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Sample records for acute stress increased

  1. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  2. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Eric D; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  3. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude. PMID:15072717

  4. Adaptive response of vascular endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress magnitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Friedman, Morton H

    2012-02-15

    The adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to shear stress alteration induced by global hemodynamic changes, such as those accompanying exercise or digestion, is an essential component of normal endothelial physiology in vivo. An understanding of the transient regulation of endothelial phenotype during adaptation to changes in mural shear will advance our understanding of endothelial biology and may yield new insights into the mechanism of atherogenesis. In this study, we characterized the adaptive response of arterial endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress magnitude in well-defined in vitro settings. Porcine endothelial cells were preconditioned by a basal level shear stress of 15 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) at 1 Hz for 24 h, after which an acute increase in shear stress to 30 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) was applied. Endothelial permeability nearly doubled after 40-min exposure to the elevated shear stress and then decreased gradually. Transcriptomics studies using microarray techniques identified 86 genes that were sensitive to the elevated shear. The acute increase in shear stress promoted the expression of a group of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative genes. The adaptive response of the global gene expression profile is triphasic, consisting of an induction period, an early adaptive response (ca. 45 min) and a late remodeling response. Our results suggest that endothelial cells exhibit a specific phenotype during the adaptive response to changes in shear stress; this phenotype is different than that of fully adapted endothelial cells. PMID:22140046

  5. Acute Stress Increases Sex Differences in Risk Seeking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Decisions involving risk often must be made under stressful circumstances. Research on behavioral and brain differences in stress responses suggest that stress might have different effects on risk taking in males and females. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, participants played a computer game designed to measure risk taking (the Balloon Analogue Risk Task) fifteen minutes after completing a stress challenge or control task. Stress increased risk taking among men but decreased it among women. Conclusions/Significance Acute stress amplifies sex differences in risk seeking; making women more risk avoidant and men more risk seeking. Evolutionary principles may explain these stress-induced sex differences in risk taking behavior. PMID:19568417

  6. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  7. Chronic stress increases the opioid-mediated inhibition of the pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute stress in pigs.

    PubMed

    Janssens, C J; Helmond, F A; Loyens, L W; Schouten, W G; Wiegant, V M

    1995-04-01

    The role of endogenous opioid mechanisms in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute stress was investigated in a longitudinal study in cyclic female pigs before and after exposure to chronic stress (long term tethered housing). Challenge of loose-housed pigs with acute nose-sling stress for 15 min induced an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, evidenced by a transient increase in plasma ACTH (peak height above basal, 98 +/- 12 pg/ml; mean +/- SEM) and cortisol (54 +/- 3 ng/ml) concentrations. Pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg BW, iv bolus) increased the challenge-induced ACTH and cortisol responses to 244 +/- 36 pg/ml and 65 +/- 5 ng/ml, respectively. This indicates that during acute nose-sling stress, endogenous opioid systems are activated that inhibit the pituitary-adrenocortical response. After exposure of the pigs to chronic stress (10-11 weeks of tethered housing), the challenge-induced ACTH response was attenuated, whereas the cortisol response remained unchanged, suggesting an increased adrenocortical sensitivity to circulating ACTH. In addition, pretreatment with naloxone induced a greater increment in the ACTH and cortisol responses in tethered pigs than in loose-housed pigs. As no such changes were found in control animals housed loose during the entire experimental period, this indicates that the impact of opioid systems had increased due to chronic stress. The increased impact of opioid systems during chronic stress may prevent excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responses to acute stressors and, thus, may be of adaptive value. PMID:7895656

  8. Hippocampal increase of 5-hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene following acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Douglas B.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Cengiz, Pelin; Alisch, Reid S.

    2015-01-01

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, 5-hmC was functionally linked to learning and cognition and these studies revealed an accumulation of 5-hmC in the prefrontal cortex of mice undergoing fear extinction. These studies led us to hypothesize a role for 5-hmC in response to stress. To test this hypothesis, we combined immunohistochemistry, tandem mass spectrometry, and tet-assisted sodium bisulfite sequencing (TAB-seq) analyses on tissue and DNA from the hippocampus of 7-week old male mice exposed to a single thirty-minute restraint stress. After first identifying that the broad neuronal distribution of 5-hmC is not disrupted by acute stress, we used TAB-seq to find a stress-induced increase of 5-hmC in the 3’UTR of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1). Nr3c1 has a well-defined role in the stress pathway and these data suggest that 5-hmC contributes to these processes. Together, these data indicate that a deeper investigation of stress-related 5-hmC levels may reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain. PMID:25746451

  9. Hippocampal increase of 5-hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Papale, Ligia A; Kintner, Douglas B; Sabat, Grzegorz; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A; Cengiz, Pelin; Alisch, Reid S

    2015-06-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, 5-hmC was functionally linked to learning and cognition and these studies revealed an accumulation of 5-hmC in the prefrontal cortex of mice undergoing fear extinction. These studies led us to hypothesize a role for 5-hmC in response to stress. To test this hypothesis, we combined immunohistochemistry, tandem mass spectrometry, and tet-assisted sodium bisulfite sequencing (TAB-seq) analyses on tissue and DNA from the hippocampus of 7-week old male mice exposed to a single 30-min restraint stress. After first identifying that the broad neuronal distribution of 5-hmC is not disrupted by acute stress, we used TAB-seq to find a stress-induced increase of 5-hmC in the 3'UTR of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1). Nr3c1 has a well-defined role in the stress pathway and these data suggest that 5-hmC contributes to these processes. Together, these data indicate that a deeper investigation of stress-related 5-hmC levels may reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain. PMID:25746451

  10. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to no, mild (10), or severe (100) acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep/wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep/wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders. PMID

  11. Adaptive response of vascular endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Friedman, Morton H

    2013-09-15

    Local shear stress sensed by arterial endothelial cells is occasionally altered by changes in global hemodynamic parameters, e.g., heart rate and blood flow rate, as a result of normal physiological events, such as exercise. In a recently study (41), we demonstrated that during the adaptive response to increased shear magnitude, porcine endothelial cells exhibited an unique phenotype featuring a transient increase in permeability and the upregulation of a set of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative genes. In the present study, we characterize the adaptive response of these cells to an increase in shear frequency, another important hemodynamic parameter with implications in atherogenesis. Endothelial cells were preconditioned by a basal-level sinusoidal shear stress of 15 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) at 1 Hz, and the frequency was then elevated to 2 Hz. Endothelial permeability increased slowly after the frequency step-up, but the increase was relatively small. Using microarrays, we identified 37 genes that are sensitive to the frequency step-up. The acute increase in shear frequency upregulates a set of cell-cycle regulation and angiogenesis-related genes. The overall adaptive response to the increased frequency is distinctly different from that to a magnitude step-up. However, consistent with the previous study, our data support the notion that endothelial function during an adaptive response is different than that of fully adapted endothelial cells. Our studies may also provide insights into the beneficial effects of exercise on vascular health: transient increases in frequency may facilitate endothelial repair, whereas similar increases in shear magnitude may keep excessive inflammation and oxidative stress at bay. PMID:23851277

  12. Adaptive response of vascular endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress frequency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Local shear stress sensed by arterial endothelial cells is occasionally altered by changes in global hemodynamic parameters, e.g., heart rate and blood flow rate, as a result of normal physiological events, such as exercise. In a recently study (41), we demonstrated that during the adaptive response to increased shear magnitude, porcine endothelial cells exhibited an unique phenotype featuring a transient increase in permeability and the upregulation of a set of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative genes. In the present study, we characterize the adaptive response of these cells to an increase in shear frequency, another important hemodynamic parameter with implications in atherogenesis. Endothelial cells were preconditioned by a basal-level sinusoidal shear stress of 15 ± 15 dyn/cm2 at 1 Hz, and the frequency was then elevated to 2 Hz. Endothelial permeability increased slowly after the frequency step-up, but the increase was relatively small. Using microarrays, we identified 37 genes that are sensitive to the frequency step-up. The acute increase in shear frequency upregulates a set of cell-cycle regulation and angiogenesis-related genes. The overall adaptive response to the increased frequency is distinctly different from that to a magnitude step-up. However, consistent with the previous study, our data support the notion that endothelial function during an adaptive response is different than that of fully adapted endothelial cells. Our studies may also provide insights into the beneficial effects of exercise on vascular health: transient increases in frequency may facilitate endothelial repair, whereas similar increases in shear magnitude may keep excessive inflammation and oxidative stress at bay. PMID:23851277

  13. Acute restraint stress increases carotid reactivity in type-I diabetic rats by enhancing Nox4/NADPH oxidase functionality.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Josimar D; Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; Moreira, Rafael P; do Prado, Alejandro F; da Silva, Carlos H T P; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-10-15

    Hyperglycemia increases the generation of reactive oxygen species and affects systems that regulate the vascular tone including renin-angiotensin system. Stress could exacerbate intracellular oxidative stress during Diabetes upon the activation of angiotensin AT1/NADPH oxidase pathway, which contributes to the development of diabetic cardiovascular complications. For this study, type-I Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. 28 days after streptozotocin injection, the animals underwent to acute restraint stress for 3 h. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II were obtained in carotid rings pre-treated or not with Nox or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Nox1 or Nox4 expression and activity were assessed by Western blotting and lucigenin chemiluminescence, respectively. The role of Nox1 and Nox4 on reactive oxygen species generation was evaluated by flow cytometry and Amplex Red assays. Cyclooxygenases expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The contractile response evoked by angiotensin II was increased in diabetic rat carotid. Acute restraint stress increased this response in this vessel by mechanisms mediated by Nox4, whose local expression and activity in generating hydrogen peroxide are increased. The contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in stressed diabetic rat carotid is also mediated by metabolites derived from cyclooxygenase-2, whose local expression is increased. Taken together, our findings suggest that acute restraint stress exacerbates the contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in diabetic rat carotid by enhancing Nox4-driven generation of hydrogen peroxide, which evokes contractile tone by cyclooxygenases-dependent mechanisms. Finally, these findings highlight the harmful role played by acute stress in modulating diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26387612

  14. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. PMID:22024161

  15. Acute laminar shear stress reversibly increases human glomerular endothelial cell permeability via activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Heather S; Slater, Sadie C; Clarke, Hayley; Cahill, Paul A; Mathieson, Peter W; Welsh, Gavin I; Satchell, Simon C

    2011-10-01

    Laminar shear stress is a key determinant of systemic vascular behavior, including through activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but little is known of its role in the glomerulus. We confirmed eNOS expression by glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC) in tissue sections and examined effects of acute exposure (up to 24 h) to physiologically relevant levels of laminar shear stress (10-20 dyn/cm(2)) in conditionally immortalized human GEnC. Laminar shear stress caused an orientation of GEnC and stress fibers parallel to the direction of flow and induced Akt and eNOS phosphorylation along with NO production. Inhibition of the phophatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase/Akt pathway attenuated laminar shear stress-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Laminar shear stress of 10 dyn/cm(2) had a dramatic effect on GEnC permeability, reversibly decreasing the electrical resistance across GEnC monolayers. Finally, the laminar shear stress-induced reduction in electrical resistance was attenuated by the NOS inhibitors l-N(G)-monomethyl arginine (l-NMMA) and l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and also by inhibition of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Hence we have shown for GEnC in vitro that acute permeability responses to laminar shear stress are dependent on NO, produced via activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway and increased eNOS phosphorylation. These results suggest the importance of laminar shear stress and NO in regulating the contribution of GEnC to the permeability properties of the glomerular capillary wall. PMID:21775480

  16. Cognitive reappraisal increases neuroendocrine reactivity to acute social stress and physical pain.

    PubMed

    Denson, Thomas F; Creswell, J David; Terides, Matthew D; Blundell, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive reappraisal can foster emotion regulation, yet less is known about whether cognitive reappraisal alters neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Some initial evidence suggests that although long-term training in cognitive behavioral therapy techniques (which include reappraisal as a primary training component) can reduce cortisol reactivity to stress, some studies also suggest that reappraisal is associated with heightened cortisol stress reactivity. To address this mixed evidence, the present report describes two experimental studies that randomly assigned young adult volunteers to use cognitive reappraisal while undergoing laboratory stressors. Relative to the control condition, participants in the reappraisal conditions showed greater peak cortisol reactivity in response to a socially evaluative speech task (Experiment 1, N=90) and to a physical pain cold pressor task (Experiment 2, N=94). Participants in the cognitive reappraisal group also reported enhanced anticipatory psychological appraisals of self-efficacy and control in Experiment 2 and greater post-stressor self-efficacy. There were no effects of the reappraisal manipulation on positive and negative subjective affect, pain, or heart rate in either experiment. These findings suggest that although cognitive reappraisal fosters psychological perceptions of self-efficacy and control under stress, this effortful emotion regulation strategy in the short-term may increase cortisol reactivity. Discussion focuses on promising psychological mechanisms for these cognitive reappraisal effects. PMID:25063879

  17. Chronic Desipramine Prevents Acute Stress-Induced Reorganization of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Architecture by Blocking Glutamate Vesicle Accumulation and Excitatory Synapse Increase

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Giulia; Liebenberg, Nico; Chen, Fenghua; Popoli, Maurizio; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although a clear negative influence of chronic exposure to stressful experiences has been repeatedly demonstrated, the outcome of acute stress on key brain regions has only just started to be elucidated. Although it has been proposed that acute stress may produce enhancement of brain plasticity and that antidepressants may prevent such changes, we still lack ultrastructural evidence that acute stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter physiology are coupled with structural synaptic modifications. Methods: Rats were pretreated chronically (14 days) with desipramine (10mg/kg) and then subjected to acute foot-shock stress. By means of serial section electron microscopy, the structural remodeling of medial prefrontal cortex glutamate synapses was assessed soon after acute stressor cessation and stress hormone levels were measured. Results: Foot-shock stress induced a remarkable increase in the number of docked vesicles and small excitatory synapses, partially and strongly prevented by desipramine pretreatment, respectively. Acute stress-induced corticosterone elevation was not affected by drug treatment. Conclusions: Since desipramine pretreatment prevented the stress-induced structural plasticity but not the hormone level increase, we hypothesize that the preventing action of desipramine is located on pathways downstream of this process and/or other pathways. Moreover, because enhancement of glutamate system remodeling may contribute to overexcitation dysfunctions, this aspect could represent a crucial component in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:25522419

  18. Increased ANG II sensitivity following recovery from acute kidney injury: role of oxidant stress in skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Shane A.; Pechman, Kimberly R.; Leonard, Ellen C.; Friedrich, Jessica L.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Beal, Alisa G.

    2010-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) results in prolonged impairment of peripheral (i.e., nonrenal) vascular function since skeletal muscle resistance arteries derived from rats 5 wk post-I/R injury, show enhanced responses to ANG II stimulation but not other constrictors. Because vascular superoxide increases ANG II sensitivity, we hypothesized that peripheral responsiveness following recovery from AKI was attributable to vascular oxidant stress. Gracilis arteries (GA) isolated from post-I/R rats (∼5 wk recovery) showed significantly greater superoxide levels relative to sham-operated controls, as detected by dihydroeithidium, which was further augmented by acute ANG II stimulation in vitro. Hydrogen peroxide measured by dichlorofluorescein was not affected by ANG II. GA derived from postischemic animals manifested significantly greater constrictor responses in vitro to ANG II than GA from sham-operated controls. The addition of the superoxide scavenging reagent Tempol (10−5 M) normalized the response to values similar to sham-operated controls. Apocynin (10−6 M) and endothelial denudation nearly abrogated all ANG II-stimulated constrictor activity in GA from post-AKI rats, suggesting an important role for an endothelial-derived source of peripheral oxidative stress. Apocynin treatment in vivo abrogated GA oxidant stress and attenuated ANG II-induced pressor responses post-AKI. Interestingly, gene expression studies in GA vessels indicated a paradoxical reduction in NADPH oxidase subunit and AT1-receptor genes and no effect on several antioxidant genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that AKI alters peripheral vascular responses by increasing oxidant stress, likely in the endothelium, via an undefined mechanism. PMID:20335375

  19. Oxidative stress response to acute hypobaric hypoxia and its association with indirect measurement of increased intracranial pressure: a field study.

    PubMed

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Malacrida, Sandro; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Falla, Marika; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Moretti, Sarah; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona

    2016-01-01

    High altitude is the most intriguing natural laboratory to study human physiological response to hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress biomarkers during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in 16 lowlanders. Moreover, we looked at the potential relationship between ROS related cellular damage and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as an indirect measurement of intracranial pressure. Baseline measurement of clinical signs and symptoms, biological samples and ultrasonography were assessed at 262 m and after passive ascent to 3830 m (9, 24 and 72 h). After 24 h the imbalance between ROS production (+141%) and scavenging (-41%) reflected an increase in oxidative stress related damage of 50-85%. ONSD concurrently increased, but regression analysis did not infer a causal relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and changes in ONSD. These results provide new insight regarding ROS homeostasis and potential pathophysiological mechanisms of acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, plus other disease states associated with oxidative-stress damage as a result of tissue hypoxia. PMID:27579527

  20. Oxidative stress response to acute hypobaric hypoxia and its association with indirect measurement of increased intracranial pressure: a field study

    PubMed Central

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Malacrida, Sandro; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Falla, Marika; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Moretti, Sarah; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona

    2016-01-01

    High altitude is the most intriguing natural laboratory to study human physiological response to hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress biomarkers during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in 16 lowlanders. Moreover, we looked at the potential relationship between ROS related cellular damage and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as an indirect measurement of intracranial pressure. Baseline measurement of clinical signs and symptoms, biological samples and ultrasonography were assessed at 262 m and after passive ascent to 3830 m (9, 24 and 72 h). After 24 h the imbalance between ROS production (+141%) and scavenging (−41%) reflected an increase in oxidative stress related damage of 50–85%. ONSD concurrently increased, but regression analysis did not infer a causal relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and changes in ONSD. These results provide new insight regarding ROS homeostasis and potential pathophysiological mechanisms of acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, plus other disease states associated with oxidative-stress damage as a result of tissue hypoxia. PMID:27579527

  1. The acute antinociceptive effect of hyperbaric oxygen is not accompanied by an increase in markers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shulin; Shirachi, Donald Y.; Quock, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) causes an antinociceptive response in mice. However, breathing oxygen (O2) at an elevated pressure can potentially cause oxygen toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of HBO2 antinociception and the toxicity profile of HBO2. Main methods Male NIH Swiss mice were assessed for acute antinociceptive responsiveness under room air or 100% O2 at 1.0 or 3.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA), using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. For the oxygen toxicity test, mice were exposed to 3.5 ATA oxygen for 11 min, 60 min, 60 min daily for 2 days (120 min) or 60 min daily for 4 days (240 min), then assessed by analyzing the levels of two oxidative stress markers, MDA (malondialdehyde) and protein carbonyl in brain, spinal cord and lung. Key Findings Only the combination of 100% O2 and 3.5 ATA caused significant antinociception. The antinociceptive effect of 100% O2 was pressure-dependent up to 3.5 ATA. In the oxygen toxicity test, mice exposed to HBO2 for different time intervals had levels of brain, spinal cord and lung MDA and protein carbonyl that were comparable to that of control animals exposed to room air. Significance Treatment with 100% O2 evokes a pressure-dependent antinociceptive effect. Since there was no significant increase in levels of the oxidative stress markers in the tested tissues, it is concluded HBO2 at 3.5 ATA produces antinociception in the absence of oxidative stress in mice. PMID:24418003

  2. Acute, food-induced moderate elevation of plasma uric acid protects against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Jonatan; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Sutlovic, Davorka; Salamunic, Ilza; Zaja, Ivan; Boban, Mladen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effects of acute, food-induced moderate increase of plasma uric acid (UA) on arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative damage in plasma in healthy males exposed to 100% normobaric oxygen. Acute elevation of plasma UA was induced by consumption of red wine, combination of ethanol and glycerol, or fructose. By using these beverages we were able to separate the effects of UA, wine polyphenols and ethanol. Water was used as a control beverage. Ten males randomly consumed test beverages in a cross-over design over the period of 4 weeks, one beverage per week. They breathed 100% O(2) between 60(th) and 90(th)min of the 4-h study protocol. Pulse wave augmentation index (AIx) at brachial and radial arteries, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) assessed by xylenol orange method, UA and blood ethanol concentrations were determined before and 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after beverage consumption. Consumption of the beverages did not affect the AIx, TBARS or LOOH values during 60 min before exposure to hyperoxia, while AOC and plasma UA increased except in the water group. Significant increase of AIx, plasma TBARS and LOOH, which occurred during 30 min of hyperoxia in the water group, was largely prevented in the groups that consumed red wine, glycerol+ethanol or fructose. In contrast to chronic hyperuricemia, generally considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, acute increase of UA acts protectively against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and related increase of arterial stiffness in large peripheral arteries. PMID:19457484

  3. Enhanced nitric oxide generation from nitric oxide synthases as the cause of increased peroxynitrite formation during acute restraint stress: Effects on carotid responsiveness to angiotensinergic stimuli in type-1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Josimar D; Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Moreira, Rafael P; do Prado, Alejandro F; da Silva, Carlos H T P; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species accumulation. Behavioral stress increases nitric oxide production, which may trigger a massive impact on vascular cells and accelerate cardiovascular complications under oxidative stress conditions such as Diabetes. For this study, type-1 Diabetes mellitus was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After 28 days, cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II were obtained in endothelium-intact carotid rings from diabetic rats that underwent to acute restraint stress for 3h. The contractile response evoked by angiotensin II was increased in carotid arteries from diabetic rats. Acute restraint stress did not alter angiotensin II-induced contraction in carotid arteries from normoglycaemic rats. However acute stress combined with Diabetes increased angiotensin II-induced contraction in carotid rings. Western blot experiments and the inhibition of nitric oxide synthases in functional assays showed that neuronal, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms contribute to the increased formation of peroxynitrite and contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in carotid rings from stressed diabetic rats. In summary, these findings suggest that the increased superoxide anion generation in carotid arteries from diabetic rats associated to the increased local nitric oxide synthases expression and activity induced by acute restrain stress were responsible for exacerbating the local formation of peroxynitrite and the contraction induced by angiotensin II. PMID:27118175

  4. Smoking is associated with reduced serum paraoxonase, antioxidants and increased oxidative stress in normolipidaemic acute myocardial infarct patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Biswas, Utpal Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Background Paraoxonase is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme that protects lipoproteins from oxidative modifications and from becoming atherogenic in nature. Smoking is a well-known major cardiovascular risk factor that promotes lipid peroxidation (LP). The present study examined the hypothesis that smoking modulates the activity of paraoxonase and depletes antioxidants. Aim The present study evaluated paraoxonase activity, antioxidant status and LP in smoking and non-smoking normolipidaemic acute myocardial infarct (AMI) patients, and results were compared with controls. Settings and design The serum paraoxonase activities, antioxidants and LP were determined in 86 normolipidaemic patients diagnosed of AMI, and 86 age–sex-matched healthy volunteers served as control. Material and methods Serum paraoxonase activities were measured by enzymatic kit. The glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was determined by standard methods. Malondialdehyde was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reaction, and conjugated diene levels by the Recknagel and Glende method. Serum uric acid, total bilirubin, serum albumin and lipid profiles were analysed by standard methods. Statistics The values were expressed as mean±SD, and data from the patients and control were compared using the Student t test. Results and conclusion The total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein/HDL cholesterol ratio and triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly higher, and HDL cholesterol significantly lower in smokers compared with non-smoking AMI patients. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly higher in non-smokers compared with smokers. Serum albumin, uric acid and bilirubin were higher in the control compared with smoking AMI patients. The malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes were significantly higher, and paraoxonase activities were

  5. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  6. Posttraumatic stress due to an acute coronary syndrome increases risk of 42-month major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Donald; Rieckmann, Nina; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W; Clemow, Lynn; Shimbo, Daichi; Kronish, Ian M

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 15% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to their ACS event. We assessed whether ACS-induced PTSD symptoms increase risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in an observational cohort study of 247 patients (aged 25-93 years; 45% women) hospitalized for an ACS at one of 3 academic medical centers in New York and Connecticut between November 2003 and June 2005. Within 1 week of admission, patient demographics, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, Charlson comorbidity index, left ventricular ejection fraction, and depression status were obtained. At 1-month follow-up, ACS-induced PTSD symptoms were assessed with the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. The primary endpoint was combined MACE (hospitalization for myocardial infarction, unstable angina or urgent/emergency coronary revascularization procedures) and ACM, which were actively surveyed for 42 months after index event. Thirty-six (15%) patients had elevated intrusion symptoms, 32 (13%) elevated avoidance symptoms, and 21 (9%) elevated hyperarousal symptoms. Study physicians adjudicated 21 MACEs and 15 deaths during the follow-up period. In unadjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, and analyses adjusted for sex, age, clinical characteristics and depression, high intrusion symptoms were associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.02; p = .015). Avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were not associated with the primary endpoint. The presence of intrusion symptoms is a strong and independent predictor of elevated risk for MACE and ACM, and should be considered in the risk stratification of ACS patients. PMID:21807378

  7. Acute psychological stress reduces plasma triglyceride clearance.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Catherine M; West, Sheila G; Hughes, Joel W; Lentino, Lisa M; Finney, Montenique L; Falko, James; Bausserman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Acute stress elevates blood lipids, with the largest increases among men and postmenopausal women. The mechanisms for the effect are unknown, but may be due to altered lipid metabolism. This study investigated if acute stress induces transient reductions in triglyceride clearance in middle-aged men and women, and determined if gender and menopause affect triglyceride metabolism. Of the 35 women, half were premenopausal, and half were naturally postmenopausal; men (n = 35) were age matched. Clearance of an intravenously administered fat emulsion was assessed twice: once during a nonstress session, and again during a stress-testing session. During the stress session, a battery of behavioral stressors (serial subtraction, speech, mirror tracing, and Stroop) were performed for 40 min. The clearance rate of exogenous fat was significantly diminished during the stress, relative to the nonstress session. Women had more efficient clearance, relative to men, but there were no effects of menopausal status. The diminished ability to clear an intravenous fat emulsion during stress suggests one mechanism for stress-induced elevations in lipids. PMID:12206298

  8. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system. PMID:25250721

  9. An acute increase in the stress hormone corticosterone is associated with mating behavior in both male and female red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Aaron M; Edwards, Alex; Pendlebury, Chloe; Murdaugh, Laura; Avery, Ryan; Seidenberg, Jake; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2014-11-01

    Hormones play key, functional roles in mediating the tradeoff between survival and reproduction. Glucocorticoid hormones can inhibit reproduction and improve chances of survival during periods of stress. However, glucocorticoid hormones are, at times, also associated with successfully engaging in energetically costly courtship and mating behaviors. Corticosterone (CORT), a primary glucocorticoid hormone in amphibians, reptiles and birds, may be important in activating or sustaining energetically costly mating behaviors. We used a non-invasive, water-borne hormone assay to measure CORT release rates of male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) collected when either engaged in amplexus or when not engaged in amplexus. Because amplexus is energetically costly for males, we predicted that males would have higher CORT release rates than females. We also predicted that females in amplexus would have elevated CORT release rates because the restraint of amplexus prevents foraging and breathing and may be costly. Here we show that an acute increase in CORT is associated with amplexus behavior in both male and female red-spotted newts. Additionally we demonstrate that males have higher overall CORT release rates both in and out of amplexus than do females. Our results support the hypothesis that glucocorticoid hormones are associated with energetically costly courtship and mating behaviors for both sexes. PMID:25157790

  10. Increased Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress and Salt-Loading in Adult Male Offspring of Fat Fed Non-Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J.; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  11. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  12. Acute Stress Facilitates Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in C57BL/6 Male Mice and Increases the Excitability of Their CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Craig; Sametsky, Evgeny; Sasse, Astrid; Spiess, Joachim; Disterhoft, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stress (restraint plus tail shock) on hippocampus-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning and hippocampal excitability were examined in C57BL/6 male mice. The results indicate that the stressor significantly increased the concentration of circulating corticosterone, the amount and rate of learning relative to nonstressed conditioned…

  13. Acute Painful Stress and Inflammatory Mediator Production

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Charles A.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Compton, Peggy; Goldberg, Alyssa; Witarama, Tuff; Kotlerman, Jenny; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory pathways may be activated under conditions of painful stress, which is hypothesized to worsen the pain experience and place medically-vulnerable populations at risk for increased morbidity. Objectives To evaluate the effects of pain and subjective pain-related stress on pro-inflammatory activity. Methods A total of 19 healthy control subjects underwent a single standard cold-pressor pain test (CPT) and a no-pain control condition. Indicators of pain and stress were measured and related to inflammatory immune responses (CD811a, IL-1RA, and IL-6) immediately following the painful stimulus, and compared to responses under non-pain conditions. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured as indicators of sympathetic stimulation. Results CPT was clearly painful and generated an activation of the sympathetic nervous system. CD811a increased in both conditions, but with no statistically significant greater increase following CPT (p < .06). IL-1RA demonstrated a non-statistically significant increase following CPT (p < .07). The change in IL-6 following CPT differed significantly from the response seen in the control condition (p < .02). Conclusions These findings suggest that CP acute pain may affect proinflammatory pathways, possibly through mechanisms related to adrenergic activation. PMID:23407214

  14. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915

  15. Exercise-associated changes in the corticosterone response to acute restraint stress: evidence for increased adrenal sensitivity and reduced corticosterone response duration.

    PubMed

    Hare, Brendan D; Beierle, Jacob A; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E; Falls, William A

    2014-04-01

    Exercise promotes stress resistance and is associated with reduced anxiety and reduced depression in both humans and in animal models. Despite the fact that dysfunction within the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is strongly linked to both anxiety and depressive disorders, the evidence is mixed as to how exercise alters the function of the HPA axis. Here we demonstrate that 4 weeks of voluntary wheel running was anxiolytic in C57BL/6J mice and resulted in a shorter time to peak corticosterone (CORT) and a more rapid decay of CORT following restraint stress. Wheel running was also associated with increased adrenal size and elevated CORT following systemic administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Finally, the HPA-axis response to peripheral or intracerebroventricular administration of dexamethasone did not suggest that wheel running increases HPA-axis negative feedback through GR-mediated mechanisms. Together these findings suggest that exercise may promote stress resilience in part by insuring a more rapid and shortened HPA response to a stressor thus affecting overall exposure to the potentially negative effects of more sustained HPA-axis activation. PMID:24280995

  16. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  17. The expression of thioredoxin-1 in acute epinephrine stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jin-Jing; Zeng, Xian-Si; Li, Kun; Ma, Li-Fang; Chen, Lei; Song, Xin-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Stress, a state of perceived threat to homeostasis, regulates a panel of important physiological functions. The human mind and body respond to stress by activating the sympathetic nervous system and secreting the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in the "fight-or-flight" response. However, the protective mechanism of acute stress is still unknown. In the present study, an acute stress mouse model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine (0.2 mg kg(-1)) for 4 h. Epinephrine treatment induced heat shock 70(Hsp70) expression in the stress responsive tissues, such as the cortex, hippocampus, thymus, and kidney. Further, the expression of thioredoxin-1(Trx-1), a cytoprotective protein, was also upregulated in these stress responsive tissues. In addition, the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor of Trx-1, was increased after treatment with epinephrine. The block of CREB activation by H89 inhibited the acute epinephrine stress-induced Trx-1 and Hsp70 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that acute stimuli of epinephrine induced Trx-1 expression through activating CREB and may represent a protective role against stress. PMID:27511023

  18. Increased efflux of glutathione conjugate in acutely diabetic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Ting, Simon; Lau, Howard; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; An, Ding; Qi, Dake; Abrahani, Mohammed A; Rodrigues, Brian

    2004-10-01

    In diabetes, cell death and resultant cardiomyopathy have been linked to oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants like glutathione (GSH). Although the de novo synthesis and recycling of GSH have been extensively studied in the chronically diabetic heart, their contribution in modulating cardiac oxidative stress in acute diabetes has been largely ignored. Additionally, the possible contribution of cellular efflux in regulating GSH levels during diabetes is unknown. We used streptozotocin to make Wistar rats acutely diabetic and after 4 days examined the different processes that regulate cardiac GSH. Reduction in myocyte GSH in diabetic rats was accompanied by increased oxidative stress, excessive reactive oxygen species, and an elevated apoptotic cell death. The effect on GSH was not associated with any change in either synthesis or recycling, as both gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene expression (responsible for bio syn thesis) and glutathione reductase activity (involved with GSH recycling) remained unchanged. However, gene expression of multidrug resistance protein 1, a transporter implicated in effluxing GSH during oxidative stress, was elevated. GSH conjugate efflux mediated by multidrug resistance protein 1 also increased in diabetic cardiomyocytes, an effect that was blocked using MK-571, a specific inhibitor of this transporter. As MK-571 also decreased oxidative stress in diabetic cardiomyocytes, an important role can be proposed for this transporter in GSH and reactive oxygen species homeostasis in the acutely diabetic heart. PMID:15573148

  19. Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Under Acute Stress: The Role of Trait Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731

  20. Increased extracellular heat shock protein 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS associated with multiple organ failure and related to acute inflammatory-metabolic stress response in children.

    PubMed

    Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Dimitriou, Helen; Venihaki, Maria; Katrinaki, Marianna; Ilia, Stavroula; Briassoulis, George

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness.A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression.HSP90α, along with HSP72, were dramatically increased among MOSF patients. Patients in septic groups and SIRS had elevated HSP90α compared to H (P < 0.01). HSP90α was independently related to predicted death rate and severity of illness; positively to HSP72, nCD64, ILs, length of stay, days on ventilator, and fever; negatively to HDL and LDL (P < 0.05). The HSP72 was increased in SS/S and related negatively to HDL and LDL (P < 0.05).Serum HSP90α is markedly elevated in children with severe sepsis and is associated with MOSF. Better than the HSP72, also increased in SS, SIRS, and MOSF, HSP90α is related to the inflammatory stress, fever, outcome endpoints, and predicted mortality and inversely related to the low-LDL/low-HDL stress metabolic pattern. PMID:27583886

  1. Increased extracellular heat shock protein 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS associated with multiple organ failure and related to acute inflammatory-metabolic stress response in children

    PubMed Central

    Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Dimitriou, Helen; Venihaki, Maria; Katrinaki, Marianna; Ilia, Stavroula; Briassoulis, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness. A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression. HSP90α, along with HSP72, were dramatically increased among MOSF patients. Patients in septic groups and SIRS had elevated HSP90α compared to H (P < 0.01). HSP90α was independently related to predicted death rate and severity of illness; positively to HSP72, nCD64, ILs, length of stay, days on ventilator, and fever; negatively to HDL and LDL (P < 0.05). The HSP72 was increased in SS/S and related negatively to HDL and LDL (P < 0.05). Serum HSP90α is markedly elevated in children with severe sepsis and is associated with MOSF. Better than the HSP72, also increased in SS, SIRS, and MOSF, HSP90α is related to the inflammatory stress, fever, outcome endpoints, and predicted mortality and inversely related to the low-LDL/low-HDL stress metabolic pattern. PMID:27583886

  2. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  3. Increased anxiety in corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptor-null mice requires recent acute stress exposure and is associated with dysregulated serotonergic activity in limbic brain areas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptors (CRFR2) are suggested to facilitate successful recovery from stress to maintain mental health. They are abundant in the midbrain raphe nuclei, where they regulate serotonergic neuronal activity and have been demonstrated to mediate behavioural consequences of stress. Here, we describe behavioural and serotonergic responses consistent with maladaptive recovery from stressful challenge in CRFR2-null mice. Results CRFR2-null mice showed similar anxiety levels to control mice before and immediately after acute restraint stress, and also after cessation of chronic stress. However, they showed increased anxiety by 24 hours after restraint, whether or not they had been chronically stressed. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) contents were quantified and the level of 5-HIAA in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was increased under basal conditions in CRFR2-null mice, indicating increased 5-HT turnover. Twenty-four hours following restraint, 5-HIAA was decreased only in CRFR2-null mice, suggesting that they had not fully recovered from the challenge. In efferent limbic structures, CRFR2-null mice showed lower levels of basal 5-HT in the lateral septum and subiculum, and again showed a differential response to restraint stress from controls. Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRglu) revealed decreased neuronal activity in the DRN of CRFR2-null mice under basal conditions. Following 5-HT receptor agonist challenge, LCMRglu responses indicated that 5-HT1A receptor responses in the DRN were attenuated in CRFR2-null mice. However, postsynaptic 5-HT receptor responses in forebrain regions were intact. Conclusions These results suggest that CRFR2 are required for proper functionality of 5-HT1A receptors in the raphe nuclei, and are key to successful recovery from stress. This disrupted serotonergic function in CRFR2-null mice likely contributes to their stress-sensitive phenotype. The 5-HT

  4. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment. PMID:20504303

  5. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  6. Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Comorbidity Between Acute Stress and Cocaine Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Kupchik, Yonatan; Gipson, Cassandra D; Brown, Robyn M; Spencer, Sade; Bollati, Flavia; Esparza, Maria A; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Cancela, Liliana M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining if the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate mediated synaptic currents, and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined if acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport, and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  7. Glutamatergic mechanisms of comorbidity between acute stress and cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Keller, C; Kupchik, Y M; Gipson, C D; Brown, R M; Spencer, S; Bollati, F; Esparza, M A; Roberts-Wolfe, D J; Heinsbroek, J A; Bobadilla, A-C; Cancela, L M; Kalivas, P W

    2016-08-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining whether the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress, and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate-mediated synaptic currents and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined whether acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  8. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  9. Acute stress affects the physiology and behavior of allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Shome, G P; Hulbert, L E; Krebs, N; Wachtel, M; McGlone, J J

    2009-09-01

    Physical and psychological stressors have been implicated in acute asthma exacerbation. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of forced swimming stress (FST) on allergic pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mice. Eighty female mice were allocated to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of two levels of allergy and two levels of stress. The effects of stress and allergy were assessed by examination of cytokines and leukocyte differentials in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, corticosterone and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the plasma, leukocyte differentials in the peripheral blood, natural killer cytotoxicity, and histopathology of the lungs. Behavior was recorded during the FST. Stress and allergy increased plasma corticosterone in mice. Allergy increased IgE concentrations and pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-4 was greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice and stressed, non-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and 6 (IL-6) were greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice compared with non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 and 6 were reduced among stressed-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, allergic mice. Stress and allergy shifted mice towards a T-helper 2 response as shown by increased interleukin-4. Stress reduced IL-5 and IL-6 in allergic mice but not non-allergic mice. Pulmonary inflammation was not reduced among allergic stressed mice in spite of elevated glucocorticoids. Mice induced to be allergic responded to FST differently than non-allergic mice. Our findings suggest that stress induces a differential response among allergic and non-allergic mice. PMID:19527741

  10. Repeated, but Not Acute, Stress Suppresses Inflammatory Plasma Extravasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strausbaugh, Holly J.; Dallman, Mary F.; Levine, Jon D.

    1999-12-01

    Clinical findings suggest that inflammatory disease symptoms are aggravated by ongoing, repeated stress, but not by acute stress. We hypothesized that, compared with single acute stressors, chronic repeated stress may engage different physiological mechanisms that exert qualitatively different effects on the inflammatory response. Because inhibition of plasma extravasation, a critical component of the inflammatory response, has been associated with increased disease severity in experimental arthritis, we tested for a potential repeated stress-induced inhibition of plasma extravasation. Repeated, but not single, exposures to restraint stress produced a profound inhibition of bradykinin-induced synovial plasma extravasation in the rat. Experiments examining the mechanism of inhibition showed that the effect of repeated stress was blocked by adrenalectomy, but not by adrenal medullae denervation, suggesting that the adrenal cortex mediates this effect. Consistent with known effects of stress and with mediation by the adrenal cortex, restraint stress evoked repeated transient elevations of plasma corticosterone levels. This elevated corticosterone was necessary and sufficient to produce inhibition of plasma extravasation because the stress-induced inhibition was blocked by preventing corticosterone synthesis and, conversely, induction of repeated transient elevations in plasma corticosterone levels mimicked the effects of repeated stress. These data suggest that repetition of a mild stressor can induce changes in the physiological state of the animal that enable a previously innocuous stressor to inhibit the inflammatory response. These findings provide a potential explanation for the clinical association between repeated stress and aggravation of inflammatory disease symptoms and provide a model for study of the biological mechanisms underlying the stress-induced aggravation of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  11. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  12. Acute posttraumatic stress: nonacceptance of early intervention.

    PubMed

    Weisaeth, L

    2001-01-01

    Psychological resistance may be of considerable importance in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) population, considering that researchers in the field of traumatic stress are frequently unsuccessful in achieving high response rates, that many subjects suffering from PTSD never seek help, and that dropouts from therapy are frequent. This article presents data on the main complaints reported in the acute aftermath of an industrial disaster by 246 employees who had been exposed to the disaster. The dominant concerns were symptomatic complaints related to posttraumatic stress reactions rather than external problems. Sleep disturbance, anxiety/fear responses, and physical symptoms were reported by individuals with complaints in the acute phase as most problematic, while irritability and depressive symptoms appeared very infrequently among the reported main complaints. A high specificity and sensitivity were achieved in predicting later PTSD (as defined by DSM-III criteria) by applying early response variables: thus, there were few false-positives and false-negatives. There was a considerable overlap between the PTSD predictors and the main symptom complaints. From a prevention point of view, this should be advantageous, since it would bring the right people to seek help. However, in a significant proportion of the acutely distressed, the reluctance to seek help was motivated by the very symptoms that predicted PTSD. Even a relatively high rate of subjects agreeing to be screened (82.8%) would have lost 42% of those who qualified for a diagnosis of PTSD, and more than half of the subjects with severe outcomes would not have been included. For primary and secondary prevention, the findings suggest that early screening and outreach should be very active. PMID:11495094

  13. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release

    PubMed Central

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  14. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  15. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B.; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  16. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip; Everaerd, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity and experience in healthy young men. Autobiographical memories were elicited by neutral and negative cue words, with instructions to recall either recent or remote memories. No effect of psychosocial stress was found on memory specificity or experience, but cortisol increases tended to be related to less specific, recent memories elicited by neutral cue words, especially when participants were physically aroused during memory retrieval. These results indicate that autobiographical memories are fairly resistant to an acute stressor in healthy young men, but that endogenous cortisol increases might be related to autobiographical memory retrieval. More research into the relation between endogenous cortisol increases and autobiographic memory retrieval is needed, especially in stress-related disorders. PMID:19156564

  17. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, including igfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  18. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, includingigfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  19. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  20. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  1. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat. PMID:27483696

  2. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  3. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  4. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent research in rodents found that exposure to stress led to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress responses, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, one day later participants in the stress group (n = 27) demonstrated significantly less

  5. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  6. Inhibition of food intake induced by acute stress in rats is due to satiation effects.

    PubMed

    Calvez, J; Fromentin, G; Nadkarni, N; Darcel, N; Even, P; Tomé, D; Ballet, N; Chaumontet, C

    2011-10-24

    Acute mild stress induces an inhibition of food intake in rats. In most studies, the cumulative daily food intake is measured but this only provides a quantitative assessment of ingestive behavior. The present study was designed to analyze the reduction in food intake induced by acute stress and to understand which behavioral and central mechanisms are responsible for it. Two different stressors, restraint stress (RS) and forced swimming stress (FSS), were applied acutely to male Wistar rats. We first measured corticosterone and ACTH in plasma samples collected immediately after acute RS and FSS in order to validate our stress models. We measured food intake after RS and FSS and determined meal patterns and behavioral satiety sequences. The expressions of CRF, NPY and POMC in the hypothalamus were also determined immediately after acute RS and FSS. The rise in corticosterone and ACTH levels after both acute RS and FSS validated our models. Furthermore, we showed that acute stress induced a reduction in cumulative food intake which lasted the whole day for RS but only for the first hour after FSS. For both stressors, this stress-induced food intake inhibition was explained by a decrease in meal size and duration, but there was no difference in ingestion speed. The behavioral satiety sequence was preserved after RS and FSS but grooming was markedly increased, which thus competed with, and could reduce, other behaviors, including eating. Lastly, we showed that RS induced an increase in hypothalamic POMC expression. These results suggest that acute stress may affect ingestive behavior by increasing satiation and to some extent by enhancing grooming, and this may be due to stimulation of the hypothalamic POMC neurons. PMID:21787797

  7. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  8. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  9. An experimental test of the capture-restraint protocol for estimating the acute stress response.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Jesse J; Norris, D Ryan; Newman, Amy E M

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate behavior and are key in directing energy reserves. The capture-restraint protocol was developed to experimentally stimulate and quantify the magnitude of the acute stress response by comparing baseline GC levels with those collected after restraining a subject for a period of time, typically 30 min. This protocol has been used extensively in the field and lab, yet few studies have investigated whether it parallels hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation under natural acute stressors. We examined the hypothesis that acute stress from the capture-restraint protocol accurately mimics the adrenocortical response induced by a natural acute stressor. Using wild-caught rock pigeons Columba livia in a repeated-measures design, we compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations at baseline, after exposure to acute capture-restraint (30 min in a cloth bag), after tethering in a harness (30 min), and after a real but nonlethal attack by a predatory raptor. As found in previous studies, the capture-restraint treatment significantly increased CORT levels of pigeons compared with baseline. However, we also found that when pigeons were exposed to an attack by a raptor, their CORT levels were more than twice as high compared with the capture-restraint treatment. Our results provide evidence that an authentic acute stressor can activate the HPA axis to a greater extent than the capture-restraint protocol and also suggest that real predation attempts can have a significant effect on acute stress levels of wild birds. PMID:23434787

  10. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  11. Acute Stress Modulates Risk Taking in Financial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions. Although a goal for researchers is to elucidate stress-coping mechanisms to facilitate decision-making processes, it is important to first understand the interaction between the state created by a stressful environment and how decisions are performed in such environments. The objective of this experiment was to probe the impact of exposure to acute stress on financial decision-making and examine the particular influence of stress on decisions with a positive or negative valence. Participants’ choices exhibited a stronger reflection effect when participants were under stress than when they were in the no-stress control phase. This suggests that stress modulates risk taking, potentially exacerbating behavioral bias in subsequent decision making. Consistent with dual-process approaches, decision makers fall back on automatized reactions to risk under the influence of disruptive stress. PMID:19207694

  12. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  13. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  14. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. PMID:23218453

  15. Stress does not increase blood-brain barrier permeability in mice.

    PubMed

    Roszkowski, Martin; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have reported that exposure to acute psychophysiological stressors can lead to an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability, but these findings remain controversial and disputed. We thoroughly examined this issue by assessing the effect of several well-established paradigms of acute stress and chronic stress on blood-brain barrier permeability in several brain areas of adult mice. Using cerebral extraction ratio for the small molecule tracer sodium fluorescein (NaF, 376 Da) as a sensitive measure of blood-brain barrier permeability, we find that neither acute swim nor restraint stress lead to increased cerebral extraction ratio. Daily 6-h restraint stress for 21 days, a model for the severe detrimental impact of chronic stress on brain function, also does not alter cerebral extraction ratio. In contrast, we find that cold forced swim and cold restraint stress both lead to a transient, pronounced decrease of cerebral extraction ratio in hippocampus and cortex, suggesting that body temperature can be an important confounding factor in studies of blood-brain barrier permeability. To additionally assess if stress could change blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, we measured cerebral extraction ratio for fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (70 kDa). We find that neither acute restraint nor cold swim stress affected blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, thus corroborating our findings that various stressors do not increase blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:27146513

  16. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  17. Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioural stress normally triggers a complex, multilevel response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca(2+)-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  18. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  19. Glucocorticoids Protect Against the Delayed Behavioral and Cellular Effects of Acute Stress on the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajnish P.; Anilkumar, Shobha; McEwen, Bruce; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2013-01-01

    Background A single episode of acute immobilization stress has previously been shown to trigger a delayed onset of anxiety-like behavior and spinogenesis in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats. Spurred on by a seemingly paradoxical observation in which even a modest increase in corticosterone (CORT), caused by a single vehicle injection before stress, could dampen the delayed effects of stress, we hypothesized a protective role for glucocorticoids against stress. Methods We tested this hypothesis by analyzing how manipulations in CORT levels modulate delayed increase in anxiety-like behavior of rats on the elevated plus-maze 10 days after acute stress. We also investigated the cellular correlates of different levels of anxiety under different CORT conditions by quantifying spine density on Golgi-stained BLA principal neurons. Results CORT in drinking water for 12 hours preceding acute stress prevented delayed increase in anxiety rather than exacerbating it. Conversely, vehicle injection failed to prevent the anxiogenic effect of stress in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats. However, when CORT was restored in adrenalectomized rats by injection, the delayed anxiogenic effect of stress was once again blocked. Finally, high and low anxiety states were accompanied by high and low levels of BLA spine density. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the presence of elevated levels of CORT at the time of acute stress confers protection against the delayed enhancing effect of stress on BLA synaptic connectivity and anxiety-like behavior. These observations are consistent with clinical reports on the protective effects of glucocorticoids against the development of posttraumatic symptoms triggered by traumatic stress. PMID:22572034

  20. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress.

    PubMed

    Lomborg, S R; Nielsen, L R; Heegaard, P M H; Jacobsen, S

    2008-10-01

    Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P < 0.01 and 0.05 at 48 hours, respectively). Additionally, the animals had transient neutrophilia at 8 and 24 hours (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that SAA and haptoglobin may serve as markers of stress in adult cattle. PMID:18461465

  1. ACUTE MENTAL STRESS AND HEMOSTASIS: WHEN PHYSIOLOGY BECOMES VASCULAR HARM

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the sympathoadrenal medullary system activates both the coagulation and fibrinolysis system resulting in net hypercoagulability. The evolutionary interpretation of this physiology is that stress-hypercoagulability protects a healthy organism from excess bleeding should injury occur in fight-or-flight situations. In turn, acute mental stress, negative emotions and psychological trauma also are triggering factors of atherothrombotic events and possibly of venous thromboembolism. Individuals with pre-existent atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial anticoagulant function are the most vulnerable to experience onset of acute coronary events within two hours of intense emotions. A range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress and negative affect) might critically intensify and prolong stress-induced hypercoagulability. In contrast, several pharmacological compounds, dietary flavanoids, and positive affect mitigate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Studies are needed to investigate whether attenuation of stress-hypercoagulability through medications and biobehavioral interventions reduce the risk of thrombotic incidents in at-risk populations. PMID:25861135

  2. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  3. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress. PMID:21645264

  4. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Alejandra; Jaffé, Erica H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ. PMID:21785597

  5. The evolution of the painful sensitivity in acute and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Cristea, A; Ciobanu, A; Stoenescu, M; Rusei, I

    1994-01-01

    The clinical research was made on two groups of young volunteer students. We considered stress consisting in chronic informational overexposure during the examination session and the acute stress from their emotions before a hard examination. The painful sensitivity was analysed by measuring the retraction time of the finger from water at 55 degrees C. The experimental research was made on a group of 100 male mice. The acute stress was performed by subjecting each mouse to swim (behavioral despair test). Painful sensitivity was determined by the test of the hot plate heated at 50 degrees C. Individuals with hyper (H) and hypo (h) painful sensitivity were selected for the tests. In chronic stress, the results proved increased painful sensitivity (hyperalgia) more important at "h" compared to "H" (p < 0.05). In acute stress decreased painful sensitivity (stress analgesia) was noticed more significant at "H" compared to h" (p < 0.05). All these results suggested that the extreme "H" and "h" are two different stress behaviors with opposite mechanisms involved in stress analgesia. This hypothesis is related with studies which demonstrate the involvement in stress analgesia of non-opioid monoaminergic mechanisms together with the opioid mechanisms (Lewis, 1980). PMID:8640371

  6. Computer Models of Stress, Allostasis, and Acute and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The past century has seen a profound shift in diseases of humankind. Acute, unifactorial diseases are being replaced increasingly by multifactorial disorders that arise from complex interactions among genes, environment, concurrent morbidities and treatments, and time. According to the concept of allostasis, there is no single, ideal set of steady-state conditions in life. Allostasis reflects active, adaptive processes that maintain apparent steady states, via multiple, interacting effectors regulated by homeostatic comparators “homeostats.” Stress can be defined as a condition or state in which a sensed discrepancy between afferent information and a setpoint for response leads to activation of effectors, reducing the discrepancy. “Allostatic load” refers to the consequences of sustained or repeated activation of mediators of allostasis. From the analogy of a home temperature control system, the temperature can be maintained at any of a variety of levels (allostatic states) by multiple means (effectors), regulated by a comparator thermostat (homeostat). Stress might exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load. This presentation describes models of homeostatic systems that incorporate negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, environmental influences, intrinsic obsolescence, and destabilizing positive feedback loops. These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multi-system disorders and failures. PMID:19120114

  7. Longitudinal platelet reactivity to acute psychological stress among older men and women.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Roepke, Susan K; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Ziegler, Michael G; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2009-09-01

    Platelet reactivity to acute stress is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, little research exists to provide systematic methodological foundations needed to generate strong longitudinal research designs. Study objectives were: 1) to evaluate whether markers of platelet function increase in response to an acute psychological stress test among older adults, 2) to establish whether reactivity remains robust upon repeated administration (i.e. three occasions approximately 1 year apart), and 3) to evaluate whether two different acute speech stress tasks elicit similar platelet responses. The 149 subjects (mean age 71 years) gave a brief impromptu speech on one of two randomly assigned topics involving interpersonal conflict. Blood samples drawn at baseline and post-speech were assayed using flow cytometry for platelet responses on three outcomes (% aggregates, % P-selectin expression, and % fibrinogen receptor expression). Three-level hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significant stress-induced increases in platelet activation on all outcomes (p < 0.001). No significant habituation on any measure was found. Additional reactivity differences were associated with male gender, history of myocardial infarction, and use of aspirin, statins, and antidepressants. The results demonstrate that laboratory acute stress tests continued to produce robust platelet reactivity on three activation markers among older adults over 3 years. PMID:19096987

  8. Heat stress increases insulin sensitivity in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Stoakes, Sara K; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Seibert, Jacob T; Johnson, Jay S; Horst, Erin A; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Proper insulin homeostasis appears critical for adapting to and surviving a heat load. Further, heat stress (HS) induces phenotypic changes in livestock that suggest an increase in insulin action. The current study objective was to evaluate the effects of HS on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Female pigs (57 ± 4 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 21°C) and were fed ad libitum. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (i) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 6), or (ii) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 6) to eliminate the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) was conducted on d3 of both periods; and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were collected prior to and after an insulin tolerance test (ITT) on d5 of period 2. During the HEC, insulin infusion increased circulating insulin and decreased plasma C-peptide and nonesterified fatty acids, similarly between treatments. From period 1 to 2, the rate of glucose infusion in response to the HEC remained similar in HS pigs while it decreased (36%) in PFTN controls. Prior to the ITT, HS increased (41%) skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 protein abundance, but did not affect protein kinase B or their phosphorylated forms. In adipose tissue, HS did not alter any of the basal or stimulated measured insulin signaling markers. In summary, HS increases whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:26243213

  9. Genome-wide alterations in hippocampal 5-hydroxymethylcytosine links plasticity genes to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Papale, Ligia A; Zhang, Qi; Madrid, Andy; Chen, Li; Chopra, Pankaj; Keleş, Sündüz; Jin, Peng; Alisch, Reid S

    2016-02-01

    Environmental stress is among the most important contributors to increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. While even acute stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, we found a hippocampal increase of 5hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) following acute stress, warranting a deeper investigation of stress-related 5hmC levels. Here we used an established chemical labeling and affinity purification method coupled with high-throughput sequencing technology to generate the first genome-wide profile of hippocampal 5hmC following exposure to acute restraint stress and a one-hour recovery. This approach found a genome-wide disruption in 5hmC associated with acute stress response, primarily in genic regions, and identified known and potentially novel stress-related targets that have a significant enrichment for neuronal ontological functions. Integration of these data with hippocampal gene expression data from these same mice found stress-related hydroxymethylation correlated to altered transcript levels and sequence motif predictions indicated that 5hmC may function by mediating transcription factor binding to these transcripts. Together, these data reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain and represent a critical step toward understanding stress-related epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression and can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26598390

  10. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  11. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  12. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  13. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  14. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Graves, James L; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2015-12-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  15. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  16. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  17. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  18. Restraint stress increases hemichannel activity in hippocampal glial cells and neurons

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Juan A.; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Díaz-Galarce, Raúl; Rojas, Sebastián; Maturana, Carola J.; Stehberg, Jimmy; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses, which may contribute in the development of cognitive deficits associated with major depression. These effects have been linked to glial cell activation, glutamate release and changes in neuronal plasticity and survival including atrophy of hippocampal apical dendrites, loss of synapses and neuronal death. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions, we recently unveiled a sequential activation of glial cells that release ATP and glutamate via hemichannels inducing neuronal death due to activation of neuronal NMDA/P2X7 receptors and pannexin1 hemichannels. In the present work, we studied if stress-induced glia activation is associated to changes in hemichannel activity. To this end, we compared hemichannel activity of brain cells after acute or chronic restraint stress in mice. Dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices revealed that acute stress induces opening of both Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels in astrocytes, which were further increased by chronic stress; whereas enhanced Panx1 hemichannel activity was detected in microglia and neurons after acute/chronic and chronic stress, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of NMDA/P2X7 receptors reduced the chronic stress-induced hemichannel opening, whereas blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels fully reduced ATP and glutamate release in hippocampal slices from stressed mice. Thus, we propose that gliotransmitter release through hemichannels may participate in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders and possibly depression. PMID:25883550

  19. Acute Stress Induces Selective Alterations in Cost/Benefit Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Naghmeh; Gray, Megan; Viau, Victor; Floresco, Stan B

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress can exert beneficial or detrimental effects on different forms of cognition. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, and some of the hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these effects. Effort-based decision-making was assessed where rats chose between a low effort/reward (1 press=2 pellets) or high effort/reward option (4 pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over 4 blocks of trials (2, 5, 10, and 20 lever presses). Restraint stress for 1 h decreased preference for the more costly reward and induced longer choice latencies. Control experiments revealed that the effects on decision-making were not mediated by general reductions in motivation or preference for larger rewards. In contrast, acute stress did not affect delay-discounting, when rats chose between a small/immediate vs larger/delayed reward. The effects of stress on decision-making were not mimicked by treatment with physiological doses of corticosterone (1–3 mg/kg). Blockade of dopamine receptors with flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg) before restraint did not attenuate stress-induced effects on effort-related choice, but abolished effects on choice latencies. These data suggest that acute stress interferes somewhat selectively with cost/benefit evaluations concerning effort costs. These effects do not appear to be mediated solely by enhanced glucocorticoid activity, whereas dopaminergic activation may contribute to increased deliberation times induced by stress. These findings may provide insight into impairments in decision-making and anergia associated with stress-related disorders, such as depression. PMID:22569506

  20. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  1. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. PMID:26799371

  2. Acute Psychological Stress Results in the Rapid Development of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wenjun; Messina, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the roles of chronic stress and depression as an independent risk factor for decreased insulin sensitivity and the development of diabetes have been increasingly recognized. However, an understanding and the mechanisms linking insulin resistance and acute psychological stress are very limited. We hypothesized that acute psychological stress may cause the development of insulin resistance, which may be a risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis in a well-established mouse model using 180 episodes of inescapable foot shock (IES), followed by a behavioral escape test. In this study, mice that received IES treatment were tested for acute insulin resistance by measuring glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. When compared to normal and sham mice, mice that were exposed to IES resulting in escape failure (defined as IES with behavioral escape failure) displayed elevated blood glucose levels in both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Furthermore, mice with IES exposure and behavioral escape failure exhibited impaired hepatic insulin signaling via the insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/Akt pathway, without affecting similar pathways in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and brain. Additionally, a rise in murine growth-related oncogene KC/GRO was associated with impaired glucose metabolism in IES mice, suggesting a mechanism by which psychological stress by IES may influence glucose metabolism. The present results indicate that psychological stress induced by IES can acutely alter hepatic responsiveness to insulin and affect whole-body glucose metabolism. PMID:23444388

  3. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23–71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). Results There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5–6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Conclusion Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems. PMID:23301005

  4. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  5. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. PMID:25934571

  6. Dysregulated autophagy in the RPE is associated with increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and AMD

    PubMed Central

    Mitter, Sayak K; Song, Chunjuan; Qi, Xiaoping; Mao, Haoyu; Rao, Haripriya; Akin, Debra; Lewin, Alfred; Grant, Maria; Dunn, William; Ding, Jindong; Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Boulton, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Autophagic dysregulation has been suggested in a broad range of neurodegenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To test whether the autophagy pathway plays a critical role to protect retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells against oxidative stress, we exposed ARPE-19 and primary cultured human RPE cells to both acute (3 and 24 h) and chronic (14 d) oxidative stress and monitored autophagy by western blot, PCR, and autophagosome counts in the presence or absence of autophagy modulators. Acute oxidative stress led to a marked increase in autophagy in the RPE, whereas autophagy was reduced under chronic oxidative stress. Upregulation of autophagy by rapamycin decreased oxidative stress-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or by knockdown of ATG7 or BECN1 increased ROS generation, exacerbated oxidative stress-induced reduction of mitochondrial activity, reduced cell viability, and increased lipofuscin. Examination of control human donor specimens and mice demonstrated an age-related increase in autophagosome numbers and expression of autophagy proteins. However, autophagy proteins, autophagosomes, and autophagy flux were significantly reduced in tissue from human donor AMD eyes and 2 animal models of AMD. In conclusion, our data confirm that autophagy plays an important role in protection of the RPE against oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation and that impairment of autophagy is likely to exacerbate oxidative stress and contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25484094

  7. Severe physical exertion, oxidative stress, and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nikunj R; Iqbal, M Bilal; Barlow, Andrew; Bayliss, John

    2011-11-01

    We report the case of a 27-year-old male athlete presenting with severe dyspnoea 24 hours after completing an "Ironman Triathlon." Subsequent chest radiology excluded pulmonary embolus but confirmed an acute lung injury (ALI). Echocardiography corroborated a normal brain natriuretic peptide level by demonstrating good biventricular systolic function with no regional wall motion abnormalities. He recovered well, without requiring ventilatory support, on supplemental oxygen therapy and empirical antibiotics. To date, ALI following severe physical exertion has never been described. Exercise is a form of physiological stress resulting in oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In its extreme form, there is potential for an excessive oxidative stress response--one that overwhelms the body's protective antioxidant mechanisms. As our case demonstrated, oxidative stress secondary to severe physical exertion was the most likely factor in the pathogenesis of ALI. Further studies are necessary to explore the pathological consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Although unproven as of yet, further research may be needed to demonstrate if antioxidant therapy can prevent or ameliorate potential life-threatening complications in the acute setting. PMID:22064719

  8. Transcriptional expression levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to acute thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Farcy, Émilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During the annual cycle, oysters are exposed to seasonal slow changes in temperature, but during emersion at low tide on sunny summer days, their internal temperature may rise rapidly, resulting in acute heat stress. We experimentally exposed oysters to a 1-h acute thermal stress and investigated the transcriptional expression level of some genes involved in cell stress defence mechanisms, including chaperone proteins (heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp72 and Hsp90 (HSP)), regulation of oxidative stress (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT)), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase sigma, cytochrome P450 and multidrug resistance (MDR1)) and regulation of the cell cycle (p53). Gene mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as their ratio to actin mRNA, used as a reference. Of the nine genes studied, HSP, MT and MDR1 mRNA levels increased in response to thermal stress. We compared the responses of oysters exposed to acute heat shock in summer and winter and observed differences in terms of magnitude and kinetics. A larger increase was observed in September, with recovery within 48 h, whereas in March, the increase was smaller and lasted more than 2 days. The results were also compared with data obtained from the natural environment. Though the functional molecule is the protein and information at the mRNA level only has limitations, the potential use of mRNAs coding for cell stress defence proteins as early sensitive biomarkers is discussed. PMID:19002605

  9. Differential changes in platelet reactivity induced by acute physical compared to persistent mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Katharina; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Kandler, Christina; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Malik, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Semenitz, Barbara; Humpel, Christian; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also contain adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory compounds, as well as most of the serotonin outside the central nervous system. Dysbalance in the serotonin pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Thus, changes in platelet aggregation and content of bioactive compounds are of interest when investigating physiological stress-related mental processes as well as stress-related psychiatric diseases such as depression. In the present study, a characterization of platelet reactivity in acute physical and persistent mental stress was performed (aggregation, serotonin and serotonin 2A-receptor, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9), platelet/endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). Acute physical stress increased platelet aggregability while leaving platelet content of bioactive compounds unchanged. Persistent mental stress led to changes in platelet content of bioactive compounds and serotonin 2A-receptor only. The values of most bioactive compounds correlated with each other. Acute physical and persistent mental stress influences platelets through distinct pathways, leading to differential changes in aggregability and content of bioactive compounds. PMID:26192713

  10. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with increased hematogones in children.

    PubMed

    Anton-Harisi, Marieta; Douna, Varvara; Baka, Margarita; Servitzoglou, Marina; Kosmidis, Helen V; Georgouli, Helen; Anastasiou, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    We describe 2 patients, a 4-month-old male and a 17-month-old female, with de novo acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with increased number of hematogones at diagnosis. Both children were admitted in the hospital with thrombocytopenia. The bone marrow smears in the first child revealed the presence of 60% cells with morphologic features consistent with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. In the other, the initial bone marrow aspirate was dry tap but on the following aspirate 10% cells with lymphoblastic morphology could be seen. The bone marrow flow cytometry showed the presence of hematogones-38% in the first case and 20% in the second-with absence of blasts. Repeated bone marrow aspirates, trephines, and immunophenotypic as well as molecular studies, confirmed the diagnosis of M7. Both children were treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol. PMID:22983420

  11. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  12. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  13. Sex-specific variation in brown-headed cowbird immunity following acute stress: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Angelier, Frédéric; O'Loghlen, Adrian L; Rothstein, Stephen I; Wingfield, John C

    2012-09-01

    There is some discrepancy in the literature regarding whether acute stress is immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive. Studies of domesticated (laboratory and food) animals and humans typically indicate that acute stress is immunostimulatory, whereas studies of non-domesticated species document both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive results. Few studies have examined the mechanisms responsible for changes in immune activity in species other than those classically used in laboratory research. We examined the effect of both acute stress and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) on the bactericidal capacity (BC) of blood plasma from captive, wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) to determine if CORT is responsible for changes in levels of immune activity. We conducted "stress tests" in which we handled birds to elicit a stress response and then measured the birds' total CORT and BC at 30 or 90 min post-stressor. We also conducted non-invasive tests in which we administered exogenous CORT by injecting it into mealworms that were fed to the cowbirds remotely. Total, free, and bound CORT levels, corticosteroid binding globulins (CBGs), and BC at 7 or 90 min post-mealworm ingestion were measured. Both males and females exhibited significant increases in total CORT following handling stress and the administration of exogenous CORT. Experimental males and females also exhibited a significant increase in CBG capacity at 7 min post-mealworm ingestion compared to controls. Male cowbirds exhibited a significant decline in their BC following both handling stress and the administration of exogenous CORT whereas female cowbirds exhibited no decline under either condition. Female CBG levels were not different than those of males, suggesting that differences in BC could be due to differences between the sexes in the number of corticosteroid receptors which, along with CBGs, regulate the stress response. Female cowbirds may modulate their stress response as an adaptive

  14. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p < 0.001). Acute prepubertal immobilization stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group. PMID:26930799

  15. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  16. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

  17. Baroreflex sensitivity is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Truijen, Jasper; Davis, Shyrin C.A.T.; Stok, Wim J.; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Westerloo, David J.; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute psychological stress challenges the cardiovascular system with an increase in BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and reduced BRS (baroreflex sensitivity). β-adrenergic blockade enhances BRS during rest, but its effect on BRS during acute psychological stress is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that BRS is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade. Twenty healthy novice male bungee jumpers were randomized and studied with (PROP, n=10) or without (CTRL, n=10) propranolol. BP and HR responses and BRS [cross-correlation time-domain (BRSTD) and cross-spectral frequency-domain (BRSFD) analysis] were evaluated from 30 min prior up to 2 h after the jump. HR, cardiac output and pulse pressure were lower in the PROP group throughout the study. Prior to the bungee jump, BRS was higher in the PROP group compared with the CTRL group [BRSTD: 28 (24–42) compared with 17 (16–28) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; BRSFD: 27 (20–34) compared with 14 (9–19) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; values are medians (interquartile range)]. BP declined after the jump in both groups, and post-jump BRS did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, during acute psychological stress, BRS is higher in healthy subjects treated with non-selective β-adrenergic blockade with significantly lower HR but comparable BP. PMID:20828371

  18. Hostility and Physiological Responses to Acute Stress in People With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Ruth A.; Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Carvalho, Livia A.; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Hostility is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and one of the mechanisms may involve heightened reactivity to mental stress. However, little research has been conducted in populations at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between hostility and acute stress responsivity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 140 individuals (median age [standard deviation] 63.71 [7.00] years) with Type 2 diabetes took part in laboratory-based experimental stress testing. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline, during two stress tasks, and 45 and 75 minutes later. Cynical hostility was assessed using the Cook Medley Cynical Hostility Scale. Results Participants with greater hostility scores had heightened increases in IL-6 induced by the acute stress tasks (B = 0.082, p = .002), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, household income, time of testing, medication, and baseline IL-6. Hostility was inversely associated with cortisol output poststress (B = −0.017, p = .002), independent of covariates. No associations between hostility and blood pressure or heart rate responses were observed. Conclusions Hostile individuals with Type 2 diabetes may be susceptible to stress-induced increases in inflammation. Further research is needed to understand if such changes increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:25886832

  19. Suppressed proliferation and apoptotic changes in the rat dentate gyrus after acute and chronic stress are reversible.

    PubMed

    Heine, Vivi M; Maslam, Suharti; Zareno, Jessica; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Acute stress suppresses new cell birth in the hippocampus in several species. Relatively little is known, however, on how chronic stress affects the turnover, i.e. proliferation and apoptosis, of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) cells, and whether the stress effects are lasting. We investigated how 3 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress would influence the structural dynamic plasticity of the rat DG, and studied newborn cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, volume and cell number in 10-week-old animals. To study lasting effects, another group of animals was allowed to recover for 3 weeks. Based on two independent parameters, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki-67 immunocytochemistry, our results show that both chronic and acute stress decrease new cell proliferation rate. The reduced proliferation after acute stress normalized within 24 h. Interestingly, chronically stressed animals showed recovery after 3 weeks, albeit with still fewer proliferating cells than controls. Apoptosis, by contrast, increased after acute but decreased after chronic stress. These results demonstrate that, although chronic stress suppresses proliferation and apoptosis, 3 weeks of recovery again normalized most of these alterations. This may have important implications for our understanding of the reversibility of stress-related hippocampal volume changes, such as occur, for example, in depression. PMID:14750971

  20. FEMALE RESPONSES TO ACUTE AND REPEATED RESTRAINT STRESS DIFFER FROM THOSE IN MALES

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jaidee K.; Fernandez, Almendra A.; Gosselink, Kristin L.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress is implicated in diseases which differentially affect men and women. This study investigated how the activation of neuronal subpopulations contributes to changes in neuroendocrine regulation that predispose members of each sex to stress-related health challenges. Adult male and female rats were restrained in single (acute) or 14 consecutive daily (repeated) 30 min sessions; brain sections were immunohistochemically stained for Fos, arginine vasopressin (AVP) or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH). Acute restraint increased the number of PVH cells expressing Fos, with greater increases in males than females. Habituated responses were seen following repeated stress in both sexes, with no sex differences between groups. No sex differences were found in the number of neurons co-expressing Fos and AVP. Absolute counts of cellular Fos and GR co-localization mirrored Fos expression. In contrast, when doubly-labeled cells were normalized to staining for Fos alone, females showed greater numbers of Fos- and GR-positive cells than males after both acute and repeated stress. These data demonstrate that sex-specific stress responses are evident at the level of neuronal activation, and may contribute to different consequences of chronic stress in females versus males. Females may be more sensitive to glucocorticoid negative feedback, suggesting that sex-dependent differences in the efficiency of initiating and terminating stress responses may exist. Understanding the neural and endocrine pathways that mediate these functions in males and females will inform targeted therapeutic strategies to alleviate stress and the sex-specific afflictions with which it is associated. PMID:21453715

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition increases glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Júnia R O L; Miranda, Paulo A C; Fóscolo, Rodrigo B; Lemos, Joao P M; Paula, Luciano F; Silveira, Warley C; Santos, Robson A S; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B; Coimbra, Candido C; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in carbohydrate metabolism and its response to stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic inhibition of the RAS on glucose and insulin levels during acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 10 mg/kg per day enalapril solution or vehicle for 14 days. After 14 days, rats were divided into three experimental groups: enalapril + restraint (ER), vehicle + restraint (VR) and enalapril + saline (ES). Rats in the restraint groups were subjected to 30 min restraint stress, whereas rats in the ES groups were given saline infusion instead. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min restraint stress or saline infusion. After restraint, a hyperglycaemic response was observed in the ER and VR groups that peaked at 20 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05 compared with baseline). The area under the glucose curve was markedly increased in the ER and VR groups compared with that in the ES group (P < 0.05 for both). Importantly, restraint induced a marked increase in insulin secretion in the ER group compared with only a mild elevation in the VR group; insulin secretion in both groups peaked at 20 min (P < 0.05 compared with baseline). Analysis of the area under the insulin curve confirmed an increase in insulin secretion in the ER compared with the VR and ES groups (P < 0.05 for both). The results of the present study reinforce that the RAS is involved in modulating responses to stress and suggest that RAS inhibition with enalapril may increase glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint. PMID:23734984

  2. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data. PMID:18612855

  3. Effect of the acute crowding stress on the rat brown adipose tissue metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Cvijic, Gordana; Petrovic, Natasa; Davidovic, Vukosava

    2005-12-01

    Our previous results have shown that metabolic and thermal stressors influence interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) metabolic activity by increasing oxygen consumption and, consequently, altering the toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidative system activity. Since there is not enough evidence about the effect of psychosocial stressors on these processes, we studied the effect of acute crowding stress on the IBAT and hypothalamic monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity as well as IBAT antioxidative enzymes, manganese (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT), as the relevant indicators of IBAT metabolic alternations under the stress exposure and the returning of animals to control conditions. The results indicated that acute crowding stress did not change the hypothalamic and IBAT MAO activities, the generation of ROS and, consequently, the IBAT CuZnSOD and CAT activities. However, all three antioxidative enzymes were affected only after the recovery period. It seems that peripheral overheating of rats during acute crowding changes the stress nature, by becoming more thermal than psychosocial and by suppression the hypothalamic efferent pathways involved in the IBAT thermogenesis regulation. However, it seems that returning of the animals to the control conditions after the stress termination causes the reactivation of IBAT thermogenesis with tendency to normalise the body temperature. PMID:16309937

  4. Memory and executive dysfunctions associated with acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Geneviève; Doyon, Julien; Brunet, Alain

    2010-05-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in its chronic form has been associated with a number of neurocognitive impairments involving emotionally neutral stimuli. It remains unknown whether such impairments also characterize acute PTSD. In the present investigation, neurocognitive functions were examined in trauma exposed individuals with (n=21) and without (n=16) acute PTSD, as well as in a group of individuals never exposed to trauma (n=17) using specific and standardized tasks such as the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Aggie's Figure Learning Test, the Autobiographical Memory Interview, the D2 test, the Stroop task, the digit and visual span tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, the Trail Making Test, the Tower of London and the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A number of deficits in the cognitive domains of memory, high-level attentional resources, executive function and working memory were found in the group with a diagnosis of acute PTSD only and not among the other groups. The findings, which point to the possibility of disturbed fronto-temporal system function in trauma-exposed individuals with acute PTSD, are particularly relevant for the early clinical management of this disorder. PMID:20381880

  5. Chronic stress shifts the GABA reversal potential in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Georgina; Maguire, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures is stress. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby stress triggers seizures are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrate a potential mechanism underlying changes in neuronal excitability in the hippocampus following chronic stress, involving a shift in the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) associated with a dephosphorylation of the potassium chloride co-transporter, KCC2. Mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (30min/day for 14 consecutive days) exhibit an increase in serum corticosterone levels which is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures induced with kainic acid (20mg/kg). Following chronic stress, but not acute stress, we observe a dephosphorylation of KCC2 residue S940, which regulates KCC2 cell surface expression and function, in the hippocampus. To determine the impact of alterations in KCC2 expression following chronic stress, we performed gramicidin perforated patch recordings to measure changes in EGABA and neuronal excitability of principal hippocampal neurons. We observe a depolarizing shift in EGABA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after chronic stress. In addition, there is an increase in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, evident by a shift in the input-output curve which could be reversed with the NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide. These data uncover a potential mechanism involving chronic stress-induced plasticity in chloride homeostasis which may contribute to stress-induced seizure susceptibility. PMID:25524838

  6. Chronic stress shifts the GABA reversal potential in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Georgina; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures is stress. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby stress triggers seizures are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrate a potential mechanism underlying changes in neuronal excitability in the hippocampus following chronic stress, involving a shift in the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) associated with a dephosphorylation of the potassium chloride co-transporter, KCC2. Mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (30 mins/day for 14 consecutive days) exhibit an increase in serum corticosterone levels which is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures induced with kainic acid (20 mg/kg). Following chronic stress, but not acute stress, we observe a dephosphorylation of KCC2 residue S940, which regulates KCC2 cell surface expression and function, in the hippocampus. To determine the impact of alterations in KCC2 expression following chronic stress, we performed gramicidin perforated patch recordings to measure changes in EGABA and neuronal excitability of principal hippocampal neurons. We observe a depolarizing shift in EGABA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after chronic stress. In addition, there is an increase in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, evident by a shift in the input-output curve which could be reversed with the NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide. These data uncover a potential mechanism involving chronic stress-induced plasticity in chloride homeostasis which may contribute to stress-induced seizure susceptibility. PMID:25524838

  7. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury. PMID:26770647

  8. Acute exercise modifies titin phosphorylation and increases cardiac myofilament stiffness.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anna E; Kreiner, Matthias; Kötter, Sebastian; Lassak, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank; Krüger, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Titin-based myofilament stiffness is largely modulated by phosphorylation of its elastic I-band regions N2-Bus (decreases passive stiffness, PT) and PEVK (increases PT). Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute exercise changes titin phosphorylation and modifies myofilament stiffness. Adult rats were exercised on a treadmill for 15 min, untrained animals served as controls. Titin phosphorylation was determined by Western blot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies to Ser4099 and Ser4010 in the N2-Bus region (PKG and PKA-dependent. respectively), and to Ser11878 and Ser 12022 in the PEVK region (PKCα and CaMKIIδ-dependent, respectively). Passive tension was determined by step-wise stretching of isolated skinned cardiomyocytes to sarcomere length (SL) ranging from 1.9 to 2.4 μm and showed a significantly increased PT from exercised samples, compared to controls. In cardiac samples titin N2-Bus phosphorylation was significantly decreased by 40% at Ser4099, however, no significant changes were observed at Ser4010. PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 was significantly increased, which is probably mediated by the observed exercise-induced increase in PKCα activity. Interestingly, relative phosphorylation of Ser12022 was substantially decreased in the exercised samples. Surprisingly, in skeletal samples from acutely exercised animals we detected a significant decrease in PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 and an increase in Ser12022 phosphorylation; however, PKCα activity remained unchanged. In summary, our data show that a single exercise bout of 15 min affects titin domain phosphorylation and titin-based myocyte stiffness with obviously divergent effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. The observed changes in titin stiffness could play an important role in adapting the passive and active properties of the myocardium and the skeletal muscle to increased physical activity. PMID:25477822

  9. Acute exercise modifies titin phosphorylation and increases cardiac myofilament stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anna E.; Kreiner, Matthias; Kötter, Sebastian; Lassak, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank; Krüger, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Titin-based myofilament stiffness is largely modulated by phosphorylation of its elastic I-band regions N2-Bus (decreases passive stiffness, PT) and PEVK (increases PT). Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute exercise changes titin phosphorylation and modifies myofilament stiffness. Adult rats were exercised on a treadmill for 15 min, untrained animals served as controls. Titin phosphorylation was determined by Western blot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies to Ser4099 and Ser4010 in the N2-Bus region (PKG and PKA-dependent. respectively), and to Ser11878 and Ser 12022 in the PEVK region (PKCα and CaMKIIδ-dependent, respectively). Passive tension was determined by step-wise stretching of isolated skinned cardiomyocytes to sarcomere length (SL) ranging from 1.9 to 2.4 μm and showed a significantly increased PT from exercised samples, compared to controls. In cardiac samples titin N2-Bus phosphorylation was significantly decreased by 40% at Ser4099, however, no significant changes were observed at Ser4010. PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 was significantly increased, which is probably mediated by the observed exercise-induced increase in PKCα activity. Interestingly, relative phosphorylation of Ser12022 was substantially decreased in the exercised samples. Surprisingly, in skeletal samples from acutely exercised animals we detected a significant decrease in PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 and an increase in Ser12022 phosphorylation; however, PKCα activity remained unchanged. In summary, our data show that a single exercise bout of 15 min affects titin domain phosphorylation and titin-based myocyte stiffness with obviously divergent effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. The observed changes in titin stiffness could play an important role in adapting the passive and active properties of the myocardium and the skeletal muscle to increased physical activity. PMID:25477822

  10. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05) during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05), which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638

  11. Innate immunity and testosterone rapidly respond to acute stress, but is corticosterone at the helm?

    PubMed

    Davies, S; Noor, S; Carpentier, E; Deviche, P

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a stressor, vertebrates can rapidly increase the secretion of glucocorticoids, which is thought to improve the chances of survival. Concurrent changes in other physiological systems, such as the reproductive endocrine or innate immune systems, have received less attention, particularly in wild vertebrates. It is often thought that glucocorticoids directly modulate immune performance during a stress response, but, in many species, androgens also rapidly respond to stress. However, to our knowledge, no study has simultaneously examined the interactions between the glucocorticoid, androgen, and innate immune responses to stress in a wild vertebrate. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that the change in plasma corticosterone (CORT) in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma testosterone (T) and innate immune performance (estimated by the capacity of plasma to agglutinate and lyse foreign cells) in the Abert's Towhee (Melozone aberti). Furthermore, to broaden the generality of the findings, we compared male and female towhees, as well as males from urban and non-urban populations. Acute stress increased plasma CORT, decreased plasma T in males, and decreased innate immune performance, but the increase in CORT during stress was not correlated with the corresponding decreases in either plasma T or innate immunity. By contrast, the plasma T stress response was positively correlated with the innate immune stress response. Collectively, our results challenge the proposition that the glucocorticoid stress response is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma T, a key reproductive hormone, and innate immunity, as estimated by agglutination and lysis. PMID:27188192

  12. Plasma FGF23 levels increase rapidly after acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Waikar, Sushrut; Pereira, Renata; Havasi, Andrea; Leaf, David E.; Goltzman, David; Pajevic, Paola Divieti; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). In order to determine how early this increase occurs we used a murine folic acid nephropathy model and found that plasma FGF23 levels increased significantly from baseline already after 1 hour of AKI, with an 18-fold increase at 24 hours. Similar elevations of FGF23 levels were found when AKI was induced in mice with osteocyte-specific parathyroid hormone receptor ablation or the global deletion of parathyroid hormone or vitamin D receptor, indicating that the increase in FGF23 was independent of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D signaling. Furthermore, FGF23 levels increased to a similar extent in wild-type mice maintained on normal or phosphate-depleted diets prior to induction of AKI, indicating that the marked FGF23 elevation is at least partially independent of dietary phosphate. Bone production of FGF23 was significantly increased in AKI. The half-life of intravenously administered recombinant FGF23 was only modestly increased. Consistent with the mouse data, plasma FGF23 levels rose 15.9-fold by 24 hours following cardiac surgery in patients who developed AKI. The levels were significantly higher than in those without postoperative AKI. Thus, circulating FGF23 levels rise rapidly during AKI in rodents and humans. In mice this increase is independent of established modulators of FGF23 secretion. PMID:23657144

  13. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress. PMID:18997672

  14. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p<0.001) were found in the patients as compared to those in controls, and significant depletions were found in the levels of serum vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition as compared to those in controls. After supplementation of antioxidants for one month, the levels of malondialdehyde were found to be decreased significantly (p<0.001) and zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase capacity levels were increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, there was a non–significant (p>0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  15. The effect of acute stress and long-term corticosteroid administration on plasma metabolites in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Rodriguez, Natalie S; Sweazea, Karen L; Deviche, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In response to stressful stimuli, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can result in transition to the "emergency life history stage." A key adaptive characteristic of this life history stage is the mobilization of energy stores. However, few data are available on the metabolic response to acute stress in wild-caught, free-ranging birds. We quantified the effect of acute capture and restraint stress on plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and uric acid in free-ranging Abert's towhees Melozone aberti. Furthermore, birds were caught from urban and desert localities of Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate potential effects of urban versus desert habitats on the corticosterone (CORT) and metabolic response to acute stress. Complementing work on free-ranging birds, captive towhees received CORT-filled Silastic capsules to investigate the response of urban and desert conspecifics to long-term CORT administration. We quantified the effect of CORT administration on baseline plasma glucose and uric acid, liver and pectoralis muscle glycogen stores, kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C, a key gluconeogenic enzyme), and body mass. Acute stress increased plasma CORT and glucose and decreased plasma uric acid but had no effect on plasma free fatty acid. There was no difference between urban and desert localities in body mass, fat scores, and the response to acute stress. CORT administration decreased body mass but had no effect on glucose and uric acid, pectoral muscle glycogen, or kidney PEPCK-C. However, liver glycogen of CORT-treated urban birds increased compared with corresponding controls, whereas glycogen decreased in CORT-treated desert birds. This study suggests that Abert's towhees principally mobilize glucose during acute stress but urban and desert towhees do not differ in their CORT and metabolic response to acute stress or long-term CORT administration. PMID:23303320

  16. Effects of chronic plus acute prolonged stress on measures of coping style, anxiety, and evoked HPA-axis reactivity.

    PubMed

    Roth, Megan K; Bingham, Brian; Shah, Aparna; Joshi, Ankur; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to psychological trauma is the precipitating factor for PTSD. In addition, a history of chronic or traumatic stress exposure is a predisposing risk factor. We have developed a Chronic plus Acute Prolonged Stress (CAPS) treatment for rats that models some of the characteristics of stressful events that can lead to PTSD in humans. We have previously shown that CAPS enhances acute fear responses and impairs extinction of conditioned fear. Further, CAPS reduced the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex. In this study we examined the effects of CAPS exposure on behavioral stress coping style, anxiety-like behaviors, and acute stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CAPS treatment, consisting of chronic intermittent cold stress (4 °C, 6 h/day, 14 days) followed on day 15 by a single 1-h session of sequential acute stressors (social defeat, immobilization, swim). After CAPS or control treatment, different groups were tested for shock probe defensive burying, novelty suppressed feeding, or evoked activation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release by an acute immobilization stress. CAPS resulted in a decrease in active burying behavior and an increase in immobility in the shock probe test. Further, CAPS-treated rats displayed increases in the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test, despite an increase in food intake in the home cage. CAPS treatment also reduced the HPA response to a subsequent acute immobilization stress. These results further validate CAPS treatment as a rat model of relevance to PTSD, and together with results reported previously, suggest that CAPS impairs fear extinction, shifts coping behavior from an active to a more passive strategy, increases anxiety, and alters HPA reactivity, resembling many aspects of human PTSD. PMID:22842072

  17. Heart rate and heart-rate variability responses to acute and chronic stress in a wild-caught passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Nicole E; Dickens, Molly J; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular-stress response has been studied extensively in laboratory animals but has been poorly studied in naturally selected species. We determined the relative roles of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in regulating stress-induced changes in heart rate (HR) in wild-caught European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). In both heart-rate variability (HRV) analysis and receptor blockade (atropine and propranolol) experiments, baseline HR was controlled predominantly by the PNS, whereas the increase in HR resulting from acute restraint stress was controlled predominantly by the SNS. These results indicate similar cardiac control of baseline and acute-stress-induced HR in wild-caught starlings and mammals. We further investigated HR responses during chronic stress. Driven primarily by changes in PNS regulation, baseline HR increased during the day but decreased at night. In addition, elevated HRs during acute restraint stress were attenuated throughout chronic stress and were accompanied by decreased HRV. This suggested that increased SNS drive elevated HR, but the attenuated HR response combined with resistance to the SNS blocker propranolol suggested that the sympathetic signal was less effective during chronic stress. Overall, chronic stress in wild-caught starlings elicited profound changes in cardiac function that were primarily regulated by changes in the PNS. PMID:19115847

  18. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health. PMID:27226918

  19. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  20. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Chester A.; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone. PMID:23055093

  1. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a potent modulator of the mammalian brain. The highly conserved stress hormone response influences many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, a region important for memory function. The effect of acute stress on the unique population of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) that resides in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We found that acute stress increased hippocampal cell proliferation and astrocytic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression. The effect of acute stress occurred independent of basolateral amygdala neural input and was mimicked by treating isolated NPCs with conditioned media from corticosterone-treated primary astrocytes. Neutralization of FGF2 revealed that astrocyte-secreted FGF2 mediated stress-hormone-induced NPC proliferation. 2 weeks, but not 2 days, after acute stress, rats also showed enhanced fear extinction memory coincident with enhanced activation of newborn neurons. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for brief stress on the hippocampus and improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of the brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00362.001 PMID:23599891

  2. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  3. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response. PMID:26196459

  4. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  5. The interaction of acute and chronic stress impairs model-based behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Radenbach, Christoph; Reiter, Andrea M F; Engert, Veronika; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-03-01

    It is suggested that acute stress shifts behavioral control from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free strategies. Recent findings indicate that interindividual differences in the cortisol stress response influence model-based decision-making. Although not yet investigated in humans, animal studies show that chronic stress also shifts decision-making toward more habitual behavior. Here, we ask whether acute stress and individual vulnerability factors, such as stress reactivity and previous exposure to stressful life events, impact the balance between model-free and model-based control systems. To test this, 39 male participants (21-30 years old) were exposed to a potent psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) and a control condition in a within-subjects design before they performed a sequential decision-making task which evaluates the balance between the two systems. Physiological and subjective stress reactivity was assessed before, during, and after acute stress exposure. By means of computational modeling, we demonstrate that interindividual variability in stress reactivity predicts impairments in model-based decision-making. Whereas acute psychosocial stress did not alter model-based behavioral control, we found chronic and acute stress to interact in their detrimental effect on decision-making: subjects with high but not low chronic stress levels as indicated by stressful life events exhibited reduced model-based control in response to acute psychosocial stress. These findings emphasize that stress reactivity and chronic stress play an important role in mediating the relationship between stress and decision-making. Our results might stimulate new insights into the interplay between chronic and acute stress, attenuated model-based control, and the pathogenesis of various psychiatric diseases. PMID:25662093

  6. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  7. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Ozlem; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O(2)) transport and O(2) utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O(2) affinity would favor the release of O(2) to the tissues, increasing Hb O(2) affinity would augment arterial O(2) saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O(2) affinity will augment O(2) transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O(2)) compared with normal Hb O(2) affinity. RBC Hb O(2) affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O(2) affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O(2) (Po(2)). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po(2) at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O(2) by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O(2) hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O(2) saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O(2) hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po(2) was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O(2) hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O(2) affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  8. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O2) transport and O2 utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O2 affinity would favor the release of O2 to the tissues, increasing Hb O2 affinity would augment arterial O2 saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O2 affinity will augment O2 transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O2) compared with normal Hb O2 affinity. RBC Hb O2 affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O2 affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O2 (Po2). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po2 at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O2 by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O2 hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O2 saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O2 hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po2 was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O2 hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O2 affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  9. Hemodilution increases cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Vorstrup, S.; Andersen, A.; Juhler, M.; Brun, B.; Boysen, G.

    1989-07-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow in 10 consecutive, but selected, patients with acute ischemic stroke (less than 48 hours after onset) before and after hemodilution. Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and emission tomography, and only patients with focal hypoperfusion in clinically relevant areas were included. Hemodilution was done according to the hematocrit level: for a hematocrit greater than or equal to 42%, 500 ml whole blood was drawn and replaced by the same volume of dextran 40; for a hematocrit between 37% and 42%, only 250 ml whole blood was drawn and replaced by 500 cc of dextran 40. Mean hematocrit was reduced by 16%, from 46 +/- 5% (SD) to 39 +/- 5% (SD) (p less than 0.001). Cerebral blood flow increased in both hemispheres by an average of 20.9% (p less than 0.001). Regional cerebral blood flow increased in the ischemic areas in all cases, on an average of 21.4 +/- 12.0% (SD) (p less than 0.001). In three patients, a significant redistribution of flow in favor of the hypoperfused areas was observed, and in six patients, the fractional cerebral blood flow increase in the hypoperfused areas was of the same magnitude as in the remainder of the brain. In the last patient, cerebral blood flow increased relatively less in the ischemic areas. Our findings show that cerebral blood flow increases in the ischemic areas after hemodilution therapy in stroke patients. The marked regional cerebral blood flow increase seen in some patients could imply an improved oxygen delivery to the ischemic tissue.

  10. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (P<0.05). In the knee extensor protocol a non-significant trend for the opposite effect was noted. The augmentation index increased significantly during the arithmetic, short static and fatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  11. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  12. Stress management as a component of occupational therapy in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Affleck, A; Bianchi, E; Cleckley, M; Donaldson, K; McCormack, G; Polon, J

    1984-01-01

    The recent explosion of stress literature in the medical community has created a new awareness of "stress" as a potentially destructive force in itself. Contributing the physical and psychological dysfunction, stress has now been linked with a wide range of diagnoses including cancer, cardiac disease and arthritis. The importance of incorporating stress management activities into daily life is increasingly apparent. Occupational therapists concerned with patients' ability to achieve health enhancing independent living skills are in a key position to help patients master stress management skills and incorporate them into activities of daily living. This article will explore the incorporation of stress management into occupational therapy programming for a variety of acute care patients. It will review the components of stress, the stress cycle, the relaxation response, the occupational therapy role based on a model of human occupation, and will review current programs through case study of four patients: one diagnosed with cancer (leukemia), one with anorexia nervosa, one with chronic pain and the fourth, a patient in medical intensive care. PMID:23947299

  13. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  14. Stress history increases alcohol intake in relapse: Relation to phosphodiesterase 10A

    PubMed Central

    Logrip, Marian L.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful experiences in humans can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock stress (Stress History) or light cues alone (Control) prior to their acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-h sessions, fixed ratio1–3, 100 µl of 10% v/v alcohol as reinforcer). Stress history did not alter mean alcohol intake during acquisition of self-administration, but it increased preference for the alcohol-paired lever over the inactive lever. Following an extinction period, rats with a history of stress exposure and low baseline alcohol intake showed a 2-fold elevation in alcohol self-administration, as compared to low-drinking rats with no stress history. Similar effects were not seen in rats self-administering 0.1% sucrose. Analysis of mRNA levels of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cAMP and cGMP hydrolyzing enzyme, showed that stress history increased Pde10a mRNA levels in the basolateral amygdala and, in low drinking rats, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC). Pde10a mRNA levels in the plPFC correlated directly with greater alcohol self-administration during the relapse-like phase, and greater BLA Pde10a mRNA levels correlated with increased ethanol preference after acquisition. The data demonstrate that stress history sensitizes otherwise low alcohol drinkers to consume more alcohol in a relapse-like situation, and identify stress-induced neuroadaptations in amygdala and prefrontal cortical Pde10a expression as changes that may drive heightened alcohol intake and preference in susceptible individuals. PMID:22741603

  15. The Effects of Hemodynamic Shear Stress on Stemness of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, Andrew; Triantafillu, Ursula; Kim, Yonghyun (John)

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been identified as the root cause of tumors generated from cancer cell populations. This is because these CSCs are drug-resistant and have the ability to self-renew and differentiate. Current methods of culturing CSCs require much time and money, so cancer cell culture protocols, which maximize yield of CSCs are needed. It was hypothesized that the quantity of Acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells (LSCs) would increase after applying shear stress to the leukemia cells based on previous studies with breast cancer in bioreactors. The shear stress was applied by pumping the cells through narrow tubing to mimic the in vivo bloodstream environment. In support of the hypothesis, shear stress was found to increase the amount of LSCs in a given leukemia population. This work was supported by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  16. Response and habituation of pro and anti inflammatory gene expression to repeated acute stress

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Christine M.; Wang, Diana; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Thoma, Myriam V.; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute stress induces increases in plasma inflammatory mediators, which do not habituate to repeated stress. Inflammation is a risk factor for age-related illnesses, highlighting the need to understand factors controlling inflammation. No studies have examined changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression in response to repeated acute stress in humans. Methods RNA was isolated from peripheral blood before, 30 and 120 minutes after exposure of n=32 healthy human participants to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on two days. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and IκB was measured repeatedly on both days. We further assessed leukocyte numbers, plasma IL-6, and salivary cortisol. Results Stress induced IL-6 (F=44.7; p<0.001) and cortisol responses (F=18.6; p<0.001). Cortisol responses habituated (F=5.1, p=0.003), but IL-6 responses did not (n.s.). All genes increased in response to initial stress (IL-6: F=3.8; p=0.029; IL-1β: F=7.1; p=0.008; NF-κB: F=5.1; p=0.009; IκB; F=4.7; p=0.013) and showed habituation to repeated stress (IL-6: t=2.3; p=0.03; IL-1β: t=3.9; p=0.001; NF-κB: t=2.1; p=0.041; IκB: t=3.1; p=0.005). Day 1 responses of IL-1β and IκB were not explained by changes in leukocyte populations, but IL-6 and NF-κB, as well as most day 2 changes were not independent of leukocyte populations. Conclusions Stress response and habituation of pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression as found here might indicate that even on an intracellular level, inflammatory responses to acute stress are adaptive in that they respond to initial, but habituate to repeated, similar stress. Future studies will need to test whether non-habituation is predictive of disease. PMID:25683696

  17. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  18. Psychological stress may induce increased humoral and decreased cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Paik, I H; Toh, K Y; Lee, C; Kim, J J; Lee, S J

    2000-01-01

    Stress alters immune function and affects different immune cell populations in different ways. The authors examined whether psychological stress has different effects on the production of macrophage, T-helper 1(Th1) cell, and T-helper 2(Th2) cell-derived cytokines. Forty-two college students were recruited and their blood was sampled on the day they were to take a stressful academic examination and again 4 weeks after the examination. The stress from the academic examination significantly increased IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 and decreased IFN-gamma production. These findings suggest that examination stress may increase Th2 cell-mediated humoral immunity and macrophage activities and may decrease Th1 cell-mediated cellular immunity. PMID:11209594

  19. Early changes in oxidative stress markers in a rat model of acute stress: effect of l-carnitine on the striatum.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De la Cruz, Verónica; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Santamaría, Abel

    2011-08-01

    This work focuses on the effect of acute stress on different markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat striatum. In addition, the effect of a single dose of l-carnitine (l-CAR, 300 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated in these animals. Immobilization (restraint) stress was induced to rats for 24 hr. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) and mitochondrial function (MF), as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and content and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, were all measured in striatal samples of animals subjected to stress. Our results indicate that acute stress is able to increase the striatal LP and reduced the levels of MF, while significantly lowered the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. No changes were observed in the total striatal content of SOD, nor in GSH levels, but serum corticosterone content was increased by stress. l-CAR exhibited partial protective effects on the immobilized group, reducing the striatal LP and recovering the striatal MF and Mn-SOD activity. Our results suggest that acute restraint stress brings an accurate model for early pro-oxidant responses that can be targeted by broad-spectrum antioxidants like l-CAR. PMID:21371264

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated CXCR3 pathway mediates inflammation and neuronal injury in acute glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Y; Liu, H; Xu, Z; Yokota, H; Narayanan, S P; Lemtalsi, T; Smith, S B; Caldwell, R W; Caldwell, R B; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    Acute glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in East Asia. The mechanisms underlying retinal neuronal injury induced by a sudden rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that the activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, which mediates the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, has a critical role in a mouse model of acute glaucoma. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCL10 and CXCR3 were significantly increased after IOP-induced retinal ischemia. Blockade of the CXCR3 pathway by deleting CXCR3 gene significantly attenuated ischemic injury-induced upregulation of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and E-selectin), inhibited the recruitment of microglia/monocyte to the superficial retina, reduced peroxynitrite formation, and prevented the loss of neurons within the ganglion cell layer. In contrast, intravitreal delivery of CXCL10 increased leukocyte recruitment and retinal cell apoptosis. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with chemical chaperones partially blocked ischemic injury-induced CXCL10 upregulation, whereas induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced CXCL10 expression in retina and primary retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, deleting CXCR3 attenuated ER stress-induced retinal cell death. In conclusion, these results indicate that ER stress-medicated activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway has an important role in retinal inflammation and neuronal injury after high IOP-induced ischemia. PMID:26448323

  1. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Teresa

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study's aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses' occupational stress in Ireland. PMID:25072339

  2. Traumatic Memories in Acute Stress Disorder: An Analysis of Narratives before and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative reactions in acute stress disorder purportedly impede encoding and organization of traumatic memories and consequently impair the individual's ability to retrieve trauma-related details. A qualitative examination was conducted on trauma narratives of individuals with acute stress disorder (N = 15) prior to cognitive behavior…

  3. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000), in a…

  4. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  5. Effect of Acute Mental Stress on Heart Rate and QT Variability in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Magrì, Damiano; Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Quaglione, Raffaele; Dell'Armi, Annalaura; Mitra, Marilena; Velitti, Stefania; Di Barba, Daniele; Lizio, Andrea; Maisto, Damiana; Barillà, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally charged events are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this study we assessed RR and QT variability index (QTVI) at baseline during anger recall test (AR). We calculated QTVI from a 5-min ECG recording and from a 10-beats segment around the presumed maximum sympathetic activation in thirty post-myocardial infarction patients under β-blocker therapy and 10 controls underwent. In all groups, the low-frequency component of RR and SBP increased during AR. In all recordings, the QTVI calculated on a 5-min ECG recording and the QTVI10 beats were higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.05). The QTVI during AR remained unchanged from baseline within each group. Conversely, during AR, the QTVI10 beats in controls diminished significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline whereas in patients remained unchanged. The inability to buffer an acute stress-induced increase in sympathetic activity could explain why events charged with acute stress are associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias in this setting of patients and support the role of cognitive behavior stress management strategies. PMID:22844616

  6. Effects of acute stress on cardiac endocannabinoids, lipogenesis, and inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, James; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objective Trauma exposure can precipitate acute/post-traumatic stress responses (AS/PTSD) and disabling cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Identifying acute stress-related physiologic changes that may increase CVD risk could inform development of early CVD-prevention strategies. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and stress-related cardiovascular function. We examine stress-related endocannabinoid system (ECS) activity and its association with cardiovascular biochemistry/function following acute stress. Methods Rodents (n=8-16/group) were exposed to predator odor or saline; elevated plus maze (EPM), blood pressure (BP), serum and cardiac tissue ECS markers, and lipid metabolism were assessed at 24h and 2wks post-exposure. Results At 24h the predator odor group demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and had (a) elevated serum markers of cardiac failure/damage (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP]: 275.1 vs. 234.6, p=0.007; troponin-I: 1.50 vs. 0.78, p=0.076), lipogenesis (triacylglycerols [TAG]: 123.5 vs. 85.93, p=0.018), and inflammation (stearoyl delta-9 desaturase activity [SCD-16]: 0.21 vs. 0.07, p<0.001); (b) significant decrease in cardiac endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, 2-AG: 29.90 vs. 65.95, p<0.001) and fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE: oleoylethanolamide, OEA: 114.3 vs. 125.4, p=0.047; palmitoylethanolamide, PEA: 72.96 vs. 82.87, p=0.008); and (c) increased cardiac inflammation (IL-1β/IL-6 ratio: 19.79 vs.13.57, p=0.038; TNF-α/IL-6 ratio: 1.73 vs. 1.03, p=0.019) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]: 7.81 vs. 7.05, p=0.022), that were associated with cardiac steatosis (higher TAG: 1.09 vs. 0.72, p<0.001). Cardiac lipogenesis persisted, and elevated BP emerged two weeks after exposure. Conclusions Acute psychological stress elicits ECS-related cardiac responses associated with persistent, potentially-pathological changes in rat cardiovascular biochemistry

  7. Increased NK Cell Maturation in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chretien, Anne-Sophie; Granjeaud, Samuel; Gondois-Rey, Françoise; Harbi, Samia; Orlanducci, Florence; Blaise, Didier; Vey, Norbert; Arnoulet, Christine; Fauriat, Cyril; Olive, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Understanding immune alterations in cancer patients is a major challenge and requires precise phenotypic study of immune subsets. Improvement of knowledge regarding the biology of natural killer (NK) cells and technical advances leads to the generation of high dimensional dataset. High dimensional flow cytometry requires tools adapted to complex dataset analyses. This study presents an example of NK cell maturation analysis in Healthy Volunteers (HV) and patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with an automated procedure using the FLOCK algorithm. This procedure enabled to automatically identify NK cell subsets according to maturation profiles, with 2D mapping of a four-dimensional dataset. Differences were highlighted in AML patients compared to HV, with an overall increase of NK maturation. Among patients, a strong heterogeneity in NK cell maturation defined three distinct profiles. Overall, automatic gating with FLOCK algorithm is a recent procedure, which enables fast and reliable identification of cell populations from high-dimensional cytometry data. Such tools are necessary for immune subset characterization and standardization of data analyses. This tool is adapted to new immune cell subsets discovery, and may lead to a better knowledge of NK cell defects in cancer patients. Overall, 2D mapping of NK maturation profiles enabled fast and reliable identification of NK cell subsets. PMID:26594214

  8. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-06-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care. PMID:27482201

  9. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care. PMID:27482201

  10. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  11. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  12. Early life stress is associated with anxiety, increased stress responsivity and preference for "comfort foods" in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Portella, André Krumel; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2013-09-01

    Chronic stress increases anxiety and encourages intake of palatable foods as "comfort foods". This effect seems to be mediated by altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the current study, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to limited access to nesting material (Early-Life Stress group - ELS) or standard care (Control group) from postnatal day 2 to 9. In adult life, anxiety was assessed using the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT), and acute stress responsivity by measurement of plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Preference for palatable foods was monitored by a computerized system (BioDAQ, Research Diets(®)) in rats receiving only regular chow or given the choice of regular and palatable diet for 30 days. ELS-augmented adulthood anxiety in the NSFT (increased latency to eat in a new environment; decreased chow intake upon return to the home cage) and increased corticosterone (but not ACTH) secretion in response to stress. Despite being lighter and consuming less rat chow, ELS animals ate more palatable foods during chronic exposure compared with controls. During preference testing, controls receiving long-term access to palatable diet exhibited reduced preference for the diet relative to controls exposed to regular chow only, whereas ELS rats demonstrated no such reduction in preference after prolonged palatable diet exposure. The increased preference for palatable foods showed by ELS animals may result from a habit of using this type of food to ameliorate anxiety. PMID:23781957

  13. Opioid activity in behavioral and heart rate responses of tethered pigs to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Loijens, L W S; Janssens, C J J G; Schouten, W G P; Wiegant, V M

    2002-04-15

    In a longitudinal experiment, effects of long-term tether housing on heart rate and behavioral responses to an acute stressor (a 15-min challenge with a nosesling) were investigated in pigs. The animals were challenged during loose housing and again after 10-11 weeks of tether housing. To detect possible changes in endogenous opioid systems modifying these responses, the pigs were pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg body weight, iv). In response to the nosesling challenge, the animals showed pronounced resistance behavior and a sharp rise in heart rate. Following this initial phase of resistance, the heart rate dropped to prechallenge levels or below this line, and the pigs seemed to become sedated. Pretreatment with naloxone increased the heart rate response in animals that were long-term tether housed (n=12). No such effect was found in the control group (n=5) that was loose-housed during the entire experiment, indicating that the impact of endogenous opioid systems mitigating heart rate responses to acute stress had increased as a result of long-term tether housing. Changes in the effect of naloxone on the behavioral response were not found. Adaptive changes in opioid systems may prevent excessive physiological reactions to acute stress and, thus, may serve as a coping mechanism. PMID:12020727

  14. Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Yin, Lianhong; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Zheng, Lingli; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the effects of dioscin against alcohol-, carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage have been found. However, the activity of it against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced acute liver injury remained unknown. In the present study, dioscin markedly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and decreased the levels of MDA, iNOS and NO. Mechanism study showed that dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IκBα, p50 and p65 through regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway to rehabilitate inflammation. In addition, dioscin markedly up-regulated the expression levels of SIRT1, HO-1, NQO1, GST and GCLM through increasing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 against oxidative stress. Furthermore, dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of FasL, Fas, p53, Bak, Caspase-3/9, and upregulated Bcl-2 level through decreasing IRF9 level against apoptosis. In conclusion, dioscin showed protective effect against DMN-induced acute liver injury via ameliorating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as a new candidate for the treatment of acute liver injury in the future. PMID:27317992

  15. A brief retrospective method for identifying longitudinal trajectories of adjustment following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A; Sinan, Beyza

    2015-06-01

    Research increasingly indicates that prototypical trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed, and chronic distress characterize reactions to acute adversity. However, trajectory research has been limited by the practical and methodological difficulties of obtaining pre-event and longitudinal data. In two studies, we employed a novel method in which trained interviewers provided a graphical depiction of prototypical stress trajectories to participants and asked them to select the one that best described their experience. In Study 1, self-identified trajectories from 21 high-exposure survivors of the September 11th World Trade Center attacks distinguished variation in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms at 7 and 18 months, and were consistent with trajectories based on longitudinal outcomes and friend/relative ratings. In Study 2, we examined self-identified trajectories from 115 bereaved spouses at 1.5 to 3 years. Persons who identified a resilient trajectory, compared with recovery and chronic distress trajectories, had fewer interviewer-rated symptoms of grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were rated as functioning more effectively by friends, reported higher life satisfaction, and had fewer somatic complaints. The present results provide initial evidence for the construct validity of a cross-sectional and less demanding method for identifying acute stress trajectories. PMID:25288824

  16. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  17. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  18. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  19. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. PMID:26551431

  20. Acute Kidney Injury Increases Risk of ESRD among Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ishani, Areef; Xue, Jay L.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Eggers, Paul W.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Molitoris, Bruce A.; Collins, Allan J.

    2009-01-01

    Risk for ESRD among elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been studied in a large, representative sample. This study aimed to determine incidence rates and hazard ratios for developing ESRD in elderly individuals, with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD), who had AKI. In the 2000 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, clinical conditions were identified using Medicare claims; ESRD treatment information was obtained from ESRD registration during 2 yr of follow-up. Our cohort of 233,803 patients were hospitalized in 2000, were aged ≥67 yr on discharge, did not have previous ESRD or AKI, and were Medicare-entitled for ≥2 yr before discharge. In this cohort, 3.1% survived to discharge with a diagnosis of AKI, and 5.3 per 1000 developed ESRD. Among patients who received treatment for ESRD, 25.2% had a previous history of AKI. After adjustment for age, gender, race, diabetes, and hypertension, the hazard ratio for developing ESRD was 41.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.6 to 49.1) for patients with AKI and CKD relative to those without kidney disease, 13.0 (95% CI 10.6 to 16.0) for patients with AKI and without previous CKD, and 8.4 (95% CI 7.4 to 9.6) for patients with CKD and without AKI. In summary, elderly individuals with AKI, particularly those with previously diagnosed CKD, are at significantly increased risk for ESRD, suggesting that episodes of AKI may accelerate progression of renal disease. PMID:19020007

  1. HIPPOCAMPAL MOSSY FIBER LEU-ENKEPHALIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN FEMALE RATS IS SIGNIFICANTLY ALTERED FOLLOWING BOTH ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Joseph P.; Kelter, David T.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that responses to stress are sexually dimorphic, particularly in regard to learning and memory processes: while males display impaired cognitive performance and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell dendritic remodeling following chronic stress, females exhibit enhanced performance and no remodeling. Leu-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid peptide found in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway, plays a critical role in mediating synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. Estrogen is known to influence the expression of leu-enkephalin in the mossy fibers of females, with leu-enkephalin levels being highest at proestrus and estrus, when estrogen levels are elevated. Since stress is also known to alter the expression of leu-enkephalin in various brain regions, this study was designed to determine whether acute or chronic stress had an effect on mossy fiber leu-enkephalin levels in females or males, through the application of correlated quantitative light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Both acute and chronic stress eliminated the estrogen-dependence of leu-enkephalin levels across the estrous cycle in females, but had no effect on male levels. However, following acute stress leu-enkephalin levels in females were consistently lowered to values comparable to the lowest control values, while following chronic stress they were consistently elevated to values comparable to the highest control values. Ultrastructural changes in leu-enkephalin labeled dense core vesicles paralleled light microscopic observations, with acute stress inducing a decrease in leu-enkephalin labeled dense core vesicles, and chronic stress inducing an increase in leu-enkephalin labeled dense-core vesicles in females. These findings suggest that alterations in leu-enkephalin levels following stress could play an important role in the sex-specific responses that females display in learning processes, including those important in addiction. PMID:24275289

  2. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C.; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals. PMID:24478326

  3. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-11-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals. PMID:24478326

  4. High salt diet increases the pressor response to stress in female, but not male ETB-receptor-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Speed, Joshua S; D'Angelo, Gerard; Wach, Paul A; Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2015-03-01

    Acute stress in both rodents and humans causes a transient rise in blood pressure associated with an increase in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1). High salt (HS) intake also increases ET-1 production, and interestingly, blunts the pressor response to acute air jet stress in rats. We previously reported that female rats lacking functional ETB receptors everywhere except sympathetic nerves (ETB def) had a greater degree of hypertension in response to a HS diet compared to their male counterparts when measured by the tail cuff method. However, we now report that salt-induced hypertension is not different between sexes when measured by telemetry. Therefore, additional experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that female ETB def rats are more sensitive to acute stress when on a HS diet. The pressor response, measured by telemetry, to acute air jet stress was similar between male transgenic control (Tg control) and ETB def rats following chronic HS intake. In contrast, female ETB def rats had a significantly greater pressor response (about twofold higher) than female or male Tg control or male ETB def rats maintained on HS, a finding that cannot be explained by increased vascular reactivity to ET-1 in female rats as we observed that male ETB def rats had a greater pressor response to i.v. infusion of ET-1 compared to females. Furthermore, HS feeding exacerbated the pressor response to ET-1 in both male and female ETB def rats. Given our previous studies demonstrating that the ETA receptor functions to reduce the pressor response to acute stress, these findings further support a role for the ET receptor system in the pressor response to acute stress and that female rats have reduced ETA receptor activity when on a HS diet compared to males. PMID:25802361

  5. High salt diet increases the pressor response to stress in female, but not male ETB-receptor-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Joshua S; D'Angelo, Gerard; Wach, Paul A; Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress in both rodents and humans causes a transient rise in blood pressure associated with an increase in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1). High salt (HS) intake also increases ET-1 production, and interestingly, blunts the pressor response to acute air jet stress in rats. We previously reported that female rats lacking functional ETB receptors everywhere except sympathetic nerves (ETB def) had a greater degree of hypertension in response to a HS diet compared to their male counterparts when measured by the tail cuff method. However, we now report that salt-induced hypertension is not different between sexes when measured by telemetry. Therefore, additional experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that female ETB def rats are more sensitive to acute stress when on a HS diet. The pressor response, measured by telemetry, to acute air jet stress was similar between male transgenic control (Tg control) and ETB def rats following chronic HS intake. In contrast, female ETB def rats had a significantly greater pressor response (about twofold higher) than female or male Tg control or male ETB def rats maintained on HS, a finding that cannot be explained by increased vascular reactivity to ET-1 in female rats as we observed that male ETB def rats had a greater pressor response to i.v. infusion of ET-1 compared to females. Furthermore, HS feeding exacerbated the pressor response to ET-1 in both male and female ETB def rats. Given our previous studies demonstrating that the ETA receptor functions to reduce the pressor response to acute stress, these findings further support a role for the ET receptor system in the pressor response to acute stress and that female rats have reduced ETA receptor activity when on a HS diet compared to males. PMID:25802361

  6. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision Making Under Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. PMID:26546080

  7. RPA inhibition increases replication stress and suppresses tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Glanzer, Jason G; Liu, Shengqin; Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam; Peng, Aimin; Oakley, Greg G

    2014-09-15

    The ATR/Chk1 pathway is a critical surveillance network that maintains genomic integrity during DNA replication by stabilizing the replication forks during normal replication to avoid replication stress. One of the many differences between normal cells and cancer cells is the amount of replication stress that occurs during replication. Cancer cells with activated oncogenes generate increased levels of replication stress. This creates an increased dependency on the ATR/Chk1 pathway in cancer cells and opens up an opportunity to preferentially kill cancer cells by inhibiting this pathway. In support of this idea, we have identified a small molecule termed HAMNO ((1Z)-1-[(2-hydroxyanilino)methylidene]naphthalen-2-one), a novel protein interaction inhibitor of replication protein A (RPA), a protein involved in the ATR/Chk1 pathway. HAMNO selectively binds the N-terminal domain of RPA70, effectively inhibiting critical RPA protein interactions that rely on this domain. HAMNO inhibits both ATR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of RPA32 Ser33 by ATR. By itself, HAMNO treatment creates DNA replication stress in cancer cells that are already experiencing replication stress, but not in normal cells, and it acts synergistically with etoposide to kill cancer cells in vitro and slow tumor growth in vivo. Thus, HAMNO illustrates how RPA inhibitors represent candidate therapeutics for cancer treatment, providing disease selectivity in cancer cells by targeting their differential response to replication stress. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5165-72. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25070753

  8. RPA Inhibition increases Replication Stress and Suppresses Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Glanzer, Jason G.; Liu, Shengqin; Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam; Peng, Aimin; Oakley, Greg G.

    2014-01-01

    The ATR/Chk1 pathway is a critical surveillance network that maintains genomic integrity during DNA replication by stabilizing the replication forks during normal replication to avoid replication stress. One of the many differences between normal cells and cancer cells is the amount of replication stress that occurs during replication. Cancer cells with activated oncogenes generate increased levels of replication stress. This creates an increased dependency on the ATR/Chk1 pathway in cancer cells and opens up an opportunity to preferentially kill cancer cells by inhibiting this pathway. In support of this idea, we have identified a small molecule termed HAMNO ((1Z)-1-[(2-hydroxyanilino)methylidene]naphthalen-2-one), a novel protein interaction inhibitor of replication protein A (RPA), a protein involved in the ATR/Chk1 pathway. HAMNO selectively binds the N-terminal domain of RPA70, effectively inhibiting critical RPA protein interactions which rely on this domain. HAMNO inhibits both ATR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of RPA32 Ser33 by ATR. By itself, HAMNO treatment creates DNA replication stress in cancer cells that are already experiencing replication stress, but not in normal cells, and it acts synergistically with etoposide to kill cancer cells in vitro and slow tumor growth in vivo. Thus, HAMNO illustrates how RPA inhibitors represent candidate therapeutics for cancer treatment, providing disease selectivity in cancer cells by targeting their differential response to replication stress. PMID:25070753

  9. Chronic intermittent mechanical stress increases MUC5AC protein expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ah; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Increased abundance of mucin secretory cells is a characteristic feature of the epithelium in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. We showed previously that the mechanical stresses of airway constriction, both in the intact mouse lung and a cell culture model, activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known modulator of mucin expression in airway epithelial cells. Here we tested whether chronic, intermittent, short-duration compressive stress (30 cm H(2)O) is sufficient to increase the abundance of MUC5AC-positive cells and intracellular mucin levels in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface. Compressive stress applied for 1 hour per day for 14 days significantly increased the percentage of cells staining positively for MUC5AC protein (22.0 +/- 3.8%, mean +/- SD) relative to unstimulated controls (8.6 +/- 2.6%), and similarly changed intracellular MUC5AC protein levels measured by Western and slot blotting. The effect of compressive stress was gradual, with significant changes in MUC5AC-positive cell numbers evident by Day 7, but required as little as 10 minutes of compressive stress daily. Daily treatment of cells with an EGFR kinase inhibitor (AG1478, 1 muM) significantly but incompletely attenuated the response to compressive stress. Complete attenuation could be accomplished by simultaneous treatment with the combination of AG1478 and a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(2) (1 microg/ml)-neutralizing antibody, or with anti-TGF-beta(2) alone. Our findings demonstrate that short duration episodes of mechanical stress, representative of those occurring during bronchoconstriction, are sufficient to increase goblet cell number and MUC5AC protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. We propose that the mechanical environment present in asthma may fundamentally bias the composition of airway epithelial lining in favor of mucin secretory cells. PMID:19168703

  10. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. PMID:27188981

  11. Entrainment of the mouse circadian clock by sub-acute physical and psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuriki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of acute stress on the peripheral circadian system are not well understood in vivo. Here, we show that sub-acute stress caused by restraint or social defeat potently altered clock gene expression in the peripheral tissues of mice. In these peripheral tissues, as well as the hippocampus and cortex, stressful stimuli induced time-of-day-dependent phase-advances or -delays in rhythmic clock gene expression patterns; however, such changes were not observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, i.e. the central circadian clock. Moreover, several days of stress exposure at the beginning of the light period abolished circadian oscillations and caused internal desynchronisation of peripheral clocks. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythmicity showed habituation and disappeared with long-term exposure to repeated stress. These findings suggest that sub-acute physical/psychological stress potently entrains peripheral clocks and causes transient dysregulation of circadian clocks in vivo. PMID:26073568

  12. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation. PMID:26617279

  13. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  14. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  15. Mild maternal stress disrupts associative learning and increases aggression in offspring.

    PubMed

    Eaton, L; Edmonds, E J; Henry, T B; Snellgrove, D L; Sloman, K A

    2015-05-01

    Maternal stress has been shown to affect behaviour of offspring in a wide range of animals, but this evidence has come from studies that exposed gestating mothers to acute or severe stressors, such as restraint or exposure to synthetic stress hormones. Here we show that exposure of mothers to even a mild stressor reduces associative learning and increases aggression in offspring. Female guppies were exposed to routine husbandry procedures that produced only a minimal, non-significant, elevation of the stress hormone cortisol. In contrast to controls, offspring from mothers that experienced this mild stress failed to learn to associate a colour cue and food reward, and showed a greater amount of inter-individual variation in behaviour compared with control offspring. This mild stress also resulted in offspring that were more aggressive towards their own mirror image than controls. While it is possible that these results could represent the transmission of beneficial maternal characteristics to offspring born into unpredictable environments, the potential for mild maternal stress to affect offspring performance also has important implications for research into the trans-generational effects of stress. PMID:25840012

  16. Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

    2014-11-22

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. PMID:25297860

  17. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Gergő A; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days (p<0.05 vs. controls), and the kinetics follows the intensity of the systemic inflammation correlating with serum procalcitonin levels. In a similar study subset, urinary meta-tyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (p<0.01 for both). Using linear regression model, meta-tyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + orthotyrosine)/ para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  18. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Gergő A.; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2nd and 3rd days (p<0.05 vs. controls), and the kinetics follows the intensity of the systemic inflammation correlating with serum procalcitonin levels. In a similar study subset, urinary meta-tyrosine excretion correlated with both need of daily insulin dose and the insulin-glucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (p<0.01 for both). Using linear regression model, meta-tyrosine excretion, urinary meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine, urinary ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine and urinary (meta- + ortho-tyrosine)/para-tyrosine proved to be markers of carbohydrate homeostasis. In a chronic rodent model, we tried to compensate the abnormal tyrosine isomers using para-tyrosine, the physiological amino acid. Rats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  19. Acute and Chronic Plasma Metabolomic and Liver Transcriptomic Stress Effects in a Mouse Model with Features of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; D’Arpa, Peter; Donohue, Duncan E.; Muhie, Seid; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Luke, Brian T.; Grapov, Dmitry; Carroll, Erica E.; Meyerhoff, James L.; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Acute responses to intense stressors can give rise to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD diagnostic criteria include trauma exposure history and self-reported symptoms. Individuals who meet PTSD diagnostic criteria often meet criteria for additional psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers promise to contribute to reliable phenotypes of PTSD and comorbidities by linking biological system alterations to behavioral symptoms. Here we have analyzed unbiased plasma metabolomics and other stress effects in a mouse model with behavioral features of PTSD. In this model, C57BL/6 mice are repeatedly exposed to a trained aggressor mouse (albino SJL) using a modified, resident-intruder, social defeat paradigm. Our recent studies using this model found that aggressor-exposed mice exhibited acute stress effects including changed behaviors, body weight gain, increased body temperature, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic histopathologies and transcriptomic changes of heart tissue. Some of these acute stress effects persisted, reminiscent of PTSD. Here we report elevated proteins in plasma that function in inflammation and responses to oxidative stress and damaged tissue at 24 hrs post-stressor. Additionally at this acute time point, transcriptomic analysis indicated liver inflammation. The unbiased metabolomics analysis showed altered metabolites in plasma at 24 hrs that only partially normalized toward control levels after stress-withdrawal for 1.5 or 4 wks. In particular, gut-derived metabolites were altered at 24 hrs post-stressor and remained altered up to 4 wks after stress-withdrawal. Also at the 4 wk time point, hyperlipidemia and suppressed metabolites of amino acids and carbohydrates in plasma coincided with transcriptomic indicators of altered liver metabolism (activated xenobiotic and lipid metabolism). Collectively, these system-wide sequelae to repeated intense stress suggest that the simultaneous perturbed functioning of multiple organ systems (e.g., brain, heart

  20. The effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on the response of cerebral blood flow to acute hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Sugawara, Jun; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the response of cerebral blood flow to an acute change in perfusion pressure is modified by an acute increase in central blood volume. Nine young, healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. To measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation during normocapnic and hypercapnic (5%) conditions, the change in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity was analyzed during acute hypotension caused by two methods: 1) thigh-cuff occlusion release (without change in central blood volume); and 2) during the recovery phase immediately following release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -50 mmHg) that initiated an acute increase in central blood volume. In the thigh-cuff occlusion release protocol, as expected, hypercapnia decreased the rate of regulation, as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (0.236 ± 0.018 and 0.167 ± 0.025 s(-1), P = 0.024). Compared with the cuff-occlusion release, the acute increase in central blood volume (relative to the LBNP condition) with LBNP release attenuated dynamic cerebral autoregulation (P = 0.009). Therefore, the hypercapnia-induced attenuation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not observed in the LBNP release protocol (P = 0.574). These findings suggest that an acute change in systemic blood distribution modifies dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acute hypotension. PMID:26159757

  1. Immune status influences fear and anxiety responses in mice after acute stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah M; Sand, Joseph; Francis, T Chase; Nagaraju, Anitha; Michael, Kerry C; Keegan, Achsah D; Kusnecov, Alexander; Gould, Todd D; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2014-05-01

    Significant evidence suggests that exposure to traumatic and/or acute stress in both mice and humans results in compromised immune function that in turn may affect associated brain processes. Additionally, recent studies in mouse models of immune deficiency have suggested that adaptive immunity may play a role during traumatic stress exposure and that impairments in lymphocyte function may contribute to increased susceptibility to various psychogenic stressors. However, rodent studies on the relationship between maladaptive stress responses and lymphocyte deficiency have been complicated by the fact that genetic manipulations in these models may also result in changes in CNS function due to the expression of targeted genes in tissues other than lymphocytes, including the brain. To address these issues we utilized mice with a deletion of recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2), which has no confirmed expression in the CNS; thus, its loss should result in the absence of mature lymphocytes without altering CNS function directly. Stress responsiveness of immune deficient Rag2(-/-) mice on a BALB/c background was evaluated in three different paradigms: predator odor exposure (POE), fear conditioning (FC) and learned helplessness (LH). These models are often used to study different aspects of stress responsiveness after the exposure to an acute stressor. In addition, immunoblot analysis was used to assess hippocampal BDNF expression under both stressed and non-stressed conditions. Subsequent to POE, Rag2(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced acoustic startle response compared to BALB/c mice; no significant differences in behavior were observed in either FC or LH. Furthermore, analysis of hippocampal BDNF indicated that Rag2(-/-) mice have elevated levels of the mature form of BDNF compared to BALB/c mice. Results from our studies suggest that the absence of mature lymphocytes is associated with increased resilience to stress exposure in the POE and does not affect behavioral

  2. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  3. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material. PMID:16388863

  4. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], p<.001). In the think anything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  5. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = -0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25257356

  6. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25257356

  7. Increased Service Delivery and Adaptation to Occupational Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnabel, John F.; Simoni, Joseph J.

    Effective response by community service agencies to clientele needs is an essential part of community development. A personnel screening instrument, a model for predicting different types of adaptation to occupational stress, is suggested as a means of increasing the responsiveness of service agencies to their local communities. Proposing the use…

  8. The seasonal glucocorticoid response of male Rufous-winged Sparrows to acute stress correlates with changes in plasma uric acid, but neither glucose nor testosterone.

    PubMed

    Deviche, Pierre; Valle, Shelley; Gao, Sisi; Davies, Scott; Bittner, Stephanie; Carpentier, Elodie

    2016-09-01

    We sought to clarify functional relationships between baseline and acute stress-induced changes in plasma levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and the reproductive hormone testosterone (T), and those of two main metabolites, uric acid (UA) and glucose (GLU). Acute stress in vertebrates generally stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, which in birds is primarily CORT. This stimulation is thought to promote behavioral and metabolic changes, including increased glycemia. However, limited information in free-ranging birds supports the view that acutely elevated plasma CORT stimulates glycemia. Acute stress also often decreases the secretion of reproductive hormones (e.g., T in males), but the role of CORT in this decrease and the contribution of T to the regulation of plasma GLU remain poorly understood. We measured initial (pre-stress) and acute stress-induced plasma CORT and T as well as GLU in adult male Rufous-winged Sparrows, Peucaea carpalis, sampled during the pre-breeding, breeding, post-breeding molt, and non-breeding stages. Stress increased plasma CORT and the magnitude of this increase did not differ across life history stages. The stress-induced elevation of plasma CORT was consistently associated with decreased plasma UA, suggesting a role for CORT in the regulation of plasma UA during stress. During stress plasma GLU either increased (pre-breeding), did not change (breeding), or decreased (molt and non-breeding), and plasma T either decreased (pre-breeding and breeding) or did not change (molt and non-breeding). These data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that CORT secretion during acute stress exerts a hyperglycemic action or is responsible for the observed decrease in plasma T taking place at certain life history stages. They also do not support the hypothesis that rapid changes in plasma T influence glycemia. PMID:27292791

  9. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  10. Effects of intracisternal administration of cannabidiol on the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to acute restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Granjeiro, Erica M; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2011-10-01

    Systemic administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, attenuates the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to restraint stress. Although the brain structures related to CBD effects are not entirely known, they could involve brainstem structures responsible for cardiovascular control. Therefore, to investigate this possibility the present study verified the effects of CBD (15, 30 and 60 nmol) injected into the cisterna magna on the autonomic and behavioral changes induced by acute restraint stress. During exposure to restraint stress (1h) there was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Also, 24h later the animals showed a decreased percentage of entries onto the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. These effects were attenuated by CBD (30 nmol). The drug had no effect on MAP and HR baseline values. These results indicate that intracisternal administration of CBD can attenuate autonomic responses to stress. However, since CBD decreased the anxiogenic consequences of restraint stress, it is possible that the drug is also acting on forebrain structures. PMID:21771609

  11. Increased oxidative stress in foam cells obtained from hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marlene S B; Fabris, Bruno A; Brinholi, Francis F; Bortolasci, Chiara C; Watanabe, Maria A E; Oliveira, Karen B; Delfino, Vinícius D A; Lavado, Edson L; Barbosa, Décio S

    2013-04-01

    Premature atherosclerosis represents the main cause of mortality among end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD). Increased inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in initiation and progression of the atherosclerotic plaque. As foam cells are capable of producing significant amounts of inflammatory mediators and free radicals, we hypothesized that foam cells from uremic patients could produce more inflammation and oxidative stress than foam cells from normal people and be, somehow, involved in the accelerated atherosclerosis of uremia. To test this hypothesis, the levels of a few markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: Tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide by-products were measured in the supernatants of macrophage-derived foam cells cultures from 18 hemodialysis patients and 18 apparently healthy individuals controls. Malondialdehyde levels in the supernatant of cell cultures (macrophages stimulated or not with native and oxidized lipoprotein) were significantly increased in uremic patients; no statistically significant difference was found between the supernatant concentrations of nitric oxide by-products, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α between patients and controls. Our results, obtained with human macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells, are compatible with the theory that increased cellular oxidative stress and inflammatory activity in ESRD patients could accelerate the atherosclerotic process. The present culture protocol showed it is possible to use human mononuclear cells to evaluate the oxidative metabolism of foam cells, which are considered to be the initial step of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22928784

  12. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gluconeogenesis on the levels of plasma glucose and liver glycogen was studied in rats exposed to hyper-G stress. Incorporation of lactate, alanine, or glycerol, labeled with C-14, into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats centrifuged at 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0-hr periods, and was compared to noncentrifuged controls injected with appropriate glycogen precursors. It was found that exposure to G-stress leads to increased incorporation from all three substrates into both plasma glucose and liver glycogen. These early incorporation increases were blocked upon pre-G administration of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, or propanolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, as well as by adrenodemedullation. Results indicate that the rapid rise in plasma glucose, as well as in liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is due to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine, released in response to hyper-G-induced activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system, plays a dominant role during the early stages of hyper-G stress.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of carob against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    PubMed

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Chehimi, Latifa; Rtibi, Kaïs; Tounsi, Haifa; Boubaker, Samir; Sakly, Mohsen; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with aqueous extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods (AECPs) protects against ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Animals were divided into four groups: control, carob, EtOH and EtOH + carob. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with AECP (600 mg/kg body weight (bw)) during 7 days and intoxicated for 6 h by acute oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg bw) 24 h after the last injection. We found that acute administration of EtOH leads to hepatotoxicity as monitored by the increase in the levels of hepatic marker aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well as hepatic tissue injury. EtOH also increased the formation of malondialdehyde in the liver, indicating an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Subacute carob pretreatment prevented all the alterations induced by EtOH and returned their levels to near normal. Importantly, we showed that acute alcohol increased hepatic and plasmatic hydrogen peroxide and free iron levels. The carob pretreatment reversed EtOH effects to near control levels. These data suggest that carob could have a beneficial effect in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by acute EtOH administration and that its mode of action may involve an opposite effect on plasma and tissue-free iron accumulation. Indeed, carob can be offered as a food additive to protect against EtOH-induced oxidative damage. PMID:23363576

  14. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  15. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28–55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63–83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood. PMID:23478858

  16. Time-Course Changes of Steroidogenic Gene Expression and Steroidogenesis of Rat Leydig Cells after Acute Immobilization Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han; Yuan, Kai-ming; Zhou, Hong-yu; Bu, Tiao; Su, Huina; Liu, Shiwen; Zhu, Qiqi; Wang, Yiyan; Hu, Yuanyuan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Lian, Qing-quan; Wu, Xiao-yun; Ge, Ren-shan

    2014-01-01

    Leydig cells secrete testosterone, which is essential for male fertility and reproductive health. Stress increases the secretion of glucocorticoid (corticosterone, CORT; in rats), which decreases circulating testosterone levels in part through a direct action by binding to the glucocorticoid receptors (NR3C1) in Leydig cells. The intratesticular CORT level is dependent on oxidative inactivation of glucocorticoid by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) in Leydig cells. In the present study, we investigated the time-course changes of steroidogenic gene expression levels after acute immobilization stress in rats. The plasma CORT levels were significantly increased 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 h after immobilization stress, while plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced 3 and 6 h, after stress and luteinizing hormone (LH) did not change. Immobilization stress caused the down-regulation of Scarb1, Star and Cyp17a1 expression levels in the rat testis starting at the first hour of stress, ahead of the significant decreases of plasma testosterone levels. Other mRNA levels, including Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1 and Hsd17b3, began to decline after 3 h. Hsd11b1 and Nos2 mRNA levels did not change during the course of stress. Administration of glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 significantly restored plasma testosterone levels. In conclusion, Scarb1, Star and Cyp17a1 expression levels are more sensitive to acute stress, and acute immobilization stress causes the decline of the steroidogenic pathway via elevating the levels of glucocorticoid, which binds to NR3C1 in Leydig cells to inhibit steroidogenic gene expression. PMID:25405735

  17. Acute stress alters transcript expression pattern and reduces processing of proBDNF to mature BDNF in Dicentrarchus labrax

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress involves alterations of brain functioning that may precipitate to mood disorders. The neurotrophin Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has recently been involved in stress-induced adaptation. BDNF is a key regulator of neuronal plasticity and adaptive processes. Regulation of BDNF is complex and may reflect not only stress-specific mechanisms but also hormonal and emotional responses. For this reason we used, as an animal model of stress, a fish whose brain organization is very similar to that of higher vertebrates, but is generally considered free of emotional reactions. Results We provide a comprehensive characterization of BDNF gene in the Dicentrarchus labrax and its transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation following acute stress. While total BDNF mRNA levels are unchanged, BDNF transcripts 1c and 1d resulted down regulated after acute stress. Acute stress induces also a significant increase in proBDNF levels and reduction in mature BDNF suggesting altered regulation of proBDNF proteolytic processing. Notably, we provide here the first evidence that fishes possess a simplified proteolytic regulation of BDNF since the pro28Kda form, generated by the SKI-1 protease in mammals, is absent in fishes because the cleavage site has first emerged in reptilians. Finally, we show that the proBDNF/totBDNF ratio is a highly predictive novel quantitative biomarker to detect stress in fishes with sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 87%, and Negative Predictive Value = 100%. Conclusion The high predictivity of proBDNF/totBDNF ratio for stress in lower vertebrates indicates that processing of BDNF is a central mechanism in adaptation to stress and predicts that a similar regulation of pro/mature BDNF has likely been conserved throughout evolution of vertebrates from fish to man. PMID:20074340

  18. Acute Exercise Increases Sex Differences in Amateur Athletes' Risk Taking.

    PubMed

    Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F

    2015-10-01

    The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. PMID:26090877

  19. Dysregulated Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Function Contributes to Altered Endocrine and Neurobehavioral Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kinlein, Scott A.; Wilson, Christopher D.; Karatsoreos, Ilia N.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms react to environmental challenges by activating a coordinated set of brain–body responses known as the stress response. These physiological and behavioral countermeasures are, in large part, regulated by the neuroendocrine hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Normal functioning of the HPA axis ensures that an organism responds appropriately to altered environmental demands, representing an essential system to promote survival. Over the past several decades, increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that disruption of the HPA axis can lead to dysregulated stress response phenotypes, exacting a physiological cost on the organism commonly referred to as allostatic load. Furthermore, it has been recognized that high allostatic load can contribute to increased vulnerability of the organism to further challenges. This observation leads to the notion that disrupted HPA function and resulting inappropriate responses to stressors may underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. In the present set of studies, we investigate the role of both the normally functioning and disrupted HPA axis in the endocrine, neural, and behavioral responses to acute stress. Using a model of non-invasive chronic corticosterone treatment in mice, we show that dysregulating the normal function of the HPA leads to a mismatch between the hormonal and neural response to acute stress, resulting in abnormal behavioral coping strategies. We believe this model can be leveraged to tease apart the mechanisms by which altered HPA function contributes to neurobehavioral dysregulation in response to acute stress. PMID:25821436

  20. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  1. Acute renal failure potentiates methylmalonate-induced oxidative stress in brain and kidney of rats.

    PubMed

    Schuck, P F; Alves, L; Pettenuzzo, L F; Felisberto, F; Rodrigues, L B; Freitas, B W; Petronilho, F; Dal-Pizzol, F; Streck, E L; Ferreira, G C

    2013-03-01

    Tissue methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulation is the biochemical hallmark of methylmalonic acidemia. The disease is clinically characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and kidney failure, whose pathophysiology is still unclear. In the present work we investigated the effects of acute MMA administration on various parameters of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex and kidney of young rats, as well as the influence of acute renal failure on MMA-elicited effects on these parameters. Acute renal failure was induced by gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic whose utilization over prolonged periods causes nephrotoxicity. The administration of gentamicin alone increased carbonyl content and inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in cerebral cortex, as well as increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and sulfhydryl levels and diminished glutathione peroxidase activity in kidney. On the other hand, MMA administration increased TBA-RS levels in cerebral cortex and decreased SOD activity in kidney. Furthermore, the simultaneous administration of MMA and gentamicin to the rats provoked an augment in TBA-RS levels and superoxide generation in cerebral cortex and in TBA-RS, carbonyl and sulfhydryl levels in kidney, while diminished SOD activity in both studied tissues. Finally, nitrate/nitrite content, reduced glutathione levels, 2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and catalase activity were not affected by this animal treatment in either tissue. In conclusion, our present data are in line with the hypothesis that MMA acts as a toxin in brain and kidney of rats and suggest that renal injury potentiates the toxicity of MMA on oxidative stress parameters in brain and peripheral tissues. PMID:23297832

  2. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    PubMed

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. PMID:27321755

  3. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  4. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Moench, Kelly M.; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  5. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. PMID:27155256

  6. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Moench, Kelly M; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  7. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. PMID:24878317

  8. Acute Stress Alters Auditory Selective Attention in Humans Independent of HPA: A Study of Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Elling, Ludger; Steinberg, Christian; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christan; Bölte, Jens; Junghofer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM). However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such “paracorticoidal” stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. Methodology/Principal Findings The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd) and mismatch negativity (MMN) were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occuring 4–7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8–11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP) occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. Conclusions/Significance Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence on cognition

  9. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Antunes, S C; Correia, A T; Nunes, B

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  10. Effects of acute temperature or salinity stress on the immune response in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyu; Yang, Hongsheng; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guangbin

    2008-12-01

    Invertebrates are increasingly raised in mariculture, where it is important to monitor immune function and to minimize stresses that could suppress immunity. The activities of phagocytosis, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lysozyme (LSZ) were measured to evaluate the immune capacities of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, to acute temperature changes (from 12 degrees C to 0 degrees C, 8 degrees C, 16 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 32 degrees C for 72 h) and salinity changes (from 30 per thousand to 20 per thousand, 25 per thousand, and 35 per thousand for 72 h) in the laboratory. Phagocytosis was significantly affected by temperature increases in 3 h, and by salinity (25 per thousand and 35 per thousand) changes in 1 h. SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h to 6 h samples at 24 degrees C. At 32 degrees C, SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h and 1 h exposures, and obviously increased for 12 h exposure. CAT activities decreased significantly at 24 degrees C for 0.5 h exposure, and increased significantly at 32 degrees C in 3 h to 12 h exposures. Activities of MPO increased significantly at 0 degrees C in 0.5 h to 6 h exposures and at 8 degrees C for 1 h. By contrast, activities of MPO decreased significantly in 24 degrees C and 32 degrees C treatments. In elevated-temperature treatments, activities of LSZ increased significantly except at 32 degrees C for 6 h to 12 h exposures. SOD activity was significantly affected by salinity change. CAT activity decreased significantly after only 1 h exposure to salinity of 20 per thousand. Activities of MPO and LSZ showed that A. japonicus tolerates limited salinity stress. High-temperature stress had a much greater effect on the immune capacities of A. japonicus than did low-temperature and salinity stresses. PMID:18640284

  11. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    PubMed

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID

  12. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    PubMed Central

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192

  13. Negative Energy Balance Blocks Neural and Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress by “Silencing” Central Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, James W.; Zheng, Huiyuan; Gordon, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that caloric restriction attenuates anxiety and other behavioral responses to acute stress, and blunts the ability of stress to increase anterior pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Since hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons and noradrenergic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) neurons participate in behavioral and endocrine stress responses, and are sensitive to the metabolic state, we examined whether overnight food deprivation blunts stress-induced recruitment of these neurons and their downstream hypothalamic and limbic forebrain targets. A single overnight fast reduced anxiety-like behavior assessed in the elevated-plus maze and acoustic startle test, including marked attenuation of light-enhanced startle. Acute stress [i.e., 30 min restraint (RES) or 5 min elevated platform exposure] robustly activated c-Fos in GLP-1 and PrRP neurons in fed rats, but not in fasted rats. Fasting also significantly blunted the ability of acute stress to activate c-Fos expression within the anterior ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vlBST). Acute RES stress suppressed dark-onset food intake in rats that were fed ad libitum, whereas central infusion of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist blocked RES-induced hypophagia, and reduced the ability of RES to activate PrRP and anterior vlBST neurons in ad libitum-fed rats. Thus, an overnight fast “silences” GLP-1 and PrRP neurons, and reduces both anxiety-like and hypophagic responses to acute stress. The partial mimicking of these fasting-induced effects in ad libitum-fed rats after GLP-1 receptor antagonism suggests a potential mechanism by which short-term negative energy balance attenuates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The results from this study reveal a potential central mechanism for the “metabolic tuning” of stress responsiveness. A single overnight fast, which markedly reduces anxiety-like behavior in rats

  14. Citrus peel extract attenuates acute cyanide poisoning-induced seizures and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The primary aimed of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of methanolic extract of citrus peel (MECP) on acute cyanide (KCN) poisoning-induced seizures and oxidative stress in rats. The intraperitoneal LD50 value of KCN (6.3 mg/Kg bwt), based on 24 hrs mortality, was significantly increased by 9, 52 or 113% by oral administration of MECP (500 mg/Kg bwt) pre-administered for 1, 2 and 3 days, respectively, in rats in a time-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injection of the sublethal dose of KCN (3 mg/Kg bwt) into rats increased, 24 hrs later, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), glutamate levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. KCN also decreased brain glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in these animals. Pre-treatment of rats with MECP inhibited KCN-induced increases in LPO, NO, and glutamate levels and AChE activity as well as decreases in brain GSH level and SOD and CAT activities. In addition, KCN significantly decreased norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin levels in different brain regions which were resolved by MECP. From the present results, it can be concluded that the neuroprotective effects of MECP against KCN-induced seizures and oxidative stress may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress overproduction and maintenance of antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:24308563

  15. Glutathione depletion and acute exercise increase O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Peternelj, Tina Tinkara; Marsh, Susan A; Strobel, Natalie A; Matsumoto, Aya; Briskey, David; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) profoundly affects protein structure, function, and metabolism. Although many skeletal muscle proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, the modification has not been extensively studied in this tissue, especially in the context of exercise. This study investigated the effects of glutathione depletion and acute exercise on O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle. Diethyl maleate (DEM) was used to deplete intracellular glutathione and rats were subjected to a treadmill run. White gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed for glutathione status, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) protein levels, and mRNA expression of OGT, O-GlcNAcase and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase. DEM and exercise both reduced intracellular glutathione and increased O-GlcNAc. DEM upregulated OGT protein expression. The effects of the interventions were significant 4 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The changes in the mRNA levels of O-GlcNAc enzymes were different in the two muscles, potentially resulting from different rates of oxidative stress and metabolic demands between the muscle types. These findings indicate that oxidative environment promotes O-GlcNAcylation in skeletal muscle and suggest an interrelationship between cellular redox state and O-GlcNAc protein modification. This could represent one mechanism underlying cellular adaptation to oxidative stress and health benefits of exercise. PMID:25416863

  16. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability. PMID:21438771

  17. Differential response of GnIH in the brain and gonads following acute stress in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Darcy K; Lynn, Sharon E; Bentley, George E

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) acts to inhibit reproduction at all levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonad axis. GnIH expression and/or immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus increase with acute stress in some birds and mammals, and thus may be involved in stress-induced reproductive inhibition. Much is known about GnIH and stress in seasonal and continuous breeders, but far less is known about these interactions in opportunistic breeders. For opportunistically breeding animals, reproductive readiness is closely associated with unpredictable environmental cues, and thus the GnIH system may be more sensitive to stress. To test this, we collected tissues from zebra finches immediately following capture or after 60min of restraint. Restraint significantly increased plasma corticosterone in males and females but, contrary to studies on other species, restrained birds had significantly fewer GnIH immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) cell bodies than control birds. GnIH-ir cell number did not differ between the sexes. Stressed females had lower mRNA expression of the beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHβ) in the pituitary, suggesting that the reduction in observed GnIH immunoreactivity in females may have been due to increased GnIH release in response to acute stress. GnIH expression increased in the testes, but not the ovaries, of restrained animals. Our data suggest that although GnIH responsiveness to stress appears to be conserved across species, specific tissue response and direction of GnIH regulation is not. Variation in the GnIH response to stress between species might be the result of ecological adaptations or other species differences in the response of the GnIH system to stress. PMID:26158243

  18. Microemboli alter the acute stress response and cause prolonged expression of MCP-1 in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2015-04-01

    Microvascular ischemia is linked to cardiovascular disease pathology, as well as alterations in mood and cognition. Ischemia activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and through chronic activation, alters HPA axis function. Dysregulation of the HPA axis can lead to the chronic release of glucocorticoids, a hyper-inflammatory cerebral response, cell damage, and changes in behavior. Although the interactions between injury and HPA axis activity have been established in global ischemia, HPA-related repercussions of diffuse ischemic damage and subsequent inflammation have not been assessed. The current study used a rat model of microsphere embolism (ME) ischemia to test the hypothesis that microvascular ischemia would lead to long term alterations in HPA axis function and inflammatory activity. Furthermore, given the pro-inflammatory nature of chronic stress, we assessed the implications of chronic stress for gene expression of inflammatory factors and key components of the glucocorticoid receptor response, following microvascular ischemia. Results indicated that ME altered the response to an acute stress fourteen days following ME injury and increased hippocampal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp-1) as long as 4 weeks following ME injury, without concomitant effects on gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor or its co-chaperones. Furthermore, no exacerbative effects of chronic stress exposure were observed following ME injury beyond the effects of ME injury alone. Together, these results indicate that ME injury is sufficient to alter both HPA axis activity and cerebral inflammation for a prolonged period of time following injury. PMID:25697594

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone marrow-derived cells prevents acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, T-T; Jia, L-X; Zhang, W-M; Li, X-Y; Zhang, J; Li, Y-L; Li, H-H; Qi, Y-F; Du, J

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in hypertensive cardiac injury. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is involved in the inflammatory response. However, the role of ER stress in elevated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress in Ang II-induced hypertensive cardiac injury. Transcriptome analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ang II infusion in mice increased ER stress-related genes expression in the heart. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency, a key mediator of ER stress, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines in Ang II-infused mouse hearts. CHOP deficiency increased Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury: (1) Masson trichrome staining showed increased fibrotic areas, (2) immunohistochemistry staining showed increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β1 and (3) quantitative real-time PCR showed increased expression of collagen in CHOP-deficient mouse heart. Bone marrow transplantation experiments indicated that CHOP deficiency in bone marrow cells was responsible for Ang II-induced cardiac fibrotic injury. Moreover, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry revealed that CHOP deficiency decreased neutrophil apoptosis in response to Ang II. Taken together, our study demonstrated that hypertension induced ER stress after Ang II infusion. ER stress in bone marrow-derived cells protected acute cardiac inflammation and injury in response to Ang II. PMID:27277680

  20. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Beth A.; Kohl, Krista L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N=479) between the ages of 8 to 17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and one month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01), and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, re-experiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), re-experiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's rho = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery. PMID:24337685

  1. Exposure of rat hippocampal astrocytes to Ziram increases oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ann-Marie; Trombetta, Louis D

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides have been shown in several studies to be the leading candidates of environmental toxins and may contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Ziram (zinc-bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)) is an agricultural dithiocarbamate fungicide that is used to treat a variety of plant diseases. In spite of their generally acknowledged low toxicity, dithiocarbamates are known to cause a wide range of neurobehavioral effects as well as neuropathological changes in the brain. Astrocytes play a key role in normal brain physiology and in the pathology of the nervous system. This investigation studied the effects of 1.0 µM Ziram on rat hippocampal astrocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay performed showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, in the Ziram-treated cells. Biochemical analysis also revealed a significant increase in the induction of 70 kDa heat shock and heme oxygenase 1 stress proteins. In addition, an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were observed in the Ziram-treated cells. The ratio GSH to GSSG calculated from the treated cells was also decreased. Light and transmission electron microscopy supported the biochemical findings in Ziram-treated astrocytes. This data suggest that the cytotoxic effects observed with Ziram treatments may be related to the increase of oxidative stress. PMID:24193059

  2. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  3. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  4. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. PMID:27091601

  5. Role of spinal V1a receptors in regulation of arterial pressure during acute and chronic osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Veitenheimer, Britta; Osborn, John W

    2011-02-01

    Vasopressinergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus project to areas in the spinal cord from which sympathetic nerves originate. This pathway is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP), particularly under various conditions of osmotic stress. Several studies measuring sympathetic nerve activity support this hypothesis. However, the evidence that spinal vasopressin influences MAP under physiological or pathophysiological conditions in conscious animals is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in conscious rats, if the increases in MAP during acute or chronic osmotic stimuli are due to activation of spinal vasopressin (V1a) receptors. Three conditions of osmotic stress were examined: acute intravenous hypertonic saline, 24- and 48-h water deprivation, and 4 wk of DOCA-salt treatment. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling catheter for intrathecal injections and a radiotelemeter to measure MAP. In normotensive rats, intrathecal vasopressin and V1a agonist increased MAP, heart rate, and motor activity; these responses were blocked by pretreatment with an intrathecal V1a receptor antagonist. However, when the intrathecal V1a antagonist was given during the three conditions of osmotic stress to investigate the role of "endogenous" vasopressin, the antagonist had no effect on MAP, heart rate, or motor activity. Contrary to the hypothesis suggested by previous studies, these findings indicate that spinal V1a receptors are not required for elevations of MAP under conditions of acute or chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats. PMID:21123759

  6. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH.

    PubMed

    Engeland, William C; Yoder, J Marina; Karsten, Carley A; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  7. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, William C.; Yoder, J. Marina; Karsten, Carley A.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  8. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  9. Upregulated Hsp27 expression in the cardioprotection induced by acute stress and oxytocin in ischemic reperfused hearts of the rat.

    PubMed

    Moghimian, Maryam; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Imani, AliReza; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom

    2014-12-31

    In view of the cardioprotective effect of oxytocin (OT) released in response to stress, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heat shock proteins Hsps 70, 27 and 20 in stress-induced cardioprotection in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Rats were divided in two main groups: unstressed and stressed rats, and all of them were subjected to i.c.v. infusion of vehicle or drugs: unstressed rats [control: vehicle, OT (100 ng/5 μl), atosiban (ATO; 4.3 μg/5 μl) as OT antagonist, ATO+OT], and stressed rats [St: stress, OT+St, ATO+St]. After anesthesia, hearts were isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 60 min subsequent reperfusion (IR). Acute stress protocol included swimming for 10 min before anesthesia. Malondialdehyde in coronary effluent was measured and the expression of Hsp 70, 27 and 20 was measured in myocardium using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The malondialdehyde levels, which decreased in the St and OT groups, increased by the administration of atosiban as an OT antagonist. The expression of Hsp27 increased 4 to 5 folds by stress induction and i.c.v. infusion of OT. Central administration of atosiban prior to both stress and OT decreased Hsp27 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that endogenous OT may participate in stress-induced cardioprotection via Hsp27 over-expression as an early response. PMID:25575521

  10. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W.; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  11. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition. PMID:26187200

  12. Assessing DSM-5 latent subtypes of acute stress disorder dissociative or intrusive?

    PubMed

    Armour, Cherie; Hansen, Maj

    2015-02-28

    Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was first included in the DSM-IV in 1994. It was proposed to account for traumatic responding in the early post trauma phase and to act as an identifier for later Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Unlike PTSD it included a number of dissociative indicators. The revised DSM-5 PTSD criterion included a dissociative-PTSD subtype. The current study assessed if a dissociative-ASD subtype may be present for DSM-5 ASD. Moreover, we assessed if a number of risk factors resulted in an increased probability of membership in symptomatic compared to a baseline ASD profile. We used data from 450 bank robbery victims. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover latent profiles of ASD. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if female gender, age, social support, peritraumatic panic, somatization, and number of trauma exposures increased or decreased the probability of profile membership. Four latent profiles were uncovered and included an intrusion rather than dissociative subtype. Increased age and social support decreased the probability of individuals being grouped into the intrusion subtype whereas increased peritraumatic panic and somatization increased the probability of individuals being grouped into the intrusion subtype. Findings are discussed in regard to the ICD-11 and the DSM-5. PMID:25535010

  13. Acute ER stress regulates amyloid precursor protein processing through ubiquitin-dependent degradation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Sun; Hong, HyunSeok; Kim, Chaeyoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. APP is an integral membrane protein, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD; however, the biological function of APP is still unclear. The present study shows that APP is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the CHO cell line in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, such as calcium ionophore, A23187, induced calcium influx. Increased levels of intracellular calcium by A23187 induces polyubiquitination of APP, causing its degradation. A23187-induced reduction of APP is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, an increase in levels of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) marker, E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, proteasome activity, and decreased levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP25 were observed during ER stress. In addition, we found that APP interacts with USP25. These findings suggest that acute ER stress induces degradation of full-length APP via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. PMID:25740315

  14. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of glucogenesis on the plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is investigated. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats are injected with C-14 lactate, alanine, of glycerol, and six of the rats are exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. The plasma glucose and liver glycogen of the centrifuged and noncentrifuged rats are analyzed. A significant increase in the C-14 incorporation of the substrate into the plasma glucose and liver glycogen is observed in the centrifuged rats. The injection of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, results in a blocked increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen. The role of epinephrine on the hyperglycemic and liver glycogen responses of centrifuged rats is studied. It is concluded that the initial increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is the result of an increased rate of gluconeogenesis.

  15. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    PubMed

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  16. Chronic Stress Induces a Hyporeactivity of the Autonomic Nervous System in Response to Acute Mental Stressor and Impairs Cognitive Performance in Business Executives

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  17. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  18. Time profile of oxidative stress and neutrophil activation in ovine acute lung injury and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Daniel L; Horvath, Eszter; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Cox, Robert A; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Herndon, David N; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2012-05-01

    The formation of oxidative stress in the lung and activation of neutrophils are major determinants in the development of respiratory failure after acute lung injury and sepsis. However, the time changes of these pathogenic factors have not been sufficiently described. Twenty-four chronically instrumented sheep were subjected to cotton smoke inhalation injury and instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lungs. The sheep were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after injury. Additional sheep received sham injury and were euthanized after 24 h. Pulmonary function was assessed by determination of oxygenation index and pulmonary shunt fraction. In addition, lung tissue was harvested at the respective time points for the measurement of malondialdehyde, interleukin 6, poly(ADP ribose), myeloperoxidase, and alveolar polymorphonuclear neutrophil score. The injury induced severe respiratory failure that was associated with an early increase in lipid peroxidation and interleukin 6 expression. The injury further led to an increase in poly(ADP ribose) activity that reached its peak at 12 h after injury and declined afterward. In addition, progressive increases in markers of neutrophil accumulation in the lung were observed. The peak of neutrophil accumulation in the lung was associated with a severe depletion of circulating neutrophils. The results from our model may enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological alterations after acute lung injury and sepsis and thus be useful in exploring therapeutic interventions directed at modifying the expression or activation of inflammatory mediators. PMID:22266977

  19. Acute restraint stress and corticosterone transiently disrupts novelty preference in an object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Torres-Berrio, Angélica; González-Martínez, Lina; Múnera, Alejandro; Lamprea, Marisol R

    2015-09-15

    The object recognition task is a procedure based on rodents' natural tendency to explore novel objects which is frequently used for memory testing. However, in some instances novelty preference is replaced by familiarity preference, raising questions regarding the validity of novelty preference as a pure recognition memory index. Acute stress- and corticosterone administration-induced novel object preference disruption has been frequently interpreted as memory impairment; however, it is still not clear whether such effect can be actually attributed to either mnemonic disruption or altered novelty seeking. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task and subjected to either acute stress or corticosterone administration to evaluate the effect of stress or corticosterone on an object recognition task. Acute stress was induced by restraining movement for 1 or 4h, ending 30 min before the sample trial. Corticosterone was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before the test trial which was performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial. Four-hour, but not 1-h, stress induced familiar object preference during the test trial performed 1h after the sample trial; however, acute stress had no effects on the test when performed 24h after sample trial. Systemic administration of corticosterone before the test trial performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial also resulted in familiar object preference. However, neither acute stress nor corticosterone induced changes in locomotor behaviour. Taken together, such results suggested that acute stress probably does not induce memory retrieval impairment but, instead, induces an emotional arousing state which motivates novelty avoidance. PMID:25986403

  20. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  1. Increased molecular mobility in humid silk fibers under tensile stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Knoll, Wiebke; Greving, Imke; Dicko, Cedric; Koza, Michael M.; Krasnov, Igor; Müller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibers are semicrystalline nanocomposite protein fibers with an extraordinary mechanical toughness that changes with humidity. Diffusive or overdamped motion on a molecular level is absent in dry silkworm silk, but present in humid silk at ambient temperature. This microscopic diffusion distinctly depends on the externally applied macroscopic tensile force. Quasielastic and inelastic neutron-scattering data as a function of humidity and of tensile strain on humid silk fibers support the model that both the adsorbed water and parts of the amorphous polymers participate in diffusive motion and are affected by the tensile force. It is notable that the quasielastic linewidth of humid silk at 100% relative humidity increases significantly with the applied force. The effect of the tensile force is discussed in terms of an increasing alignment of the polymer chains in the amorphous fraction with increasing tensile stress which changes the geometrical restrictions of the diffusive motions.

  2. Ablation of aldehyde reductase aggravates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury involving oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Akihara, Ryusuke; Homma, Takujiro; Lee, Jaeyong; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-09-16

    Aldehyde reductase (Akr1a) has been reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in the mouse liver. Because Akr1a is expressed at high levels in the liver, we aimed to investigate the role of Akr1a in liver homeostasis by employing a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity model. Akr1a-deficient (Akr1a(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 and the extent of hepatic injury in the acute phase was assessed. Liver damage was heavier in the Akr1a(-/-) mice than in the WT mice. Furthermore, severe hepatic steatosis was observed in the livers of Akr1a(-/-) mice compared to WT mice and was restored to the levels in WT mice by AsA supplementation. Since the presence or absence of AsA had no effect on the decrease in CYP2E1 activity after the CCl4 treatment, it appears that AsA plays a role in the process after the bioactivation of CCl4. Biomarkers for oxidative stress and ER stress were markedly increased in the livers of Akr1a(-/-) mice and were effectively suppressed by AsA supplementation. Based on these collective results, we conclude that Akr1a exerts a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatic steatosis by replenishing AsA via its antioxidative properties. PMID:27501753

  3. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and died when managed by a traditional protocol for acute myocardial infarction/coronary artery disease, irrespective of his known aortic stenosis. Conclusion Intense mental stress poses a considerable risk, particularly to patients with significant aortic stenosis. As described here, it can precipitate acute pulmonary edema. Importantly, effective management of acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in patients with known aortic stenosis requires its distinction from acute pulmonary edema caused by an acute myocardial infarction. Treatment options include primarily urgent rhythm and/or rate control, as well as cautious vasodilation. PMID:20062645

  4. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  5. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK <60 000 IU/L; whereas, the second group included 13 horses with overt clinical signs and plasma CK >100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p < 0.01) with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (r = 0.775), nitric oxide (NO) (r = 0.768), methyguanididne (MG) (r = 0.995), CK (r = 0.768), urine glucose (r = 0.778), urine protein (r = 0.767), renal failure index (RFI) (r = 0.814) and urine sodium (r = 0.799) and negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (r = -0.795), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (r = -0.815), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (r = -0.675), Vitamin C (r = -0.830), urine creatinine (r = -0.800), urine/plasma creatinine ratio (r = -0.827) and urine/plasma urea ratio (r = -0.807). The correlation between these biochemical variables might suggest a possible role of oxidative stress in renal injury associated with severe rhabdomyolysis in horses. It is suggested that exaggeration of oxidative stress associated with increased muscle membrane leakage plays a key role in acute kidney injury in Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis. PMID:21461642

  6. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  7. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation), and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation) where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25530986

  8. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  9. Glacial Atlantic overturning increased by wind stress in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglia, Juan; Schmittner, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Previous Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) showed dissimilar results on transports and structure. Here we analyze the most recent PMIP3 models, which show a consistent increase (on average by 41 ± 26%) and deepening (663 ± 550 m) of the AMOC with respect to preindustrial simulations, in contrast to some reconstructions from proxy data. Simulations run with the University of Victoria (UVic) ocean circulation model suggest that this is caused by changes in the Northern Hemisphere wind stress, brought about by the presence of ice sheets over North America in the LGM. When forced with LGM wind stress anomalies from PMIP3 models, the UVic model responds with an increase of the northward salt transport in the North Atlantic, which strengthens North Atlantic Deep Water formation and the AMOC. These results improve our understanding of the LGM AMOC's driving forces and suggest that some ocean mechanisms may not be correctly represented in PMIP3 models or some proxy data may need reinterpretation.

  10. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Rosalind M.; Parks, Susan E.; Hunt, Kathleen E.; Castellote, Manuel; Corkeron, Peter J.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Wasser, Samuel K.; Kraus, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Baleen whales (Mysticeti) communicate using low-frequency acoustic signals. These long-wavelength sounds can be detected over hundreds of kilometres, potentially allowing contact over large distances. Low-frequency noise from large ships (20–200 Hz) overlaps acoustic signals used by baleen whales, and increased levels of underwater noise have been documented in areas with high shipping traffic. Reported responses of whales to increased noise include: habitat displacement, behavioural changes and alterations in the intensity, frequency and intervals of calls. However, it has been unclear whether exposure to noise results in physiological responses that may lead to significant consequences for individuals or populations. Here, we show that reduced ship traffic in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, following the events of 11 September 2001, resulted in a 6 dB decrease in underwater noise with a significant reduction below 150 Hz. This noise reduction was associated with decreased baseline levels of stress-related faecal hormone metabolites (glucocorticoids) in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). This is the first evidence that exposure to low-frequency ship noise may be associated with chronic stress in whales, and has implications for all baleen whales in heavy ship traffic areas, and for recovery of this endangered right whale population. PMID:22319129

  11. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Rosalind M; Parks, Susan E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Castellote, Manuel; Corkeron, Peter J; Nowacek, Douglas P; Wasser, Samuel K; Kraus, Scott D

    2012-06-22

    Baleen whales (Mysticeti) communicate using low-frequency acoustic signals. These long-wavelength sounds can be detected over hundreds of kilometres, potentially allowing contact over large distances. Low-frequency noise from large ships (20-200 Hz) overlaps acoustic signals used by baleen whales, and increased levels of underwater noise have been documented in areas with high shipping traffic. Reported responses of whales to increased noise include: habitat displacement, behavioural changes and alterations in the intensity, frequency and intervals of calls. However, it has been unclear whether exposure to noise results in physiological responses that may lead to significant consequences for individuals or populations. Here, we show that reduced ship traffic in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, following the events of 11 September 2001, resulted in a 6 dB decrease in underwater noise with a significant reduction below 150 Hz. This noise reduction was associated with decreased baseline levels of stress-related faecal hormone metabolites (glucocorticoids) in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). This is the first evidence that exposure to low-frequency ship noise may be associated with chronic stress in whales, and has implications for all baleen whales in heavy ship traffic areas, and for recovery of this endangered right whale population. PMID:22319129

  12. Increased Oxidative Stress as a Selective Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Zhichong

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to tumorgenesis. Under hypoxic environment, increased levels of ROS induce the expression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in cancer stem cells (CSCs), resulting in the promotion of the upregulation of CSC markers, and the reduction of intracellular ROS level, thus facilitating CSCs survival and proliferation. Although the ROS level is regulated by powerful antioxidant defense mechanisms in cancer cells, it is observed to remain higher than that in normal cells. Cancer cells may be more sensitive than normal cells to the accumulation of ROS; consequently, it is supposed that increased oxidative stress by exogenous ROS generation therapy has an effect on selectively killing cancer cells without affecting normal cells. This paper reviews the mechanisms of redox regulation in CSCs and the pivotal role of ROS in anticancer treatment. PMID:26273420

  13. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4+ accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4+-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4+ or 1 mM NO3− as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25853545

  14. Stress-dependent and gender-specific neuroregulatory roles of the apelin receptor in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Newson, M J F; Pope, G R; Roberts, E M; Lolait, S J; O'Carroll, A-M

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide apelin is expressed in hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and mediates its effects via activation of the apelin receptor (APJ). Evidence suggests a role for apelin and APJ in mediating the neuroendocrine response to stress. To understand the physiological role of APJ in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, we measured ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) plasma levels in male and female mice lacking APJ (APJ knockout, APJ KO) and in wild-type controls, in response to a variety of acute stressors. Exposure to mild restraint, systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and forced swim (FS) stressors, elevated plasma ACTH and CORT levels in wild-type mice. Acute mild restraint significantly increased plasma ACTH and CORT to a similar level in APJ KO mice as in wild-type mice. However, an intact APJ was required for a conventional ACTH, but not CORT, response to LPS administration in male mice and to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in male and female mice. In contrast, APJ KO mice displayed an impaired CORT response to acute FS stress, regardless of gender. These data indicate that APJ has a role in regulation of the HPA axis response to some acute stressors and has a gender-specific function in peripheral immune activation of the HPA axis. PMID:23086141

  15. Increasing oxidative stress with molsidomine increases blood pressure in genetically hypertensive rats but not normotensive controls.

    PubMed

    Fortepiani, Lourdes A; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2005-09-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have a higher level of oxidative stress and exhibit a greater depressor response to a superoxide scavenger, tempol, than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). This study determined whether an increase in oxidative stress with a superoxide/NO donor, molsidomine, would amplify the blood pressure in SHR. Male SHR and WKY were given molsidomine (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or vehicle (0.01% ethanol) for 1 wk, and blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, nitrate and nitrite excretion (NOx), renal superoxide production, and expression of renal antioxidant enzymes, Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were measured. Renal superoxide and NOx were higher in control SHR than in WKY. Molsidomine increased superoxide by approximately 35% and NOx by 250% in both SHR and WKY. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was also higher in control SHR than WKY. Molsidomine increased MAP by 14% and caused renal vasoconstriction in SHR but reduced MAP by 16%, with no effect on renal hemodynamics, in WKY. Renal expression of Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD was not different between SHR and WKY, but expression of catalase and GPx were approximately 30% lower in kidney of SHR than WKY. The levels of Mn- and Cu,Zn-SOD were not increased with molsidomine in either WKY or SHR. Renal catalase and GPx expression was increased by 300-400% with molsidomine in WKY, but there was no effect in SHR. Increasing oxidative stress elevated blood pressure further in SHR but not WKY. WKY are likely protected because of higher bioavailable levels of NO and the ability to upregulate catalase and GPx. PMID:15905221

  16. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  17. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunping; Tian, Fei; Yu, Ying; Luo, Juan; Mitra, Apratim; Zhan, Fei; Hou, Yali; Liu, George; Zan, Linsen; Updike, M. Scott; Song, Jiuzhou

    2012-01-01

    Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness. PMID:22566754

  18. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  19. Single acute stress-induced progesterone and ovariectomy alter cardiomyocyte contractile function in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalász, Judit; Tóth, Enikő Pásztor; Bódi, Beáta; Fagyas, Miklós; Tóth, Attila; Pal, Bhattoa Harjit; Vári, Sándor G.; Balog, Marta; Blažetić, Senka; Heffer, Marija; Papp, Zoltán; Borbély, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess how ovarian-derived sex hormones (in particular progesterone) modify the effects of single acute stress on the mechanical and biochemical properties of left ventricular cardiomyocytes in the rat. Methods Non-ovariectomized (control, n = 8) and ovariectomized (OVX, n = 8) female rats were kept under normal conditions or were exposed to stress (control-S, n = 8 and OVX-S, n = 8). Serum progesterone levels were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Left ventricular myocardial samples were used for isometric force measurements and protein analysis. Ca2+-dependent active force (Factive), Ca2+-independent passive force (Fpassive), and Ca2+-sensitivity of force production were determined in single, mechanically isolated, permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Stress- and ovariectomy-induced alterations in myofilament proteins (myosin-binding protein C [MyBP-C], troponin I [TnI], and titin) were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis using protein and phosphoprotein stainings. Results Serum progesterone levels were significantly increased in stressed rats (control-S, 35.6 ± 4.8 ng/mL and OVX-S, 21.9 ± 4.0 ng/mL) compared to control (10 ± 2.9 ng/mL) and OVX (2.8 ± 0.5 ng/mL) groups. Factive was higher in the OVX groups (OVX, 25.9 ± 3.4 kN/m2 and OVX-S, 26.3 ± 3.0 kN/m2) than in control groups (control, 16.4 ± 1.2 kN/m2 and control-S, 14.4 ± 0.9 kN/m2). Regarding the potential molecular mechanisms, Factive correlated with MyBP-C phosphorylation, while myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity inversely correlated with serum progesterone levels when the mean values were plotted for all animal groups. Fpassive was unaffected by any treatment. Conclusion Stress increases ovary-independent synthesis and release of progesterone, which may regulate Ca2+-sensitivity of force production in left ventricular cardiomyocytes. Stress and female hormones differently alter Ca2+-dependent cardiomyocyte contractile

  20. Overcoming the effects of acute stress through good teamwork practices

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, D.K. ); Gaddy, C.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Two recent industry studies have taken a look at operators in stressful situations. In the context of severe-accident management, Mumaw et al. discussed four approaches to training operators for severe accidents: (1) training for knowledge or procedural skills; (2) training decision makers about goals and plans; (3) training to avoid cognitive biases; and (4) training within a realistic setting. These four approaches address directly the cognitive skills important for decision making. These types of training can also address indirectly the effects of stress on performance. First, effects of stress on decision making, such as reduced working memory, can be addressed by training cognitive skills. Second, exposure to realistically stressful situations can reduce the novelty and uncertainty, which is a primary cause of stress reactions. In a second study reported by Desaulniers, the stress of requalification exams was the focus. Desaulniers concluded that repeated changes in the exam process, inconsistency in interpretation of examiner guidelines, and some content and grading practices resulted in undue stress for the operators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff actions to remedy these sources of undue stress were described.

  1. Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.

    2011-01-31

    Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.

  2. Effect of acute administration of L-tyrosine on oxidative stress parameters in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, Livia G R P; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Vieira, Júlia S; Olegário, Natália; Gonçalves, Renata C; Vuolo, Francieli S; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-12-01

    Tyrosinemia type II, also known as Richner-Hanhart syndrome, is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of hepatic cytosolic tyrosine aminotransferase, and is associated with neurologic and development difficulties in numerous patients. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the neurological dysfunction in hypertyrosinemic patients are poorly known and that studies demonstrated that high concentrations of tyrosine provoke oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo in the cerebral cortex of rats, in the present study we investigate the oxidative stress parameters (enzymatic antioxidant defenses, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and protein carbonyl content) in cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum of 30-old-day rats after acute administration of L-tyrosine. Our results demonstrated that the acute administration of L-tyrosine increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels in hippocampus and the carbonyl levels in cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum. In addition, acute administration of L-tyrosine significantly decreased superoxide dismutase activity in cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum, while catalase was increased in striatum. In conclusion, the oxidative stress may contribute, along with other mechanisms, to the neurological dysfunction characteristic of hypertyrosinemia and the administration of antioxidants may be considered as a potential adjuvant therapy for tyrosinemia, especially type II. PMID:24135880

  3. An enhanced cAMP pathway is responsible for the colonic hyper-secretory response to 5-HT in acute stress rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Li, L S; Zhang, X L; Zhang, Y; Xu, J D; Zhu, J X

    2015-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is involved in the stress-induced alteration of colonic functions, specifically motility and secretion, but its precise mechanisms of regulation remain unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on rat colonic mucosal secretion after acute water immersion restraint stress, as well as the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, using short circuit current recording (I(SC)), real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbance assays. After 2 h of water immersion restraint stress, the baseline I(SC) and 5-HT-induced I(SC) responses of the colonic mucosa were significantly increased. Pretreatment with selective 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist, SB204070, inhibited the 5-HT-induced colonic I(SC) response by 96 % in normal rats and 91.2 % in acute-stress rats. However, pretreatment with the selective antagonist of 5-HT(3) receptor, MDL72222 or Y-25130, had no obvious effect on 5-HT-induced I(SC) responses under either set of conditions. Total protein expression of both the mucosal 5-HT(3) receptors and the 5-HT(4) receptors underwent no significant changes following acute stress. Both colonic basal cAMP levels and foskolin-induced I(SC) responses were significantly enhanced in acute stress rats. 5-HT significantly enhanced the intracellular cAMP level via 5-HT(4) receptors in the colonic mucosa from both control and stressed animals, and 5-HT-induced cAMP increase in stressed rats was not more than that in control rats. Taken together, the present results indicate that acute water immersion restraint stress enhances colonic secretory responses to 5-HT in rats, a process in which increased cellular cAMP accumulation is involved. PMID:25536313

  4. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Penna, Claudia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Mancardi, Daniele; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Racca, Silvia; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal and stressed rats. Rats were treated with 15 mg/(kgday) of Deca-Durabolin (ND, 1 ml i.m.) or with vehicle (oil) for 14 days. The day after the last injection, the dose-response to ISO (1 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-7)M), was studied in isolated rat hearts harvested from unstressed animals (unstressed+vehicle (control) or unstressed+ND) or from stressed animals (stressed+vehicle or stressed+ND): acute stress protocol consisted in restrain for 1h immediately before sacrifice. ND-pretreatment increased beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression. In baseline conditions all hearts had a similar left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rate of increase of LVDP (dP/dt(max)). In hearts of unstressed+vehicle or unstressed+ND, ISO caused a similar increase in LVDP (+90-100%) and dP/dt(max) (+120-150%). However, hearts of stressed+vehicle animals showed a marked depression of inotropic response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-8),-55% in LVDP response versus unstressed). Yet, in hearts of stressed+ND-animals the effect of stress was reversed, showing the highest response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-7), +30% LVDP response versus unstressed). The ND-induced beta(2)-adrenoceptor overexpression does not affect ISO-response in unstressed animals. However, acute stress induces a down-regulation of ISO-response, which is reversed by ND-pretreatment. Since the physiological post-stress down-regulation of adrenergic-response is absent after nandrolone treatment, the heart may be exposed to a sympathetic over-stimulation. This might represent a risk for cardiovascular incidents in anabolic steroid addicts under stressing conditions. PMID:17611100

  5. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  6. NRF2 and the Phase II Response in Acute Stress Resistance Induced by Dietary Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher M; Mitchell, James R

    2012-06-19

    Dietary restriction (DR) as a means to increase longevity is well-established in a number of model organisms from yeast to primates. DR also improves metabolic fitness and increases resistance to acute oxidative, carcinogenic and toxicological stressors - benefits with more immediate potential for clinical translation than increased lifespan. While the detailed mechanism of DR action remains unclear, a conceptual framework involving an adaptive, or hormetic response to the stress of nutrient/energy deprivation has been proposed. A key prediction of the hormesis hypothesis of DR is that beneficial adaptations occur in response to an increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS). These ROS may be derived either from increased mitochondrial respiration or increased xenobiotic metabolism in the case of some DR mimetics. This review will focus on the potential role of the redox-sensing transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its control of the evolutionarily conserved antioxidant/redox cycling and detoxification systems, collectively known as the Phase II response, in the adaptive response to DR. PMID:23505614

  7. NRF2 and the Phase II Response in Acute Stress Resistance Induced by Dietary Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher M.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) as a means to increase longevity is well-established in a number of model organisms from yeast to primates. DR also improves metabolic fitness and increases resistance to acute oxidative, carcinogenic and toxicological stressors - benefits with more immediate potential for clinical translation than increased lifespan. While the detailed mechanism of DR action remains unclear, a conceptual framework involving an adaptive, or hormetic response to the stress of nutrient/energy deprivation has been proposed. A key prediction of the hormesis hypothesis of DR is that beneficial adaptations occur in response to an increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS). These ROS may be derived either from increased mitochondrial respiration or increased xenobiotic metabolism in the case of some DR mimetics. This review will focus on the potential role of the redox-sensing transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its control of the evolutionarily conserved antioxidant/redox cycling and detoxification systems, collectively known as the Phase II response, in the adaptive response to DR. PMID:23505614

  8. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  9. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress - which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population - are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  10. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  11. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    PubMed Central

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  12. Stress and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... main types of stress: Acute stress. This is short-term stress that goes away quickly. You feel it ... to tense, and increase your pulse. In the short term, these reactions are good because they can help ...

  13. The Adaptogens Rhodiola and Schizandra Modify the Response to Immobilization Stress in Rabbits by Suppressing the Increase of Phosphorylated Stress-activated Protein Kinase, Nitric Oxide and Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Panossian, Alexander; Hambardzumyan, Marina; Hovhanissyan, Areg; Wikman, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK), the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO), cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the final treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200–300% cf basal levels) following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their antidepressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress. PMID:21901061

  14. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  15. Acute Psychological Stress Modulates the Expression of Enzymes Involved in the Kynurenine Pathway throughout Corticolimbic Circuits in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A.; Gandhi, Chaitanya P.; Hill, Matthew N.

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan is an essential dietary amino acid that is necessary for protein synthesis, but also serves as the precursor for serotonin. However, in addition to these biological functions, tryptophan also serves as a precursor for the kynurenine pathway, which has neurotoxic (quinolinic acid) and neuroprotective (kynurenic acid) metabolites. Glucocorticoid hormones and inflammatory mediators, both of which are increased by stress, have been shown to bias tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway and away from serotonin synthesis; however, to date, there is no published data regarding the effects of stress on enzymes regulating the kynurenine pathway in a regional manner throughout the brain. Herein, we examined the effects of an acute psychological stress (120 min restraint) on gene expression patterns of enzymes along the kynurenine pathway over a protracted time-course (1–24 h post-stress termination) within the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and medial prefrontal cortex. Time-dependent changes in differential enzymes along the kynurenine metabolism pathway, particularly those involved in the production of quinolinic acid, were found within the amygdala, hypothalamus, and medial prefrontal cortex, with no changes seen in the hippocampus. These regional differences acutely may provide mechanistic insight into processes that become dysregulated chronically in stress-associated disorders. PMID:26819772

  16. Comparison of centrally injected tryptophan-related substances inducing sedation in acute isolation stress-induced neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junki; Erwan, Edi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Ogino, Yumi; Shigemura, Asako; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we first focused on the function of l-tryptophan (TRP) metabolites which are synthesized in different metabolic pathways, namely, the kynurenine (KYN) pathway and serotonin (5-HT) pathway during an acute isolation stress. When l-TRP metabolites were intracerebroventricularly injected on an equimolar basis (100 nmol), 5-HT induced a sedative effect in neonatal chicks. Additionally, plasma corticosterone, dopamine, 5-HT, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations were increased in the diencephalon of the 5-HT treated group compared with other groups. Second, the two doses (400 or 800 nmol) of l- and d-TRP were compared under a corticotrophin-releasing hormone-augmented social isolation stress. When comparing the efficacy between l- and d-TRP against stress behavior, both amino acids had a similar effect and quickly suppressed distress vocalizations. Finally, d-amino acid levels in the diencephalon and telencephalon were measured but d-TRP was not found. These results indicate that l- and d-TRP induce the same effect in attenuating stress but the mode of action of TRP derivatives, namely 5-HT differs during an acute isolation stress in neonatal chick. The absence of d-TRP in the diencephalon further suggests that instead of being an endogenous factor it may play role as a pharmacological factor. PMID:25459103

  17. Pentoxifylline attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced acute lung injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Vayas, Kinal N; Cervelli, Jessica A; Malaviya, Rama; Hall, LeRoy; Massa, Christopher B; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic alkylating agent that causes damage to the respiratory tract. Evidence suggests that macrophages and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α contribute to pulmonary injury. Pentoxifylline is a TNFα inhibitor known to suppress inflammation. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of pentoxifylline to mitigate NM-induced lung injury and inflammation. Exposure of male Wistar rats (150-174 g; 8-10 weeks) to NM (0.125 mg/kg, i.t.) resulted in severe histopathological changes in the lung within 3d of exposure, along with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number and protein, indicating inflammation and alveolar-epithelial barrier dysfunction. This was associated with increases in oxidative stress proteins including lipocalin (Lcn)2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the lung, along with pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic (COX-2(+) and MMP-9(+)), and anti-inflammatory/wound repair (CD163+ and Gal-3(+)) macrophages. Treatment of rats with pentoxifylline (46.7 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3d beginning 15 min after NM significantly reduced NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress, as measured histologically and by decreases in BAL cell and protein content, and levels of HO-1 and Lcn2. Macrophages expressing COX-2 and MMP-9 also decreased after pentoxifylline, while CD163+ and Gal-3(+) macrophages increased. This was correlated with persistent upregulation of markers of wound repair including pro-surfactant protein-C and proliferating nuclear cell antigen by Type II cells. NM-induced lung injury and inflammation were associated with alterations in the elastic properties of the lung, however these were largely unaltered by pentoxifylline. These data suggest that pentoxifylline may be useful in treating acute lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by vesicants. PMID:24886962

  18. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia submitted to acute hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    M Dos Santos, Welliene; S de Brito, Túlio; de A Prado, Samuel; G de Oliveira, Camila; C De Paula, Andréia; C de Melo, Daniela; A P Ribeiro, Paula

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of diets supplemented with probiotics and different cinnamon levels (powder and essential oil) on immunological parameters of Nile tilapia after being subjected to acute stress by hypoxia. Three hundred and thirty juvenile male tilapia fish (66.08 ± 2.79 g) were distributed in 30 tanks of 100 L capacity (11/cage) with a water recirculation system. The animals were fed for 71 days with diets containing extruded cinnamon powder at different levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), cinnamon essential oil (0.05, 0.1, 0.15; 0.2%) and probiotics (0.4%), all in triplicate. At the end of the experiment, the fish (200.36 ± 19.88 g) of the different groups were subjected to stress by hypoxia. Hypoxia was achieved by capturing the animals with a net, keeping them out of the water for three minutes, and then sampling the blood 30 min after the procedure to determine the levels of cortisol, glucose, haematocrit, lysozyme, bactericidal index, total protein, and its fractions. The animals kept blood homeostasis after hypoxic stress. Diet supplementation with 0.5% cinnamon powder improved the fish immune response, since it resulted in an increase of 0.5% in γ-globulin level. Administration of 0.15% cinnamon essential oil resulted in an increase of α1 and α2-globulins, which may be reflected in increased lipid content of the carcass and the hepatosomatic index. More studies are necessary to better understand the effects of these additives for fish immunity. PMID:27142937

  19. Evaluation of Potential Oxidative Stress in Egyptian Patients with Acute Zinc Phosphide Poisoning and the Role of Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Sagah, Ghada A.; Oreby, Merfat M.; El-Gharbawy, Rehab M.; Ahmed Fathy, Amal S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate potential oxidative stress in patients with acute phosphide poisoning and the effect of vitamin C. Methods Participants were females and divided into three groups; group I: healthy volunteers group II: healthy volunteers received vitamin C, group III: patients with acute phosphide poisoning received the supportive and symptomatic treatment and group IV: patients with acute phosphide poisoning received the supportive and symptomatic treatment in addition to vitamin C. All the participants were subjected to thorough history, clinical examination, ECG and laboratory investigations were carried on collected blood and gastric lavage samples on admission. Blood samples were divided into two parts, one for measurement of routine investigations and the second part was used for evaluation of malondialdehyde and total thiol levels before and after receiving the treatment regimen. Results Most of the cases in this study were among the age group of 15–25 years, females, single, secondary school education, from rural areas and suicidal. All vital signs were within normal range and the most common complaint was vomiting and abdominal pain. All cases in this study showed normal routine investigations. The mean MDA levels after receiving treatment decreased significantly in groups II and IV. The mean total thiol levels increased significantly after receiving treatment in groups II and IV. Conclusion It can be concluded that vitamin C has a potential benefit due to its antioxidant property on zinc phosphide induced-oxidative stress in acute zinc phosphide poisoned patients. PMID:26715917

  20. Cross-sensitization between cocaine and acute restraint stress is associated with sensitized dopamine but not glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Keller, C; Martinez, S A; Esparza, M A; Bollati, F; Kalivas, P W; Cancela, L M

    2013-03-01

    Repeated administration of psychostimulant drugs or stress can elicit a sensitized response to the stimulating and reinforcing properties of the drug. Here we explore the mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) whereby an acute restraint stress augments the acute locomotor response to cocaine. This was accomplished by a combination of behavioral pharmacology, microdialysis measures of extracellular dopamine and glutamate, and Western blotting for GluR1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor (AMPAR). A single exposure to restraint stress 3 weeks before testing revealed that enduring locomotor sensitization to cocaine was paralleled by an increase in extracellular dopamine in the core, but not the shell subcompartment, of the NAc. Wistar rats pre-exposed to acute stress showed increased basal levels of glutamate in the core, but the increase in glutamate by acute cocaine was blunted. The alterations in extracellular glutamate seem to be relevant, as blocking AMPAR by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione microinjection into the core prevented both the behavioral cross-sensitization and the augmented increase in cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine. Further implicating glutamate, the locomotor response to AMPAR stimulation in the core was potentiated, but not in the shell of pre-stressed animals, and this was accompanied by an increase in NAc GluR1 surface expression. This study provides evidence that the long-term expression of restraint stress-induced behavioral cross-sensitization to cocaine recapitulates some mechanisms thought to underpin the sensitization induced by daily cocaine administration, and shows that long-term neurobiological changes induced in the NAc by acute stress are consequential in the expression of cross-sensitization to cocaine. PMID:23360446

  1. Role for leptin in promoting glucose mobilization during acute hyperosmotic stress in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Baltzegar, David A; Reading, Benjamin J; Douros, Jonathon D; Borski, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    Osmoregulation is critical for survival in all vertebrates, yet the endocrine regulation of this metabolically expensive process is not fully understood. Specifically, the function of leptin in the regulation of energy expenditure in fishes, and among ectotherms, in general, remains unresolved. In this study, we examined the effects of acute salinity transfer (72  h) and the effects of leptin and cortisol on plasma metabolites and hepatic energy reserves in the euryhaline fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer to 2/3 seawater (23  ppt) significantly increased plasma glucose, amino acid, and lactate levels relative to those in the control fish. Plasma glucose levels were positively correlated with amino acid levels (R2=0.614), but not with lactate levels. The mRNA expression of liver leptin A (lepa), leptin receptor (lepr), and hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipases (hsl and lpl) as well as triglyceride content increased during salinity transfer, but plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. Both leptin and cortisol significantly increased plasma glucose levels in vivo, but only leptin decreased liver glycogen levels. Leptin decreased the expression of liver hsl and lpl mRNAs, whereas cortisol significantly increased the expression of these lipases. These findings suggest that hepatic glucose mobilization into the blood following an acute salinity challenge involves both glycogenolysis, induced by leptin, and subsequent gluconeogenesis of free amino acids. This is the first study to report that teleost leptin A has actions that are functionally distinct from those described in mammals acting as a potent hyperglycemic factor during osmotic stress, possibly in synergism with cortisol. These results suggest that the function of leptin may have diverged during the evolution of vertebrates, possibly reflecting differences in metabolic regulation between poikilotherms and homeotherms. PMID:24194509

  2. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Barber, Beth A; Kohl, Krista L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2014-03-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01) and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, reexperiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), reexperiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's ρ = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery. PMID:24337685

  3. Changes in apoptotic factors in hypothalamus and hippocampus after acute and subchronic stress induction during conditioned place preference paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Haghparast, Abbas; Fatahi, Zahra; Alamdary, Shabnam Zeighamy; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamus (HYP) and hippocampus (HIP) are important regions involved in stress responses. These areas are also associated with reward processing. In this study, the effects of acute and subchronic stress on the changes in apoptotic factors (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activation and PARP degradation) in the HYP and HIP during conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated supergroups. Each supergroup contained control, acute stress (AS) and subchronic stress (SS) groups. In all groups, CPP paradigm was done and thereinafter alterations of apoptotic factors were measured by western blot. The results revealed that in the HYP, all mentioned factors increased significantly in saline- or morphine-treated animals during AS and SS. On the other hand, in the HIP, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in saline-treated animals increased significantly during AS and SS, while in morphine-treated animals this ratio did not have any significant alteration during AS and was decreased during SS compared with morphine-control group. Caspase-3 and PARP increased during AS and SS in saline- or morphine-treated animals. For example, caspase-3 increased during AS and SS in morphine-treated animals by 2.4 folds and PARP (89 KDa) increased by 3.1 and 3.5 folds, respectively. Interestingly, the increase of apoptotic factors in morphine-treated animals was more considerable than that of saline-treated animals. These results strongly implied that AS and SS trigger apoptotic events in the HYP and HIP of saline- and/or morphine-treated animals as well as morphine reinforces the effect of stress on the induction of apoptosis. PMID:27385959

  4. Acute exercise increases fibroblast growth factor 21 in metabolic organs and circulation.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Yuko; Aoi, Wataru; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21, a metabolic regulator, plays roles in lipolysis and glucose uptake in adipose tissues and skeletal muscles. Its expression in skeletal muscle is upregulated upon activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, which is induced by exercise and muscle contraction. We examined the increase of fibroblast growth factor 21 after acute exercise in metabolic organs, especially skeletal muscles and circulation. Participants exercised on bicycle ergometers for 60 min at 75% of their V˙O2max. Venous blood samples were taken before exercise and immediately after exercise. In an animal study, male ICR mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Mice in the exercise group performed treadmill exercises at 30 m min(-1) for 60 min. Shortly thereafter, blood, liver, and skeletal muscle samples were taken from mice. Acute exercise induced the increase of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 in both humans and mice, and increased fibroblast growth factor 21 expression in the skeletal muscles and the liver of mice. Acute exercise activated Akt in mice skeletal muscle. Acute exercise increases fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations in both serum and metabolic organs. Moreover, results show that acute exercise increased the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in skeletal muscle, accompanied by the phosphorylation of Akt in mice. PMID:27335433

  5. Soluble CD163 is increased in patients with acute pancreatitis independent of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Thomas; Brünnler, Tanja; Hamer, Okka W; Schmid, Karin; Voelk, Markus; Herfarth, Hans; Buechler, Christa

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is specifically released from macrophages and systemic levels are increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, sCD163 was measured in serum of 50 patients with acute pancreatitis to find out possible associations with disease activity. Admission levels of systemic sCD163 were nearly three-fold higher in patients with acute pancreatitis compared to controls. In patients sCD163 did not correlate with C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as established markers of inflammation. Levels were not associated with disease severity assessed by the Schroeder score, Balthazar score, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (Apache) II score and peripancreatic necrosis score. Soluble CD163 was not related to complications of acute pancreatitis. These data show that serum sCD163 is increased in acute pancreatitis indicating activation of macrophages but is not associated with disease severity and outcome. PMID:26209500

  6. Effects of acute handling stress on cerebral monoaminergic neurotransmitters in juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Weber, R A; Pérez Maceira, J J; Aldegunde, M J; Peleteiro, J B; García Martín, L O; Aldegunde, M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were subjected for short periods to two different types of handling-related stress: air exposure stress and net handling stress. The S. senegalensis were sacrificed 2 and 24 h after the stress events and the levels of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and their respective major metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were measured in three brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and optic tectum) and compared with those in control, non-stressed S. senegalensis. Neither type of stress caused any significant alteration of serotoninergic activity (5-HIAA:5-HT ratio) or NA levels. Dopaminergic activity (DOPAC:DA ratio) was lower in stressed fish in all of the brain regions studied. For both air exposure stress and net handling stress, DA levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control S. senegalensis. In addition, the higher DA levels after net handling stress were always significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed after acute air exposure stress, except in the telencephalon after 24 h. The significantly lower DOPAC:DA ratio (P < 0.05) in all of the brain regions studied was only observed in response to net handling stress. PMID:26387448

  7. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  8. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  9. Chronic angiotensin-II treatment potentiates HR slowing in Sprague-Dawley rat during acute behavioral stress.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Richard E; Speakman, Richard O; Brown, David R; Cassis, Lisa A; Silcox, Dennis L; Anigbogu, Chikodi N; Randall, David C

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effect of 2-week infusion of angiotensin-II (Ang-II; 175 ng/kg/min) via minipump in rats (n=7) upon the mean arterial blood pressure (mBP) and heart rate (HR) response to an acute stress as compared to rats infused with saline (n=7). The acute stress was produced by a classical aversive conditioning paradigm: a 15s tone (CS+) followed by a half second tail shock. Baseline mBP in Ang-II infused rats (167.7±21.3 mm Hg; mean±SD) significantly exceeded that of controls (127.6±13.5 mm Hg). Conversely, baseline HR in the Ang-II infused rats (348±33) was significantly lower than controls (384±19 bpm). The magnitude of the mBP increase during CS+ did not differ between groups, but the HR slowing during CS+ in the Ang-II infused rats (-13.2±8.9 bpm) was significantly greater than that seen in controls (-4.2±5.5 bpm). This augmented bradycardia may be inferentially attributed to an accentuated increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity during CS+ in the Ang-II infused rats. The mBP increased above baseline immediately post-shock delivery in controls, but fell in the Ang-II infused rats, perhaps because of a 'ceiling effect' in total vascular resistance. This classical conditioning model of 'acute stress' differs from most stress paradigms in rats in yielding a HR slowing concomitant with a pressor response, and this slowing is potentiated by Ang-II. PMID:23317537

  10. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress. PMID:26965527

  11. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  12. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  13. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  14. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  15. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  16. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  17. [Ischemic stroke as reaction to an acute stressful event].

    PubMed

    Ibrahimagić, Omer C; Sinanović, Osman; Cickusić, Amra; Smajlović, Dzevdet

    2005-01-01

    The period following ischemic stroke can be considered as a reaction to a stressful event. Changes in cortisol secretion are one of the indicators of stress reaction. The aim of the study was to determine morning serum levels of cortisol in stroke patients within 48 hours and 15 days of ischemic stroke onset. Study group included 40 patients, 20 of them were females, mean age 65.3 +/- 10.3 years. The patients did not receive any corticosteroid agents or spironolactone, and did not suffer from Cushing's or Addison's syndrome. Ischemic stroke was verified by computed tomography of the brain. The fluorometric method with DELFIA Cortisol immunoassay was used to determine morning serum cortisol levels. Reference values of the measured hormone were 201-681 nmol/l. The mean level of serum cortisol within 48 hours of stroke was 560.9 +/- 318.9 nmol/l, and on day 15 it was 426.2 +/- 159.3 nmol/l, i.e. significantly lower (p < 0.02). On the first measurement, the level of serum cortisol was elevated in 32%, and on the second measurement in only 7.5% patients, which was also significantly lower (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the stress reaction in ischemic stroke patients was more pronounced within the first 48 hours of stroke onset. Judging from the morning cortisol levels, the reaction to stress was considerably less pronounced 15 days after stroke onset. PMID:15875466

  18. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  19. Blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress: a summary of results from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study is a large population based study of late middle aged, overall healthy men and women whose health has been followed from 50 to 65years of age. In a sample of 725 cohort members, an extensive psychological stress protocol was performed during which cardiovascular and cortisol responses were measured. In line with many previous studies, results showed that increased blood pressure responsiveness to the stress protocol was associated with an increased risk for hypertension 5years later. However, decreased cardiovascular and/or cortisol stress reactivity were associated with obesity and the risk of becoming obese, symptoms of depression and anxiety, a poor self-reported health, poor lung function, and poor cognitive function (all p for statistical tests<0.05). These associations generally survived adjustment for a range of potential confounders, including resting cardiovascular and cortisol activity, commitment to the stress tasks, sex, age, smoking and use of medication. Results from these studies agree with recent evidence that low biological reactivity to acute psychological stress may not always be beneficial for health but instead seems to be a marker for a range of negative health outcomes. Future studies have to point out whether low stress reactivity precedes or follows these negative health outcomes. PMID:23046585

  20. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870

  1. Early life stress increases stress vulnerability through BDNF gene epigenetic changes in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Ly, Nguyen Ngoc; Lee, Chan Hong; Cho, Hye Yeon; Choi, Cheol Min; Nhu, Le Hoa; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Yoon, Bong June; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) exerts long-lasting epigenetic influences on the brain and makes an individual susceptible to later depression. It is poorly understood whether ELS and subsequent adult chronic stress modulate epigenetic mechanisms. We examined the epigenetic mechanisms of the BDNF gene in the hippocampus, which may underlie stress vulnerability to postnatal maternal separation (MS) and adult restraint stress (RS). Rat pups were separated from their dams (3 h/day from P1-P21). When the pups reached adulthood (8 weeks old), we introduced RS (2 h/day for 3 weeks) followed by escitalopram treatment. We showed that both the MS and RS groups expressed reduced levels of total and exon IV BDNF mRNA. Furthermore, RS potentiated MS-induced decreases in these expression levels. Similarly, both the MS and RS groups showed decreased levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at BDNF promoter IV, and RS exacerbated MS-induced decreases of H3 and H4 acetylation. Both the MS and RS groups had increased MeCP2 levels at BDNF promoter IV, as well as increased HDAC5 mRNA, and the combination of MS and RS exerted a greater effect on these parameters than did RS alone. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the MS + RS group was significantly higher than that of the RS group. Additionally, chronic escitalopram treatment recovered these alterations. Our results suggest that postnatal MS and subsequent adult RS modulate epigenetic changes in the BDNF gene, and that these changes may be related to behavioral phenotype. These epigenetic mechanisms are involved in escitalopram action. PMID:26877199

  2. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  3. Oxidative stress markers in laparoscopic vs. open appendectomy for acute appendicitis: A double-blind randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Aktimur, Recep; Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Deveci, Koksal; Atabey, Mustafa; Topcu, Omer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a complicated process, which was defined as an increase in prooxidants and decrease in antioxidants caused by various mechanisms, including inflammation and surgical trauma. The association between acute appendicitis and oxidative stress has been showed in previous studies. However, comparison of oxidative stress in laparoscopic or open appendectomy (OA) has not been established. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed as acute appendicitis between October 2012 and January 2013 were randomized to open (OA, n = 50) and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA, n = 50). Blood samples for oxidative stress markers (total oxidant status [TOS] and total antioxidant status [TAS]), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC’s) were collected just before the surgery and 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: There were no differences in preoperative values of WBC and CRP between LA and OA groups (P = 0.523 and 0.424), however, in postoperative 24th h, CRP was reduced in LA group (P = 0.031). There were no differences in preoperative levels of TOS, TAS, and oxidative stress index (OSI) between LA and OA groups. In the postoperative 24th h, TOS and OSI were found to be significantly higher in OA group when compared to LA group (P = 0.017 and 0.002) whereas no difference was detected in TAS level in the postoperative 24th h (P = 0.172). CONCLUSIONS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial provides evidence that LA for uncomplicated appendicitis is associated with significantly lower oxidative stress compared with OA. Some of the advantages of LA may be attributed to the significant reduction of oxidative stress in these patients. PMID:27073307

  4. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression. PMID:25680935

  5. Within-day variation and effect of acute stress on plasma and milk cortisol in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Restrepo, I; Muelas, R; Bueso-Ródenas, J; Roca, A; Díaz, J R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of acute stress on cortisol concentration in goat milk (milk cortisol; MC) and its suitability for stress assessment. Additional variables studied were plasma cortisol (PC), blood glucose (BG), and somatic cell count (SCC). Ten goats free of mastitis at 2 mo of lactation were divided into 2 groups. One group of animals was exposed to acute stress (visual and auditory, but not physical, contact with a barking dog for 3 min) immediately before the 1000 h sampling (STR), and the other group was considered as the control group, not exposed to acute stress (CON). The animals were gradually accustomed to the sampling schedule for 1 wk before the stress treatment (pre-experimental period). The variables PC, MC, BG, SCC, and milk composition (fat, lactose, whey protein, true protein, and casein) were recorded at 0600, 1000, 1130, 1400, 1800, 2200, and 0200 h. Milk variables were recorded in both glands separately. The right gland (n=10) was completely milked and the left gland (n=10) was milked to 30 mL at every sampling except at 1000 h, when complete milking was carried out on both glands. Variables were analyzed by using a linear mixed model. Both PC and MC concentrations varied throughout the day, with values being highest in the morning. Higher PC levels were recorded in the STR group immediately after treatment compared with CON (36.9 vs 16.3 ng/mL). For MC, differences between treatments were noted 1.5h after STR treatment (1.27 vs 0.25 ng/mL). Blood glucose increased immediately after treatment in STR animals, being different from CON until 1.5h after treatment sampling (101 vs. 58 mg/dL). The SCC was not increased by STR treatment, showing higher values in the morning and afternoon compared with evening and night (5.6±0.13 to 5.87±0.13 log10 SCC). The STR treatment had no significant effect on milk composition, and overall milk yield of a complete day after stress stimulus of both groups was similar (STR: 2,067

  6. Endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral effects of and recovery from acute stress in a free-ranging bird.

    PubMed

    Deviche, Pierre; Bittner, Stephanie; Davies, Scott; Valle, Shelley; Gao, Sisi; Carpentier, Elodie

    2016-08-01

    Acute stress in vertebrates generally stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often associated with multiple metabolic changes, such as increased gluconeogenesis, and with behavioral alterations. Little information is available, especially in free-ranging organisms, on the duration of these reversible effects once animals are no longer exposed to the stressor. To investigate this question, we exposed free-ranging adult male Rufous-winged Sparrows, Peucaea carpalis, in breeding condition to a standard protocol consisting of a social challenge (conspecific song playback) followed with capture and restraint for 30min, after which birds were released on site. Capture and restraint increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) and decreased plasma testosterone (T), glucose (GLU), and uric acid (UA). In birds that we recaptured the next day after exposure to conspecific song playback, plasma CORT and UA levels no longer differed from levels immediately after capture the preceding day. However, plasma T was similar to that measured after stress exposure the preceding day, and plasma GLU was markedly elevated. Thus, exposure to social challenge and acute stress resulted in persistent (⩾24h) parameter-specific effects. In recaptured sparrows, the territorial aggressive response to conspecific song playback, as measured by song rate and the number of flights over the song-broadcasting speakers, did not, however, differ between the first capture and the recapture, suggesting no proximate functional association between plasma T and conspecific territorial aggression. The study is the first in free-ranging birds to report the endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral recovery from the effects of combined social challenge and acute stress. PMID:27311790

  7. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  8. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  9. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. SUMMARY Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on

  10. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  11. S-Nitroso-Proteome in Poplar Leaves in Response to Acute Ozone Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vanzo, Elisa; Ghirardo, Andrea; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Lindermayr, Christian; Heller, Werner; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Durner, Jörg; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Protein S-nitrosylation, the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to protein cysteine residues, is one of the main mechanisms of NO signaling in plant and animal cells. Using a combination of the biotin switch assay and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis, we revealed the S-nitroso-proteome of the woody model plant Populus x canescens. Under normal conditions, constitutively S-nitrosylated proteins in poplar leaves and calli comprise all aspects of primary and secondary metabolism. Acute ozone fumigation was applied to elicit ROS-mediated changes of the S-nitroso-proteome. This treatment changed the total nitrite and nitrosothiol contents of poplar leaves and affected the homeostasis of 32 S-nitrosylated proteins. Multivariate data analysis revealed that ozone exposure negatively affected the S-nitrosylation status of leaf proteins: 23 proteins were de-nitrosylated and 9 proteins had increased S-nitrosylation content compared to the control. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (log2[ozone/control] = −3.6) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (−3.4), key enzymes catalyzing important steps in the phenylpropanoid and subsequent lignin biosynthetic pathways, respectively, were de-nitrosylated upon ozone stress. Measuring the in vivo and in vitro phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity indicated that the increase of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in response to acute ozone is partly regulated by de-nitrosylation, which might favor a higher metabolic flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway within minutes after ozone exposure. PMID:25192423

  12. Changes in clinical and instrumental vestibular parameters following acute exposition to auditory stress.

    PubMed

    Cassandro, E; Chiarella, G; Catalano, M; Gallo, L V; Marcelli, V; Nicastri, M; Petrolo, C

    2003-08-01

    Besides Tullio's phenomenon, resulting from anatomic changes in the labyrinth, a hypersensitivity to acoustic stimuli of the saccular structures appears to be the underlying cause of the vestibular responses detected in some patients. In order to evaluate the incidence of vestibular symptoms triggered by acute exposure to auditory stress (disco music), 40 subjects aged between 18 and 26 years, with no audiological and vestibular disorders, were submitted to otoneurologic tests. Subjects were exposed to disco music [intensity 128 dB (C)], for 3 hours. Tests have been carried out before and immediately after exposure. Canalar and macular functions have been evaluated using vestibular investigation techniques and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. When compared to baseline data, post-exposure test results did not reveal any canalar damage. Pre- and post-exposure recordings of the vestibular-oculomotor reflex threshold have shown no significant changes. Conversely, post-stimulus recordings have shown a significant increase in the amplitude of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential response, thus indicating a possible irritative involvement of the macular receptor. This result suggests a direct action upon the receptor by acoustic stimulation which could, therefore, be the underlying cause of vestibular symptoms reported by patients following exposure to sufficiently intense acoustic stimuli. Prior to this study. a questionnaire concerning the relationship between habitual disco visiting and audio-vestibular symptoms has been completed by 310 students at the University of Catanzaro. This survey revealed a significant incidence of vestibular symptoms due to acoustic stress (Tullio's phenomenon) which led us to hypothesise that balance disorders due to auditory stress are much more frequent than commonly held, particularly since, in many cases, diagnoses is unknown or not easy due to the difficult procedures by which these conditions are diagnosed. PMID:15046413

  13. Acute exposure to pure cylindrospermopsin results in oxidative stress and pathological alterations in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to drinking water safety, due to its ubiquity. This cyanotoxin has been found to cause toxic effects in mammals, and although fish could be in contact with this toxin, acute toxicity studies on fish are nonexistent. This is the first study showing that single doses of CYN pure standard (200 or 400 μg CYN/kg fish bw) by oral route (gavage) generate histopathological effects in fish (Tilapia-Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to the toxin under laboratory condition. Among the morphological changes, disorganized parenchymal architecture in the liver, dilated Bowman's space in the kidney, fibrolysis in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the intestines, and hemorrhages in the gills, were observed. Moreover, some oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver and kidney of tilapias were altered. Thus, CYN exposure induced increased protein oxidation products in both organs, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased with the kidney being the most affected organ, and decreased GSH contents were also detected in both organs, at the higher dose assayed. PMID:22331699

  14. Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Eriksson, Nils-Gustaf; Hultman, Christina M; Lundin, Tom

    2011-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed to examine posttraumatic stress in survivors 14 years after a ferry disaster, and estimate short- and long-term changes in stress associated with traumatic bereavement and acute dissociation. There were 852 people who perished in the disaster, 137 survived. The 51 Swedish survivors were surveyed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) at 3 months, 1, 3, and 14 years (response rates 82%, 65%, 51%, and 69%). Symptoms decreased from 3 months to 1 year; no change was found thereafter. After 14 years, 27% reported significant symptoms. Traumatic bereavement, but not acute dissociation, was associated with long-term symptom elevation. Chronic posttraumatic stress can persist in a minority of survivors, and traumatic bereavement appears to hinder recovery. PMID:21442665

  15. Effects of condtioning channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to acute low water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological stress and injury are the primary reasons for increased outbreak of diseases in catfish. Since stress cannot be eliminated from culture practices entirely, researchers are investigating ways to decrease the stress response in order to increase survival to diseases. Booth and Peterson (...

  16. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  17. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  18. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves Extract on Anxiety- and Depressive-like Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Mice after Acute Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Saxena, Rahul; Dashore, Jagrati; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Rathore, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as “beet root” possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE) of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6) were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o.) for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05) with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg). Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. SUMMARY Stress plays major role in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressionARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior through oxidative damage in miceBVEE pretreatment reversed ARS-induced behavioral changes

  19. Effects of Acute Restraint Stress, Prolonged Captivity Stress and Transdermal Corticosterone Application on Immunocompetence and Plasma Levels of Corticosterone on the Cururu Toad (Rhinella icterica)

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Titon Jr., Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids modulate immunocompetence in complex ways with both immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive effects in vertebrates exposed to different stressors. Such bimodal effects have been associated with variation in duration and intensity of the stress response. Given that natural populations have been exposed to a multitude of stressors, a better understanding of the functional association between duration and intensity of the stress response, the resulting changes in glucocorticoid plasma levels and their impact on different aspects of immunocompetence emerges as a cornerstone for vertebrate conservation strategies. We investigated the effects of a restraint challenge (with and without movement restriction), long-term captivity, and transdermal corticosterone application on plasma levels of corticosterone (hereinafter referred to as CORT) and different parameters of innate immunocompetence in the male cururu toads (Rhinella icterica). We show that for R. icterica restraint for 24h proved to be a stressful condition, increasing CORT by 3-fold without consistent immunological changes. However, the application of a more intense stressor (restraint with movement restriction), for the same period, potentiated this response resulting in a 9-fold increase in CORT, associated with increase Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N:L) and a lower bacterial killing ability (BKA). Transdermal application of corticosterone efficiently mimics repeated acute stress response events, without changing the immune parameters even after 13 days of treatment. Interestingly, long-term captivity did not mitigate the stress response, since the toads maintained 3-fold increased CORT even after 3 months under these conditions. Moreover, long-term captivity in the same condition increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and generated an even greater decrease in BKA, suggesting that consequences of the stress response can be aggravated by time in captivity. PMID:25831055

  20. Dietary-induced binge eating increases prefrontal cortex neural activation to restraint stress and increases binge food consumption following chronic guanfacine.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Walters, Amy L; Verpeut, Jessica L; Caverly, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30 min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6 weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1 h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2 weeks; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5 mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30 min; twice a week; 8 weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating. PMID:25158105

  1. Novel thiazolidinedione mitoNEET ligand-1 acutely improves cardiac stem cell survival under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Logan, Suzanna J; Yin, Liya; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Enrick, Molly K; Stevanov, Kelly M; Carroll, Richard T; Ohanyan, Vahagn A; Kolz, Christopher L; Chilian, William M

    2015-03-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death worldwide, and regenerative therapies through exogenous stem cell delivery hold promising potential. One limitation of such therapies is the vulnerability of stem cells to the oxidative environment associated with IHD. Accordingly, manipulation of stem cell mitochondrial metabolism may be an effective strategy to improve survival of stem cells under oxidative stress. MitoNEET is a redox-sensitive, mitochondrial target of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and influences cellular oxidative capacity. Pharmacological targeting of mitoNEET with the novel TZD, mitoNEET Ligand-1 (NL-1), improved cardiac stem cell (CSC) survival compared to vehicle (0.1% DMSO) during in vitro oxidative stress (H2O2). 10 μM NL-1 also reduced CSC maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) compared to vehicle. Following treatment with dexamethasone, CSC maximal OCR increased compared to baseline, but NL-1 prevented this effect. Smooth muscle α-actin expression increased significantly in CSC following differentiation compared to baseline, irrespective of NL-1 treatment. When CSCs were treated with glucose oxidase for 7 days, NL-1 significantly improved cell survival compared to vehicle (trypan blue exclusion). NL-1 treatment of cells isolated from mitoNEET knockout mice did not increase CSC survival with H2O2 treatment. Following intramyocardial injection of CSCs into Zucker obese fatty rats, NL-1 significantly improved CSC survival after 24 h, but not after 10 days. These data suggest that pharmacological targeting of mitoNEET with TZDs may acutely protect stem cells following transplantation into an oxidative environment. Continued treatment or manipulation of mitochondrial metabolism may be necessary to produce long-term benefits related to stem cell therapies. PMID:25725808

  2. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2α was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1α phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2α dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2α dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  3. Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Modulate Autonomic Responses but Not Behavioral Consequences Associated to Acute Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scopinho, América A.; Lisboa, Sabrina F. S.; Guimarães, Francisco S.; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.; Joca, Sâmia R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH) and the ventral (VH) poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP), intense heart rate (HR) increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM), an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspecific synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM) into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the first time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress. PMID:24147071

  4. Dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production in rats after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S; Alekseeva, I V; Koplik, E V; Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Gapparov, M M G

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production were studied in rats demonstrating passive and active behavior in the open field test at different time after exposure to acute emotional stress caused by 12-h immobilization during dark hours. The most pronounced changes in behavior and heat production followed by disturbances in circadian rhythms of these parameters were detected within the first 2 days after stress. In contrast to behaviorally active rats, the most significant decrease in locomotor activity and heat production of passive animals subjected to emotional stress was observed during dark hours. Circadian rhythms of behavior and heat production in rats tended to recover on day 3 after immobilization stress. These data illustrate the specificity of metabolic and behavioral changes reflecting the shift of endogenous biological rhythms in individuals with different prognostic resistance to stress at different terms after exposure to negative emotiogenic stimuli. PMID:24906959

  5. Chronic Oxidative Stress Increases Growth and Tumorigenic Potential of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S.; Singh, Kamaleshwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposures to elevated levels of either endogenous estrogen or environmental estrogenic chemicals are associated with breast cancer development and progression. These natural or synthetic estrogens are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased ROS has been implicated in both cellular apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Though there are several studies on direct involvement of ROS in cellular apoptosis using short-term exposure model, there is no experimental evidence to directly implicate chronic exposure to ROS in increased growth and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic oxidative stress on growth, survival and tumorigenic potential of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of ROS at doses of 25 µM and 250 µM for acute (24 hours) and chronic period (3 months) and their effects on cell growth/survival and tumorigenic potential were evaluated. The results of cell count, MTT and cell cycle analysis showed that while acute exposure inhibits the growth of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, the chronic exposure to H2O2-induced ROS leads to increased cell growth and survival of MCF-7 cells. This was further confirmed by gene expression analysis of cell cycle and cell survival related genes. Significant increase in number of soft agar colonies, up-regulation of pro-metastatic genes VEGF, WNT1 and CD44, whereas down-regulation of anti-metastatic gene E-Cadherin in H2O2 treated MCF-7 cells observed in this study further suggests that persistent exposure to oxidative stress increases tumorigenic and metastatic potential of MCF-7 cells. Since many chemotherapeutic drugs are known to induce their cytotoxicity by increasing ROS levels, the results of this study are also highly significant in understanding the mechanism for adaptation to ROS-induced toxicity leading to acquired

  6. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Child Acute Stress Measures in Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Montaño, Zorash; Kohser, Kristen L.; Cuadra, Anai; Muñoz, Cynthia; Armstrong, F. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers need tools for accurate early assessment of children’s acute stress reactions and acute stress disorder (ASD). There is a particular need for independently validated Spanish-language measures. The current study reports on 2 measures of child acute stress (a self-report checklist and a semi-structured interview), describing the development of the Spanish version of each measure and psychometric evaluation of both the Spanish and English versions. Children between the ages of 8 to 17 years who had experienced a recent traumatic event completed study measures in Spanish (n = 225) or in English (n = 254). Results provide support for reliability (internal consistency of the measures in both languages ranges from .83 to .89; cross-language reliability of the checklist is .93) and for convergent validity (with later PTSD symptoms, and with concurrent anxiety symptoms). Comparing checklist and interview results revealed a strong association between severity scores within the Spanish and English samples. Checklist-interview differences in evaluating the presence of ASD appear to be linked to different content coverage for dissociation symptoms. Future studies should further assess the impact of differing assessment modes, content coverage, and the use of these measures in children with diverse types of acute trauma exposure in English- and Spanish-speaking children. PMID:23371337

  7. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D.; Paz, M.L.; Vanasco, V.; Tasat, D.; González Maglio, D.H.; and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  8. Modulated expression and enzymatic activities of Darkbarbel catfish, Pelteobagrus vachelli for oxidative stress induced by acute hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guosong; Mao, Jianqiang; Liang, Fenfei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Cheng; Yin, Shaowu; Wang, Li; Tang, Zhonglin; Chen, Shuqiao

    2016-05-01

    Large changes in oxygen availability in aquatic environments, ranging from anoxia through to hyperoxia, can lead to corresponding wide variation in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fish with aquatic respiration. In order to evaluate the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxidative stress in fish, the mRNA and protein expression of SODs (Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) as well as indices (CP, LPO and MDA) and enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST) were analyzed in liver and brain tissues of Pelteobagrus vachelli. Predominant expression of PvSOD2 was detected in heart, brain, and liver. In contrast, PvSOD1 was highly expressed in liver. Based on the expression patterns of above parameters, we inferred that brain tissue of P. vachelli under 0.7 mg/L degree of acute hypoxia condition could experience hypometabolic states or no suffering stress, but brain tissue has effective mechanisms to minimize or prevent oxidative stress during the transition from hypoxia to reoxygenation. Our results also demonstrated an increased expression of SODs and enzymatic activities for oxidative stress in liver under hypoxic conditions, which supports the hypothesis that anticipatory preparation takes place in order to deal with the encountered oxidative stress during the recovery from hypoxia as proposed by M. Hermes-Lima. Therefore, this study will provide a clue to better understand the action mode of antioxidant genes and enzymes under oxidative stress in fish. PMID:26945243

  9. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-08-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases vulnerability to alcoholism and anxiety disorders during adulthood. Similarly, rats reared in social isolation (SI) during adolescence exhibit augmented ethanol intake and anxiety-like behaviors compared with group housed (GH) rats. Prior studies suggest that disruption of dopamine (DA) signaling contributes to SI-associated behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not fully understood. Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have an important role in regulating mesolimbic DA signaling, and other kinds of stressors have been shown to augment KOR function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SI-induced increases in KOR function contribute to the dysregulation of NAc DA and the escalation in ethanol intake associated with SI. Our ex vivo voltammetry experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 on DA release were significantly enhanced in the NAc core and shell of SI rats. Dynorphin levels in NAc tissue were observed to be lower in SI rats. Microdialysis in freely moving rats revealed that SI was also associated with reduced baseline DA levels, and pretreatment with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) increased DA levels selectively in SI subjects. Acute ethanol elevated DA in SI and GH rats and nor-BNI pretreatment augmented this effect in SI subjects, while having no effect on ethanol-stimulated DA release in GH rats. Together, these data suggest that KORs may have increased responsiveness following SI, which could lead to hypodopaminergia and contribute to an increased drive to consume ethanol. Indeed, SI rats exhibited greater ethanol intake and preference and KOR blockade selectively attenuated ethanol intake in SI rats. Collectively, the findings that nor-BNI reversed SI-mediated hypodopaminergic state and escalated ethanol intake suggest that KOR antagonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, particularly

  10. Hyperglycemia during induction therapy is associated with increased infectious complications in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic adult ALL patients have shorter remissions, more infections, and increased mortality. No corresponding data are available in children. We hypothesized that children with ALL who become hypergl...

  11. Adaptation of endoplasmic reticulum exit sites to acute and chronic increases in cargo load

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Hesso; Weiss, Matthias; Tani, Katsuko; Kaufman, Randal J; Hauri, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The biogenesis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites (ERES) involves the formation of phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate (PI4) and Sec16, but it is entirely unknown how ERES adapt to variations in cargo load. Here, we studied acute and chronic adaptive responses of ERES to an increase in cargo load for ER export. The acute response (within minutes) to increased cargo load stimulated ERES fusion events, leading to larger but less ERES. Silencing either PI4-kinase IIIα (PI4K-IIIα) or Sec16 inhibited the acute response. Overexpression of secretory cargo for 24 h induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), upregulated COPII, and the cells formed more ERES. This chronic response was insensitive to silencing PI4K-IIIα, but was abrogated by silencing Sec16. The UPR was required as the chronic response was absent in cells lacking inositol-requiring protein 1. Mathematical model simulations further support the notion that increasing ERES number together with COPII levels is an efficient way to enhance the secretory flux. These results indicate that chronic and acute increases in cargo load are handled differentially by ERES and are regulated by different factors. PMID:18650939

  12. Attenuated Stress Response to Acute Restraint and Forced Swimming Stress in Arginine Vasopressin 1b Receptor Subtype (Avpr1b) Receptor Knockout Mice and Wild-Type Mice Treated with a Novel Avpr1b Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Roper, J A; Craighead, M; O’Carroll, A-M; Lolait, S J

    2010-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesised in the parvocellular region of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and released into the pituitary portal vessels acts on the 1b receptor subtype (Avpr1b) present in anterior pituitary corticotrophs to modulate the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is considered the major drive behind ACTH release; however, its action is augmented synergistically by AVP. To determine the extent of vasopressinergic influence in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint and forced swimming stress, we compared the stress hormone levels [plasma ACTH in both stressors and corticosterone (CORT) in restraint stress only] following acute stress in mutant Avpr1b knockout (KO) mice compared to their wild-type controls following the administration of a novel Avpr1b antagonist. Restraint and forced swimming stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH were significantly diminished in mice lacking a functional Avpr1b and in wild-type mice that had been pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. A corresponding decrease in plasma CORT levels was also observed in acute restraint-stressed knockout male mice, and in Avpr1b-antagonist-treated male wild-type mice. By contrast, plasma CORT levels were not reduced in acutely restraint-stressed female knockout animals, or in female wild-type animals pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. These results demonstrate that pharmacological antagonism or inactivation of Avpr1b causes a reduction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response, particularly ACTH, to acute restraint and forced swimming stress, and show that Avpr1b knockout mice constitute a model by which to study the contribution of Avpr1b to the HPA axis response to acute stressors. PMID:20846299

  13. A comparison of single and multiple stressor protocols to assess acute stress in a coastal shark species, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae.

    PubMed

    Hoffmayer, Eric R; Hendon, Jill M; Parsons, Glenn R; Driggers, William B; Campbell, Matthew D

    2015-10-01

    Elasmobranch stress responses are traditionally measured in the field by either singly or serially sampling an animal after a physiologically stressful event. Although capture and handling techniques are effective at inducing a stress response, differences in protocols could affect the degree of stress experienced by an individual, making meaningful comparisons between the protocols difficult, if not impossible. This study acutely stressed Atlantic sharpnose sharks, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, by standardized capture (rod and reel) and handling methods and implemented either a single or serial blood sampling protocol to monitor four indicators of the secondary stress response. Single-sampled sharks were hooked and allowed to swim around the boat until retrieved for a blood sample at either 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 min post-hooking. Serially sampled sharks were retrieved, phlebotomized, released while still hooked, and subsequently resampled at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals post-hooking. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit, and plasma glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels. Although both single and serial sampling protocols resulted in an increase in glucose, no significant difference in glucose level was found between protocols. Serially sampled sharks exhibited cumulatively heightened levels for lactate and osmolality at all time intervals when compared to single-sampled animals at the same time. Maximal concentration differences of 217.5, 9.8, and 41.6 % were reported for lactate, osmolality, and glucose levels, respectively. Hematocrit increased significantly over time for the single sampling protocol but did not change significantly during the serial sampling protocol. The differences in resultant blood chemistry levels between implemented stress protocols and durations are significant and need to be considered when assessing stress in elasmobranchs. PMID:26026297

  14. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2−/− mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2−/− mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2−/− mice behavioral rigidity. PMID:25610381

  15. Increased anxiety induced by listening to unpleasant music during stress exposure is associated with reduced blood pressure and ACTH responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jezova, Daniela; Hlavacova, Natasa; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Duncko, Roman; Loder, Ingrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and the neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an acute increase in state anxiety to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. To do so, it was necessary to find a stress condition of the same character and intensity with and without a rise in state anxiety. We decided to examine the effects of listening to music on anxiety and to apply a new methodological approach. A group of 14 healthy volunteers participated in a counterbalanced crossover design study. The stress procedure consisted of mental (Stroop test, mental arithmetic) and physical (handgrip exercise) tasks combined with listening to music played forward (pleasant) or backwards (unpleasant). The results confirmed our hypothesis, namely the condition with listening to unpleasant music was anxiogenic, while the other was not. In case of increased state anxiety, the rise in ACTH concentrations in response to mental challenge and the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by handgrip exercise was reduced compared to the situation with unchanged anxiety. Concentrations of testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin and aldosterone were slightly increased in response to the stress paradigm accompanied with increased anxiety. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that an acute increase in state anxiety contributes to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. Moreover, the results show that listening to music may both positively and negatively influence the perception of stress and the level of anxiety, which might have functional consequences. PMID:23860406

  16. Role of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and NOP Receptors in the Response to Acute and Repeated Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, G; Dawe, K L; Hogan, R; Hunjan, T; Roper, J; Hazell, G; Lolait, S J; Fulford, A J

    2012-01-01

    Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801 [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxy-methyl)benzamide monohydrochloride], during the HPA axis response to acute physical/psychological stress (60 min of restraint). Although i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) had no significant effect on restraint-induced plasma corticosterone release at 30 or 60 min post-injection, i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) in quiescent rats significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone at the 30-min time-point compared to i.v. vehicle (1% dimethysulphoxide in sterile saline). Central injection of JTC-801 i.c.v. was associated with increased Fos expression in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus 90 min after infusion compared to vehicle control. These findings contrast to the effects of i.c.v. UFP-101, a NOP antagonist that we have previously shown to have no effect on HPA activity in quiescent rats. To determine whether restraint stress was associated with compensatory changes in N/OFQ precursor (ppN/OFQ) or NOP receptor mRNAs, in a separate study, we undertook reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation analysis of ppN/OFQ and NOP transcripts in the brains of male Sprague–Dawley rats. In support of an endogenous role for central N/OFQ in psychological stress, we found that acute restraint significantly decreased preproN/OFQ transcript expression in the hippocampus 2 h after stress compared to unstressed controls. PpN/OFQ mRNA was also reduced in the mediodorsal forebrain 4 h after stress. NOP mRNA was reduced in the hypothalamus 2 h after restraint and at 4 h in mediodorsal forebrain and hippocampus. In situ hybridisation

  17. Environmental Enrichment Increases Glucocorticoid Receptors and Decreases GluA2 and Protein Kinase M Zeta (PKMζ) Trafficking During Chronic Stress: A Protective Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Roseanna M.; Braren, Stephen H.; Maloney, Brigid; Schrott, Lisa M.; Luine, Victoria N.; Serrano, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) housing paradigms have long been shown beneficial for brain function involving neural growth and activity, learning and memory capacity, and for developing stress resiliency. The expression of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA2, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory, is increased with corticosterone (CORT), undermining synaptic plasticity and memory. Thus, we determined the effect of EE and stress on modulating GluA2 expression in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Several markers were evaluated which include: plasma CORT, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GluA2, and the atypical protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ). For 1 week standard-(ST) or EE-housed animals were treated with one of the following four conditions: (1) no stress; (2) acute stress (forced swim test, FST; on day 7); (3) chronic restraint stress (6 h/day for 7 days); and (4) chronic + acute stress (restraint stress 6 h/day for 7 days + FST on day 7). Hippocampi were collected on day 7. Our results show that EE animals had reduced time immobile on the FST across all conditions. After chronic + acute stress EE animals showed increased GR levels with no change in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. ST-housed animals showed the reverse pattern with decreased GR levels and a significant increase in synaptic GluA2/PKMζ. These results suggest that EE produces an adaptive response to chronic stress allowing for increased GR levels, which lowers neuronal excitability reducing GluA2/PKMζ trafficking. We discuss this EE adaptive response to stress as a potential underlying mechanism that is protective for retaining synaptic plasticity and memory function. PMID:26617502

  18. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (p<0.001). DBS-TRN increased cell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression. PMID:27435420

  19. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs of mice acutely exposed to amorphous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Kazzam, Elsadig E; Ali, Badreldin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of amorphous silica (SiO2) in biopharmaceutical and industrial fields can lead to human exposure by injection, skin penetration, ingestion, or inhalation. However, the in vivo acute toxicity of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles (SiNPs) on multiple organs and the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 hours) effects of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm SiNPs (0.25 mg/kg) on systemic toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and brain of mice. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased by SiNPs in the lung, liver, kidney, and brain, but was not changed in the heart. Similarly, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly affected by SiNPs in all organs studied. While the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α was insignificantly increased in the liver and brain, its increase was statistically significant in the lung, heart, and kidney. SiNPs induced a significant elevation in pulmonary and renal interleukin 6 and interleukin-1 beta in the lung, liver, and brain. Moreover, SiNPs caused a significant increase in DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, in all the organs studied. SiNPs caused leukocytosis and increased the plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotranferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. These results indicate that acute systemic exposure to SiNPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in several major organs, and highlight the need for thorough evaluation of SiNPs before they can be safely used in human beings. PMID:27022259

  20. Ten Reasons for the Increase in Executive Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancost, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Discusses 10 clusters of stress-inducing factors affecting today's child- and youth-care executives. The clusters, overlapping and not mutually exclusive, are the governing board, change management, client management, time management, staff diversity management, financial management, fund development, risk management, quality assurance, and…

  1. Effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Raven, Peter B; Rebuffat, Thomas; Denise, Pierre; Lericollais, Romain; Sugawara, Jun; Normand, Hervé

    2015-10-15

    Systemic blood distribution is an important factor involved in regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, the effect of an acute change in central blood volume (CBV) on CBF regulation remains unclear. To address our question, we sought to examine the CBF and systemic hemodynamic responses to microgravity during parabolic flight. Twelve healthy subjects were seated upright and exposed to microgravity during parabolic flight. During the brief periods of microgravity, mean arterial pressure was decreased (-26 ± 1%, P < 0.001), despite an increase in cardiac output (+21 ± 6%, P < 0.001). During microgravity, central arterial pulse pressure and estimated carotid sinus pressure increased rapidly. In addition, this increase in central arterial pulse pressure was associated with an arterial baroreflex-mediated decrease in heart rate (r = -0.888, P < 0.0001) and an increase in total vascular conductance (r = 0.711, P < 0.001). The middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) remained unchanged throughout parabolic flight (P = 0.30). During microgravity the contribution of cardiac output to MCA Vmean was gradually reduced (P < 0.05), and its contribution was negatively correlated with an increase in total vascular conductance (r = -0.683, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that the acute loading of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors by increases in CBV during microgravity results in acute and marked systemic vasodilation. Furthermore, we conclude that this marked systemic vasodilation decreases the contribution of cardiac output to CBF. These findings suggest that the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated peripheral vasodilation along with dynamic cerebral autoregulation counteracts a cerebral overperfusion, which otherwise would occur during acute increases in CBV. PMID:26310936

  2. [Hormonal markers of stress in acute cerebrovascular pathology].

    PubMed

    Miralles, F; Sanz, R; Martin, R; Falip, R; Antem, M; Matías-Guiu, J

    1995-01-01

    Various studies carried out over the last decade have shown that high glucose levels in the blood foster ischaemic brain damage associated with a worse evolution of such pathologies. The aim of the study we performed was to try to shed some light on whether stress in these patients raised their glucose levels adding to a worsening of the patient's clinical picture. We studied 318 consecutive patients suffering from stroke. We determined fasting glucose levels, prolactin and cortisol within the first few hours of hospitalization and afterwards at seven to ten days and again at one month after the stroke. Clinical severity was evaluated using Toronto and Mathew neurological scales and the degree of incapacity was measured using the Barthel functional scale on the three aforementioned occasions and Rankin's modified scale six and twelve months after the stroke. Clinical severity the first hours after stroke was significantly related to glucose levels, such relationship not being observed with prolactin and cortisol. Nor did we observe any significant association between glucose and these hormones. Likewise the anxiety scale had no relationship with any hormone. Studying medium and long term functional incapacity, glucose significantly correlated with the Rankin scale although with low dependence, such a relationship not being found either with prolactin or cortisol. Our work would seem to indicate that blood glucose behaviour is independent of prolactin and cortisol levels since we found no such relationship between them. PMID:8556609

  3. Influence of Vitamin C Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in Acute and Regular Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Ljiljana M.; Mitic, Nebojsa R.; Bisevac, Boban; Miric, Mirjana; Popovic, Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP)) and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group) and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group. PMID:25802681

  4. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response in acute and regular exercise.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Ljiljana M; Mitic, Nebojsa R; Miric, Dijana; Bisevac, Boban; Miric, Mirjana; Popovic, Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP)) and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group) and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group. PMID:25802681

  5. Memory CD8(+) T Cells Require Increased Concentrations of Acetate Induced by Stress for Optimal Function.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Maria L; Ma, Eric H; Bantug, Glenn R; Grählert, Jasmin; Pfister, Simona; Glatter, Timo; Jauch, Annaïse; Dimeloe, Sarah; Slack, Emma; Dehio, Philippe; Krzyzaniak, Magdalena A; King, Carolyn G; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Fischer, Marco; Develioglu, Leyla; Belle, Réka; Recher, Mike; Bonilla, Weldy V; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Jones, Russell G; Hess, Christoph

    2016-06-21

    How systemic metabolic alterations during acute infections impact immune cell function remains poorly understood. We found that acetate accumulates in the serum within hours of systemic bacterial infections and that these increased acetate concentrations are required for optimal memory CD8(+) T cell function in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, upon uptake by memory CD8(+) T cells, stress levels of acetate expanded the cellular acetyl-coenzyme A pool via ATP citrate lyase and promoted acetylation of the enzyme GAPDH. This context-dependent post-translational modification enhanced GAPDH activity, catalyzing glycolysis and thus boosting rapid memory CD8(+) T cell responses. Accordingly, in a murine Listeria monocytogenes model, transfer of acetate-augmented memory CD8(+) T cells exerted superior immune control compared to control cells. Our results demonstrate that increased systemic acetate concentrations are functionally integrated by CD8(+) T cells and translate into increased glycolytic and functional capacity. The immune system thus directly relates systemic metabolism with immune alertness. PMID:27212436

  6. Identification, quantification, and functional aspects of skeletal muscle protein-carbonylation in vivo during acute oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Maria; Kuleva, Nadezhda; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) play important roles in cellular signaling but can also modify and often functionally inactivate other biomolecules. Thus, cells have developed effective enzymatic and nonenzymatic strategies to scavenge ROS. However, under oxidative stress, ROS production is able to overwhelm the scavenging systems, increasing the levels of functionally impaired proteins. A major class of irreversible oxidative modifications is carbonylation, which refers to reactive carbonyl-groups. In this investigation, we have studied the production and clearance rates for skeletal muscle proteins in a rat model of acute oxidative stress over a time period of 24 h using a gel-based proteomics approach. Optimized ELISA and Western blots with 10-fold improved sensitivities showed that the carbonylation level was stable at 4 nmol per mg protein 3 h following ROS induction. The carbonylation level then increased 3-fold over 6 h and then remained stable. In total, the oxidative stress changed the steady state levels of 20 proteins and resulted in the carbonylation of 38 skeletal muscle proteins. Carbonylation of these proteins followed diverse kinetics with some proteins being highly carbonylated very quickly, whereas others peaked in the 9 h sample or continued to increase up to 24 h after oxidative stress was induced. PMID:20377239

  7. Acute stress symptoms during the second Lebanon war in a random sample of Israeli citizens.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miri; Yahav, Rivka

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Israel during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey was conducted in July 2006 of a random sample of 235 residents of northern Israel, who were subjected to missile attacks, and of central Israel, who were not subjected to missile attacks. Results indicate that ASS scores were higher in the northern respondents; 6.8% of the northern sample and 3.9% of the central sample met ASD criteria. Appearance of each symptom ranged from 15.4% for dissociative to 88.4% for reexperiencing, with significant differences between northern and central respondents only for reexperiencing and arousal. A low ASD rate and a moderate difference between areas subjected and not subjected to attack were found. PMID:18302184

  8. Factor structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (Harvey & Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, in a sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees relocated to a Red Cross emergency shelter in Austin, Texas. Results indicated that the proposed four-factor structure did not fit the data well. However, an alternate 2-factor model did fit the data well. This model included a second-order Distress factor (onto which the Reexperiencing, Arousal, and Avoidance factors loaded strongly) that was positively correlated with the Dissociation factor. Implications for the ASD construct and its measurement are discussed. PMID:20528054

  9. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  10. Critical job events, acute stress, and strain: a multiple interrupted time series.

    PubMed

    Eden, D

    1982-12-01

    A critical job event (CJE) is defined as a time-bounded peak of performance demand made on the individual as an integral part of his job. Though such events are an important source of acute job stress and are amenable to longitudinal study, relevant research has been scant. In the present study, the effects of acute objective stress on subjective stress and on psychological and physiological strain were assessed among 39 first-year nursing students in an interrupted time series with multiple replications. Strain was measured five times, twice in anticipation of CJE interspersed by three low-stress occasions. The CJEs were providing the first comprehensive patient care and the final exam in nursing. A consistently confirmatory pattern of significantly rising and falling strain was found for anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate: qualitative overload and serum uric acid changed as predicted four times out of five. CJE research can redress past overemphasis on chronic organizational stress and strengthen causal interpretation. PMID:10257633

  11. The psychological effects of Intifada Al Aqsa: acute stress disorder and distress in Palestinian-Israeli students.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Naiera; Ginzburg, Karni; Lev-Shalem, Liat; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-01-01

    The study assesses the effects of exposure to nationality-related and personal stressful events, threat appraisal and coping strategies on level of distress of Palestinian Israeli students. One hundred forty-eight Palestinian Israeli students filled out a battery of questionnaires that tapped their exposure to stressful life events, terrorism and political related violence, their primary and secondary appraisals, and coping strategies. Level of distress was evaluated by (1) acute stress disorder, and (2) psychiatric symptomatology. Results reveal relatively low exposure to terrorism-related traumatic events, yet considerable exposure (35.8%) to nationality-related stressful events during the last two years. Twenty-five percent of the students suffered from acute stress disorder, and their levels of psychiatric symptomatology exceeded norms for the general population. Primary appraisal processes and emotion-focused coping strategies made unique contribution to the respondents' level of (1) acute stress disorder and (2) psychiatric symptomatology. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:16342606

  12. Oxidative stress in acute human poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides; a case control study.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Akram; Solhi, Hasan; Mashayekhi, Farideh Jalali; Susanabdi, Alireza; Rezaie, Ali; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2005-07-01

    Free radicals play an important role in toxicity of pesticides and environmental chemicals. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPIs) may induce oxidative stress leading to generation of free radicals and alteration in antioxidant system. To complete the previous surveys, this study was conducted to evaluate the existence of oxidative stress, balance between total antioxidant capacity and oxygen free radicals in patients with acute OPI exposure. In this case control study, a total of 22 acute OPI poisoning patients were included and blood samples were analyzed for lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, total thiol groups, and cholinesterase levels. The results showed significant lipid peroxidation accompanied with decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity, total thiols, and cholinesterase activity. A significant correlation existed between cholinesterase depression and reduced total antioxidant capacity. It is concluded that oxygen free radicals and their related interactions like lipid peroxidation are present in acute OPI poisoning. Use of antioxidants may be beneficial in treatment of OPIs acute poisoning which remains to be elucidated by further clinical trials. PMID:21783573

  13. Induced groundwater flux by increases in the aquifer's total stress.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2015-01-01

    Fluid-filled granular soils experience changes in total stress because of earth and oceanic tides, earthquakes, erosion, sedimentation, and changes in atmospheric pressure. The pore volume may deform in response to the changes in stress and this may lead to changes in pore fluid pressure. The transient fluid flow can therefore be induced by the gradient in excess pressure in a fluid-saturated porous medium. This work demonstrates the use of stochastic methodology in prediction of induced one-dimensional field-scale groundwater flow through a heterogeneous aquifer. A closed-form of mean groundwater flux is developed to quantify the induced field-scale mean behavior of groundwater flow and analyze the impacts of the spatial correlation length scale of log hydraulic conductivity and the pore compressibility. The findings provided here could be useful for the rational planning and management of groundwater resources in aquifers that contain lenses with large vertical aquifer matrix compressibility values. PMID:25178834

  14. Maternal Defense: Breast Feeding Increases Aggression by Reducing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M.; Lawson, E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress. PMID:21873570

  15. Symptoms of acute posttraumatic stress disorder in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Ioannis; Yiannopoulou, Konstantina G; Mihalakis, Anastasios; Hatziandonakis, Nikolaos; Constantinides, Constantinos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos; Mitropoulos, Dionisios

    2011-01-01

    Psychological morbidity is increasingly reported in cancer survivors. The authors' objective was to determine the presence of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in prostate cancer (PC) patients following radical prostatectomy. Fifteen patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were assessed for the presence of PTSD-related symptoms by completing the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), a month following the procedure. A group of 20 patients who underwent surgery for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) served as the control group. PTSD total scores were significantly higher in PC patients when compared with BPH patients, whose PTSD scores did not differ from those reported in the general population (32.6 ± 18.5 vs. 11.3 ± 9.7, p = .001). PTSD did not vary among PC patients when adjusted for educational status. PTSD symptoms are common among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and independent of their educational level. Research investigating these aspects of posttreatment psychological adjustment is needed for developing well-targeted psychological interventions. PMID:20483867

  16. The effect of transport stress on turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liver acute phase proteins gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andreia Tomás; Lecchi, Cristina; Grilli, Guido; Giudice, Chiara; Nodari, Sara Rota; Vinco, Leonardo J; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transport-related stress on the liver gene expression of four acute phase proteins (APP), namely α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and PIT54, in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A group of seven BUT BIG 6 commercial hens was subjected to a two-hour long road transportation and the quantitative gene expression of APP in the liver was compared to that of a non transported control group. The expression of AGP and CRP mRNA was found to be increased in animals slaughtered after road transport. The presence of AGP protein was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results of this study showed that road-transport may induce the mRNA expression of immune related proteins. The finding that AGP and CRP can be upregulated during transport could suggest their use as for the assessment of turkey welfare during transport. PMID:26850544

  17. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and soluble receptors in response to acute psychosocial stress: differential reactivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Wieck, Andrea; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; do Prado, Carine Hartmann; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; de Oliveira, Agatha Schommer; Kommers-Molina, Júlia; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Marciano Vieira, Erica Leandro; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Bauer, Moisés Evandro

    2014-09-19

    Mounting evidence suggests a chronic pro-inflammatory state in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). Stress exposure is known to exacerbate several inflammatory conditions as well as psychiatric disorders. Here, we analyzed plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors to realistic acute psychosocial stress challenge in BD. Thirteen euthymic type 1 BD patients and 15 matched controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test protocol (TSST). Blood samples were collected before and after TSST and plasma cytokines interleukin IL-2, IL-6, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. In addition TNF-α soluble receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2, and IL-33 soluble receptor sST2 were assessed. Increased IL-33 and reduced sST2 levels were observed in BD subjects as compared to controls, independently of stress exposure. Following TSST, there were higher levels of IL-2 and reduced levels of sTNFR1 in both groups. However, the magnitude change for both cytokines was found higher in controls than BD subjects. Our data suggest that BD patients have differential stress reactivity as compared to controls, possibly related to an immunologic imbalance and failure of regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25092610

  18. Hepatoprotectant Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Increasing Phosphatidylcholine Levels as a Potential Therapy of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chamulitrat, Walee; Zhang, Wujuan; Xu, Weihong; Pathil, Anita; Setchell, Kenneth; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    It has been long known that hepatic synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is depressed during acute such as carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Anti-hepatotoxic properties of PC as liposomes have been recognized for treatment of acute liver damage. Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) is a known hepatoprotectant in stabilizing cellular membrane. For therapeutic management of liver injury, we coupled UDCA with a phospholipid known as ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE). UDCA-LPE has been shown to first-in-class hepatoprotectant being superior to UDCA or PC. It inhibits mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, elicits survival signaling pathway, and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes. We herein report that a unique contribution of UDCA-LPE in increasing concentrations of PC in vitro and in vivo. UDCA-LPE-treated hepatocytes contained significantly increased PC levels. UDCA-LPE underwent the hydrolysis to LPE which was not the precursor of the increased PC. The levels of PC in the liver and blood were increased rapidly after intraperitoneally administration UDCA-LPE, and were found to be sustained even after 24 h. Among PC synthesis genes tested, UDCA-LPE treatment of mouse hepatocytes increased transcription of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 which is an enzyme catalyzing phosphatidic acid to generate intermediates for PC synthesis. Thus, UDCA-LPE as a hepatoprotectant was able to induce synthesis of protective PC which would supplement for the loss of PC occurring during acute liver injury. This property has placed UDCA-LPE as a candidate agent for therapy of acute hepatotoxicity such as acetaminophen poisoning. PMID:22363296

  19. The fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates the increased FGF23 expression in acute and chronic uremia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Alia; Durlacher, Karina; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally; Levi, Ronen

    2016-02-01

    Serum FGF23 is markedly elevated in chronic kidney disease and has been associated with poor long-term outcomes. FGF23 expression is increased by activation of the FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) in rats with normal renal function and in vitro in bone-derived osteoblast-like cells. We studied the regulation of FGF23 by FGFR1 in vivo in acute and chronic uremia in mice and rats. Folic acid-induced acute kidney injury increased calvaria FGF23 mRNA and serum FGF23 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels at 6 h. The FGFR1 receptor inhibitor PD173074 prevented the folic acid-induced increase in both FGF23 mRNA and serum levels but had no effect on serum PTH levels. A more prolonged uremia due to an adenine high-phosphorus diet for 14 days resulted in high levels of FGF23 mRNA and serum FGF23 and PTH. PD173074 decreased serum FGF23 and mRNA levels with no effect on PTH in the adenine high phosphorus-induced uremic rats. Therefore, a derangement in FGF23 regulation starts early in the course of acute kidney injury, is in part independent of the increase in serum PTH, and involves activation of FGFR1. It is possible that FGFR1 in the osteocyte is activated by locally produced canonical FGFs, which are increased in uremia. This is the first demonstration that activation of FGFR1 is essential for the high levels of FGF23 in acute and chronic experimental uremia. PMID:26311115

  20. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Bae, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Wakisaka, Takuya; Matsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Masao; Yasunaga, Koichi

    2014-11-14

    Elevated postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Green tea catechin possesses antidiabetic properties and antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we examined the acute and continuous effects of ingestion of catechin-rich green tea on postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned into the placebo (P, n 11) or green tea (GT, n 11) group. The GT group consumed a catechin-rich green tea (catechins 615 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. The P group consumed a placebo (catechins 92 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. At baseline and after 4 weeks, participants of each group consumed their designated beverages with breakfast and consumed lunch 3 h after breakfast. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose concentrations were 3 % lower in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). Serum concentrations of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites increased after meals (P< 0·05), but no effect of catechin-rich green tea intake was observed. Conversely, serum postprandial thioredoxin concentrations were 5 % higher in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). These findings indicate that an acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose and redox homeostasis in postmenopausal women. PMID:25230741

  1. Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation complex activity: effects of tissue-specific metabolic stress within an allometric series and acute changes in workload

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Darci; Covian, Raul; Aponte, Angel M.; Glancy, Brian; Taylor, Joni F.; Chess, David

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes (MOPCs) is tuned to the maximum energy conversion requirements of a given tissue; however, whether the activity of MOPCs is altered in response to acute changes in energy conversion demand is unclear. We hypothesized that MOPCs activity is modulated by tissue metabolic stress to maintain the energy-metabolism homeostasis. Metabolic stress was defined as the observed energy conversion rate/maximum energy conversion rate. The maximum energy conversion rate was assumed to be proportional to the concentration of MOPCs, as determined with optical spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The resting metabolic stress of the heart and liver across the range of resting metabolic rates within an allometric series (mouse, rabbit, and pig) was determined from MPOCs content and literature respiratory values. The metabolic stress of the liver was high and nearly constant across the allometric series due to the proportional increase in MOPCs content with resting metabolic rate. In contrast, the MOPCs content of the heart was essentially constant in the allometric series, resulting in an increasing metabolic stress with decreasing animal size. The MOPCs activity was determined in native gels, with an emphasis on Complex V. Extracted MOPCs enzyme activity was proportional to resting metabolic stress across tissues and species. Complex V activity was also shown to be acutely modulated by changes in metabolic stress in the heart, in vivo and in vitro. The modulation of extracted MOPCs activity suggests that persistent posttranslational modifications (PTMs) alter MOPCs activity both chronically and acutely, specifically in the heart. Protein phosphorylation of Complex V was correlated with activity inhibition under several conditions, suggesting that protein phosphorylation may contribute to activity modulation with energy metabolic stress. These data are consistent with the notion that metabolic

  2. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression. PMID:26830960

  3. Acute Kidney Injury Is Common in Pediatric Severe Malaria and Is Associated With Increased Mortality.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Andrea L; Hawkes, Michael; Elphinstone, Robyn E; Morgan, Catherine; Hermann, Laura; Barker, Kevin R; Namasopo, Sophie; Opoka, Robert O; John, Chandy C; Liles, W Conrad; Kain, Kevin C

    2016-03-01

    Background.  Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well recognized complication of severe malaria in adults, but the incidence and clinical importance of AKI in pediatric severe malaria (SM) is not well documented. Methods.  One hundred eighty children aged 1 to 10 years with SM were enrolled between 2011 and 2013 in Uganda. Kidney function was monitored daily for 4 days using serum creatinine (Cr). Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Cr were assessed using i-STAT, and cystatin C (CysC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results.  Eighty-one (45.5%) children had KDIGO-defined AKI in the study: 42 (51.9%) stage 1, 18 (22.2%) stage 2, and 21 (25.9%) stage 3. Acute kidney injury evolved or developed in 50% of children after admission of hospital. There was an increased risk of AKI in children randomized to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), with 47 (54.0%) of children in the iNO arm developing AKI compared with 34 (37.4%) in the placebo arm (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.80). Duration of hospitalization increased across stages of AKI (P = .002). Acute kidney injury was associated with neurodisability at discharge in the children receiving placebo (25% in children with AKI vs 1.9% in children with no AKI, P = .002). Mortality increased across stages of AKI (P = .006) in the placebo arm, reaching 37.5% in stage 3 AKI. Acute kidney injury was not associated with neurodisability or mortality at discharge in children receiving iNO (P > .05 for both). Levels of kidney biomarkers were predictive of mortality with areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.80 (95% CI, .65-.95; P = .006) and 0.72 (95% CI, .57-.87; P < .001), respectively. Admission levels of CysC and BUN were elevated in children who died by 6 months (P < .0001 and P = .009, respectively). Conclusions.  Acute kidney injury is an underrecognized complication in young children with SM

  4. Acute Kidney Injury Is Common in Pediatric Severe Malaria and Is Associated With Increased Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Andrea L.; Hawkes, Michael; Elphinstone, Robyn E.; Morgan, Catherine; Hermann, Laura; Barker, Kevin R.; Namasopo, Sophie; Opoka, Robert O.; John, Chandy C.; Liles, W. Conrad; Kain, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well recognized complication of severe malaria in adults, but the incidence and clinical importance of AKI in pediatric severe malaria (SM) is not well documented. Methods. One hundred eighty children aged 1 to 10 years with SM were enrolled between 2011 and 2013 in Uganda. Kidney function was monitored daily for 4 days using serum creatinine (Cr). Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Cr were assessed using i-STAT, and cystatin C (CysC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Eighty-one (45.5%) children had KDIGO-defined AKI in the study: 42 (51.9%) stage 1, 18 (22.2%) stage 2, and 21 (25.9%) stage 3. Acute kidney injury evolved or developed in 50% of children after admission of hospital. There was an increased risk of AKI in children randomized to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), with 47 (54.0%) of children in the iNO arm developing AKI compared with 34 (37.4%) in the placebo arm (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.80). Duration of hospitalization increased across stages of AKI (P = .002). Acute kidney injury was associated with neurodisability at discharge in the children receiving placebo (25% in children with AKI vs 1.9% in children with no AKI, P = .002). Mortality increased across stages of AKI (P = .006) in the placebo arm, reaching 37.5% in stage 3 AKI. Acute kidney injury was not associated with neurodisability or mortality at discharge in children receiving iNO (P > .05 for both). Levels of kidney biomarkers were predictive of mortality with areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.80 (95% CI, .65–.95; P = .006) and 0.72 (95% CI, .57–.87; P < .001), respectively. Admission levels of CysC and BUN were elevated in children who died by 6 months (P < .0001 and P = .009, respectively). Conclusions. Acute kidney injury is an underrecognized complication in young children with SM

  5. Carvacrol modulates oxidative stress and decreases cell injury in pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Yeliz; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Çolak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Murat; Hsseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is considered as major problem around the world and the incidence of AP is increasing. Carvacrol (CAR), a monoterpenic phenol, has good antioxidant activity. This in vivo study was designed to evaluate whether CAR provide protection against AP that developed by pancreas injury. The rats were randomised into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1 h intervals by four intraperitonally (i.p.) injections; (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p. injection; and (IV) cerulein plus CAR after 2 h of cerulein administration. 12 h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function, the lipase and amylase values. The oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and changes in main tissue antioxidant enzyme levels including SOD, CAT and GSH-PX. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring the increases of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased AP-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the pancreas antioxidant enzyme activities were higher than that of the rats in the AP group when compared to the AP plus CAR group. In the treatment groups, the lipase and amylase were reduced. Besides, histopathological findings in the pancreatic tissue were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to pancreas. PMID:26093481

  6. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H; Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples. PMID:26556046

  7. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs. PMID:24932962

  8. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS ON VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVEL CAUSED BY ACUTE INFORMATIONAL STRESS.

    PubMed

    Matitaishvili, T; Domianidze, T; Emukhvari, N; Khananashvili, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our research was to study behavioral indices of rats standing on various hierarchical level in the conditions of acute informational stress as well as their resistance to stress taking into account their social status. The Animal's behavior has been studied in conflict and agonist conditions against the background of high food and thirst motivation. After determination of hierarchical relations the stressing procedure of two active avoidance reactions was performed simultaneously during one trial (14 days). During the experiment, behavioral indices of rats induced by stressing procedure were registered. We used "open field" test in order to assess animals' emotional state. The studies performed by us demonstrated behavioral characteristics of animals standing on various hierarchical level. The obtained results showed that after stressing all the animals of the group under stressogenic influence of equal strength, behavior of rats did nor reliably differ in conflict situations. Dominants standing on high hierarchical level remained active in both conflict situations. The impact of stress on their behavior was less detected. Dominant animal maintained its hierarchical status. Submissive rats were more greatly influenced by stress. The obtained results confirmed that dominant animals were characterized with more comprehensively developed self-regulating mechanisms of brain. PMID:27119838

  9. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M.; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H.; Juszczak, Grzegorz R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples. PMID:26556046

  10. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage has been said to play an important role in pulmonary injury, which is associated with the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to identify biomarkers to determine the oxidative stress in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) using ...

  11. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  12. Effects of acute thermal stress on the survival, predator avoidance, and physiology of juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Wagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    We subjected juvenile fall chinook salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to acute thermal stressors in the laboratory that were derived from field data. We assessed the effects of thermal stress on: (1) the extent of direct mortality; (2) the vulnerability of fish to predation by smallmouth bass; and (3) some general physiological stress responses and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Thermally-stressed fish showed little direct mortality and no increases in vulnerability to predation. However, these fish showed transient increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and a dramatic (25-fold higher than controls) and persistent (lasting 2 wk) increase in levels of liver hsp70. Our results indicate that exposure of Hanford Reach juvenile fall chinook salmon to such stressors did not lead to significant increases in direct mortality or vulnerability to predation, but did alter physiological homeostasis, which should be of concern to those managing this resource. Because our fish received only a single exposure to one of the stressors we examined, we are also concerned about the consequences of exposing fish to multiple, cumulative stressors - a likely scenario for fish in the wild.

  13. Acute stress evokes selective mobilization of T cells that differ in chemokine receptor expression: a potential pathway linking immunologic reactivity to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jos A; Berntson, Gary G; Cacioppo, John T; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Marucha, Phillip T

    2003-08-01

    T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages are the most abundant cells found in the atherosclerotic plaque. These cells can migrate towards the activated endothelium through the local release of chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines. Given the important role of leukocyte migration in atherosclerosis and the role of stress in mediating leukocyte trafficking, the present study examined the effects of an acute stressor on the redistribution of T cells (CD3+) and monocytes that express the chemokine receptors CCR5, CCR6, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, and CXCR4. Forty-four undergraduate students underwent a public speaking task. The acute stressor induced sympathetic cardiac activation, parasympathetic cardiac withdrawal, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis (all p<.001). Although the total number of T lymphocytes did not change, there was a selective increase in the number of circulating T cells expressing CXCR2, CXCR3, and CCR5. The ligands of these receptors are chemokines known to be secreted by activated endothelial cells. Analyses of individual differences in stress-induced responses demonstrated a positive relationship between sympathetic cardiac reactivity and mobilization of the various T cell subsets (.35increased in parallel with total monocyte numbers, with no relation to changes in sympathetic cardiac drive. These results indicate that acute stress induces a mobilization of T cells that are primed to respond to inflamed endothelium. Acute stressors may thus promote the recruitment of circulating immune cells into the sub-endothelia, and therefore accelerate atherosclerotic plaque formation and potentially contribute to the complications that follow acute stressful events. This mechanism may help explain the link between stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:12831827

  14. Asg1 is a stress-inducible gene which increases stomatal resistance in salt stressed potato.

    PubMed

    Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania

    2012-12-15

    The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolated Asg1, a stress-related gene with an unknown function. Asg1 is induced by salt stress in both potato and Arabidopsis and by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Asg1 is actively transcribed in all plant tissues. Furthermore, Asg1 promoter analysis confirmed its ubiquitous expression, which was remarkable in pollen, a plant tissue that undergoes drastic dehydration/hydration processes. Fusion of Asg1 with green fluorescent protein showed that the encoded protein is localized close to the plasma membrane with a non-continuous pattern of distribution. In addition, Arabidopsis knockout asg1 mutants were insensitive to both NaCl and sugar hyperosmotic environments during seed germination. Transgenic potato plants over-expressing the Asg1 gene revealed a stomatal hypersensitivity to NaCl stress which, however, did not result in a significantly improved tuber yield in stress conditions. Altogether, these data suggest that Asg1 might interfere with components of the stress signaling pathway by promoting stomatal closure and participating in stress adaptation. PMID:22854180

  15. Asg1 is a stress-inducible gene which increases stomatal resistance in salt stressed potato

    PubMed Central

    Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolated Asg1, a stress-related gene with an unknown function. Asg1 is induced by salt stress in both potato and Arabidopsis and by abscisic acid in Arabidopsis. Asg1 is actively transcribed in all plant tissues. Furthermore, Asg1 promoter analysis confirmed its ubiquitous expression, which was remarkable in pollen, a plant tissue that undergoes drastic dehydration/hydration processes. Fusion of Asg1 with green fluorescent protein showed that the encoded protein is localized close to the plasma membrane with a non-continuous pattern of distribution. In addition, Arabidopsis knockout asg1 mutants were insensitive to both NaCl and sugar hyperosmotic environments during seed germination. Transgenic potato plants over-expressing the Asg1 gene revealed a stomatal hypersensitivity to NaCl stress which, however, did not result in a significantly improved tuber yield in stress conditions. Altogether, these data suggest that Asg1 might interfere with components of the stress signaling pathway by promoting stomatal closure and participating in stress adaptation. PMID:22854180

  16. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies. PMID:25098933

  17. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy. PMID:25803496

  18. Increased anticipatory contingent negative variation in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Wang, Li; Fernández, Guillén; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-05-01

    Altered anticipation processes are implicated across various clinical samples, but few studies focused on the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We measured contingent negative variation (CNV) in a choice reaction paradigm among 58 survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, including 28 individuals who were diagnosed with PTSD and 30 without PTSD. Compared to the non-PTSD group, the PTSD group had significantly larger CNV amplitude. On the behavioral level, although the reaction times were comparable between groups, the PTSD group committed more errors than the non-PTSD group. Furthermore, the total PTSD symptom severity score as well as the re-experiencing symptom score were positively related to CNV amplitude. These results suggested that individuals with PTSD might be more alerted to and anticipate more to upcoming events in their environment, yet still have degraded performance in response to the stimulus. PMID:26965485

  19. Membrane stress increases cation permeability in red cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R M

    1994-11-01

    The human red cell is known to increase its cation permeability when deformed by mechanical forces. Light-scattering measurements were used to quantitate the cell deformation, as ellipticity under shear. Permeability to sodium and potassium was not proportional to the cell deformation. An ellipticity of 0.75 was required to increase the permeability of the membrane to cations, and flux thereafter increased rapidly as the limits of cell extension were reached. Induction of membrane curvature by chemical agents also did not increase cation permeability. These results indicate that membrane deformation per se does not increase permeability, and that membrane tension is the effector for increased cation permeability. This may be relevant to some cation permeabilities observed by patch clamping. PMID:7858123

  20. Novelty stress increases fecal pellet output in mongolian gerbils: effects of several drugs.

    PubMed

    Okano, Shiho; Nagaya, Hideaki; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2005-08-01

    Stress-induced colonic functional changes have been investigated mainly under conditions involving physical stress, like in the restraint stress model. In this study, we established a new stress-induced defecation model involving the placement of Mongolian gerbils in a novel environment (novelty stress) and determined the effects of several drugs on novelty stress-induced fecal pellet output. When animals kept in groups were placed individually in small cages, the fecal pellet output markedly increased, although the upper intestinal transit measured by charcoal method was not changed. The concentration of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone was moderately but significantly increased by the novelty stress. Drugs reportedly effective for stress-induced defecation, like alosetron hydrochloride, atropine sulfate, and trimebutine maleate, inhibited both the novelty stress-induced increase in fecal pellet output and spontaneous defecation. In contrast, TAK-637, a tachykinin NK1-receptor antagonist, and diazepam inhibited the novelty stress induced defecation but did not inhibit spontaneous defecation. The present study indicated that novelty stress increases fecal pellet output without affecting the upper intestinal transit; this model may be useful for evaluating the effects of drugs on stress-stimulated colonic motility. PMID:16079466

  1. Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Iqbal, Kashif; Schillie, Sarah; Britton, James; Kainer, Marion A; Tressler, Stacy; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As many as 2.2 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1), and approximately 15%-25% of persons with chronic HBV infection will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer (2). Since 2006, the overall U.S. incidence of acute HBV infection has remained stable; the rate in 2013 was 1.0 case per 100,000 persons (3). Hepatitis B vaccination is highly effective in preventing HBV infection and is recommended for all infants (beginning at birth), all adolescents, and adults at risk for HBV infection (e.g., persons who inject drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and others). Hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low among adults: 2013 National Health Interview Survey data indicated that coverage with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine was 32.6% for adults aged 19-49 years (4). Injection drug use is a risk factor for both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV. Among young adults in some rural U.S. communities, an increased incidence of HCV infection has been associated with a concurrent increase of injection drug use (5); and recent data indicate an increase of acute HCV infection in the Appalachian region associated with injection drug use (6). Using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2006-2013, CDC assessed the incidence of acute HBV infection in three of the four Appalachian states (Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia) included in the HCV infection study (6). Similar to the increase of HCV infections recently reported, an increase in incident cases of acute HBV infection in these three states has occurred among non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 30-39 years who reported injection drug use as a common risk factor. Since 2009, cases of acute HBV infection have been reported from more non-urban than urban regions. Evidence-based services to prevent HBV infection are needed. PMID:26821369

  2. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  3. Acute caffeine treatment increases extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis from rat striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Sarkis, João José Freitas; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2003-08-01

    The psychostimulant caffeine promotes behavioral effects such as hyperlocomotion, anxiety, and disruption of sleep by blockade of adenosine receptors. The availability of extracellular adenosine depends on its release by transporters or by the extracellular ATP catabolism performed by the ecto-nucleotidase pathway. This study verified the effect of caffeine on NTPDase 1 (ATP diphosphohydrolase) and 5'-nucleotidase of synaptosomes from hippocampus and striatum of rats. Caffeine and theophylline tested in vitro were unable to modify nucleotide hydrolysis. Caffeine chronically administered in the drinking water at 0.3 g/L or 1 g/L for 14 days failed to affect nucleotide hydrolysis. However, acute administration of caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an enhancement of ATP (50%) and ADP (32%) hydrolysis in synaptosomes of hippocampus and striatum, respectively. This activation of ATP and ADP hydrolysis after acute treatment suggests a compensatory effect to increase adenosine levels and counteract the antagonist action of caffeine. PMID:12834266

  4. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate - a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Mark B; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Christensen, Søren Just; Law, Ian; Rasmussen, Peter; Olsen, Niels V; Larsson, Henrik Bw

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration was unchanged (p = 0.36). In conclusion, acute hypoxia in healthy subjects increased perfusion and metabolic rate, which could represent an increase in neuronal activity. We conclude that marked changes in brain homeostasis occur in the healthy human brain during exposure to acute hypoxia. PMID:26661163

  5. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate – a magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Christensen, Søren Just; Law, Ian; Rasmussen, Peter; Olsen, Niels V; Larsson, Henrik BW

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% (p<10-6), glutamate increased by 4.7% (p<10-4) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p<10-3). The N-acetylaspartate concentration was unchanged (p = 0.36). In conclusion, acute hypoxia in healthy subjects increased perfusion and metabolic rate, which could represent an increase in neuronal activity. We conclude that marked changes in brain homeostasis occur in the healthy human brain during exposure to acute hypoxia. PMID:26661163

  6. Acute UV irradiation increases heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels in human skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Dayae; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are important structural components in the skin and exist as various proteoglycan forms, except hyaluronic acid. Heparan sulfate (HS), one of the glycosaminoglycans, is composed of repeated disaccharide units, which are glucuronic acids linked to an N-acetyl-glucosamine or its sulfated forms. To investigate acute ultraviolet (UV)-induced changes of HS and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), changes in levels of HS and several HSPGs in male human buttock skin were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 2 minimal erythema doses (MED) of UV irradiation (each n = 4-7). HS staining revealed that 2 MED of UV irradiation increased its expression, and staining for perlecan, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, CD44v3, and CD44 showed that UV irradiation increased their protein levels. However, analysis by real-time qPCR showed that UV irradiation did not change mRNA levels of CD44 and agrin, and decreased perlecan and syndecan-4 mRNA levels, while increased syndecan-1 mRNA level. As HS-synthesizing or -degrading enzymes, exostosin-1 and heparanase mRNA levels were increased, but exostosin-2 was decreased by UV irradiation. UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression was confirmed for proper experimental conditions. Acute UV irradiation increases HS and HSPG levels in human skin, but their increase may not be mediated through their transcriptional regulation. PMID:22379342

  7. Acute stress reduces intraparenchymal lung natural killer cells via beta-adrenergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kanemi, O; Zhang, X; Sakamoto, Y; Ebina, M; Nagatomi, R

    2005-01-01

    There are lines of evidence that natural killer (NK) cells are sensitive to physical and psychological stress. Alterations in the immune system including NK cells are known to differ among tissues and organs. The effect of stress on the lung immune system, however, has not been well documented in spite of the fact that the lungs always confront viral or bacterial attacks as well as tumour cell metastasis. In this study, we intended to investigate the effect of restraint stress on lung lymphocytes including NK cells. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2 h restraint stress. The concentration of plasma epinephrine significantly rose immediately after the release from restraint as compared to home-cage control mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the numbers of most lymphocyte subsets including NK cells were decreased in the lungs and blood but not in the spleen, immediately after restraint stress. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the number of NK cells was decreased in the intraparenchymal region of the lungs, while the number of alveolar macrophages did not change. The decrease in the number of NK cells in the lungs and blood was reversed by the administration of propranolol, a nonselective beta adrenergic antagonist. Taken together, our findings suggest that acute stress reduces the number of intraparenchymal lung NK cells via activation of beta adrenergic receptors. PMID:15606610

  8. UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Kelly; Wilbert, Steven A.; Catlin, Diane M.; Monaghan, Cailin E.; Hlynchuk, Sofiya; Meehl, Pamela G.; Resch, Lauren N.; Carrera, J. Valerie; Bowles, Stephanie M.; Clark, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3. PMID:26147286

  9. Sampling Effort/Frequency Necessary to Infer Individual Acute Stress Responses from Fecal Analysis in Greylag Geese (Anser anser)

    PubMed Central

    SCHEIBER, ISABELLA B. R.; KRALJ, SIMONA; KOTRSCHAL, KURT

    2011-01-01

    Measuring hormone metabolites from excreta is a powerful method to study hormone–behavior relationships. Currently, fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations are used to estimate individual short-term stress responses. From the free-roaming, semitame flock of greylag geese (Anser anser), as many fecal samples as possible were collected over 3 h following a challenge (social density stress) or in a control situation. This time span corresponds to the gut passage time of geese. It was asked how many samples were necessary to determine differences in excreted corticosterone immunoreactive metabolites (CORTs) between control and social density stress and which parameters (means, maxima, range) reliably showed this difference. A large variation of CORT was found between consecutive samples. Still, means, maxima, and ranges of the samples in a fecal series consistently showed the response to a stressor both within and between individuals. Three samples sufficed if the maximum value of CORT was used, whereas four or more samples were necessary to work with the mean. It was concluded that by increasing the number of fecal samples collected, the course of CORT could be measured more precisely and an individual’s acute stress response inferred more reliably. PMID:16055849

  10. Sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction is associated with a selective but not a generalized increase in activity of the adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Herod, S M; Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Cameron, J L

    2011-01-01

    Stress-induced reproductive dysfunction is a relatively common cause of infertility in women. In response to everyday life stress, some individuals readily develop reproductive dysfunction (i.e., they are stress sensitive), whereas others are more stress resilient. Female cynomolgus monkeys, when exposed to mild combined psychosocial and metabolic stress (change in social environment + 20% reduced calorie diet), can be categorized as stress sensitive (SS; they rapidly become anovulatory in response to stress), medium stress resilient (MSR; they slowly become anovulatory in response to prolonged stress), or highly stress resilient (HSR; they maintain normal menstrual cycles in response to stress). In this study, we examined whether increased sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction is associated with elevated adrenal axis activity by measuring 1) the diurnal release of ACTH and cortisol, 2) ACTH and cortisol in response to an acute psychological stress, 3) the percent suppression of cortisol in response to dexamethasone negative feedback, 4) the diurnal release of ACTH and cortisol following exposure to mild psychosocial and metabolic stress, 5) the concentration of cortisol in hair, and 6) adrenal weight. SS monkeys (n = 5) did not differ from MSR (n = 5) or HSR (n = 7) monkeys in any measurement of baseline HPA axis activity or the integrated measurements of chronic HPA axis activity. However, MSR + SS monkeys (n = 10) did secrete more cortisol than HSR monkeys during the daytime hours (1000-1800) following exposure to a novel social environment and reduced diet. We conclude that increased activity of the HPA axis is unlikely to be the primary mechanism causing increased sensitivity to stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. PMID:20959528

  11. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter selectively matches metabolic output to acute contractile stress in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Robert N.; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A.; Vagnozzi, Ronald J.; Sargent, Michelle A.; York, Allen J.; Zhang, Jianyi; Bers, Donald M.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In the heart, augmented Ca2+ fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca2+ loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca2+ overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). Here we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca2+ uptake, augmented ATP production and MPTP opening upon acute Ca2+ challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca2+ after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed-up for 30 minutes. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca2+ loading underlying a “fight-or-flight” response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production. PMID:26119742

  12. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Selectively Matches Metabolic Output to Acute Contractile Stress in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jennifer Q; Lu, Xiyuan; Correll, Robert N; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Sargent, Michelle A; York, Allen J; Zhang, Jianyi; Bers, Donald M; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2015-07-01

    In the heart, augmented Ca(2+) fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Here, we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca(2+) uptake, with impaired ATP production, and inhibited MPTP opening upon acute Ca(2+) challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice, and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca(2+) after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed up for 30 min. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading underlying a "fight-or-flight" response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production. PMID:26119742

  13. Oncogenic BRAF induces chronic ER stress condition resulting in increased basal autophagy and apoptotic resistance of cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Corazzari, M; Rapino, F; Ciccosanti, F; Giglio, P; Antonioli, M; Conti, B; Fimia, G M; Lovat, P E; Piacentini, M

    2015-06-01

    The notorious unresponsiveness of metastatic cutaneous melanoma to current treatment strategies coupled with its increasing incidence constitutes a serious worldwide clinical problem. Moreover, despite recent advances in targeted therapies for patients with BRAF(V600E) mutant melanomas, acquired resistance remains a limiting factor and hence emphasises the acute need for comprehensive pre-clinical studies to increase the biological understanding of such tumours in order to develop novel effective and longlasting therapeutic strategies. Autophagy and ER stress both have a role in melanoma development/progression and chemoresistance although their real impact is still unclear. Here, we show that BRAF(V600E) induces a chronic ER stress status directly increasing basal cell autophagy. BRAF(V600E)-mediated p38 activation stimulates both the IRE1/ASK1/JNK and TRB3 pathways. Bcl-XL/Bcl-2 phosphorylation by active JNK releases Beclin1 whereas TRB3 inhibits the Akt/mTor axes, together resulting in an increase in basal autophagy. Furthermore, we demonstrate chemical chaperones relieve the BRAF(V600E)-mediated chronic ER stress status, consequently reducing basal autophagic activity and increasing the sensitivity of melanoma cells to apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest enhanced basal autophagy, typically observed in BRAF(V600E) melanomas, is a consequence of a chronic ER stress status, which ultimately results in the chemoresistance of such tumours. Targeted therapies that attenuate ER stress may therefore represent a novel and more effective therapeutic strategy for BRAF mutant melanoma. PMID:25361077

  14. Rising to the Challenge: Acute Stress Appraisals and Selection Centre Performance in Applicants to Postgraduate Specialty Training in Anaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Gale, Thomas C. E.; McGrath, John S.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an…

  15. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  16. Percutaneous Cholecystostomy for Patients with Acute Cholecystitis and an Increased Surgical Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Overhagen, Hans van; Meyers, Hjalmar; Tilanus, Hugo W.; Jeekel, Johannes; Lameris, Johan S.

    1996-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate percutaneous cholecystostomy in patients with acute cholecystitis and an increased surgical risk. Methods: Thirty-three patients with acute cholecystitis (calculous, n= 22; acalculous, n= 11) underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy by means of a transhepatic (n= 21) or transperitoneal (n= 12) access route. Clinical and laboratory parameters were retrospectively studied to determine the benefit from cholecystostomy. Results: All procedures were technically successful. Twenty-two (67%) patients improved clinically within 48 hr; showing a significant decrease in body temperature (n= 13), normalization of the white blood cell count (n= 3), or both (n= 6). There were 6 (18%) minor/moderate complications (transhepatic access, n= 3; transperitoneal access, n= 3). Further treatment for patients with calculous cholecystitis was cholecystectomy (n= 9) and percutaneous and endoscopic stone removal (n= 8). Further treatment for patients with acalculous cholecystitis was cholecystectomy (n= 2) and gallbladder ablation (n= 2). There were 4 deaths (12%) either in hospital or within 30 days of drainage; none of the deaths was procedure-related. Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with acute cholecystitis. For most patients with acalculous cholecystitis percutaneous cholecystostomy may be considered a definitive therapy. In calculous disease this treatment is often only temporizing and a definitive surgical, endoscopic, or radiologic treatment becomes necessary.

  17. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Acute Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) are the most commonly used pesticides against insects. Little is known regarding the relationship between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in patients hospitalized for acute OP and CM poisoning from 2000 to 2011. The comparison cohort was matched with the poisoned cohort at a 4:1 ratio based on age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. During the follow-up period, the incidence of dementia was 29.4 per 10,000 person-years in the poisoned group, and represented a 1.98-fold increased risk of dementia compared with the control cohort (95% confidence interval, 1.59–2.47). This study provides evidence on the association between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. Regular follow-up of poisoned patients for dementia is suggested. PMID:26200627

  18. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A.; Vincent, Grace E.; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters’ acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Methods Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. Results The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Conclusion Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters’ IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters’ IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons. PMID:26378783

  19. Freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint: adaptationist perspectives on the acute stress response spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan

    2004-09-01

    This article reviews the existing evolutionary perspectives on the acute stress response habitual faintness and blood-injection-injury type-specific phobia (BIITS phobia). In this article, an alternative evolutionary perspective, based on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, is proposed. Specifically, that fear-induced faintness (eg, fainting following the sight of a syringe, blood, or following a trivial skin injury) is a distinct Homo sapiens-specific extreme-stress survival response to an inescapable threat. The article suggests that faintness evolved in response to middle paleolithic intra-group and inter-group violence (of con-specifics) rather than as a pan-mammalian defense response, as is presently assumed. Based on recent literature, freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint provides a more complete description of the human acute stress response sequence than current descriptions. Faintness, one of three primary physiological reactions involved in BIITS phobia, is extremely rare in other phobias. Since heritability estimates are higher for faintness than for fears or phobias, the author suggests that trait-faintness may be a useful complement to trait-anxiety as an endophenotype in research on the human fear circuitry. Some implications for the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as well as for clinical, health services, and transcriptomic research are briefly discussed. PMID:15337864

  20. Stress during first pregnancy increases seizure threshold in adult male offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pajand, Peyman; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Shajiee, Hooman; Abiri, Hasan; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Stress induces many homeostatic aberrations which are followed by lifelong allostatic responses. Epilepsy is developed or influenced by different environmental factors, i.e. prenatal stress which makes many contradictory developmental changes in seizure threshold and intensity. We investigated the potential seizure response of the rat offspring to prenatal stress; the stress which was applied to their mothers. Materials and Methods: Nine day heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) model was used before and during the first and before the second pregnancy. The kindling was induced using 13 IP injections of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) every 48 hr to adult male Wistar rat's offspring. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that, before pregnancy stress decreased the rate of kindling (P<0.05) in the offspring, while stress which was applied during pregnancy completely prevented kindling (P <0.001). Further, their convulsive latency was increased and tonic clonic seizure duration was decreased. In contrast, previous pregnancy and between pregnancies stress could not change kindling process. Although maternal separation stress did not change kindling development, it could increase convulsive intensities by elongating the duration of seizures (P<0.05) and reducing convulsion latency (P <0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that stress detrimental effects could be prevented by stress which was applied around first pregnancy; however this beneficial effect is weakened by before second pregnancy stress. PMID:24592305

  1. Cortisol Awakening Response Prospectively Predicts Peritraumatic and Acute Stress Reactions in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Inslicht, Sabra S.; Otte, Christian; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Apfel, Brigitte A.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Metzler, Thomas; Yehuda, Rachel; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a major stress response system hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have prospectively examined the relationships among pre-exposure HPA activity, acute stress reactions and PTSD symptoms. Methods Two hundred and ninety-six police recruits were assessed during academy training prior to duty-related critical incident exposure and provided salivary cortisol at first awakening and after 30 minutes. A measure of cortisol awakening response (CAR) was computed as the change in cortisol level from the first to the second collection. At 12, 24, and 36 months following the start of active police service, officers were assessed for peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, ASD symptoms, and PTSD symptoms to their self-identified worst duty-related critical incident. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of CAR on the outcome variables pooled across the three follow-up assessments. Results Mixed model analyses indicated that after controlling for time of awakening, first awakening cortisol levels, and cumulative critical incident stress exposure, CAR during academy training was associated with greater peritraumatic dissociation, β=.14, z=3.49, p<.0001, and greater acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms during police service assessed at 12, 24, and 36 months, β=.09, z=2.03, p<.05, but not with peritraumatic distress β=.03, z=.81, p=.42 or PTSD symptoms β=−.004, z=−.09, p=.93. Conclusions These findings suggest that greater cortisol response to awakening is a pre-exposure risk factor for peritraumatic dissociation and ASD symptoms during police service. PMID:21906725

  2. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  3. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  4. Acute dichloroacetate administration increases skeletal muscle free glutamine concentrations after burn injury.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, A A; Chinkes, D L; Wolf, S E; Matin, S; Herndon, D N; Wolfe, R R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that the stimulation of pyruvate oxidation by dichloroacetate (DCA) administration would increase the level of intramuscular glutamine in severely burned patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The level of intramuscular glutamine decreases in response to severe injury, and the rate of intramuscular glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation is elevated. Intramuscular glutamine concentrations have been correlated to muscle protein synthesis. METHODS: Six studies were conducted on five patients with burns >40% total body surface area. Patients were studied in the fed state during an 8-hour stable isotope infusion. After 5 hours, DCA (30 mg/kg) was administered for 30 minutes. RESULTS: Analysis of muscle biopsy samples taken at 5 and 8 hours of the study revealed a 32% increase in intracellular glutamine levels after DCA administration. Increased intracellular glutamine concentrations did not affect skeletal muscle protein synthesis as determined by a three-pool arteriovenous model or by the direct incorporation of isotope into skeletal muscle protein. DCA administration resulted in a decrease in plasma lactate but no change in alanine de novo synthesis or intracellular concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that acute DCA administration can increase intramuscular glutamine concentration, but that this acute elevation does not affect muscle protein metabolism. Images Figure 4. PMID:9712571

  5. Adenosine protects Sprague Dawley rats from high-fat diet and repeated acute restraint stress-induced intestinal inflammation and altered expression of nutrient transporters.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated acute restraint stress and high-fat diet (HFD) on intestinal expression of nutrient transporters, concomitant to intestinal inflammation. The ability of adenosine to reverse any change was examined. Six-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: control or non-stressed (C), rats exposed to restraint stress for 6 h per day for 14 days (S), control rats fed with HFD (CHF) and restraint-stressed rats fed with HFD (SHF); four additional groups received the same treatments and were also given 50 mg/l adenosine dissolved in drinking water. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin and corticosterone were measured. Intestinal expression of SLC5A1, SLC2A2, NPC1L1 and TNF-α was analysed. Histological evaluation was conducted to observe for morphological and anatomical changes in the intestinal tissues. Results showed that HFD feeding increased glucose and insulin levels, and repeated acute restraint stress raised the corticosterone level by 22%. Exposure to both stress and HFD caused a further increase in corticosterone to 41%, while decreasing plasma adiponectin level. Restraint stress altered intestinal expression of SLC5A1, SLC2A2 and NPC1L1. These changes were enhanced in SHF rats. Adenosine was found to alleviate HFD-induced increase in glucose and insulin levels, suppress elevation of corticosterone in S rats and improve the altered nutrient transporters expression profiles. It also prevented upregulation of TNF-α in the intestine of SHF rats. In summary, a combination of stress and HFD exaggerated stress- and HFD-induced pathophysiological changes in the intestine, and biochemical parameters related to obesity. Adenosine attenuated the elevation of corticosterone and altered expression of SLC5A1, NPC1L1 and TNF-α. PMID:25196093

  6. Acute aerobic exercise increases exogenously infused bone marrow cell retention in the heart.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Erica N; Ding, Dennis; Muthukumaran, Geetha; Houser, Steven R; Starosta, Tim; Mu, Anbin; Margulies, Kenneth B; Libonati, Joseph R

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce infarct size. Exercise training, in the form of cardiac rehabilitation, is an essential part of patient care post-MI. Hence, we tested the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on stem cell retention and cardiac remodeling post-MI. Small epicardial MI's were induced in 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice via cryoinjury. Two weeks post-MI, vehicle infusion (N = 4) or GFP(+) bone marrow-derived cells (BMC) were injected (tail vein I.V.) immediately after acute exercise (N = 14) or sedentary conditions (N = 14). A subset of mice continued a 5-week intervention of chronic treadmill exercise (10-13 m/min; 45 min/day; 4 days/week; N = 7) or remained sedentary (N = 6). Exercise tolerance was assessed using a graded exercise test, and cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. Acute exercise increased GFP(+) BMC retention in the infarcted zone of the heart by 30% versus sedentary (P < 0.05). This was not associated with alterations in myocardial function or gene expression of key cell adhesion molecules. Animals treated with chronic exercise i