidified were administered at fixed time intervals. Geometric mean LTs obtained at wet (181 ppm) or dry (172 ppm) conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0.19) and were within the range of those reported by previous studies. These results suggest that humidity is not a critical factor in determining sensory irritation thresholds for ammonia, and future studies will examine if these findings are transferable to sensory irritation thresholds for other chemicals.

  16. Metabolism of propranolol during percutaneous absorption in human skin.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J I; Chow, C A; Wester, R C; Maibach, H I

    1993-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the extent of the absorption and metabolism of propranolol in human skin from four sources. Between 10.4 +/- 3.1 and 36.6 +/- 2.6% of the applied dose was absorbed; however, only a small portion (between 4.1 +/- 0.9 and 16.1 +/- 1.3%) of the dose permeated through the skin. Naphthoxyacetic acid formed during percutaneous absorption was located in the skin supernate. 4'-Hydroxypropranol was formed during percutaneous absorption and by skin microsomes. In addition, the microsomes biotransformed propranolol to norpropranolol. The retention of some of the absorbed drug and metabolites in the skin could explain the low plasma concentration and irritation observed following topical application of propranolol.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. Methods to assess visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keszthelyi, D; Troost, F J; Masclee, A A

    2012-07-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Visceral hypersensitivity has emerged as a key hypothesis in explaining the painful symptoms in IBS and has been proposed as a "biological hallmark" for the condition. Current techniques of assessing visceral perception include the computerized barostat using rectal distensions, registering responses induced by sensory stimuli including the flexor reflex and cerebral evoked potentials, as well as brain imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. These methods have provided further insight into alterations in pain processing in IBS, although the most optimal method and condition remain to be established. In an attempt to give an overview of these methods, a literature search in the electronic databases PubMed and MEDLINE was executed using the search terms "assessment of visceral pain/visceral nociception/visceral hypersensitivity" and "irritable bowel syndrome." Both original articles and review articles were considered for data extraction. This review aims to discuss currently used modalities in assessing visceral perception, along with advantages and limitations, and aims also to define future directions for methodological aspects in visceral pain research. Although novel paradigms such as brain imaging and neurophysiological recordings have been introduced in the study of visceral pain, confirmative studies are warranted to establish their robustness and clinical relevance. Therefore, subjective verbal reporting following rectal distension currently remains the best-validated technique in assessing visceral perception in IBS.

  18. Infections and skin diseases mimicking diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that often prompts parents to seek medical attention. Irritant diaper dermatitis is by far the most common cause, but numerous potentially serious diseases can present with changes of the skin in the diaper area. The differential diagnosis can include psoriasis, metabolic disorders, rare immune diseases and infection. Clinical examination can be helpful in distinguishing the underlying cause. General screening laboratory tests, as well as select testing when a specific condition is suspected, can be used to challenge or confirm the putative diagnosis.

  19. Alcohol Use Disorder Increases the Risk of Irritable Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Yi; He, Guan-Yi; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is considered a possible risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, previous studies investigating the association between AUD and IBS have yielded inconsistent results. The study investigated whether AUD increases the risk of IBS by using a population-based database in Taiwan. This retrospective matched-cohort study included the health insurance claims data of 56,355 AUD inpatients and 225,420 randomly selected controls by frequency-matched for sex, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to measure the risk of IBS among AUD patients compared with non-AUD patients. During the follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IBS had 12.3-fold (95% CI: 11.9–12.7) in the AUD patients than non-AUD patients and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IBS in the AUD patients was 5.51 (95% CI: 4.36–6.96). For several comorbidities, the risk of IBS was significantly higher in the AUD patients than in non-AUD patients, with aHRs of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–3.84), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.06–3.96), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.26–6.72) for sleep disorders, acute pancreatitis, and hepatitis B, respectively. When we stratified the severity of AUD according to the length of hospital stay, the aHRs exhibited a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with severity, yielding aHRs of 3.24 (95% CI: 2.49–4.22), 11.9 (95% CI: 8.96–15.9), and 26.1 (95% CI: 19.4–35.2) for mild, moderate, and severe AUD, respectively. The risk of IBS was higher among AUD patients, and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:26705226

  20. S1 guideline on occupational skin products: protective creams, skin cleansers, skin care products (ICD 10: L23, L24)--short version.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas L; Drexler, Hans; Elsner, Peter; John, Swen Malte; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Job-related hand dermatitis heads up the list of reported occupational diseases. So-called skin products - understood to mean protective creams, skin cleansers and skin care products - are used for the primary and secondary prevention of job- related hand dermatitis. In the interests of evidence-based medicine, the only preventive measures and/or occupational skin products that should be used are those whose potential uses and efficacy are underpinned by scientific research. To this end, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Berufs- und Umweltdermatologie e.V. (Working Group for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, ABD) of the DDG (German Dermatological Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin (German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, DGAUM) have summed up the latest scientific findings and recommendations in the updated guideline. The benefit of the combined application of protective creams and skin care products in the primary and secondary prevention of work-related contact dermatitis has been widely confirmed by recent clinical-epidemiological studies. The guideline clearly explains the necessity of demonstrating the efficacy of protective creams and cleansing products by means of in vivo methods in the sense of repetitive applications. Transferable standardised testing systems designed to examine the irritation potential and thus the compatibility of occupational skin cleansers and the reduction of irritation by protective skin creams have now been developed and validated by multicentre studies for skin protection creams and cleansers. The status of the current assessment of the safety of occupational skin products is also summarised.

  1. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  2. Irritability in children and adolescents: past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.

    2015-01-01

    Irritability is defined as a low threshold to experience anger in response to frustration. It is one of the most common symptoms in youth and is part of the clinical presentation of several disorders. Irritability can present early in life and is a predictor of long-term psychopathology; yet, the diagnostic status of irritability is a matter of intense debate. In the present article, we address two main components of the debate regarding irritability in youth: the misdiagnosis of chronic irritability as pediatric bipolar disorder, and the proposal of a new diagnosis in the DSM-5, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, whose defining symptoms are chronic irritability and temper outbursts. PMID:24142126

  3. Acute toxicity of betagamma-CAT, a naturally existing non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin-Qiao; Liu, Shu-Bai; He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2008-07-01

    In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. betagamma-CAT is the first example of a naturally existing multifunctional protein complex of a non-lens betagamma-crystallin and a trefoil factor from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Here we report the investigation of its in vivo toxic effects on mice and rabbits. The LD(50) values of betagamma-CAT on mice were determined to be 0.4 mg/kg and 20 microg/kg under intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection, respectively. The mice subcutaneously injected with betagamma-CAT (6 microg/g body weight) showed strong hyperaemia of subcutaneous capillary vessel, but no hemorrhagic spots were observed. Intravenous injection of betagamma-CAT in rabbits (8-22 microg/kg body weight) caused a rapidly hypotensive effect and followed with cardiovascular collapse. Injection with betagamma-CAT (22 microg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased hematocrit (P<0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05) of the rabbits in 5 min. At the same time, the counts of platelets and white blood cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the blood levels of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Furthermore, serials of tissues edema and damages were also observed. These results indicate that betagamma-CAT rapidly caused several in vivo toxic effects on mammals and its lethal toxic potency was mainly contributed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, providing new clues for the understanding of the patho-physiological roles of non-lens betagamma-crystallins and trefoil factors.

  4. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C.; Stenoien, David L.

    2016-11-01

    Our goal here was to identify dose and temporal dependent radiation responses in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. Direct sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts following exposure to 0.1, 2 and 10 Gy of ionizing radiation at 3 and 8 hours. These doses include a low dose in the range of some medical diagnostic procedures (0.1 Gy), a dose typically received during radiotherapy (2.0 Gy) and a lethal dose (10 Gy). These doses could be received after an intentional or accidental radiation exposure and biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage exposed individuals. A total of 1701 genes were deemed to be significantly affected by high dose radiation exposure with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. A group of 29 genes including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA, and AEN were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at multiple time points. A much larger group of up regulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after a 10 Gy exposure. At high doses, down regulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a handful of genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy exposure using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to the high dose exposures. Differential regulation of PLK1 signaling at low and high doses was confirmed using qRT-PCR. These results indicate that some alterations in gene expression are qualitatively different at low and high doses of radiation in this model system.

  5. Eye and respiratory irritants in jet engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Y

    1986-11-01

    It has been noted that eye and respiratory irritation frequently occurred in the ground crews and pilots working on the field behind an aircraft with a low smoke combustor (LSC) engine. This study was attempted to analyze the exhaust sampled at about 50 m behind the LSC J79 engines at idle power setting by means of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Nine kinds of lower aliphatic carbonyl compound (seven aldehydes and two ketones) were identified. The concentration of formaldehyde was the highest among them, showing the value above the threshold reported by previous investigators. Concentration of NOx was simultaneously measured by a gas detector tube in the same sample. The exhaust of a conventional J79 engine, which has rarely caused irritation, was also analyzed by the same technique and the results were compared. It was concluded that formaldehyde plays a major role in causing irritation.

  6. The transport of colonic contents in the irritable colon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, J A

    1970-08-01

    The mean distance of travel and hourly incidence of propulsive and retropulsive movements of colonic contents have been assessed by means of time-lapse cinefluorography and compared in 98 patients with the irritable colon syndrome and in 90 control subjects.Net propulsion in patients with the irritable colon syndrome was less than in the controls at rest, similar to the controls after feeding, and greater than in the controls after an injection of carbachol. In both clinical groups, food and carbachol increased the incidence of propulsive and retropulsive movements but did not alter the average distance over which they travelled.The figures suggest that at least two-thirds of all net propulsion of colonic contents in the irritable colon syndrome takes place under circumstances not reproduced in the present study.

  7. Sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation of cumene and n-propanol: mechanisms of receptor activation and desensitization.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, U; Hansen, L; Nielsen, G D; Holst, E

    1986-07-01

    Cumene and n-propanol, model substances for alcohols and alkylbenzenes, were investigated for sensory irritation in mice. The concentrations within the first 2 min. depressing the respiratory rate by 50% due to the effect in the upper respiratory tract were 2,058 p.p.m. and 22,080 p.p.m., respectively. Activation of the sensory irritant receptor followed the dynamics of reversible bimolecular reactions. The extrapolated maximum response and the apparent dissociation constant were 114.3% and 2,723 p.p.m. for cumene and 68.4% and 8,178 p.p.m. for propanol, respectively. Later on desensitization was observed. The effect was weak for cumene but conspicuous for propanol. For cumene desensitization had the origin in the rise of a threshold. No change in the dissociation constant or the maximum response was found. For propanol a decrease in the maximum response, which may be explained by an allosteric effect, was observed. The pulmonary irritation response was weak for cumene but was for propanol more important than sensory irritation at high concentrations. The following hypotheses are put forward: the effect of pulmonary irritation on the tidal volume is mediated via the stretch receptors while the effect on the respiratory frequency is mediated via the J-receptors.

  8. Nutritional Interventions for Gastroesophageal Reflux, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Hypochlorhydria: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kines, Kasia; Krupczak, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are often treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), antibiotics, and other medications that offer temporary relief of acute symptoms. Although these drugs are prescribed to provide promising results, new research indicates the drug treatments often mask unresolved physiological problems and cause further complications. Complex GI cases require a comprehensive assessment and a multifaceted approach. This case reports on the development of PPI-induced hypochlorhydria secondary to a PPI prescription for unresolved gastritis in a patient with irritable bowel syndrome. The patient’s gastritis and hypochlorhydria symptoms resolved with the implementation of a comprehensive functional nutrition approach that incorporated dietary guidelines, lifestyle recommendations, and customized nutritional supplementation and herbs. PMID:27574495

  9. Risperidone: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J; Dhillon, Sohita

    2007-01-01

    Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin (5-HT [5-hydroxytryptamine])(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioral symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence, and hyperglycemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

  10. Current medical treatments of dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Tack, Jan F

    2010-09-01

    Dyspepsia is a highly prevalent condition characterized by symptoms originating in the gastroduodenal region without underlying organic disorder. Treatment modalities include acid-suppressive drugs, gastroprokinetic drugs, Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, tricyclic antidepressants, and psychological therapies. Irritable bowel syndrome is a multifactorial, lower functional gastrointestinal disorder involving disturbances of the brain-gut axis. The pathophysiology provides the basis for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocial factors, intraluminal changes, and mucosal immune activation. Medications targeting chronic constipation or diarrhea may also relieve irritable bowel syndrome. Novel approaches to treatment require approval, and promising agents are guanylate cyclase cagonists, atypical benzodiazepines, antibiotics, immune modulators, and probiotics.

  11. An alternative test battery in detecting ocular irritancy of agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Tavaszi, J; Budai, P; Pálovics, A; Kismányoki, A

    2008-01-01

    Using animals in toxicological screening is a controversial issue. To get knowledge about eye irritation, recently only the in vivo Draize-test is accepted, which is one of the most criticized methods because of the injuries inflicted on the test animals. In recent years various in vitro methods have been developed to replace the primary irritation test. Most of these tests are in process of validation. The Draize rabbit eye test, or some modification of this test is essentially the only method for determining ocular irritation that is accepted by authorities. Several in vitro methods have been used to investigate the toxicity of potential eye irritants with the aim of replacing in vitro eye irritation testing. This study reports the results of an alternative approach for predicting irritation potential of agrochemicals. The approach was a two-stage test battery in vitro. The first stage was a cytotoxicity test, the MTT assay. The second stage was the HET-CAM test. The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), being a connective tissue sheet with a visible blood supply, has been proposed as a substrate to identify the eye irritation potential of chemicals. During the HET-CAM test the chemicals are placed directly onto the chorioallantoic membrane. The changes of the vascular injury (haemorrhage, lysis or coagulation) are indications of the potential of the chemical to damage mucous membranes in vivo. MTT assay is a simple method to determine the viability of cells in the presence of a chemical. Cells are cultured with several concentrations of a substance or product, then the ratio of cell destruction is determined. LCC50 (concentration lethal for the 50 % of the cells) is assessed. This is in correlation of the eye irrigative potential of the chemical. In our studies comparative screening was performed with 6 agrochemicals to establish parallel data on alternative test battery (HET-CAM, MTT) and in vivo (Draize) results. In most cases, this study showed a good

  12. Maternal blood pressure in pregnancy and newborn irritability.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, J S; Woodson, R H; da Costa Woodson, E M

    1978-07-01

    The neonatal period is being recognized as an important period for the development of patterns of interaction between mother and infant, and infant state has been shown to have a significant impact on mother--infant interactions. A major dimension of infant state, with implications for this interaction and for the development of later behaviour disorders, is the infant's irritability. Research with Navajo, Malay, Chinese and Tamil mothers and infants showed that normal variation in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy was related to newborn irritability as assessed with the Brazelton Scale. This relationship is discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.

  13. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... DM. Dermal and subcutaneous tumors. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  14. Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory

  15. Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Sheila

    2007-02-01

    Tissue-engineered skin is now a reality. For patients with extensive full-thickness burns, laboratory expansion of skin cells to achieve barrier function can make the difference between life and death, and it was this acute need that drove the initiation of tissue engineering in the 1980s. A much larger group of patients have ulcers resistant to conventional healing, and treatments using cultured skin cells have been devised to restart the wound-healing process. In the laboratory, the use of tissue-engineered skin provides insight into the behaviour of skin cells in healthy skin and in diseases such as vitiligo, melanoma, psoriasis and blistering disorders.

  16. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products.

  17. Clinical approaches to skin cleansing of the diaper area: practice and challenges.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Carrie C; Frieden, Ilona J; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2014-11-01

    Cleansing and care of the diaper area require special consideration to maintain barrier function of the skin in this area and repair the barrier when it is compromised. Diaper dermatitis occurs commonly; understanding and modification of predisposing factors are imperative for caregivers. In this paper, we review important factors in diaper area care, including skin pH, the local microbiome, irritant and allergic potential of contactants, and application of topical agents.

  18. Skin barrier defects in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rachana; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2014-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with complex etiology that is dependent upon interactions between the host and the environment. Acute skin lesions exhibit the features of a Th2-driven inflammatory disorder, and many patients are highly atopic. The skin barrier plays key roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis, and in preventing penetration of microbial products and allergens. Defects that compromise the structural integrity or else the immune function of the skin barrier play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. This article provides an overview of the array of molecular building blocks that are essential to maintaining healthy skin. The basis for structural defects in the skin is discussed in relation to AD, with an emphasis on filaggrin and its genetic underpinnings. Aspects of innate immunity, including the role of antimicrobial peptides and proteases, are also discussed.

  19. Skin care in nursing: A critical discussion of nursing practice and research.

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan; Surber, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Skin (self-)care is part of human life from birth until death. Today many different skin care practices, preferences, traditions and routines exist in parallel. In addition, preventive and therapeutic skin care is delivered in nursing and healthcare by formal and informal caregivers. The aim of this contribution is a critical discussion about skin care in the context of professional nursing practice. An explicit skin assessment using accurate diagnostic statements is needed for clinical decision making. Special attention should be paid on high risk skin areas, which may be either too dry or too moist. From a safety perspective the protection and maintenance of skin integrity should have the highest priority. Skin cleansing is the removal of unwanted substances from the skin surface. Despite cleansing efficacy soap, other surfactants and water will inevitably always result in the destruction of the skin barrier. Thousands of products are available to hydrate, moisturize, protect and restore skin properties dependent upon their formulation and the concentration of ingredients. These products intended to left in contact with skin exhibit several actions on and in the skin interfering with skin biology. Unwanted side effects include hyper-hydration and disorganization of lipid bilayers in the stratum corneum, a dysfunctional barrier, increased susceptibility to irritants and allergies, and increases of skin surface pH. Where the skin barrier is impaired appropriate interventions, e.g. apply lipophilic products in sufficient quantity to treat dry skin or protect the skin from exposure to irritants should be provided. A key statement of this contribution is: every skin care activity matters. Every time something is placed on the skin, a functional and structural response is provoked. This response can be either desired or undesired, beneficial or harmful. The choice of all skin care interventions in nursing and healthcare practice must be based on an accurate assessment

  20. Urinary proteome analysis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom subgroups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain associated with alterations in bowel function. Given the heterogeneity of the symptoms, multiple pathophysiologic factors are suspected to play a role. We classified women with IBS i...

  1. Managing irritable bowel syndrome: The low-FODMAP diet.

    PubMed

    Dugum, Mohannad; Barco, Kathy; Garg, Samita

    2016-09-01

    A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been found to significantly reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet is best implemented in two phases: initial strict elimination of foods high in FODMAPs, then gradual reintroduction based on symptoms. Further study of this diet's effect on intestinal microbiota is needed.

  2. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intestinal microbiomes of healthy children and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are not well defined. Studies in adults have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota could be involved in IBS. We analyzed 71 samples from 22 children with IBS (pediatric Rome III criteri...

  3. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability...

  4. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  5. Perceived Informativeness of and Irritation with Local Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1990-01-01

    Surveys mall shoppers to determine the relative informativeness of retail advertising. Finds that newspaper advertisements are considered the most informative with radio commercials next and television commercials least. Finds that newspaper ads are more irritating than radio or television advertising. Finds older and wealthier shoppers more…

  6. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and medical management of symptoms are increasingly based on IBS subtype, so it is important to accurately differentiate patients. Few studies have classified subtypes of pediatric IBS, and conclusions have been challenged by methodologic l...

  7. Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  8. Crystal deodorant dermatitis: irritant dermatitis to alum-containing deodorant.

    PubMed

    Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E

    1999-07-01

    Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product.

  9. Toll-like receptor 3 increases allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naomi; Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in noninfectious inflammatory diseases, but the function of TLR3 in inflammatory skin diseases is unclear. We investigated the functions of TLR3 in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). The contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was lower in Toll-like receptor 3 knockout (Tlr3 KO) mice, and was greater in TLR3 transgenic (Tg) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after challenge with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Adoptive transfer of immunized lymph node cells from Tlr3 KO mice induced CHS in WT recipients. In contrast, adoptive transfer of those from WT mice did not fully induce CHS in Tlr3 KO recipients. The ICD reaction following croton oil application was lower in Tlr3 KO mice, and was greater in TLR3 Tg mice than in WT mice. Maturation, migration, and antigen presentation of dendritic cells and proliferation of lymphocytes between WT mice and Tlr3 KO mice were comparable. These results show that TLR3 enhances antigen-independent skin inflammation in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis and in ICD.

  10. The complex problem of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Holmes, Jo; Peters, Lisa; Cooper, Karen; Rowson, Matthew; Basketter, David A

    2005-08-01

    There exists within the population subsets of individuals who display heightened skin reactivity to materials the majority find tolerable. In a series of investigations, we have examined interrelationships between many of the endpoints associated with the term 'sensitive skin'. In the most recent work, 58 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.5% menthol and 1.0% capsaicin on the nasolabial fold, unoccluded, with sensory reactions recorded at 2.5 min, 5 min and 8 min after application. Urticant susceptibility was evaluated with 1 m benzoic acid and 125 mM trans-cinnamic acid applied to the volar forearm for 20 min. A 2 x 23-h patch test was also conducted using 0.1% and 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.3% and 0.6% cocamidopropyl betaine and 0.1% and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride to determine irritant susceptibility. As found in previous studies, increased susceptibility to one endpoint was not predictive of sensitivity to another. In our experience, nasolabial stinging was a poor predictor of general skin sensitivity. Nevertheless, it may be possible to identify in the normal population individuals who, coincidentally, are more generally sensitive to a range of non-immunologic adverse skin reactions. Whether such individuals are those who experience problems with skin care products remains to be addressed.

  11. [Current issues on irritable bowel syndrome: diet and irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung

    2014-09-25

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. Genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetics in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Katzka, David A

    2012-05-15

    The objectives of this review are twofold. Our first objective is to evaluate the evidence supporting a role for genetics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Specific examples of the associations of genetic variation and symptoms, syndromes, and intermediate phenotypes, including neurotransmitter (serotonergic, α(2)-adrenergic, and cannabinoid) mechanisms, inflammatory pathways (IL-10, TNFα, GNβ3, and susceptibility loci involved in Crohn's disease), and bile acid metabolism, are explored. The second objective is to review pharmacogenetics in IBS, with the focus on cytochrome P-450 metabolism of drugs used in IBS, modulation of motor and sensory responses to serotonergic agents based on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and 5-HT(3) genetic variants, responses to a nonselective cannabinoid agonist (dronabinol) based on cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) variation, and responses to a bile acid (sodium chenodeoxycholate) and bile acid binding (colesevelam) based on klothoβ (KLB) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) variation. Overall, there is limited evidence of a genetic association with IBS; the most frequently studied association is with 5-HTTLPR, and the most replicated association is with TNF superfamily member 15. Most of the pharmacogenetic associations are reported with intermediate phenotypes in relatively small trials, and confirmation in large clinical trials using validated clinical end points is still required. No published genome-wide association studies in functional gastrointestinal or motility disorders have been published.

  13. Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kottner, J; Lichterfeld, A; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2013-09-01

    Ageing is associated with structural and functional changes of the skin that result in increased vulnerability. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize empirical evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of basic skin care interventions for maintaining skin integrity in the aged. The databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (1990-2012), Scopus, SCI (February 2013) and reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria were primary intervention studies using skin care products in physiologically aged skin (lower age limit 50 years). Study and sample characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted. The methodological quality was assessed and a level of evidence was assigned. From 1535 screened articles 188 were read in full text. From these, 33 articles were included reporting results on treating dry skin conditions, and preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis and superficial ulcerations. Most studies had lower levels of evidence of 3 or 4. Skin-cleansing products containing syndets or amphoteric surfactants compared with standard soap and water washing improved skin dryness and demonstrated skin-protecting effects. Moisturizers containing humectants consistently showed statistically significant improvements in skin dryness. Skin barrier products containing occlusives reduced the occurrence of skin injuries compared with standard or no treatment. Owing to methodological limitations the current evidence base for basic skin care in the aged is weak. Using low-irritating cleansing products and humectant- or occlusive-containing moisturizers seems to be the best strategy for maintaining the skin barrier function and integrity. We know little about the effects of cleansing regimens and about the benefits of moisturizers when compared with each other.

  14. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  15. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  16. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  17. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  18. Sensitive skin: closing in on a physiological cause.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-03-01

    The phenomenon of 'sensitive skin' is a relatively recent complaint in which certain individuals report more intense and frequent adverse sensory effects than the normal population upon use of cosmetic (personal-care) products. Originally defined as a minority complaint, sensitive skin is now claimed by a majority of women in industrialized countries and nearly half of men. Sensitive skin is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation, and the number of individuals who claim sensitivity has risen steadily with the number of consumer products targeted towards this supposedly uncommon group. Believed by many dermatologists, therefore, to be a 'princess and the pea' phenomenon, the problem of sensitive skin has largely avoided focussed research. Over the last few years, however, the evidence of documentable biophysical changes associated with the largely sensory symptoms of this disorder has accumulated, including some gained by improved methods of identifying subclinical signs of skin irritation. Although the understanding of the aetiology of this phenomenon is as yet incomplete, existing research now supports a biophysical origin for this disorder. Effective methods of diagnosis, intrinsic and extrinsic contributors to exaggerated neural sensitivity, and the specific mechanisms of the discomfort associated with the compliant are required, as are appropriate means of prevention and treatment.

  19. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits.

  20. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  1. Skin barrier breakdown: a renaissance in emollient therapy.

    PubMed

    Cork, Michael J; Danby, Simon

    Breakdown of the skin barrier is the first event in the development of atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis). Research over the past five years has indicated that this arises as a result of the interaction of environmental agents such as soap and other detergents with the products of changes in several genes. These genetic changes predispose to the breakdown of the skin barrier, which allows the penetration of allergens, triggering a flare of atopic eczema. This new understanding of how breakdown of the skin barrier is the first event in the development of atopic eczema provides a rationale for a renaissance in the use of a complete emollient therapy regimen in atopic eczema and related skin barrier breakdown diseases, such as asteatotic eczema and irritant contact dermatitis.

  2. Evaluation of Barrier Skin Cream Effectiveness Against JP-8 Jet Fuel Absorption and Irritation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    simulated in vivo studies, there was still the need to examine the creams that performed the best in vitro on animal tissue that had both blood flow as well...degrees Celsius. The flame ionization detector (FID) temperature was 260 degrees Celsius. The FID detector output was integrated and printed out...each cream were blind to the contents of each site. This also ensured that the different degrees of sensitivity on the back of the rabbit were

  3. The major acute-phase protein, serum amyloid P component, in mice is not involved in endogenous resistance against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced lethal hepatitis, shock, and skin necrosis.

    PubMed

    Van Molle, W; Hochepied, T; Brouckaert, P; Libert, C

    2000-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induces lethal hepatitis when injected into D-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized mice on the one hand or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in normal mice on the other hand. We studied whether serum amyloid P component (SAP), the major acute-phase protein in mice, plays a protective role in both lethal models. For this purpose, we used SAP(0/0) mice generated by gene targeting. We studied the lethal response of SAP(0/0) or SAP(+/+) mice to both lethal triggers but found no differences in the sensitivity of both types of mice. We also investigated whether SAP is involved in establishing two types of endogenous protection: one using a single injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) for desensitization and clearly involving a liver protein, the other by tolerizing mice for 5 days using small doses of human TNF-alpha. Although after IL-1beta or after tolerization the SAP levels in the serum had risen fourfold in the control mice and not in the SAP(0/0) mice, the same extents of desensitization and tolerization were achieved. Finally, we observed that the induction of hemorrhagic necrosis in the skin of mice by two consecutive local injections with TNF-alpha was not altered in SAP(0/0) mice. We conclude that the presence or absence of SAP has no influence on the sensitivity of mice to TNF-alpha-induced hepatitis, SIRS, and hemorrhagic necrosis or on the endogenous protective mechanisms of desensitization or tolerization.

  4. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine, a novel niacinamide derivative, retains high antioxidant activity and inhibits skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Su Min; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Lee, Jin Won; Kim, Myung Kyoo; Lee, Kye Jong; Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Joo Dong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2011-11-01

    We synthesized a novel derivative of a well-known skin-lightening compound niacinamide, N-nicotinoyl dopamine (NND). NND did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. However, NND retains high antioxidant activity without affecting viability of cells. In a reconstructed skin model, topical applications of 0.05% and 0.1% NND induced skin lightening and decreased melanin production without affecting the viability and morphology of melanocytes and overall tissue histology. Moreover, no evidence for skin irritation or sensitization was observed when 0.1% NND emulsion was applied onto the skin of 52 volunteers. The effect of NND on skin lightening was further revealed by pigmented spot analyses of human clinical trial. Overall, NND treatment may be a useful trial for skin lightening and treating pigmentary disorders.

  5. Investigating protein haptenation mechanisms of skin sensitisers using human serum albumin as a model protein.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Maja; Pease, Camilla K; Basketter, David A; Panico, Maria; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne

    2007-06-01

    Covalent modification of skin proteins by electrophiles is a key event in the induction of skin sensitisation but not skin irritation although the exact nature of the binding mechanisms has not been determined empirically for the vast majority of sensitisers. It is also unknown whether immunologically relevant protein targets exist in the skin contributing to effecting skin sensitisation. To determine the haptenation mechanism(s) and spectra of amino acid reactivity in an intact protein for two sensitisers expected to react by different mechanisms, human serum albumin (HSA) was chosen as a model protein. The aim of this work was also to verify for selected non-sensitisers and irritants that no protein haptenation occurs even under forcing conditions. HSA was incubated with chemicals and the resulting complexes were digested with trypsin and analysed deploying matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The data confirmed that different residues (lysine, cysteine, histidine and tyrosine) are covalently modified in a highly selective and differential manner by the sensitisers 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene and phenyl salicylate. Additionally, non-sensitisers 2,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, butyl paraben and benzaldehyde and irritants benzalkonium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulphate did not covalently modify HSA under any conditions. The data indicate that covalent haptenation is a prerequisite of skin sensitisation but not irritation. The data also suggest that protein modifications are targeted to certain amino acids residing in chemical microenvironments conducive to reactivity within an intact protein. Deriving such information is relevant to our understanding of antigen formation in the immunobiology of skin sensitisation and in the development of in vitro protein haptenation assays.

  6. Fecal incontinence in acutely and critically ill patients: options in management.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M

    2006-12-01

    Fecal incontinence presents a major challenge in the comprehensive nursing care of acutely and critically ill patients. When manifested as diarrhea, the effects of fecal incontinence can range from mild (superficial skin irritation) to profound (severe perineal dermatitis, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and sepsis). Fecal incontinence has many etiologies and risk factors. These include damage to the anal sphincter or pelvic floor, liquid stool consistency, abnormal colonic transport, and decreased intestinal capacity. To avoid or minimize complications, the cause of diarrhea should be addressed, fecal leakage prevented, stool contained, and skin integrity preserved. Management options addressing these goals include diet, pharmacological therapy, and the use of containment products. Management options and their respective advantages and disadvantages are presented with a special focus on safety issues. Diverse approaches are safe only if they are knowledgeably selected, carefully instituted, and constantly monitored for their effects on patient outcomes. Research to identify which options work best in selected clinical situations and which combinations of therapies are most effective is needed.

  7. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. Repeated doses (five oral doses per week for 2 weeks) of 300 mg/kg to rats produced slight weight loss in one of two replicate experiments. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. There were no alterations in livers from treated rabbits examined by light microscopy. No dermal sensitization was produced when concentrations of up to 50% were tested in guinea pigs. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. CBT-Enhanced Emotion Regulation as a Mechanism of Improvement for Childhood Irritability.

    PubMed

    Derella, Olivia J; Johnston, Oliver G; Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-02

    Research supports the clinical importance of childhood irritability, as well as its developmental implications for later anxiety and depression. Appropriate treatment may prevent this progression; however, little evidence exists to guide clinician decision making regarding treatment for chronic irritability symptoms. Given the empirical support for irritability as a dimension of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), behavioral interventions that improve ODD symptoms, especially through emotion regulation training, are strong candidates for identifying effective treatment strategies for irritability. Data from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial were used to assess hypotheses regarding irritability. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) Program was developed for preadolescent youths demonstrating clinically high rates of conduct problems. Participants (252 boys, ages 6-11) were assigned to participate in either SNAP or standard services; data were collected at 4 time points over 15 months. Although lower irritability scores over time were seen for the SNAP group compared to standard services, the main effect for treatment was small and did not reach statistical significance. However, a significant indirect effect of SNAP treatment on irritability via improved emotion regulation skills was found; improved emotion regulation skills were associated with significant and substantial reductions in irritability. Specific effects of SNAP for the improvement of emotion regulation skills function as a mechanism for subsequent reductions in irritability, supporting the distinction between emotion regulation and irritability symptoms. Enhancing increased emotion regulation skills within existing evidence-based interventions for children with ODD should provide a strong foundation for treatments to target irritability symptoms.

  9. Epidermal Hyperplasia and Elevated HB-EGF are More Prominent in Retinoid Dermatitis Compared with Irritant Contact Dermatitis Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Chang, Jae Yong; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Jeong Seon; Lee, Min Geol

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Retinoid dermatitis' is a retinoid-induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). The mechanism of retinoid dermatitis may be different from that of other ICDs. However, it remains uncertain how topical retinoid induce ICD. Objective We compared several aspects of contact dermatitis induced by topical retinol and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) on hairless mice skin. Methods 2% retinol or 2.5% BKC was applied to hairless mice and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), ear thickness, histologic and immunohistochemical findings were compared. We also compared mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, epidermal differential markers, cyclooxygenases (COXs) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF). Results Topical application of 2% retinol and 2.5% BKC increased TEWL and ear thickness in similar intensity. Epidermal hyperplasia was more prominent in retinol treated skin. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, involucrin and loricrin expression were higher in retinol-treated skin than in BKC-treated skin. Filaggrin, however, was more expressed in BKC-treated skin. The mRNA expression of IL-8, TNF-α, COX-2, involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin were increased in both retinol- and BKC-treated skin in similar intensity. HB-EGF was more significantly increased in retinol-treated skin. Conclusion Elevated HB-EGF and epidermal hyperplasia are more prominent features of retinoid dermatitis than in BKC-induced ICD. PMID:20711265

  10. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E

    2016-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with moderate or severe irritable bowel syndrome generally seek medical care, whereas those with milder symptoms may choose self-management. Most patients with irritable bowel syndrome receive outpatient care, but irritable bowel syndrome-related hospitalizations do occur. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome is multifactorial (i.e. genetics, immune components, changes in the gut microbiota, disturbances in physiologic stress response systems, and psychosocial factors). Management of irritable bowel syndrome can include lifestyle changes, dietary interventions, counseling, psychologic medication, and agents that affect gastrointestinal motility. A number of therapies have emerged in recent years with clinical trial data demonstrating efficacy and safety for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, including agents that target gastrointestinal motility (i.e. linaclotide), gastrointestinal opioid receptors (i.e. asimadoline, eluxadoline), and gut microbiota (i.e. rifaximin). Linaclotide has been shown to significantly improve stool frequency and abdominal pain compared with placebo in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (number needed to treat, 5.1). Asimadoline shows efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome-related pain. Rifaximin provided adequate relief of global irritable bowel syndrome symptoms versus placebo for a significantly greater percentage of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0

  11. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with moderate or severe irritable bowel syndrome generally seek medical care, whereas those with milder symptoms may choose self-management. Most patients with irritable bowel syndrome receive outpatient care, but irritable bowel syndrome-related hospitalizations do occur. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome is multifactorial (i.e. genetics, immune components, changes in the gut microbiota, disturbances in physiologic stress response systems, and psychosocial factors). Management of irritable bowel syndrome can include lifestyle changes, dietary interventions, counseling, psychologic medication, and agents that affect gastrointestinal motility. A number of therapies have emerged in recent years with clinical trial data demonstrating efficacy and safety for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, including agents that target gastrointestinal motility (i.e. linaclotide), gastrointestinal opioid receptors (i.e. asimadoline, eluxadoline), and gut microbiota (i.e. rifaximin). Linaclotide has been shown to significantly improve stool frequency and abdominal pain compared with placebo in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (number needed to treat, 5.1). Asimadoline shows efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe irritable bowel syndrome-related pain. Rifaximin provided adequate relief of global irritable bowel syndrome symptoms versus placebo for a significantly greater percentage of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0

  12. Current and novel therapeutic options for irritable bowel syndrome management.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, M; Andresen, V

    2009-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting up to 3-15% of the general population in western countries. It is characterised by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome is multifactorial involving disturbances of the brain-gut axis. The pathophysiology provides the rationale for pharmacotherapy: abnormal gastrointestinal motor functions, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocial factors, autonomic dysfunction, and mucosal immune activation. Understanding the mechanisms, and their mediators or modulators including neurotransmitters and receptors have led to several therapeutic approaches including agents acting on the serotonin receptor or serotonin transporter system, antidepressants, novel selective anticholinergics, alpha-adrenergic agonists, opioid agents, cholecystokinin-antagonists, neurokinin-antagonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, corticotropin releasing factor antagonists, chloride channel activators, guanylate cyclase-c agonists, melatonin, atypical benzodiazepines, antibiotics, immune modulators and probiotics. The mechanisms and current evidence regarding efficacy of these agents are reviewed.

  13. Nasal pungency, odor, and eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1991-08-01

    We measured detection thresholds for nasal pungency (in anosmics), odor (in normosmics) and eye irritation employing a homologous series of acetates: methyl through octyl acetate, decyl and dodecyl acetate. All anosmics reliably detected the series up to heptyl acetate. Only the anosmics without smell since birth (congenital) reliably detected octyl acetate, and only one congenital anosmic detected decyl and dodecyl acetate. Anosmics who lost smell from head trauma proved to be selectively less sensitive. As expected, odor thresholds lay well below pungency thresholds. Eye irritation thresholds for selected acetates came close to nasal pungency thresholds. All three types of thresholds decreased logarithmically with carbon chain length, as previously seen with homologous alcohols and as seen in narcotic and toxic phenomena. Results imply that nasal pungency for these stimuli rests upon a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with susceptible mucosal structures. When expressed as thermodynamic activity, nasal pungency thresholds remain remarkably constant within and across the homologous series of acetates and alcohols.

  14. Treatment of pain symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Moshiree, Baharak; Verne, G Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome represents a common gastrointestinal disorder that significantly impacts patients' lives. It is defined by Rome II criteria and characterized by abdominal pain and bloating associated with changes in bowel habit. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a biological marker for the disease. Current therapeutic treatments include the use of fiber supplements, antidiarrheal agents, laxatives, antispasmodics, tricyclic antidepressants and serotonergic agents. Through a proper understanding of the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and treatment options, this disorder can be treated effectively in many patients.

  15. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K.; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2973007

  16. Baclofen Withdrawal Presenting as Irritability in a Developmentally Delayed Child

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C. Anthoney; Cunningham, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Irritability in children has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign processes to life-threatening emergencies. In children with comorbid conditions and developmental delay, the diagnostic process becomes more challenging. This case report describes a developmentally delayed 14-year-old boy who presented with pain and crying caused by a malfunction of a surgically implanted baclofen pump. We describe recommendations concerning the diagnostic evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair. PMID:23251718

  17. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  18. [Occupational skin problems among dental personnel].

    PubMed

    Morken, T; Augustson, T; Helland, S

    1999-10-20

    Occupational dermatological problems are common among dental health personnel. We conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate the frequency of occupational dermatological problems among dental health personnel in Hordaland county, Norway. 333 of 394 employees (85%) answered the questionnaire. 148 of 333 respondents (44%) reported skin complaints. The proportion of respondents with skin complaints was lower among those with more than 20 years experience in dental health care. Hands were almost always involved. Use of gloves were reported to be the main cause of skin problems, especially the use of powdered gloves. Other frequently reported causes were soaps and methacrylates. Skin complaints from methacrylates occurred more often among employees wearing gloves most past of the working day. 3% of the respondents reported test-proven rubber allergy and 1% a methacrylate allergy. Our study confirm that occupational dermatological problems among dental health personnel are frequent. Irritant reactions are probably much more common than allergy. The most important allergens causing allergic contact dermatitis are rubber and methacrylates. Dental personnel should use non-powdered non-latex gloves and use non-touch techniques while handling methacrylates.

  19. Testing ocular irritancy in vitro with the silicon microphysiometer.

    PubMed

    Bruner, L H; Miller, K R; Owicki, J C; Parce, J W; Muir, V C

    1991-01-01

    The silicon microphysiometer, an instrument based on the light-addressable potentiometric sensor, was evaluated as an in vitro alternative for assessing ocular irritancy potential. It indirectly and non-invasively measures cell metabolism by determining the rate of acid metabolite production from cells, in this case human epidermal keratinocytes, placed inside the microphysiometer chamber. The 17 materials used for the evaluation included bar soaps, a liquid hand soap, shampoos, dishwashing liquids, laundry detergents, a fabric softener and several single chemicals. All materials tested were in liquid form. The in vivo irritancy potential of the materials was obtained from historical data using the rabbit low-volume eye test. There was a positive correlation between the in vivo irritancy potential of the test materials and the concentration of test material that decreased the acidification rate of cells by 50% (MRD(50); r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Preliminary studies suggest other endpoints obtainable from the system may also provide useful information for making ocular safety assessments. Because the method is non-invasive, it is possible to determine whether cells recover from a treatment with the test material. The metabolic rate of the cells also increases at sub-inhibitory concentrations of some of the test materials. Because of the good correlation between the in vivo and in vitro data, the ease with which test materials can be applied to the system, and the multiple endpoints available from the system, it holds great potential as a useful in vitro alternative for ocular safety testing.

  20. Calcium polycarbophil compared with placebo in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toskes, P P; Connery, K L; Ritchey, T W

    1993-02-01

    Calcium polycarbophil was compared with placebo in 23 patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a six-month, randomized double-blind crossover study. Patients received polycarbophil tablets at a dosage of 6 g/day (twelve 0.5-g tablets) or matching placebo tablets. At study end, among patients expressing a preference, 15 of 21 (71%) chose polycarbophil over placebo for relief of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Statistically significant differences favouring polycarbophil were found among the following patient subgroups: 15 (79%) of 19 with constipation: all six with alternating diarrhoea and constipation; 13 (87%) of 15 with bloating: and 11 (92%) of 12 with two or more symptoms. Polycarbophil was rated better than placebo in monthly global responses to therapy. Patient diary entries showed statistically significant improvement for ease of passage with polycarbophil. Polycarbophil was rated better than placebo for relief of nausea, pain, and bloating. The data suggest that calcium polycarbophil can benefit irritable bowel syndrome patients with constipation or alternating diarrhoea and constipation and may be particularly useful in patients with bloating as a major complaint.

  1. Modulation of oral heat and cold pain by irritant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Albin, Kelly C; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2008-01-01

    Common food irritants elicit oral heat or cool sensations via actions at thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We used a half-tongue, 2-alternative forced-choice procedure coupled with bilateral pain intensity ratings to investigate irritant effects on heat and cold pain. The method was validated in a bilateral thermal difference detection task. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde enhanced lingual heat pain elicited by a 49 degrees C stimulus. Mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde weakly enhanced lingual cold pain (9.5 degrees C), whereas capsaicin had no effect. Menthol significantly enhanced cold pain and weakly reduced heat pain. To address if capsaicin's effect was due to summation of perceptually similar thermal and chemical sensations, one-half of the tongue was desensitized by application of capsaicin. Upon reapplication, capsaicin elicited little or no irritant sensation yet still significantly enhanced heat pain on the capsaicin-treated side, ruling out summation. In a third experiment, capsaicin significantly enhanced pain ratings to graded heat stimuli (47 degrees C to 50 degrees C) resulting in an upward shift of the stimulus-response function. Menthol may induce cold hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPM8 in peripheral fibers. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde may induce heat hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPV1 that is coexpressed with TRPA1 in peripheral nociceptors.

  2. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  3. Lubiprostone for constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Ashok K; Rao, Satish S C

    2008-12-01

    Chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous disorders characterized by altered bowel habits, abdominal discomfort and/or difficult defecation. These conditions have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, as well as on the US economy, both in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Treatment typically begins with lifestyle changes, increased fiber intake and osmotic and stimulant laxative intake. However, treatments for constipation vary in terms of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, surveys of physicians and patients have revealed a strong desire for improved therapeutic options. Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid that is gut selective and stimulates type 2 chloride channels, resulting in increased chloride, sodium and water secretion into the lumen. The increased fluid secretion causes luminal distension, secondary peristalsis and laxation. Randomized Phase III trials have shown that lubiprostone is efficacious in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The US FDA has approved lubiprostone at a dose of 24 microg twice daily for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults, and at a dose of 8 microg twice daily for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adult women. Nausea, diarrhea and headaches are the most commonly reported side effects. In long-term studies, lubiprostone appears to be safe.

  4. Photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy.

  5. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects Skin Problems Pressure Sores A skin or pressure sore ... Content Usage Policy . Skin Problems Dry Skin Itching Skin Color Changes Pressure Sores Scars ... and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Caregivers and Family ...

  6. In vivo skin treatment with tissue-tolerable plasma influences skin physiology and antioxidant profile in human stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, Joachim W; Sassning, Sven; Lademann, Olaf; Darvin, Maxim E; Schanzer, Sabine; Kramer, Axel; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2012-02-01

    The antimicrobial treatment of wounds is still a major problem. Tissue-tolerable electrical plasma (TTP) is a new approach for topical microbial disinfection of the skin surface. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of TTP on a carotenoid profile in relation to skin physiology parameters (epidermal barrier function, stratum corneum (SC) hydration, surface temperature and irritation parameters). We were interested in the interaction of TTP and the antioxidative network, as well as the consequences for skin physiology parameters. These parameters are also indicative of TTP safety in vivo. For plasma application, 'Kinpen 09' was used (surface exposure 30-43°C) for 3 s. Beta-carotene and water profiles were assessed by in vivo Raman microspectroscopy (skin composition analyzer 3510). Skin physiology parameters were measured with Tewameter TM 300, Corneometer CM 825, skin thermometer and Chromameter CR 300. All parameters were assessed non-invasively on seven healthy volunteers before and after plasma application in vivo. We could show that TTP application leads to a decrease in beta-carotene especially in the superficial SC. Skin-surface temperature increased by 1.74°C, while the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increase indicated an impaired barrier function. SC hydration decreased as seen in water profile especially in the superficial layers and capacitance values. A slight increase in skin redness was measurable. The induction of reactive oxygen species is probably the major contributor of TTP efficacy in skin disinfection. Skin physiology parameters were influenced without damaging the skin or skin functions, indicating the safety of TTP under in vivo conditions.

  7. Modern Disposable Diaper Construction: Innovations in Performance Help Maintain Healthy Diapered Skin.

    PubMed

    Counts, Jennifer L; Helmes, C Tucker; Kenneally, Dianna; Otts, David R

    2014-08-01

    Disposable diapers today employ dramatically better fitting, less bulky, and more environmentally friendly features that deliver better performance and help provide protection for infant skin. Continuous innovations in technology and materials have resulted in new generations of disposable diapers that provide extended dryness and reduced leakage. Driven by studies on the skin's response to inherent influences, such as overhydration and irritation, the qualities of disposable diapers today present significant enhancements for skin health compared with earlier disposable versions and even cloth diapers. Over the years, these enhancements in disposable diapers have helped lead to a reduction in incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis.

  8. Dissecting the role of TRPV1 in detecting multiple trigeminal irritants in three behavioral assays for sensory irritation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, CJ

    2013-01-01

    Polymodal neurons of the trigeminal nerve innervate the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity and cornea. Trigeminal nociceptive fibers express a diverse collection of receptors and are stimulated by a wide variety of chemicals. However, the mechanism of stimulation is known only for relatively few of these compounds. Capsaicin, for example, activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. In the present study, wildtype (C57Bl/6J) and TRPV1 knockout mice were tested in three behavioral assays for irritation to determine if TRPV1 is necessary to detect trigeminal irritants in addition to capsaicin. In one assay mice were presented with a chemical via a cotton swab and their response scored on a 5 level scale. In another assay, a modified two bottle preference test, which avoids the confound of mixing irritants with the animal’s drinking water, was used to assess aversion. In the final assay, an air dilution olfactometer was used to administer volatile compounds to mice restrained in a double-chambered plethysmograph where respiratory reflexes were monitored. TRPV1 knockouts showed deficiencies in the detection of benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone and eugenol in at least one assay. However, cyclohexanone was the only substance tested that appears to act solely through TRPV1. PMID:24358880

  9. Sensitive skin evaluation in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Ryoichi; Misery, Laurent; Perez-Cullell, Nuria; Sibaud, Vincent; Taïeb, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome was first described in 1977; however, no robust study has been carried out to evaluate its prevalence in Japan. A national representative sample of the Japanese population over the age of 18 years was taken. Individuals were questioned by telephone and selected according to the quota method. When asked "Do you have a sensitive skin?", 52.84% of men and 55.98% of women answered "rather sensitive" or "very sensitive". There was no significant difference (P = 0.22) between the two sexes. The non-response rate among respondents was zero, suggesting that the term "sensitive skin" held a meaning for the majority of the population. Concerning questions about the onset of a rash, tingling or irritation in the presence of various factors, such as emotional issues, cold, heat, sun, dry air, air-conditioning, water, air pollution and temperature variations, respondents with rather sensitive or very sensitive skin responded "yes" more often than others: approximately three-times more often for water (18.97%/6.15%), air pollution (39.29%/12.45%) and warm climatic conditions (29.74%/9.8%). To our knowledge, this epidemiological study is the first to focus on sensitive skin among Japanese people of this century. It is of particular interest for two reasons: (i) it was conducted on a representative sample of the Japanese population; and (ii) the methodology used was identical to that used for sensitive skin assessment studies conducted in Europe and the USA, making it possible to draw certain comparisons.

  10. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  11. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  12. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  13. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  14. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  15. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  16. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  17. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  18. Epidural blood patch and acute varicella.

    PubMed

    Martin, David P; Bergman, Bradley D; Berger, Ines H

    2004-12-01

    We present the case of a 38-yr-old woman who required an epidural blood patch in the context of acute varicella (chickenpox). The unique risks in this case include the possible triggering of central nervous system complications after the introduction of viremic blood into the epidural or intrathecal space. However, the risk was believed to be acceptable because the patient was receiving antiviral coverage. She enjoyed complete relief of her headache but experienced transient back and leg pain. Leptomeningeal irritation caused by acute varicella infection may put patients at increased risk for pain after epidural blood patch.

  19. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis from synthetic mineral fibres according to Finnish statistics.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, Riitta; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Suuronen, Katri; Alanko, Kristiina; Estlander, Tuula

    2002-12-01

    Synthetic mineral fibres (i.e. man-made vitreous fibres, MMVF) are classified into glass filament, mineral wool (glass wool, rock wool and slag wool), refractory ceramic fibres, and fibres for special purposes. This paper analyses the data on occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) caused by MMVF during 1990-99 in Finland according to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD). A total of 63 cases from MMVF were reported. 56 were diagnosed as ICD, and 2 as allergic contact dermatitis, both from rock wool. 53 out of 63 cases were due to mineral wool or glass filaments; half of the cases, according to a rough estimate, were due to mineral wool and a half due to glass filaments used in lamination work. Carpenters, building workers and insulation workers have the highest risk of ICD from mineral wool. 4 cases in carpenters, 4 in building workers and 2 in insulation workers were reported from MMVF. For every 100 000 employed workers, only 1.6 cases of ICD in carpenters, 2.7 in building workers and 9.1 in insulation workers were annually due to MMVF, respectively. Mineral wool used in construction work, insulation, etc., cannot be considered to be a common cause of occupationally induced ICD. However, information on harmful skin effects of MMVF is useful to exposed persons in the prevention of the effects.

  20. Stress Reactivity in Traditional Chinese Medicine–Based Subgroups of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Megan C.; Shapiro, David; Joshi, Aditi; Shahabi, Leila; Tan, Steven; Smith, Suzanne; Hui, Ka Kit; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to examine differences in autonomic responses to stress, pain perception, and the role of negative affect in these responses in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) classifications. Design: Fifty-nine female patients with IBS age 18–65 years diagnosed by TCM practitioners as showing primarily an excess (n=32) or an overlap (n=27) pattern (mixed excess and deficiency) were assessed for symptom differences, heart rate, and skin conductance responses to a psychosocial stressor and pain perception. Settings/Locations: University of California in Los Angeles, California. Results: Compared with the excess group, the overlap group showed significantly greater overall gastrointestinal symptom severity, abdominal pain, and negative affect. The excess group with higher levels of negative affect showed greater reactivity to stress, whereas the overlap group showed an opposite response pattern. The overlap group showed increased cold sensitivity. Conclusions: IBS patients with the overlap pattern have greater disease severity and comorbidity than those with excess alone. Those with excess showed a pattern of increased stress response with greater negative affect, whereas the overlap group with greater deficiency showed lower physiologic arousal with greater negative affect, consistent with depletion resulting from allostatic load. PMID:24256027

  1. Acute health effects in a community after a release of hydrofluoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, J.S.; Brender, J.D.; Sanderson, L.M.; Perrotta, D.M.; Beauchamp, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    {approximately} 3,000 persons were evacuated from a Texas community after 24,036 kg (53,000 lb) of caustic hydrofluoric acid (HF) were released from a nearby petrochemical plant. Emergency room and hospital records of 939 persons who were seen at two area hospitals were reviewed. Most persons who presented at the emergency rooms were female (56%) or black (60%), and their mean age was 33.9 y. The most frequently reported symptoms were eye irritation (41.5%), burning throat (21%), headache (20.6%), and shortness of breath (19.4%). Physical examination results were normal for 49% of the cases; however, irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and lungs were noted on other exams. Decreased pulmonary function was demonstrated by pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in the first second, less than 80% of predicted value, 42.3%); hypoxemia (pO2 less than 80 mm Hg, 17.4%) and hypocalcemia (less than 8.5 mg/dl, 16.3%) were also noted. Ninety-four (10%) of the cases were hospitalized, and more than 83% of all cases were discharged with a primary diagnosis of HF exposure. There are several reports of individuals who are acutely and chronically exposed to HF; however, we are unaware of other published reports that describe exposure of a community to HF. This incident represented a unique opportunity to study the immediate health impact on a community of residents who were exposed to a hazardous materials release. Results of this analysis suggest that (a) initial health problems should be followed up, (b) any long-term health effects of HF exposure must be assessed, and (c) the health impact on the population at risk should be determined.

  2. Evaluation of moisture penetration through skin protectant barriers by paper chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shah, S; Cornell, M; Ward, A J

    1995-01-01

    Currently, there is no convenient and safe experimental method in the literature to evaluate skin protectant formulations for barrier properties. A novel and simple experimental method, based on paper chromatography, was developed to screen a broad spectrum of skin protectants available for moisture penetration. The method involves the use of paper chromatography for determining the Moisture Penetration Rate through a thin barrier film of a given skin protectant product. It is simple, inexpensive, convenient, and safe and was used to evaluate 12 products currently used as skin protectants. This method can be used by formulators in their development efforts and by caregivers to determine the barrier properties of various products in a short period of time without expensive instrumentation or extensive time commitments. Skin irritation resulting from fecal and urinary incontinence is a common problem for geriatric patients (Fiers & Siebert, 1993, Talbot, 1994). Various products on the market today are used as protective barriers to prevent skin irritation from moisture penetration. However, from the caregiver's perspective, there is a need for identifying the best product or the relative ranking of products based on suitable test methods. There is a lack of suitable in vitro test methods to screen skin protectant barriers (Guillemin, Murset, Lob, & Riquez, 1974; Pigatto, Bigardi, Legori, Altomare, & Finzi, 1993) on the market. For any method to be acceptable it must be convenient, simple, reproducible, and safe for use on human volunteers. More importantly, it must have clinical relevance.

  3. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview.

    PubMed

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-09-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  4. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing. PMID:21321652

  5. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  6. Response to Nonallergenic Irritants in Children With Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Eunhae; Kim, Mi Ae; Lee, Seung Won; Kang, Yu Sun; Sheen, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Jung, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nonallergenic irritants can aggravate the symptoms of rhinitis. We investigated the clinical responses of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) to nonallergenic irritants, and identified factors associated with these responses. Methods Children with chronic rhinitis (n=208) were classified as having AR or NAR based on the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE. Healthy controls (n=24) were recruited for comparison. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines were used to classify patients, and their irritant score (0-21 points) and current symptom score (5-35 points) were measured. Subjects with irritant scores ≥3 and <3 were classified as having irritant and nonirritant rhinitis, respectively. Results The mean age of enrolled subjects was 6.8 years (range: 1.8-16.0 years). The AR and NAR groups had similar irritant scores (P=0.394) and proportions of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 (P=0.105). Irritant score correlated positively with symptom score (P=0.005), and the proportion of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 was greater in children with moderate-severe rhinitis than in those with mild rhinitis (P=0.046). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of atopic eczema increased the risk for sensitivity to a nonallergenic irritant (aOR=2.928, 95% CI 1.567-5.473, P=0.001). Conclusions Response to a nonallergenic irritant was useful for gauging the severity of rhinitis, but not for differentiating AR from NAR. AR and NAR patients with atopic eczema may increase nasal sensitivity to nonallergenic irritants. PMID:27126728

  7. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  8. Temper Loss and Persistent Irritability in Preschoolers: Implications for Diagnosing Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah E; Hunt, Jeffrey I; Mernick, Lauren R; DeMarco, Mia; Hunter, Heather L; Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Boekamp, John R

    2016-08-10

    Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a new and controversial child psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent irritability and frequent temper loss. Among the controversies surrounding DMDD is whether the age of onset criterion-that DMDD may not be diagnosed before age 6 years-is justified. This study examined DMDD symptoms and associated patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, behavioral, and family functioning in a sample of 139 preschoolers (ages 4-0 to 5-11 years) admitted to an early childhood psychiatric day treatment program. DMDD symptoms were common in this acute clinical sample, with 63 children (45.3 %) presenting with frequent temper outbursts and chronic irritability. As compared to children who did not present with DMDD symptoms, these children demonstrated more aggression and emotional reactivity and lower receptive language skills, with high rates of comorbidity with the disruptive behavior disorders. Findings contribute to an emerging literature on preschool DMDD, with implications for early childhood psychiatric assessment and clinical interventions.

  9. Claudin-2 expression is upregulated in the ileum of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Haruka; Oshima, Tadayuki; Sei, Hiroo; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial barrier function is impaired in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudins are highly expressed in cells with tight junctions and are involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier function. The expression pattern of tight junction proteins in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have not been fully elucidated. We therefore recruited 17 diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and 20 healthy controls. The expression of the tight junction-related proteins was examined in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Claudin-2 expression was high in the ileum of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudin-2 expression was the same in cecum and rectal mucosa of control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Similarly, the expression of clauidn-1, claudin-7, JAM-A, occludin, and ZO-1 in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa did not change between control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome samples. Infiltration of eosinophil and mast cells in the mucosa of ileum, cecum and rectum was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and was not affected by diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Claudin-2 was expressed on the apical side of villi and crypts of ileal mucosal epithelial cells. Clauidn-2 expression is upregulated in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:28366996

  10. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, H

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 degrees C. The heat loss was high (70 Wm-2) from the unprotected skin of the head to the surrounding air. Minute heat losses occurred from covered areas; and heat was initially gained from areas in contact with the mother's skin. The total dry heat loss during skin to skin care corresponded to heat loss during incubator care at 32-32.5 degrees C. The reduced heat loss, and to a minor extent, the initial heat flux from the mothers allowed heat to be conserved, leading to rewarming. PMID:8949698

  11. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms in childhood irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects a large number of children throughout the world. The symptom expression of IBS is heterogeneous, and several factors which may be interrelated within the IBS biopsychosocial model play a role. These factors include visceral hyperalgesia, intestinal permeability, gut microbiota, psychosocial distress, gut inflammation, bile acids, food intolerance, colonic bacterial fermentation, and genetics. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these factors are being actively investigated. In this mini-review, we present updates of these mechanisms and, where possible, relate the findings to childhood IBS. Mechanistic elucidation may lead to the identification of biomarkers as well as personalized childhood IBS therapies.

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome: A concise review of current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Geoffrey C; Bryant, Ginelle A; Bottenberg, Michelle M; Maki, Erik D; Miesner, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders causing patients to seek medical treatment. It is relatively resource intensive and the source of significant morbidity. Recent insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS has given clinicians more options than ever to contend with this disorder. The purpose of our paper is to review older, “classic” treatments for IBS as well as newer agents and “alternative” therapies. We discuss the evidence base of these drugs and provide context to help develop appropriate treatment plans for IBS patients. PMID:25083054

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome in adults: symptoms, treatment and management.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Rhian

    2017-02-22

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex functional bowel disorder. It can be difficult to treat because of its presentation with multiple symptoms and aggravating factors. GPs and gastroenterologists regularly see patients return for advice on symptom management. IBS is often misdiagnosed, and is not always managed effectively, despite the guidance available to clinicians. This article aims to inform readers about the symptoms and sub-classifications of IBS and the range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, to enable nurses to understand and manage symptoms of the condition in this group of patients.

  14. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  15. Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Sean M.P.; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut microbiota and IBS by discussing the current knowledge of the gut microbiota; it will also illustrate bacterial-host interactions and how alterations to these interactions could exacerbate, induce or even help alleviate IBS. PMID:25918261

  16. Traditional thoughts on the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hasler, William L

    2011-03-01

    The pathogenesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is multifactorial and varies from patient to patient. Disturbances of motor function in the small intestine and colon and smooth-muscle dysfunction in other gut and extraintestinal regions are prominent. Abnormalities of sensory function in visceral and somatic structures are detected in most patients with IBS, which may relate to peripheral sensitization or altered central nervous system processing of afferent information. Contributions from psychosocial disturbances are observed in patients from tertiary centers and primary practice. Proof of causation of symptom genesis for most of these factors is limited.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: a concise review of current treatment concepts.

    PubMed

    Wall, Geoffrey C; Bryant, Ginelle A; Bottenberg, Michelle M; Maki, Erik D; Miesner, Andrew R

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders causing patients to seek medical treatment. It is relatively resource intensive and the source of significant morbidity. Recent insights into the pathophysiology and treatment of IBS has given clinicians more options than ever to contend with this disorder. The purpose of our paper is to review older, "classic" treatments for IBS as well as newer agents and "alternative" therapies. We discuss the evidence base of these drugs and provide context to help develop appropriate treatment plans for IBS patients.

  18. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Current Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Ford, Alexander C

    2016-12-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent condition affecting 10-20% of adults in most countries; IBS results in significant morbidity and health care costs. IBS is a disorder of the brain-gut axis, and recent insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms include altered bile acid metabolism, neurohormonal regulation, immune dysfunction, alterations in the epithelial barrier, and secretory properties of the gut. There remains a significant unmet need for effective treatments, particularly for the pain component of IBS, although the introduction of drugs directed at secretion, motility, and a nonabsorbable antibiotic provides an option for the bowel dysfunction in IBS.

  19. Gut microbiota as potential orchestrators of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Sean M P; Ohman, Lena; Simren, Magnus

    2015-05-23

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota's composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut microbiota and IBS by discussing the current knowledge of the gut microbiota; it will also illustrate bacterial-host interactions and how alterations to these interactions could exacerbate, induce or even help alleviate IBS.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome. Strategy for the family physician.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common reasons for disability and health care seeking. A sensible strategy for management incorporates a confident diagnosis based upon history, physical examination, and pertinent tests. The physician can then reassure the patient, offer dietary and stress management advice, and recommend bran to relieve constipation and to evoke the placebo response. Patients who do not respond could require supportive psychotherapy or a drug for the dominant symptom. A few require careful referral, but overall responsibility should remain with the primary physician. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:8130678