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Sample records for acute stroke imaging

  1. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  2. Brain and vascular imaging of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Amar, Arun Paul

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary imaging technologies permit the rapid and accurate assessment of the acute stroke patient. These studies form the underpinning of all therapeutic approaches. Although unenhanced computed tomography remains the principal diagnostic examination to exclude hemorrhagic stroke, multimodal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can be use to assess cerebral perfusion and may reveal the ischemic penumbra, thus leading to better patient selection for intravenous or intra-arterial reperfusion strategies.

  3. Venous imaging-based biomarkers in acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Munuera, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Hernández-Pérez, María; Daunis-I-Estadella, Pepus; Dávalos, Antoni; Liebeskind, David S; Wintermark, Max; Demchuk, Andrew; Menon, Bijoy K; Thomalla, Götz; Nael, Kambiz; Pedraza, Salvador; Puig, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Vascular neuroimaging plays a decisive role in selecting the best therapy in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. However, compared with the arterial system, the role of veins has not been thoroughly studied. In this review, we present the major venous imaging-based biomarkers in ischaemic stroke. First, the presence of hypodense veins in the monophasic CT angiography ipsilateral to the arterial occlusion. Second, the asymmetry of venous drainage in the pathological cerebral hemisphere on CT and MRI dynamic angiography. Finally, the presence of hypodense veins on T2* -based MRI. From the physiological point of view, the venous imaging-based biomarkers would detect the alteration of brain perfusion (flow), as well as the optimisation of extraction oxygen mechanisms (misery perfusion). Several studies have correlated the venous imaging-based biomarkers with grade of collateral circulation, the ischaemic penumbra and clinical functional outcome. Although venous imaging-based biomarkers still have to be validated, growing evidence highlights a potential complementary role in the acute stroke clinical decision-making process.

  4. Validation of fast diffusion kurtosis MRI for imaging acute ischemia in a rodent model of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Mandeville, Emiri; Chan, Suk-Tak; Lo, Eng H; Ji, Xunming

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) captures ischemic tissue that is likely to infarct, and has become one of the most widely used acute stroke imaging techniques. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has lately been postulated as a complementary MRI method to stratify the heterogeneously damaged DWI lesion. However, the conventional DKI acquisition time is relatively long, limiting its use in the acute stroke setting. Recently, Hansen et al. proposed a fast kurtosis mapping method and demonstrated it in fixed brains and control subjects. The fast DKI approach provides mean diffusion and kurtosis measurements under substantially reduced scan time, making it amenable to acute stroke imaging. Because it is not practical to obtain and compare different means of DKI to test whether the fast DKI method can reliably detect diffusion and kurtosis lesions in acute stroke patients, our study investigated its diagnostic value using an animal model of acute stroke, a critical step before fast DKI acquisition can be routinely applied in the acute stroke setting. We found significant correlation, per voxel, between the diffusion and kurtosis coefficients measured using the fast and conventional DKI protocols. In acute stroke rats, both DKI methods yielded diffusion and kurtosis lesions that were in good agreement. Importantly, substantial kurtosis/diffusion lesion mismatch was observed using the conventional (26±13%, P<0.01) and fast DKI methods (23±8%, P<0.01). In addition, regression analysis showed that the kurtosis/diffusion lesion mismatch obtained using conventional and fast DKI methods were substantially correlated (R2=0.57, P=0.02). Our results confirmed that the recently proposed fast DKI method is capable of capturing heterogeneous diffusion and kurtosis lesions in acute ischemic stroke, and thus is suitable for translational applications in the acute stroke clinical setting. PMID:25208309

  5. Validation of fast diffusion kurtosis MRI for imaging acute ischemia in a rodent model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Mandeville, Emiri; Chan, Suk-Tak; Lo, Eng H; Ji, Xunming

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) captures ischemic tissue that is likely to infarct, and has become one of the most widely used acute stroke imaging techniques. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has lately been postulated as a complementary MRI method to stratify the heterogeneously damaged DWI lesion. However, the conventional DKI acquisition time is relatively long, limiting its use in the acute stroke setting. Recently, a fast kurtosis mapping method has been demonstrated in fixed brains and control subjects. The fast DKI approach provides mean diffusion and kurtosis measurements under substantially reduced scan time, making it amenable to acute stroke imaging. Because it is not practical to obtain and compare different means of DKI to test whether the fast DKI method can reliably detect diffusion and kurtosis lesions in acute stroke patients, our study investigated its diagnostic value using an animal model of acute stroke, a critical step before fast DKI acquisition can be routinely applied in the acute stroke setting. We found significant correlation, per voxel, between the diffusion and kurtosis coefficients measured using the fast and conventional DKI protocols. In acute stroke rats, the two DKI methods yielded diffusion and kurtosis lesions that were in good agreement. Importantly, substantial kurtosis-diffusion lesion mismatch was observed using the conventional (26 ± 13%, P < 0.01) and fast DKI methods (23 ± 8%, P < 0.01). In addition, regression analysis showed that the kurtosis-diffusion lesion mismatches obtained using conventional and fast DKI methods were substantially correlated (R(2) = 0.57, P = 0.02). Our results confirmed that the recently proposed fast DKI method is capable of capturing heterogeneous diffusion and kurtosis lesions in acute ischemic stroke, and thus is suitable for translational applications in the acute stroke clinical setting.

  6. Case Report of False-Negative Diffusion-Weighted Image of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Lai, Ji-Ching; Chen, Rong-Fu; Hu, Han-Hwa; Pan, Chau-Shiung

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 75 Final Diagnosis: Acute ischemic stroke Symptoms: Dizziness • unsteady gait Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Radiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Taiwan. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) is a sensitive and common strategy used for imaging acute ischemic stroke. Case report: We present a case of a negative DWI MRI for detecting acute ischemic stroke in a clinical setting. A 75-year-old male had a DWI performed after onset of symptoms suggesting acute ischemic stroke. The initial DWI result was negative at 72 hours of presentation. The neurological symptoms of the patient persisted and DWI was repeated. After 14 days, the DWI data confirmed and demonstrated an acute ischemic stroke. The delay in DWI confirmation, from symptom onset until DWI diagnosis, was 336 hours. Conclusions: DWI may not have 100% sensitivity and accuracy in early stages of acute ischemic stroke. The time course to the development of abnormalities detected by DWI may be longer than anticipated. PMID:28111452

  7. Multiparametric, Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Reveals Acute Injury and Chronic Recovery in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Can, Anil; Blasi, Francesco; Climov, Mihail; Daneshmand, Ali; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, Esther; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Lo, Eng H.; Sakadžić, Sava; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Progress in experimental stroke and translational medicine could be accelerated by high-resolution in vivo imaging of disease progression in the mouse cortex. Here, we introduce optical microscopic methods that monitor brain injury progression using intrinsic optical scattering properties of cortical tissue. A multi-parametric Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) platform for longitudinal imaging of ischemic stroke in mice, through thinned-skull, reinforced cranial window surgical preparations, is described. In the acute stages, the spatiotemporal interplay between hemodynamics and cell viability, a key determinant of pathogenesis, was imaged. In acute stroke, microscopic biomarkers for eventual infarction, including capillary non-perfusion, cerebral blood flow deficiency, altered cellular scattering, and impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, were quantified and correlated with histology. Additionally, longitudinal microscopy revealed remodeling and flow recovery after one week of chronic stroke. Intrinsic scattering properties serve as reporters of acute cellular and vascular injury and recovery in experimental stroke. Multi-parametric OCT represents a robust in vivo imaging platform to comprehensively investigate these properties. PMID:23940761

  8. Multiparametric, longitudinal optical coherence tomography imaging reveals acute injury and chronic recovery in experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Vivek J; Mandeville, Emiri T; Can, Anil; Blasi, Francesco; Climov, Mihail; Daneshmand, Ali; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, Esther; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Lo, Eng H; Sakadžić, Sava; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Progress in experimental stroke and translational medicine could be accelerated by high-resolution in vivo imaging of disease progression in the mouse cortex. Here, we introduce optical microscopic methods that monitor brain injury progression using intrinsic optical scattering properties of cortical tissue. A multi-parametric Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) platform for longitudinal imaging of ischemic stroke in mice, through thinned-skull, reinforced cranial window surgical preparations, is described. In the acute stages, the spatiotemporal interplay between hemodynamics and cell viability, a key determinant of pathogenesis, was imaged. In acute stroke, microscopic biomarkers for eventual infarction, including capillary non-perfusion, cerebral blood flow deficiency, altered cellular scattering, and impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, were quantified and correlated with histology. Additionally, longitudinal microscopy revealed remodeling and flow recovery after one week of chronic stroke. Intrinsic scattering properties serve as reporters of acute cellular and vascular injury and recovery in experimental stroke. Multi-parametric OCT represents a robust in vivo imaging platform to comprehensively investigate these properties.

  9. Multi-Center Prediction of Hemorrhagic Transformation in Acute Ischemic Stroke using Permeability Imaging Features

    PubMed Central

    Scalzo, Fabien; Alger, Jeffry R.; Hu, Xiao; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Dani, Krishna A.; Muir, Keith W.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Coutts, Shelagh B.; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Liebeskind, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Permeability images derived from magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion images are sensitive to blood-brain barrier derangement of the brain tissue and have been shown to correlate with subsequent development of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in acute ischemic stroke. This paper presents a multi-center retrospective study that evaluates the predictive power in terms of HT of six permeability MRI measures including contrast slope (CS), final contrast (FC), maximum peak bolus concentration (MPB), peak bolus area (PB), relative recirculation (rR), and percentage recovery (%R). Dynamic T2*-weighted perfusion MR images were collected from 263 acute ischemic stroke patients from four medical centers. An essential aspect of this study is to exploit a classifier-based framework to automatically identify predictive patterns in the overall intensity distribution of the permeability maps. The model is based on normalized intensity histograms that are used as input features to the predictive model. Linear and nonlinear predictive models are evaluated using a crossvalidation to measure generalization power on new patients and a comparative analysis is provided for the different types of parameters. Results demonstrate that perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke can predict HT with an average accuracy of more than 85% using a predictive model based on a nonlinear regression model. Results also indicate that the permeability feature based on the percentage of recovery performs significantly better than the other features. This novel model may be used to refine treatment decisions in acute stroke. PMID:23587928

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    Chalela, Julio A; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Nentwich, Lauren M; Luby, Marie; Butman, John A; Demchuk, Andrew M; Hill, Michael D; Patronas, Nicholas; Latour, Lawrence; Warach, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background Although the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of acute stroke is increasing, this method has not proved more effective than computed tomography (CT) in the emergency setting. We aimed to prospectively compare CT and MRI for emergency diagnosis of acute stroke. Methods We did a single-centre, prospective, blind comparison of non-contrast CT and MRI (with diffusion-weighted and susceptibility weighted images) in a consecutive series of patients referred for emergency assessment of suspected acute stroke. Scans were independently interpreted by four experts, who were unaware of clinical information, MRI-CT pairings, and follow-up imaging. Results 356 patients, 217 of whom had a final clinical diagnosis of acute stroke, were assessed. MRI detected acute stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic), acute ischaemic stroke, and chronic haemorrhage more frequently than did CT (p<0.0001, for all comparisons). MRI was similar to CT for the detection of acute intracranial haemorrhage. MRI detected acute ischaemic stroke in 164 of 356 patients (46%; 95% CI 41-51%), compared with CT in 35 of 356 patients (10%; 7-14%). In the subset of patients scanned within 3 h of symptom onset, MRI detected acute ischaemic stroke in 41 of 90 patients (46%; 35-56%); CT in 6 of 90 (7%; 3-14%). Relative to the final clinical diagnosis, MRI had a sensitivity of 83% (181 of 217; 78-88%) and CT of 26% (56 of 217; 20-32%) for the diagnosis of any acute stroke. Interpretation MRI is better than CT for detection of acute ischaemia, and can detect acute and chronic haemorrhage; therefore it should be the preferred test for accurate diagnosis of patients with suspected acute stroke. Because our patient sample encompassed the range of disease that is likely to be encountered in emergency cases of suspected stroke, our results are directly applicable to clinical practice. PMID:17258669

  11. A Critical Review of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score for Evaluation of Acute Stroke Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Thomalla, Götz

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of ischemic stroke lesions on computed tomography (CT) or MRI using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is widely used to guide acute stroke treatment. We aimed to review the current evidence on ASPECTS. Originally, the score was developed for standardized lesion assessment on non-contrast CT (NCCT). Early studies described ASPECTS as a predictor of functional outcome and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after iv-thrombolysis with a threshold of ≤7 suggested to identify patients at high risk. Following studies rather pointed toward a linear relationship between ASPECTS and functional outcome. ASPECTS has also been applied to assess perfusion CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Cerebral blood volume ASPECTS proved to be the best predictor of outcome, outperforming NCCT-ASPECTS in some studies. For DWI-ASPECTS varying thresholds to identify patients at risk for poor outcome were reported. ASPECTS has been used for patient selection in three of the five groundbreaking trials proving efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy published in 2015. ASPECTS values predict functional outcome after thrombectomy. Moreover, treatment effect of thrombectomy appears to depend on ASPECTS values being smaller or not present in low ASPECTS, while patients with ASPECTS 5–10 do clearly benefit from mechanical thrombectomy. However, as patients with low ASPECTS values were excluded from recent trials data on this subgroup is limited. There are several limitations to ASPECTS addressed in a growing number of studies. The score is limited to the anterior circulation, the template is unequally weighed and correlation with lesion volume depends on lesion location. Overall ASPECTS is a useful and easily applicable tool for assessment of prognosis in acute stroke treatment and to help guide acute treatment decisions regardless whether MRI or CT is used. Patients with low ASPECTS values are unlikely to achieve good outcome. However, methodological constraints of

  12. Computed tomography angiography in acute stroke (revisiting the 4Ps of imaging).

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Shriram; Saini, Jitender; Acharya, Ullas V; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Imaging in acute stroke has traditionally focussed on the 4Ps-parenchyma, pipes, perfusion, and penumbra-and has increasingly relied upon advanced techniques including magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate such patients. However, as per European Magnetic Resonance Forum estimates, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging scanners for the general population in India (0.5 per million inhabitants) is quite low as compared to Europe (11 per million) and United States (35 per million), with most of them only present in urban cities. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) is more widely available and has reduced scanning duration. Computed tomography angiography of cervical and intracranial vessels is relatively simpler to perform with extended coverage and can provide all pertinent information required in such patients. This imaging review will discuss relevant imaging findings on CT angiography in patients with acute ischemic stroke through illustrated cases.

  13. Advanced imaging to extend the therapeutic time window of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Marc; Albers, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Reperfusion therapy for acute stroke has evolved from the initial use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 3 hours of symptom onset to more recent guideline-recommended use up to 4.5 hours. In addition, endovascular therapy is increasingly utilized for stroke treatment and is typically initiated up to 8 hours after onset. Recent studies demonstrate that imaging of the ischemic penumbra with diffusion/perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify subgroups of patients who are likely to improve following successful reperfusion (Target Mismatch profile) and others who are at increased risk for hemorrhage and poor clinical outcomes (Malignant profile). New data indicate that stent retriever devices provide better recanalization efficacy and clinical outcomes than the previously available mechanical thrombectomy devices. Going forward, we believe that the use of penumbral imaging with validated MRI techniques, as well as the currently less well-validated computed tomography (CT) perfusion approach, will maximize benefit and reduce the risk of adverse events and poor outcomes when used both early after stroke onset and at later time points. New trials that feature diffusion/perfusion MRI or CT perfusion-based patient selection for treatment with intravenous tPA and or endovascular therapies versus nonreperfused control groups are planned or in progress. We predict that these trials will confirm the hypothesis that penumbral imaging can enhance patient selection and extend the therapeutic time window for acute ischemic stroke.

  14. Arterial Spin Label Imaging of Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    PubMed Central

    Zaharchuk, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Since acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are fundamentally disruptions of brain hemodynamics, neuroimaging of brain perfusion might be expected to be of clinical utility. Recently, a noncontrast method of measuring CBF using arterial spin labeling (ASL) has become feasible in the clinical setting. It has advantages when compared to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) bolus contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) that include lack of exposure to gadolinium-based contrast materials, improved quantitation, and decreased sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and motion. Drawbacks of ASL include reduced signal-to-noise (SNR) and high sensitivity to arterial transit delays. While deleterious for quantitative perfusion measurements, the sensitivity of ASL to late arriving blood can be beneficial to visualize collateral flow. This chapter will discuss ASL imaging findings in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke and TIA, focusing on typical appearances, common artifacts, and comparisons with bolus contrast PWI. PMID:21640300

  15. Modern imaging of the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra in acute stroke patients: CT versus MRI.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Carlos J; Fiebach, Jochen B; Wintermark, Max

    2009-04-01

    Thrombolysis has become an approved therapy for acute stroke. However, many stroke patients do not benefit from such treatment, since the presently used criteria are very restrictive, notably with respect to the accepted time window. Even so, a significant rate of intracranial hemorrhage still occurs. Conventional cerebral computed tomography (CT) without contrast has been proposed as a selection tool for acute stroke patients. However, more-modern MRI and CT techniques, referred to as diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-CT, have been introduced, which afford a comprehensive noninvasive survey of acute stroke patients as soon as their emergency admission, with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic and pathophysiological repercussions for the brain parenchyma. The objective of this article is to present the advantages and drawbacks of CT and MRI in the evaluation of acute stroke patients.

  16. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  17. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction of Parenchymal Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke After Reperfusion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    R. Knitter, James; Jahan, Reza; Gornbein, Jeffery; Ajani, Zahra; Feng, Lei; Meyer, Brett C.; Schwamm, Lee H.; Yoo, Albert J.; Marshall, Randolph S.; Meyers, Philip M.; Yavagal, Dileep R.; Wintermark, Max; Liebeskind, David S.; Guzy, Judy; Starkman, Sidney; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Patients with acute ischemic stroke are at increased risk of developing parenchymal hemorrhage (PH), particularly in the setting of reperfusion therapies. We have developed a predictive model to examine the risk of PH using combined magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion parameters, including cerebral blood volume (CBV), apparent diffusion coefficient, and microvascular permeability (K2). Methods— Voxel-based values of CBV, K2, and apparent diffusion coefficient from the ischemic core were obtained using pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging data from patients enrolled in the MR RESCUE clinical trial (Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy). The associations between PH and extreme values of imaging parameters were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal parameter(s) and threshold for predicting PH. Results— In 83 patients included in this analysis, 20 developed PH. Univariate analysis showed significantly lower 10th percentile CBV and 10th percentile apparent diffusion coefficient values and significantly higher 90th percentile K2 values within the infarction core of patients with PH. Using classification tree analysis, the 10th percentile CBV at threshold of 0.47 and 90th percentile K2 at threshold of 0.28 resulted in overall predictive accuracy of 88.7%, sensitivity of 90.0%, and specificity of 87.3%, which was superior to any individual or combination of other classifiers. Conclusions— Our results suggest that combined 10th percentile CBV and 90th percentile K2 is an independent predictor of PH in patients with acute ischemic stroke with diagnostic accuracy superior to individual classifiers alone. This approach may allow risk stratification for patients undergoing reperfusion therapies. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00389467. PMID

  18. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen consumption in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Marchal, G.; Serrati, C.; Rioux, P.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Viader, F.; Sayette, V. de la; Doze, F. le; Lonchon, P; Derlon, J.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Baron, J.C.

    1993-04-10

    The authors used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relation between combined imaging of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption 5-18 h after first middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and neurological outcome at 2 months. All 18 patients could be classified into three visually defined PET patterns of perfusion and oxygen consumption changes. Pattern 1 suggested extensive irreversible damage and was consistently associated with poor outcome. Pattern 2 suggested continuing ischemia and was associated with variable outcome. Pattern 3 with hyperperfusion and little or no metabolic alteration, was associated with excellent recovery, which suggests that early reperfusion is beneficial. This relation between PET and outcome was highly significant. The results suggest that within 5-18 h of stroke onset, PET is a good predictor of outcome in patterns 1 and 3, for which therapy seems limited. The absence of predictive value for pattern 2 suggests that it is due to a reversible ischemic state that is possibly amenable to therapy. These findings may have important implications for acute MCA stroke management and for patients' selection for therapeutic trials.

  19. Automated prediction of tissue outcome after acute ischemic stroke in computed tomography perfusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Pieter C.; Bennink, Edwin; de Jong, Hugo; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Viergever, Max A.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the extent of cerebral damage on admission in patients with acute ischemic stroke could play an important role in treatment decision making. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging can be used to determine the extent of damage. However, clinical application is hindered by differences among vendors and used methodology. As a result, threshold based methods and visual assessment of CTP images has not yet shown to be useful in treatment decision making and predicting clinical outcome. Preliminary results in MR studies have shown the benefit of using supervised classifiers for predicting tissue outcome, but this has not been demonstrated for CTP. We present a novel method for the automatic prediction of tissue outcome by combining multi-parametric CTP images into a tissue outcome probability map. A supervised classification scheme was developed to extract absolute and relative perfusion values from processed CTP images that are summarized by a trained classifier into a likelihood of infarction. Training was performed using follow-up CT scans of 20 acute stroke patients with complete recanalization of the vessel that was occluded on admission. Infarcted regions were annotated by expert neuroradiologists. Multiple classifiers were evaluated in a leave-one-patient-out strategy for their discriminating performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Results showed that a RandomForest classifier performed optimally with an area under the ROC of 0.90 for discriminating infarct tissue. The obtained results are an improvement over existing thresholding methods and are in line with results found in literature where MR perfusion was used.

  20. Real-time ultrasound brain perfusion imaging with analysis of microbubble replenishment in acute MCA stroke.

    PubMed

    Kern, Rolf; Diels, Anna; Pettenpohl, Johanna; Kablau, Micha; Brade, Joachim; Hennerici, Michael G; Meairs, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    Real-time ultrasound perfusion imaging (rt-UPI) allows visualization of microbubbles flowing through the cerebral microvasculature. We hypothesized that analysis of microbubble tissue replenishment would enable for characterization of perfusion deficits in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory stroke. Twenty-three patients (mean age 70.2 ± 13.2 years, 9 weeks) were included. Sequential images of bubble replenishment were acquired by transcranial rt-UPI at low mechanical index immediately after microbubble destruction. Different parameters were calculated from regions of interest (ROIs): real-time time to peak (rt-TTP), rise rate (β), and plateau (A) of acoustic intensity, and A × β was used as an index of blood flow. Results were compared with diffusion-weighted and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Parameters of rt-UPI had lower values in ROIs of ischemic as compared with normal tissue (β=0.58 ± 0.40 versus 1.25 ± 0.83; P=0.001; A=1.44 ± 1.75 versus 2.63 ± 2.31; P=0.05; A × β=1.14 ± 2.25 versus 2.98 ± 2.70; P=0.01). Real-time time to peak was delayed in ischemic tissue (11.43 ± 2.67 versus 8.88 ± 1.66 seconds; P<0.001). From the analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves, β and A × β had the largest areas under the curve with optimal cutoff values of β<0.76 and A × β<1.91. We conclude that rt-UPI with analysis of microbubble replenishment correctly identifies ischemic brain tissue in acute MCA stroke.

  1. Imaging of the brain in acute ischaemic stroke: comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barber, P; Hill, M; Eliasziw, M; Demchuk, A; Pexman, J; Hudon, M; Tomanek, A; Frayne, R; Buchan, A; t for

    2005-01-01

    Background and objectives: Controversy exists about the optimal imaging technique in acute stroke. It was hypothesised that CT is comparable with DWI, when both are read systematically using quantitative scoring. Methods: Ischaemic stroke patients who had CT within six hours and DWI within seven hours of onset were included. Five readers used a quantitative scoring system (ASPECTS) to read the baseline (b) and follow up CT and DWI. Use of MRI in acute stroke was also assessed in patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by prospectively recording reasons for exclusion. Patients were followed clinically at three months. Results: bDWI and bCT were available for 100 consecutive patients (admission median NIHSS = 9). The mean bDWI and bCT ASPECTS were positively related (p<0.001). The level of interrater agreement ranged from good to excellent across all modalities and time periods. Bland–Altman plots showed more variability between bCT and bDWI than at 24 hours. The difference between bCT and bDWI was ⩽2 ASPECTS points. Of bCT scans with ASPECTS 8–10, 81% had DWI ASPECTS 8–10. Patients with bCT ASPECTS of 8–10 were 1.9 times more likely to have a favourable outcome at 90 days than those with a score of 0–7 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.1, p = 0.002). The relative likelihood of favourable outcome with a bDWI ASPECTS 8–10 was 1.4 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9, p = 0.10). Of patients receiving tPA 45% had contraindications to urgent MRI. Conclusion: The differences between CT and DWI in visualising early infarction are small when using ASPECTS. CT is faster and more accessible than MRI, and therefore is the better neuroimaging modality for the treatment of acute stroke. PMID:16227545

  2. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging with Dual-Echo Echo-Planar Imaging for Better Sensitivity to Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, S.J.; Yeom, K.W.; Antonucci, M.U.; Andre, J.B.; Rosenberg, J.; Aksoy, M.; Straka, M.; Fischbein, N.J.; Bammer, R.; Moseley, M.E.; Zaharchuk, G.; Skare, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Parallel imaging facilitates the acquisition of echo-planar images with a reduced TE, enabling the incorporation of an additional image at a later TE. Here we investigated the use of a parallel imaging–enhanced dual-echo EPI sequence to improve lesion conspicuity in diffusion-weighted imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Parallel imaging–enhanced dual-echo DWI data were acquired in 50 consecutive patients suspected of stroke at 1.5T. The dual-echo acquisition included 2 EPI for 1 diffusion-preparation period (echo 1 [TE = 48 ms] and echo 2 [TE = 105 ms]). Three neuroradiologists independently reviewed the 2 echoes by using the routine DWI of our institution as a reference. Images were graded on lesion conspicuity, diagnostic confidence, and image quality. The apparent diffusion coefficient map from echo 1 was used to validate the presence of acute infarction. Relaxivity maps calculated from the 2 echoes were evaluated for potential complementary information. RESULTS Echo 1 and 2 DWIs were rated as better than the reference DWI. While echo 1 had better image quality overall, echo 2 was unanimously favored over both echo 1 and the reference DWI for its high sensitivity in detecting acute infarcts. CONCLUSIONS Parallel imaging–enhanced dual-echo diffusion-weighted EPI is a useful method for evaluating lesions with reduced diffusivity. The long TE of echo 2 produced DWIs that exhibited superior lesion conspicuity compared with images acquired at a shorter TE. Echo 1 provided higher SNR ADC maps for specificity to acute infarction. The relaxivity maps may serve to complement information regarding blood products and mineralization. PMID:24763417

  3. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source and dual-energy CT for visualization of acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Hidetake; Muraishi, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Yasuo; Satoh, Hitoshi; Abe, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    We have recently developed a phantom that simulates acute ischemic stroke. We attempted to visualize an acute-stage cerebral infarction by using dual-energy Computed tomography (DECT) to obtain virtual monochromatic images of this phantom. Virtual monochromatic images were created by using DECT voltages from 40 to 100 keV in steps of 10 keV and from 60 to 80 keV in steps of 1 keV, under three conditions of the tube voltage with thin (Sn) filters. Calculation of the CNR values allowed us to evaluate the visualization of acute-stage cerebral infarction. The CNR value of a virtual monochromatic image was the highest at 68 keV under 80 kV / Sn 140 kV, at 72 keV under 100 kV / Sn 140 kV, and at 67 keV under 140 kV / 80 kV. The CNR values of virtual monochromatic images at voltages between 65 and 75 keV were significantly higher than those obtained for all other created images. Therefore, the optimal conditions for visualizing acute ischemic stroke were achievable.

  4. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Current concepts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion-diffusion assessment in acute ischaemic stroke: a review & an update for the clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Lopez-Mejia, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several medical societies published joint statements about imaging recommendations for acute stroke and transient ischaemic attack patients. In following with these published guidelines, we considered it appropriate to present a brief, practical and updated review of the most relevant concepts on the MRI assessment of acute stroke. Basic principles of the clinical interpretation of diffusion, perfusion, and MRI angiography (as part of a global MRI protocol) are discussed with accompanying images for each sequence. Brief comments on incidence and differential diagnosis are also included, together with limitations of the techniques and levels of evidence. The purpose of this article is to present knowledge that can be applied in day-to-day clinical practice in specialized stroke units or emergency rooms to attend patients with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack according to international standards. PMID:25758570

  6. Hyperintense vessels on acute stroke Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery imaging: Associations with clinical and other MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Kufner, Anna; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Warach, Steve; Luby, Marie; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyperintense vessels (HV) have been observed in Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) imaging of patients with acute ischemic stroke and been linked to slow flow in collateral arterial circulation. Given the potential importance of HV, we used a large, multicentre dataset of stroke patients to clarify which clinical and imaging factors play a role in HV. Methods We analyzed data of 516 patients from the previously published PRE-FLAIR study. Patients were studied by MRI within 12 hours of symptom onset. HV were defined as hyperintensities in FLAIR corresponding to the typical course of a blood vessel that was not considered the proximal, occluded main artery ipsilateral to the diffusion restriction. Presence of HV was rated by two observers and related to clinical and imaging findings. Results Presence of HV was identified in 240 of all 516 patients (47%). Patients with HV showed larger initial ischemic lesion volumes (median 12.3 vs. 4.9 ml; p<0.001) and a more severe clinical impairment (median NIHSS 10.5 vs. 6; p<0.001). In 198 patients with MR-angiography, HV were found in 80% of patients with vessel occlusion and in 17% without vessel occlusion. In a multivariable logistic regression model, vessel occlusion was associated with HV (OR 21.7%; 95% CI 9.6–49.9, p < 0.001). HV detected vessel occlusion with a specificity of 0.86 (95% CI 0.80–0.90) and sensitivity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.83). Conclusions HV are a common finding associated with proximal arterial occlusions and more severe strokes. HV predict arterial occlusion with high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22933582

  7. Comparison of Arterial Spin Labeling and Bolus Perfusion-Weighted Imaging for Detecting Mismatch in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zaharchuk, Greg; El Mogy, Ibraheem S.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Albers, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) – diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) mismatch paradigm is widely used in stroke imaging studies. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an alternative perfusion method that does not require contrast. This study compares the agreement of ASL-DWI and PWI-DWI mismatch classification in stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective study drawn from all 1.5T MRI studies performed in 2010 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were: symptom onset<5 days, DWI lesion>10 ml, acquisition of both PWI and ASL. DWI and PWI-Tmax>6 sec lesion volumes were determined using automated software. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups. Two radiologists classified ASL-DWI qualitatively into the same categories, blinded to DWI-PWI. Agreement between both individual readers and methods was assessed. RESULTS 51 studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven cases were excluded (1 due to PWI susceptibility artifact, 2 due to motion, and 4 due to severe ASL borderzone sign), resulting in 44 studies for comparison. Inter-rater agreement for ASL–DWI mismatch status was high (κ =0.92, 95% CI 0.80–1.00). ASL-DWI and PWI-DWI mismatch categories agreed in 25/44 cases (57%). In the 16 of 19 discrepant cases (84%), ASL overestimated the PWI lesion size. In 34/44 cases (77%), they agreed regarding the presence of mismatch versus no mismatch. CONCLUSION Mismatch classification based on ASL and PWI agree frequently but not perfectly. ASL tends to overestimate the PWI-Tmax lesion volume. Improved ASL methodologies and/or higher field strength are necessary before ASL can be recommended for routine use in acute stroke. PMID:22539548

  8. Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ning; Liew, Gerald; Lindley, Richard I; Liu, Erica Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Hand, Peter; Baker, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether retinal fractal dimension, a quantitative measure of microvascular branching complexity and density, is associated with lacunar stroke. A total of 392 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke had retinal fractal dimension measured from digital photographs, and lacunar infarct ascertained from brain imaging. After adjusting for age, gender, and vascular risk factors, higher retinal fractal dimension (highest vs lowest quartile and per standard deviation increase) was independently and positively associated with lacunar stroke (odds ratio [OR], 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-12.17 and OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.20-2.84, respectively). Increased retinal microvascular complexity and density is associated with lacunar stroke.

  9. Quantitative permeability magnetic resonance imaging in acute ischemic stroke: how long do we need to scan?

    PubMed

    Vidarsson, Logi; Thornhill, Rebecca E; Liu, Fang; Mikulis, David J; Kassner, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability estimation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has shown significant potential for predicting hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this work, the effects of scan duration on quantitative BBB permeability estimates (KPS) were investigated. Data from eight patients (three with HT) aged 37-93 years old were retrospectively studied by directly calculating the standard deviation of KPS as a function of scan time. The uncertainty in KPS was reduced only slightly for a scan time of 3 min and 30 s (4% reduction in P value from .047 to .045). When more than 3 min and 30 s of data were used, quantitative permeability MRI was able to separate those patients who proceeded to HT from those who did not (P value <.05). Our findings indicate that reducing permeability acquisition times is feasible in keeping with the need to maintain time-efficient MR protocols in the setting of AIS.

  10. Therapeutic interventions in acute stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, K R

    1992-01-01

    1. Potential therapies for ischaemic stroke include agents to reduce oedema, to improve cerebral perfusion, to reduce excitotoxic damage, to minimise free-radical induced injury and to reduce complications such as deep venous thrombosis. 2. Of the anti-oedema drugs, steroids are ineffective and possibly dangerous; intravenous glycerol is unproven. 3. Haemodilution to reduce whole blood viscosity and improve perfusion is ineffective. Thrombolytic drugs have not been adequately tested but several randomised multicentre trials are now commencing. Early treatment and CT scanning are essential. 4. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may have wide applicability but have not been tested in the acute phase of stroke. A multi-centre trial will address this issue. 5. Neuronal cytoprotection offers exciting prospects for acute stroke treatment. Antagonists of glutamate at the NMDA receptor, calcium and sodium channel blocking agents and free radical scavenging drugs have potent effects experimentally. Several agents are now reaching clinical trials. The calcium antagonist nimodipine has been disappointing in large scale trials but some studies were flawed by late treatment. 6. Successful treatment of acute stroke is likely to combine several approaches. 7. Therapeutic trials in stroke must include CT scanning, early treatment and a multicentre approach to achieve large numbers of patients. PMID:1493080

  11. Direct Thrombus Imaging in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongseong; Park, Jung E.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Kim, Dong-Eog

    2016-01-01

    There is an emergent need for imaging methods to better triage patients with acute stroke for tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated thrombolysis or endovascular clot retrieval by directly visualizing the size and distribution of cerebral thromboemboli. Currently, magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) angiography visualizes the obstruction of blood flow within the vessel lumen rather than the thrombus itself. The present visualization method, which relies on observation of the dense artery sign (the appearance of cerebral thrombi on a non-enhanced CT), suffers from low sensitivity. When translated into the clinical setting, direct thrombus imaging is likely to enable individualized acute stroke therapy by allowing clinicians to detect the thrombus with high sensitivity, assess the size and nature of the thrombus more precisely, serially monitor the therapeutic effects of thrombolysis, and detect post-treatment recurrence. This review is intended to provide recent updates on stroke-related direct thrombus imaging using MR imaging, positron emission tomography, or CT. PMID:27733029

  12. Identification of imaging selection patterns in acute ischemic stroke patients and the influence on treatment and clinical trial enrollment decision making

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven J; Albers, Gregory W; Baron, Jean-Claude; Cognard, Christophe; Dávalos, Antoni; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Fiebach, Jochen B; Fiehler, Jens; Hacke, Werner; Lansberg, Maarten G; Liebeskind, David S; Mattle, Heinrich P; Oppenheim, Catherine; Schellinger, Peter D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wintermark, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The purpose of this study was to collect precise information on the typical imaging decisions given specific clinical acute stroke scenarios. Stroke centers worldwide were surveyed regarding typical imaging used to work up representative acute stroke patients, make treatment decisions, and willingness to enroll in clinical trials. Methods STroke Imaging Research and Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Imaging circulated an online survey of clinical case vignettes through its website, the websites of national professional societies from multiple countries as well as through email distribution lists from STroke Imaging Research and participating societies. Survey responders were asked to select the typical imaging work-up for each clinical vignette presented. Actual images were not presented to the survey responders. Instead, the survey then displayed several types of imaging findings offered by the imaging strategy, and the responders selected the appropriate therapy and whether to enroll into a clinical trial considering time from onset, clinical presentation, and imaging findings. A follow-up survey focusing on 6 h from onset was conducted after the release of the positive endovascular trials. Results We received 548 responses from 35 countries including 282 individual centers; 78% of the centers originating from Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States. The specific onset windows presented influenced the type of imaging work-up selected more than the clinical scenario. Magnetic Resonance Imaging usage (27–28%) was substantial, in particular for wake-up stroke. Following the release of the positive trials, selection of perfusion imaging significantly increased for imaging strategy. Conclusions Usage of vascular or perfusion imaging by Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging beyond just parenchymal imaging was the primary work-up (62–87%) across all clinical vignettes and time windows

  13. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children.

    PubMed

    Paonessa, Amalia; Limbucci, Nicola; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase.

  14. The carotid plaque imaging in acute stroke (CAPIAS) study: protocol and initial baseline data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In up to 30% of patients with ischemic stroke no definite etiology can be established. A significant proportion of cryptogenic stroke cases may be due to non-stenosing atherosclerotic plaques or low grade carotid artery stenosis not fulfilling common criteria for atherothrombotic stroke. The aim of the CAPIAS study is to determine the frequency, characteristics, clinical and radiological long-term consequences of ipsilateral complicated American Heart Association lesion type VI (AHA-LT VI) carotid artery plaques in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Methods/Design 300 patients (age >49 years) with unilateral DWI-positive lesions in the anterior circulation and non- or moderately stenosing (<70% NASCET) internal carotid artery plaques will be enrolled in the prospective multicenter study CAPIAS. Carotid plaque characteristics will be determined by high-resolution black-blood carotid MRI at baseline and 12 month follow up. Primary outcome is the prevalence of complicated AHA-LT VI plaques in cryptogenic stroke patients ipsilateral to the ischemic stroke compared to the contralateral side and to patients with defined stroke etiology. Secondary outcomes include the association of AHA-LT VI plaques with the recurrence rates of ischemic events up to 36 months, rates of new ischemic lesions on cerebral MRI (including clinically silent lesions) after 12 months and the influence of specific AHA-LT VI plaque features on the progression of atherosclerotic disease burden, on specific infarct patterns, biomarkers and aortic arch plaques. Discussion CAPIAS will provide important insights into the role of non-stenosing carotid artery plaques in cryptogenic stroke. The results might have implications for our understanding of stroke mechanism, offer new diagnostic options and provide the basis for the planning of targeted interventional studies. Trial Registration NCT01284933 PMID:24330333

  15. Medical image analysis methods in MR/CT-imaged acute-subacute ischemic stroke lesion: Segmentation, prediction and insights into dynamic evolution simulation models. A critical appraisal☆

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Carpenter, Trevor K.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, basic thresholding techniques in combination with standard statistical correlation-based data analysis tools have been widely used to investigate different aspects of evolution of acute or subacute to late stage ischemic stroke in both human and animal data. Yet, a wave of biology-dependent and imaging-dependent issues is still untackled pointing towards the key question: “how does an ischemic stroke evolve?” Paving the way for potential answers to this question, both magnetic resonance (MRI) and CT (computed tomography) images have been used to visualize the lesion extent, either with or without spatial distinction between dead and salvageable tissue. Combining diffusion and perfusion imaging modalities may provide the possibility of predicting further tissue recovery or eventual necrosis. Going beyond these basic thresholding techniques, in this critical appraisal, we explore different semi-automatic or fully automatic 2D/3D medical image analysis methods and mathematical models applied to human, animal (rats/rodents) and/or synthetic ischemic stroke to tackle one of the following three problems: (1) segmentation of infarcted and/or salvageable (also called penumbral) tissue, (2) prediction of final ischemic tissue fate (death or recovery) and (3) dynamic simulation of the lesion core and/or penumbra evolution. To highlight the key features in the reviewed segmentation and prediction methods, we propose a common categorization pattern. We also emphasize some key aspects of the methods such as the imaging modalities required to build and test the presented approach, the number of patients/animals or synthetic samples, the use of external user interaction and the methods of assessment (clinical or imaging-based). Furthermore, we investigate how any key difficulties, posed by the evolution of stroke such as swelling or reperfusion, were detected (or not) by each method. In the absence of any imaging-based macroscopic dynamic model

  16. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  17. Haemodilution for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Timothy S; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischaemic stroke interrupts the flow of blood to part of the brain. Haemodilution is thought to improve the flow of blood to the affected areas of the brain and thus reduce infarct size. Objectives To assess the effects of haemodilution in acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to October 2013) and EMBASE (January 2008 to October 2013). We also searched trials registers, scanned reference lists and contacted authors. For the previous version of the review, the authors contacted manufacturers and investigators in the field. Selection criteria Randomised trials of haemodilution treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. We included only trials in which treatment was started within 72 hours of stroke onset. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trial quality and one review author extracted the data. Main results We included 21 trials involving 4174 participants. Nine trials used a combination of venesection and plasma volume expander. Twelve trials used plasma volume expander alone. The plasma volume expander was plasma alone in one trial, dextran 40 in 12 trials, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in five trials and albumin in three trials. Two trials tested haemodilution in combination with another therapy. Evaluation was blinded in 14 trials. Five trials probably included some participants with intracerebral haemorrhage. Haemodilution did not significantly reduce deaths within the first four weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.34). Similarly, haemodilution did not influence deaths within three to six months (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.20), or death and dependency or institutionalisation (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07). The results were similar in confounded and unconfounded trials, and in trials of isovolaemic and hypervolaemic haemodilution. No

  18. Imaging Approaches to Stroke and Neurovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Dehkharghani, Seena; Andre, Jalal

    2017-01-28

    Imaging is paramount to the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke, offering a battery of structural and functional probes of cerebrovascular physiology. The technical underpinnings of stroke imaging continue to evolve, bringing the neuroscience community increasingly closer to high-resolution, tissue-level biomarkers of brain perfusion, metabolism, and viability. The rapid expansion of neuroimaging in this domain has met with controversies, and in many respects, a lack of generalizable conclusions regarding optimized use in cerebrovascular disease. This review aims to provide the reader with the depth and scope of both established and emerging techniques, and an overview of prevailing viewpoints regarding neuroimaging in acute ischemic stroke.

  19. Acute stroke initiative involving an acute care team.

    PubMed

    Roth, Sean M; Keyser, Gabrielle; Winfield, Michelle; McNeil, Julie; Simko, Leslie; Price, Karen; Moffa, Donald; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Peacock, W Frank; Katzan, Irene L

    2012-06-01

    The Acute Care Team Educational Initiative (ACTEI) was developed as a quality improvement initiative for the recognition and initial management of time-sensitive medical conditions. For our first time-sensitive disease process, we focused on acute stroke [acute stroke initiative (ASI)]. As part of the larger ACTEI, the ASI included creating an ACT that responds to all suspected emergency department stroke patients. In this article, we describe the planning, process, and development of the ACTEI/ASI as well as how we created an acute response team for the diagnosis and management of suspected acute stroke.

  20. [State-of-the-art Treatment of Acute Stroke].

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Nordmeyer, H

    2015-11-01

    This article gives an overview about diagnostic imaging and treatment options of acute patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with emphasis on evidence from relevant studies published in the last 2 years. A computed tomography of the brain with CT-angiography should be the minimal standard imaging modality in acute ischemic stroke patients. Diffusion-weighted/imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)-mismatch magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in patients with wake-up stroke to select patients for recanalisation therapies. Systemic thrombolysis with rt-PA within 4.5 hours after symptom onset and mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers within 6 hours and proven occlusion of a large vessel in the anterior brain circulation are both evidence-based treatments. In contrast, there are no major therapeutic advances in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. The systolic blood pressure should be lowered < 140  mm Hg in these patients within one hour. Both acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and patients with a transient ischemic attack should be monitored and treated on a stroke unit due to an improved outcome. A prophylactic antibiotic treatment and very early mobilization during the first 24 hours is not recommended in acute stroke patients.

  1. Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Murray, Veronica; Berge, Eivind; del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Background Most strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred and improve recovery after stroke in some people. Thrombolytic drugs, however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain, which can be fatal. One drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), is licensed for use in selected patients within 4.5 hours of stroke in Europe and within three hours in the USA. There is an upper age limit of 80 years in some countries, and a limitation to mainly non-severe stroke in others. Forty per cent more data are available since this review was last updated in 2009. Objectives To determine whether, and in what circumstances, thrombolytic therapy might be an effective and safe treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1980 to November 2013).We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, searched reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies and trialists. Selection criteria Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in people with definite ischaemic stroke. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We verified the extracted data with investigators of all major trials, obtaining additional unpublished data if available. Main results We included 27 trials, involving 10,187 participants, testing urokinase, streptokinase, rt-PA, recombinant pro-urokinase or desmoteplase. Four trials used intra-arterial administration, while the rest used the intravenous route. Most data come from trials that started treatment up to six hours after stroke. About 44% of the trials (about 70% of the participants) were testing intravenous rt-PA. In earlier studies very few of the participants (0

  2. One-stop-shop stroke imaging with functional CT.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elizabeth; Komlosi, Peter; Wintermark, Max

    2015-12-01

    Advanced imaging techniques have extended beyond traditional anatomic imaging and progressed to dynamic, physiologic and functional imaging. Neuroimaging is no longer a mere diagnostic tool. Multimodal functional CT, comprising of NCCT, PCT and CTA, provides a one-stop-shop for rapid stroke imaging. Integrating those imaging findings with pertinent clinical information can help guide subsequent treatment decisions, medical management and follow-up imaging selection. This review article will briefly discuss the indication and utility of each modality in acute stroke imaging.

  3. Individual prediction of chronic motor outcome in the acute post-stroke stage: Behavioral parameters versus functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Rehme, Anne K; Volz, Lukas J; Feis, Delia-Lisa; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Several neurobiological factors have been found to correlate with functional recovery after brain lesions. However, predicting the individual potential of recovery remains difficult. Here we used multivariate support vector machine (SVM) classification to explore the prognostic value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict individual motor outcome at 4-6 months post-stroke. To this end, 21 first-ever stroke patients with hand motor deficits participated in an fMRI hand motor task in the first few days post-stroke. Motor impairment was quantified assessing grip force and the Action Research Arm Test. Linear SVM classifiers were trained to predict good versus poor motor outcome of unseen new patients. We found that fMRI activity acquired in the first week post-stroke correctly predicted the outcome for 86% of all patients. In contrast, the concurrent assessment of motor function provided 76% accuracy with low sensitivity (<60%). Furthermore, the outcome of patients with initially moderate impairment and high outcome variability could not be predicted based on motor tests. In contrast, fMRI provided 87.5% prediction accuracy in these patients. Classifications were driven by activity in ipsilesional motor areas and contralesional cerebellum. The accuracy of subacute fMRI data (two weeks post-stroke), age, time post-stroke, lesion volume, and location were at 50%-chance-level. In conclusion, multivariate decoding of fMRI data with SVM early after stroke enables a robust prediction of motor recovery. The potential for recovery is influenced by the initial dysfunction of the active motor system, particularly in those patients whose outcome cannot be predicted by behavioral tests.

  4. Thrombin Generation in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lara N.; Patel, Raj; Pathansali, Rohan; Kalra, Lalit; Arya, Roopen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Stroke remains a global leading cause of death and disability. Traditional description of plasma biology in the aftermath of acute ischaemic stroke favours development of hypercoagulability, resulting from complex interplay between plasma and endothelial factors. However, no single assay measures the overall global coagulation process. We postulate that thrombin generation would assist in identifying coagulation abnormalities after acute stroke. Aim. To investigate the coagulation abnormalities after acute ischaemic stroke using thrombin generation. Methods. We evaluated thrombin generation, measured with calibrated automated thrombography in stroke of different aetiological types (n = 170) within 48 hours of symptoms onset (baseline) and in the second week (time 2) and in normal healthy volunteers (n = 71). Results. Two-point thrombin generation assays showed prolonged lag time and time to peak at baseline (3.3 (2.9, 4.0) versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7); p = 0.005) and (3.3 (2.9, 4.0) versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7); p = 0.002), respectively, and at time 2 (3.5 (2.9, 4.2) versus 4.0 (3.1, 4.9); p = 0.004) and (5.9 (5.3, 6.6) versus 6.8 (5.8, 7.7) p = 0.05), respectively, in cardioembolic stroke (n = 39), when compared to noncardioembolic stroke (n = 117). The result was reproduced in multiple comparisons between acute ischaemic stroke subgroups and normal healthy volunteers. Endogenous thrombin potential and peak thrombin did not indicate hypercoagulability after acute ischaemic stroke, and thrombolytic therapy did not affect thrombin generation assays. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that thrombin generation in platelet poor plasma is not useful in defining hypercoagulability in acute ischaemic stroke. This is similar to observed trend in coronary artery disease and contrary to other hypercoagulable states. PMID:28116215

  5. Yawning in acute anterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Singer, Oliver C; Humpich, Marek C; Lanfermann, Heiner; Neumann-Haefelin, Tobias

    2007-11-01

    Pathological yawning can be a clinical sign in disorders affecting the brainstem. Here we describe seven patients with pathological yawning caused by acute middle cerebral artery stroke, indicating that pathological yawning also occurs in supratentorial stroke. We hypothesise that excessive yawning is a consequence of lesions in cortical or subcortical areas, which physiologically control diencephalic yawning centres.

  6. Stroke Code Improves Intravenous Thrombolysis Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Huang, Kuang-Yu; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Timely intravenous (IV) thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is associated with better clinical outcomes. Acute stroke care implemented with “Stroke Code” (SC) may increase IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of SC on thrombolysis. Methods The study period was divided into the “pre-SC era” (January 2006 to July 2010) and “SC era” (August 2010 to July 2013). Demographics, critical times (stroke symptom onset, presentation to the emergency department, neuroimaging, thrombolysis), stroke severity, and clinical outcomes were recorded and compared between the two eras. Results During the study period, 5957 patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted; of these, 1301 (21.8%) arrived at the emergency department within 3 h of stroke onset and 307 (5.2%) received IV-tPA. The number and frequency of IV-tPA treatments for patients with an onset-to-door time of <3 h increased from the pre-SC era (n = 91, 13.9%) to the SC era (n = 216, 33.3%) (P<0.001). SC also improved the efficiency of IV-tPA administration; the median door-to-needle time decreased (88 to 51 min, P<0.001) and the percentage of door-to-needle times ≤60 min increased (14.3% to 71.3%, P<0.001). The SC era group tended to have more patients with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) at discharge (49.5 vs. 39.6%, P = 0.11), with no difference in symptomatic hemorrhage events or in-hospital mortality. Conclusion The SC protocol increases the percentage of acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV-tPA and decreases door-to-needle time. PMID:25111200

  7. Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Dong-Eog; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Broderick, Joseph P; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14,792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14 h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n = 598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization = 6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries.

  8. Stroke risk stratification in acute dizziness presentations

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, William J.; Brown, Devin L.; Burke, James F.; Hofer, Timothy P.; Tsodikov, Alexander; Hoeffner, Ellen G.; Fendrick, A.M.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the ability of bedside information to risk stratify stroke in acute dizziness presentations. Methods: Surveillance methods were used to identify patients with acute dizziness and nystagmus or imbalance, excluding those with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, medical causes, or moderate to severe neurologic deficits. Stroke was defined as acute infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage on a clinical or research MRI performed within 14 days of dizziness onset. Bedside information comprised history of stroke, the ABCD2 score (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration, and diabetes), an ocular motor (OM)-based assessment (head impulse test, nystagmus pattern [central vs other], test of skew), and a general neurologic examination for other CNS features. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of the bedside information with stroke. Model calibration was assessed using low (<5%), intermediate (5% to <10%), and high (≥10%) predicted probability risk categories. Results: Acute stroke was identified in 29 of 272 patients (10.7%). Associations with stroke were as follows: ABCD2 score (continuous) (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–2.51), any other CNS features (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.06–6.08), OM assessment (OR 2.82; 95% CI 0.96–8.30), and prior stroke (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.05–4.57). No stroke cases were in the model's low-risk probability category (0/86, 0%), whereas 9 were in the moderate-risk category (9/94, 9.6%) and 20 were in the high-risk category (20/92, 21.7%). Conclusion: In acute dizziness presentations, the combination of ABCD2 score, general neurologic examination, and a specialized OM examination has the capacity to risk-stratify acute stroke on MRI. PMID:26511453

  9. Imaging of prehospital stroke therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602

  10. Stroke: advances in medical therapy and acute stroke intervention.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.

  11. Anesthetic management of patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Flexman, Alana M; Donovan, Anne L; Gelb, Adrian W

    2012-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Anesthesiologists are likely to encounter patients with stroke and must be aware of the anesthetic considerations for these patients. Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombolysis are effective treatments for acuteischemic stroke as well as evolving endovascular techniques such as mechanical clot retrieval. Recent retrospective studies have found an association between general anesthesia and poor clinical outcome. The results of these studies have several limitations, and current evidence is inadequate to guide the choice of anesthesia in patients with acute stroke. The choice of anesthesia must be based on individual patient factors until further research is completed.

  12. Multimodal CT in stroke imaging: new concepts.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Carlos J; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive noninvasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. This article discusses the individual components of multimodal CT and addresses the potential role of a combined multimodal CT stroke protocol in acute stroke therapy.

  13. Association between pneumonia in acute stroke stage and 3-year mortality in patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Jing; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Su, Feng-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Wei, Yi-Chia; Lin, Shun-Wen; Zhu, Jun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-01

    The influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. We investigate the influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the 3-year outcomes of patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. Nine-hundred and thirty-four patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke were enrolled and had been followed for 3years. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether pneumonia occurred during acute stroke stage or not. Clinical presentations, risk factors for stroke, laboratory data, co-morbidities, and outcomes were recorded. The result showed that a total of 100 patients (10.7%) had pneumonia in acute stroke stage. The prevalence of older age, atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage. Total anterior circulation syndrome and posterior circulation syndrome occurred more frequently among patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage (P<0.001 and P=0.009, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression revealed that pneumonia in acute stroke stage is a significant predictor of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio=6.39, 95% confidence interval=4.03-10.11, P<0.001). In conclusion, pneumonia during the acute stroke stage is associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality. Interventions to prevent pneumonia in acute stroke stage might improve ischemic stroke outcome.

  14. Perfusion Angiography in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Visualization and quantification of blood flow are essential for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. For rapid imaging of the cerebrovasculature, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard as it offers high spatial resolution. This paper lays out a methodological framework, named perfusion angiography, for the quantitative analysis and visualization of blood flow parameters from DSA images. The parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time-to-peak (TTP), and Tmax, are computed using a bolus tracking method based on the deconvolution of the time-density curve on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The method is tested on 66 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombectomy and/or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and also evaluated on an estimation task with known ground truth. This novel imaging tool provides unique insights into flow mechanisms that cannot be observed directly in DSA sequences and might be used to evaluate the impact of endovascular interventions more precisely. PMID:27446232

  15. Fast diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) with Inherent COrrelation-based Normalization (ICON) enhances automatic segmentation of heterogeneous diffusion MRI lesion in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Iris Yuwen; Guo, Yingkun; Igarashi, Takahiro; Wang, Yu; Mandeville, Emiri; Chan, Suk-Tak; Wen, Lingyi; Vangel, Mark; Lo, Eng H; Ji, Xunming; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has been shown to augment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the definition of irreversible ischemic injury. However, the complexity of cerebral structure/composition makes the kurtosis map heterogeneous, limiting the specificity of kurtosis hyperintensity to acute ischemia. We propose an Inherent COrrelation-based Normalization (ICON) analysis to suppress the intrinsic kurtosis heterogeneity for improved characterization of heterogeneous ischemic tissue injury. Fast DKI and relaxation measurements were performed on normal (n = 10) and stroke rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (n = 20). We evaluated the correlations between mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from the fast DKI sequence and relaxation rates R1 and R2 , and found a highly significant correlation between MK and R1 (p < 0.001). We showed that ICON analysis suppressed the intrinsic kurtosis heterogeneity in normal cerebral tissue, enabling automated tissue segmentation in an animal stroke model. We found significantly different kurtosis and diffusivity lesion volumes: 147 ± 59 and 180 ± 66 mm(3) , respectively (p = 0.003, paired t-test). The ratio of kurtosis to diffusivity lesion volume was 84% ± 19% (p < 0.001, one-sample t-test). We found that relaxation-normalized MK (RNMK), but not MD, values were significantly different between kurtosis and diffusivity lesions (p < 0.001, analysis of variance). Our study showed that fast DKI with ICON analysis provides a promising means of demarcation of heterogeneous DWI stroke lesions.

  16. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed patients within 48 hours of left hemisphere stroke to determine the frequency and distribution of types of right USN using cognitive testing and MRI imaging. The distribution of USN types was different from the previously reported distribution following acute right hemisphere stroke. In this left hemisphere stroke population, allocentric neglect was more frequent than egocentric neglect. PMID:17174459

  17. Management of blood pressure in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, John A; Dawson, Jesse; Quinn, Terence J

    2013-08-01

    The importance of elevated or low arterial blood pressure (BP) early after stroke, and the need for pharmacological intervention to control BP, remains controversial. Debate surrounds if, when and how to intervene. This debate is informed by conflicting results from observational data and underpowered clinical trials and substantive outcome data are lacking. Accordingly, management decisions have largely been left up to the individual treating physician and guidelines are based on 'good practice' and theory rather than level 1, grade A evidence. Substantial progress has been made in recent years, particularly in the field of hemorrhagic stroke, where recently presented and soon to completed large-scale trials may finally give us a firm evidence base. For ischemic stroke, many important studies have informed our understanding of the basic pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of BP management in acute stroke and, although not yet constituting a solid 'evidence base', are helping us from the 'cognitive quick-sand' of small studies and personal experiences.

  18. Malnutrition in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bouziana, Stella D.; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding. PMID:22254136

  19. Orthostatic haemodynamic responses in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, B; Reid, J; Fotherby, M; Crome, P

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about orthostatic blood pressure regulation in acute stroke. We determined postural haemodynamic responses in 40 patients with acute stroke (mild or moderate severity) and 40 non-stroke control in-patients, at two days (`Day 1') and one week (`Week 1') post-admission. Following a 10-minute supine rest and baseline readings, subjects sat up and blood pressure and heart rate were taken for 5 minutes. The procedure was repeated with subjects moving from supine to the standing posture. Haemodynamic changes from supine data were analysed. On standing up, the control group had a transient significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure on Day 1 but not Week 1. No significant changes were seen on either day when sitting up. In contrast to controls, the stroke group showed increases in mean arterial blood pressure on moving from supine to the sitting and standing positions on both days. Persistent postural hypotension defined as ⩾20 mmHg systolic fall occurred in <10% of either of the study groups on both days. Sitting and standing heart rates in both groups were significantly faster than supine heart rate on both days. The orthostatic blood pressure elevation is consistent with sympathetic nervous system overactivity which has been reported in acute stroke. Upright positioning as part of early rehabilitation and mobilisation following mild-to-moderate stroke would, therefore, not predispose to detrimental postural reductions in blood pressure.


Keywords: stroke; orthostatic hypotension; hypotension PMID:10715760

  20. Limb apraxia in acute ischemic stroke: a neglected clinical challenge?

    PubMed

    Schell, Caroline; Suchan, Julia; Himmelbach, Marc; Haarmeier, Thomas; Borchers, Svenja

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of limb apraxia and executive dysfunctions are currently not explicitly considered by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and, thus, not routinely tested by clinicians in the acute care of patients with suspected stroke. Neuropsychological testing, clinical examination, MRI, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were performed in a right-handed patient with acute onset of left-sided sensorimotor hemiparesis due to a right hemisphere ischemic stroke. Deficits in the execution of meaningless and meaningful gestures were not detected properly on initial clinical examination but were revealed later on through neuropsychological testing. Instead, the patient's inability to respond to specific instructions in the acute care setting was mistaken to reflect severe deficits in auditory comprehension. fMRI revealed right-hemispheric localization of language in the right-handed patient. We suggest including a bedside test for limb apraxia symptoms in acute clinical care of stroke patients. The distinction between deficits in limb praxis and impairments of language can be complicated owing to the common hemispheric co-localization of the two functions.

  1. Flat-Panel Computed Tomography (DYNA-CT) in Neuroradiology. From High-Resolution Imaging of Implants to One-Stop-Shopping for Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, A; Gölitz, P; Engelhorn, T; Kloska, S; Struffert, T

    2015-10-01

    Originally aimed at improving standard radiography by providing higher absorption efficiency and a wider dynamic range, flat-panel detector technology has meanwhile got widely accepted in the neuroradiological community. Especially flat-panel detector computed tomography (FD-CT) using rotational C-arm mounted flat-panel detector technology is capable of volumetric imaging with a high spatial resolution. By providing CT-like images of the brain within the angio suite, FD-CT is able to rapidly visualize hemorrhage and may thus improve complication management without the need of patient transfer. As "Angiographic CT" FD-CT may be helpful during many diagnostic and neurointerventional procedures and for noninvasive monitoring and follow-up. In addition, spinal interventions and high-resolution imaging of the temporal bone might also benefit from FD-CT. Finally, using novel dynamic perfusion and angiographic protocols, FD-CT may provide functional information on brain perfusion and vasculature with the potential to replace standard imaging in selected acute stroke patients.

  2. Acute bacterial parotitis following acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, V K; Kimbrough, D J; Jarquin-Valdivia, A A

    2009-06-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) is a relatively uncommon condition that tends to occur in debilitated older patients. We report a case of an older woman that presented with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage who developed ABP. This morbidity led to endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy and gastrostomy, all of which were not initially needed. We discuss the proposed physiopathology and etiopathogenesis of ABP in adults.

  3. Mechanical interventions to treat acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Fussell, David; Schumacher, H Christian; Meyers, Philip M; Higashida, Randall T

    2007-01-01

    The approach to stroke therapy has historically been limited due to the existence of relatively few treatment options and the necessity for action within 3 hours of symptom onset. As neuroimaging technology advances, fertile new ground is revealed for novel therapies. Recently, a number of exciting mechanical systems have been developed with potential efficacy even hours after cerebrovascular occlusion: endovascular clot disruption, endovascular clot extraction, and angioplasty with stenting are currently under study, with promising initial results. With more options, each with greater effectiveness in a particular clinical scenario, the physician is now better equipped than ever to treat acute ischemic stroke successfully.

  4. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke.

  5. Is carpal tunnel syndrome present in acute stroke patients? An investigative study using clinical and imaging screening tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Loochtan, Aaron I; Dresser, Brian; Chang, Jianhong; Farjat, Alfredo E; Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D

    2017-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is known to develop post-stroke. Median nerve ultrasound (US) is an inexpensive, effective means of screening. In this prospective feasibility study, we compared the ability of the physical exam, the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and median nerve US to screen for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) within 72hours of stroke onset. We enrolled 24 consecutive patients. Using US, 19 (79%, p=0.0386) of the 24 patients screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 20 (83%, p=0.0042) on the nonparetic side. With clinical examination, only 11 out of 24 (46%) screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 8 (33%) on the nonparetic side. The BCTQ did not predict CTS. US can be an effective screening tool post-stroke. Further research is needed to determine specificity and efficacy compared to electrodiagnostic testing in this population.

  6. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes.

  7. Heart Failure in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Ois, Angel; Roquer, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Due to the aging of the population it has become a growing public health problem in recent decades. Diagnosis of HF is clinical and there is no diagnostic test, although some basic complementary testing should be performed in all patients. Depending on the ejection fraction (EF), the syndrome is classified as HF with low EF or HF with normal EF (HFNEF). Although prognosis in HF is poor, HFNEF seems to be more benign. HF and ischemic stroke (IS) share vascular risk factors such as age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. Persons with HF have higher incidence of IS, varying from 1.7% to 10.4% per year across various cohort studies. The stroke rate increases with length of follow-up. Reduced EF, independent of severity, is associated with higher risk of stroke. Left ventricular mass and geometry are also related with stroke incidence, with concentric hypertrophy carrying the greatest risk. In HF with low EF, the stroke mechanism may be embolism, cerebral hypoperfusion or both, whereas in HFNEF the mechanism is more typically associated with chronic endothelial damage of the small vessels. Stroke in patients with HF is more severe and is associated with a higher rate of recurrence, dependency, and short term and long term mortality. Cardiac morbidity and mortality is also high in these patients. Acute stroke treatment in HF includes all the current therapeutic options to more carefully control blood pressure. For secondary prevention, optimal control of all vascular risk factors is essential. Antithrombotic therapy is mandatory, although the choice of a platelet inhibitor or anticoagulant drug depends on the cardiac disease. Trials are ongoing to evaluate anticoagulant therapy for prevention of embolism in patients with low EF who are at

  8. NOR-SASS (Norwegian Sonothrombolysis in Acute Stroke Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kvistad, Christopher E.; Naess, Halvor; Øygarden, Halvor; Logallo, Nicola; Assmus, Jörg; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Kurz, Kathinka D.; Neckelmann, Gesche; Thomassen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— The NOR-SASS (Norwegian Sonothrombolysis in Acute Stroke Study) aimed to assess effect and safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound treatment in an unselected acute ischemic stroke population. Methods— Patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were randomized 1:1 to either contrast-enhanced sonothrombolysis (CEST) or sham CEST. A visible arterial occlusion on baseline computed tomography angiography was not a prerequisite for inclusion. Pulse-wave 2 MHz ultrasound was given for 1 hour and contrast (SonoVue) as an infusion for ≈30 minutes. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography were performed after 24 to 36 hours. Primary study end points were neurological improvement at 24 hours defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0 or reduction of ≥4 National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale points compared with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and favorable functional outcome at 90 days defined as modified Rankin scale score 0 to 1. Results— A total of 183 patients were randomly assigned to either CEST (93 patient) or sham CEST (90 patients). The rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or mortality were not increased in the CEST group. Neurological improvement at 24 hours and functional outcome at 90 days was similar in the 2 groups both in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis. Conclusions— CEST is safe among unselected ischemic stroke patients with or without a visible occlusion on computed tomography angiography and with varying grades of clinical severity. There was, however, statistically no significant clinical effect of sonothrombolysis in this prematurely stopped trial. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01949961. PMID:27980128

  9. Relevance of stroke code, stroke unit and stroke networks in organization of acute stroke care--the Madrid acute stroke care program.

    PubMed

    Alonso de Leciñana-Cases, María; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a neurological emergency. The early administration of specific treatment improves the prognosis of the patients. Emergency care systems with early warning for the hospital regarding patients who are candidates for this treatment (stroke code) increases the number of patients treated. Currently, reperfusion via thrombolysis for ischemic stroke and attention in stroke units are the bases of treatment. Healthcare professionals and health provision authorities need to work together to organize systems that ensure continuous quality care for the patients during the whole process of their disease. To implement this, there needs to be an appropriate analysis of the requirements and resources with the objective of their adjustment for efficient use. It is necessary to provide adequate information and continuous training for all professionals who are involved in stroke care, including primary care physicians, extrahospital emergency teams and all physicians involved in the care of stroke patients within the hospital. The neurologist has the function of coordinating the protocols of intrahospital care. These organizational plans should also take into account the process beyond the acute phase, to ensure the appropriate application of measures of secondary prevention, rehabilitation, and chronic care of the patients that remain in a dependent state. We describe here the stroke care program in the Community of Madrid (Spain).

  10. [Cerebrolysin in treatment of acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Domzał, T; Zaleska, B

    1995-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is composed of low molecular peptides and free amino-acids and as a nootropic drug it administered in various diseases of central nervous system. In an open clinical trial patients with acute ischaemic stroke in the region of the middle cerebral artery, were treated. Cerebrolysin was administered as intravenous infusion in daily dose of 15 ml during 21 days. Recovery in 10 patients and improvement in 3 was obtained and only one patient died. The results were compared to the large group of 108 patients treated earlier with other drugs. Therapeutic effect was similar in all groups.

  11. Dilemma in the emergency setting: hypomagnesemia mimicking acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rico, María; Martinez-Rodriguez, Laura; Larrosa-Campo, Davinia; Calleja, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke mimics may account for up to 30% of all acute stroke consultations. However, in the emergency setting, accurate diagnosis is not always possible. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with acute aphasia and right hemiparesis. The National Institute of Health Stroke Score was 21, compatible with severe stroke, so she received thrombolysis. Laboratory testing demonstrated severe hypomagnesemia. She had been taking proton pump inhibitors for years and neuroimaging did not demonstrate signs of acute ischemic disease. After correcting the metabolic alterations with intravenous and oral supplemental magnesium, the patient was discharged asymptomatic. No further episodes have been registered to date. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia might cause acute neurological symptoms that could be confused with stroke. A careful history is essential for diagnosis but suspicion of stroke mimic should not prevent tPA administration. PMID:27354832

  12. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Abnormal Electrocardiograms After Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; Julayanont, Parunyou; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Kim, Jongyeol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities occur frequently but are often underrecognized after strokes. Acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in some particular area of brain can disrupt central autonomic control of the heart, precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, ECG abnormalities, myocardial injury and sometimes sudden death. Identification of high-risk patients after acute stroke is important to arrange appropriate cardiac monitoring and effective management of arrhythmias, and to prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to better clarify pathogenesis, localization of areas associated with arrhythmias and practical management of arrhythmias and abnormal ECGs after acute stroke.

  13. Acute Diagnosis and Management of Stroke Presenting Dizziness or Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Han; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-08-01

    Stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum frequently presents acute vestibular syndrome. Although vascular vertigo is known to usually accompany other neurologic symptoms and signs, isolated vertigo from small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem has been increasingly recognized. Bedside neuro-otologic examination can reliably differentiate acute vestibular syndrome due to stroke from more benign inner ear disease. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Accurate identification of isolated vascular vertigo is very important because misdiagnosis of acute stroke may result in significant morbidity and mortality.

  14. Early neurological stability predicts adverse outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Hannah J; Battey, Thomas Wk; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Campbell, Bruce Cv; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Background Deterioration in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in the early days after stroke is associated with progressive infarction, brain edema, and/or hemorrhage, leading to worse outcome. Aims We sought to determine whether a stable NIHSS score represents an adverse or favorable course. Methods Brain magnetic resonance images from a research cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. Using NIHSS scores at baseline and follow-up (day 3-5), patients were categorized into early neurological deterioration (ΔNIHSS ≥ 4), early neurological recovery (ΔNIHSS ≤ -4) or early neurological stability (ΔNIHSS between -3 and 3). The association between these categories and volume of infarct growth, volume of swelling, parenchymal hemorrhage, and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score were evaluated. Results Patients with early neurological deterioration or early neurological stability were less likely to be independent (modified Rankin Scale = 0-2) at 3 months compared to those with early neurological recovery ( P < 0.001). Patients with early neurological deterioration or early neurological stability were observed to have significantly greater infarct growth and swelling volumes than those with early neurological recovery ( P = 0.03; P < 0.001, respectively). Brain edema was more common than the other imaging markers investigated and was independently associated with a stable or worsening NIHSS score after adjustment for age, baseline stroke volume, infarct growth volume, presence of parenchymal hemorrhage, and reperfusion ( P < 0.0001). Conclusions Stable NIHSS score in the subacute period after ischemic stroke may not be benign and is associated with tissue injury, including infarct growth and brain edema. Early improvement is considerably more likely to occur in the absence of these factors.

  15. The use of telemedicine in the management of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark N; Demaerschalk, Bart M

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease, including acute ischemic stroke, remains a major public health problem in the US and throughout the world. There has been a concerted effort to apply evidence-based practices to stroke care to improve primary and secondary prevention as well as poststroke outcomes. Geography and workforce shortages contribute to a disparity in stroke care, however, among the substantial proportion of the US population that lives outside the reach of an acute stroke-ready hospital or a primary or comprehensive stroke center. In an attempt to combat the rural-to-urban disparity and expand the availability of best stroke practices, Levine and Gorman proposed the development of telemedical outreach for acute stroke evaluation and management, which they called "telestroke." Since then, the practice of telestroke has been found to have a high interrater agreement with a bedside assessment of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, to enhance correct thrombolysis decision making as compared with telephone-only consultation, and to be cost-effective. In light of these findings and the perception of benefit by acute stroke providers and patients, there has been growing interest in and a rapid expansion of telestroke networks in the US and internationally. There are legal and financial barriers to more widespread use of telemedicine in general, including telestroke. Further research is needed to understand the potential merits of telestroke infrastructure for the many phases of stroke care including poststroke hospitalization, prevention of complications, enhancing secondary prevention, and education of patients and providers.

  16. Multimodal use of computed tomography in early acute stroke, part 2.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, R; Tambasco, N; Cardaioli, G; Parnetti, L; Paloni, F; Boranga, B; Pelliccioli, G P

    2006-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scan remains the most widely technique in the cerebrovascular emergency, as it is largely available, minimally invasive, fast, cheap and reliable. Noncontrast enhanced CT (NeCT) imaging can show early signs of infarction in ischemic stroke; however, it could not show if the ischemic tissue is irreversibly damaged. CT perfusion (CTP) imaging has been shown to predict stroke location and size and can provide information about ischemic cerebral parenchyma not definitively compromised. CT angiography (CTA) could highlight stenosis or occlusion both in intracranial and extracranial vessels. By combining NeCT, CTP, and CTA the entire cerebrovascular axis can be imaged during acute stroke. Currently, the term "multimodal CT" indicates the combined use of these three techniques in order to obtain a complete picture of the extension of ischemic damage in acute stroke patients.

  17. Assessment and provision of rehabilitation among patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke in China: Findings from the China National Stroke Registry II.

    PubMed

    Bettger, Janet Prvu; Li, Zixiao; Xian, Ying; Liu, Liping; Zhao, Xingquan; Li, Hao; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Chunjuan; Meng, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Pan, Yuesong; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-04-01

    Background Stroke rehabilitation improves functional recovery among stroke patients. However, little is known about clinical practice in China regarding the assessment and provision of rehabilitation among patients with acute ischemic stroke. Aims We examined the frequency and determinants of an assessment for rehabilitation among acute ischemic stroke patients from the China National Stroke Registry II. Methods Data for 19,294 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to 219 hospitals from June 2012 to January 2013 were analyzed. The multivariable logistic regression model with the generalized estimating equation method accounting for in-hospital clustering was used to identify patient and hospital factors associated with having a rehabilitation assessment during the acute hospitalization. Results Among 19,294 acute ischemic stroke patients, 11,451 (59.4%) were assessed for rehabilitation. Rates of rehabilitation assessment varied among 219 hospitals (IQR 41.4% vs 81.5%). In the multivariable analysis, factors associated with increased likelihood of a rehabilitation assessment ( p < 0.05) included disability prior to stroke, higher NIHSS on admission, receipt of a dysphagia screen, deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, carotid vessel imaging, longer length of stay, and treatment at a hospital with a higher number of hospital beds (per 100 units). In contrast, patients with a history of atrial fibrillation and hospitals with higher number of annual stroke discharges (per 100 patients) were less likely to receive rehabilitation assessment during the acute stroke hospitalization. Conclusions Rehabilitation assessment among acute ischemic stroke patients was suboptimal in China. Rates varied considerably among hospitals and support the need to improve adherence to recommended care for stroke survivors.

  18. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  19. Successful thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke in haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Power, Albert; Moser, Steven; Duncan, Neill

    2010-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity in survivors. Early thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke has been shown to dramatically improve patient outcomes. Although the age-adjusted incidence of stroke is 5-10 times greater in haemodialysis patients, the use of thrombolysis for this indication in this group of patients has not been described to date. We present a case where alteplase was used successfully for acute ischaemic stroke in a patient established on maintenance haemodialysis in the setting of an international randomized controlled trial and advocate caution with the use of systemic thrombolytics despite the favourable outcome seen with this case.

  20. Prediction of outcome in patients with suspected acute ischaemic stroke with CT perfusion and CT angiography: the Dutch acute stroke trial (DUST) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of clinical outcome in the acute stage of ischaemic stroke can be difficult when based on patient characteristics, clinical findings and on non-contrast CT. CT perfusion and CT angiography may provide additional prognostic information and guide treatment in the early stage. We present the study protocol of the Dutch acute Stroke Trial (DUST). The DUST aims to assess the prognostic value of CT perfusion and CT angiography in predicting stroke outcome, in addition to patient characteristics and non-contrast CT. For this purpose, individualised prediction models for clinical outcome after stroke based on the best predictors from patient characteristics and CT imaging will be developed and validated. Methods/design The DUST is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in 1500 patients with suspected acute ischaemic stroke. All patients undergo non-contrast CT, CT perfusion and CT angiography within 9 hours after onset of the neurological deficits, and, if possible, follow-up imaging after 3 days. The primary outcome is a dichotomised score on the modified Rankin Scale, assessed at 90 days. A score of 0–2 represents good outcome, and a score of 3–6 represents poor outcome. Three logistic regression models will be developed, including patient characteristics and non-contrast CT (model A), with addition of CT angiography (model B), and CT perfusion parameters (model C). Model derivation will be performed in 60% of the study population, and model validation in the remaining 40% of the patients. Additional prognostic value of the models will be determined with the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration plots, assessment of goodness-of-fit, and likelihood ratio tests. Discussion This study will provide insight in the added prognostic value of CTP and CTA parameters in outcome prediction of acute stroke patients. The prediction models that will be developed in this study may help guide future

  1. Imaging network level language recovery after left PCA stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Long, Charltien; Purcell, Jeremy J.; Faria, Andreia V.; Lindquist, Martin; Jarso, Samson; Race, David; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. Our goal was to evaluate longitudinal changes in naming recovery in participants with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke using a case-by-case analysis. Methods: Using task based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and detailed language testing, we longitudinally studied the recovery of the naming network in four participants with PCA stroke with naming deficits at the acute (0 week), sub acute (3–5 weeks), and chronic time point (5–7 months) post stroke. Behavioral and imaging analyses (task related and resting state functional connectivity) were carried out to elucidate longitudinal changes in naming recovery. Results: Behavioral and imaging analysis revealed that an improvement in naming accuracy from the acute to the chronic stage was reflected by increased connectivity within and between left and right hemisphere “language” regions. One participant who had persistent moderate naming deficit showed weak and decreasing connectivity longitudinally within and between left and right hemisphere language regions. Conclusions: These findings emphasize a network view of aphasia recovery, and show that the degree of inter- and intra- hemispheric balance between the language-specific regions is necessary for optimal recovery of naming, at least in participants with PCA stroke. PMID:27176918

  2. The third international stroke trial (IST-3) of thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Peter; Lindley, Richard; Wardlaw, Joanna; Dennis, Martin; Lewis, Steff; Venables, Graham; Kobayashi, Adam; Czlonkowska, Anna; Berge, Eivind; Slot, Karsten Bruins; Murray, Veronica; Peeters, Andre; Hankey, Graeme; Matz, Karl; Brainin, Michael; Ricci, Stefano; Celani, Maria Grazia; Righetti, Enrico; Cantisani, Teresa; Gubitz, Gord; Phillips, Steve; Arauz, Antonio; Prasad, Kameshwar; Correia, Manuel; Lyrer, Phillippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is approved for use in selected patients with ischaemic stroke within 3 hours of symptom onset. IST-3 seeks to determine whether a wider range of patients may benefit. Design International, multi-centre, prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial of intravenous rt-PA in acute ischaemic stroke. Suitable patients must be assessed and able to start treatment within 6 hours of developing symptoms, and brain imaging must have excluded intracerebral haemorrhage. With 1000 patients, the trial can detect a 7% absolute difference in the primary outcome. With3500 patients, it can detect a 4.0% absolute benefit & with 6000, (mostly treated between 3 & 6 hours), it can detect a 3% benefit. Trial procedures Patients are entered into the trial by telephoning a fast, secure computerised central randomisation system or via a secure web interface. Repeat brain imaging must be performed at 24–48 hours. The scans are reviewed 'blind' by expert readers. The primary measure of outcome is the proportion of patients alive and independent (Modified Rankin 0–2) at six months (assessed via a postal questionnaire mailed directly to the patient). Secondary outcomes include: events within 7 days (death, recurrent stroke, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage), outcome at six months (death, functional status, EuroQol). Trial registration ISRCTN25765518 PMID:18559104

  3. In Acute Stroke, Can CT Perfusion-Derived Cerebral Blood Volume Maps Substitute for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Identifying the Ischemic Core?

    PubMed Central

    Copen, William A.; Morais, Livia T.; Wu, Ona; Schwamm, Lee H.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; González, R. Gilberto; Yoo, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In the treatment of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, increasing evidence suggests the importance of measuring the volume of the irreversibly injured “ischemic core.” The gold standard method for doing this in the clinical setting is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), but many authors suggest that maps of regional cerebral blood volume (CBV) derived from computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) can substitute for DWI. We sought to determine whether DWI and CTP-derived CBV maps are equivalent in measuring core volume. Methods 58 patients with suspected stroke underwent CTP and DWI within 6 hours of symptom onset. We measured low-CBV lesion volumes using three methods: “objective absolute,” i.e. the volume of tissue with CBV below each of six published absolute thresholds (0.9–2.5 mL/100 g), “objective relative,” whose six thresholds (51%-60%) were fractions of mean contralateral CBV, and “subjective,” in which two radiologists (R1, R2) outlined lesions subjectively. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each method, threshold, and radiologist in detecting infarction, and the degree to which each over- or underestimated the DWI core volume. Additionally, in the subset of 32 patients for whom follow-up CT or MRI was available, we measured the proportion of CBV- or DWI-defined core lesions that exceeded the follow-up infarct volume, and the maximum amount by which this occurred. Results DWI was positive in 72% (42/58) of patients. CBV maps’ sensitivity/specificity in identifying DWI-positive patients were 100%/0% for both objective methods with all thresholds, 43%/94% for R1, and 83%/44% for R2. Mean core overestimation was 156–699 mL for objective absolute thresholds, and 127–200 mL for objective relative thresholds. For R1 and R2, respectively, mean±SD subjective overestimation were -11±26 mL and -11±23 mL, but subjective volumes differed from DWI volumes by up to 117 and 124

  4. Development of an emergency department response to acute stroke ("Code Stroke").

    PubMed

    Leira, Enrique C; Ahmed, Azeemuddin

    2009-01-01

    Minimizing delays is a crucial step in improving outcomes with acute stroke therapies whose efficacy is clearly time dependent. Logistic and human barriers to rapid stroke care can be overcome with a systematic "Code Stroke" approach provided by a structured multidisciplinary acute stroke response team. Such teams should include Emergency Medical Services providers, neurologists, neurosurgeons, diagnostic radiologists, nurses, radiology technicians, laboratory personnel, hospital administrators, and emergency medicine, intensive care, and neurointerventional physicians. An acute stroke team improves treatment practices and provides a gratifying experience for patients, families, and referring physicians. On the other hand, maintaining proficiency of the team's operation is time consuming and personally onerous for team responders. Successful maintenance requires strong departmental and institutional commitment.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  6. Developing practice recommendations for endovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Edgell, Randall C.; English, Joey; Frei, Donald; Jamieson, Dara G.; Janardhan, Vallabh; Janjua, Nazli; Janjua, Rashid M.; Katzan, Irene; Khatri, Pooja; Kirmani, Jawad F.; Liebeskind, David S.; Linfante, Italo; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Shutter, Lori; Xavier, Andrew; Yavagal, Dileep; Zaidat, Osama O.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines have been established for the management of acute ischemic stroke; however, specific recommendations for endovascular revascularization therapy are lacking. Burgeoning investigation of endovascular revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke, rapid device development, and a diverse training background of the providers performing the procedures underscore the need for practice recommendations. This review provides a concise summary of the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology endovascular acute ischemic stroke roundtable meeting. This document was developed to review current clinical efficacy of pharmacologic and mechanical revascularization therapy, selection criteria, periprocedure management, and endovascular time metrics and to highlight current practice patterns. It therefore provides an outline for the future development of multisociety guidelines and recommendations to improve patient selection, procedural management, and organizational strategies for revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23008406

  7. Electromagnetic induction holography imaging for stroke detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the application of the electromagnetic induction holography (EMIH) approach to imaging the electromagnetic activity of the brain, with a particular focus on stroke detection. An integral equation formulation is presented to describe the scattered magnetic field from the distribution of optically small dielectric and magnetic objects of arbitrary shapes adsorbed onto a planar electromagnetic substrate. A numerical computer model was developed in a MATLAB environment to validate the theory. Several realistic human head models were developed to investigate the detectability of strokes with the multi-channel EMIH system. Small strokes can be clearly identified with the correct location and size in the reconstructed head images. The simulation results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting and imaging small strokes using the approach.

  8. A strategic plan to accelerate development of acute stroke treatments.

    PubMed

    Marler, John R

    2012-09-01

    In order to reenergize acute stroke research and accelerate the development of new treatments, we need to transform the usual design and conduct of clinical trials to test for small but significant improvements in effectiveness, and treat patients as soon as possible after stroke onset when treatment effects are most detectable. This requires trials that include thousands of acute stroke patients. A plan to make these trials possible is proposed. There are four components: (1) free access to the electronic medical record; (2) a large stroke emergency network and clinical trial coordinating center connected in real time to hundreds of emergency departments; (3) a clinical trial technology development center; and (4) strategic leadership to raise funds, motivate clinicians to participate, and interact with politicians, insurers, legislators, and other national and international organizations working to advance the quality of stroke care.

  9. Role of inflammation and its mediators in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Shihao; Nanda, Anil; Li, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory response is a double-edged sword, as it not only exacerbates secondary brain injury in the acute stage of stroke but also beneficially contributes to brain recovery after stroke. In this article, we provide an overview on the role of inflammation and its mediators in acute ischemic stroke. We discuss various pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in different phases after ischemic stroke and the possible reasons for their failures in clinical trials. Undoubtedly, there is still much to be done in order to translate promising pre-clinical findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the dynamic balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses and identifying the discrepancies between pre-clinical studies and clinical trials may serve as a basis for designing effective therapies. PMID:24006091

  10. Wernicke's Encephalopathy Mimicking Acute Onset Stroke Diagnosed by CT Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Rajiv; Kurz, Kathinka D.; Kurz, Martin W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndromes such as Wernicke's encephalopathy may present with a sudden neurological deficit, thus mimicking acute onset stroke. Due to current emphasis on rapid admission and treatment of acute stroke patients, there is a significant risk that these stroke mimics may end up being treated with thrombolysis. Rigorous clinical and radiological skills are necessary to correctly identify such metabolic stroke mimics, in order to avoid doing any harm to these patients due to the unnecessary use of thrombolysis. Patient. A 51-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to our hospital with suspicion of an acute stroke due to sudden onset dysarthria and unilateral facial nerve paresis. Clinical examination revealed confusion and dysconjugate gaze. Computed tomography (CT) including a CT perfusion (CTP) scan revealed bilateral thalamic hyperperfusion. The use of both clinical and radiological findings led to correctly diagnosing Wernicke's encephalopathy. Conclusion. The application of CTP as a standard diagnostic tool in acute stroke patients can improve the detection of stroke mimics caused by metabolic syndromes as shown in our case report. PMID:24716022

  11. Management of acute stroke in patients taking novel oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Graeme J; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 1·0–2·0% of individuals with atrial fibrillation and 0·1–0·2% of those with venous thromboembolism who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) can be expected to experience an acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, 0·2–0·5% of individuals with atrial fibrillation who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants can be expected to experience an intracranial hemorrhage. This opinion piece addresses the current literature and offers practical approaches to the management of patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants who present with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Specifically, we discuss the role of thrombolysis in anticoagulated patients with acute ischemic stroke and factors to consider concerning restarting anticoagulation after acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:24891030

  12. Investigation of acute stroke: what is the most effective strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Dunbabin, D. W.; Sandercock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques of investigation of acute stroke syndromes have progressed rapidly in recent years, outpacing developments in effective stroke treatment. The clinician is thus faced with a variety of tests, each with different cost implications and each altering management to a greater or lesser extent. This review will concentrate on the basic tests which should be performed for all strokes (full blood count, ESR, biochemical screen, blood glucose, cholesterol, syphilis serology, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be required in selected cases: CT scan to diagnose 'non-stroke' lesions, to exclude cerebral haemorrhage if anti-haemostatic therapy is planned, and to detect strokes which may require emergency intervention (such as cerebellar stroke with hydrocephalus); echocardiography to detect cardiac sources of emboli; and in a few cases lumbar puncture and specialized haematological tests. Other tests, which are currently research tools, may be suitable for widespread use in the future including NMR, SPECT and PET scanning. PMID:2062773

  13. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in Chinese patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-jun; Zhu, Ding-liang; Yang, Guo-yuan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hai-ya; Ji, Kai-da; Lu, Yi-ming; Gao, Ping-jin

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that a mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) occurs after acute cerebrovascular diseases, we evaluated the number of EPCs in the process of acute stroke. A total of 203 individuals were examined, including 100 patients with ischemic strokes, 36 patients with hemorrhagic strokes and 67 healthy controls. Ninety-eight patients were observed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28 after acute stroke. Circulating EPCs were defined by the surface markers CD133/KDR and analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were determined by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry using the N high sensitivity CRP Reagent. Patients with acute stroke had lower numbers of EPCs (0.037+/-0.001/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) vs. 0.06+/-0.002/100 PMNCs, P<0.05) and higher levels of serum hs-CRP (1.99 vs. 0.03 mg per 100 ml, P<0.05) than control subjects after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. There were no differences in EPCs counts or serum hs-CRP levels between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In univariate analyses, BMI, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (T-cho), blood glucose and hs-CRP (P<0.001) were inversely correlated with EPCs counts. Multivariate analyses showed SBP and total cholesterol as independent predictors of EPCs levels. The number of EPCs gradually increased at day 7 after acute onset, remained elevated at day 14; and returned to baseline by day 28. Our results suggest a possible contribution of circulating EPCs in acute stroke. SBP and total cholesterol are independent factors of reduced EPCs numbers. A transient early increment of EPCs may result from the mobilization of EPCs in response to stroke stress.

  14. Prognostic value of single-photon emission tomography in acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Weir, C J; Bolster, A A; Tytler, S; Murray, G D; Corrigall, R S; Adams, F G; Lees, K R

    1997-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) is widely used in the investigation of acute stroke. We investigated the relationship between SPET data and functional outcome in a large group of acute stroke patients. One hundred and eight patients underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET after acute ischaemic stroke. We categorised the clinical presentation according to the Oxford classification of acute stroke. Outcome was measured 1 year after stroke using mortality and the Barthel Index for survivors. SPET scans were interpreted without reference to the clinical data using a semi-automatic technique. Three experienced observers determined the presence of luxury perfusion using suitably scaled SPET images in conjunction with the CT scan. Both SPET volume and severity of deficit were significantly negatively correlated with Barthel Index at 1 year (rs=-0.310, P<0.0001, and rs=-0.316, P<0.0001 respectively). In patients scanned with SPET within 16 h of stroke onset, the correlations were more strongly negative (rs=-0.606, P<0. 001, and rs=-0.492, P<0.005 respectively). Luxury perfusion was not associated (chi2=0.073, df=1, P=0.79) with good functional outcome (Barthel score >/=60). Stepwise logistic regression identified Oxford classification, total deficit volume and patient's age as significant predictors of functional outcome. Overall predictive accuracy was 72%. Predictive accuracy was better in patients who received SPET within 16 h of stroke onset. SPET provides useful information about the functional outcome of acute stroke at 1 year. However, the accuracy of prediction decreases the longer SPET is delayed. Prognostication using SPET in combination with clinical assessment and other investigations may also be considered.

  15. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Telemedicine Service for the Treatment of Acute Stroke Patients: TeleStroke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care service based on telemedicine can reduce both physical and time barriers in stroke treatments. Moreover, this service connects centers specializing in stroke treatment with other centers and practitioners, thereby increasing accessibility to neurological specialist care and fibrinolytic treatment. Objective Development, implementation, and evaluation of a care service for the treatment of acute stroke patients based on telemedicine (TeleStroke) at Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. Methods The evaluation phase, conducted from October 2008 to January 2011, involved patients who presented acute stroke symptoms confirmed by the emergency physician; they were examined using TeleStroke in two hospitals, at a distance of 16 and 110 kilometers from Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. We analyzed the number of interconsultation sheets, the percentage of patients treated with fibrinolysis, and the number of times they were treated. To evaluate medical professionals’ acceptance of the TeleStroke system, we developed a web-based questionnaire using a Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 28 patients were evaluated through the interconsultation sheet. Out of 28 patients, 19 (68%) received fibrinolytic treatment. The most common reasons for not treating with fibrinolysis included: clinical criteria in six out of nine patients (66%) and beyond the time window in three out of nine patients (33%). The mean “onset-to-hospital” time was 69 minutes, the mean time from admission to CT image was 33 minutes, the mean “door-to-needle” time was 82 minutes, and the mean “onset-to-needle” time was 150 minutes. Out of 61 medical professionals, 34 (56%) completed a questionnaire to evaluate the acceptability of the TeleStroke system. The mean values for each item were over 6.50, indicating that respondents positively evaluated each item. This survey was assessed using the Cronbach alpha test to determine the reliability of the

  16. Imaging retina to study dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Ikram, M Kamran; Chen, Christopher; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-03-01

    With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may not be able to detect subtle subclinical changes (resolution <100-500 μm) in dementia and stroke, there is an urgent need for other complementary techniques to probe the pathophysiology of these diseases. The retina - due to its anatomical, embryological and physiological similarities with the brain - offers a unique and accessible "window" to study correlates and consequences of subclinical pathology in the brain. Retinal components such as the microvasculature and retinal ganglion cell axons can now be visualized non-invasively using different retinal imaging techniques e.g., ocular fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. Advances in retinal imaging may provide new and potentially important insights into cerebrovascular neurodegenerative processes in addition to what is currently possible with neuro-imaging. In this review, we present an overview of the current literature on the application of retinal imaging in the study of dementia and stroke. We discuss clinical implications of these studies, novel state-of-the-art retinal imaging techniques and future directions aimed at evaluating whether retinal imaging can be an additional investigation tool in the study of dementia and stroke.

  17. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit.

  18. Factoring in Factor VIII With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Siegler, James E; Samai, Alyana; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-10-01

    There is growing research interest into the etiologies of cryptogenic stroke, in particular as it relates to hypercoagulable states. An elevation in serum levels of the procoagulant factor VIII is recognized as one such culprit of occult cerebral infarctions. It is the objective of the present review to summarize the molecular role of factor VIII in thrombogenesis and its clinical use in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. We also discuss the utility of screening for serum factor VIII levels among patients at risk for, or those who have experienced, ischemic stroke.

  19. Normobaric oxygen treatment in acute ischemic stroke: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shu-hai; Qi, Zhi-feng; Luo, Yu-min; Ji, Xun-ming; Liu, Ke Jian

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a common and serious neurological disease. Oxygen therapy has been shown to increase oxygen supply to ischemic tissues and improve outcomes after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), an easily applicable and non-invasive method, shows protective effects on acute ischemic stroke animals and patients in pilot studies. However, many critical scientific questions are still unclear, such as the therapeutic time window of NBO, the long-term effects and the benefits of NBO in large clinic trials. In this article, we review the current literatures on NBO treatment of acute ischemic stroke in preclinical and clinical studies and try to analyze and identify the key gaps or unknowns in our understanding about NBO. Based on these analyses, we provide suggestions for future studies. PMID:27867482

  20. Stroke navigator--a clinical decision support system for acute stroke.

    PubMed

    van Zon, Kees; Lord, William P; Lagor, Charles; Theiss, Stephan; Brosig, Torge; Siebler, Mario

    2008-11-06

    The Stroke Navigator is a clinical decision support system aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. It combines an audit trail, a differential diagnosis window, an interactive stroke protocol map, and a list of recommendations for hospital staff. It provides a patient-specific overview of the workflow status and of the available clinical findings, with the goal of improving the continuity of care. For this purpose, it uses a workflow engine that was specifically designed to meet the demands of clinical practice. The Stroke Navigator furthermore calculates and displays the probabilities of various stroke differential diagnoses. The demonstration will introduce these and other features by means of a hypothetical patient case. It will also summarize the status of alpha-testing the first prototype.

  1. Deconvolution with simple extrapolation for improved cerebral blood flow measurement in dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging during acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Matthew Ethan; Smith, Michael Richard; Frayne, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging is a clinical technique for measuring brain blood flow parameters during stroke and other ischemic events. Ischemia in brain tissue can be difficult to accurately measure or visualize when using MR-derived cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps. The deconvolution techniques used to estimate flow can introduce a mean transit time-dependent bias following application of noise stabilization techniques. The underestimation of the CBF values, greatest in normal tissues, causes a decrease in the image contrast observed in CBF maps between normally perfused and ischemic tissues; resulting in ischemic areas becoming less conspicuous. Through application of the proposed simple extrapolation technique, CBF biases are reduced when missing high-frequency signal components in the MR data removed during deconvolution noise stabilization are restored. The extrapolation approach was compared with other methods and showed a statistically significant increase in image contrast in CBF maps between normal and ischemic tissues for white matter (P<.05) and performed better than most other methods for gray matter. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that extrapolated CBF maps better-detected penumbral regions. Extrapolated CBF maps provided more accurate CBF estimates in simulations, suggesting that the approach may provide a better prediction of outcome in the absence of treatment.

  2. Utility of CT perfusion scanning in patient selection for acute stroke intervention: experience at University at Buffalo Neurosurgery-Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kan, Peter T; Snyder, Kenneth V; Yashar, Parham; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I

    2011-06-01

    Computed tomography perfusion scanning generates physiological flow parameters of the brain parenchyma, allowing differentiation of ischemic penumbra and core infarct. Perfusion maps, along with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, are used as the bases for endovascular stroke intervention at the authors' institute, regardless of the time interval from stroke onset. With case examples, the authors illustrate their perfusion-based imaging guidelines in patient selection for endovascular treatment in the setting of acute stroke.

  3. Mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke in childhood: how much does restricted diffusion matter?

    PubMed

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Jordan, Lori C; Cooper, Calvin; Froehler, Michael T; Mocco, J

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical thrombectomy holds promise for children with large cerebral arterial occlusions, although there are few reports in this population. We report a case of retrievable stent-assisted mechanical thrombectomy in a 5-year-old with basilar artery occlusion, despite late presentation and extensive initial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) restriction. This resulted in successful Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2B reperfusion and excellent clinical outcome. At 6-week follow-up he was completely back to baseline with no residual deficits (pediatric stroke outcome measure=0, modified Rankin scale=0). At 3-month follow-up the patient has not had any recurrent stroke or concern for stroke-like symptoms. We review the literature on mechanical thrombectomy and DWI changes in acute stroke in early to middle childhood (<12 years old).

  4. Predictors of diagnostic neuroimaging delays among adults presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute stroke in Ontario: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Kirsteen R.; Kapral, Moira K.; Li, Shudong; Fang, Jiming; Moody, Alan R.; Krahn, Murray; Laupacis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have examined the timeliness of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, but less is known about door-to-imaging time. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the timing of neuroimaging among patients with suspected acute stroke in the province of Ontario, Canada, and to examine factors associated with delays in neuroimaging. Methods: We included all patients 18 years and older with suspected acute stroke seen at hospitals with neuroimaging capacity within the Ontario Stroke Registry between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2011. We used a hierarchical, multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between patient and hospital factors and the likelihood of receiving timely neuroimaging (≤ 25 min) after arrival in the emergency department. Results: A total of 13 250 patients presented to an emergency department with stroke-like symptoms during the study period. Of the 3984 who arrived within 4 hours after symptom onset, 1087 (27.3%) had timely neuroimaging. The factors independently associated with an increased likelihood of timely neuroimaging were less time from symptom onset to presentation, more severe stroke, male sex, no history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, arrival to hospital from a setting other than home and presentation to a designated stroke centre or an urban hospital. Interpretation: A minority of patients with stroke-like symptoms who presented within the 4-hour thrombolytic treatment window received timely neuroimaging. Neuroimaging delays were influenced by various patient and hospital factors, some of which are modifiable. PMID:27398382

  5. The influence of gender on 'tissue at risk' in acute stroke: A diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study in a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Macrae, I Mhairi; Holmes, William M; McCabe, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to assess the influence of sex on the evolution of ischaemic injury and penumbra. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) Sprague-Dawley rats. Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired over 4 h and infarct determined from T2 images at 24 h post-permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Penumbra was determined retrospectively from serial apparent diffusion coefficient lesions and T2-defined infarct. Apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume was significantly smaller in females from 0.5 to 4 h post permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion as was infarct volume. Penumbral volume, and its loss over time, was not significantly different despite the sex difference in acute and final lesion volumes.

  6. Multi-modal CT in Stroke Imaging: New Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Ledezma, Carlos J.; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive non-invasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. PMID:19195537

  7. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  8. A patient with acute aortic dissection presenting with bilateral stroke - A rare experience.

    PubMed

    Kowalska-Brozda, Olimpia; Brozda, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a rare, life-threatening condition requiring early recognition and proper treatment. Although chest pain remains the most frequent initial symptom, clinical manifestation of aortic dissection varies. Rarely aortic dissection starts with neurological symptoms such as ischemic stroke, which is usually right-sided. A danger of performing thrombolytic therapy in these patients exists if aortic dissection is overlooked. Herein, we present a case of a patient with acute aortic dissection without typical chest pain whose initial manifestation was bilateral stroke. The uncommon presentation which masked the underlying condition delayed implementation of appropriate management. Moreover, the late admission to hospital prevented the patient from administration of recombined tissue plasminogen activator that would certainly decrease chances of survival. Presented case highlights the need for thorough physical examination at admission to hospital in all patients with acute stroke and points out the necessity of proper clinical work-up including adequate aorta imaging modalities of patients with acute stroke and suggestive findings of aortic dissection.

  9. Acute stroke care in a neurologically underserved state: lessons learned from the Iowa Stroke Survey.

    PubMed

    Albright, Karen C; Schott, Todd C; Boland, Debbie F; George, Leslie; Boland, Kevin P; Wohlford-Wessels, Mary Pat; Finnerty, Edward P; Jacoby, Michael R K

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that stroke care is more fragmented in rural or neurologically underserved areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of diagnostic and treatment services for acute stroke care in Iowa and to identify factors influencing care. Each of the 118 facilities in Iowa with emergency departments was surveyed by telephone. This survey consisted of 10 questions, focusing on the existence of pre-hospital and emergency room acute stroke protocols and the availability of essential personnel and diagnostic and treatment modalities essential for acute stroke care. Of the 118 hospitals with emergency departments, 109 (92.4%) had CT available. Within the subset having CT capabilities, 89.9% (98/109) had intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA) available. Of those facilities with both CT and IV t-PA, 46% (45/98) had around-the-clock in-house physician coverage. Further, 31% (14/45) of sites with CT, t-PA, and an in-house physician had a radiology technician on site. Only 12% (14/118) of centers could offer all essential components. Despite 88% of Iowa hospitals not providing all of these components, only 31% of these hospitals reported protocols for stabilization and immediate transfer of acute stroke patients. These findings indicate that the development of a stroke system is still in its infancy in Iowa. Collaborative efforts are needed to address barriers in rural Iowa and to assist facilities in providing the best possible care. Creativity will be paramount in establishing a functional statewide system to ensure optimum care for all Iowans.

  10. Endovascular vs medical management of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M.; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Crowley, R. Webster; Liu, Kenneth C.; Southerland, Andrew M.; Worrall, Bradford B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes between endovascular and medical management of acute ischemic stroke in recent randomized controlled trials (RCT). Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, and multicenter, prospective RCTs published from January 1, 2013, to May 1, 2015, directly comparing endovascular therapy to medical management for patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Meta-analyses of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and mortality at 90 days and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) for endovascular therapy and medical management were performed. Results: Eight multicenter, prospective RCTs (Interventional Management of Stroke [IMS] III, Local Versus Systemic Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke [SYNTHESIS] Expansion, Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy [MR RESCUE], Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands [MR CLEAN], Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness [ESCAPE], Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits–Intra-Arterial [EXTEND-IA], Solitaire With the Intention For Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment [SWIFT PRIME], and Endovascular Revascularization With Solitaire Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in Anterior Circulation Stroke Within 8 Hours [REVASCAT]) comprising 2,423 patients were included. Meta-analysis of pooled data demonstrated functional independence (mRS 0–2) at 90 days in favor of endovascular therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71; p = 0.005). Subgroup analysis of the 6 trials with large vessel occlusion (LVO) criteria also demonstrated functional independence at 90 days in favor of endovascular therapy (OR = 2.23; p < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis of the 5 trials that primarily utilized stent retriever devices (≥70%) in the intervention arm demonstrated functional independence at 90 days in favor of endovascular therapy

  11. The Association of Lesion Location and Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teuber, Anja; Wersching, Heike; Young, Peter; Dittrich, Ralf; Ritter, Martin; Dziewas, Rainer; Minnerup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common in patients with ischemic stroke and are associated with poor outcome. SRBD after stroke were assumed to be a direct consequence of injury of specific central nervous system structures. However, whether specific locations of ischemic infarcts cause SRBD is yet unknown. We therefore investigated the association of ischemic lesion location with SRBD. Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated on our stroke unit were included in a prospective observational study. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and polygraphy in the acute phase after stroke. SRBD was defined by an apnea—hypopnea index (AHI) ≥10. MRI were evaluated using standardized maps to depict voxel-wise probability distribution of infarction for patients with and without SRBD. Groups were compared using logistic regression analysis. Results Of 142 patients included, 86 (59%) had a SRBD. Age, body mass index and prevalence of arterial hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SRBD. There was no statistically significant association between any lesion location and SRBD. Conclusion We found no association of lesion location and SRBD in stroke patients, whereas established risk factors for SRBD, known from general population, were significantly associated with SRBD. Given the high prevalence of SRBD in stroke patients, these findings suggest that cerebral ischemia facilitates the occurrence of SRBD in patients with pre-existing risk factors rather than causing it by damaging specific central nervous system structures. Our findings can be used to identify stroke patients who might benefit from polygraphy screening. PMID:28135315

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of severe cardiac arrhythmias in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Frank; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Gutjahr, Isabell; Breuer, Lorenz; Winder, Klemens; Kaschka, Iris; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd; Hilz, Max-Josef; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Neurocardiological interactions can cause severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The relationship between the lesion location in the brain and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardiac arrhythmias were systematically assessed in patients with acute ischemic stroke during the first 72 h after admission to a monitored stroke unit. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of clinically relevant severe arrhythmias. Overall 150 patients, 56 with right-hemispheric and 94 patients with a left-hemispheric lesion, were eligible to be included in the VLSM study. Severe cardiac arrhythmias were present in 49 of these 150 patients (32.7%). We found a significant association (FDR correction, q < 0.05) between lesions in the right insular, right frontal and right parietal cortex as well as the right amygdala, basal ganglia and thalamus and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. Because left- and right-hemispheric lesions were analyzed separately, the significant findings rely on the 56 patients with right-hemispheric lesions. The data indicate that these areas are involved in central autonomic processing and that right-hemispheric lesions located to these areas are associated with an elevated risk for severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  13. Reperfusion Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mònica; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset significantly improves clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This narrow window for treatment leads to a small proportion of eligible patients to be treated. Intravenous or intra-arterial trials, combined intravenous/intra-arterial trials, and newer devices to mechanically remove the clot from intracranial arteries have been investigated or are currently being explored to increase patient eligibility and to improve arterial recanalization and clinical outcome. New retrievable stent-based devices offer higher revascularization rates with shorter time to recanalization and are now generally preferred to first generation thrombectomy devices such as Merci Retriever or Penumbra System. These devices have been shown to be effective for opening up occluded vessels in the brain but its efficacy for improving outcomes in patients with acute stroke has not yet been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. We summarize the results of the major systemic thrombolytic trials and the latest trials employing different endovascular approaches to ischemic stroke. PMID:24646159

  14. Reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke: an update.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mònica; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-11-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset significantly improves clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This narrow window for treatment leads to a small proportion of eligible patients to be treated. Intravenous or intra-arterial trials, combined intravenous/intra-arterial trials, and newer devices to mechanically remove the clot from intracranial arteries have been investigated or are currently being explored to increase patient eligibility and to improve arterial recanalization and clinical outcome. New retrievable stent-based devices offer higher revascularization rates with shorter time to recanalization and are now generally preferred to first generation thrombectomy devices such as Merci Retriever or Penumbra System. These devices have been shown to be effective for opening up occluded vessels in the brain but its efficacy for improving outcomes in patients with acute stroke has not yet been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. We summarize the results of the major systemic thrombolytic trials and the latest trials employing different endovascular approaches to ischemic stroke.

  15. Ischemic penumbra in acute stroke: Demonstration by PET with fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.H.; Liu, R.S.; Hu, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    Ischemic penumbra (IP) in acute stroke has gained clinical interest since tissue functions may be recovered if perfusion can be reestablished. However, such therapeutic intervention is {open_quotes}blind{close_quotes} since clinical examination can not distinguish IP from developing infarction. In vivo demonstration of IP may have significance for stroke patient management. This study was a preliminary evaluation of detecting IP in vivo by F-18 fluoromisonidazole ([F-18]-FMISO), a hypoxic imaging agent. Static PET imaging was performed after IV injection of 370 MBq of [F-18]-FMISO at 20 and 120 min. Tomograms were reconstructed and evaluated visually in correlation with CT or MR scans. In acute stroke, patients (pts) were called back for the second PET study one month after the initial study. CT was used for confirming infarction. In 6 pts with acute cerebral infarction, three of them had intense [F-18]-FMISO retention in the penumbra surrounding the central, eclipse-like zone of absent radio-activity (infarction) at 2 hr in the acute state, and the penumbra disappeared in association with increased area of infarction on CT in one case in the chronic state. In five pts with chronic infarction, all had no penumbra of [F-18]-FMISO retention. In summary, our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of using [F-18]-FMISO PET to detect ischemic penumbra in vivo.

  16. Risk of stroke in imaging-proven subclavian steal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xia; Bai, Harrison Xiao; Wang, Zhili; Yang, Li

    2017-03-31

    To determine the risk of stroke in patients with subclavian steal syndrome (SSS). We identified 165 patients with imaging-provenSSS from two hospitals. Demographic, clinical and imaging data were retrospectively collected. Patients were followed up for stroke events. Stroke occurred in 43 patients with a median follow-up of 28months. Seven of these cases were identified prospectively and 36 cases retrospectively. On multivariate analysis, presence of symptoms at presentation (p=0.029) was a significant predictor of stroke. Presence of symptoms at presentation predicted stroke in imaging-proven SSS.

  17. A male Fabry disease patient treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Jukka T; Sillanpää, Niko; Kantola, Ilkka

    2015-02-01

    The use of intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is associated with improved outcomes. Fabry disease is an X-linked glycosphingolipid storage disease with vascular endothelial deposits. Affected males with the classic phenotype develop renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease and die prematurely. However, Fabry disease is rare in young men with first ischemic stroke of undetermined cause. We report a 38-year-old man with acute aphasia and a left M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery thrombus with no recanalization who was finally diagnosed with Fabry disease after left ventricular hypertrophy of undetermined cause had been identified. A gene test revealed a R227X mutation typical of Fabry disease with the classical phenotype. To our knowledge our patient is the first reported male Fabry patient who was given intravenous thrombolytic therapy and the first reported Fabry patient who received intravenous thrombolytic therapy between 3 and 4.5 hours of the symptom onset. Despite favorable prognostic indicators on admission imaging, our patient suffered a significant stroke and had an unfavorable clinical outcome. Fortunately, the episode was not complicated by intracranial hemorrhage. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in treating patients with Fabry disease and acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Immuno-inflammatory activation in acute cardio-embolic strokes in comparison with other subtypes of ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Licata, Giuseppe; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Corrao, Salvatore; Di Sciacca, Riccardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between inflammatory biomarker blood levels, cardioembolic stroke subtype and neurological deficit. So the aim of our study is to evaluate plasma levels of immuno-inflammatory variables in patients with cardio-embolic acute ischaemic stroke compared to other diagnostic subtypes and to evaluate the relationship between immuno-inflammatory variables, acute neurological deficit and brain infarct volume. One hundred twenty patients with acute ischaemic stroke and 123 controls without a diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke were evaluated. The type of acute ischaemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST classification. We evaluated plasma levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10, E-selectin, P-selectin, sICAM-1,sVCAM-1, vWF, TPA and PAI-1. Patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cardio-embolic (CEI) showed, compared to other subtypes, significantly higher median plasma levels of TNF-alpha , IL-6 and IL-1beta. Furthermore stroke patients classified as lacunar showed, compared to other subtypes, significantly lower median plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta. Multiple linear regression showed a significant association between the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) score at admission and diagnostic subtype, infarct volume of cardio-embolic strokes and some inflammatory variables. Our findings confirm that cardio-embolic strokes have a worse clinical presentation and produce larger and more disabling strokes than other ischaemic stroke subtypes reporting a possible explanation of higher immuno-inflammatory activation of the acute phase.

  19. [Operations on carotid arteries in an acute stage of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Ignat'ev, I M

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at specifying the indications for operations performed on carotid arteries in an acute period of ischaemic stroke and assessing the results thus obtained. Between January 2008 and July 2010, we carried out a total of 372 operations on carotid arteries in three hundred and sixty patients. Of these, thirty-two subjects were operated on in an acute period of stroke. Neurovisualization was performed by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). The condition of the carotid arteries was assessed by means of duplex scanning (DS). The operations performed on the carotid arteries were as follows: thrombembolectomy (n=4), carotid thrombendarterectomy (n 5), carotid endarterectomy (CEAE, n=21), and stent grafting of the internal carotid arteries (1СA, n 2). Five CEAE operations were carried out after thrombolysis. The interventions on the carotid arteries were performed within 6 hours to 12 days from the onset of the first symptoms of ischaemic stroke. Neurologists were actively engaged in both determining the indications for the operations and monitoring of neurological functions. There were no perioperative complications encountered. Regression of the neurological deficit during 7 days of in-hospital follow up occurred in sixteen patients (50%) (neurological deficit scoring 1-2 by the Rankin scale). One patient (3%) developed ischaemic stroke on postoperative day 3 after CEAE. Two patients were diagnosed as having transitory ischaemic attacks. Stenting turned out successful in the both patients. The remote results at terms ranging from 12 months to 2 years were followed up in fifteen patients. Of these, twelve patients (80%) showed complete restoration of neurological functions (Rankin scale scoring 0). Neither lethal outcomes nor relapsing strokes were observed over the follow-up period. The obtained outcomes strongly suggest certain advantages and advisability of active surgical policy of treating patients

  20. Spontaneous sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma following thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Morosetti, Roberta; Caliandro, Pietro; Frisullo, Giovanni

    2014-06-15

    Spontaneous or traumatic bleeding is a common complication of systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We report the case of an 83 y.o. woman with right facio-brachio-crural hemiparesis, left deviation of the head and aphasia who developed, after thrombolytic therapy, a spontaneous sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma that regressed few days later. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of asymptomatic and spontaneous skeletal muscle hematoma following thrombolysis for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The occurrence of lateral cervical tuberculosis lymphadenitis ipsilateral to sternocleidomastoid muscle hematoma may suggest a causal relationship between local chronic inflammation of active mycobacterial infection and thrombolysis-related extravasation. This case should suggest caution in thrombolytic treatment in patients with chronic immune dysregulation and vascular inflammation such as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

  1. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lambrinos, Anna; Schaink, Alexis K; Dhalla, Irfan; Krings, Timo; Casaubon, Leanne K; Sikich, Nancy; Lum, Cheemun; Bharatha, Aditya; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Stotts, Grant; Saposnik, Gustavo; Kelloway, Linda; Xie, Xuanqian; Hill, Michael D

    2016-07-01

    Although intravenous thrombolysis increases the probability of a good functional outcome in carefully selected patients with acute ischemic stroke, a substantial proportion of patients who receive thrombolysis do not have a good outcome. Several recent trials of mechanical thrombectomy appear to indicate that this treatment may be superior to thrombolysis. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices with intravenous thrombolysis (if eligible) compared with intravenous thrombolysis (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. We systematically searched seven databases for randomized controlled trials published between January 2005 and March 2015 comparing stent retrievers or thromboaspiration devices with best medical therapy (with or without intravenous thrombolysis) in adults with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed risk of bias and overall quality of the included trials. We combined the data using a fixed or random effects meta-analysis, where appropriate. We identified 1579 studies; of these, we evaluated 122 full-text papers and included five randomized control trials (n=1287). Compared with patients treated medically, patients who received mechanical thrombectomy were more likely to be functionally independent as measured by a modified Rankin score of 0-2 (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-3.04; I2=0%). This finding was robust to subgroup analysis. Mortality and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups. Mechanical thrombectomy significantly improves functional independence in appropriately selected patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  2. Infection after Acute Ischemic Stroke: Risk Factors, Biomarkers, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, Katja E.; Stoll, Anett; Funk, Andreas; Meyer, Andreas; Schmidt, J. Michael; Berrouschot, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Background. The activation of inflammatory cascades triggered by ischemic stroke may play a key role in the development of infections. Methods. Patients admitted with ischemic stroke within 24 hours were prospectively enrolled. Biomarkers of infection were measured on days 1, 3, and 5. The patients were continuously monitored for predefined infections. Results. Patients with infection were older (OR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and had a higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale Score (NIHSS, OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10–1.34), localization in the insula, and higher stroke volumes on diffusion-weighted imaging. The maximum temperature on days 1 and 3, leukocytes, interleukin-6, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein on days 1, 3, and 5, C-reactive protein on days 3 and 5, and procalcitonin on day 5 were higher and HLA-DR-expression on monocytes on days 1, 3, and 5 lower in patients with infection. Age and NIHSS predicted the development of infections. Infection was an independent predictor of poor functional outcome. Conclusions. Severe stroke and increasing age were shown to be early predictors for infections after stroke. PMID:21789273

  3. GERSTMANN’S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Zukic, Sanela; Mrkonjic, Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patients. Patients and methods: We prospectively analyzed 194 acute stroke patients (average age 65±11.06 years, male 113 (58.2%), female 81 (41.8%) hospitalized at department of Neurology, University Clinical Center tuzla, during the six mounths in 2010. For clinical assessment of agraphia, alexia and acalculia we used Minessota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia’s. Results: Among these acute stroke patients, 59 (30.40%) had alexia, agraphia and acalculia or different combinations of these disorders. two patients (3.4%) had agraphia and acalculia associated with other part of tetrad of GS: fi nger agnosia and left-right disorientation. they both where men, right handed, and cranial computed tomography scan showed ischemic lesion in the left parietal and left temporoparietal lobe. Conclusion: Gerstmann`s syndrome is rare clinical entity, and has the high value in localization and the lesion is mainly localized to angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. PMID:23378691

  4. Dynamic functional cerebral blood volume responses to normobaric hyperoxia in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ona; Lu, Jie; Mandeville, Joseph B; Murata, Yoshihiro; Egi, Yasu; Dai, Guangping; Marota, John J; Diwan, Izzuddin; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Kwong, Kenneth K; Lo, Eng H; Singhal, Aneesh B

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that neuroprotective effects of normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy in acute stroke are partly mediated by hemodynamic alterations. We investigated cerebral hemodynamic effects of repeated NBO exposures. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in Wistar rats subjected to focal ischemic stroke. Normobaric oxygen-induced functional cerebral blood volume (fCBV) responses were analyzed. All rats had diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) lesions within larger perfusion deficits, with DWI lesion expansion after 3 hours. Functional cerebral blood volume responses to NBO were spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Contralateral healthy tissue responded consistently with vasoconstriction that increased with time. No significant responses were evident in the acute DWI lesion. In hypoperfused regions surrounding the acute DWI lesion, tissue that remained viable until the end of the experiment showed relative preservation of mean fCBV at early time points, with some rats showing increased fCBV (vasodilation); however, these regions later exhibited significantly decreased fCBV (vasoconstriction). Tissue that became DWI abnormal by study-end initially showed marginal fCBV changes that later became moderate fCBV reductions. Our results suggest that a reverse-steal hemodynamic effect may occur in peripheral ischemic zones during NBO treatment of focal stroke. In addition, CBV responses to NBO challenge may have potential as an imaging marker to distinguish ischemic core from salvageable tissues. PMID:22739619

  5. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Stroke About Stroke Stroke -- A Serious Event A stroke is serious, just ... lifestyle can help you prevent stroke. What Is Stroke? A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." ...

  6. Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Acute Ischemic Stroke from Septic Embolus: Successful Solitaire FR Thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jackson J; Bishu, Kalkidan G; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2012-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is often complicated by systemic embolization. Acute stroke due to septic emboli is a particularly dreaded complication. Optimal treatment for acute stroke in IE has not been well outlined. Fibrinolytic therapy may be associated with increased risk for hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke in the setting of IE. We present a case of IE complicated by acute stroke which was successfully treated with mechanical thrombectomy. This case illustrates a role of mechanical thrombectomy devices in this patient population.

  7. N-acetylaspartate decrease in acute stage of ischemic stroke: a perspective from experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Hironaka; Suzuki, Yuji; Huber, Vincent J; Ida, Masahiro; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA) appears in a prominent peak in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the brain. Exhibition by NAA of time-dependent attenuation that reflects energy metabolism during the acute stage of cerebral ischemia makes this metabolite a unique biomarker for assessing ischemic stroke. Although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a powerful technique for inspecting the pathological changes that occur during ischemic stroke, biomarkers that directly reflect the drastic metabolic changes associated with acute-stage ischemia are strongly warranted for appropriate therapeutic decision-making in daily clinical settings. In this review, we provide a brief overview of NAA metabolism and focus on the use of attenuation in NAA as a means for assessing the pathophysiological changes that occur during the acute stage of ischemic stroke.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Hypoperfusion in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nael, Kambiz; Meshksar, Arash; Liebeskind, David S.; Coull, Bruce M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Villablanca, J. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study compares the concordance between arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) for the identification of regional hypoperfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch tissue classification using a quantitative method. Methods The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were as follows: patients with acute ischemic syndrome with symptom onset <24 hours and acquisition of both ASL and DSC MR perfusion. The volumes of infarction and hypoperfused lesions were calculated on ASL and DSC multi-parametric maps. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups using time to maximum >6 sec as the reference. In a subset of patients who were successfully recanalized, the identical analysis was performed and the infarction and hypoperfused lesion volumes were used for paired pre- and posttreatment comparisons. Results Forty-one patients met our inclusion criteria. Twenty patients underwent successful endovascular revascularization (TICI>2a), resulting in a total of 61 ASL-DSC data pairs for comparison. The hypoperfusion volume on ASL-cerebral blood flow best approximated the DSC-time to peak volume (r=0.83) in pretreatment group and time to maximum (r=0.46) after recanalization. Both ASL-cerebral blood flow and DSC-TTP overestimated the hypoperfusion volume compared with time to maximum volume in pretreatment (F=27.41, P<0.0001) and recanalized patients (F=8.78, P<0.0001). Conclusions ASL-cerebral blood flow overestimates the DSC time to maximum hypoperfusion volume and mismatch classification in patients with acute ischemic syndrome. Continued overestimation of hypoperfused volume after recanalization suggests flow pattern and velocity changes in addition to arterial transit delay can affects the performance of ASL. PMID:23988646

  9. Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Strengths and Synergies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-03-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is responsible for around 80% of all strokes and is a leading cause of disability and death globally. There are two potential treatment strategies: restoring blood flow (reperfusion) and preventing cellular injury (neuroprotection). As yet, all the successful trials have involved reperfusion with numerous failures of neuroprotectants. There are two proven reperfusion strategies. Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase was first demonstrated to reduce disability with publication of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke tissue plasminogen activator trial in 1995. Since that time further trials have solidified the evidence base and demonstrated benefit when alteplase is administered within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. Exploration of potentially more effective thrombolytics is still underway with tenecteplase but others, such as desmoteplase, have been unsuccessful in clinical trials. The second proven reperfusion strategy is endovascular clot retrieval. This has been practiced for several years but came of age with the publication of five strongly positive trials in 2015. This review discusses the evidence for intravenous and intra-arterial reperfusion strategies and the advantages, disadvantages, and synergies of the two approaches.

  10. Protein methionine oxidation augments reperfusion injury in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Sean X.; Blokhin, Ilya O.; Wilson, Katina M.; Dhanesha, Nirav; Doddapattar, Prakash; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Chauhan, Anil K.; Lentz, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Reperfusion injury can exacerbate tissue damage in ischemic stroke, but little is known about the mechanisms linking ROS to stroke severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that protein methionine oxidation potentiates NF-κB activation and contributes to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We found that overexpression of methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), an antioxidant enzyme that reverses protein methionine oxidation, attenuated ROS-augmented NF-κB activation in endothelial cells, in part, by protecting against the oxidation of methionine residues in the regulatory domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In a murine model, MsrA deficiency resulted in increased NF-κB activation and neutrophil infiltration, larger infarct volumes, and more severe neurological impairment after transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. This phenotype was prevented by inhibition of NF-κB or CaMKII. MsrA-deficient mice also exhibited enhanced leukocyte rolling and upregulation of E-selectin, an endothelial NF-κB–dependent adhesion molecule known to contribute to neurovascular inflammation in ischemic stroke. Finally, bone marrow transplantation experiments demonstrated that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by MsrA expressed in nonhematopoietic cells. These findings suggest that protein methionine oxidation in nonmyeloid cells is a key mechanism of postischemic oxidative injury mediated by NF-κB activation, leading to neutrophil recruitment and neurovascular inflammation in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27294204

  11. Proximal Arterial Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke with Low NIHSS Scores Should Not Be Considered as Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Chang, Jane; Lee, Ji Sung; Choi, Kang-Ho; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated acute mild stroke patients have substantial 90-day disability rates and worse outcomes than those who are treated with thrombolysis. There is little information regarding which patients with acute mild stroke will benefit from thrombolysis. We sought to investigate factors that are associated with early neurological deterioration (END) and poor prognosis in patients with acute mild stroke. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutively registered patients with acute mild stroke (NIHSS ≤3) at our tertiary stroke center between October 2008 and December 2011. END was defined as an increase in NIHSS ≥2 points between hospital days 0 and 5. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–1 at 90 days post-stroke were defined as favorable outcomes. Results A total of 378 (mean age, 65.9±13.0 years) patients were included in this study. END occurred in 55 patients (14.6%). IV-thrombolysis was performed in only 9 patients. Symptomatic arterial occlusion on the initial MRA was independently associated with END (OR, 2.206; 95% CI, 1.219–3.994; p = 0.009) by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 119 patients with symptomatic arterial occlusion, ICA occlusion was independently associated with END (OR, 8.606; 95% CI, 2.312–32.043; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that symptomatic arterial occlusion may be an important predictor of END in patients with acute mild stroke. It may therefore be important to consider that acute ischemic stroke with symptomatic arterial occlusion and low NIHSS scores may not represent mild stroke in acute periods. PMID:23976971

  12. Effect of dexamethasone on brain oedema following acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A K; Mohammad, Q D; Ullah, M A; Ahsan, M M; Rahman, A; Shakoor, M A

    2011-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to asses the effects of dexamethasone on brain oedema following acute ischemic stroke in the departments of Medicine of different hospitals from July, 2003 to December, 2006. A total of 60 patients were included in the study. They were divided into two groups keeping the similarity regarding the age, sex and severity of the stroke between two groups. There were 30 patients in experimental group and 30 in control group. The level of consciousness was compared by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on 3rd, 7th and 10th day of intervention and improvement was found in both the groups, but the improvement of level of consciousness was statistically significant in Dexamethasone treated group. The volume of hypodense area did not differ significantly in two groups in CT scans before and after treatment (p=0.74). The study results demonstrate that Dexamethasone improves the level of consciousness in acute ischemic stroke associated with brain oedema but did not reduce volume of hypodense area.

  13. Acute Stroke due to Electrocution: Uncommon or Unrecognized?

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The growing dependence on electricity in our daily lives has increased the incidence of electrocution injuries. Although several neurological injuries have been described previously, acute stroke due to electrocution is rare. Our patient, a previously healthy man, was electrocuted after he grabbed a “live” high-voltage wire. Although he was hemodynamically stable, he remained confused with language defects. MRI of the brain showed acute stroke in the bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory and watershed regions of the left middle cerebral artery territory. MR angiogram incidentally showed A1 segment aplasia of the right anterior cerebral artery. Electrocution is known to cause vasospasm leading to end-organ damage similar to that seen in stroke. In our patient, vasospasm of the left anterior circulation likely led to watershed infarcts in the left parietal lobe and bilateral frontal lobes. Due to aplasia of the A1 segment on the right side, perfusion to both frontal lobes was solely from the left anterior cerebral artery. PMID:28058122

  14. Developments in mechanical thrombectomy devices for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several recent prospective randomized controlled trials of endovascular stroke therapy using latest generation thrombectomy devices, so called stent-retrievers, have shown significantly improved clinical outcome compared to the standard treatment with intra-venous thrombolysis using r-tPA alone. Despite some differences in inclusion criteria between these studies, all required non-invasive vessel imaging to proof occlusion of a major brain supplying vessel. Furthermore, in most studies additional imaging techniques were used to exclude patients with already established large cerebral infarction or unfavorable collateral or penumbral status. Patients with small infarct volume, severe neurological deficits and in whom thrombectomy can be initiated within the first 6 hours after symptom onset seem to benefit the most. Therefore, mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retrievers in addition to intra-venous thrombolysis is recommended for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with proven major vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation.

  15. Multimodal CT versus MRI in Selecting Acute Stroke Patients for Endovascular Treatment

    PubMed Central

    García-Bermejo, Pablo; Castaño, Carlos; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arterial revascularization is the most effective therapy for acute stroke patients. Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator based on baseline non-contrast CT (NCCT) imaging criteria is the only treatment approved to date, which is limited by severe timing and medical restrictions, and a narrow efficacy. The simple imaging methodology required contrast with the current wide range of imaging modalities available, which permits the physician to rapidly obtain an estimation of the most relevant pathophysiological factors involved in an acute stroke, overcoming the limited capability of NCCT. Multimodal CT and MRI combine techniques that aim to depict the neurovasculature and the status of the brain parenchyma, including the presence of hemorrhage and infarction, as well as the viability of the cerebral ischemic areas involved. These additional imaging procedures have been explored in clinical studies and trials to guide intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke patients beyond the currently established time windows, with inconclusive results. However, emergent endovascular materials and techniques are evolving, showing promising results with increasing rates of arterial recanalization with an acceptable safety profile, therefore becoming a potential alternative and complimentary treatment, although the current lack of a high level of evidence is limiting their use in routine clinical practice. Nevertheless, these advanced neuroimaging methods can be used to improve the selection of candidates for these novel invasive therapies and, moreover, to help the interventionist to design a faster and safer procedure. In this article, we review the basic aspects of both CT and MRI modalities and the state of the evidence of these imaging tools to guide endovascular therapy, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method. PMID:25187769

  16. VEGF expression in human brain tissue after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mărgăritescu, Otilia; Pirici, D; Mărgăritescu, Cl

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is the third most common cause of death in humans, requiring further studies to elucidate its pathophysiological background. One potential mechanism to increase oxygen delivery to the affected tissue is induction of angiogenesis. The most potent proangiogenic factor is VEGF. For this reason, our study investigated immunohistochemically VEGF reactivity in different cellular brain compartments from 15 ischemic stroke patients, as well as from 2 age control cases. By enzymatic immunohistochemistry, we investigate VEGF expression in different brain cell compartments and then we quantified its signal intensity by assessing integrated optical densities (IOD). To establish the exact cellular brain topography of VEGF immunoreactivity we performed double fluorescent immunohistochemistry series (VEGF÷NeuN, GFAP, CD68, CD105). In control samples, VEGF reactivity was observed especially in neurons from the Brodmann cortical layers IV to VI and in protoplasmic astrocytes from the deeper layers of gray matter and in endothelial cells from normal blood vessels because of systemic hypoxia generated after death. In acute ischemic stroke samples, this reactivity was noticed in all brain cellular compartments but with different intensities. The most reactive compartment was the neurons, the intensity of VEGF reaction decreasing with the lesional age from the core infarct toward intact adjacent brain cortex. With a lower intensity, VEGF reaction was noticed in astrocytes compartments, especially in gemistocytic astrocytes adjacent to the liquefaction zone. We also noticed a weak reaction in activated non-phagocytic microglia from the periphery of liquefaction zones, and high VEGF-CD105 colocalization values at the level of microvessels that surround the infarcted brain area. In conclusion, this reactivity could suggest that VEGF might exhibit neuronal and glial protective effects and also a neoangiogenic property in acute ischemic stroke, facts that may have

  17. The Prognostic Values of Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng-I.; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Yuen, Chun-Man; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. It has been reported that leukocyte ROCK activity is elevated in patients after ischemic stroke, but it is unclear whether leukocyte ROCK activity is associated with clinical outcomes following acute stroke events. The objective of this study is to investigate if leukocyte ROCK activity can predict the outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 110 patients of acute ischemic stroke and measured the leukocyte ROCK activity and plasma level of inflammatory cytokines to correlate the clinical outcomes of these patients. Results. The leukocyte ROCK activity at 48 hours after admission in acute ischemic stroke patients was higher as compared to a risk-matched population. The leukocyte ROCK activity significantly correlated with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) difference between admission and 90 days after stroke event. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed lower stroke-free survival during follow-up period in patients with high leukocyte ROCK activity or plasma hsCRP level. Leukocyte ROCK activity independently predicted the recurrent stroke in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. Conclusions. This study shows elevated leukocyte ROCK activity in patients with ischemic stroke as compared to risk-matched subjects and is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. PMID:24716192

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Hemorrhagic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya S; Gemmete, Joseph J; Hua, Ya; Huang, Yining; Gu, Yuxiang; Xi, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has evolved considerably over the last decade to now be knocking on the doors of wider clinical applications. There have been several efforts over the last decade to seek valuable and reliable application of DTI in different neurological disorders. The role of DTI in predicting outcomes in patients with brain tumors has been extensively studied and has become a fairly established clinical tool in this scenario. More recently DTI has been applied in mild traumatic brain injury to predict clinical outcomes based on DTI of the white matter tracts. The resolution of white matter fiber tractography based on DTI has improved over the years with increased magnet strength and better tractography post processing. The role of DTI in hemorrhagic stroke has been studied preliminarily in the scientific literature. There is some evidence that DTI may be efficacious in predicting outcomes of motor function in animal models of intracranial hemorrhage. Only a handful of studies of DTI have been performed in subarachnoid hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage scenarios. In this manuscript we will review the evolution of DTI, the existing evidence for its role in hemorrhagic stroke and discuss possible application of this non-invasive evaluation technique of human cerebral white matter tracts in the future. PMID:26015333

  19. [Telemedicine in acute stroke care--a health economics view].

    PubMed

    Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M

    2010-05-01

    Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.

  20. Pediatric Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... communicate with your child’s doctor. Symptoms of a Stroke Stroke is an injury to part of the ...

  1. [Efficacy of сerebrolysin in acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Petrova, O P; Chuprasov, A V; Matveev, N V

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the effect of cerebrolysin used in dose 30 ml daily during 10 days on rehabilitation measures in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Material and methods. The 1st group consisited of 23 patients who received standard treatment and cerebrolysin, the 2nd group included 89 patients who received standard treatment only. The severity of neurological deficits (NIHSS) and the level of disability (mRS) were assessed. Results and conclusion. A significantly earlier recovery (p<0,05) and decrease in disability were identified. A more pronounced effect was seen in young patinets and when treatment started early.

  2. Acute cerebrovascular incident in a young woman: Venous or arterial stroke? – Comparative analysis based on two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Katarzyna; Zimny, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edyta; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common neurological disorders. Most of them are arterial strokes, mainly ischemic, less often of hemorrhagic origin. Changes in the course of cerebral venous thrombosis are less common causes of acute cerebrovascular events. Clinical and radiological presentation of arterial and venous strokes (especially in emergency head CT) may pose a diagnostic problem because of great resemblance. However, the distinction between arterial and venous stroke is important from a clinical point of view, as it carries implications for the treatment and determinates patient’s prognosis. Case Report In this article, we present cases of two young women (one with an acute venous infarction, the second with an arterial stroke) who presented with similar both clinical and radiological signs of acute vascular incident in the cerebral cortex. We present main similarities and differences between arterial and venous strokes regarding the etiology, clinical symptoms and radiological appearance in various imaging techniques. Conclusions We emphasize that thorough analysis of CT (including cerebral vessels), knowledge of symptoms and additional clinical information (e.g. risk factors) may facilitate correct diagnosis and allow planning further diagnostic imaging studies. We also emphasize the importance of MRI, especially among young people, in the differential diagnosis of venous and arterial infarcts. PMID:24505227

  3. Current management of acute ischemic stroke. Part 1: Thrombolytics and the 3-hour window.

    PubMed Central

    Herd, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To help family physicians who care for patients with acute stroke or who are involved in planning service delivery or resource allocation to understand recent developments in acute stroke care. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search indicated that most data were derived from well designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, including all the largest international studies and large systematic reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: Treatment of acute stroke with tissue plasminogen activator seems beneficial for certain patients with certain kinds of stroke. Because thrombolytic therapy is not without risk and requires substantial resources, it should be administered only by physicians trained in its use and in centres with the necessary experience and resources. Because time is important, an organized and efficient system of stroke care with collaboration between hospital and prehospital care providers and help from ordinary citizens is essential. CONCLUSION: Management of acute stroke is an emerging discipline; many potential therapies are still experimental. PMID:11570304

  4. Plasma thrombin-cleaved osteopontin as a potential biomarker of acute atherothrombotic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Saya; Kurata, Mie; Kumon, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Shirabe; Tagawa, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hideaki; Ohue, Shiro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal is useful as a blood biomarker of acute atherothrombotic ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke patients were prospectively evaluated with brain magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac evaluations for etiological diagnosis according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. They were divided into the atherothrombotic and non-atherothrombotic groups. Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal, osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, S100B, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were measured from blood samples collected at admission. After excluding patients who met the exclusion criteria or had stroke of other/undetermined etiology, 60 of the 100 patients initially enrolled were included in the final analysis. The ischemic stroke subtypes were atherothrombotic (n=28, 46.7%), cardioembolic (n=19, 31.7%) and lacunar (n=13, 21.7%). Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were significantly higher in the atherothrombotic than in the non-atherothrombotic group (median (interquartile range): 5.83  (0.0-8.6 ) vs. 0.0  (0.0-3.3) pmol l(-1), P=0.03 and 544   (322-749 ) vs. 343   (254-485) ng ml(-1), P=0.01, respectively). After adjustment for the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal levels of >5.47 pmol l(-1) (odds ratio, 16.81; 95% confidence interval, 3.53-80.10) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels of >605.5 ng ml(-1) (6.59; 1.77-24.60) were identified as independent predictors of atherothrombosis. Within 3 h from stroke onset, only thrombin-cleaved osteopontin N-terminal independently predicted atherothrombosis and thus may add valuable, time-sensitive diagnostic information in the early evaluation of ischemic stroke, especially the atherothrombotic subtype.

  5. Text Detection in Natural Scene Images by Stroke Gabor Words.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, based on stroke components and descriptive Gabor filters, to detect text regions in natural scene images. Text characters and strings are constructed by stroke components as basic units. Gabor filters are used to describe and analyze the stroke components in text characters or strings. We define a suitability measurement to analyze the confidence of Gabor filters in describing stroke component and the suitability of Gabor filters on an image window. From the training set, we compute a set of Gabor filters that can describe principle stroke components of text by their parameters. Then a K -means algorithm is applied to cluster the descriptive Gabor filters. The clustering centers are defined as Stroke Gabor Words (SGWs) to provide a universal description of stroke components. By suitability evaluation on positive and negative training samples respectively, each SGW generates a pair of characteristic distributions of suitability measurements. On a testing natural scene image, heuristic layout analysis is applied first to extract candidate image windows. Then we compute the principle SGWs for each image window to describe its principle stroke components. Characteristic distributions generated by principle SGWs are used to classify text or nontext windows. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can handle complex backgrounds and variant text patterns (font, color, scale, etc.).

  6. Discovery of Metabolite Biomarkers for Acute Ischemic Stroke Progression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifang; Li, Ruiting; Antonov, Anton A; Wang, Lihua; Li, Wei; Hua, Yunfei; Guo, Huimin; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Peijia; Chen, Lixia; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian; Zhu, Yulan; Huang, Yin

    2017-02-03

    Stroke remains a major public health problem worldwide; it causes severe disability and is associated with high mortality rates. However, early diagnosis of stroke is difficult, and no reliable biomarkers are currently established. In this study, mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics was utilized to characterize the metabolic features of the serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) to identify novel sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis and progression. First, global metabolic profiling was performed on a training set of 80 human serum samples (40 cases and 40 controls). The metabolic profiling identified significant alterations in a series of 26 metabolites with related metabolic pathways involving amino acid, fatty acid, phospholipid, and choline metabolism. Subsequently, multiple algorithms were run on a test set consisting of 49 serum samples (26 cases and 23 controls) to develop different classifiers for verifying and evaluating potential biomarkers. Finally, a panel of five differential metabolites, including serine, isoleucine, betaine, PC(5:0/5:0), and LysoPE(18:2), exhibited potential to differentiate AIS samples from healthy control samples, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.988 and 0.971 in the training and test sets, respectively. These findings provided insights for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for AIS.

  7. Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Review of 97 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan; Buddaraju, Kiran; Majeed, Anas; Sharma, Suryanarayana; Javali, Mahendra; Acharya, Purushottam; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has now become a standard treatment in eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who present within 4.5 h of symptom onset. Objective: To determine the usefulness of IVT and the subset of patients who will benefit from IVT in AIS within 4.5 h. Materials and Methods: Patients with AIS within 4.5 h of symptom onset who underwent IVT were studied prospectively. The study period was from October 2011 to October 2015. Results: A total of 97 patients were thrombolysed intravenously. The mean onset to needle time in all patients was 177.2 ± 62 min (range: 60–360). At 3 months follow-up, favorable outcome was seen in 65 patients (67.1%) and poor outcome including death in the remaining 32 patients (32.9%). Factors predicting favorable outcome was age <65 years (P = 0.02), the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) <15 (P < 0.001), small vessel occlusion (P = 0.006), cardioembolism (P = 0.006), and random blood sugar (RBS) <250 mg/dl (P < 0.001). Factors predicting poor outcome was diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01), dyslipidemia (P = 0.01), NIHSS at admission >15 (P = 0.03), RBS >250 mg/dl (P = 0.01), Dense cerebral artery sign, age, glucose level on admission, onset-to-treatment time, NIHSS on admission score >5 (P = 0.03), and occlusion of large artery (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Milder baseline stroke severity, blood glucose <250 mg/dL, younger patients (<65 years), cardioembolic stroke, and small vessel occlusion benefit from recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:28149079

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy with reversible focal neurologic signs resembling acute stroke: case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Yamazaki, Mineo; Katayama, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    A 64-year-old female with a history of primary biliary cirrhosis and esophageal varices starting at age 39 was brought to our Stroke Care Unit by ambulance with right-side weakness and speech difficulty. Physical examination revealed right hemiparesis (including the face), sensory disturbances, pathological reflexes, and slightly decreased consciousness, with a Glasgow Coma Scale rating of E3V4M6. Flapping tremors and speech disturbance, as well as anarithmia, construction apraxia, and ideomotor apraxia, were noted, and her National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 13. Initially, the patient was diagnosed with acute stroke and treated accordingly; however, subsequent findings from clinical images and electroencephalography led to a diagnosis of focal neurologic signs due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The patient had significantly reduced cerebral blood flow in the left side of the brain, probably due to microsurgical repair of an aneurysm done 2 years earlier. HE with exaggerated chronic liver damage might have made the previously silent ischemia clinically apparent. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the patient's neurologic deficits resolved once HE was adequately controlled. This case illustrates the need for careful assessment of background pathophysiology when diagnosing patients with stroke-like symptoms.

  9. Role of brain natriuretic peptide as a novel prognostic biomarker in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Ramalingam, Krishnana; Conjeevaram, Jyoti; Munisusmitha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated to study the prognostic importance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke and measured plasma BNP levels and compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Risk factors, biochemical parameters, lipid profile, carotid and vertebral Doppler, imaging, and cardiac evaluation were done. Stroke severity was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission and functional disability by Barthel Index (BI) at 3 months. Ischemic stroke subtype was classified according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP). Data were entered in MS Excel, and appropriate statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software version 21.0. A P = 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean age of patients was 55.17 ± 11.37 years with a male:female ratio 3:1. OCSP showed total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) 35, partial anterior circulation infarct 9, lacunar infarct 12, and posterior circulation infarct 44. NIHSS on admission was average 10 ± 7 and BI was 57 ± 30. BNP in patients (435 ng/ml) was very high as compared to controls (<60 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between age and BNP (R2 = 0.34; P < 0.00); NIHSS and BNP (R2 = 0.255; P < 0.01), negative correlation between BI and BNP (R2 = −0.064; P < 0.01). Mean BNP levels across the OCSP showed higher values in TACI (F = 4.609 P = 0.005). Regression analysis showed that BNP can predict BI which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Plasma BNP levels was significantly elevated in patients with ischemic stroke. Our study concludes that high BNP levels are seen in large anterior circulation stroke and is a predictor for the poor functional outcome at 3 months. Determination of BNP levels as a biomarker could be helpful in predicting the outcome in stroke patients. PMID:27994354

  10. Peripheral Frequency of CD4+ CD28− Cells in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Buttà, Carmelo; Clemente, Giuseppe; Corte, Vittoriano della; Guggino, Giuliana; Arnao, Valentina; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Maugeri, Rosario; Squatrito, Rosario; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract CD4+ CD28− T cells also called CD28 null cells have been reported as increased in the clinical setting of acute coronary syndrome. Only 2 studies previously analyzed peripheral frequency of CD28 null cells in subjects with acute ischemic stroke but, to our knowledge, peripheral frequency of CD28 null cells in each TOAST subtype of ischemic stroke has never been evaluated. We hypothesized that CD4+ cells and, in particular, the CD28 null cell subset could show a different degree of peripheral percentage in subjects with acute ischemic stroke in relation to clinical subtype and severity of ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to analyze peripheral frequency of CD28 null cells in subjects with acute ischemic stroke in relation to TOAST diagnostic subtype, and to evaluate their relationship with scores of clinical severity of acute ischemic stroke, and their predictive role in the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and diagnostic subtype We enrolled 98 consecutive subjects admitted to our recruitment wards with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke. As controls we enrolled 66 hospitalized patients without a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Peripheral frequency of CD4+ and CD28 null cells has been evaluated with a FACS Calibur flow cytometer. Subjects with acute ischemic stroke had a significantly higher peripheral frequency of CD4+ cells and CD28 null cells compared to control subjects without acute ischemic stroke. Subjects with cardioembolic stroke had a significantly higher peripheral frequency of CD4+ cells and CD28 null cells compared to subjects with other TOAST subtypes. We observed a significant relationship between CD28 null cells peripheral percentage and Scandinavian Stroke Scale and NIHSS scores. ROC curve analysis showed that CD28 null cell percentage may be useful to differentiate between stroke subtypes. These findings seem suggest a possible role for a T-cell component also in acute ischemic stroke clinical setting showing a different

  11. A fast multiparameter MRI approach for acute stroke assessment on a 3T clinical scanner: preliminary results in a non-human primate model with transient ischemic occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank; Li, Chun-Xia; Yan, Yumei; Nair, Govind; Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yoji; Zola, Stuart; Howell, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Many MRI parameters have been explored and demonstrated the capability or potential to evaluate acute stroke injury, providing anatomical, microstructural, functional, or neurochemical information for diagnostic purposes and therapeutic development. However, the application of multiparameter MRI approach is hindered in clinic due to the very limited time window after stroke insult. Parallel imaging technique can accelerate MRI data acquisition dramatically and has been incorporated in modern clinical scanners and increasingly applied for various diagnostic purposes. In the present study, a fast multiparameter MRI approach including structural T1-weighted imaging (T1W), T2-weighted imaging (T2W), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), T2-mapping, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, was implemented and optimized for assessing acute stroke injury on a 3T clinical scanner. A macaque model of transient ischemic stroke induced by a minimal interventional approach was utilized for evaluating the multiparameter MRI approach. The preliminary results indicate the surgical procedure successfully induced ischemic occlusion in the cortex and/or subcortex in adult macaque monkeys (n=4). Application of parallel imaging technique substantially reduced the scanning duration of most MRI data acquisitions, allowing for fast and repeated evaluation of acute stroke injury. Hence, the use of the multiparameter MRI approach with up to five quantitative measures can provide significant advantages in preclinical or clinical studies of stroke disease. PMID:24834423

  12. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: experience with a superselective catheter embedded in the clot.

    PubMed Central

    Casto, L; Caverni, L; Camerlingo, M; Censori, B; Moschini, L; Servalli, M C; Partziguian, T; Belloni, G; Mamoli, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report experience of intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute stroke, performed with a microcatheter navigated into the intracranial circulation to impale the clot. METHODS--Patients were selected on the following criteria: (1) clinical examination suggesting a large vessel occlusion in stroke patients between 18 and 75 years; (2) no radiographic signs of large actual ischaemia on CT at admission; (3) angiographically documented occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) stem or of the basilar artery (BA), without occlusion of the ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid artery or of both the vertebral arteries; (4) end of the entire procedure within six hours of stroke. 12 patients with acute stroke were recruited, eight of whom had occlusion of the MCA stem and four of the BA. Urokinase was used as the thrombolytic agent. RESULTS--Complete recanalisation in six MCA stem and in two BA occurred, and partial recanalisation in two MCA stem and one BA. There was no recanalisation in one BA. A clinically silent haemorrhage occurred in two patients, and a parenchymal haematoma in one patient, all in MCA occlusions. At four months five patients achieved self sufficiency (four with MCA and one with BA occlusion). Six patients were dependent (three totally), and one died. CONCLUSIONS--The strict criteria of eligibility allowing the enrollment of very few patients and the procedure itself, requiring particular neuroradiological expertise, make this procedure not routine. Nevertheless, the approach can be considered a possible option for patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Images PMID:8648335

  13. A study of the workload and effectiveness of a comprehensive acute stroke service

    PubMed Central

    Weir, N; Buchan, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Prospective record of all acute referrals, diagnoses, and management decisions over a 4 month period. Results: The CSP received 572 referrals (median: 32 per week), 88% of which were made between 7 am and midnight. Of the 427 patients seen in person, 29% had not had an acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Fifty percent of patients with suspected acute stroke were referred within 3 h of symptom onset and 11% with acute ischaemic stroke (equating to 35% of those referred within 3 h of onset and seen in person) were treated with thrombolysis. Conclusion: Centralisation of services facilitates the rapid referral of, and use of acute interventions in, patients with acute stroke and TIA. Centralised services are likely to be busy (although less so at night), to attract large numbers of patients with disorders that mimic stroke and TIA, and yet still likely to treat only the minority of acute strokes using thrombolysis. These observations may help those planning similar services and underline the need to develop more widely applicable treatments for acute stroke. PMID:15897513

  14. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage.

  15. Update on the third international stroke trial (IST-3) of thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke and baseline features of the 3035 patients recruited

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is approved in Europe for use in patients with acute ischaemic stroke who meet strictly defined criteria. IST-3 sought to improve the external validity and precision of the estimates of the overall treatment effects (efficacy and safety) of rtPA in acute ischaemic stroke, and to determine whether a wider range of patients might benefit. Design International, multi-centre, prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial of intravenous rtPA in acute ischaemic stroke. Suitable patients had to be assessed and able to start treatment within 6 hours of developing symptoms, and brain imaging must have excluded intracranial haemorrhage and stroke mimics. Results The initial pilot phase was double blind and then, on 01/08/2003, changed to an open design. Recruitment began on 05/05/2000 and closed on 31/07/2011, by which time 3035 patients had been included, only 61 (2%) of whom met the criteria for the 2003 European approval for thrombolysis. 1617 patients were aged over 80 years at trial entry. The analysis plan will be finalised, without reference to the unblinded data, and published before the trial data are unblinded in early 2012. The main trial results will be presented at the European Stroke Conference in Lisbon in May 2012 with the aim to publish simultaneously in a peer-reviewed journal. The trial result will be presented in the context of an updated Cochrane systematic review. We also intend to include the trial data in an individual patient data meta-analysis of all the relevant randomised trials. Conclusion The data from the trial will: improve the external validity and precision of the estimates of the overall treatment effects (efficacy and safety) of iv rtPA in acute ischaemic stroke; provide: new evidence on the balance of risk and benefit of intravenous rtPA among types of patients who do not clearly meet the terms of the current EU approval; and, provide the first large

  16. Postthrombolysis intracranial hemorrhage risk of cerebral microbleeds in acute stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Kwok, Chun Shing; Lim, Patricia Annabelle; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned whether patients with cerebral microbleeds are at a greater risk for the development of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolytic therapy in the management of acute ischemic stroke. Thus far, observational studies have not shown a statistically significant increased risk; however, these have been limited by small sample size. The aim is to better quantify the risk of postthrombolysis intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with acute ischemic stroke and cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. A systematic review of controlled studies investigating the presence of microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging as a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was conducted. A random effects model meta-analysis was performed. In pooled analysis of five studies totaling 790 participants, the prevalence of microbleeds was 17%. The presence of microbleeds revealed a trend toward an increased risk of postthrombolysis symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage [odds ratio: 1·98 (95% confidence interval, 0·90 to 4·35; P = 0·09), I2 = 0%]. Adjusted analysis minimizing potential bias resulted in an increased absolute risk of 4·6% for the development of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with cerebral microbleeds [odds ratio: 2·29 (95% confidence interval, 1·01 to 5·17), I2 = 0%] reaching borderline significance (P = 0·05). A significant relationship between increasing microbleed burden and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (P = 0·0015) was observed. Isolated analysis of studies using exclusively intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was insignificant. Our data suggest that patients with cerebral microbleeds are at increased risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. However, current data are insufficient to justify withholding thrombolytic therapy from acute ischemic stroke patients solely of the basis of

  17. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Stem Cells Therapy for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have been proposed as a promising therapy for treating stroke. While several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of stem cells, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Molecular imaging provides the possibility of the visual representation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. In order to facilitate research efforts to understand the stem cells therapeutic mechanisms, we need to further develop means of monitoring these cells noninvasively, longitudinally and repeatedly. Because of tissue depth and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo imaging of stem cells therapy for stroke has unique challenges. In this review, we describe existing methods of tracking transplanted stem cells in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging, and optical imaging (OI). Each of the imaging techniques has advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we describe multimodality imaging strategies as a more comprehensive and potential method to monitor transplanted stem cells for stroke. PMID:24222920

  18. Endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke: the Pragmatic Ischaemic Stroke Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Keith W; Ford, Gary A; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Ford, Ian; Murray, Alicia; Clifton, Andrew; Brown, Martin M; Madigan, Jeremy; Lenthall, Rob; Robertson, Fergus; Dixit, Anand; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Wardlaw, Joanna; Freeman, Janet; White, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Pragmatic Ischaemic Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone with IVT and adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients who had acute ischaemic stroke with large artery occlusive anterior circulation stroke confirmed on CT angiography (CTA). Design Eligible patients had IVT started within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset. Those randomised to additional MT underwent thrombectomy using any Conformité Européene (CE)-marked device, with target interval times for IVT start to arterial puncture of <90 min. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving independence defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 at day 90. Results Ten UK centres enrolled 65 patients between April 2013 and April 2015. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 16 (IQR 13–21). Median stroke onset to IVT start was 120 min. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in disability-free survival at day 90 with MT (absolute difference 11%, adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.65 to 6.94, p=0.20). Secondary analyses showed significantly greater likelihood of full neurological recovery (mRS 0–1) at day 90 (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 37.2, p=0.010). In the per-protocol population (n=58), the primary and most secondary clinical outcomes significantly favoured MT (absolute difference in mRS 0–2 of 22% and adjusted OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 19.7, p=0.021). Conclusions The trial did not find a significant difference between treatment groups for the primary end point. However, the effect size was consistent with published data and across primary and secondary end points. Proceeding as fast as possible to MT after CTA confirmation of large artery occlusion on a background of intravenous alteplase is safe, improves excellent clinical outcomes and, in the per-protocol population, improves disability

  19. Elevated blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke remains controversial: could this issue be resolved?

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, Dimiter I; Mineva, Petya P

    2013-01-01

    A transient elevated arterial blood pressure is common in acute ischemic stroke and is often associated with a poor prognosis. The underlying mechanisms of blood pressure elevation are not well understood and its management is still unresolved. This article focuses on pathophysiology and management of elevated blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke. There is evidence that the main causes of a transient blood pressure elevation in acute ischemic stroke are the focal cerebral hypoperfusion and the stress responses with neuroendocrine systems activation. Clinical trials have reported that blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke may have detrimental effect, probably because of impaired cerebral autoregulation. However, quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion has not been performed during emergency blood pressure reduction in acute ischemic stroke. We suggest that ultrasound carotid artery disease evaluation and cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using bilateral transcranial ultrasonography, during blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke might contribute to maintaining of an adequate penumbral perfusion and prevent infarct enlargement. Such an approach could individualize the antihypertensive treatment in acute ischemic stroke and improve functional outcome. Prospective studies are needed to confirm such a treatment strategy.

  20. Technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.P.

    1998-02-09

    From October 1994 to June 1997, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were funded through LDRD to develop and integrate technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. The project was summarized in a Science and Technology Review article `Brain Attack` that appeared in June 1997 and again in the Center for Healthcare Technologies Report (UCRL-LR-124761). This article is the best overview of the project, epidemiology of stroke and technical progress. Most of the technical progress has been documented in conference papers and presentations and refereed journal articles. Additional technical publication can be expected as our remaining patent applications progress through the US Patent and Trademark Office. The purpose of this report is to provide an appropriate introduction and organization to the numerous publications so that interested readers can quickly find information. Because there is no documentation for the history of this project, this report provides a summary. It also provides the final status report for the LDRD funding.

  1. Clinical Use of CT Perfusion For Diagnosis and Prediction of Lesion Growth in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Huisa, Branko N; Neil, William P; Schrader, Ronald; Maya, Marcel; Pereira, Benedict; Bruce, Nhu T; Lyden, Patrick D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose CT perfusion (CTP) mapping in research centers correlates well with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) lesions and may accurately differentiate the infarct core from ischemic penumbra. The value of CTP in real-world clinical practice has not been fully established. We investigated the yield of CTP– derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transient time (MTT) for the detection of cerebral ischemia and ischemic penumbra in a sample of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods We studied 165 patients with initial clinical symptoms suggestive of AIS. All patients had an initial non-contrast head CT, CT Perfusion (CTP), CT angiogram (CTA) and follow up brain MRI. The obtained perfusion images were used for image processing. CBV, MTT and DWI lesion volumes were visually estimated and manually traced. Statistical analysis was done using R-2.14.and SAS 9.1. Results All normal DWI sequences had normal CBV and MTT studies (N=89). Seventy-three patients had acute DWI lesions. CBV was abnormal in 23.3% and MTT was abnormal in 42.5% of these patients. There was a high specificity (91.8%)but poor sensitivity (40.0%) for MTT maps predicting positive DWI. Spearman correlation was significant between MTT and DWI lesions (ρ=0.66, p>0.0001) only for abnormal MTT and DWI lesions>0cc. CBV lesions did not correlate with final DWI. Conclusions In real-world use, acute imaging with CTP did not predict stroke or DWI lesions with sufficient accuracy. Our findings argue against the use of CTP for screening AIS patients until real-world implementations match the accuracy reported from specialized research centers. PMID:23253533

  2. Hyperperfusion on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Chemotherapy-Related Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    El-Hakam, Lisa Michael; Ramocki, Melissa Beth; Riviello, James John; Illner, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy can present similar to acute stroke with symptoms including aphasia, dysarthria, and hemiplegia. Differentiation based on clinical appearance is challenging, and physicians must distinguish between the 2 conditions rapidly to institute appropriate therapies. An 8-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy, including intrathecal methotrexate, presented to our emergency center with 2 hours of expressive aphasia and flaccid right hemiplegia. Emergent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained, demonstrating diffusion restriction within bilateral corona radiata and centrum semiovale. Magnetic resonance perfusion revealed mildly increased perfusion, a finding inconsistent with ischemic stroke and previously unreported in acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy without necrosis. This increased perfusion conclusively eliminated stroke from the clinical differential. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging proved valuable to rapidly distinguish acute chemotherapy-related leukoencephalopathy from ischemia, and the evaluation of perfusion alterations in this disorder may provide further insight into the pathophysiology of this entity. PMID:20363963

  3. Acute reperfusion therapy and stroke care in Asia after successful endovascular trials.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Yamagami, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The current status of and prospects for acute stroke care in Asia in the situation where both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapies have been recognized as established strategies for acute stroke are reviewed. Of 15 million people annually having stroke worldwide, ≈9 million are Asians. The burdens of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are severe in Asia. The unique features of stroke in Asia include susceptibility to intracranial atherosclerosis, high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage, effects of dietary and lifestyle habits, and several disorders with genetic causes. These features affect acute stroke care, such as the dosage of alteplase for thrombolysis and consideration of bleeding complications during antithrombotic therapy. Acute endovascular thrombectomy, as well as intravenous thrombolysis, is relatively prevalent in East Asia, but most of the other Asian countries need to develop their human resources and fundamental medical infrastructure for stroke care. A limitation of endovascular therapy in East Asia is the high prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis that can cause recanalization failure and require additional angioplasty or permanent stent insertion although intracranial stenting is not an established strategy. Multinational collaboration on stroke research among Asian countries is infrequent. Asians should collaborate to perform their own thrombolytic and endovascular trials and seek the optimal strategy for stroke care specific to Asia.

  4. Predictive Factors for Good Outcome and Mortality After Stent-Retriever Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Anterior Circulation Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Woong; Kim, Seul Kee; Park, Man Seok; Baek, Byung Hyun; Lee, Yun Young

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Predictive factors associated with stent-retriever thrombectomy for patients with acute anterior circulation stroke remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate clinical and procedural factors predictive of good outcome and mortality after stent-retriever thrombectomy in a large cohort of patients with acute anterior circulation stroke. Methods We analyzed clinical and procedural data in 335 patients with acute anterior circulation stroke treated with stent-retriever thrombectomy. A good outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 3 months. The associations between clinical, imaging, and procedural factors and good outcome and mortality, respectively, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results Using multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.965; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.944-0.986; P=0.001), successful revascularization (OR, 4.658; 95% CI, 2.240-9.689; P<0.001), parenchymal hemorrhage (OR, 0.150; 95% CI, 0.049-0.460; P=0.001), and baseline NIHSS score (OR, 0.908; 95% CI, 0.855-0.965; P=0.002) were independent predictors of good outcome. Independent predictors of mortality were age (OR, 1.043; 95% CI, 1.002-1.086; P=0.041), successful revascularization (OR, 0.171; 95% CI, 0.079-0.370; P<0.001), parenchymal hemorrhage (OR, 2.961; 95% CI, 1.059-8.276; P=0.038), and a history of previous stroke/TIA (OR, 3.124; 95% CI, 1.340-7.281; P=0.008). Conclusions Age, revascularization status, and parenchymal hemorrhage are independent predictors of both good outcome and mortality after stent retriever thrombectomy for acute anterior circulation stroke. In addition, NIHSS score on admission is independently associated with good outcome, whereas a history of previous stroke is independently associated with mortality. PMID:28178407

  5. Imaging following acute knee trauma.

    PubMed

    Kijowski, R; Roemer, F; Englund, M; Tiderius, C J; Swärd, P; Frobell, R B

    2014-10-01

    Joint injury has been recognized as a potent risk factor for the onset of osteoarthritis. The vast majority of studies using imaging technology for longitudinal assessment of patients following joint injury have focused on the injured knee joint, specifically in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury and meniscus tears where a high risk for rapid onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis is well known. Although there are many imaging modalities under constant development, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most important instrument for longitudinal monitoring after joint injury. MR imaging is sensitive for detecting early cartilage degeneration and can evaluate other joint structures including the menisci, bone marrow, tendons, and ligaments which can be sources of pain following acute injury. In this review, focusing on imaging following acute knee trauma, several studies were identified with promising short-term results of osseous and soft tissue changes after joint injury. However, studies connecting these promising short-term results to the development of osteoarthritis were limited which is likely due to the long follow-up periods needed to document the radiographic and clinical onset of the disease. Thus, it is recommended that additional high quality longitudinal studies with extended follow-up periods be performed to further investigate the long-term consequences of the early osseous and soft tissue changes identified on MR imaging after acute knee trauma.

  6. Stenting in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Samaniego, Edgar A.; Dabus, Guilherme; Linfante, Italo

    2011-01-01

    Recanalization of acute large artery occlusions is a strong predictor of good outcome. The development of thrombectomy devices resulted in a significant improvement in recanalization rates compared to thrombolytics alone. However, clinical trials and registries with these thrombectomy devices in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have shown recanalization rates in the range of 40–81%. The last decade has seen the development of nickel titanium self-expandable stents (SES). These stents, in contrast to balloon-mounted stents, allow better navigability and deployment in tortuous vessels and therefore are optimal for the cerebral circulation. SES were initially used for stent-assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms and for treatment of intracranial stenosis. However, a few authors have recently reported feasibility of deployment of SES in AIS. The use of these devices yielded higher recanalization rates compared to traditional thrombectomy devices. Encouraged by these results, retrievable SES systems have been recently used in AIS. These devices offer the advantage of resheathing and retrieving of the stent even after full deployment. Some of these stents can also be detached in case permanent stent placement is needed. Retrievable SES are being used in Europe and currently tested in clinical trials in the United States. We review the recent literature in the use of stents for the treatment of AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion. PMID:22163225

  7. Quantification of Serial Cerebral Blood Flow in Acute Stroke Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Thomas W.; Sheerin, Fintan; Schulz, Ursula; Mathieson, Phil; Reckless, Ian; Shah, Kunal; Ford, Gary A.; Chappell, Michael A.; Jezzard, Peter; Kennedy, James

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Perfusion-weighted imaging is used to select patients with acute ischemic stroke for intervention, but knowledge of cerebral perfusion can also inform the understanding of ischemic injury. Arterial spin labeling allows repeated measurement of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) without the need for exogenous contrast. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between dynamic CBF and tissue outcome in the month after stroke onset. Methods— Patients with nonlacunar ischemic stroke underwent ≤5 repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at presentation, 2 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month. Imaging included vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling using multiple postlabeling delays to quantify CBF in gray matter regions of interest. Receiver–operator characteristic curves were used to predict tissue outcome using CBF. Repeatability was assessed in 6 healthy volunteers and compared with contralateral regions of patients. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging were used to define tissue outcome. Results— Forty patients were included. In contralateral regions of patients, there was significant variation of CBF between individuals, but not between scan times (mean±SD: 53±42 mL/100 g/min). Within ischemic regions, mean CBF was lowest in ischemic core (17±23 mL/100 g/min), followed by regions of early (21±26 mL/100 g/min) and late infarct growth (25±35 mL/100 g/min; ANOVA P<0.0001). Between patients, there was marked overlap in presenting and serial CBF values. Conclusions— Knowledge of perfusion dynamics partially explained tissue fate. Factors such as metabolism and tissue susceptibility are also likely to influence tissue outcome. PMID:27879446

  8. Techniques for improving efficiency in the emergency department for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jauch, Edward C; Holmstedt, Christine; Nolte, Justin

    2012-09-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed significant strides in the management of acute stroke. The most significant advance, reperfusion therapy, has changed relatively little, but the integrated healthcare systems-stroke systems-established to effectively and safely administer stroke treatments have evolved greatly. Driving change is the understanding that "time is brain." Data are compelling that the likelihood of improvement is directly tied to time of reperfusion. Regional stroke systems of care ensure patients arrive at the most appropriate stroke-capable hospital in which intrahospital systems have been created to process the potential stroke patient as quickly as possible. The hospital-based systems are comprised of prehospital care providers, emergency department physicians and nurses, stroke team members, and critical ancillary services such as neuroimaging and laboratory. Given their complexity, these systems of care require maintenance. Through teamwork and ownership of the process, more patients will be saved from potential death and long-term disability.

  9. Early Clinical Implications of Microalbuminuria in Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Stroke accounts for the second leading cause of death, about 11.13% of total deaths worldwide. Microalbuminuria is known to be associated with increased risk of mortality in ischaemic stroke patients. But there have been no studies to assess whether microalbuminuria affects the early clinical outcome of patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Aim This study aims to investigate whether microalbuminuria affects the early clinical outcome of patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study of patients with ischaemic stroke (who presented within 24 hours of symptom onset) who were consecutively admitted in three tertiary care centres during the time period from November 2013 to June 2015. Early clinical outcomes in patients were assessed by investigating the presence of Early Neurological Deterioration (END) using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was divided into two categories – Normal (less than 30mg/g of creatinine) or Urine Microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/g of creatinine). Results Total 42 out of 70 patients (60%) were found to have microalbuminuria. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, microalbuminuria was found to be independently associated with END in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (p=0.044). Conclusion In the early periods following acute ischaemic stroke, patients with microalbuminuria have worse clinical outcome. PMID:27790489

  10. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  11. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed…

  12. Variables That Best Differentiate In-Patient Acute Stroke from Stroke-Mimics with Acute Neurological Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Natteru, P.; Mohebbi, M. R.; George, P.; Wisco, D.; Gebel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Strokes and stroke-mimics have been extensively studied in the emergency department setting. Although in-hospital strokes are less studied in comparison to strokes in the emergency department, they are a source of significant direct and indirect costs. Differentiating in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics is important. Thus, our study aimed to identify variables that can differentiate in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics. Methods. We present here a retrospective analysis of 93 patients over a one-year period (2009 to 2010), who were evaluated for a concern of in-hospital strokes. Results. About two-thirds (57) of these patients were determined to have a stroke, and the remaining (36) were stroke-mimics. Patients with in-hospital strokes were more likely to be obese (p = 0.03), have been admitted to the cardiology service (p = 0.01), have atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03), have a weak hand or hemiparesis (p = 0.03), and have a prior history of stroke (p = 0.05), whereas, when the consults were called for “altered mental status” but no other deficits (p < 0.0001), it is likely a stroke-mimic. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that in-hospital strokes are a common occurrence, and knowing the variables can aid in their timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28050311

  13. Intrinsic factors influencing help-seeking behaviour in an acute stroke situation.

    PubMed

    Zock, Elles; Kerkhoff, Henk; Kleyweg, Ruud Peter; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-01

    The proportion of stroke patients eligible for intravenous or intra-arterial treatment is still limited because many patients do not seek medical help immediately after stroke onset. The aim of our study was to explore which intrinsic factors and considerations influence help-seeking behaviour of relatively healthy participants, confronted with stroke situations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 non-stroke participants aged 50 years or older. We presented 5 clinical stroke situations as if experienced by the participants themselves. Recognition and interpretation of symptoms were evaluated and various factors influencing help-seeking behaviour were explored in-depth. We used the thematic synthesis method for data analysis. Five themes influencing help-seeking behaviour in a stroke situation were identified: influence of knowledge, views about seriousness, ideas about illness and health, attitudes towards others and beliefs about the emergency medical system. A correct recognition of stroke symptoms or a correct interpretation of the stroke situations did not automatically result in seeking medical help. Interestingly, similar factors could lead to different types of actions between participants. Many intrinsic, as well as social and environmental factors are of influence on help-seeking behaviour in an acute stroke situation. All these factors seem to play a complex role in help-seeking behaviour with considerable inter-individual variations. Accomplishing more patients eligible for acute stroke treatment, future research should focus on better understanding of all factors at various levels grounded in a theory of help-seeking behaviour.

  14. A Smartphone Client-Server Teleradiology System for Primary Diagnosis of Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent advances in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke have made rapid acquisition, visualization, and interpretation of images a key factor for positive patient outcomes. We have developed a new teleradiology system based on a client-server architecture that enables rapid access to interactive advanced 2-D and 3-D visualization on a current generation smartphone device (Apple iPhone or iPod Touch, or an Android phone) without requiring patient image data to be stored on the device. Instead, a server loads and renders the patient images, then transmits a rendered frame to the remote device. Objective Our objective was to determine if a new smartphone client-server teleradiology system is capable of providing accuracies and interpretation times sufficient for diagnosis of acute stroke. Methods This was a retrospective study. We obtained 120 recent consecutive noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain scans and 70 computed tomography angiogram (CTA) head scans from the Calgary Stroke Program database. Scans were read by two neuroradiologists, one on a medical diagnostic workstation and an iPod or iPhone (hereafter referred to as an iOS device) and the other only on an iOS device. NCCT brain scans were evaluated for early signs of infarction, which includes early parenchymal ischemic changes and dense vessel sign, and to exclude acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage and stroke mimics. CTA brain scans were evaluated for any intracranial vessel occlusion. The interpretations made on an iOS device were compared with those made at a workstation. The total interpretation times were recorded for both platforms. Interrater agreement was assessed. True positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives were obtained, and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of detecting the abnormalities on the iOS device were computed. Results The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of detecting intraparenchymal hemorrhage were 100% using the iOS device with a

  15. Twenty four hour pulse pressure predicts long term recurrence in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, G; Spengos, K; Zakopoulos, N; Manios, E; Xinos, K; Vassilopoulos, D; Vemmos, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The impact of different blood pressure (BP) components during the acute stage of stroke on the risk of recurrent stroke is controversial. The present study aimed to investigate by 24 hour BP monitoring a possible association between acute BP values and long term recurrence. Methods: A total of 339 consecutive patients with first ever acute stroke underwent 24 hour BP monitoring within 24 hours of ictus. Known stroke risk factors and clinical findings on admission were documented. Patients given antihypertensive medication during BP monitoring were excluded. The outcome of interest during the one year follow up was recurrent stroke. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyse association of casual and 24 hour BP recordings with one year recurrence after adjusting for stroke risk factors, baseline clinical characteristics, and secondary prevention therapies. Results: The cumulative one year recurrence rate was 9.2% (95% CI 5.9% to 12.3%). Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed age, diabetes mellitus, and 24 hour pulse pressure (PP) as the only significant predictors for stroke recurrence. The relative risk for one year recurrence associated with every 10 mm Hg increase in 24 hour PP was 1.323 (95% CI 1.019 to 1.718, p = 0.036). Higher casual PP levels were significantly related to an increased risk of one year recurrence on univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate Cox regression model. Conclusions: Elevated 24 hour PP levels in patients with acute stroke are independently associated with higher risk of long term recurrence. Further research is required to investigate whether the risk of recurrent stroke can be reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the pulsatile component of BP in patients with acute stroke. PMID:16170077

  16. Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Clinical Outcomes after Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Ryu; Ago, Tetsuro; Hata, Jun; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Kamouchi, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is elevated in response to inflammation caused by brain infarction, the association of CRP with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke remains uncertain. This study examined whether plasma high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) levels at onset were associated with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke independent of conventional risk factors and acute infections after stroke. Methods We prospectively included 3653 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who had been functionally independent and were hospitalized within 24 h of onset. Plasma hsCRP levels were measured on admission and categorized into quartiles. The association between hsCRP levels and clinical outcomes, including neurological improvement, neurological deterioration, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≥3 at 3 months), were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. Results Higher hsCRP levels were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes after adjusting for age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, stroke subtype, conventional risk factors, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy, and acute infections during hospitalization (multivariate-adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] in the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile as a reference: 0.80 [0.65–0.97] for neurological improvement, 1.72 [1.26–2.34] for neurological deterioration, and 2.03 [1.55–2.67] for a poor functional outcome). These associations were unchanged after excluding patients with infectious diseases occurring during hospitalization, or those with stroke recurrence or death. These trends were similar irrespective of stroke subtypes or baseline stroke severity, but more marked in patients aged <70 years (Pheterogeneity = 0.001). Conclusions High plasma hsCRP is independently associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27258004

  17. Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Xue-Ting; Kang, De-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to conduct an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for delivery of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine (TCPMs) for patients with acute ischemic stroke. SRs were assessed for quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool and the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). We assessed the quality of the evidence of high methodological quality (an AMSTAR score ≥9 or an OQAQ score ≥7) for reported outcomes using the GRADE (the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. (1) Dan Shen agents: tiny trends toward the improvement in different neurological outcomes (RR = 1.16, 1.10, 1.23, 1.08, 1.12); (2) Mailuoning: a tiny trend toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18); (3) Ginkgo biloba: tiny trends toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18, MD = 0.81); (4) Dengzhanhua: a tiny trend toward an improvement in neurological (RR = 1.23); (5) Acanthopanax: a small positive (RR = 1.17, 1.31) result on neurological improvement reported; (6) Chuanxiong-type preparations: neurological functional improved (MD = 2.90);(7) Puerarin: no better effect on the rate of death or disability (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.35–1.87); (8) Milk vetch: no better effect on the rate of death (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11–2.83);(9) Qingkailing: rate of death reduced (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11–2.83). Limitations in the methodological quality of the RCTs, inconsistency and imprecision led to downgrading of the quality of the evidence, which varied by review and by outcome. Consequently, there are currently only weak evidences to support those TCPMs. The 9 TCPMs may be effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, as the GRADE approach indicated a weak recommendation for those TCPMs’ usage. PMID:27015174

  18. Leukoaraiosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, and functional outcome after acute stroke thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Wilson, Duncan; Kasemsap, Narongrit; Tiamkao, Somsak; Jichi, Fatima; Palumbo, Vanessa; Hill, Michael D.; Buchan, Alastair M.; Jung, Simon; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Henninger, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To perform a systematic review and pooled meta-analysis of published studies to assess whether the presence of leukoaraiosis on neuroimaging before treatment with thrombolysis (IV or intra-arterial) is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) or poor functional outcome. Methods: We included studies of patients with acute ischemic stroke, treated with IV or intra-arterial thrombolysis, which assessed functional outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) or sICH in relation to leukoaraiosis on pretreatment neuroimaging (CT or MRI). We used random-effects models to calculate pooled relative risks (RR) of sICH and poor functional outcome (mRS ≥ 2) for any vs no leukoaraiosis (using any rating scale) and for no to mild vs moderate to severe leukoaraiosis (using the Van Swieten or Fazekas Schmidt scale). Results: We identified 15 studies (total n = 6,967). For sICH outcome, the RR was 1.65 (n = 5,551; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.16, p = 0.001) with an absolute risk (AR) increase of 2.5% for any leukoaraiosis vs none. The RR was 2.4 (n = 4,192; 95% CI 1.83–3.14, p = 0.001) with an AR increase of 6.2% for moderate to severe vs no to mild leukoaraiosis. For poor functional outcome; the RR was 1.30 (n = 3,401; 95% CI 1.19–1.42, p = 0.001) with an AR increase of 15.4% for any leukoaraiosis vs none. The RR was 1.31 (n = 3,659; 95% CI 1.22–1.42, p = 0.001) with an AR increase of 17.5% for moderate to severe vs no to mild leukoaraiosis. No statistical heterogeneity was noted for any of the analyses. Conclusions: Leukoaraiosis presence and severity are consistently associated with an increased risk of sICH and poor functional outcome after IV or intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:28130468

  19. Blood pressure lowering in acute phase of stroke: latest evidence and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Patarroyo, Sully Xiomara Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Persistent controversy exists as to whether there are worthwhile beneficial effects of early, rapid lowering of elevated blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke. Elevated BP or ‘hypertension’ (i.e. systolic >140 mmHg) is common in stroke, especially in patients with pre-existing hypertension and large strokes, due to variable ‘autonomic stress’ and raised intracranial pressure. While positive associations between BP levels and poor outcomes are evident across a range of studies, very low BP levels and large reductions in BP have also been shown to predict death and dependence, more so for ischaemic stroke (IS) than intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Accumulating evidence indicates that early BP lowering can reduce haematoma expansion in ICH, but there is uncertainty over whether this translates into improved clinical outcomes, particularly since such an effect was not evident from haemostatic therapy in clinical trials. Guidelines generally recommend control of high systolic BP (>180 mmHg), but recent evidence indicates that even more modest elevation (>140 mmHg) increases risks of cerebral oedema and haemorrhagic transformation following thrombolysis in IS. Thus, any potential benefits of rapid BP lowering in acute stroke, particularly in IS, must be balanced against the potential risks of worsening cerebral ischaemia from altered autoregulation/perfusion. This paper explores current knowledge regarding the management of hypertension in acute stroke and introduces ongoing clinical trials aimed at resolving such a critical issue in the care of patients with acute stroke. PMID:23342232

  20. Hyperhomocysteinemia, Folateo and B12 Vitamin in Iranian Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Hoseinali Qeilichnia; Qabai, Mojdeh; Chaman, Reza; Fard, Hamed Amiri; Qaffarpoor, Majid

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of some factors such as serum levels of homocysteine, folate and B12 vitamin with stroke in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS In this case control study, serum levels of homocysteine, folate and B12 vitamin in 93 patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital between September 2008 and January 2010, and 93 healthy controls were measured. Cerebrovascular risk factors including age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, coronary artery disease and obesity were recorded. The results were compared between the case and control groups. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of fasting total homocysteine (tHcy) level in acute ischemic stroke patients was 20.58 ± 19.6 µmol/l, which was significantly higher than that of control group being 14.11 ± 9.5 µmol/l (P = 0.002). 39 (41.9%) stroke cases and 25 (26.8%) controls had hyperhomocysteinemia. There were no significant relationships between tHcy, folate and B12 vitamin levels with the above mentioned cerebrovascular risk factors except for smoking (p> 0.05). No significant difference in B12 vitamin and folate levels between patients and healthy controls were detected (P> 0.05). CONCLUSION Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in Iranian patients with acute ischemic stroke and might play a role as an independent risk factor in stroke. PMID:22577454

  1. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine.

  2. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke.

  3. Evolution of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Przybylowski, Colin J; Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Durst, Christopher R; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common medical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of AIS patients meet eligibility criteria for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and its efficacy for large vessel occlusion is poor. Therefore, an increasing number of patients with AIS are being treated with endovascular mechanical thrombectomy when IVT is ineffective or contraindicated. Rapid advancement in catheter-based and endovascular device technology has led to significant improvements in rates of cerebral reperfusion with these devices. Stentrievers and modern aspiration catheters have now surpassed earlier generation devices in the degree and rapidity of revascularization. This progress has been achieved with no concurrent increase in risk of major complications or mortality, both when used alone or in combination with IVT. The initial randomized controlled trials comparing endovascular therapy to IVT for AIS failed to show superior outcomes with endovascular treatment, but key limitations of each trial may limit the significance of these results to current practice. While endovascular devices and operator experience continue to evolve, we are optimistic that this will be accompanied by improvements in patient outcomes. This review highlights the major endovascular devices used in current practice and the trials which have investigated their efficacy. PMID:25405185

  4. Evolution of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Przybylowski, Colin J; Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Durst, Christopher R; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C

    2014-11-16

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common medical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of AIS patients meet eligibility criteria for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and its efficacy for large vessel occlusion is poor. Therefore, an increasing number of patients with AIS are being treated with endovascular mechanical thrombectomy when IVT is ineffective or contraindicated. Rapid advancement in catheter-based and endovascular device technology has led to significant improvements in rates of cerebral reperfusion with these devices. Stentrievers and modern aspiration catheters have now surpassed earlier generation devices in the degree and rapidity of revascularization. This progress has been achieved with no concurrent increase in risk of major complications or mortality, both when used alone or in combination with IVT. The initial randomized controlled trials comparing endovascular therapy to IVT for AIS failed to show superior outcomes with endovascular treatment, but key limitations of each trial may limit the significance of these results to current practice. While endovascular devices and operator experience continue to evolve, we are optimistic that this will be accompanied by improvements in patient outcomes. This review highlights the major endovascular devices used in current practice and the trials which have investigated their efficacy.

  5. Efficacy of telemedicine for thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yun-kai; Zhu, Wei-jun; Hou, Hong-li; Sun, Dong-xu; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the benefits of telemedicine in the delivery of thrombolytic therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We performed a meta-analysis using combinations of the following terms: telestroke, telemedicine, tissue plasminogen activator/t-PA, and acute ischemic stroke. The primary outcome was favorable outcome based on the modified Rankin score. Secondary outcomes were incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and overall mortality. We found no significant difference in favorable outcome between the telemedicine and control groups, and no significant difference was found between these groups in the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or overall mortality. Patients with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis had similar outcomes regardless of whether telemedicine was used or they were treated in-person at a medical facility. Telemedicine can be used to support hospitals with limited experience in administering thrombolytic therapy for stroke.

  6. Endovascular therapy in children with acute ischemic stroke: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael J; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine; Orbach, Darren B

    2012-09-25

    This review provides a summary of the currently available data pertaining to the interventional management of acute ischemic stroke in children. The literature is scarce and is lacking much-needed prospective trials. No study in the literature on the well-established systemic or local thrombolysis trials has included children. Mechanical thrombectomy trials using clot retriever devices have also excluded patients younger than 18 years. The current review is limited to case series of interventional acute ischemic stroke therapy in children and the potential future of endovascular ischemic stroke therapy in this patient population. Recommendations in this review represent the opinion of the authors, based on review of the limited literature covering endovascular acute ischemic stroke therapy in children.

  7. Relationship of meteorological factors and acute stroke events in Kaunas (Lithuania) in 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Tamasauskiene, Laura; Rastenyte, Daiva; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tamasauskas, Domantas; Vaiciulis, Vidmantas; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Milinaviciene, Egle

    2017-04-01

    Some researchers have hypothesised that meteorological factors may have an impact on acute cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine an impact of some meteorological factors on occurrence of acute cerebrovascular events in the middle-aged Kaunas population. Kaunas stroke register data were used. Data on meteorological factors for the time period from 2000 to 2010 were obtained from the Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service Kaunas Meteorological Station. We analysed 4038 cases with stroke. Ischemic strokes composed 80.4% and haemorrhagic strokes-19.6%. According to Poisson regression analysis, significant negative correlation between ischemic, haemorrhagic and all types of stroke and ambient air temperature was found (β coefficient - 0.007, -0.016, -0.009, p < 0.001, respectively). Results of ARIMA showed that ambient temperature of the day of stroke onset was associated with the occurrence of ischemic, haemorrhagic and all types of stroke: when temperature was lower, the risk of stroke was higher (-0.006, -0.003, -0.009, p < 0.001, respectively). Low temperature on the event day and 1 and 2 days before the event was associated with higher incidence of haemorrhagic stroke in women. Low ambient temperature on the event day increased incidence of haemorrhagic stroke in subjects 55-64 years. High wind speed on the event day was associated with higher incidence of ischemic stroke in older subjects. Meteorological factors may have some impact on the risk of acute cerebrovascular events. Health care providers should focus on preventive measures, which can reduce these risks.

  8. Neurohormonal activation in ischemic stroke: effects of acute phase disturbances on long-term mortality.

    PubMed

    Anne, Mäkikallio; Juha, Korpelainen; Timo, Mäkikallio; Mikko, Tulppo; Olli, Vuolteenaho; Kyösti, Sotaniemi; Heikki, Huikuri; Vilho, Myllylä

    2007-08-01

    A stress response consisting of elevated levels of cortisol and catecholamines is common after acute stroke. The plasma levels of natriuretic peptides are known to be elevated after ischemic stroke, but the relations of these neurohormonal systems in the acute phase of stroke and their impact on long-term prognosis have not been studied previously. A series of 51 consecutive patients (mean age 68+/-11 years) with an ischemic first-ever stroke underwent a comprehensive clinical investigation, scoring of their neurologic deficit by Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS), Barthel Index (BI) and Modified Ranking Scale (MRS) as well as measurements of plasma cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, ACTH and atrial (N-ANP) and brain (N-BNP) natriuretic peptides on the 2nd and 7th days after ischemic stroke. The patients were followed up for 44+/-21 months. Higher levels of cortisol, ACTH and natriuretic peptides were observed in the stroke patients who died (n=22) during the follow-up than in the stroke survivors. Cortisol levels associated significantly with the 2nd and 7th day N-ANP and N-BNP levels, catecholamine levels (r= 0.55 - 0.94, p<0.01 for all) and measures of neurologic deficit (r= 0.36 - -0.44, p<0.05). High acute phase cortisol levels assessed either in the morning (RR=5.4, p<0.05) or in the evening (RR=5.8, p<0.05) predicted long-term mortality after stroke in multivariate analysis. Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in ischemic stroke is associated with elevated levels of natriuretic peptides. High cortisol and natriuretic peptide values predict long-term mortality after ischemic stroke, suggesting that this profound neurohumoral disturbance is prognostically unfavourable.

  9. Preventive Antibacterial Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klehmet, Juliane; Rogge, Witold; Drenckhahn, Christoph; Göhler, Jos; Bereswill, Stefan; Göbel, Ulf; Wernecke, Klaus Dieter; Wolf, Tilo; Arnold, Guy; Halle, Elke; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a major risk factor of death after acute stroke. In a mouse model, preventive antibacterial therapy with moxifloxacin not only prevents the development of post-stroke infections, it also reduces mortality, and improves neurological outcome significantly. In this study we investigate whether this approach is effective in stroke patients. Methods Preventive ANtibacterial THERapy in acute Ischemic Stroke (PANTHERIS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 patients with severe, non-lacunar, ischemic stroke (NIHSS>11) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Patients received either intravenous moxifloxacin (400 mg daily) or placebo for 5 days starting within 36 hours after stroke onset. Primary endpoint was infection within 11 days. Secondary endpoints included neurological outcome, survival, development of stroke-induced immunodepression, and induction of bacterial resistance. Findings On intention-to treat analysis (79 patients), the infection rate at day 11 in the moxifloxacin treated group was 15.4% compared to 32.5% in the placebo treated group (p = 0.114). On per protocol analysis (n = 66), moxifloxacin significantly reduced infection rate from 41.9% to 17.1% (p = 0.032). Stroke associated infections were associated with a lower survival rate. In this study, neurological outcome and survival were not significantly influenced by treatment with moxifloxacin. Frequency of fluoroquinolone resistance in both treatment groups did not differ. On logistic regression analysis, treatment arm as well as the interaction between treatment arm and monocytic HLA-DR expression (a marker for immunodepression) at day 1 after stroke onset was independently and highly predictive for post-stroke infections. Interpretation PANTHERIS suggests that preventive administration of moxifloxacin is superior in reducing infections after severe non-lacunar ischemic stroke compared to placebo. In addition, the results emphasize the

  10. Critical Early Thrombolytic & Endovascular Reperfusion Therapy For Acute Ischemic Stroke Victims: A Call for Adjunct Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Lapchak, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Today, there is an enormous amount of excitement in the field of stroke victim care due to the recent success of MR. CLEAN, SWIFT PRIME, ESCAPE, EXTEND-IA, and REVASCAT endovascular trials. Successful intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activation (rt-PA) clinical trials [i.e.: National Institutes of Neurodegenerative Disease and Stroke (NINDS) stroke trial; Third European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASSIII) and Third International Stroke study (IST-3)] also need to be emphasized. In the recent endovascular and thrombolytic trials, there is statistically significant improvement using both the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Score (mRS) scale, but neither approach promotes complete recovery in patients enrolled within any particular NIHSS or mRS score tier. Absolute improvement (mRS 0–2 at 90 days) with endovascular therapy is 13.5–31%, whereas thrombolytics alone also significantly improve patient functional independence, but to a lesser degree (NINDS rt-PA trial 13%). This article has 3 main goals: (1) first to emphasize the utility and cost-effectiveness of rt-PA to treat stroke; (2) second to review the recent endovascular trials with respect to efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness as a stroke treatment; and (3) to further consider and evaluate strategies to develop novel neuroprotective drugs. A thesis will be put forth so that future stroke trials and therapy development can optimally promote recovery so that stroke victims can return to “normal” life. PMID:26314402

  11. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  12. [Acute hemiplegia and hemianesthesia together with decreased tendon reflexes mimicking acute stroke representing a conversion disorder].

    PubMed

    Schif, Aharon; Ravid, Sarit; Hafner, Hava; Shahar, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Acute hemiplegia and hemianesthesia is commonly caused by obstruction of major cortical arteries. Such a presentation secondary to a conversion reaction is very rare, especially in the pediatric age group. The authors report an adolescent presenting with acute complete left-sided hemiplegia and sensory loss together with decreased tendon reflexes mimicking an acute arterial stroke. Examination revealed Hoover's sign was present and the patient was oblivious to his stern neurological state. Movement of his paralytic limbs was observed during sleep. Cortical and spinal CT, cortical MRI, motor and somatosensory evoked potentials and a PET study were all normal. As such, the diagnosis of psychogenic hemiplegia was established, apparently within a period that the patient had experienced severe emotional stress while questioning his gender identity. After three days, the adolescent began to move the paralytic limbs along gradual resolution of sensory deficit, leading to complete clinical recovering within two months. Although extremely rare, a conversion reaction should be taken into account in children presenting with acute hemiplegia and anaesthesia, even accompanied with decreased tendon reflexes, when the patient is oblivious to his alleged grave state, and when clinical observations such as Hoover's sign remain intact, substantiated by normal extensive radiological and neurophysiological investigation. Intact motor evoked potentials serve as a key for the diagnosis of psychogenic hemiplegia and, should therefore be performed in suspected cases.

  13. Peripheral Immune Cell Counts and Advanced Imaging as Biomarkers of Stroke Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pagram, Heather; Bivard, Andrew; Lincz, Lisa F.; Levi, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Circulating neutrophil and lymphocyte levels may be modifiable outcome predictors of ischemic stroke. We sought to compare these immune cell parameters with advanced imaging assessment and the 90-day clinical outcome. Methods We used a retrospectively collected cohort of consecutive ischemic stroke patients presenting within 4.5 h of symptom onset who had acute CT perfusion and routine blood collection before treatment with intravenous thrombolysis and 24-hour MRI scanning at the John Hunter Hospital. Full blood counts were performed acutely at 24 h and 7 days. Patient outcomes were assed at 90 days after stroke with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results Overall, 142 patients were assessed during the study period. Patients with a poor outcome (mRS 3-6) had increased neutrophils (44% increase, p = 0.016), decreased lymphocytes (7% decrease, p = 0.491) and an increased lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio (196% increase, p < 0.001). Patients with good outcomes (mRS 0-2) did not have significant changes in their full blood counts. There was no relationship between the neutrophil count at 24 h and penumbral volume (r2 = 0.217, p = 0.212), reperfusion (r2 = 0.111, p = 0.085), or core growth (r2 = 0.297, p = 0.107). A backward multivariate analysis containing the 24-hour core volume and 24-hour neutrophil count was strongly related to the 3-month outcome (r2 = 0.477, area under the curve = 0.902, p < 0.001). Conclusions Peripheral neutrophils have potential as a biomarker of outcome when used in conjunction with advanced imaging. Peripherally measured neutrophil counts change significantly over time after stroke and may be potential targets for immunomodulatory therapy in patients with a severe stroke or a large infarct volume. PMID:27771707

  14. Acute ischemic stroke in a child with cyanotic congenital heart disease due to non-compliance of anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Misbahuddin; James, Anish F.; Qureshi, Raheel S.; Saraf, Sapan; Ahluwalia, Tina; Mukherji, Joy Dev; Kole, Tamorish

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a common presentation in geriatric patients in emergency department but rarely seen in pediatric patients. In case of acute ischemic stroke in pediatric age group, management is different from that of adult ischemic stroke where thrombolysis is a good op. METHODS: We report a case of a 17-year-old male child presenting in emergency with an episode of acute ischemic stroke causing left hemiparesis with left facial weakness and asymmetry. The patient suffered from cyanotic congenital heart disease for which he had undergone Fontan operation previously. He had a history of missing his daily dose of warfarin for last 3 days prior to the stroke. RESULTS: The patient recovered from acute ischemic stroke without being thrombolyzed. CONCLUSION: In pediatric patients, acute ischemic stroke usually is evolving and may not require thrombolysis. PMID:25215056

  15. Starting early: integration of self-management support into an acute stroke service.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Petra; Gawned, Sara; Jones, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Self-management support following stroke is rare, despite emerging evidence for impact on patient outcomes. The promotion of a common approach to self-management support across a stroke pathway requires collaboration between professionals. To date, the feasibility of self-management support in acute stroke settings has not been evaluated. The Bridges stroke self-management package (SMP) is based on self-efficacy principles. It is delivered by professionals and supported by a patient-held workbook. The aim of this project was to introduce the Bridges stroke SMP to the multidisciplinary staff of a London hyperacute and acute stroke unit. The 'Plan Do Study Act' (PDSA) cycle guided iterative stages of project development, with normalisation process theory helping to embed the intervention into existing ways of working. Questionnaires explored attitudes, beliefs and experiences of the staff who were integrating self-management support into ways of working in the acute stroke setting. Self-management support training was delivered to a total of 46 multidisciplinary stroke staff. Of the staff who attended the follow-up training, 66% had implemented Bridges self-management support with patients since initial training, and 100% felt their practice had changed. Questionnaire findings demonstrated that staff attitudes and beliefs had changed following training, particularly regarding ownership and type of rehabilitation goals set, and prioritisation of self-management support within acute stroke care. Staff initiated an audit of washing and dressing practices pre- and post-training. This was designed to evaluate the number of occasions when techniques were used by staff to facilitate patients' independence and self-management. They found that the number of occasions featuring optimum practice went from 54% at baseline to 63% at three months post-training. This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating self-management support into an acute stroke setting. Further

  16. Effectiveness of Hospital Functions for Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment on In-Hospital Mortality: Results From a Nationwide Survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Hideki; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Background Though evidence is limited in Japan, clinical controlled studies overseas have revealed that specialized care units are associated with better outcomes for acute stoke patients. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of hospital functions for acute care of ischemic stroke on in-hospital mortality, with statistical accounting for referral bias. Methods We derived data from a large Japanese claim-based inpatient database linked to the Survey of Medical Care Institutions and Hospital Report data. We compared the mortality of acute ischemic stroke patients (n = 41 476) in hospitals certified for acute stroke treatment with that in non-certified institutions. To adjust for potential referral bias, we used differential distance to hospitals from the patient’s residence as an instrumental variable and constructed bivariate probit models. Results With the ordinary probit regression model, in-hospital mortality in certified hospitals was not significantly different from that in non-certified institutions. Conversely, the model with the instrumental variable method showed that admission to certified hospitals reduced in-hospital mortality by 30.7% (P < 0.001). This difference remained after adjusting for hospital size, volume, staffing, and intravenous use of tissue plasminogen activator. Conclusions Comparison accounting for referral selection found that certified hospital function for acute ischemic stroke care was associated with significantly lower in-hospital mortality. Our results indicate that organized stroke care—with certified subspecialty physicians and around-the-clock availability of personnel, imaging equipment, and emergency neurosurgical procedures in an intensive stroke care unit—is effective in improving outcomes in acute ischemic stroke care. PMID:26165489

  17. A multicenter, randomized trial on neuroprotection with remote ischemic per-conditioning during acute ischemic stroke: the REmote iSchemic Conditioning in acUtE BRAin INfarction study protocol.

    PubMed

    Pico, Fernando; Rosso, Charlotte; Meseguer, Elena; Chadenat, Marie-Laure; Cattenoy, Amina; Aegerter, Philippe; Deltour, Sandrine; Yeung, Jennifer; Hosseini, Hassan; Lambert, Yves; Smadja, Didier; Samson, Yves; Amarenco, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Rationale Remote ischemic per-conditioning-causing transient limb ischemia to induce ischemic tolerance in other organs-reduces final infarct size in animal stroke models. Aim To evaluate whether remote ischemic per-conditioning during acute ischemic stroke (<6 h) reduces brain infarct size at 24 h. Methods and design This study is being performed in five French hospitals using a prospective randomized open blinded end-point design. Adults with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed ischemic stroke within 6 h of symptom onset and clinical deficit of 5-25 according to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale will be randomized 1:1 to remote ischemic per-conditioning or control (stratified by center and intravenous fibrinolysis use). Remote ischemic per-conditioning will consist of four cycles of electronic tourniquet inflation (5 min) and deflation (5 min) to a thigh within 6 h of symptom onset. Magnetic resonance imaging is repeated 24 h after stroke onset. Sample size estimates For a difference of 15 cm(3) in brain infarct growth between groups, 200 patients will be included for 5% significance and 80% power. Study outcomes The primary outcome will be the difference in brain infarct growth from baseline to 24 h in the intervention versus control groups (by diffusion-weighted image magnetic resonance imaging). Secondary outcomes include: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score absolute difference between baseline and 24 h, three-month modified Rankin score and daily living activities, mortality, and tolerance and side effects of remote ischemic per-conditioning. Discussion The only remote ischemic per-conditioning trial in humans with stroke did not show remote ischemic per-conditioning to be effective. REmote iSchemic Conditioning in acUtE BRAin INfarction, which has important design differences, should provide more information on the use of this intervention in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Development and Validation of Intracranial Thrombus Segmentation on CT Angiography in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Emilie M. M.; Marquering, Henk A.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; van Zwam, Wim H.; van der Lugt, Aad; Majoie, Charles B.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Thrombus characterization is increasingly considered important in predicting treatment success for patients with acute ischemic stroke. The lack of intensity contrast between thrombus and surrounding tissue in CT images makes manual delineation a difficult and time consuming task. Our aim was to develop an automated method for thrombus measurement on CT angiography and validate it against manual delineation. Materials and Methods Automated thrombus segmentation was achieved using image intensity and a vascular shape prior derived from the segmentation of the contralateral artery. In 53 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, automated length and volume measurements were performed. Accuracy was assessed by comparison with inter-observer variation of manual delineations using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman analyses. Results The automated method successfully segmented the thrombus for all 53 patients. The intraclass correlation of automated and manual length and volume measurements were 0.89 and 0.84. Bland-Altman analyses yielded a bias (limits of agreement) of −0.4 (−8.8, 7.7) mm and 8 (−126, 141) mm3 for length and volume, respectively. This was comparable to the best interobserver agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.85 and a bias (limits of agreement) of −0.1 (−11.2, 10.9) mm and −17 (−216, 185) mm3. Conclusions The method facilitates automated thrombus segmentation for accurate length and volume measurements, is relatively fast and requires minimal user input, while being insensitive to high hematocrit levels and vascular calcifications. Furthermore, it has the potential to assess thrombus characteristics of low-density thrombi. PMID:25032691

  19. Increased Circulating Exosomal miRNA-223 Is Associated with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yajing; Song, Yaying; Huang, Jun; Qu, Meijie; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Jieli; Zhang, Zhijun; Liu, Jianrong; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases including vascular disease. However, specific exosomal miRNAs expression in stroke patients has not been reported yet. Here, we explored whether circulating exosomal miRNAs can serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and discussed the potential for clinical application. Blood samples were collected from acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 72 h (n = 50). Circulating exosomes were exacted by Exoquick exosome isolation kit and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Western blot was performed to assess the expression of exosomal protein makers. Exosomal miRNA-223 (miR-223) was detected by RT-PCR assay. The relationship between the expression levels of miR-223 and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, brain infarct volume, and neurological outcomes were analyzed. Circulating exosomes were isolated and the size of vesicles ranged between 30 and 100 nm. The identification of exosomes was further confirmed by the detection of specific exosomal protein markers CD9, CD63, and Tsg101. Exosomal miR-223 in acute ischemic stroke patients was significantly upregulated compared to control group (p < 0.001). Exosomal miR-223 level was positively correlated with NIHSS scores (r = 0.31, p = 0.03). Exosomal miR-223 expression in stroke patients with poor outcomes was higher than those with good outcomes (p < 0.05). Increased exosomal miR-223 was associated with acute ischemic stroke occurrence, stroke severity, and short-term outcomes. Future studies with large sample are needed to assess the clinical application of exosomal miR-223 as a novel biomarker for ischemic stroke diagnosis. PMID:28289400

  20. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation and beat to beat blood pressure control are impaired in acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eames, P; Blake, M; Dawson, S; Panerai, R; Potter, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertension and chronic cerebrovascular disease are known to alter static cerebral autoregulation (CA) but the effects of acute stroke on dynamic CA (dCA) have not been studied in detail. Those studies to date measuring dCA have used sympathetically induced blood pressure (BP) changes, which may themselves directly affect dCA. This study assessed whether dCA is compromised after acute stroke using spontaneous blood pressure (BP) changes as the stimulus for the dCA response. Methods: 56 patients with ischaemic stroke (aged 70 (SD 9) years), studied within 72 hours of ictus were compared with 56 age, sex, and BP matched normal controls. Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) with non-invasive beat to beat arterial BP levels, surface ECG, and transcutaneous CO2 levels and a dynamic autoregulatory index (dARI) calculated. Results: Beat to beat BP, but not pulse interval variability was significantly increased and cardiac baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) decreased in the patients with stroke. Dynamic CA was significantly reduced in patients with stroke compared with controls (strokes: ARI 3.8 (SD 2.2) and 3.2 (SD 2.0) for pressor and depressor stimuli respectively v controls: ARI 4.7 (SD 2.2) and 4.5 (SD 2.0) respectively (p<0.05 in all cases)). There was no difference between stroke and non-stroke hemispheres in ARI, which was also independent of severity of stroke, BP, BP variability, BRS, sex, and age. Conclusion: Dynamic cerebral autoregulation, as assessed using spontaneous transient pressor and depressor BP stimuli, is globally impaired after acute ischaemic stroke and may prove to be an important factor in predicting outcome. PMID:11909905

  1. Informed consent: the rate-limiting step in acute stroke trials.

    PubMed

    Rose, David Z; Kasner, Scott E

    2011-01-01

    Successful implementation of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) for neuro-vascular emergencies such as cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage is extraordinarily challenging. Besides establishing an accurate, hyper-expedited diagnosis among many mimics in a person with acute neurological deficits, informed consent must be obtained from this vulnerable group of patients who may be unable to convey their own wishes, grasp the gravity of their situation, or give a complete history or examination. We review the influences, barriers, and factors investigators encounter when providing established and putative stroke therapies, and focus on informed consent, the most important research protector of human subjects, as the rate-limiting step for enrollment into acute stroke RCTs. The informed consent process has received relatively little attention in the stroke literature, but is especially important for stroke victims with acute cognitive, aural, lingual, motor, or visual impairments. Consent by a surrogate may not accurately reflect the patient's wishes. Further, confusion about trial methodology, negative opinions of placebo-controlled studies, and therapeutic misconception by patients or surrogates may impede trial enrollment and requires further study. Exception from informed consent offers an opportunity that is rarely if ever utilized for stroke RCTs. Ultimately, advancing the knowledge base and treatment paradigms for acute stroke is essential but autonomy, beneficence (non-malfeasance), and justice must also be carefully interwoven into any well-designed RCT.

  2. Population-based study of blood biomarkers in prediction of sub-acute recurrent stroke

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Helen C; Burgess, Annette I; Poole, Debbie L; Mehta, Ziyah; Silver, Louise E; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Risk of recurrent stroke is high in the first few weeks after TIA or stroke and clinic risk prediction tools have only limited accuracy, particularly after the hyper-acute phase. Previous studies of the predictive value of biomarkers have been small, been done in selected populations and have not concentrated on the acute phase or on intensively treated populations. We aimed to determine the predictive value of a panel of blood biomarkers in intensively treated patients early after TIA and stroke. Methods We studied 14 blood biomarkers related to inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis and cardiac or neuronal cell damage in early TIA or ischaemic stroke in a population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Biomarker levels were related to 90-day risk of recurrent stroke as Hazard Ratio (95%CI) per decile increase, adjusted for age and sex. Results Among 1292 eligible patients there were 53 recurrent ischaemic strokes within 90 days. There were moderate correlations (r>0.40; p<0001) between the inflammatory biomarkers and between the cell damage and thrombotic subsets. However, associations with risk of early recurrent stroke were weak, with significant associations limited to Interleukin-6 (HR=1.12, 1.01-1.24; p=0.035) and C-reactive protein (1.16, 1.02-1.30; p=0.019). When stratified by type of presenting event, P-selectin predicted stroke after TIA (1.31, 1.03-1.66; p=0.028) and C-reactive protein predicted stroke after stroke (1.16, 1.01-1.34; p=0.042). These associations remained after fully adjusting for other vascular risk factors. Conclusion In the largest study to date, we found very limited predictive utility for early recurrent stroke for a panel of inflammatory, thrombotic and cell damage biomarkers. PMID:25158774

  3. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile.

  4. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Corte, Vittoriano Della; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile. PMID:27043681

  5. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords “cortisol” and “stroke” and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity. PMID:24477489

  6. Motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke: a metabolic study.

    PubMed Central

    Di Piero, V; Chollet, F M; MacCarthy, P; Lenzi, G L; Frackowiak, R S

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic changes occurring after ischaemic stroke were measured to investigate the functional anatomy of clinical motor recovery. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the steady-state 15O technique was used to compare resting relative metabolic distributions at the onset of functional deficit with those following recovery. Ten patients were studied with repeat scans. Motor recovery was associated in some patients with an increase of relative oxygen metabolism in anatomical structures normally involved in motor function in the affected hemisphere, particularly in the cortical motor areas. In those patients without such metabolic changes in the cortex of the diseased hemisphere, relative increases in cortical metabolism in the contralateral hemisphere were associated with better motor recovery than in patients with no relative cortical metabolic increase in either hemisphere. There was no correlation between the degree of improvement in motor function and the severity of motor deficit at onset, the size and site of the lesion and the metabolic changes in the infarcted zone. No particular pattern of global metabolic changes was observed after recovery. Thus different relative patterns of metabolic recovery were seen in patients with different lesions and evidence was found for the participation of contralateral structures in the recovery process in some patients. Images PMID:1469418

  7. Association of glomerular filtration rate with outcomes of acute stroke in type 2 diabetic patients: results from the China National Stroke Registry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang; Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Haichen; Wang, David; Liu, Liping; Jia, Qian; Liu, Gaifen; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We aim to explore whether a link exists between different levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and poor outcomes of acute stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between 2007 and 2009, 6,261 patients with cerebrovascular events and diabetes were included in the final analysis from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR) and substudy of CNSR (Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients with Acute Stroke Across China [ACROSS]).The period of follow-up was 1 year after stroke onset. eGFR was calculated with the Chinese modification of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The association between eGFR and poor stroke outcomes, including all-cause death, recurrent stroke, combined end point (stroke or death), and stroke disability, was evaluated by multivariate analysis with the adjustment for demographic and clinical features. RESULTS Of 4,836 patients with stroke, low eGFR (<45 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) occurred in 268 (5.5%) and high eGFR (≥120 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) in 387 (8.0%). The median value for eGFR in all patients was 92.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Low eGFR was independently associated with risks of all clinical outcomes in stroke/transient ischemic attack patients or patients with ischemic events, but not in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Additionally, high eGFR was positively associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in all stroke subtypes, including hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS Low and high eGFRs (<45 or ≥120 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively) are independent predictors of all-cause mortality and other poor outcomes after acute stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Absolute and Relative Contraindications to IV rt-PA for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the contraindications to the administration of intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) originated as exclusion criteria in major stroke trials. These were derived from expert consensus for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial. Despite the fact that the safety and efficacy of IV rtPA has been repeatedly confirmed in large international observational studies over the past 20 years, most patients with acute ischemic stroke disappointingly still do not receive thrombolytic treatment. Some of the original exclusion criteria have proven to be unnecessarily restrictive in real-world clinical practice. It has been suggested that application of relaxed exclusion criteria might increase the IV thrombolysis rate up to 20% with comparable outcomes to thrombolysis with more conventional criteria. We review the absolute and relative contraindications to IV rtPA for acute ischemic stroke, discussing the underlying rationale and evidence supporting these exclusion criteria. PMID:26288669

  9. Tools and early management of language and swallowing disorders in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Flamand-Roze, Constance; Cauquil-Michon, Cécile; Denier, Christian

    2012-02-01

    The role of the stroke units in improving morbidity, mortality, and recovery from stroke is clearly demonstrated. However, acute management of language disorders in these specialized units remains controversial, and management of swallowing disorders is usually nonstandardized. The recent validation of a scale for rapid screening of language disorders (LAST [Language Screening Test]) in acute stroke patients should allow optimization of their detection and early management. Swallowing disorders should be screened and managed using a standardized protocol. Following early initial evaluation repeated on a daily basis, they justify tailored rehabilitation sessions, adaptation of food textures, team formation, and families' information. The use of these protocols implies the cooperation and coordination of the medical and paramedical teams and the daily presence of speech therapists. These aspects are crucial for patients in the stroke units to achieve full benefits from the management proposed in this paper, leading to diminution of complications and better long-term functional prognosis.

  10. Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

  11. Is hyperglycaemia an independent predictor of poor outcome after acute stroke? Results of a long-term follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C. J.; Murray, G. D.; Dyker, A. G.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether raised plasma glucose concentration independently influences outcome after acute stroke or is a stress response reflecting increased stroke severity. DESIGN: Long-term follow up study of patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. SETTING: Western Infirmary, Glasgow. SUBJECTS: 811 patients with acute stroke confirmed by computed tomography. Analysis was restricted to the 750 non-diabetic patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival time and placement three months after stroke. RESULTS: 645 patients (86%) had ischaemic stroke and 105 patients (14%) haemorrhagic stroke. Cox's proportional hazards modelling with stratification according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project categories identified increased age (relative hazard 1.36 per decade; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.53), haemorrhagic stroke (relative hazard 1.67; 1.22 to 2.28), time to resolution of symptoms > 72 hours (relative hazard 2.15; 1.15 to 4.05), and hyperglycaemia (relative hazard 1.87; 1.43 to 2.45) as predictors of mortality. The effect of glucose concentration on survival was greatest in the first month. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glucose concentration above 8 mmol/l after acute stroke predicts a poor prognosis after correcting for age, stroke severity, and stroke subtype. Raised plasma glucose concentration is therefore unlikely to be solely a stress response and should arguably be treated actively. A randomised trial is warranted. PMID:9158464

  12. Chronic hyperglycemia is related to poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Luitse, Merel Ja; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2017-02-01

    Background Acute hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke, but the association between chronic antecedent hyperglycemia and outcome is unclear. Aim We assessed the association between chronic hyperglycemia, measured by hemoglobin A1c, and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We included 812 patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age 66 ± 14 years; 61.5% male). Patients were categorized per hemoglobin A1c level: no (<39 mmol/mol), moderate (39-42 mmol/mol), or severe chronic hyperglycemia (>42 mmol/mol). Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score > 2 after 3 months. The relation between chronic hyperglycemia and functional outcome was assessed with a Poisson regression analysis and expressed as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals with no chronic hyperglycemia as the reference. Results Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was present in 234 (28.8%) patients and severe chronic hyperglycemia in 183 (22.5%) patients. Acute hyperglycemia on admission was present in 338 (41.6%) patients. Severe chronic hyperglycemia was associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.40; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.79). After adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity, vascular risk factors, and acute hyperglycemia on admission the risk ratios was 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.76). Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was not associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.44). Conclusion Severe chronic hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This association is independent of hyperglycemia in the acute stage of stroke and of an unfavorable vascular risk factor profile.

  13. Brain CT-scan in acute stroke patients: silent infarcts and relation to outcome.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Tambasco, Nicola; Luccioli, Roberto; Ciorba, Ettore; Parnetti, Lucilla; Gallai, Virgilio

    2002-01-01

    Silent infarcts (SIs) are common findings in stroke patients, but their clinical significance remains controversial. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SI in consecutive stroke patients, characteristics, associated factors, and influence on in-hospital mortality. The population consisted of 191 patients, consecutively admitted for an acute stroke. Of 191 patients, 74 had SI on CT-scan. Silent infarcts were often multiple, right sided, lacunar. We found SI more frequently in older patients, smokers, with an ischemic stroke having small vessel disease as presumed cause. In our study SI were associated with ageing, smoke habit and lacunar stroke. Silent infarcts size influenced the rate of in-hospital mortality.

  14. Cerebral blood flow velocity changes during upright positioning in bed after acute stroke: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Aries, Marcel J; Elting, Jan Willem; Stewart, Roy; De Keyser, Jacques; Kremer, Berry; Vroomen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objectives National guidelines recommend mobilisation in bed as early as possible after acute stroke. Little is known about the influence of upright positioning on real-time cerebral flow variables in patients with stroke. We aimed to assess whether cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes significantly after upright positioning in bed in the acute stroke phase. Design Observational study. Participants 47 patients with acute ischaemic stroke measured in the subacute phase after symptom onset and 20 healthy controls. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded postural changes in bilateral transcranial Doppler (primary outcome) and simultaneously recorded near-infrared spectroscopy, end-tidal CO2, non-invasive blood pressure data and changes in neurological status (secondary outcomes). Methods Postures included the supine, half sitting (45°), sitting (70°) and Trendelenburg (−15°) positions. Using multilevel analyses, we compared postural changes between hemispheres, outcome groups (using modified Rankin Scale) as well as between patients and healthy controls. Results The mean patient age was 62±15 years and median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score on admission was 7 (IQR 5–14). Mean proportional CBFV changes on sitting were not significantly different between healthy controls and affected hemispheres in patients with stroke. No significant differences were found between affected and unaffected stroke hemispheres and between patients with unfavourable and favourable outcomes. During upright positioning, no neurological worsening or improvement was observed in any of the patients. Conclusions No indications were found that upright positioning in bed in mild to moderately affected patients with stroke compromises flow and (frontal)oxygenation significantly during the subacute phase of stroke. Supine or Trendelenburg positioning does not seem to augment real-time flow variables. PMID:23945730

  15. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy in patients treated with dabigatran with acute ischemic stroke: Expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Bernstein, R; Butcher, K; Campbell, B; Cloud, G; Davalos, A; Davis, S; Ferro, J M; Grond, M; Krieger, D; Ntaios, G; Slowik, A; Touzé, E

    2017-01-01

    Systemic thrombolysis with rt-PA is contraindicated in patients with acute ischemic stroke anticoagulated with dabigatran. This expert opinion provides guidance on the use of the specific reversal agent idarucizumab followed by rt-PA and/or thrombectomy in patients with ischemic stroke pre-treated with dabigatran. The use of idarucizumab followed by rt-PA is covered by the label of both drugs.

  16. Why are patients with acute stroke admitted to hospital?

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Warlow, C; Gray, M

    1986-01-01

    Data on 515 consecutive patients registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project were used to compare the characteristics of those patients who were admitted to hospital within one month after their first stroke with those who remained in the community during that time. Twenty eight patients had their stroke while in hospital for other conditions, and of the remaining 487, 266 were admitted. Though patients with a severe neurological deficit were significantly more likely to be admitted, 47 out of 202 such patients were managed in the community. In a substudy of 162 consecutive patients the general practitioners' reasons for either arranging admission to hospital or continuing with community care in the first week after the stroke were ascertained. Sixty patients were admitted. The only reason for admission was diagnostic uncertainty in five cases (though this was a contributing factor in 25) and to provide nursing or general, non-medical care in 25. Patients who lived alone were more likely to be admitted. All 12 patients who presented directly to the casualty department were admitted, though only five had had a severe stroke. A stroke service that provides a facility for rapid outpatient and domiciliary diagnosis as well as a rapidly acting domiciliary nursing team might reduce the number of patients with stroke admitted to hospital without adversely affecting the quality of patient care: this should be properly evaluated. PMID:3085852

  17. Acute Stroke: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care

    PubMed Central

    Glober, Nancy K.; Sporer, Karl A.; Guluma, Kama Z.; Serra, John P.; Barger, Joe A.; Brown, John F.; Gilbert, Gregory H.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Rudnick, Eric M.; Salvucci, Angelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the state of California. Methods We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the stroke protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were the use of a stroke scale, blood glucose evaluation, use of supplemental oxygen, patient positioning, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac monitoring, fluid assessment and intravenous access, and stroke regionalization. Results Protocols across EMS agencies in California varied widely. Most used some sort of stroke scale with the majority using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS). All recommended the evaluation of blood glucose with the level for action ranging from 60 to 80mg/dL. Cardiac monitoring was recommended in 58% and 33% recommended an ECG. More than half required the direct transport to a primary stroke center and 88% recommended hospital notification. Conclusion Protocols for a patient with a suspected stroke vary widely across the state of California. The evidence-based recommendations that we present for the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of this condition may be useful for EMS medical directors tasked with creating and revising these protocols. PMID:26973735

  18. Lack of hemispheric dominance for consciousness in acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cucchiara, B; Kasner, S; Wolk, D; Lyden, P; Knappertz, V; Ashwood, T; Odergren, T; Nordlund, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous reports have suggested left hemispheric dominance for maintaining consciousness, although there is controversy over this claim. Objective: To compare early impairment of level of consciousness between patients with right and left hemispheric stroke. Methods: Data from 564 patients with ischaemic stroke enrolled in the placebo arm of a trial of a putative neuroprotectant were analysed. All patients had major hemispheric stroke with cortical dysfunction, visual field deficit, and limb weakness, with symptom onset within 12 hours of enrolment. Patients were prospectively evaluated on a predefined scale (1–6; 1 = fully awake, higher scores representing greater impairment) to measure level of consciousness at multiple time points over the initial 24 hours after presentation. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) stroke scale score at presentation and infarct volume at 30 days were determined. Results: Some degree of impairment in level of consciousness was observed in 409 of the 564 patients (73%). Median maximum sedation score was 2 for both right and left hemispheric stroke (p = 0.91). Mean sedation score over 24 hours was 1.5 for both right and left stroke (p = 0.75). There was no difference between level of consciousness scores in right and left stroke at any individual time point during the 24 hour monitoring period. No association between side and impairment in level of consciousness was seen after adjustment for stroke severity and infarct volume. Conclusions: In contrast to previous reports, there was no evidence for hemispheric dominance for consciousness in the setting of a major hemispheric stroke. PMID:12810773

  19. Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329

  20. Gender differences in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Alberti, Andrea; Lanari, Alessia; Micheli, Sara; Bertolani, Luca; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Billeci, Antonia M R; Comi, Giancarlo; Previdi, Paolo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on women than men owing to the fact that women have more stroke events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men; however, because of women's longer life expectancy and the much higher incidence of stroke at older ages, women have more stroke events than men overall. The aims of this prospective study in consecutive patients were to assess whether there are gender differences in stroke risk factors, treatment or outcome. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were included in this prospective study at four study centers. Disability was assessed using a modified Rankin Scale score (>or=3 indicating disabling stroke) in both genders at 90 days. Outcomes and risk factors in both genders were compared using the chi(2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify any independent predictors of outcome. A total of 1136 patients were included in this study; of these, 494 (46%) were female. Women were statistically older compared with men: 76.02 (+/- 12.93) and 72.68 (+/- 13.27) median years of age, respectively. At admission, females had higher NIH Stroke Scale scores compared with males (9.4 [+/- 6.94] vs 7.6 [+/- 6.28] for men; p = 0.0018). Furthermore, females tended to have more cardioembolic strokes (153 [30%] vs 147 [23%] for men; p = 0.004). Males had lacunar and atherosclerotic strokes more often (146 [29%] vs 249 [39%] for men; p = 0.002, and 68 [13%] vs 123 [19%] for men; p = 0.01, respectively). The mean modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months was also significantly different between genders, at 2.5 (+/- 2.05) for women and 2.1 (+/- 2.02) for men (p = 0.003). However, at multivariate analysis, female gender was not an indicator for negative outcome. It was concluded that female gender was not an independent factor for negative outcome. In addition, both genders demonstrated different stroke pathophysiologies. These findings should be taken into account when diagnostic workup and

  1. Torsade de pointes indicates early neurologic damage in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Lin, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tsai, Tsung-Neng

    2013-12-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is related to QT prolongation. Although QT prolongation is commonly seen in acute stroke, TdP is rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old woman with ischemic stroke who presented with TdP as the initial manifestation of early neurologic deterioration. We hypothesized that an increase in intracranial pressure may result in neurohormonal activation, QT prolongation, and then myocardial damage, leading to TdP. We highlight that new onset of TdP in a patient with stroke may reflect neurologic deterioration, requiring further evaluation and specific intervention.

  2. Tremor onset with acute frontal infarct and disappearance with the second stroke.

    PubMed

    Yerdelen, Deniz; Yetkinel, Selin; Dogan, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Ischemic stroke associated movement disorders can be seen as the first sign of a stroke or as a delayed onset development. Tremor after a stroke is a rare finding among movement disorders. In addition to reports of tremor caused by cerebral infarction of varied locations, data on the disappearance of existing tremor following infarction is also available. In this report, we present a case with acute tremor in the contralateral hand following frontal cortical infarction, and disappearance of the tremor after the second infarction comprising large areas in the same hemisphere.

  3. An innovative, multidisciplinary, process-driven approach to acute stroke in a community health system network.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Richard D; To, Chiu Yuen; Gordon, Vickie; Stover, Carrie; Dunne, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of death and disability in the United States, yet it is undertreated by many major medical centers across the country. Timely recognition and treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains a challenge due to confusing clinical presentations, hospital logistics, communication barriers among providers, and lack of standardized treatment algorithms. By creating a system-wide Code Stroke protocol, St. John Providence Health System improved documentation, increased intravenous tissue plasminogen activator delivery, reduced specialist call-back times, improved door-to-computer tomography scan and door-to-needle time, and identified appropriate patients for endovascular therapy.

  4. Current knowledge on the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of citicoline in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Martynov, Mikhail Yu; Gusev, Eugeny I

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of long-lasting disability and death. Two main strategies have been proposed for the treatment of ischemic stroke: restoration of blood flow by thrombolysis or mechanical thrombus extraction during the first few hours of ischemic stroke, which is one of the most effective treatments and leads to a better functional and clinical outcome. The other direction of treatment, which is potentially applicable to most of the patients with ischemic stroke, is neuroprotection. Initially, neuroprotection was mainly targeted at protecting gray matter, but during the past few years there has been a transition from a neuron-oriented approach toward salvaging the whole neurovascular unit using multimodal drugs. Citicoline is a multimodal drug that exhibits neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects in a variety of experimental and clinical disorders of the central nervous system, including acute and chronic cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and global cerebral hypoxia. Citicoline has a prolonged therapeutic window and is active at various temporal and biochemical stages of the ischemic cascade. In acute ischemic stroke, citicoline provides neuroprotection by attenuating glutamate exitotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and blood–brain barrier dysfunction. In the subacute and chronic phases of ischemic stroke, citicoline exhibits neuroregenerative effects and activates neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis and enhances neurotransmitter metabolism. Acute and long-term treatment with citicoline is safe and in most clinical studies is effective and improves functional outcome. PMID:27186142

  5. Developing drug strategies for the neuroprotective treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Arnao, Valentina; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Developing new treatment strategies for acute ischemic stroke in the last twenty years has offered some important successes, but also several failures. Most trials of neuroprotective therapies have been uniformly negative to date. Recent research has reported how excitatory amino acids act as the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, other therapeutic targets such as free radical scavenger strategies and the anti-inflammatory neuroprotective strategy have been evaluated with conflicting data in animal models and human subjects with acute ischemic stroke. Whereas promising combinations of neuroprotection and neurorecovery, such as citicoline, albumin and cerebrolysin have been tested with findings worthy of further evaluation in larger randomized clinical trials. Understanding the complexities of the ischemic cascade is essential to developing pharmacological targets for acute ischemic stroke in neuroprotective or flow restoration therapeutic strategies.

  6. Acute ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization: the protamine low-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator pathway.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Carlos; Quijada, Alonso; Rosas, Carolina; Bulatova, Katya; Lara, Hugo; Nieto, Elena; Morales, Marcelo

    2016-05-20

    Intravenous thrombolysis is the preferred treatment for acute ischemic stroke; however, it remains unestablished in the area of cardiac catheterization. We report three patients with acute ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization. After reversing the anticoagulant effect of unfractionated heparin with protamine, all of the patients were successfully off-label thrombolyzed with reduced doses of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (0.6 mg/kg). This dose was preferred to reduce the risk of symptomatic cerebral or systemic bleeding. The sequential pathway of protamine recombinant tissue plasminogen activator at reduced doses may be safer for reducing intracranial or systemic bleeding events, whereas remaining efficacious for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization.

  7. Intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with negative CT perfusion: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Ratnesh; Qahwash, Omar; Richards, Boyd; Fessler, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Background Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is a commonly used modality of neurophysiologic imaging to aid the selection of acute ischemic stroke patients for neuroendovascular intervention by identifying the presence of penumbra versus infarcted brain tissue. However many patients present with evidence of cerebral ischemia with normal CTP, and in that case, should intravenous thrombolytics be given? Purpose To demonstrate if tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-eligible stroke patients without perfusion defects demonstrated on CTP would benefit from administration of intravenous thrombolytics. Material and Methods We retrospectively identified patients presenting with acute ischemic symptoms who received intravenous tPA (IV-tPA) from January to June 2012 without a perfusion defect on CTP. Clinical and radiographic findings including the NIHSS at presentation, 24 h, and at discharge, symptomatic and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation, and the modified Rankin score at 30 days were collected. A reduction of NIHSS of greater than 4 points or resolution of symptoms was considered significant. Results Seventeen patients were identified with a mean NIHSS of 8.2 prior to administration of intravenous thrombolytics, 3.5 after 24 h, and 2.5 at discharge. Among them, 13 patients had significant improvement of NIHSS with a mean reduction of 6.15 points at 24 h. One patient initially improved but had delayed hemorrhagic transformation and died. Two patients had improvement in NIHSS but were not significant and two patients had increased in NIHSS at 24 h, although one eventually improved at discharge. There was no asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. Mean mRS at 3 months is 1.76. Conclusion The failure to identify a perfusion deficit by CTP should not be used as a contraindication for intravenous thrombolytics. Criteria for administration of intravenous thrombolytics should still be based on time from symptom onset as previously published by NINDS. PMID

  8. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Go, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.

  9. Predicting Discharge Mortality after Acute Ischemic Stroke Using Balanced Data

    PubMed Central

    Ho, King Chung; Speier, William; El-Saden, Suzie; Liebeskind, David S.; Saver, Jeffery L.; Bui, Alex A. T.; Arnold, Corey W.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been developed to predict stroke outcomes (e.g., stroke mortality, patient dependence, etc.) in recent decades. However, there is little discussion regarding the problem of between-class imbalance in stroke datasets, which leads to prediction bias and decreased performance. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique to overcome such problems. We also compare state of the art machine learning methods and construct a six-variable support vector machine (SVM) model to predict stroke mortality at discharge. Finally, we discuss how the identification of a reduced feature set allowed us to identify additional cases in our research database for validation testing. Our classifier achieved a c-statistic of 0.865 on the cross-validated dataset, demonstrating good classification performance using a reduced set of variables. PMID:25954451

  10. Treatment Strategies for Acute Ischemic Stroke Caused by Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yin, Qin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion usually has a poor prognosis, especially the T occlusion cases without functional collaterals. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) remains ambiguous in these patients. Eendovascular recanalization of the occluded carotid has been attempted in recent years as a potential strategy. However, the different etiologies of ICA occlusion pose a significant challenge to neurointerventionists. Recently, several endovascular evolvements have been reported in treating carotid occlusion-related stroke. This review summarizes the current status of treatment for acute ICA occlusion. PMID:27781043

  11. Implementation of an institution-wide acute stroke algorithm: Improving stroke quality metrics

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Scott L.; Magarik, Jordan A.; Espaillat, Kiersten B.; Kumar, Nishant Ganesh; Bhatia, Ritwik; Dewan, Michael C.; Morone, Peter J.; Hermann, Lisa D.; O’Duffy, Anne E.; Riebau, Derek A.; Kirshner, Howard S.; Mocco, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In May 2012, an updated stroke algorithm was implemented at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The current study objectives were to: (1) describe the process of implementing a new stroke algorithm and (2) compare pre- and post-algorithm quality improvement (QI) metrics, specificaly door to computed tomography time (DTCT), door to neurology time (DTN), and door to tPA administration time (DTT). Methods: Our institutional stroke algorithm underwent extensive revision, with a focus on removing variability, streamlining care, and improving time delays. The updated stroke algorithm was implemented in May 2012. Three primary stroke QI metrics were evaluated over four separate 3-month time points, one pre- and three post-algorithm periods. Results: The following data points improved after algorithm implementation: average DTCT decreased from 39.9 to 12.8 min (P < 0.001); average DTN decreased from 34.1 to 8.2 min (P ≤ 0.001), and average DTT decreased from 62.5 to 43.5 min (P = 0.17). Conclusion: A new stroke protocol that prioritized neurointervention at our institution resulted in significant lowering in the DTCT and DTN, with a nonsignificant improvement in DTT. PMID:28144480

  12. The influence of gender on ‘tissue at risk’ in acute stroke: A diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study in a rat model of focal cerebral ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Holmes, William M; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the influence of sex on the evolution of ischaemic injury and penumbra. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male (n = 9) and female (n = 10) Sprague-Dawley rats. Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired over 4 h and infarct determined from T2 images at 24 h post-permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Penumbra was determined retrospectively from serial apparent diffusion coefficient lesions and T2-defined infarct. Apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume was significantly smaller in females from 0.5 to 4 h post permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion as was infarct volume. Penumbral volume, and its loss over time, was not significantly different despite the sex difference in acute and final lesion volumes. PMID:26661149

  13. Visual aid tool to improve decision making in acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Goyal, Mayank; Majoie, Charles; Dippel, Diederik; Roos, Yvo; Demchuk, Andrew; Menon, Bijoy; Mitchell, Peter; Campbell, Bruce; Dávalos, Antoni; Jovin, Tudor; Hill, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Background Acute stroke care represents a challenge for decision makers. Recent randomized trials showed the benefits of endovascular therapy. Our goal was to provide a visual aid tool to guide clinicians in the decision process of endovascular intervention in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We created visual plots (Cates' plots; www.nntonline.net ) representing benefits of standard of care vs. endovascular thrombectomy from the pooled analysis of five RCTs using stent retrievers. These plots represent the following clinically relevant outcomes (1) functionally independent state (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0 to 2 at 90 days) (2) excellent recovery (mRS 0-1) at 90 days, (3) NIHSS 0-2 (4) early neurological recovery, and (5) revascularization at 24 h. Subgroups visually represented include time to treatment and baseline stroke severity strata. Results Overall, 1287 patients (634 assigned to endovascular thrombectomy, 653 assigned to control were included to create the visual plots. Cates' visual plots revealed that for every 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion, 27 would achieve independence at 90 days (mRS 0-2) in the control group compared to 49 (95% CI 43-56) in the intervention group. Similarly, 21 patients would achieve early neurological recovery at 24 h compared to 54 (95% CI 45-63) out of 100 for the intervention group. Conclusion Cates' plots may assist clinicians and patients to visualize and compare potential outcomes after an acute ischemic stroke. Our results suggest that for every 100 treated individuals with an acute ischemic stroke and a large vessel occlusion, endovascular thrombectomy would provide 22 additional patients reaching independency at three months and 33 more patients achieving ENR compared to controls.

  14. The Multidisciplinary Swallowing Team Approach Decreases Pneumonia Onset in Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Shiro; Hirayama, Junko; Nakamori, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Nezu, Tomohisa; Kubo, Satoshi; Nagano, Yuka; Nagao, Akiko; Yamane, Naoya; Nishikawa, Yuichi; Takamoto, Megumi; Ueno, Hiroki; Ochi, Kazuhide; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in acute stroke patients at high rates, and many of them develop aspiration pneumonia. Team approaches with the cooperation of various professionals have the power to improve the quality of medical care, utilizing the specialized knowledge and skills of each professional. In our hospital, a multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team was organized. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of a team approach on dysphagia by comparing the rates of pneumonia in acute stroke patients prior to and post team organization. All consecutive acute stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2009 and March 2014 were registered. We analyzed the difference in the rate of pneumonia onset between the periods before team organization (prior period) and after team organization (post period). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the predictors of pneumonia. We recruited 132 acute stroke patients from the prior period and 173 patients from the post period. Pneumonia onset was less frequent in the post period compared with the prior period (6.9% vs. 15.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Based on a multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was determined that a swallowing team approach was related to pneumonia onset independent from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (adjusted hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19–0.84, p = 0.02). The multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team effectively decreased the pneumonia onset in acute stroke patients. PMID:27138162

  15. The Multidisciplinary Swallowing Team Approach Decreases Pneumonia Onset in Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Hirayama, Junko; Nakamori, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Nezu, Tomohisa; Kubo, Satoshi; Nagano, Yuka; Nagao, Akiko; Yamane, Naoya; Nishikawa, Yuichi; Takamoto, Megumi; Ueno, Hiroki; Ochi, Kazuhide; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in acute stroke patients at high rates, and many of them develop aspiration pneumonia. Team approaches with the cooperation of various professionals have the power to improve the quality of medical care, utilizing the specialized knowledge and skills of each professional. In our hospital, a multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team was organized. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of a team approach on dysphagia by comparing the rates of pneumonia in acute stroke patients prior to and post team organization. All consecutive acute stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2009 and March 2014 were registered. We analyzed the difference in the rate of pneumonia onset between the periods before team organization (prior period) and after team organization (post period). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the predictors of pneumonia. We recruited 132 acute stroke patients from the prior period and 173 patients from the post period. Pneumonia onset was less frequent in the post period compared with the prior period (6.9% vs. 15.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Based on a multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was determined that a swallowing team approach was related to pneumonia onset independent from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (adjusted hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.84, p = 0.02). The multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team effectively decreased the pneumonia onset in acute stroke patients.

  16. Efficacy of citicoline as an acute stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wayne M

    2009-04-01

    Citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine or CDP-choline) is a precursor essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, one of the cell membrane components that is degraded during cerebral ischemia to free fatty acids and free radicals. Animal studies suggest that citicoline may protect cell membranes by accelerating resynthesis of phospholipids and suppressing the release of free fatty acids, stabilizing cell membranes, and reducing free radical generation. Numerous experimental stroke studies with citicoline have shown improved outcome and reduced infarct size in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke models. Citicoline has been studied worldwide in both ischemic and hemorrhagic clinical stroke with excellent safety and possibly efficacy found in several trials. A meta-analysis of four randomized US clinical citicoline trials concluded that treatment with oral citicoline within the first 24 h after a moderate to severe stroke is safe and increases the probability of complete recovery at 3 months. Citicoline clinical efficacy trials are now continuing outside of the US in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. A citicoline supplement is now available from several sources on the internet.

  17. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds ... blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused ...

  18. Validity of Acute Stroke Lesion Volume Estimation by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging–Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score Depends on Lesion Location in 496 Patients With Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S.; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Campbell, Bruce; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score (ASPECTS) has been used to estimate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume in acute stroke. We aimed to assess correlations of DWI-ASPECTS with lesion volume in different middle cerebral artery (MCA) subregions and reproduce existing ASPECTS thresholds of a malignant profile defined by lesion volume ≥100 mL. Methods We analyzed data of patients with MCA stroke from a prospective observational study of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in acute stroke. DWI-ASPECTS and lesion volume were calculated. The population was divided into subgroups based on lesion localization (superficial MCA territory, deep MCA territory, or both). Correlation of ASPECTS and infarct volume was calculated, and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal ASPECTS threshold for ≥100-mL lesion volume. Results A total of 496 patients were included. There was a significant negative correlation between ASPECTS and DWI lesion volume (r=−0.78; P<0.0001). With regards to lesion localization, correlation was weaker in deep MCA region (r=−0.19; P=0.038) when compared with superficial (r=−0.72; P<0.001) or combined superficial and deep MCA lesions (r=−0.72; P<0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed ASPECTS≤6 as best cutoff to identify ≥100-mL DWI lesion volume; however, positive predictive value was low (0.35). Conclusions ASPECTS has limitations when lesion location is not considered. Identification of patients with malignant profile by DWI-ASPECTS may be unreliable. ASPECTS may be a useful tool for the evaluation of noncontrast computed tomography. However, if MRI is used, ASPECTS seems dispensable because lesion volume can easily be quantified on DWI maps. PMID:25316278

  19. Why emergency XeCT-CBF should become routine in acute ischemic stroke before thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J S; Rauch, G M

    2000-02-01

    Intravenous thrombolytic therapy using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtpa) has been approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the USA, if treatment is initiated within 3-hours (NINDS tpa Stroke Study Group) but not 6 hours (ECASS II) after time of onset. Favorable outcome in the placebo arm was much higher than expected possibly because patients with TIA's are likely to be included as progressive ischemic stroke subjects when a brief 3-6 hours duration of stroke is defined as the therapeutic window. Yonas' group at the University of Pittsburg demonstrated that adding stable xenon inhalation to routine CT scanning performed during emergency screening of acute stroke, predicted which cases became irreversibly infarcted if thrombolytic therapy was not administered within a few hours of stroke onset, since non-contrasted CT scans are usually normal this early. Adding a few minutes for inhalation of 26% xenon is justified in order to measure LCBF values which predict size, severity and volumes of impending cerebral infarctions and rule out TIA's which have relatively normal CT-CBF values. CT-CBF measures provide positive indications for thrombolytic therapy. This is not possible by MRI and SPECT methods which are not sufficiently quantitative to discern LCBF values persistently below ischemic thresholds of 16 mls/100 gm/min, thereby predicting impending infarction.

  20. Association of Serum Calcium Levels with Infarct Size in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Observations from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Meghna; Dhar, Sriparna; Gogoi, Dipankar Mall; Ruram, Alice Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcium is known to be major mediator in ischemic neuronal cell death. Recent studies have shown that elevated serum calcium levels at admission in patients with stroke have been associated with less severe clinical deficits and with better outcomes. Aim: The aim of this to determine the correlation between serum calcium (total, corrected, and ionized) and infarct size (IS) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 61 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke from May 2015 to April 2016 at a tertiary care institute in Northeast India. Only patients aged ≥40 years and diagnosed as having acute ischemic cerebrovascular stroke with clinical examination and confirmed by a computed tomography scan were included in the study. Serum calcium levels (total, albumin corrected, and ionized) were collapsed into quartiles, and these quartile versions were used for calculating correlation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for comparing calcium levels with IS. Results: Total calcium, albumin-corrected calcium, and ionized calcium had a statistically significant negative correlation with IS with r = −0.578, −0.5396, and −0.5335, respectively. Total and ionized calcium showed a significant negative correlation with IS across all four quartiles. Albumin-corrected calcium levels showed a significant negative correlation with IS only across the lowest and highest quartiles. Conclusion: The findings in our study suggest that serum calcium can be used as a prognostic indicator in ischemic stroke as its levels directly correlates with the IS. PMID:28163502

  1. Functional outcome in acute stroke patients with oropharyngeal Dysphagia after swallowing therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P < .05). When comparing the results of the VFS among the 3 groups, we found significant improvements in patients eating cookies and thick liquid after combined NMES/TS therapy (P < .05). In acute stroke patients with dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids.

  2. Increased Blood Pressure Variability Is Associated with Worse Neurologic Outcome in Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Alicia; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Smith, Gordon; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana; Chung, Lee; Tirschwell, David L.; Majersik, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although research suggests that blood pressure variability (BPV) is detrimental in the weeks to months after acute ischemic stroke, it has not been adequately studied in the acute setting. Methods. We reviewed acute ischemic stroke patients from 2007 to 2014 with anterior circulation stroke. Mean blood pressure and three BPV indices (standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and successive variation) for the intervals 0–24, 0–72, and 0–120 hours after admission were correlated with follow-up modified Rankin Scale (mRS) in ordinal logistic regression models. The correlation between BPV and mRS was further analyzed by terciles of clinically informative stratifications. Results. Two hundred and fifteen patients met inclusion criteria. At all time intervals, increased systolic BPV was associated with higher mRS, but the relationship was not significant for diastolic BPV or mean blood pressure. This association was strongest in patients with proximal stroke parent artery vessel occlusion and lower mean blood pressure. Conclusion. Increased early systolic BPV is associated with worse neurologic outcome after ischemic stroke. This association is strongest in patients with lower mean blood pressure and proximal vessel occlusion, often despite endovascular or thrombolytic therapy. This hypothesis-generating dataset suggests potential benefit for interventions aimed at reducing BPV in this patient population. PMID:27974991

  3. Stroke neuroprotection revisited: Intra-arterial verapamil is profoundly neuroprotective in experimental acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Maniskas, Michael E; Roberts, Jill M; Aron, Ishi; Fraser, Justin F; Bix, Gregory J

    2016-04-01

    While clinical trials have now solidified the role of thrombectomy in emergent large vessel occlusive stroke, additional therapies are needed to optimize patient outcome. Using our previously described experimental ischemic stroke model for evaluating adjunctive intra-arterial drug therapy after vessel recanalization, we studied the potential neuroprotective effects of verapamil. A calcium channel blocker, verapamil is often infused intra-arterially by neurointerventionalists to treat cerebral vasospasm. Such a direct route of administration allows for both focused targeting of stroke-impacted brain tissue and minimizes potential systemic side effects. Intra-arterial administration of verapamil at a flow rate of 2.5 µl/min and injection volume of 10 µl immediately after middle cerebral artery recanalization in C57/Bl6 mice was shown to be profoundly neuroprotective as compared to intra-arterial vehicle-treated stroke controls. Specifically, we noted a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in infarct volume, astrogliosis, and cellular apoptosis as well as a significant increase in neuronal survival and functional outcome over seven days. Furthermore, intra-arterial administration of verapamil was well tolerated with no hemorrhage, systemic side effects, or increased mortality. Thus, verapamil administered intra-arterially immediately following recanalization in experimental ischemic stroke is both safe and neuroprotective and merits further study as a potential therapeutic adjunct to thrombectomy.

  4. Prehospital Use of Magnesium Sulfate as Neuroprotection in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Starkman, Sidney; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel J.; Pratt, Franklin D.; Hamilton, Scott; Conwit, Robin; Liebeskind, David S.; Sung, Gene; Kramer, Ian; Moreau, Gary; Goldweber, Robert; Sanossian, Nerses

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Magnesium sulfate is neuroprotective in preclinical models of stroke and has shown signals of potential efficacy with an acceptable safety profile when delivered early after stroke onset in humans. Delayed initiation of neuroprotective agents has hindered earlier phase 3 trials of neuroprotective agents. METHODS We randomly assigned patients with suspected stroke to receive either intravenous magnesium sulfate or placebo, beginning within 2 hours after symptom onset. A loading dose was initiated by paramedics before the patient arrived at the hospital, and a 24-hour maintenance infusion was started on the patient’s arrival at the hospital. The primary outcome was the degree of disability at 90 days, as measured by scores on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability). RESULTS Among the 1700 enrolled patients (857 in the magnesium group and 843 in the placebo group), the mean (±SD) age was 69±13 years, 42.6% were women, and the mean pretreatment score on the Los Angeles Motor Scale of stroke severity (range, 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater motor deficits) was 3.7±1.3. The final diagnosis of the qualifying event was cerebral ischemia in 73.3% of patients, intracranial hemorrhage in 22.8%, and a stroke-mimicking condition in 3.9%. The median interval between the time the patient was last known to be free of stroke symptoms and the start of the study-drug infusion was 45 minutes (interquartile range, 35 to 62), and 74.3% of patients received the study-drug infusion within the first hour after symptom onset. There was no significant shift in the distribution of 90-day disability outcomes on the global modified Rankin scale between patients in the magnesium group and those in the placebo group (P = 0.28 by the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test); mean scores at 90 days did not differ between the magnesium group and the placebo group (2.7 in each group, P = 1.00). No significant between

  5. Using longitudinal metamorphosis to examine ischemic stroke lesion dynamics on perfusion-weighted images and in relation to final outcome on T2-w images

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Carpenter, Trevor K.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the image-to-image metamorphosis into constrained longitudinal metamorphosis. We apply it to estimate an evolution scenario, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, of both scattered and solitary ischemic lesions visible on serial MR perfusion weighted imaging from acute to subacute stages. We then estimate a patient-specific residual map that enables us to capture the most relevant shape and intensity changes, continuously, as the lesion evolves from acute through subacute to chronic timepoints until merging into the final image. We detect areas with high residuals (i.e., high dynamics) and identify areas that became part of the final T2-w lesion obtained at ≥ 1 month after stroke. This allows the investigation of the dynamic influence of perfusion values on the final lesion outcome as seen on T2-w imaging. The model provides detailed insights into stroke lesion dynamic evolution in space and time that will help identify factors that determine final outcome and identify targets for interventions to improve outcome. PMID:25161899

  6. Implementing diagnostic reasoning to differentiate Todd's paralysis from acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brosinski, Carmen M

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department clinicians with limited resources are relied upon to deliver safe and timely patient care. Clinicians rely on cognitive biases such as anchoring, availability, and premature closure based on experience and quick mental algorithms to streamline medical data and arrive at a diagnosis. Although this is a time-saving and efficient method in the management of uncomplicated illnesses, it can result in a wrong diagnosis when managing patients with complicated presentations such as a stroke or a stroke mimic. Two conditions that present similarly, making it difficult to differentiate between them, are Todd's paralysis (a stroke mimic seen in selected patients with epilepsy) and acute ischemic stroke. However, by clinical reasoning, clinicians can formulate an accurate diagnosis while avoiding diagnostic biases. Incorporating clinical reasoning into the diagnostic process consists of gathering pertinent data, performing a diagnostic time-out, and arriving at a diagnosis reflective of data findings.

  7. Pilot study of the safety of starting administration of low-dose aspirin and cilostazol in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Komatsu, Yoji; Sato, Naoaki; Higuchi, Osamu; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Kamezaki, Takao; Suzuki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Progressive stroke is a serious problem due to the associated morbidity and mortality. Aspirin is recommended for acute ischemic stroke, but does not reduce the frequency of stroke progression. No standard treatment has been approved for the prevention of stroke progression. Cilostazol, which reduces platelet aggregation about 3 hours after single administration, does not increase the frequency of bleeding events when compared with aspirin or a placebo. Moreover, the combination of 100 mg aspirin and 200 mg cilostazol does not increase the frequency of bleeding events compared with only 100 mg aspirin, and thus is expected to prevent stroke progression with a high degree of safety. The present study investigated the safety of this combination of two drugs administered at the above concentrations in 54 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours of stroke onset. Modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) measurements were performed at baseline and again on day 4 to 7. Progressive stroke was defined as an increase greater than or equal to 1 point on NIHSS. Patient scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after enrollment. Stroke progression occurred in 11.1% of the patients. The percentages of patients with mRS score from 0 to 2 were 42.6% and 75% at baseline and 3 months, respectively. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or major extracranial hemorrhage occurred. These results suggest that administration of aspirin and cilostazol is safe for acute ischemic stroke.

  8. Forced Arterial Suction Thrombectomy Using Distal Access Catheter in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Cheol; Kang, Dong-Hun; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Historical innovations in mechanical thrombectomy devices and strategies for ischemic stroke have resulted in improved angiographic outcomes and better clinical outcomes. Various devices have been used, but the two most common approaches are aspiration thrombectomy and stent-retrieval thrombectomy. Aspiration thrombectomy has advanced from the traditional Penumbra system to forced arterial suction thrombectomy and a direct aspiration first-pass technique. Newer generation aspiration catheters with flexible distal tips and a larger bore have demonstrated faster and better recanalization relative to older devices. Recently, several species of distal access catheters have similar structural characteristics to the Penumbra reperfusion catheter. Therefore, we used the distal access catheter for forced arterial suction thrombectomy in three patients with acute ischemic stroke. In each case, we achieved fast and complete recanalization without significant complications. Forced arterial suction thrombectomy using a distal access catheter might provide another option for mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:28316869

  9. Predicting value of cerebrospinal fluid proinflammatory factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Beridze, M; Shakarishvili, R

    2006-03-01

    Study purposed to establish the correlation between proinflammatory cytokines' initial CSF levels and neurological outcome on 7th day of acute ischemic stroke. 58 patients with acute ischemic stroke have been investigated. Neurological impairment assessed in 48 hours and on 7th day of stroke applying the international scales NIHSS and GCS. Patients divided into two groups: with severe stroke (GCS>9, NIHSS>15) and stroke with moderate severity (GCS=14,15; NIHSS=10-15). On 7th day increase of NIHSS score and decrease of GCS score at least 1 point was considered as deterioration and decrease of NIHSS score and increase of GCS score at least 1 point was considered as amelioration. CSF levels of proinflamatory cytokines determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control consisted with 15 patients, which were taken CSF in relation with vertebral discopathies. Means calculated by t-paired test. Pearson correlation and multivariate logistic regression were used. In 48 hours of stroke onset the CSF levels of interleukine-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were elevated compared to control. Statistical differences were not found between groups regarding the initial CSF levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p<0,5), while the significant statistical differences were found in regard with IL-6 CSF levels (p<0,05) between groups and against control. Significant positive correlation was found between initial CSF IL-6 levels and ischemic lesion size and neurological outcome at 1 week as well (r=+0,48 p<0,05 and r=+0,54 p<0,01 respectively). Thus, the IL-6 CSF levels in acute stage of ischemic stroke might be considered as the relatively stable prognostic indicator of clinical course of the disease.

  10. Auditory Word Comprehension Impairment in Acute Stroke: Relative Contribution of Phonemic versus Semantic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Pitz, Eleanor; Hillis, Argye E.; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Auditory word comprehension was assessed in a series of 289 acute left hemisphere stroke patients. Participants decided whether an auditorily presented word matched a picture. On different trials, words were presented with a matching picture, a semantic foil, or a phonemic foil. Participants had significantly more trouble with semantic foils…

  11. Bayés syndrome and acute cardioembolic ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; Martí, Lucía; Dorison, Sebastien; Sánchez, María José

    2017-01-01

    Bayés syndrome is an under-recognized clinical condition characterized by advanced interatrial block. Bayés syndrome is a subclinical disease that manifests electrocardiographically as a prolonged P wave duration > 120 ms with biphasic morphology ± in the inferior leads. The clinical relevance of Bayés syndrome lies in the fact that is a clear arrhythmological syndrome and has a strong association with supraventricular arrhythmias, particularly atypical atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Likewise, Bayés syndrome has been recently identified as a novel risk factor for non-lacunar cardioembolic ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. Advanced interatrial block can be a risk for embolic stroke due to its known sequelae of left atrial dilation, left atrial electromechanical dysfunction or atrial tachyarrhythmia (paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation), conditions predisposing to thromboembolism. Bayés syndrome may be responsible for some of the unexplained ischemic strokes and shall be considered and investigated as a possible cause for cryptogenetic stroke. In summary, Bayés syndrome is a poorly recognized cardiac rhythm disorder with important cardiologic and neurologic implications. PMID:28352633

  12. [Neuroprotective therapy for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Naritomi, H

    2001-12-01

    Following cerebral ischemia, various biochemical reactions are provoked in a stepwise manner leading neuronal cells to ischemic death. The prevention of these biochemical reactions may exert neuroprotective actions and consequently reduce the magnitude of ischemic cerebral injury. On the basis of such a view, numerous neuroprotective drugs have been developed during the last decade. Quite a few drugs were found effective in reducing the infarct volume in experimental studies, and more than 15 of them were subjected to clinical phase III trials to see a therapeutic effectiveness. However, the results of phase III trials were disappointing in the majority drugs. Only three drugs, nicaravene, ebselen and edaravone, all radical scavengers, were judged effective by small-sized trials with a wide therapeutic window, 48-72 hours after stroke, in Japan. The fact suggests that a one-point prevention of biochemical reactions by single drug is unable to rescue ischemic neuronal cells. Ischemic insult causes damages of vascular wall including the endothelium which play an important role in the development of hemorrhagic changes or cerebral edema. Vascular protection is considered as important as neuroprotection in treatment of clinical stroke. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective and vascular protective actions and hence may be more effective than neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of stroke. The prevention of fever, which often occurs in severe stroke, may exert the similar effect as hypothermia in neuroprotection. Neuroprotective therapy in the future should proceed toward the simultaneous protections of neurons and vessels using combination of multiple drugs.

  13. Machine Learning for Outcome Prediction of Acute Ischemic Stroke Post Intra-Arterial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Hamed; Dowling, Richard; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Accurately predicting stroke outcome from a set of predictive variables may identify high-risk patients and guide treatment approaches, leading to decreased morbidity. Logistic regression models allow for the identification and validation of predictive variables. However, advanced machine learning algorithms offer an alternative, in particular, for large-scale multi-institutional data, with the advantage of easily incorporating newly available data to improve prediction performance. Our aim was to design and compare different machine learning methods, capable of predicting the outcome of endovascular intervention in acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. Method We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of acute ischaemic stroke treated by endovascular intervention. Using SPSS®, MATLAB®, and Rapidminer®, classical statistics as well as artificial neural network and support vector algorithms were applied to design a supervised machine capable of classifying these predictors into potential good and poor outcomes. These algorithms were trained, validated and tested using randomly divided data. Results We included 107 consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients treated by endovascular technique. Sixty-six were male and the mean age of 65.3. All the available demographic, procedural and clinical factors were included into the models. The final confusion matrix of the neural network, demonstrated an overall congruency of ∼80% between the target and output classes, with favourable receiving operative characteristics. However, after optimisation, the support vector machine had a relatively better performance, with a root mean squared error of 2.064 (SD: ±0.408). Discussion We showed promising accuracy of outcome prediction, using supervised machine learning algorithms, with potential for incorporation of larger multicenter datasets, likely further

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Burger, Mary R.; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between daily changes in ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. Whether PM2.5 at levels below current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards also increases the risk of ischemic stroke remains uncertain. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 1705 Boston-area patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke and abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. PM2.5 concentrations were measured at a central monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover study design to assess the association between the risk of ischemic stroke onset and PM2.5 levels in the hours and days preceding each event. We examined whether the association with PM2.5 differed by ischemic stroke etiology and patient characteristics. Results The estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.58; p<0.001) following a 24-hour period classified as “moderate” (PM2.5 15–40 μg/m3) by the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Air Quality Index compared to a 24-hour period classified as “good” (≤15 μg/m3). Considering PM2.5 as a continuous variable, the estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20; p=0.006) per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (6.4 μg/m3). The increase in risk was greatest within 12–14 hours of exposure to PM2.5 and was most strongly associated with markers of traffic-related pollution. Conclusion These results suggest that exposure to PM2.5 levels considered generally safe by the US EPA increase the risk of ischemic stroke onset within hours of exposure. PMID:22332153

  15. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  16. Infarction Distribution Pattern in Acute Stroke May Predict the Extent of Leptomeningeal Collaterals

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Gralla, Jan; Klinger-Gratz, Pascal Pedro; Schankath, Adrian; Jung, Simon; Mordasini, Pasquale; Zubler, Christoph; Arnold, Marcel; Buehlmann, Monika; Lang, Matthias F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the distribution pattern of early ischemic changes in the initial MRI allows a practical method for estimating leptomeningeal collateralization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods Seventy-four patients with AIS underwent MRI followed by conventional angiogram and mechanical thrombectomy. Diffusion restriction in Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and correlated T2-hyperintensity of the infarct were retrospectively analyzed and subdivided in accordance with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS). Patients were angiographically graded in collateralization groups according to the method of Higashida, and dichotomized in 2 groups: 29 subjects with collateralization grade 3 or 4 (well-collateralized group) and 45 subjects with grade 1 or 2 (poorly-collateralized group). Individual ASPECTS areas were compared among the groups. Results Means for overall DWI-ASPECTS were 6.34 vs. 4.51 (well vs. poorly collateralized groups respectively), and for T2-ASPECTS 9.34 vs 8.96. A significant difference between groups was found for DWI-ASPECTS (p<0.001), but not for T2-ASPECTS (p = 0.088). Regarding the individual areas, only insula, M1-M4 and M6 showed significantly fewer infarctions in the well-collateralized group (p-values <0.001 to 0.015). 89% of patients in the well-collateralized group showed 0–2 infarctions in these six areas (44.8% with 0 infarctions), while 59.9% patients of the poor-collateralized group showed 3–6 infarctions. Conclusion Patients with poor leptomeningeal collateralization show more infarcts on the initial MRI, particularly in the ASPECTS areas M1 to M4, M6 and insula. Therefore DWI abnormalities in these areas may be a surrogate marker for poor leptomeningeal collaterals and may be useful for estimation of the collateral status in routine clinical evaluation. PMID:26327519

  17. Adaptive colour transformation of retinal images for stroke prediction.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Premith; Aliahmad, Behzad; Kawasaki, Ryo; Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Identifying lesions in the retinal vasculature using Retinal imaging is most often done on the green channel. However, the effect of colour and single channel analysis on feature extraction has not yet been studied. In this paper an adaptive colour transformation has been investigated and validated on retinal images associated with 10-year stroke prediction, using principle component analysis (PCA). Histogram analysis indicated that while each colour channel image had a uni-modal distribution, the second component of the PCA had a bimodal distribution, and showed significantly improved separation between the retinal vasculature and the background. The experiments showed that using adaptive colour transformation, the sensitivity and specificity were both higher (AUC 0.73) compared with when single green channel was used (AUC 0.63) for the same database and image features.

  18. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  19. Intranasal Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 as Neuroprotectants in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Alfaro-Martinez, Freddy; Bedoya, Francisco; Chung, Chen-Chih; Pimentel, Daniela A.; Novak, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for stroke remain limited. Neuroprotective therapies, in particular, have invariably failed to yield the expected benefit in stroke patients, despite robust theoretical and mechanistic background and promising animal data. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) play a pivotal role in critical brain functions, such as energy homeostasis, neuronal growth, and differentiation. They may exhibit neuroprotective properties in acute ischemic stroke based upon their vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects, as well as improvements of functional connectivity, neuronal metabolism, neurotransmitter regulation, and remyelination. Intranasally administered insulin has demonstrated a benefit for prevention of cognitive decline in older people, and IGF-1 has shown potential benefit to improve functional outcomes in animal models of acute ischemic stroke. The intranasal route presents a feasible, tolerable, safe, and particularly effective administration route, bypassing the blood–brain barrier and maximizing distribution to the central nervous system (CNS), without the disadvantages of systemic side effects and first-pass metabolism. This review summarizes the neuroprotective potential of intranasally administered insulin and IGF-1 in stroke patients. We present the theoretical background and pathophysiologic mechanisms, animal and human studies of intranasal insulin and IGF-1, and the safety and feasibility of intranasal route for medication administration to the CNS. PMID:26040423

  20. Atypical anticipatory postural adjustments during gait initiation among individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Rajachandrakumar, Roshanth; Fraser, Julia E; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Inness, Elizabeth L; Biasin, Lou; Brunton, Karen; McIlroy, William E; Mansfield, Avril

    2017-02-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustments, executed prior to gait initiation, help preserve lateral stability when stepping. Atypical patterns of anticipatory activity prior to gait initiation may occur in individuals with unilateral impairment (e.g., stroke). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of atypical anticipatory postural adjustment patterns prior to gait initiation in a sub-acute stroke population. Forty independently-ambulatory individuals with sub-acute stroke stood on two force plates and initiated gait at a self-selected speed. Medio-lateral centre of pressure displacement was calculated and used to define anticipatory postural adjustments (shift in medio-lateral centre of pressure >10mm from baseline). Stroke severity, motor recovery, and functional balance and mobility status were also obtained. Three patterns were identified: single (typical), absent (atypical), and multiple (atypical) anticipatory postural adjustments. Thirty-five percent of trials had atypical anticipatory postural adjustments (absent and multiple). Frequency of absent anticipatory postural adjustments was negatively correlated with walking speed. Multiple anticipatory postural adjustments were more prevalent when leading with the non-paretic than the paretic limb. Trials with multiple anticipatory postural adjustments had longer duration of anticipatory postural adjustment and time to foot-off, and shorter unloading time than trials with single anticipatory postural adjustments. A high prevalence of atypical anticipatory control prior to gait initiation was found in individuals with stroke. Temporal differences were identified with multiple anticipatory postural adjustments, indicating altered gait initiation. These findings provide insight into postural control during gait initiation in individuals with sub-acute stroke, and may inform interventions to improve ambulation in this population.

  1. Association of Geographical Factors With Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Morishima, Toshitaka; Ukawa, Naoto; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke if administered within a few hours of stroke onset. Because of this time restriction, tPA administration remains infrequent. Ambulance use is an effective strategy for increasing tPA administration but may be influenced by geographical factors. The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between tPA administration and ambulance use and to examine how patient travel distance and population density affect tPA utilization. Methods and Results We analyzed administrative claims data from 114 194 acute ischemic stroke cases admitted to 603 hospitals between July 2010 and March 2012. Mixed‐effects logistic regression models of patients nested within hospitals with a random intercept were generated to analyze possible predictive factors (including patient characteristics, ambulance use, and driving time from home to hospital) of tPA administration for different population density categories to investigate differences in these factors in various regional backgrounds. Approximately 5.1% (5797/114 194) of patients received tPA. The composition of baseline characteristics varied among the population density categories, but adjustment for covariates resulted in all factors having similar associations with tPA administration in every category. The administration of tPA was associated with patient age and severity of stroke symptoms, but driving time showed no association. Ambulance use was significantly associated with tPA administration even after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion The association between ambulance use and tPA administration suggests the importance of calling an ambulance for suspected stroke. Promoting ambulance use for acute ischemic stroke patients may increase tPA use. PMID:24045119

  2. Urine specific gravity as a predictor of early neurological deterioration in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, L C; Fann, W C; Chou, M H; Chen, H W; Su, Y C; Chen, J C

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that a blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Cr) ratio>15 is an independent predictor of early neurological deterioration after acute ischemic stroke, which suggests that dehydration may be a cause of early deterioration. The aim of this study was to determine whether urine specific gravity, which is another indicator of hydration status and one that is more easily obtained, is also an independent predictor of early deterioration or stroke-in-evolution (SIE). Demographic and clinical data were recorded at admission from patients with acute ischemic stroke who were prospectively enrolled from October 2007 to June 2010. We compared patients with and without stroke-in-evolution (based on an increase of 3 points or more points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale within 3 days). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out. A total of 317 patients (43 SIE and 274 non-SIE) were enrolled; the first 196 patients comprised the cohort of our previous study. The only two independent predictors of early deterioration or SIE were BUN/Cr>15 and urine specific gravity>1.010. After adjusting for age and gender, patients with a urine specific gravity>1.010 were 2.78 times more likely to develop SIE (95% CI=1.11-6.96; P=0.030). Urine specific gravity may be useful as an early predictor of early deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients with urine specific gravity ≤ 1.010 therefore may have a reduced likelihood of early neurological deterioration.

  3. Mechanical Revascularization for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Single-Center, Retrospective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeromel, Miran Milosevic, Z. V. Kocijancic, I. J. Lovric, D.; Svigelj, V. Zvan, B.

    2013-04-15

    BackgroundEndovascular mechanical revascularization (thrombectomy) is an increasingly used method for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke. The purpose of the study was to analyze the recanalization rate, clinical outcome, and complication rate in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. A total of 57 patients with large vessel stroke (within 3 h for anterior and 12 h for posterior circulation) were treated with mechanical revascularization at a single center during 24 months. The primary goal of endovascular treatment using different mechanical devices was recanalization of the occluded vessel. Recanalization rate (reported as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] score), clinical outcome (reported as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score and modified Rankin scale [mRS] score), as well as periprocedural complications were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 63.1 {+-} 12.9 years, with baseline median NIHSS score of 14 (interquartile range, 9.5-19). Successful recanalization (TICI 2b or 3) was achieved in 41 (72 %) patients. Twenty patients (35 %) presented with favorable outcome (mRS {<=}2) 30 days after stroke. Overall, significant neurological improvement ({>=}4 NIHSS point reduction) occurred in 36 (63 %) patients. A clinically significant procedure-related adverse events (vessel disruption, peri/postprocedural intracranial bleeding) defined with decline in NIHSS of {>=}4 or death occurred in three (5 %) patients. The study showed a high recanalization rate with improved clinical outcome and a low rate of periprocedural complications in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. Therefore, we could conclude that endovascular revascularization (primary or in combination with a bridging thrombolysis) was an effective and safe procedure for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke.

  4. Teleradiology Assessment of Computerized Tomographs Online Reliability Study (TRACTORS) for acute stroke evaluation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karen C; Worrall, Bradford B

    2003-01-01

    Telemedicine has potential to increase the use of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for ischemic stroke and is increasingly offered to provide stroke expertise to remote and underserved areas. The accuracy of stroke neurologists' use of telemedicine to read head computed tomography scans (CT) has not been demonstrated. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of neurologists' reading of acute stroke head CTs via teleradiology. The pilot study compared stroke neurologists' reading of CTs via teleradiology to gold standard readings of hard copies on a view box. Head CTs obtained during consecutive acute evaluations for thrombolytic therapy between February and July 2001 were used. For this study, each stroke neurologist was masked to all prior readings, clinical decisions regarding thrombolysis eligibility, and the reading of the other study neurologist. Each neurologist read one-half of the CT scans using teleradiology and the other one-half using a view box. We used the official reading by a neuroradiologist for comparison. The kappa statistic measured reliability. Validity was measured by sensitivity and specificity. Sixty scans were used for the analysis. The neurologists identified the same four hemorrhages using teleradiology that they and the neuroradiologist identified using the light board. Compared to the readings on a view box, the kappa statistic for eligibility for thrombolysis via teleradiology was 1.0. Sensitivity was 100%, 95% CI = (0.93, 1.0); specificity was 100%, 95% CI = (0.40, 0.98) in both comparisons. This pilot study provides encouraging preliminary evidence that neurologists with stroke expertise can determine radiological intravenous t-PA eligibility via teleradiology. Further analysis in a larger sample is necessary to validate these results.

  5. The Association of Body Mass Index and Mortality after Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Lesli E.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Levine, Deborah A; Baek, Jonggyu; Kerber, Kevin A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of severe obesity is rising in the US. Although mild to moderately elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with reduced mortality after acute ischemic stroke, less is known about severe obesity. Methods and Results Acute ischemic stroke patients (n=1,791) aged ≥45 years were identified from the bi-ethnic population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study from June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010. Median follow-up was 660 days. BMI was abstracted from the medical record. Survival was estimated by BMI category (underweight normal-weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and severe obesity) using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios for the relationship between BMI modeled continuously and mortality were estimated from Cox regression models after adjusting for patient factors. The median BMI was 27.1 kg/m2 (interquartile range, 23.7–31.2) and 56% were Mexican American. A total of 625 (35%) patients died during the study period. Persons with higher baseline BMI had longer survival in unadjusted analysis (P<0.01). After adjusting for demographics, stroke severity, stroke and mortality risk factors, the relationship between BMI and mortality was U-shaped. The lowest mortality risk was observed among patients with an approximate BMI of 35 kg/m2, whereas those with lower or higher BMI had higher mortality risk. Conclusions Severe obesity is associated with increased post-stroke mortality in middle-aged and older adults. Stroke patients with class 2 obesity had the lowest mortality risk. More research is needed to determine weight management goals among stroke survivors. PMID:24326935

  6. Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mattlage, Anna E; Rippee, Michael A; Abraham, Michael G; Sandt, Janice; Billinger, Sandra A

    2017-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective after stroke and is regulated by insulin-like binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In healthy individuals, exercise and improved aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake; peak VO2) increases IGF-1 in circulation. Understanding the relationship between estimated prestroke aerobic fitness and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 after stroke may provide insight into the benefits of exercise and aerobic fitness on stroke recovery. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 to estimated prestroke peak VO2 in individuals with acute stroke. We hypothesized that (1) estimated prestroke peak VO2 would be related to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and (2) individuals with higher than median IGF-1 levels will have higher estimated prestroke peak VO2 compared to those with lower than median levels. Methods Fifteen individuals with acute stroke had blood sampled within 72 hours of hospital admission. Prestroke peak VO2 was estimated using a nonexercise prediction equation. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results Estimated prestroke peak VO2 was significantly related to circulating IGF-1 levels (r = .60; P = .02) but not IGFBP-3. Individuals with higher than median IGF-1 (117.9 ng/mL) had significantly better estimated aerobic fitness (32.4 ± 6.9 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) than those with lower than median IGF-1 (20.7 ± 7.8 mL kg(-1) min(-1); P = .03). Conclusions Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function.

  7. Small-World Characteristics of Cortical Connectivity Changes in Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Caliandro, Pietro; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Reale, Giuseppe; Della Marca, Giacomo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Lacidogna, Giordano; Iacovelli, Chiara; Padua, Luca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. Recently, complexity of brain connectivity has been described using graph theory, a mathematical approach that depicts important properties of complex systems by quantifying topologies of network representations. Functional and dynamic changes of brain connectivity can be reliably analyzed via electroencephalography (EEG) recordings even when they are not yet reflected in structural changes of connections. Objective We tested whether and how ischemic stroke in the acute stage may determine changes in small-worldness of cortical networks as measured by cortical sources of EEG. Methods Graph characteristics of EEG of 30 consecutive stroke patients in acute stage (no more than 5 days after the event) were examined. Connectivity analysis was performed using eLORETA in both hemispheres. Results Network rearrangements were mainly detected in delta, theta, and alpha bands when patients were compared with healthy subjects. In delta and alpha bands similar findings were observed in both hemispheres regardless of the side of ischemic lesion: bilaterally decreased small-worldness in the delta band and bilaterally increased small-worldness in the alpha2 band. In the theta band, bilaterally decreased small-worldness was observed only in patients with stroke in the left hemisphere. Conclusions After an acute stroke, brain cortex rearranges its network connections diffusely, in a frequency-dependent modality probably in order to face the new anatomical and functional frame.

  8. Copolymer-1 promotes neurogenesis and improves functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Lorea, Jonathan; Mestre, Humberto; Kim-Lee, Jennifer Hyuna; Herrera, Judith; Mellado, Raúl; Gálvez, Vanesa; Cuellar, Leopoldo; Musri, Carolina; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stroke triggers a systemic inflammatory response that exacerbates the initial injury. Immunizing with peptides derived from CNS proteins can stimulate protective autoimmunity (PA). The most renowned of these peptides is copolymer-1 (Cop-1) also known as glatiramer acetate. This peptide has been approved for use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Cop-1-specific T cells cross the blood-brain barrier and secrete neurotrophins and anti-inflammatory cytokines that could stimulate proliferation of neural precursor cells and recruit them to the injury site; making it an ideal therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Cop-1 on neurogenesis and neurological recovery during the acute phase (7 days) and the chronic phase of stroke (60 days) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). BDNF and NT-3 were quantified and infarct volumes were measured. We demonstrated that Cop-1 improves neurological deficit, enhances neurogenesis (at 7 and 60 days) in the SVZ, SGZ, and cerebral cortex through an increase in NT-3 production. It also decreased infarct volume even at the chronic phase of tMCAo. The present manuscript fortifies the support for the use of Cop-1 in acute ischemic stroke.

  9. Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy in Acute Stroke: Do Rural Patients Receive Less Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess whether acute stroke patients in rural hospitals receive less occupational therapy and physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. Design. Retrospective case-control study of health data in patients ≤10 days after stroke. Setting. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy services in four rural hospitals and one metropolitan hospital. Participants. Acute stroke patients admitted in one health district. Main Outcome Measures. Frequency and duration of face-to-face and indirect therapy sessions. Results. Rural hospitals admitted 363 patients and metropolitan hospital admitted 378 patients. Mean age was 73 years. Those in rural hospitals received more face-to-face (p > 0.0014) and indirect (p = 0.001) occupational therapy when compared to those in the metropolitan hospital. Face-to-face sessions lasted longer (p = 0.001). Patients admitted to the metropolitan hospital received more face-to-face (p > 0.000) and indirect (p > 0.000) physiotherapy when compared to those admitted to rural hospitals. Face-to-face sessions were shorter (p > 0.000). Almost all were seen within 24 hours of referral. Conclusions. Acute stroke patients in Australian rural hospital may receive more occupational therapy and less physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. The dose of therapy was lower than recommended, and the referral process may unnecessarily delay the time from admission to a patient's first therapy session. PMID:27752389

  10. Thrombectomy for Acute Stroke in Childhood: A Case Report, Literature Review, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Buompadre, Maria Celeste; Andres, Kathleen; Slater, Lee-Anne; Mohseni-Bod, Hadi; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Branson, Helen; Laughlin, Suzanne; Armstrong, Derek; Moharir, Mahendranath; deVeber, Gabrielle; Humpl, Tilman; Honjo, Osami; Keshavjee, Shaf; Ichord, Rebecca; Pereira, Vitor; Dlamini, Nomazulu

    2017-01-01

    The updated American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines include recommendation for thrombectomy in certain adult stroke cases. The safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in children are unknown. An 8-year-old girl experienced acute stroke symptoms on two occasions while therapeutically anticoagulated on Novalung. Computed tomography scans showed proximal vessel thrombi, which were retrieved using a Trevo device without hemorrhagic complications. Postprocedural assessment found respective decreases in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score from 10 to 4 and 12 to 7. The indications for treatment and early benefits observed in our case are consistent with other pediatric thrombectomy cases reported. However, publication bias and the heterogeneity of reported cases prevent drawing conclusions about the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in children. Anticipating that updates to adult stroke guidelines would likely incite stroke providers to consider thrombectomy in children, our institution developed guidelines for thrombectomy before the index patient. Establishing institutional guidelines before considering thrombectomy in children may optimize patient safety.

  11. Dietary Soy May Not Confound Acute Experimental Stroke Infarct Volume Outcomes In Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prongay, Kamm D.; Lewis, Anne D.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Murphy, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen administration can alter experimental stroke outcomes. Soy as a source of phytoestrogens may therefore modulate responses in “estrogen-sensitive” stroke models, thus potentially confounding results. We evaluated the effects of dietary soy on acute infarct volumes in a pilot study using a rat focal stroke model. We hypothesized that ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a soy-rich diet would have smaller acute infarct volumes than rats fed a soy-free diet. OVX rats were randomly assigned to a soy-free (n=6) or a soy-rich (n=6) diet for 4 weeks and weighed weekly. Following the dietary trial, rats underwent 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mean arterial blood pressure, rectal and temporalis muscle temperatures, arterial blood gases, and blood glucose were recorded peri-ischemia. Rats were euthanized 22 hours following 2 hours of MCAO. Brains were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride for acute infarct volume analysis. Uterine weight and histology were also evaluated as additional internal estrogen-sensitive controls. Rats on the soy-free diet had greater gains in body weight (259±6% baseline body weight) than rats on the soy-rich diet (238±4% baseline body weight). No differences were seen in uterine weight and histology, peri-ischemic physiological parameters, and infarct volumes between the treatment groups. Results of this pilot study suggest that the dietary soy level tested may not alter acute infarct volumes in ischemic female rat brain. More studies addressing the potential confounding effects of dietary soy in “estrogen-sensitive” stroke models are needed if investigators are to make informed choices regarding diets used in experimental stroke research. PMID:20147341

  12. Assessment of Autonomic Dysfunction in Acute Stroke Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, Hemachandrika; Gnanamoorthy, Kothai; Rajendran, Kannan; Pavadai, Chitrambalam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In patients who present with acute cerebro-vascular disease, autonomic function testing is usually not given its due importance. This is because of the complex nature of the autonomic function tests and the relative technical difficulty faced in administering the tests to the patients. A simple and non-invasive method to assess the autonomic dysfunction is measurement of resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Aim To study the pattern of autonomic dysfunction among patients admitted with acute stroke and to study the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and the morbidity and mortality associated with acute stroke. Materials and Methods The study was carried out on 97 patients who were admitted with diagnosis of acute stroke. Patients with conduction abnormalities on ECG were excluded from the study. Resting ECG tracings were obtained for a period of 5 minutes. The frequency domain analysis of HRV was performed by a Fast Fourier transform of the RR intervals. The High Frequency (HF) was representative of the parasympathetic activity while low frequency is representative of baroreceptor mediated parasympathetic and sympathetic activity and Low Frequency (LF)/HF ratio was a measure of the sympathovagal balance. Statistical analysis was carried out with student’s t-test and chi-square test and p-value ≥ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. Results The mean age of the patients was 60.84±14.12 years. A total of 41 patients were females and 77 patients had ischemic stroke. Out of the total 97, 60 patients had evidence suggestive of increased sympathetic activity with a mean LF/HF ratio of 2.03±0.88. These patients had significantly higher mean systolic BP, diastolic BP and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) values when compared to patients with reduced LF/HF ratio (166.33±24.81 vs 148.54±19.42, p=0.0003, 100.33±18.73 vs 88.76±12.66, p=0.0013, 15.77±8.22 vs 11.49±6.63, p=0.0088 respectively). These patients also had a

  13. Comparison of frequency difference reconstruction algorithms for the detection of acute stroke using EIT in a realistic head-shaped tank.

    PubMed

    Packham, B; Koo, H; Romsauerova, A; Ahn, S; McEwan, A; Jun, S C; Holder, D S

    2012-05-01

    Imaging of acute stroke might be possible using multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) but requires absolute or frequency difference imaging. Simple linear frequency difference reconstruction has been shown to be ineffective in imaging with a frequency-dependant background conductivity; this has been overcome with a weighted frequency difference approach with correction for the background but this has only been validated for a cylindrical and hemispherical tank. The feasibility of MFEIT for imaging of acute stroke in a realistic head geometry was examined by imaging a potato perturbation against a saline background and a carrot-saline frequency-dependant background conductivity, in a head-shaped tank with the UCLH Mk2.5 MFEIT system. Reconstruction was performed with time difference (TD), frequency difference (FD), FD adjacent (FDA), weighted FD (WFD) and weighted FDA (WFDA) linear algorithms. The perturbation in reconstructed images corresponded to the true position to <9.5% of image diameter with an image SNR of >5.4 for all algorithms in saline but only for TD, WFDA and WFD in the carrot-saline background. No reliable imaging was possible with FD and FDA. This indicates that the WFD approach is also effective for a realistic head geometry and supports its use for human imaging in the future.

  14. A case of large atrial myxoma presenting as an acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Praneet; Aung, Myo Myo; Awan, Muhammad Umer; Kososky, Charles; Barn, Kulpreet

    2016-01-01

    Left atrial myxomas are rare primary cardiac tumors. Their incidence is estimated to be about 0.1% of total cases. Neurological complications resulting from cardiac myxomas are seen in 20–35% of patients. Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is preferred over transthoracic echocardiogram for evaluation of left atrial myxoma. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography ensures better visualization of intracardiac structures. It has been used prior to surgery for diagnostic support in the surgical treatment of cardiac masses. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic male who developed acute ischemic stroke of left frontal lobe and was also found to have multiple ‘silent’ cerebral infarcts in the MRI of the brain. On further workup, he was found to have a left atrial myxoma on 3D TEE. This was resected with the assistance of intra-operative 3D TEE imaging. We present this case to increase awareness and to stress at early evaluation of secondary causes of ischemic cerebrovascular accident, outside the realm of hypercoagulability. This case also exhibits the need for basic cardiac workup in young individuals who present with symptoms of intermittent palpitations or chest pain to minimize significant morbidity or mortality. PMID:26908377

  15. Emergency Care of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Integrated Health System

    PubMed Central

    Sauser-Zachrison, Kori; Shen, Ernest; Ajani, Zahra; Neil, William P; Sangha, Navdeep; Gould, Michael K; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is underutilized for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Objective: To determine whether the probability of tPA administration for patients with ischemic stroke in an integrated health care system improved from 2009 to 2013, and to identify predictors of tPA administration. Design: Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke presentations to 14 Emergency Departments between 2009 and 2013. A generalized linear mixed-effects model identified patient and hospital predictors of tPA. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was tPA administration; secondary outcomes were door-to-imaging and door-to-needle times and tPA-related bleeding complications. Results: Of the 11,630 patients, 3.9% received tPA. The likelihood of tPA administration increased with presentation in 2012 and 2013 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–2.43; and OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.90–3.51), female sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04–1.54), and ambulance arrival (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.76–2.67), and decreased with prior stroke (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.89) and increased age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97–0.99). Likelihood varied by Medical Center (pseudo-intraclass correlation coefficient 13.5%). Among tPA-treated patients, median door-to-imaging time was 15 minutes (interquartile range, 9–23 minutes), and door-to-needle time was 73 minutes (interquartile range, 55–103 minutes). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was 4.2% and 0.9% among tPA- and non-tPA treated patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke care improved over time in this integrated health system. Better understanding of differences in hospital performance will have important quality-improvement and policy implications. PMID:27043833

  16. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is a Stroke? A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain ... pressure from the leaked blood damages brain cells. High blood pressure and ... A TIA occurs if blood flow to a portion of the brain is blocked ...

  17. Platelets Proteomic Profiles of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Sener, Azize

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke and antiplatelet agents exist for its treatment and prevention. Through the use of LC-MS based protein expression profiling, platelets from stroke patients were analyzed and then correlated with the proteomic analyses results in the context of this disease. This study was based on patients who post ischemic stroke were admitted to hospital and had venous blood drawn within 24 hrs of the incidence. Label-free protein expression analyses of the platelets’ tryptic digest was performed in triplicate on a UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS system and ProteinLynx Global Server (v2.5, Waters) was used for tandem mass data extraction. The peptide sequences were searched against the reviewed homo sapiens database (www.uniprot.org) and the quantitation of protein variation was achieved through Progenesis LC-MS software (V4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics). These Label-free differential proteomics analysis of platelets ensured that 500 proteins were identified and 83 of these proteins were found to be statistically significant. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in various processes such as inflammatory response, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development and function and nucleic acid metabolism. The expressions of myeloperoxidase, arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase and histidine-rich glycoprotein are involved in cellular metabolic processes, crk-like protein and ras homolog gene family member A involved in cell signaling with vitronectin, thrombospondin 1, Integrin alpha 2b, and integrin beta 3 involved in cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein H, immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 are involved in structural, apolipoprotein A-I, and alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor is involved in transport, complement component 3 and clusterin is involved in immunity proteins as has been discussed. Our data provides an insight

  18. Translational MR Neuroimaging of Stroke and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Emiri T; Ayata, Cenk; Zheng, Yi; Mandeville, Joseph B

    2017-02-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a critical clinical tool for diagnosing focal ischemic stroke severity, staging treatment, and predicting outcome. Imaging during the acute phase focuses on tissue viability in the stroke vicinity, while imaging during recovery requires the evaluation of distributed structural and functional connectivity. Preclinical MRI of experimental stroke models provides validation of non-invasive biomarkers in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms, while also providing a translational platform for evaluation of prospective therapies. This brief review of translational stroke imaging discusses the acute to chronic imaging transition, the principles underlying common MRI methods employed in stroke research, and the experimental results obtained by clinical and preclinical imaging to determine tissue viability, vascular remodeling, structural connectivity of major white matter tracts, and functional connectivity using task-based and resting-state fMRI during the stroke recovery process.

  19. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm(3) absolute mean difference; p < 0.001) and higher chance of good functional outcome (OR 4.58, p < 0.001). Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p < 0.001) and lateral (+19.2%; p = 0.016) MCA territory compared to pretreatment during MCA occlusion. Safety indicators were treatment-related mortality and cardiorespiratory effects. The highest efficacy and safety profile was observed for HDT. Our findings suggest that acute modulation of cerebral collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  20. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  1. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  2. Availability of Diagnostic and Treatment Services for Acute Stroke in Frontier Counties in Montana and Northern Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okon, Nicholas J.; Rodriguez, Daniel V.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Oser, Carrie S.; Blades, Lynda L.; Burnett, Anne M.; Russell, Joseph A.; Allen, Martha J.; Chasson, Linda; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Rapid diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke can lead to improved patient outcomes. Hospitals in rural and frontier counties, however, face unique challenges in providing diagnostic and treatment services for acute stroke. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the availability of key diagnostic technology and programs for acute…

  3. A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA).

    PubMed

    Leira, Rogelio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Campos, Francisco; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Castellanos, Mar; Moldes, Octavio; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antoni; Castillo, José

    2012-02-01

    Higher body temperature is a prognostic factor of poor outcome in acute stroke. Our aim was to study the relationship between body temperature, HT (haemorrhagic transformation) and biomarkers of BBB (blood-brain barrier) damage in patients with acute ischaemic stroke untreated with rtPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator). We studied 229 patients with ischaemic stroke <12 h from symptom onset. Body temperature was determined at admission and every 6 h during the first 3 days. HT was evaluated according to ECASS II (second European Co-operative Acute Stroke Study) criteria in a multimodal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) at 72 h. We found that 55 patients (34.1%) showed HT. HT was associated with cardioembolic stroke (64.2% against 23.0%; P<0.0001), higher body temperature during the first 24 h (36.9°C compared with 36.5°C; P<0.0001), more severe stroke [NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score, 14 (9-20) against 10 (7-15); P=0.002], and greater DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) lesion volume at admission (23.2 cc compared with 13.2 cc; P<0.0001). Plasma MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) (187.3 ng/ml compared with 44.2 ng/ml; P<0.0001) and cFn (cellular fibronectin) levels (16.3 μg/ml compared with 7.1 μg/ml; P=0.001) were higher in patients with HT. Body temperature within the first 24 h was independently associated with HT {OR (odds ratio), 7.3 [95% CI (confidence interval), 2.4-22.6]; P<0.0001} after adjustment for cardioembolic stroke subtype, baseline NIHSS score and DWI lesion volume. This effect remained unchanged after controlling for MMP-9 and cFn. In conclusion, high body temperature within the first 24 h after ischaemic stroke is a risk factor for HT in patients untreated with rtPA. This effect is independent of some biological signatures of BBB damage.

  4. Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct. PMID:25426229

  5. Advances in medical revascularisation treatments in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Asadi, H; Yan, B; Dowling, R; Wong, S; Mitchell, P

    2014-01-01

    Urgent reperfusion of the ischaemic brain is the aim of stroke treatment and there has been ongoing research to find a drug that can promote vessel recanalisation more completely and with less side effects. In this review article, the major studies which have validated the use and safety of tPA are discussed. The safety and efficacy of other thrombolytic and anticoagulative agents such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, ancrod, tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide, and argatroban are also reviewed. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are both plasminogen activators with higher fibrin affinity and longer half-life compared to alteplase. They have shown greater reperfusion rates and improved functional outcomes in preliminary studies. Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor used as an adjunct to intravenous tPA and showed higher rates of complete recanalisation in the ARTTS study with further studies which are now ongoing. Adjuvant thrombolysis techniques using transcranial ultrasound are also being investigated and have shown higher rates of complete recanalisation, for example, in the CLOTBUST study. Overall, development in medical therapies for stroke is important due to the ease of administration compared to endovascular treatments, and the new treatments such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, and adjuvant sonothrombolysis are showing promising results and await further large-scale clinical trials.

  6. Review of technology development and clinical trials of transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Brian E.; Streeter, Jackson; de Taboada, Luis

    2010-02-01

    Stroke is the one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, claiming 600,000 lives each year. Evidence suggests that near infrared (NIR) illumination has a beneficial effect on a variety of cells when these cells are exposed to adverse conditions. Among these conditions is the hypoxic state produced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To demonstrate the impact NIR Transcranial Laser Therapy (TLT) has on AIS in humans, a series of double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials were designed using the NeuroThera(R) System (NTS). The NTS was designed and developed to treat subjects non-invasively using 808 nm NIR illumination. TLT, as it applies to stroke therapy, and the NTS will be described. The results of the two clinical trials: NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 1 (NEST-1) and NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 2 (NEST-2) will be reviewed and discussed.

  7. The Relationship between C-Reactive Protein Level and Discharge Outcome in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geng, He-Hong; Wang, Xin-Wang; Fu, Rong-Li; Jing, Meng-Juan; Huang, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, was associated with stroke severity and long-term outcome. However, the relationship between the acute-phase CRP level and discharge outcome has received little attention. We prospectively studied 301 patients with acute ischemic stroke (over a period of two weeks) from two hospital stroke wards and one rehabilitation department in Henan, China. Patients’ demographic and clinical data were collected and evaluated at admission. Poor discharge outcome was assessed in patients at discharge using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS > 2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors of poor discharge outcome after adjusting for potential confounders. Poor discharge outcome was observed in 78 patients (25.9%). Univariate analyses showed that factors significantly influencing poor discharge outcome were age, residence, recurrent acute ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, non-lacunar stroke, time from onset of stroke to admission, CRP, TBIL (total bilirubin), direct bilirubin (DBIL), ALB (albumin), FIB (fibrinogen) and D-dimer (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, residence, recurrent ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, NIHSS score at admission, lacunar stroke, time from onset of stroke to admission, CRP, TBIL, DBIL, ALB, FIB and D-dimer, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that poor outcome at discharge was associated with recurrent acute ischemic stroke (OR, 2.115; 95% CI, 1.094–4.087), non-lacunar stroke (OR, 2.943; 95% CI, 1.436–6.032), DBIL (OR, 1.795; 95% CI, 1.311–2.458), and CRP (OR, 4.890; 95% CI, 3.063–7.808). In conclusion, the CRP level measured at admission was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome at discharge. Recurrent acute ischemic stroke, non-lacunar stroke and DBIL were also significantly associated with discharge

  8. Acute Isolated Dysarthria Is Associated with a High Risk of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Beliavsky, Alina; Perry, Jeffrey J.; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Wasserman, Jason; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Émond, Marcel; Stotts, Grant; Jin, Albert Y.; Oczkowski, Wieslaw J.; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Murray, Heather E.; MacKey, Ariane; Verreault, Steve; Wells, George A.; Stiell, Ian G.; Sharma, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolated dysarthria is an uncommon presentation of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/minor stroke and has a broad differential diagnosis. There is little information in the literature about how often this presentation is confirmed to be a TIA/stroke, and therefore there is debate about the risk of subsequent vascular events. Given the uncertain prognosis, it is unclear how to best manage patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with isolated dysarthria. The objective of this study was to prospectively identify and follow a cohort of patients presenting to EDs with isolated dysarthria in order to explore their natural history and risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. Specifically, we sought to determine early outcomes of individuals with this nonspecific and atypical presentation in order to appropriately expedite their management. Methods Patients with isolated dysarthria having presented to 8 Canadian EDs between October 2006 and April 2009 were analyzed as part of a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients with acute neurological symptoms as assessed by emergency physicians. The study inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, a normal level of consciousness, and a symptom onset <1 week prior to presentation without an established nonvascular etiology. The primary outcome was a subsequent stroke within 90 days of the index visit. The secondary outcomes were the rate of TIA, myocardial infarction, and death. Isolated dysarthria was defined as slurring with imprecise articulation but without evidence of language dysfunction. The overall rate of stroke in this cohort was compared with that predicted by the median ABCD2 score for this group. Results Between 2006 and 2009, 1,528 patients were enrolled and had a 90-day follow-up. Of these, 43 patients presented with isolated acute-onset dysarthria (2.8%). Recurrent stroke occurred in 6/43 (14.0%) within 90 days of enrollment. The predicted maximal 90-day stroke rate was 9.8% (based on a

  9. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  10. Drip, Ship, and On-Demand Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Man-Seok; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Joon-Tae; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kang, Seung-Ho; Kim, B. Chae; Lee, Seung-Han; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Sung; Lee, Eun-Bin; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The “drip and ship” approach can facilitate an early initiation of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at community hospitals. New endovascular treatment modalities, such as stent retrieval, have further improved the rate of safe and successful recanalization. We assessed the clinical outcomes of on-demand endovascular therapy in patients with AIS who were transported to a comprehensive stroke center under the “drip and ship” paradigm. Methods This retrospective study evaluated prospectively registered patients with acute large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation who underwent endovascular recanalization after IVT at our regional comprehensive stroke center between January 2011 and April 2014. Clinical outcomes and neuroradiological findings were compared between patients who received IVT at the center (direct visit, DV) and at a community hospital (drip and ship, DS). Results Baseline characteristics such as age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and risk factors for stroke were similar, and most patients underwent endovascular therapy with a Solitaire stent (81.9% vs. 89.3% for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.55). The average initial NIHSS score was 12.15±4.1 (12.06 vs. 12.39 for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.719). The proportions of long-term favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days) and successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score ≥2b) were not significantly different (P = 0.828 and 0.158, respectively). The mortality rates and occurrences of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were not significantly different (P = 0.999 and 0.267, respectively). Conclusions The “drip and ship” approach with subsequent endovascular therapy is a feasible treatment concept for patients with acute large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation that could help improve clinical outcomes in patients with AIS. PMID:26938774

  11. Endovascular Acute Stroke Treatment Performed by Vascular Interventional Radiologists: Is It Safe and Efficacious?

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit; Kurz, Kathinka D.; Larsen, Jan Petter; Kurz, Martin W.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of neurointerventional procedures in acute stroke patients performed by a team of vascular interventional radiologists in close cooperation with diagnostic neuroradiologists and stroke neurologists and to compare the results with those of previous reports from centres with specialised interventional neuroradiologists. Material and Methods: A total of 39 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion not responding to or not eligible for intravenous thrombolysis were treated with either intra-arterial thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy (Penumbra System or solitaire FR thrombectomy system, respectively) and included in our prospective study. Outcomes were measured using the modified Rankin scale after 90 days, and recanalization was assessed by thrombolysis using the myocardial infarction score. Results: Mean patient age was 68.3 {+-} 14.2 years; the average National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at hospital admission was 17.2 (SD = 6.2 [n = 38]). Successful recanalization was achieved in 74.4 % of patients. Median time from clinical onset to recanalization was 5 h 11 min. Procedure-related complications occurred in 5 % of patients, and 7.5 % had a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Of the patients, 22.5 % died within the first 90 postprocedural days, 5 % of these from cerebral causes. Patients who were successfully recanalized had a clinical better outcome at follow-up than those in whom treatment failed. Of the patients, 35.9 % had an mRS score {<=}2 after 90 days. Conclusion: Our results are in line with those in the published literature and show that a treatment strategy with general interventional radiologists performing neurointerventional procedures in acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusions can be achieved to the benefit of patients.

  12. Prediction of Pneumonia in Acute Stroke Patients Using Tongue Pressure Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakamori, Masahiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Imamura, Eiji; Shishido, Takeo; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction caused by stroke is a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. Tongue pressure measurement is a simple and noninvasive method for evaluating swallowing dysfunction. We have hypothesized that low tongue pressure may be able to predict pneumonia occurrence in acute stroke patients. Tongue pressure was measured using balloon-type equipment in 220 acute stroke patients. The modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) score was evaluated independently on the same day. Tongue pressure was measured every week thereafter. An improvement in tongue pressure was observed within the first 2 weeks. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine the ability of tongue pressure to predict modified MASA score <95, which suggests swallowing dysfunction. The optimal cutoff for tongue pressure was 21.6 kPa (χ2 = 45.82, p<0.001, sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 91.8%, area under the curve = 0.97). The tongue pressure was significantly lower in patients with pneumonia than in those without pneumonia. Using a Cox proportional hazard model for pneumonia onset with a cutoff tongue pressure value of 21.6 kPa and adjustment for age, sex, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission, the tongue pressure had additional predictive power for pneumonia onset (hazard ratio, 7.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.09 to 52.11; p = 0.0013). In the group with low tongue pressure, 27 of 95 patients showed improvement of tongue pressure within 2 weeks. Pneumonia occurred frequently in patients without improvement of tongue pressure, but not in patients with improvement (31/68 and 2/27, p<0.001). Tongue pressure is a sensitive indicator for predicting pneumonia occurrence in acute stroke patients. PMID:27802333

  13. Clinical presentation and imaging characteristics of occult lung cancer associated ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mai, Hui; Xia, Jun; Wu, Yongjun; Ke, Junlong; Li, Junliang; Pan, Jiangang; Chen, Wubiao; Shao, Yiming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Saihua; Sun, Yonghua; Zhao, Bin; Li, Longxuan

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the clinical and imaging characteristics of initial and recurrent strokes in patients with occult lung cancer associated ischemic stroke (OLCA-stroke). A retrospective review of all ischemic stroke patients with occult lung cancer in the absence of conventional stroke etiologies between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. We compared the initial and recurrent lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with OLCA-stroke, with respect to vascular territory involved, number and size of lesions, clinical presentation, cancer subtypes, recurrences and fatalities, and outcome of survivors. Thirteen patients with confirmed OLCA-stroke were identified. All had elevated D-dimer levels, six had central lung cancer and seven had peripheral lung cancer. Eight (62%) had adenocarcinoma, and nine (69%) had metastasis. Ten (77%) patients had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories. Twelve (92%) patients suffered recurrent strokes. Multiple small and large disseminated lesions in multiple vascular territories were more frequent in recurrent strokes in comparison with initial strokes. The middle cerebral artery was most frequently involved in recurrent strokes, followed by the posterior circulation territory and anterior cerebral artery, which were of similar frequency as initial strokes. Overall, 58% of patients had their first recurrent stroke within the first month, and 69% had a poor outcome, especially for those with multiple recurrent strokes and metastases. Occult cancer should be considered in the setting of multiple and recurrent embolic strokes within the short term in the absence of conventional stroke etiologies. The severity of malignancy and cancer treatments and stroke influenced the recurrences and outcome.

  14. Multimodal use of computed tomography in early acute stroke, part 1.

    PubMed

    Tambasco, Nicola; Scaroni, Reana; Corea, Francesco; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Rossi, Aroldo; Bocola, Vittorio; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2006-01-01

    Brain Computed tomography (CT) scan has been used in the past to exclude a hemorrhagic stroke, to determine a possible cause of the stroke patient symptoms, and to demonstrate a stabilized area of hypoperfusional flow. Several results from CT scan studies suggested that we could have new information on prognosis and outcome, localization, and risk of infarction. In this view, CT scan in acute stroke may contribute, using objective measures, to evaluate the inclusion in clinical and therapeutical trials, such as thrombolytic therapy. The lack of consensus among clinicians does not allow a secure and definitive system of CT scan evaluation. Besides its common uses, more recently brain CT scan provides new techniques utilizing advanced algorithms of reconstruction, with promising properties not yet completely verified, to highlight more aspects of acute stroke in the early phase. Despite this limitation, progress on neuroradiological techniques reinforces the concept that brain CT scan remains the key of studies, as well as of validation and routine treatment in terms of feasibility, low cost, and widely availability.

  15. Graduated compression stockings to prevent venous thromboembolism in hospital: evidence from patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive; O'Donnell, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the most common preventable cause of death in hospital patients and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is cost-saving in high-risk patients. Low-dose anticoagulation is very effective at preventing VTE but increases bleeding. Graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices are also used to prevent VTE and do not increase bleeding, which makes their use appealing in patients who cannot tolerate bleeding, such as patients with acute stroke. Studies that evaluated mechanical methods of preventing VTE were small and mainly used asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), detected using screening tests, as the study outcome. The recently published CLOTS Trial 1 (Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke) compared thigh-level compression stockings with no stockings in about 2500 patients with stroke and immobility, and found that thigh-level stockings were not effective. Indirectly, the findings of this study question the ability of stockings to prevent VTE in other patient groups, including those after surgery. CLOTS 1 compared thigh-level and below-knee stockings in about 3000 patients with acute stroke. Given that thigh-level stockings were ineffective in CLOTS 1, it is surprising that they were more effective than below-knee stockings in CLOTS Trial 2. A possible explanation is that below-knee stockings increase DVT, although this seems unlikely. CLOTS 1 and CLOTS 2 question whether graduated compression stockings prevent VTE and suggest the need for further trials evaluating their efficacy in medical and surgical patients.

  16. Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: first Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Vesna; Alvir, Domagoj; Malojčić, Branko; Unušić, Lea; Supe, Svjetlana; Boban, Marina; Bujan-Kovač, Andrea; Habek, Mario; Poljaković, Zdravka

    2010-12-01

    In September 2003, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for acute treatment of ischemic stroke was finally approved by the Croatian Ministry of Health. For the next 5 years, only three stroke units in the country implemented this therapy in their routine practice until summer 2008, when neurological wards in most Croatian hospitals started to treat acute stroke patients with systemic thrombolysis. We present a 2-year experience of thrombolytic therapy (2006-2008) in the stroke unit of the University Hospital in Zagreb, Croatian largest hospital, serving nearly one-fifth of the citizens of Croatia. Obtained data (vitals at admission and before administration of rt-PA; NIHSS and MRS scores at admission, 2 h and 7th day after rt-PA treatment, "time to door" and "door to needle" intervals, duration of hospital treatment as well as outcomes and complications of our 66 thrombolysed patients) are presented and discussed. We also present our results regarding benefits of this therapy as well as possible reasons for complications noticed.

  17. [Neuroimmunocorrection therapy for the prophylaxis of infectious complications in acute stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin has been used for the prophylaxis of clinical pneumonia development in the early stage of acute stroke in a group of 140 patients with heavy clinical course of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). All patients in the test and control groups received the basal anti-AIS therapy and antibacterial drugs (IV-generation cephalosporins) in case of pneumonia development. The efficacy of cerebrolysin administration was evaluated both on the clinical scale (NIH-NINDS, CPIS, SIRS immonograms) and using laboratory indices. It is established that the proposed neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin decreases the frequency of the clinical pneumonia development. A relationship between the pneumonia onset rate and the focus localization in limbico-diencephalic part of the brain is established. The use of cerebrolysin decreases lethality, normalizes the impaired immunity indices, accelerates the restoration of violated neural functions, suppresses pneumonia development, restores the level of albumin, and normalizes the laboratory indices of inflammatory syndrome.

  18. [Investigation of mechanisms of neuro-protective effect of semax in acute period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Miasoedova, N F; Skvortsova, V I; Nasonov, E L; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Grivennikov, I A; Arsen'eva, E L; Sukhanov, I I

    1999-01-01

    Semax is the first domestic nootropic drug of an unexhausted type from the group of neuropeptides. In experimental studies it showed angioprotective, antihypoxic and neurotrophic activity in the doses 100-150 micrograms/kg. A combined clinical-electrophysiologic study revealed its high efficiency in acute ischemic stroke. A clinical trial was performed of immunobiochemical mechanisms of neuroprotective properties of Semax in acute period of ischemic stroke. A retrospective comparative clinicoimmunobiochemical analysis provided objective data on the molecular level on activating influence of Semax on antiinflammatory postischemic reactions in the brain. Shifting neuromediatory balance toward a prevalence of the antiinflammatory agents (interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) over the factors maintaining the inflammation (interleukin-8, C-reactive protein).

  19. Acute carotid occlusion and stroke due to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marques, M A; Murad, F F; Ristow, A V; Silveira, P R M; Pinto, J E Ss; Gress, M H T; Massière, B; Cury, J M; Vescovi, A

    2010-08-01

    Neurologic events associated to antiphospholipoid syndrome (APLS) are not uncommon, but ischemic stroke due to acute carotid thrombosis, is a rare presentation of this syndrome. We report a case of a 48 years old female patient, without evidence of atherothrombosis or other vascular pathology, who presented an ischemic stroke due to acute thrombosis of the left internal carotid artery. The occlusion was diagnosed by Duplex scan and magnetic resonance angiography (Ds+MRA). The patient was anticoagulated and experienced total regression of her neurologic symptoms after a week. Ds+MRA were performed again and confirmed re-establishment of normal flow of internal carotid artery. A thorough clinical investigation confirmed the diagnosis of APLS (the association of a major thombotic event and high anticardiolipoid IgG antibody titers in three blood samples). The patient has been submitted to oral anticoagulation for three years and has not experienced new neurologic or thrombotic events.

  20. Neuroprotection in acute ischemic stroke – current status

    PubMed Central

    Auriel, E; Bornstein, NM

    2010-01-01

    Abstract With the growing understanding of the mechanism of cell death in ischemia, new approaches for treatment such as neuroprotection have emerged. The basic aim of this strategy is to interfere with the events of the ischemic cascade, blocking the pathological processes and preventing the death of nerve cells in the ischemic penumebra. This concept involves inhibition of the pathological molecular events which eventually leads to the influx of calcium, activation of free radicals and neuronal death. Despite encouraging data from experimental animal models, all clinical trials of neuroprotective therapies have to date been unsuccessful. This article reviews some of the reasons for the failure of neuroprotection in the clinical trials so far. Despite all the negative reports, we believe it would be wrong to give up at this point, since there is still reasonable hope of finding an effective neuroprotection for stroke. PMID:20716132

  1. Neurodegeneration and Glial Response after Acute Striatal Stroke: Histological Basis for Neuroprotective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Luana N. S.; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Nascimento, Elder M.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina A.; Fernandes, Luanna M. P.; dos Santos, Enio Mauricio N.; Tavares, Patrycy Assis N.; dos Santos, Ijair Rogério; Gimarães-Santos, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and neurological disability worldwide and striatal ischemic stroke is frequent in humans due to obstruction of middle cerebral artery. Several pathological events underlie damage progression and a comprehensive description of the pathological features following experimental stroke in both acute and chronic survival times is a necessary step for further functional studies. Here, we explored the patterns of microglial activation, astrocytosis, oligodendrocyte damage, myelin impairment, and Nogo-A immunoreactivity between 3 and 30 postlesion days (PLDs) after experimental striatal stroke in adult rats induced by microinjections of endothelin-1 (ET-1). The focal ischemia induced tissue loss concomitant with intense microglia activation between 3 and 14 PLDs (maximum at 7 PLDs), decreasing afterward. Astrocytosis was maximum around 7 PLDs. Oligodendrocyte damage and Nogo-A upregulation were higher at 3 PLDs. Myelin impairment was maximum between 7 and 14 PLDs. Nogo-A expression was higher in the first week in comparison to control. The results add important histopathological features of ET-1 induced stroke in subacute and chronic survival times. In addition, the establishment of the temporal evolution of these neuropathological events is an important step for future studies seeking suitable neuroprotective drugs targeting neuroinflammation and white matter damage. PMID:28090244

  2. Temporal Changes in the Quality of Acute Stroke Care in Five National Audits across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hillmann, Steffi; Wiedmann, Silke; Fraser, Alec; Baeza, Juan; Rudd, Anthony; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell; Niewada, Maciej; Dennis, Martin; Hermanek, Peter; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Heuschmann, Peter U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Data on potential variations in delivery of appropriate stroke care over time are scarce. We investigated temporal changes in the quality of acute hospital stroke care across five national audits in Europe over a period of six years. Methods. Data were derived from national stroke audits in Germany, Poland, Scotland, Sweden, and England/Wales/Northern Ireland participating within the European Implementation Score (EIS) collaboration. Temporal changes in predefined quality indicators with comparable information between the audits were investigated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate adherence to quality indicators over time. Results. Between 2004 and 2009, individual data from 542,112 patients treated in 538 centers participating continuously over the study period were included. In most audits, the proportions of patients who were treated on a SU, were screened for dysphagia, and received thrombolytic treatment increased over time and ranged from 2-fold to almost 4-fold increase in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy in 2009 compared to 2004. Conclusions. A general trend towards a better quality of stroke care defined by standardized quality indicators was observed over time. The association between introducing a specific measure and higher adherence over time might indicate that monitoring of stroke care performance contributes to improving quality of care. PMID:26783519

  3. Neurodegeneration and Glial Response after Acute Striatal Stroke: Histological Basis for Neuroprotective Studies.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rafael R; Santana, Luana N S; Fernandes, Rafael M; Nascimento, Elder M; Oliveira, Ana Carolina A; Fernandes, Luanna M P; Dos Santos, Enio Mauricio N; Tavares, Patrycy Assis N; Dos Santos, Ijair Rogério; Gimarães-Santos, Adriano; Gomes-Leal, Walace

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and neurological disability worldwide and striatal ischemic stroke is frequent in humans due to obstruction of middle cerebral artery. Several pathological events underlie damage progression and a comprehensive description of the pathological features following experimental stroke in both acute and chronic survival times is a necessary step for further functional studies. Here, we explored the patterns of microglial activation, astrocytosis, oligodendrocyte damage, myelin impairment, and Nogo-A immunoreactivity between 3 and 30 postlesion days (PLDs) after experimental striatal stroke in adult rats induced by microinjections of endothelin-1 (ET-1). The focal ischemia induced tissue loss concomitant with intense microglia activation between 3 and 14 PLDs (maximum at 7 PLDs), decreasing afterward. Astrocytosis was maximum around 7 PLDs. Oligodendrocyte damage and Nogo-A upregulation were higher at 3 PLDs. Myelin impairment was maximum between 7 and 14 PLDs. Nogo-A expression was higher in the first week in comparison to control. The results add important histopathological features of ET-1 induced stroke in subacute and chronic survival times. In addition, the establishment of the temporal evolution of these neuropathological events is an important step for future studies seeking suitable neuroprotective drugs targeting neuroinflammation and white matter damage.

  4. Effect of IMOD™ on the inflammatory process after acute ischemic stroke: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Considering the role of inflammation in acute cerebrovascular accidents, anti-inflammatory treatment has been considered as an option in cerebrovascular diseases. Regarding the properties of Setarud (IMOD™) in immune regulation, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of this medication in treating patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 99 patients with their first ever acute ischemic stroke were divided into two groups of IMOD™ (n = 49) and control (n = 50). The control group underwent routine treatment and the intervention group underwent routine treatment plus daily intermittent infusion of IMOD™ (250mg on the first day and then 375mg into DW5% serum during a 30-minute period for 7 days). The serum levels of inflammatory markers were evaluated on the first day (baseline) and on 4th and 7th days. Data were analyzed and the results were compared. Results and major conclusion 58 males (58.6%) and 41 females (41.4%) with a mean age of 67.00 ± 8.82 years, who had their first ever stroke attack, were enrolled in this trial. Treatment with IMOD™ showed a decreasing trend in IL-6 levels compared to the control group (p = 0.04). In addition, the treatment resulted in the control of increasing serum levels of hsCRP after 7 days compared to the control group (p = 0.02). There was an insignificant decrease in TNF-α and IL-1 levels in the IMOD™ group. Considering the prominent role of inflammation after an ischemic cerebral damage, it appears that treatment with IMOD™ improves the inflammatory profile. Therefore, IMOD™ (Setarud) might be considered as a therapeutic option in the acute ischemic stroke. However, future studies are necessary on its long-term results and clinical efficacy. PMID:23514014

  5. [Medical treatment of acute hemorrhagic stroke--observation of 44 cases with FCMCK therapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, J

    1990-02-01

    Based on the analysis of heritable autoregulatory functions and adaptive developments which occur long course of in response to inner and outer environment, FCMCK therapy was first designed to mobilize the autoregulatory system and resist the stress of acute hemorrhagic cerebral stroke. In this paper, 44 cases of acute hemorrhagic cerebral stroke were treated with FCMCK therapy, with another 44 cases treated with mannitol as control. The result showed that the mortality rate of the treated group was 4.5% (2/44), significantly lower than that of the control (47.7%, 21/44, P less than 0.01). FCMCK therapy in acute hemorrhagic cerebral stroke has the following advantages: 1) effectiveness in maintenance of adequate blood pressure; 2) effectiveness in reduction of cardiac arrhythmias and other complications; 3) i.v. drip of Ca and repeated use of digitalis shows atoxic effect; and 4) respiratory failure improves without stopping i.v. drip of Mg. The mechanism of FCMCK therapy is briefly discussed by the authors.

  6. Assessment of serum and urine ghrelin levels in patients with acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seyhanli, Eyyup Sabri; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Aydın, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide hormone consisted of 28 amino-acid. In the plasma, it exists in two major molecular forms, acylated and des-acyled ghrelin, filtered in glomeruli or secreted by nephrons. Primary biological effects of hormones are regulating appetite, foods intake and energy metabolism. We investigated the changing and relationships between serum and urine ghrelin levels in acute stroke patients to provide more information whether diagnostic parameter. Methods: Thirty acute stroke patients and thirty consecutive volunteers included in study prospectively. To analyze serum and urine ghrelin levels, at the time of diagnose, all of participant blood and fresh urine (1 ml serum, 2 ml urine respectively) samples were obtained. Serum ghrelin levels analyzed ELISA technique, and urine ghrelin levels studied by validation technique. To compare quantitative data student’s t test, and for qualitative data chi-square and Fisher’s Exact Chi-square test was used. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Urine acyl ghrelin levels found statistically significant between patient and control groups (P=0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences between both groups (P>0.05) in serum acyl gherelin, des-acyl ghrelin and urine des-acyle ghrelin levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that urine acyl ghrelin levels may be considered as a diagnostic parameter in acute ischemic stroke patients. Further studies delineating the mechanism of these observed results are warranted. PMID:25785049

  7. Intravenous thrombolysis is more safe and effective for posterior circulation stroke: Data from the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China).

    PubMed

    Tong, Xu; Liao, Xiaoling; Pan, Yuesong; Cao, Yibin; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Zheng, Huaguang; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase for anterior circulation stroke (ACS) and posterior circulation stroke (PCS). From a large multicenter prospective registry-the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China database-all patients who received IVT within 4.5 hours after stroke onset was reviewed. According to the clinical presentations and imaging findings, the eligible patients were divided into ACS and PCS groups. The safety and efficacy outcome measures included post-IVT symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), parenchymal hematoma, and all intracranial hemorrhage (aICH) within 7 days, mortality within 90 days, excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale 0-1), and functional independence (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) at 90 days. For comparing the outcomes between both groups, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Of 953 patients enrolled, 829 patients had ACS and 124 had PCS. The patients with PCS had less often atrial fibrillation (11.3% vs 19.8%; P = 0.02), higher blood glucose level (8.31 vs 7.63 mmol/L; P = 0.02), and more white blood cell counts (8.79 vs 7.75 × 10/L; P = 0.001) than those with ACS. After adjustment for the potential confounders, multivariate logistic analysis showed that PCS patients had not only lower rates of sICH (3.2% vs 7.7%; OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.90), parenchymal hematoma (1.6% vs 9.2%; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.57), and aICH (8.1% vs 20.4%; OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.54), but also higher proportions of excellent recovery (55.7% vs 41.6%; OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.61) and functional independence (63.9% vs 53.0%; OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.40-3.89) compared with ACS patients. However, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.39-1.91) between both groups in the multivariate model, although

  8. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  9. The Influence of Language Discordance Between Patient and Physician on Time-to-Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Joshua; Williams, Olajide; Marshall, Randolph S.; Yaghi, Shadi; Willey, Joshua Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reducing door-to-imaging (DIT) time is a major focus of acute stroke quality improvement initiatives to promote rapid thrombolysis. However, recent data suggest that the imaging-to-needle (ITN) time is a greater source of treatment delay. We hypothesized that language discordance between physician and patient would contribute to prolonged ITN time, as rapidly taking a history and confirming last known well require facile communication between physician and patient. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in our emergency department between July 2011 and December 2014. Baseline characteristics and relevant time intervals were compared between encounters where the treating neurologist and patient spoke the same language (concordant cases) and where they did not (discordant cases). Results: A total of 279 patients received tPA during the study period. English was the primary language for 51%, Spanish for 46%, and other languages for 3%; 59% of cases were classified as language concordant and 41% as discordant. We found no differences in median DIT (24 vs 25, P = .5), ITN time (33 vs 30, P = .3), or door-to-needle time (DTN; 58 vs 55, P = .1) between concordant and discordant groups. Similarly, among patients with the fastest and slowest ITN times, there were no differences. Conclusion: In a high-volume stroke center with a large proportion of Spanish speakers, language discordance was not associated with changes in DIT, ITN time, or DTN time. PMID:27366293

  10. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Nikpour, Mohammad Reza; Nazarbaghi, Surena; Ahmadi-Salmasi, Babak; Mokari, Tayebeh; Tahamtan, Urya; Rezaei, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23) or normal saline alone (n=23) adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008) and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001). The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05). One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%). Conclusion Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. PMID:25516711

  11. Early and intermediate prognosis of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke subtypes according to the causative classification of stroke system

    PubMed Central

    Pashapour, Ali; Atalu, Abolfazl; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Ali-Akbar; Sadeghi Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; NajafiNeshli, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy has established acceptable results in treating ischemic stroke. However, there is little information on treatment outcome especially in different subtypes. The aim of current study was to evaluate early and intermediate prognosis in intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke subtypes. Methodology: Forty eligible patients (57.5% male with mean age of 63.18±13.49 years) with definite ischemic stroke who were admitted to emergency department of Imam Reza University Hospital, in the first 180 minutes after occurrence received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. All investigation findings were recorded and stroke subtypes were determined according to the Causative Classification of Stroke System. Stroke severity forms including modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were recorded for all patients in first, seven and 90 days after stroke and disease outcome was evaluated. Results: The etiology of stroke was large artery atherosclerosis in 20%, cardio-aortic embolism in 45%, small artery occlusion in 17.5% and undetermined causes in 17.5%. NIHSS and mRS scores were significantly improved during time (P < 0.001 in both cases). Three months mortality rate was 25%. Among the etiologies, patients with small artery occlusion and then cardio-aortic embolism had lower NIHSS score at arrival (P = 0.04). Caplan-meier analysis showed that age, sex and symptom to needle time could predict disease outcome. Conclusion: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy is accompanied by good early and intermediate outcome in most patients with ischemic stroke. Small artery occlusion subtype had less disease severity and higher improvement. PMID:24353536

  12. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging has potential for improving penumbra detection but not for estimating stroke onset time

    PubMed Central

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Gallagher, Lindsay; Mullin, Jim; Holmes, William M; McCabe, Chris; Macrae, I Mhairi; Fagan, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Tissue sodium concentration increases in irreversibly damaged (core) tissue following ischemic stroke and can potentially help to differentiate the core from the adjacent hypoperfused but viable penumbra. To test this, multinuclear hydrogen-1/sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure the changing sodium signal and hydrogen-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the ischemic core and penumbra after rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Penumbra and core were defined from perfusion imaging and histologically defined irreversibly damaged tissue. The sodium signal in the core increased linearly with time, whereas the ADC rapidly decreased by >30% within 20 minutes of stroke onset, with very little change thereafter (0.5–6 hours after MCAO). Previous reports suggest that the time point at which tissue sodium signal starts to rise above normal (onset of elevated tissue sodium, OETS) represents stroke onset time (SOT). However, extrapolating core data back in time resulted in a delay of 72±24 minutes in OETS compared with actual SOT. At the OETS in the core, penumbra sodium signal was significantly decreased (88±6%, P=0.0008), whereas penumbra ADC was not significantly different (92±18%, P=0.2) from contralateral tissue. In conclusion, reduced sodium-MRI signal may serve as a viability marker for penumbra detection and can complement hydrogen ADC and perfusion MRI in the time-independent assessment of tissue fate in acute stroke patients. PMID:25335803

  13. Fractal Dimension of EEG Activity Senses Neuronal Impairment in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Marzetti, Laura; Assenza, Giovanni; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a self-organizing system which displays self-similarities at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the complexity of its dynamics, associated to efficient processing and functional advantages, is expected to be captured by a measure of its scale-free (fractal) properties. Under the hypothesis that the fractal dimension (FD) of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) is optimally sensitive to the neuronal dysfunction secondary to a brain lesion, we tested the FD’s ability in assessing two key processes in acute stroke: the clinical impairment and the recovery prognosis. Resting EEG was collected in 36 patients 4–10 days after a unilateral ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 19 healthy controls. National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHss) was collected at T0 and 6 months later. Highuchi FD, its inter-hemispheric asymmetry (FDasy) and spectral band powers were calculated for EEG signals. FD was smaller in patients than in controls (1.447±0.092 vs 1.525±0.105) and its reduction was paired to a worse acute clinical status. FD decrease was associated to alpha increase and beta decrease of oscillatory activity power. Larger FDasy in acute phase was paired to a worse clinical recovery at six months. FD in our patients captured the loss of complexity reflecting the global system dysfunction resulting from the structural damage. This decrease seems to reveal the intimate nature of structure-function unity, where the regional neural multi-scale self-similar activity is impaired by the anatomical lesion. This picture is coherent with neuronal activity complexity decrease paired to a reduced repertoire of functional abilities. FDasy result highlights the functional relevance of the balance between homologous brain structures’ activities in stroke recovery. PMID:24967904

  14. Fractal dimension of EEG activity senses neuronal impairment in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Marzetti, Laura; Assenza, Giovanni; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a self-organizing system which displays self-similarities at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, the complexity of its dynamics, associated to efficient processing and functional advantages, is expected to be captured by a measure of its scale-free (fractal) properties. Under the hypothesis that the fractal dimension (FD) of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) is optimally sensitive to the neuronal dysfunction secondary to a brain lesion, we tested the FD's ability in assessing two key processes in acute stroke: the clinical impairment and the recovery prognosis. Resting EEG was collected in 36 patients 4-10 days after a unilateral ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 19 healthy controls. National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHss) was collected at T0 and 6 months later. Highuchi FD, its inter-hemispheric asymmetry (FDasy) and spectral band powers were calculated for EEG signals. FD was smaller in patients than in controls (1.447±0.092 vs 1.525±0.105) and its reduction was paired to a worse acute clinical status. FD decrease was associated to alpha increase and beta decrease of oscillatory activity power. Larger FDasy in acute phase was paired to a worse clinical recovery at six months. FD in our patients captured the loss of complexity reflecting the global system dysfunction resulting from the structural damage. This decrease seems to reveal the intimate nature of structure-function unity, where the regional neural multi-scale self-similar activity is impaired by the anatomical lesion. This picture is coherent with neuronal activity complexity decrease paired to a reduced repertoire of functional abilities. FDasy result highlights the functional relevance of the balance between homologous brain structures' activities in stroke recovery.

  15. Recommendation of Nasogastric Tube Removal in Acute Stroke Patients Based on Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of nasogastric tube (NGT) removal and change to oral feeding with a food thickener for acute stroke patients in whom a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) confirmed thin liquid aspiration. Methods We retrospectively examined data of 199 patients with first stroke who were diagnosed with dysphagia from 2011 to 2015. Swallowing function was evaluated using VFSS. Patients included in this study were monitored for 4 weeks to identify the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was used to assess VFSS findings. The patients were divided into thin-liquid aspiration group (group 1, n=104) and no thin-liquid aspiration group (group 2, n=95). Results The feeding method was changed from NGT feeding to oral feeding with food thickener (group 1) and without food thickener (group 2). The PAS scores of thin and thick liquids were 6.46±0.65 and 1.92±0.73, respectively, in group 1 and 2.65±0.74 and 1.53±0.58, respectively, in group 2. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 1.9% of group 1 and 3.2% of group 2 (p=0.578), with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion We concluded that removing the NGT and changing to oral feeding with a food thickener is a safe food modification for acute stroke patients with thin liquid aspiration. Therefore, we recommend that VFSS should be conducted promptly in acute stroke patients to avoid unnecessary prolonged NGT feeding. PMID:28289630

  16. Renal Dysfunction and Thrombolytic Therapy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zilong; Yang, Chunsong; Liu, Ming; Wu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Renal dysfunction is a prevalent comorbidity in acute ischemic stroke patients requiring thrombolytic therapy. However, the effect of renal dysfunction on the clinical outcome of this population remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke patients with renal dysfunction using a meta-analysis. We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies that evaluated the relationship between renal dysfunction and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥2), mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and any ICH were analyzed. Fourteen studies were included (N = 53,553 patients). The mean age ranged from 66 to 75 years. The proportion of male participants was 49% to 74%. The proportion of renal dysfunction varied from 21.9% to 83% according to different definitions. Based on 9 studies with a total of 7796 patients, the meta-analysis did not identify a significant difference in the odds of poor outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.16; I2 = 44.5) between patients with renal dysfunction and those without renal dysfunction. Patients with renal dysfunction were more likely to die after intravenous thrombolysis (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05–1.21; I2 = 70.3). No association was observed between symptomatic ICH (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94–1.10; I2 = 0) and any ICH (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.96–1.18; I2 = 25.8). Renal dysfunction does not increase the risk of poor outcome and ICH after stroke thrombolysis. Renal dysfunction should not be a contraindication for administration of intravenous thrombolysis to eligible patients. PMID:25526464

  17. Outcome and Treatment Effects in Stroke Associated with Acute Cervical ICA Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gliem, Michael; Lee, John-Ih; Barckhan, Aurica; Turowski, Bernd; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Jander, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Background Endovascular therapy (EVT) with stent retrievers in addition to i.v. thrombolysis (IVT) has proven effective in acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA, M1 segment) and distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Limited data exist concerning acute cervical ICA occlusion, either alone or in combination with intracranial ICA occlusion (tandem occlusion). Therefore we analyzed outcome and treatment effects in stroke associated with cervical ICA occlusion, with specific focus on the impact of intracranial ICA or M1 patency. Methods Seventy-eight patients with cervical ICA occlusion from our local stroke unit registry were analyzed retrospectively. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) classification, infarct size, modified Rankin scale (mRS), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and death were assessed as outcome parameters. Results Forty-three patients had isolated cervical ICA occlusion whereas 35 patients presented with extra-/intracranial tandem occlusion. Patients underwent IVT alone (n = 23), combined IVT/EVT (n = 28) or no treatment (n = 27). Treated and untreated patients with tandem occlusion had a worse outcome after 90 days compared to isolated cervical occlusion (OR for moderate outcome 0.29, 0.27–0.88, p = 0.01). Additional EVT improved outcome in patients with tandem occlusion (OR for moderate outcome: 15.43, 1.60–148.90, p = 0.008) but not isolated cervical occlusion (OR 1.33, 0.38–11.60, NS). Conclusions In contrast to tandem occlusion, stroke outcome in patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion was generally more benign and not improved by combined IVT/EVT compared to IVT alone. Intracranial vessel patency may be critical for treatment decision in acute cervical ICA occlusion. PMID:28081270

  18. Contralateral needling at unblocked collaterals for hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huanmin; Li, Xugang; Gao, Xia; Ma, Benxu

    2013-01-01

    Hemiplegia caused by stroke indicates dysfunction of the network between the brain and limbs, namely collateral shock in the brain. Contralateral needling is the insertion of needles into acupoints on the relative healthy side of the body to treat diseases such as apoplexy. However, there is little well-designed and controlled clinical evidence for this practice. This study investigated whether contralateral needling could treat hemiplegia after acute ischemic stroke in 106 randomly selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. These patients were randomly assigned to three groups: 45 in the contralateral needling group, receiving acupuncture on the unaffected limbs; 45 in the tional acupuncture group, receiving acupuncture on the hemiplegic limbs; and 16 in the control group, receiving routine treatments without acupuncture. Acupuncture at acupoints Chize (LU5) in the upper limb and Jianliao (TE14) in the lower limb was performed for 45 minutes daily for 30 consecutive days. The therapeutic effective rate, Neurological Deficit Score, Modified Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer Assessment were evaluated. The therapeutic effective rate of contralateral needling was higher than that of conventional acupuncture (46.67% vs. 31.11%, P < 0.05). The neurological deficit score of contralateral needling was significantly decreased compared with conventional acupuncture (P < 0.01). The Modified Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer Assessment score of contralateral needling increased more significantly than those of conventional acupuncture (both P < 0.01). The present findings suggest that contralateral needling unblocks collaterals and might be more effective than conventional acupuncture in the treatment of hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25206612

  19. Ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging and neuropathological correlation in a murine model of hypoxia-ischemia-induced thrombotic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shereen, Ahmed; Nemkul, Niza; Yang, Dianer; Adhami, Faisal; Dunn, R Scott; Hazen, Missy L; Nakafuku, Masato; Ning, Gang; Lindquist, Diana M; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2011-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful method to visualize white matter, but its use in patients with acute stroke remains limited because of the lack of corresponding histologic information. In this study, we addressed this issue using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced thrombotic model of stroke in adult mice. At 6, 15, and 24  hours after injury, animals were divided into three groups for (1) in vivo T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, followed by histochemistry, (2) ex vivo DTI and electron microscopy, and (3) additional biochemical or immunochemical assays. The temporal changes of diffusion anisotropy and histopathology were compared in the fimbria, internal capsule, and external capsule. We found that HI caused a rapid reduction of axial and radial diffusivities in all three axonal bundles. A large decrease in fractional anisotropy, but not in axial diffusivity per se, was associated with structural breakdown of axons. Furthermore, the decrease in radial diffusivity correlated with swelling of myelin sheaths and compression of the axoplasma. The gray matter of the hippocampus also exhibited a high level of diffusion anisotropy, and its reduction signified dendritic degeneration. Taken together, these results suggest that cross-evaluation of multiple DTI parameters may provide a fuller picture of axonal and dendritic injury in acute ischemic stroke.

  20. What to do With Wake-Up Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Wake-up stroke, defined as the situation where a patient awakens with stroke symptoms that were not present prior to falling asleep, represents roughly 1 in 5 acute ischemic strokes and remains a therapeutic dilemma. Patients with wake-up stroke were excluded from most ischemic stroke treatment trials and are often not eligible for acute reperfusion therapy in clinical practice, leading to poor outcomes. Studies of neuroimaging with standard noncontrast computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and multimodal perfusion-based CT and MRI suggest wake-up stroke may occur shortly before awakening and may assist in selecting patients for acute reperfusion therapies. Pilot studies of wake-up stroke treatment based on these neuroimaging features are promising but have limited generalizability. Ongoing randomized treatment trials using neuroimaging-based patient selection may identify a subset of patients with wake-up stroke that can safely benefit from acute reperfusion therapies. PMID:26288674

  1. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level Increased the Risk of Early Renal Impairment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjuan; Li, Guode; Xu, Zuohang; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Xie, Haiqun; Shao, Yan; Peng, Lingmei; Lu, Jiancong; Yuan, Dahua

    2017-03-08

    Renal insufficiency is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. This study investigated the association between plasma Hcy levels and renal insufficiency in patients with AIS. A total of 987 patients with AIS who had been treated at the First People's Hospital of Foshan between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Based on their cystatin C (Cys C) levels, the patients were divided into the normal renal function group (Cys C ≤ 1.25 mg/L) or the renal impairment group (Cys C > 1.25 mg/L). Multivariate regression analysis was applied to reveal the association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and renal impairment. The renal impairment group showed more advanced age of onset, higher percentage of prior stroke and hypertension, higher baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher Hcy levels compared with the normal renal function group. A multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between early renal impairment and Hcy levels: an increase of Hcy by 1 μmol/L was associated with an increase of 12-18% of the risk of renal impairment among patients with AIS and HHcy. Patients with AIS and HHcy had a 2.42-3.51 fold increase of the risk of renal impairment compared with patients with normal Hcy level (P < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with stroke and HHcy could be more prone to renal impairment.

  2. [Heterogeneity of cognitive disorders in the acute stage of the first ischemic carotid stroke].

    PubMed

    Kulesh, A A; Shestakov, V V

    2012-01-01

    We studied 116 patients in the acute stage of the first ischemic carotid stroke. The patients had no cognitive disorders before the disease. All patients underwent a neuropsychological examination in 3-4th week after stroke. The severity of neurological deficit was evaluated with the NIHSS in 4-7th day. To study cognitive disturbances in depth, we divided the neuropsychological tests into 5 integral characteristics in accordance with the cognitive domains: attention, executive functioning, memory, speech, visual-spatial functions. Most of patients performed best on the memory index and worst on the attention index. Four groups of cognitive disturbances were singled out: "typical" that was characterized by the combination of intact memory with impaired attention (31% of patients); "atypical" with the prevalence of memory disturbances (19%); "typical transitive" (42%) and "atypical transitive" (8%). The greater severity of stroke as assessed by the NIHSS was associated with the "typical" variant of cognitive disturbances. Therefore, the neurodynamic disturbances represent basic neurological deficit in stroke but every fifth patient demonstrates the amnestic profile of cognitive disturbances that suggests the presence of the concomitant neurodegenerative process.

  3. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Oral Reading in Acute Left Hemispheric Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutman, Lauren L.; Newhart, Melisssa; Davis, Cameron L.; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral reading is a complex skill involving the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic processes. Functional imaging studies with nonimpaired adult readers have identified a widely distributed network of frontal, inferior parietal, posterior temporal, and occipital brain regions involved in the task. However, while functional…

  4. [Good practice in occupational health services--Certification of stroke as an accident at work. Need for secondary prevention in people returning to work after acute cerebrovascular events].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors.

  5. Clinical Analysis on Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in the Serum of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghua; Meyer, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Low T3 has been associated with increased short-term mortality in intensive care unit and long-term mortality in cardiovascular disease. The objective of this retrospective study is to investigate associations of thyroid hormone status with clinical severity and outcome in acute ischemic stroke, and whether there is association between the pituitary axis abnormality and the anterior/posterior circulation involvement. Patients with no history of thyroid abnormality who presented first ever stroke were studied. Total T3, T4, TSH levels, basic and clinical characteristics were collected and categorized. Neurological impairment was assessed using NIHSS and modified Rankin Scale. Twenty-nine patients (61%) had T3 ≤ 75 ng/dL. Low T3 group had significant higher NIHSS compared to normal T3 group. There was a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and NIHSS scores on admission. A significantly smaller percentage of patients with low T3 showed favorable neurological function improvement by both NIHSS and mRS measures compared to those with normal T3. There was no significant difference for anterior or posterior circulation involvement between low T3 and normal T3 groups. It is suggested that low T3 is associated with worse neurological outcome. The severity of low T3 may be a predictor of functional improvement in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:20847898

  6. The natural history and clinical consequences of aspiration in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Kidd, D; Lawson, J; Nesbitt, R; MacMahon, J

    1995-06-01

    Sixty consecutive patients admitted to a teaching hospital with acute stroke were studied prospectively for 3 months to define the natural history and consequences of lung aspiration. Using videofluoroscopy, aspiration was identified in 25 patients (42%) within 72 h of stroke onset, and had resolved in all but three patients (8%) after 3 months. It was closely related to the presence of dysphagia, which itself resolved within 2 weeks in all but the persistent aspirators. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was more common in aspirating patients (68%) than non-aspirators (6%). The use of intravenous fluids without oral intake did not appear to prevent LRTI in aspirating patients who were also dysphagic. Pneumonia occurred after 2 weeks in the three patients subsequently found to aspirate persistently. Aspiration is a transient phenomenon in most cases of acute stroke; it is associated with a high incidence of LRTI, but mortality in this series was not significantly associated either with respiratory tract infection or aspiration itself.

  7. Simple In-Hospital Interventions to Reduce Door-to-CT Time in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Rikhtegar, Reza; Mehrvar, Kaveh; Mehrara, Mehrdad; Hassasi, Rogayyeh; Aliyar, Hannane; Farzi, Mohammadamin; Hasaneh Tamar, Somayyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, a time dependent therapy, can reduce the morbidity and mortality of acute ischemic stroke. This study was designed to assess the effect of simple in-hospital interventions on reducing door-to-CT (DTC) time and reaching door-to-needle (DTN) time of less than 60 minutes. Methods. Before any intervention, DTC time was recorded for 213 patients over a one-year period at our center. Five simple quality-improvement interventions were implemented, namely, call notification, prioritizing patients for CT scan, prioritizing patients for lab analysis, specifying a bed for acute stroke patients, and staff education. After intervention, over a course of 44 months, DTC time was recorded for 276 patients with the stroke code. Furthermore DTN time was recorded for 106 patients who were treated with IV thrombolytic therapy. Results. The median DTC time significantly decreased in the postintervention period comparing to the preintervention period [median (IQR); 20 (12–30) versus 75 (52.5–105), P < 0.001]. At the postintervention period, the median (IQR) DTN time was 55 (40–73) minutes and proportion of patients with DTN time less than 60 minutes was 62.4% (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our interventions significantly reduced DTC time and resulted in an acceptable DTN time. These interventions are feasible in most hospitals and should be considered. PMID:27478641

  8. Indium-111-leukocyte imaging in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Clarke, K.; Tsai, D.; Nuechterlein, P.; Gora, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Eleven patients with suspected acute cholecystitis underwent sequential {sup 99}mTc-iminodiacetic derivative (IDA) and {sup 111}In-white blood cell (WBC) imaging to determine if {sup 111}In-WBCs accumulate within an acutely inflamed hemorrhagic gallbladder wall and, thus, could be employed as a reasonable alternative to {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy in detecting acute cholecystitis. Seven patients had surgically confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of these cases, five had a true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA and {sup 111}In-WBC, one an indeterminate {sup 111}In-WBC and true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA, and one a true-positive {sup 111}In-WBC and false-negative {sup 99}mTc-IDA scan. The remaining four patients did not have acute cholecystitis. All visualized their gallbladder within 1 hr after {sup 99}mTc-IDA administration and none had {sup 111}In-WBC gallbladder wall uptake. Both {sup 111}In-WBC and {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy accurately detected acute cholecystitis: hepatobiliary scintigraphy demonstrated a cystic duct obstruction and {sup 111}In-WBC imaging detected the inflammatory infiltrate within the gallbladder wall. The sensitivity and specificity of each was 86% and 100%, respectively.

  9. Antithrombotic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke: an overview of the completed randomised trials.

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, P A; van den Belt, A G; Lindley, R I; Slattery, J

    1993-01-01

    A formal statistical overview of all truly randomised trials was undertaken to determine whether antithrombotic therapy is effective and safe in the early treatment of patients with acute stroke. There were 15 completed randomised controlled trials of the value of early antithrombotic treatment in patients with acute stroke. The regimes tested in acute presumed or confirmed ischaemic stroke were: heparin, 10 trials with 1047 patients: oral anticoagulants, one trial with 51 patients: antiplatelet therapy, three trials with 103 patients. Heparin was tested in one trial with 46 patients with acute haemorrhagic stroke. Outcome measures were deep venous thrombosis (confirmed by I125 scanning or venography), pulmonary embolism, death from all causes, haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction, level of disability in survivors. In patients with acute ischaemic stroke, allocation to heparin was associated with a highly significant 81% (SD 8, 2p < 0.00001) reduction in deep venous thrombosis detected by I125 fibrinogen scanning or venogram. Only three trials systematically identified pulmonary emboli, which occurred in 6/106 (5.7%) allocated control vs 3/132 (2.3%) allocated heparin, a non-significant 58% reduction (SD 45.7, 2p > 0.1). There were relatively few deaths in the trials in patients with presumed ischaemic stroke: 94/485 (19.4%) among patients allocated to the control group vs 79/497 (15.9%) among patients who were allocated heparin. The observed 18% (SD 16) reduction in the odds of death was not statistically significant. The least biased estimated of the effect of treatment on haemorrhagic transformation of the cerebral infarct (HTI) comes from trials where all patients were scanned at the end of treatment, irrespective of clinical deterioration; using this analysis, haemorrhagic transformation occurred in 7/102 (6.9%) control vs 8/106 (7.5%) treated, a non-significant 12% increase (SD 56, 2p > 0.1). These data cannot exclude the possibility that

  10. Tailor-made rehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb robots for acute stroke patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke.

  11. Patterns of acute stroke care in three districts of southern England.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, C D; Taub, N A; Woodrow, J; Richardson, E; Warburton, F G; Burney, P G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To quantify the use of health care services by acutely ill stroke patients in three district health authorities. DESIGN--A follow up study of all patients recorded in population based registers who had a first ever stroke in three district health authorities, with assessment following the onset and three months after the stroke. SETTING--West Lambeth, Lewisham and North Southwark, and Tunbridge Wells District Health Authorities in south east England. SUBJECTS--All first time stroke patients under the age of 75 years who presented between 15 August 1989 and 14 August 1990. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Hospital admission rates, rates of use of rehabilitation services, and contact with medical practitioners together with assessment of disability and handicap were determined. A total of 386 strokes were registered. Seventy eight per cent were treated in hospital and younger and incontinent patients were significantly more likely to be admitted. The median stay was 21 days. Patients in West Lambeth, those paralysed, and those who stayed longer in hospital were more likely to receive physiotherapy. Altogether 265 patients were followed up, 117 having died within three months of the stroke. During the three months, 150 (57%) had seen a hospital physician and 181 (69%) their general practitioner, but 18 (7%) had seen neither. Sixty seven (26%) patients were moderately or severely disabled. Twenty seven per cent of inpatients had received no inpatient physiotherapy and 67% of all patients no outpatient physiotherapy during the three months. CONCLUSIONS--The hospital admission rates were high, with long lengths of stay. There were significant differences in the amount of rehabilitation received in each district. This was low overall, especially for those not admitted to hospital. As expected, patients admitted for long periods were the most likely to receive therapy. Before district policies for admission and management of stroke patients can be drawn up

  12. Neighborhood Influences on Emergency Medical Services Use for Acute Stroke – A Population-based Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, William J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Burke, James; Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez, Brisa; Smith, Melinda A; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Lisabeth, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delay to hospital arrival limits acute stroke treatment. Use of emergency medical service (EMS) is key in ensuring timely stroke care. We aimed to identify low-EMS utilizing neighborhoods and to evaluate whether neighborhood-level factors were associated with (EMS) use. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, a population-based stroke surveillance study of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage cases presenting to emergency departments in Nueces County, Texas. The primary outcome was arrival by EMS. The primary exposures were neighborhood resident age, poverty, and violent crime. We estimated the association of neighborhood level factors with EMS use using hierarchical logistic regression, controlling for individual factors (stroke severity, ethnicity and age). Results During 2000-2009 there were 4004 identified strokes, with EMS use data available for 3474. Nearly half (49%) of stroke cases arrived by EMS. Adjusted stroke EMS utilization was lower in neighborhoods with higher family income (OR 0.86 95% CI 0.75-0.97) and a larger percentage of older adults (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.89). Individual factors associated with stroke EMS use included white race (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.13-1.76) and older age (OR 1.36 per 10-year age increment, 95% CI 1.27-1.46). The proportion of neighborhood stroke cases arriving by EMS ranged from 17% to 71%. The fully adjusted model only explained 0.3% (95% CI 0-1.1%) of neighborhood EMS stroke use variance, indicating that individual factors are more strongly associated with stroke EMS use than neighborhood factors. Conclusions While some neighborhood-level factors were associated with EMS use, patient-level factors explained nearly all variability in stroke EMS use. In this community, strategies to increase EMS use should target individuals rather than specific neighborhoods. PMID:26386884

  13. Functional Status Predicts Acute Care Readmissions from Inpatient Rehabilitation in the Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Goldstein, Richard; Singhal, Aneesh; DiVita, Margaret A.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Mix, Jacqueline; Purohit, Maulik; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute care readmission risk is an increasingly recognized problem that has garnered significant attention, yet the reasons for acute care readmission in the inpatient rehabilitation population are complex and likely multifactorial. Information on both medical comorbidities and functional status is routinely collected for stroke patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation. We sought to determine whether functional status is a more robust predictor of acute care readmissions in the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population compared with medical comorbidities using a large, administrative data set. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from the years 2002 to 2011 was performed examining stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A Basic Model for predicting acute care readmission risk based on age and functional status was compared with models incorporating functional status and medical comorbidities (Basic-Plus) or models including age and medical comorbidities alone (Age-Comorbidity). C-statistics were compared to evaluate model performance. Findings There were a total of 803,124 patients: 88,187 (11%) patients were transferred back to an acute hospital: 22,247 (2.8%) within 3 days, 43,481 (5.4%) within 7 days, and 85,431 (10.6%) within 30 days. The C-statistics for the Basic Model were 0.701, 0.672, and 0.682 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. As compared to the Basic Model, the best-performing Basic-Plus model was the Basic+Elixhauser model with C-statistics differences of +0.011, +0.011, and + 0.012, and the best-performing Age-Comorbidity model was the Age+Elixhauser model with C-statistic differences of -0.124, -0.098, and -0.098 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. Conclusions Readmission models for the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population based on functional status and age showed better predictive ability than models based on medical comorbidities. PMID

  14. Successful Escape of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients from Hospital to Home: Clinical Note

    PubMed Central

    Tei, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    I describe four patients who successfully escaped from the hospital to their own home during the acute phase of ischemic stroke. This is a very rare phenomenon (seen in 0.35% of 1150 consecutive patients with first ischemic stroke within 24 h after onset), but the patients had rather uniform clinical characteristics. All were male, around 60 years old, had moderate to severe aphasia (Wernicke’s in 2 patients, Broca's in 1, and transcortical motor in 1), and cerebral infarction of the left middle cerebral artery territory. None had significant motor weakness, hemispatial neglect, or hemianopia at the time of escape. Overall functional outcome was good for all but one patient, but aphasia persisted in three. Although none of the four patients sustained serious injury during the escape, patients with such clinical characteristics must be managed cautiously to prevent serious consequences. PMID:22425726

  15. Stroke mimic: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with ictal paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, D; Goyal, C; Mani, J

    2016-01-01

    We present an uncommon case of clinically diagnosed window period stroke subsequently recognised on diffusion – perfusion MRI as ictal paralysis due to focal inhibitory seizures or negative motor seizures. This case highlights the importance of MRI with perfusion imaging in establishing the diagnosis of stroke mimics and avoiding unnecessary thrombolysis. PMID:27763486

  16. Efficacy and safety of oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: drug surveillance study in 4,191 cases.

    PubMed

    Cho, H-J; Kim, Y J

    2009-04-01

    Citicoline is an essential precursor in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a key cell membrane phospholipid, and is known to have neuroprotective effects in acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of oral citicoline in Korean patients with acute ischemic stroke. A drug surveillance study was carried out in 4,191 patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Oral citicoline (500-4000 mg/day) was administered within less than 24 h after acute ischemic stroke in 3,736 patients (early group) and later than 24 h after acute ischemic stroke in 455 patients (late group) for at least 6 weeks. For efficacy assessment, primary outcomes were patients' scores obtained with a short form of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (s-NIHSS), a short form of the Barthel Index of activities of daily living (s-BI) and a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at enrollment, after 6 weeks and at the end of therapy for those patients with extended treatment. All adverse reactions were monitored during the study period for safety assessment. All measured outcomes, including s-NIHSS, s-BI and mRS, were improved after 6 weeks of therapy (P < 0.05). Further improvement was observed in 125 patients who continued citicoline therapy for more than 12 weeks when compared with those who ended therapy at week 6. Improvements were more significant in the higher dose group (> or = 2000 mg/day) (P < 0.001). s-BI scores showed no differences between the early and late groups at the end of therapy. Citicoline safety was excellent; 37 side effects were observed in 31 patients (0.73%). The most frequent findings were nervous system-related symptoms (8 of 37, 21.62%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (5 of 37, 13.5%). Oral citicoline improved neurological, functional and global outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke without significant safety concerns.

  17. Effects of acute hypoxia at moderate altitude on stroke volume and cardiac output during exercise.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Taira; Maegawa, Taketeru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Komatsu, Yutaka; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Nagai, Ryozo; Kawahara, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    It has been unclear how acute hypoxia at moderate altitude affects stroke volume (SV), an index of cardiac function, during exercise. The present study was conducted to reveal whether acute normobaric hypoxia might alter SV during exercise.Nine healthy male subjects performed maximal exercise testing under normobaric normoxic, and normobaric hypoxic conditions (O(2): 14.4%) in a randomized order. A novel thoracic impedance method was used to continuously measure SV and cardiac output (CO) during exercise. Acute hypoxia decreased maximal work rate (hypoxia; 247 + or - 6 [SE] versus normoxia; 267 + or - 8 W, P < 0.005) and VO(2) max (hypoxia; 2761 + or - 99 versus normoxia; 3039 + or - 133 mL/min, P < 0.005). Under hypoxic conditions, SV and CO at maximal exercise decreased (SV: hypoxia; 145 + or - 11 versus normoxia; 163 + or - 11 mL, P < 0.05, CO: hypoxia; 26.7 + or - 2.1 versus normoxia; 30.2 + or - 1.8 L/min, P < 0.05). In acute hypoxia, SV during submaximal exercise at identical work rate decreased. Furthermore, in hypoxia, 4 of 9 subjects attained their highest SV at maximal exercise, while in normoxia, 8 of 9 subjects did.Acute normobaric hypoxia attenuated the increment of SV and CO during exercise, and SV reached a plateau earlier under hypoxia than in normoxia. Cardiac function during exercise at this level of acute normobaric hypoxia might be attenuated.

  18. Hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema in acute ischemic stroke: Link to cerebral autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Pedro; Azevedo, Elsa; Serrador, Jorge; Rocha, Isabel; Sorond, Farzaneh

    2017-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema are feared complications of acute ischemic stroke but mechanisms are poorly understood and reliable early markers are lacking. Early assessment of cerebrovascular hemodynamics may advance our knowledge in both areas. We examined the relationship between dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) in the early hours post ischemia, and the risk of developing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema at 24 h post stroke Methods We prospectively enrolled 46 patients from our center with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory. Cerebrovascular resistance index was calculated. Dynamic CA was assessed by transfer function analysis (coherence, phase and gain) of the spontaneous blood flow velocity and blood pressure oscillations. Infarct volume, hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, and white matter changes were collected from computed tomography performed at presentation and 24 h. Results At admission, phase was lower (worse CA) in patients with hemorrhagic transformation [6.6 ± 30 versus 45 ± 38°; adjusted odds ratio 0.95 (95% confidence internal 0.94–0.98), p = 0.023] and with cerebral edema [6.6 ± 30 versus 45 ± 38°, adjusted odds ratio 0.96 (0.92–0.999), p = 0.044]. Progression to edema was associated with lower cerebrovascular resistance (1.4 ± 0.2 versus 2.3 ± 1.5 mm Hg/cm/s, p = 0.033) and increased cerebral blood flow velocity (51 ± 25 versus 42 ± 17 cm/s, p = 0.033) at presentation. All hemodynamic differences resolved at 3 months Conclusions Less effective CA in the early hour post ischemic stroke is associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema, possibly reflecting breakthrough hyperperfusion and microvascular injury. Early assessment of dynamic CA could be useful in identifying individuals at risk for these complications. PMID:28017224

  19. Albumin Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Safety Analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Moy, Claudia S.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Jones, Elizabeth B.; Weisman, David; Pettigrew, Creed; Ginsberg, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. Methods Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18–83 and a baseline NIHSS ≥ 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. Results Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01–5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3–26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). Conclusions ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495 PMID:26325387

  20. Relationship between Barthel Index scores during the acute phase of rehabilitation and subsequent ADL in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Shigetaka; Takata, Shinjiro; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kashihara, Michiharu; Osawa, Toshifumi; Komatsu, Koji; Masuda, Yuki; Okahisa, Tetsuya; Nishikawa, Koji; Kondo, Shin; Yamada, Megumi; Takahara, Risa; Ogata, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Yuka; Nagahiro, Shinji; Kaji, Ryuji; Yasui, Natsuo

    2010-02-01

    The Barthel Index (BI) cannot be used to measure initial stroke severity or by extension, to stratify patients by severity in acute stroke trials because most patients are bedbound in the first few hours after stroke, either by their deficit or by medical directive. Our objectives were to clarify the threshold of acute BI for use in the prediction of subsequent independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and to assist in the definition of acute stroke rehabilitation goals. Subjects comprised 78 patients out of 191 inpatients admitted with acute stroke at our hospital during 2006-2007. The BI ADL score was divided into 2 ranges (BI> or =60 and < or =40), in a process similar to previous studies. During the acute period (from onset to approximately 3 weeks), all patients with a BI> or =40 could improve their ADL in 6 months. Patients with a BI< or =40 exhibited two ADL recovery outcomes (improved and no change) at 6 months. We also found that the skill level of basic activities related to standing was significant indicator of BI improvement (P<0.001). BI scores determined at approximately 3 weeks were reliable predictors of ADL disabilities at 6 months.

  1. World Stroke Organization global stroke services guidelines and action plan.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Patrice; Furie, Karen L; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Norrving, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Every two seconds, someone across the globe suffers a symptomatic stroke. 'Silent' cerebrovascular disease insidiously contributes to worldwide disability by causing cognitive impairment in the elderly. The risk of cerebrovascular disease is disproportionately higher in low to middle income countries where there may be barriers to stroke care. The last two decades have seen a major transformation in the stroke field with the emergence of evidence-based approaches to stroke prevention, acute stroke management, and stroke recovery. The current challenge lies in implementing these interventions, particularly in regions with high incidences of stroke and limited healthcare resources. The Global Stroke Services Action Plan was conceived as a tool to identifying key elements in stroke care across a continuum of health models. At the minimal level of resource availability, stroke care delivery is based at a local clinic staffed predominantly by non-physicians. In this environment, laboratory tests and diagnostic studies are scarce, and much of the emphasis is placed on bedside clinical skills, teaching, and prevention. The essential services level offers access to a CT scan, physicians, and the potential for acute thrombolytic therapy, however stroke expertise may still be difficult to access. At the advanced stroke services level, multidisciplinary stroke expertise, multimodal imaging, and comprehensive therapies are available. A national plan for stroke care should incorporate local and regional strengths and build upon them. This clinical practice guideline is a synopsis of the core recommendations and quality indicators adapted from ten high quality multinational stroke guidelines. It can be used to establish the current level of stroke services, target goals for expanding stroke resources, and ensuring that all stages of stroke care are being adequately addressed, even at the advanced stroke services level. This document is a start, but there is more to be done

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Prehospital and In-hospital Delay Times in Acute Stroke Care

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Foraker, Randi; Morris, Dexter L.; Rosamond, Wayne D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and summarize prehospital and in-hospital stroke evaluation and treatment delay times. We identified 123 unique peer-reviewed studies published from 1981 to 2007 of prehospital and in-hospital delay time for evaluation and treatment of patients with stroke, transient ischemic attack, or stroke-like symptoms. Based on studies of 65 different population groups, the weighted Poisson regression indicated a 6.0% annual decline (p<0.001) in hours/year for prehospital delay, defined from symptom onset to emergency department (ED) arrival. For in-hospital delay, the weighted Poisson regression models indicated no meaningful changes in delay time from ED arrival to ED evaluation (3.1%, p=0.49 based on 12 population groups). There was a 10.2% annual decline in hours/year from ED arrival to neurology evaluation or notification (p=0.23 based on 16 population groups) and a 10.7% annual decline in hours/year for delay time from ED arrival to initiation of computed tomography (p=0.11 based on 23 population groups). Only one study reported on times from arrival to computed tomography scan interpretation, two studies on arrival to drug administration, and no studies on arrival to transfer to an in-patient setting, precluding generalizations. Prehospital delay continues to contribute the largest proportion of delay time. The next decade provides opportunities to establish more effective community based interventions worldwide. It will be crucial to have effective stroke surveillance systems in place to better understand and improve both prehospital and in-hospital delays for acute stroke care. PMID:19659821

  3. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  4. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests.

  5. Acute development of collateral circulation and therapeutic prospects in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Eri; Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Yokota, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, collateral circulation plays an important role in maintaining blood flow to the tissue that is at risk of progressing into ischemia, and in increasing the successful recanalization rate without hemorrhagic transformation. We have reported that well-developed collateral circulation is associated with smaller infarct volume and better long-term neurological outcome, and it disappears promptly once the effective recanalization is achieved. Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by fluid shear stress, which occurs between the territories of stenotic/occluded arteries and those fed by surrounding intact arteries. We believe that this acute development of collateral circulation is a target of novel therapeutics in ischemic stroke and refer our recent attempt in enhancing collateral circulation by modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, which is a known shear-stress mechanosensing protein.

  6. How well does the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification predict the site and size of the infarct on brain imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Mead, G; Lewis, S; Wardlaw, J; Dennis, M; Warlow, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification is a simple clinical scheme for subdividing first ever acute stroke. Several small studies have shown that when an infarct is visible on CT or MRI, the classification predicts its site in about three quarters of patients. The aim was to further investigate this relation in a much larger cohort of patients in hospital with ischaemic stroke.
METHODS—Between 1994 and 1997, inpatients and outpatients with ischaemic stroke were assessed by one of several stroke physicians who noted the OCSP classification. A neuroradiologist classified the site and extent of recent infarction on CT or MRI.
RESULTS—Of 1012 patients with ischaemic stroke, 655 (65%) had recent visible infarcts. These radiological lesions were appropriate to the clinical classification in 69/87 (79%) patients with a total anterior circulation syndrome, 213/298 (71%) with a partial anterior circulation syndrome, 105/144 (73%) with a lacunar syndrome, and 105/126 (83%) with a posterior circulation syndrome. Overall, 75% of patients with visible infarcts were correctly classified clinically. If patients without a visible infarct did have an appropriate lesion in the brain (best case), the classification would have correctly predicted its site and size in 849/1012 (84%) patients, compared with only 492/1012 (49%) in the worst case scenario.
CONCLUSION—The OCSP classification predicted the site of infarct in three quarters of patients. When an infarct is visible on brain imaging, the site of the infarct should guide the use of further investigations, but if an infarct is not seen, the OCSP classification could be used to predict its likely size and site.

 PMID:10766882

  7. Hippocampal stroke.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The first to link disturbance of memory and lesions of the medial temporal lobe was the Russian neurologist von Bechterew, who in 1989 presented the brain of a 60-year-old man who had suffered from severe amnesia. Autopsy showed bilateral damage of the medial temporal lobe. Several following postmortem case studies confirmed the association between permanent amnesia and bitemporal stroke. Reports of transient memory deficits in unilateral stroke in combination with other neurological and neuropsychological deficits followed. With the advent of brain imaging, persistent or transient amnesia as the sole or primary manifestation of acute - mostly left-sided - hippocampal stroke was described. With the use of modern MRI techniques the identification of typical ischemic stroke lesion patterns affecting the hippocampus has become possible. Although overt cognitive deficits in unilateral hippocampal stroke seem to be rare, a careful neuropsychological examination might be necessary to detect resulting neuropsychological deficits including disturbances of verbal and nonverbal episodic long-term memory and spatial orientation.

  8. Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B.; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Garosi, Laurent; Rusbridge, Clare; Anthony, Daniel; Møller, Arne; Finsen, Bente; Deierborg, Tomas; Lambertsen, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P=0.04) and CSF (P=0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor and IL-2, were unchanged. Plasma IL-8 levels correlated significantly with infarct volume (Spearman’s r=0.8, P=0.013). The findings showed increased concentrations of IL-6 in the plasma and CSF of dogs with acute ischaemic stroke comparable to humans. We believe that dogs with spontaneous stroke offer a unique, noninvasive means of studying the inflammatory processes that accompany stroke while reducing confounds that are unavoidable in experimental models. PMID:28079628

  9. Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Garosi, Laurent; Rusbridge, Clare; Anthony, Daniel; Møller, Arne; Finsen, Bente; Deierborg, Tomas; Lambertsen, Kate L; Berendt, Mette

    2017-02-08

    Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P=0.04) and CSF (P=0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor and IL-2, were unchanged. Plasma IL-8 levels correlated significantly with infarct volume (Spearman's r=0.8, P=0.013). The findings showed increased concentrations of IL-6 in the plasma and CSF of dogs with acute ischaemic stroke comparable to humans. We believe that dogs with spontaneous stroke offer a unique, noninvasive means of studying the inflammatory processes that accompany stroke while reducing confounds that are unavoidable in experimental models.

  10. Carotid Artery Stenting for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients after Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Neki, Hiroaki; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Tanahashi, Norio; Takao, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report three ischemic stroke patients who underwent emergency carotid artery stenting after receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment. All patients received antiplatelet medications immediately before stent placement for loading as well as dual antiplatelet therapy after stenting. Under high-dose and dual antiplatelet therapy, none of the three patients showed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhaging. However, one case showed reocclusion of the placed stent after acute thrombosis. As a result, new treatment strategies for the use of antiplatelet agents during emergency stent placement must be developed, particularly for patients who have received intravenous t-PA therapy. PMID:27725550

  11. [Neuroprotective effect of cerebrocurin in a model of acute cerebral stroke].

    PubMed

    Belenichev, I F; Pavlov, S V; Dunaev, V V

    2010-02-01

    Chronic administration of cerebrocurin and cerebrolysin to Mongolian jirds with acute cerebral stroke model led to a decrease in the mitochondrial dysfunction on the 4th day, which was manifested by their ability to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, normalize the energy metabolism, and enhance c-fos gene expression. In addition, cerebrocurin restored the morphofunctional state of neurons and favored the cell loss mechanism switching from necrosis to apoptosis. With respect to all characteristics under consideration, the effect of cerebrocurin exceeded with statistical confidence that of cerebrolysin.

  12. A randomised prospective comparison of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding after acute dysphagic stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, B.; Homer-Ward, M.; Donnelly, M. T.; Long, R. G.; Holmes, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding after acute dysphagic stroke. DESIGN--Randomised prospective study of inpatients with acute stroke requiring enteral nutrition. SETTING--One university hospital (Nottingham) and one district general hospital (Derby). SUBJECTS--30 patients with persisting dysphagia at 14 days after acute stroke: 16 patients were randomised to gastrostomy tube feeding and 14 to nasogastric tube feeding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Six week mortality; amount of feed administered; change in nutritional state; treatment failure; and length of hospital stay. RESULTS--Mortality at 6 weeks was significantly lower in the gastrostomy group with two deaths (12%) compared with eight deaths (57%) in the nasogastric group (P < 0.05). All gastrostomy fed patients (16) received the total prescribed feed whereas 10/14 (71%) of nasogastric patients lost at least one day's feed. Nasogastric patients received a significantly (P < 0.001) smaller proportion of their prescribed feed (78%; 95% confidence interval 63% to 94%) compared with the gastrostomy group (100%). Patients fed via a gastrostomy tube showed greater improvement in nutritional state, according to several different criteria at six weeks compared with the nasogastric group. In the gastrostomy group the mean albumin concentration increased from 27.1 g/l (24.5 g/l to 29.7 g/l) to 30.1 g/l (28.3 g/l to 31.9 g/l). In contrast, among the nasogastric group there was a reduction from 31.4 g/l (28.6 g/l to 34.2 g/l) to 22.3 g/l (20.7 g/l to 23.9 g/l) (P < 0.003). In addition, there were fewer treatment failures in the gastrostomy group (0/16 versus 3/14). Six patients from the gastrostomy group were discharged from hospital within six weeks of the procedure compared with none from the nasogastric group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION--This study indicates that early gastrostomy tube feeding is greatly superior to nasogastric tube feeding and should be the nutritional

  13. Efficacy and safety of puerarin injection in curing acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing-Hua; Li, Xiao-Li; Mei, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Li; Mei, Qing-Xian; Wang, Jin-Feng; Tan, Ling-Jing; Yang, Song-Bai; Feng, Zhi-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies indicated that the puerarin injection has been widely employed in China for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the puerarin injection for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PUBMED, EMBASE, SPRINGER LINK, Scopus, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Journals Database, Wanfang database and the China Biological Medicine database before November 2016, randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of puerarin injection treating acute ischemic stroke were included. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant retrieved articles. Two authors extracted data independently. The effective rate, the neurologic deficit score, the blood rheology indexes, and fibrinogen were assessed and analyzed by the Review Manager 5.3 software. The continuous variables were expressed as MD with 95% CI and dichotomous data used RR or ORs. Adverse reactions related to the puerarin injection were also examined. Results: Thirty-five RCTs with a total of 3224 participants were identified in the meta-analysis. The combined results of 32 trials indicated that the puerarin injection was better than control drugs at the clinical effective rate (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.28, P < 0.001) and 16 studies showed the neurological deficit was significantly improved (MD –3.69, 95% CI –4.67 to –2.71, P < 0.001); the hemorheology index and fibrinogen were much lower with the puerarin injection when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) or other control drugs (the whole blood viscosity: MD –0.89, 95% CI –1.37 to –0.41, P < 0.001; the HCT: MD –0.04, 95% CI –0.06 to –0.02, P < 0.001; the fibrinogen: MD –0.64, 95% CI –0.96 to –0.31, P < 0.001). Eleven trials reported that the adverse reactions related to the puerarin injection included facial flushing, dizziness, vomiting

  14. Quantitative measurements of relative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensities in acute stroke for the prediction of time from symptom onset

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bastian; Brinkmann, Mathias; Forkert, Nils D; Treszl, Andras; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C; Christensen, Soren; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2013-01-01

    In acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging, a ‘mismatch' between visibility of an ischemic lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and missing corresponding parenchymal hyperintensities on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) data sets was shown to identify patients with time from symptom onset ≤4.5 hours with high specificity. However, moderate sensitivity and suboptimal interpreter agreement are limitations of a visual rating of FLAIR lesion visibility. We tested refined image analysis methods in patients included in the previously published PREFLAIR study using refined visual analysis and quantitative measurements of relative FLAIR signal intensity (rSI) from a three-dimensional, segmented stroke lesion volume. A total of 399 patients were included. The rSI of FLAIR lesions showed a moderate correlation with time from symptom onset (r=0.382, P<0.001). A FLAIR rSI threshold of <1.0721 predicted symptom onset ≤4.5 hours with slightly increased specificity (0.85 versus 0.78) but also slightly decreased sensitivity (0.47 versus 0.58) as compared with visual analysis. Refined visual analysis differentiating between ‘subtle' and ‘obvious' FLAIR hyperintensities and classification and regression tree algorithms combining information from visual and quantitative analysis also did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Our results raise doubts whether the prediction of stroke onset time by visual image judgment can be improved by quantitative rSI measurements. PMID:23047272

  15. Loss of miR-29b following acute ischemic stroke contributes to neural cell death and infarct size

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Savita; Rink, Cameron; Ghoorkhanian, Reza; Gnyawali, Surya; Heigel, Mallory; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S; Chalfant, Charles E; Chan, Yuk Cheung; Banerjee, Jaideep; Huang, Yue; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione depletion and 12-lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid are known to be implicated in neurodegeneration associated with acute ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of miR-29 in neurodegeneration associated with acute ischemic stroke. Neural cell death caused by arachidonic acid insult of glutathione-deficient cells was preceded by a 12-lipoxygenase-dependent loss of miR-29b. Delivery of miR-29b mimic to blunt such loss was neuroprotective. miR-29b inhibition potentiated such neural cell death. 12-Lipoxygenase knockdown and inhibitors attenuated the loss of miR-29b in challenged cells. In vivo, stroke caused by middle-cerebral artery occlusion was followed by higher 12-lipoxygenase activity and loss of miR-29b as detected in laser-captured infarct site tissue. 12-Lipoxygenase knockout mice demonstrated protection against such miR loss. miR-29b gene delivery markedly attenuated stroke-induced brain lesion. Oral supplementation of α-tocotrienol, a vitamin E 12-lipoxygenase inhibitor, rescued stroke-induced loss of miR-29b and minimized lesion size. This work provides the first evidence demonstrating that loss of miR-29b at the infarct site is a key contributor to stroke lesion. Such loss is contributed by activity of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway providing maiden evidence linking arachidonic acid metabolism to miR-dependent mechanisms in stroke. PMID:23632968

  16. An example of US Food and Drug Administration device regulation: medical devices indicated for use in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Li, Khan; Felten, Richard; Ogden, Neil; Melkerson, Mark

    2007-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has established requirements for protecting the public health by assuring the safety and effectiveness of a variety of medical products including drugs, devices, and biological products, and for promoting public health by expediting the approval of treatments that are safe and effective. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health is the center within the agency that is responsible for pre- and postmarket regulation of medical devices. In this article, we review current regulation of medical devices, research and development programs, pre- and postmarket perspectives, and future considerations of medical devices, particularly as they relate to devices targeting acute ischemic stroke as an example of the process. We also review the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's historical perspective of acute ischemic stroke trials and clinical trial design considerations used in prior studies that have led to US market clearance as they are related to currently marketed devices indicated for acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Cesar; Akyol, Onat; Ho, Wing Mann; Araujo, Camila; Huang, Lei; Applegate II, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments. PMID:28286764

  18. Early computed tomography-based scores to predict decompressive hemicraniectomy after endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Behme, Daniel; Schnieder, Marlena; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Schregel, Katharina; Bähr, Mathias; Knauth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Identification of patients requiring decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) after endovascular therapy (EVT) is crucial as clinical signs are not reliable and early DH has been shown to improve clinical outcome. The aim of our study was to identify imaging-based scores to predict the risk for space occupying ischemic stroke and DH. Methods Prospectively derived data from patients with acute large artery occlusion within the anterior circulation and EVT was analyzed in this monocentric study. Predictive value of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (ncCT) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) were investigated for DH using logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve analysis. Results From 218 patients with EVT, DH was performed in 20 patients (9.2%). Baseline- (7 vs. 9; p = 0.009) and follow-up ncCT ASPECTS (1 vs. 7, p<0.001) as well as baseline CBV ASPECTS (5 vs. 7, p<0.001) were significantly lower in patients with DH. ncCT (baseline: OR 0.71, p = 0.018; follow-up: OR 0.32, p = <0.001) and CBV ASPECTS (OR 0.63, p = 0.008) predicted DH. Cut-off ncCT-ASPECTS on baseline was 7-, ncCT-ASPECTS on follow-up was 4- and CBV ASPECTS on baseline was 5 points. Conclusions ASPECTS could be useful to early identify patients requiring DH after EVT for acute large vessel occlusion. PMID:28282456

  19. Computed Tomography-Based Thrombus Imaging for the Prediction of Recanalization after Reperfusion Therapy in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Kyeonsub; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Eung Yeop

    2017-01-01

    The prediction of successful recanalization following thrombolytic or endovascular treatment may be helpful to determine the strategy of recanalization treatment in acute stroke. Thrombus can be detected using noncontrast computed tomography (CT) as a hyperdense artery sign or blooming artifact on a T2*-weighted gradient-recalled image. The detection of thrombus using CT depends on slice thickness. Thrombus burden can be determined in terms of the length, volume, and clot burden score. The thrombus size can be quantitatively measured on thin-section CT or CT angiography/magnetic resonance angiography. The determination of thrombus size may be predictive of successful recanalization/non-recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment. However, cut-offs of thrombus size for predicting recanalization/non-recanalization are different among studies, due to different methods of measurements. Thus, a standardized method to measure the thrombus is necessary for thrombus imaging to be useful and reliable in clinical practice. Software-based measurements may provide a reliable and accurate assessment. The measurement should be easy and rapid to be more widely used in practice, which could be achieved by improvement of the user interface. In addition to prediction of recanalization, sequential measurements of thrombus volume before and after the treatment may also be useful to determine the efficacy of new thrombolytic drugs. This manuscript reviews the diagnosis of thrombus, prediction of recanalization using thrombus imaging, and practical considerations for the measurement of thrombus burden and density on CT. PMID:28178411

  20. Asymmetric Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy With Unilateral Tongue Swelling Mimicking Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chi, Man Sum; Ng, Shi Hon; Chan, Lok Yiu

    2016-11-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with acute onset of left hemiparesis and left hypoglossal nerve palsy with ipsilateral tongue swelling. He then progressed to tetraparesis in a few days. Cerebrospinal fluid showed cell protein dissociation. A nerve conduction study showed motor axonal neuropathy with sensory sparing. A subsequent blood test revealed anti-GD1b IgG antibody positivity. He was diagnosed to have acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and treated with a course of intravenous immunoglobulin with slow improvement. This is probably the first AMAN with asymmetrical presentation mimicking stroke reported in the literature in detail. The anti-GD1b IgG antibody is also not commonly associated with AMAN.

  1. Validation and Recalibration of Two Multivariable Prognostic Models for Survival and Independence in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teece, Lucy; Dennis, Martin S.; Roffe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various prognostic models have been developed for acute stroke, including one based on age and five binary variables (‘six simple variables’ model; SSVMod) and one based on age plus scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSSMod). The aims of this study were to externally validate and recalibrate these models, and to compare their predictive ability in relation to both survival and independence. Methods Data from a large clinical trial of oxygen therapy (n = 8003) were used to determine the discrimination and calibration of the models, using C-statistics, calibration plots, and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Methods of recalibration in the large and logistic recalibration were used to update the models. Results For discrimination, both models functioned better for survival (C-statistics between .802 and .837) than for independence (C-statistics between .725 and .735). Both models showed slight shortcomings with regard to calibration, over-predicting survival and under-predicting independence; the NIHSSMod performed slightly better than the SSVMod. For the most part, there were only minor differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Logistic recalibration successfully updated the models for a clinical trial population. Conclusions Both prognostic models performed well overall in a clinical trial population. The choice between them is probably better based on clinical and practical considerations than on statistical considerations. PMID:27227988

  2. The role of the cerebral capillaries in acute ischemic stroke: the extended penumbra model

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Leif; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Mouridsen, Kim; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Jonsdottír, Kristjana Ýr; Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Aamand, Rasmus; Hjort, Niels; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Cai, Changsi; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Simonsen, Claus Z; Von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Modrau, Boris; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Riisgaard Ribe, Lars; Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Dahlman, Martin Gervais; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salvador; Serena, Joaquín; Cho, Tae-Hee; Siemonsen, Susanne; Thomalla, Götz; Fiehler, Jens; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Andersen, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is traditionally understood in relation to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, a recent reanalysis of the flow-diffusion equation shows that increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) can reduce the oxygen extraction efficacy in brain tissue for a given CBF. Changes in capillary morphology are typical of conditions predisposing to stroke and of experimental ischemia. Changes in capillary flow patterns have been observed by direct microscopy in animal models of ischemia and by indirect methods in humans stroke, but their metabolic significance remain unclear. We modeled the effects of progressive increases in CTTH on the way in which brain tissue can secure sufficient oxygen to meet its metabolic needs. Our analysis predicts that as CTTH increases, CBF responses to functional activation and to vasodilators must be suppressed to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation. Reductions in CBF, increases in CTTH, and combinations thereof can seemingly trigger a critical lack of oxygen in brain tissue, and the restoration of capillary perfusion patterns therefore appears to be crucial for the restoration of the tissue oxygenation after ischemic episodes. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of these findings for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of acute stroke. PMID:23443173

  3. Oxygen or cooling, to make a decision after acute ischemia stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-cao; Jin, Xin-chun

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a salvageable penumbra, a region of ischemic brain tissue with sufficient energy for short-term survival, has been widely agreed as the premise for thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which remains the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Blood brain barrier (BBB) damage within the thrombolytic time window is an indicator for tPA-induced HT and both normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) and hypothermia have been shown to protect the BBB from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, providing the O2 as soon as possible (NBO treatment), freezing the brain (hypothermia treatment) to slow down ischemia-induced BBB damage or their combined use may extend the time window for the treatment of tPA. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of NBO, hypothermia or their use combined with tPA on ischemia stroke, based on which, the combination of NBO and hypothermia may be an ideal early stroke treatment to preserve the ischemic penumbra. Given this, there is an urge for large randomized controlled trials to address the effect. PMID:28217292

  4. Active music therapy approach for stroke patients in the post-acute rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Zaliani, Alberto; Baiardi, Paola; Bossi, Daniela; Sguazzin, Cinzia; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Chiara; Gontero, Giulia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2017-01-30

    Guidelines in stroke rehabilitation recommend the use of a multidisciplinary approach. Different approaches and techniques with music are used in the stroke rehabilitation to improve motor and cognitive functions but also psychological outcomes. In this randomized controlled pilot trial, relational active music therapy approaches were tested in the post-acute phase of disease. Thirty-eight hospitalized patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were recruited and allocated in two groups. The experimental group underwent the standard of care (physiotherapy and occupational therapy daily sessions) and relational active music therapy treatments. The control group underwent the standard of care only. Motor functions and psychological aspects were assessed before and after treatments. Music therapy process was also evaluated using a specific rating scale. All groups showed a positive trend in quality of life, functional and disability levels, and gross mobility. The experimental group showed a decrease of anxiety and, in particular, of depression (p = 0.016). In addition, the strength of non-dominant hand (grip) significantly increased in the experimental group (p = 0.041). Music therapy assessment showed a significant improvement over time of non-verbal and sonorous-music relationships. Future studies, including a greater number of patients and follow-up evaluations, are needed to confirm promising results of this study.

  5. Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts 3-Month Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Qun, Sen; Tang, Yan; Sun, Jing; Liu, Zhaoxia; Wu, Juncang; Zhang, Ji; Guo, Jidong; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Zhengxu; Hu, Fuyong; Xu, Xingshun; Ge, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidences have demonstrated that inflammation is involved in the mechanisms of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). As an important and easy-to-measure inflammatory marker, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) shows a high association with mortality in patients with stroke in recent studies. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic role of NLR in patients with AIS. One hundred forty-three patients with AIS were enrolled. Clinical data were collected and the NLR was calculated from the admission blood work. The patients were followed up for 3 months after stroke onset. The occurrence of death and the major disability at 3 months after onset were end points in this study. Modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 was considered as poor outcome. In this study, 75 patients (52%) had poor outcome. We used binary logistic regression model to evaluate risk factor for poor outcome of AIS and found that the NLR was independently associated with the poor outcome of 3 months (P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff value for NLR as a predictor for 3-month outcome was 2.995. Therefore, in our study, high NLRs inversely predicted 3-month outcome in patients with AIS.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of hospital prealerting in acute stroke: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, J P; Lindenmeyer, A; Mellor, R M; Greenfield, S; Mant, J; Quinn, T; Rosser, A; Sandler, D; Sims, D; Ward, M; McManus, R J

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis can significantly reduce the burden of stroke but the time window for safe and effective treatment is short. In patients travelling to hospital via ambulance, the sending of a ‘prealert’ message can significantly improve the timeliness of treatment. Objective Examine the prevalence of hospital prealerting, the extent to which prealert protocols are followed and what factors influence emergency medical services (EMS) staff's decision to send a prealert. Methods Cohort study of patients admitted to two acute stroke units in West Midlands (UK) hospitals using linked data from hospital and EMS records. A logistic regression model examined the association between prealert eligibility and whether a prealert message was sent. In semistructured interviews, EMS staff were asked about their experiences of patients with suspected stroke. Results Of the 539 patients eligible for this study, 271 (51%) were recruited. Of these, only 79 (29%) were eligible for prealerting according to criteria set out in local protocols but 143 (53%) were prealerted. Increasing number of Face, Arm, Speech Test symptoms (1 symptom, OR 6.14, 95% CI 2.06 to 18.30, p=0.001; 2 symptoms, OR 31.36, 95% CI 9.91 to 99.24, p<0.001; 3 symptoms, OR 75.84, 95% CI 24.68 to 233.03, p<0.001) and EMS contact within 5 h of symptom onset (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.37 to 6.50 p=0.006) were key predictors of prealerting but eligibility for prealert as a whole was not (OR 1.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 4.34 p=0.12). In qualitative interviews, EMS staff displayed varying understanding of prealert protocols and described frustration when their interpretation of the prealert criteria was not shared by ED staff. Conclusions Up to half of the patients presenting with suspected stroke in this study were prealerted by EMS staff, regardless of eligibility, resulting in disagreements with ED staff during handover. Aligning the expectations of EMS and ED staff, perhaps through simplified prealert protocols, could be

  7. Feasibility, safety and cost of outpatient management of acute minor ischaemic stroke: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Nicola L M; Koton, Silvia; Simoni, Michela; Geraghty, Olivia C; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background Outpatient management is safe and effective in preventing early recurrent stroke after TIA, but this approach may not be safe in patients with acute minor stroke. Methods We studied outcomes of clinic and hospital-referred patients with TIA or minor stroke (NIHSS≤3) in a prospective, population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Results Of 845 patients with TIA/stroke, 587 (67%) were referred directly to outpatient clinics and 258 (30%) directly to inpatient services. Of the 250 clinic-referred minor strokes (mean age=72.7 years), 237 (95%) were investigated, treated and discharged on the same day, of whom 16 (6.8%) were subsequently admitted to hospital within 30 days for recurrent stroke (n=6), sepsis (n=3), falls (n=3), bleeding (n=2), angina (n=1), and nursing care (n=1). The 150 patients (mean age=74.8 years) with minor stroke referred directly to hospital (median length-of-stay=9 days) had a similar 30-day-readmission rate (9/150;6.3%;p=0.83) after initial discharge and a similar 30-day risk of recurrent stroke (9/237 in clinic patients vs 8/150, OR=0.70,0.27-1.80,p=0.61). Rates of prescription of secondary prevention medication after initial clinic/hospital discharge were higher in clinic versus hospital-referred patients for antiplatelets/anticoagulants (p<0.05) and lipid lowering (p<0.001) and were maintained at one-year follow-up. The mean (SD) secondary care cost was £8323 (13,133) for hospital-referred minor stroke versus £743 (1794) for clinic-referred cases. Conclusion Outpatient management of clinic-referred minor stroke is feasible and may be as safe as inpatient care. Rates of early hospital admission and recurrent stroke were low and uptake and maintenance of secondary prevention was high. PMID:23172867

  8. Recovery and outcome of patients with stroke treated in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, R W; Kloter, K; Cooper, J

    1991-01-01

    This retrospective study of patients with stroke was performed to describe the patients' functional independence on admission to and discharge from physical therapy treatment, determine whether significant functional recovery occurred during the treatment period, and identify independent variables correlating with recovery and outcome at discharge. The Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) system was used to score performance in bed mobility, transfers, locomotion, and stairs. Outcome was indicated by the discharge FIM scores and discharge habitat. The 105 patients whose acute care records were reviewed demonstrated significant improvements between admission and discharge in all functions. Among the variables that correlated significantly with recovery were number of treatments and admission FIM scores. Age and number of treatments correlated significantly with discharge habitat. All FIM scores (admission and discharge) correlated significantly with discharge habitat. Results suggest that FIM scores can be used to document the functional status of patients with stroke in an acute care setting and that the scores have value as predictors of recovery and outcome.

  9. Evaluation of ischemia-modified albumin, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in acute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Itishri; Nayak, Sarthak Ranjan; Behera, Sudeshna; Singh, Bratati; Ray, Subhashree; Jena, Diptimayee; Singh, Santosh; Sahoo, Subrat Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species resulting in the generation of lipid peroxides such as malondialdehyde (MDA). The studies have shown that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), which has widely been studied as a marker of ischemia, also increases as result of oxidative stress. Hence, the current study was done to evaluate the serum MDA, IMA along with serum uric acid, and albumin, which are important metabolic antioxidants. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with acute ischemic stroke were taken as cases and compared with 50 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum MDA, IMA, uric acid, and albumin were estimated both in cases and controls. Serum MDA was estimated by the method of Satoh and IMA by Bar-Or et al. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: Serum MDA and IMA values were significantly increased in cases (P < 0.0001), whereas serum uric acid and albumin values were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There was also highly significant positive correlation between serum IMA and MDA (r = 0.843,P < 0.0001), whereas there were significant negative correlations between serum IMA and uric acid (r = −0.237,P < 0.05), and albumin (r = −0.326,P < 0.05). Conclusion: Hence, we conclude the oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke, and the deranged oxidant-antioxidant balance further contributes to its severity. PMID:28250685

  10. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

    PubMed

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), the volume of ischemic focus (r = 0.39, p < 0.05), and the patients' neurological state when measured on day 10 of IS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). A decrease in serum albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  11. Partial aortic occlusion and cerebral venous steal: venous effects of arterial manipulation in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and "luxury perfusion" in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifested by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution analogous to positive end-expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs.

  12. [Asystolias in the acute phase of brain stroke. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Belvis, R; Marti-Fàbregas, J; Franquet, E; Cocho, D; Valencia, C; Martí-Vilalta, J L

    2003-04-01

    Brain areas involved in heart autonomic control are not well characterized. Insulae have been proposed as control centers. A lesion in these areas may induce a cardiac autonomic dysfunction (arrhythmias, atrioventricular conduction abnormalities). Asystolia has not been previously reported. A 65-year-old man suffered an acute ischemia of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. NIHSS score was 19 points. Brain CT scan was normal. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) showed occlusion of the right MCA. Fibrinolysis was initiated 135 minutes after stroke onset with TCD monitoring. Twenty minutes later he suffered cardiac arrest with asystolia trace in the ECG monitor. Fibrinolysis was stopped during resuscitation. Four minutes later, he recovered with the same NIHSS score. Aggressive resuscitation maneuvers were not necessary. A repeated brain CT scan showed infarct signs in the whole MCA territory and a new TCD did not show any change. Serial blood analyses including cardiac nzymes were normal. The patient experienced four brief cardiac arrests in the next nine hours, so a temporary cardiac pacemaker was placed for four days. He was treated with aspirin and was discharged 14 days after admission. He has not experienced recurrences during a 6-month follow-up. We could not diagnose the etiology of the cardiac arrests. All the episodes occurred in the acute stroke stage and arrhythmia, atrioventricular block, myocardial ischemia or structural lesions were not found in the cardiac study. We propose that ischemia in the right insula induced sudden and transitory interruptions of the sympathetic cardiac tone.

  13. Serum Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and their Ratio in Acute Ischemic Stroke: on the Trail of a Biomarker?

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Verkerk, Robert; Sandvik, Leiv

    2016-01-01

    Fast diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of utmost importance to improving the outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A rapid and sensitive blood test for ischemic stroke is required. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of phenylalanine (PHE) and tyrosine (TYR) as diagnostic biomarkers in AIS. Serum levels of PHE and TYR, measured using HPLC, and their ratio (PHE/TYR) were compared between 45 patients with AIS and 40 healthy control subjects. The relationship between PHE/TYR and the serum levels of several cytokines were also examined. PHE/TYR was significantly higher in AIS patients than in healthy controls (1.75 vs 1.24, p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of PHE/TYR in AIS patients relative to healthy controls revealed promising sensitivity and specificity, which at an optimal cutoff of 1.45 were 76 and 85 %, respectively. PHE/TYR was positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-1β (r = 0.37, p = 0.011) and IL-6 (r = 0.33, p = 0.025). This study shows that PHE/TYR is highly elevated in the acute phase of AIS, and that this elevation is coupled to the inflammatory response. The ROC analysis documents the possible value of PHE/TYR as a biomarker for AIS and demonstrates its clinical potential as a blood-based test for AIS.

  14. Antiplatelet Usage Impacts Clot Density in Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pikija, Slaven; Magdic, Jozef; Lukic, Anita; Schreiber, Catharina; Mutzenbach, Johannes Sebastian; McCoy, Mark R.; Sellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We explored whether clot density in middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion is related to clinical variables, stroke etiology, blood constituents, and prestroke medication. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with acute ischemic stroke of the anterior circulation admitted to two Central European stroke centers. The acquisition of non-contrast enhanced CT (NECT) and CT angiography (CTA) within 4.5 h of symptom onset was obligatory. We assessed the site of MCA occlusion as well as density, area, and length of the clot in 150 patients. The Hounsfield unit values for the clot were divided with contralateral MCA segment to yield relative Hounsfield Unit ratio (rHU). The site of the vessel occlusion (M1 vs. M2) and antiplatelet usage, but not stroke etiology, significantly influenced rHU. We found an inverse correlation of rHU with erythrocyte count (p < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that a higher rHU (i.e., clot being more hyperdense) was more likely with the use of antiplatelets (OR 4.24, CI 1.10–16.31, p = 0.036). Erythrocyte (OR 0.18, CI 0.05–0.55, p = 0.003), and thrombocyte counts (OR 0.99, CI 0.98–0.99, p = 0.029) were associated with odds for more hypodense clots (lower rHU). Our study disclosed that antiplatelet therapy impacts the composition of intracranial clots of the anterior circulation. PMID:27563874

  15. Can FES-Augmented Active Cycling Training Improve Locomotion in Post-Acute Elderly Stroke Patients?

    PubMed

    Peri, Elisabetta; Ambrosini, Emilia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Nava, Claudia; Longoni, Valentina; Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona

    2016-06-13

    Recent studies advocated the use of active cycling coupled with functional electrical stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and enhance functional improvements in stroke adult patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the benefits induced by such a treatment are superior to standard physiotherapy. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial has been performed on post-acute elderly stroke patients. Patients underwent FES-augmented cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling or standard physiotherapy. The intervention consisted of fifteen 30-minutes sessions carried out within 3 weeks. Patients were evaluated before and after training, through functional scales, gait analysis and a voluntary pedaling test. Results were compared with an age-matched healthy group. Sixteen patients completed the training. After treatment, a general improvement of all clinical scales was obtained for both groups. Only the mechanical efficiency highlighted a group effect in favor of the experimental group. Although a group effect was not found for any other cycling or gait parameters, the experimental group showed a higher percentage of change with respect to the control group (e.g. the gait velocity was improved of 35.4% and 25.4% respectively, and its variation over time was higher than minimal clinical difference for the experimental group only). This trend suggests that differences in terms of motor recovery between the two groups may be achieved increasing the training dose. In conclusion, this study, although preliminary, showed that FES-augmented active cycling training seems to be effective in improving cycling and walking ability in post-acute elderly stroke patients. A higher sample size is required to confirm results.

  16. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis in acute ischemic stroke: Impact on morphologic and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Wolfgang G; Sommer, Wieland H; Höhne, Christopher; Fabritius, Matthias P; Schuler, Felix; Dorn, Franziska; Othman, Ahmed E; Meinel, Felix G; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Reiser, Maximilian F; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Thierfelder, Kolja M

    2017-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is the phenomenon of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere caused by dysfunction of the related supratentorial region. Our aim was to analyze its influence on morphologic and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Subjects with stroke caused by a large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation were selected from an initial cohort of 1644 consecutive patients who underwent multiparametric CT including whole-brain CT perfusion. Two experienced readers evaluated the posterior fossa in terms of CCD absence (CCD-) or presence (CCD+). A total of 156 patients formed the study cohort with 102 patients (65.4%) categorized as CCD- and 54 (34.6%) as CCD+. In linear and logistic regression analyses, no significant association between CCD and final infarction volume (β = -0.440, p = 0.972), discharge mRS ≤ 2 (OR = 1.897, p = 0.320), or 90-day mRS ≤ 2 (OR = 0.531, p = 0.492) was detected. CCD+ patients had larger supratentorial cerebral blood flow deficits (median: 164 ml vs. 115 ml; p = 0.001) compared to CCD-patients. Regarding complications, CCD was associated with a higher rate of parenchymal hematomas (OR = 4.793, p = 0.035). In conclusion, CCD is frequently encountered in acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation. CCD was associated with the occurrence of parenchymal hematoma in the ipsilateral cerebral infarction but did not prove to significantly influence patient outcome.

  17. Impact of acute ischemic stroke treatment in patients over age 80: the SPOTRIAS consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Petersen, Nils; Khatri, Pooja; Ford, Andria L; Rost, Natalia S; Ali, Latisha K; Gonzales, Nichole R; Merino, Jose G; Meyer, Brett C; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few studies have addressed outcomes among patients ≥80 years treated with acute stroke therapy. In this study, we outline in-hospital outcomes in (1) patients ≥80 years compared to their younger counterparts, and (2) those over age 80 receiving intra-arterial therapy (IAT) compared to those treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IVrtPA). Methods Stroke centers within the Specialized Program of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) prospectively collected data on all patients treated with IVrtPA or IAT from 1/1/2005 to 12/31/2010. IAT was defined as receiving any endovascular therapy; IAT was further divided into bridging therapy (BT) when the patient received both IAT and IVrtPA, and endovascular therapy alone (ETA). In-hospital mortality was compared in (1) all patients age ≥80 versus younger counter-parts, and (2) IAT, BT, and ETA versus IVrtPA only among those age ≥80 using multivariable logistic regression. An age-stratified analysis was also performed. Results A total of 3768 patients were included in the study; 3378 were treated with IVrtPA alone, 808 with IAT (383 with ETA and 425 with BT). Patients ≥80 (n=1182) had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared to younger counterparts regardless of treatment modality (OR 2.13, 95%CI 1.60–2.84). When limited to those age ≥80, IAT (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.60–1.49), BT (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.47–1.45), or ETA (OR 1.15, 95%CI 0.64–2.08) versus IVrtPA were not associated with increased in-hospital mortality Conclusions IAT does not appear to increase the risk of in-hospital mortality among those over age 80 compared to intravenous thrombolysis alone. PMID:22798327

  18. Effect of the Interaction between Recanalization and Collateral Circulation on Functional Outcome in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, Salvatore; Saia, Valentina; Nencini, Patrizia; Romani, Ilaria; Palumbo, Vanessa; Pracucci, Giovanni; Consoli, Arturo; Rosi, Andrea; Renieri, Leonardo; Nappini, Sergio; Limbucci, Nicola; Inzitari, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identification of patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could most benefit from arterial recanalization after endovascular treatment remains an unsettled issue. Although several classifications of collateral circulation have been proposed, the clinical role of collaterals is still debated. We evaluated the effect of the collateral circulation in relation to recanalization as a predictor of clinical outcome. Data were prospectively collected from 102 patients consecutively treated for proximal middle cerebral or internal carotid artery occlusion. The collateral circulation was evaluated with a novel semiquantitative-qualitative score, the Careggi collateral score (CCS), in six grades. Both CCS and recanalization grades (TICI) were analysed in relation to clinical outcome. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of interaction between recanalization and collateral circulation on clinical outcome. Out of the 102 patients, 37 (36.3%) had poor collaterals, and 65 (63.7%) had good collaterals. Patients with good collaterals had lower basal National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), more distal occlusion, smaller lesions at 24h CT scan and better functional outcome. After multivariate analysis, the interaction between recanalization and collateral grades was significantly stronger as a predictor of good outcome (OR 6.87, 95% CI 2.11 – 22.31) or death (OR 4.66, 95%CI 1.48 – 14.73) compared to the effect of the single variables. Collaterals showed an effect of interaction with the recanalization grade in determining a favourable clinical outcome. Assessment of the collateral circulation might help predict clinical results after recanalization in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. PMID:25496680

  19. Can FES-Augmented Active Cycling Training Improve Locomotion in Post-Acute Elderly Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Elisabetta; Ambrosini, Emilia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Nava, Claudia; Longoni, Valentina; Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies advocated the use of active cycling coupled with functional electrical stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and enhance functional improvements in stroke adult patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the benefits induced by such a treatment are superior to standard physiotherapy. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial has been performed on post-acute elderly stroke patients. Patients underwent FES-augmented cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling or standard physiotherapy. The intervention consisted of fifteen 30-minutes sessions carried out within 3 weeks. Patients were evaluated before and after training, through functional scales, gait analysis and a voluntary pedaling test. Results were compared with an age-matched healthy group. Sixteen patients completed the training. After treatment, a general improvement of all clinical scales was obtained for both groups. Only the mechanical efficiency highlighted a group effect in favor of the experimental group. Although a group effect was not found for any other cycling or gait parameters, the experimental group showed a higher percentage of change with respect to the control group (e.g. the gait velocity was improved of 35.4% and 25.4% respectively, and its variation over time was higher than minimal clinical difference for the experimental group only). This trend suggests that differences in terms of motor recovery between the two groups may be achieved increasing the training dose. In conclusion, this study, although preliminary, showed that FES-augmented active cycling training seems to be effective in improving cycling and walking ability in post-acute elderly stroke patients. A higher sample size is required to confirm results. PMID:27990234

  20. Retrievable stent thrombectomy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: analysis of a revolutionizing treatment technique.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Boehm, Kevin M; Stapleton, Christopher J; Mehta, Brijesh P; Nahed, Brian V; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2013-10-01

    Acute ischemic stroke resulting from intracranial vessel occlusion is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of therapy are fibrinolytics and mechanical thrombectomy in properly selected patients. A new Food and Drug Administration-approved technology to perform thrombectomy, retrievable stenting, may provide superior revascularization rates and improved patient outcomes. We analyzed the cumulative human experience reported for the Trevo Pro Retrieval System (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) and the Solitaire FR Revascularization Device (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) as the definitive treatment for acute ischemic stroke. A literature search was undertaken to identify studies using the retrievable stents published up to September 2012. Nineteen studies identified a total of 576 patients treated with either the Trevo (n=221) or Solitaire (n=355) devices. Pooled data analysis identified median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of 18.5 ± 0.289 (standard error of the mean) and 17.9 ± 0.610, and time to recanalization of 53.9 ± 23.6 minutes and 59.0 ± 8.0 minutes for the Trevo and Solitaire groups, respectively. Recanalization was variably defined by individual studies, most commonly achieving at least a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2a-3 or a thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score of 2-3. Revascularization (83%, 82%), mortality (31%, 14%), hemorrhage (8%, 6%), device complications (5%, 6%), and good patient outcomes (51%, 47%) were found with the Trevo and Solitaire devices, respectively. Preliminary analysis reveals excellent clinical outcomes for retrievable stent technology. This may be attributable to both high rates of revascularization with a relatively short time to perfusion restoration.

  1. In vivo bioimpedance changes during haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in rats: towards 3D stroke imaging using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Dowrick, T; Blochet, C; Holder, D

    2016-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could be used as a portable non-invasive means to image the development of ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to examine if this was possible using time difference imaging, in the anesthetised rat using 40 spring-loaded scalp electrodes with applied constant currents of 50-150 μA at 2 kHz. Impedance changes in the largest 10% of electrode combinations were  -12.8%  ±  12.0% over the first 10 min for haemorrhage and  +46.1%  ±  37.2% over one hour for ischaemic stroke (mean  ±  SD, n  =  7 in each group). The volume of the pathologies, assessed by tissue section and histology post-mortem, was 12.6 μl  ±  17.6 μl and 12.6 μl  ±  17.6 μl for haemorrhage and ischaemia respectively. In time difference EIT images, there was a correspondence with the pathology in 3/7 cases of haemorrhage and none of the ischaemic strokes. Although the net impedance changes were physiologically reasonable and consistent with expectations from the literature, it was disappointing that it was not possible to obtain reliable EIT images. The reason for this are not clear, but probably include confounding effects of secondary ischaemia for haemorrhage and tissue and cerebrospinal fluid shifts for the stroke model. With this method, it does not appear that EIT with scalp electrodes is yet ready for clinical use.

  2. Nuclear renal imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1982-07-01

    Patients with acute pyelonephritis may present with a spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. There are few noninvasive diagnostic studies, however, to confirm or exclude this diagnosis. A small number of patients, generally those with severe disease, will demonstrate radiographic changes on excretory urography, but the lack of sensitivity of the IVP in early, acute pyelonephritis is well documented. Several radionuclide techniques have been proposed to assist in the earlier detection of this clinical problem including imaging with Mercury-197 chlormerodrin, Gallium-67 citrate, Technetium-99m glucoheptonate. Technetium-99m DMSA, and, more recently, Indium-111 labeled white blood cells. The success of the renal cortical imaging agents as well as those which localize in infection are described in this report. There appears to be a complimentary role or the cortical imaging agents and the radiopharmaceuticals which localize in bacterial infection. Cortical agents offer the advantage of specific assessment of functioning renal tissue and a convenient, rapid method for following the response to treatment in a noninvasive manner. A pattern is described which may be diagnostic; correlation with Gallium-67 citrate of Indium-111 WBCs may increase the probability of infection as the cause for the cortical abnormality. The measurement of differential renal function using cortical agents provides additional information to assist the clinician in predicting the late effects of infection. Improved sensitivity and specificity, and a reproducible method for following the response to therapy in patients with acute pyelonephritis are the advantages of the techniques described.

  3. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke: Consensus statement by ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update 2014/2015, supported by ESO, ESMINT, ESNR and EAN.

    PubMed

    Wahlgren, Nils; Moreira, Tiago; Michel, Patrik; Steiner, Thorsten; Jansen, Olav; Cognard, Christophe; Mattle, Heinrich P; van Zwam, Wim; Holmin, Staffan; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Petersson, Jesper; Caso, Valeria; Hacke, Werner; Mazighi, Mikael; Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Szikora, Istvan; Pierot, Laurent; Fiehler, Jens; Gralla, Jan; Fazekas, Franz; Lees, Kennedy R

    2016-01-01

    The original version of this consensus statement on mechanical thrombectomy was approved at the European Stroke Organisation (ESO)-Karolinska Stroke Update conference in Stockholm, 16-18 November 2014. The statement has later, during 2015, been updated with new clinical trials data in accordance with a decision made at the conference. Revisions have been made at a face-to-face meeting during the ESO Winter School in Berne in February, through email exchanges and the final version has then been approved by each society. The recommendations are identical to the original version with evidence level upgraded by 20 February 2015 and confirmed by 15 May 2015. The purpose of the ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update meetings is to provide updates on recent stroke therapy research and to discuss how the results may be implemented into clinical routine. Selected topics are discussed at consensus sessions, for which a consensus statement is prepared and discussed by the participants at the meeting. The statements are advisory to the ESO guidelines committee. This consensus statement includes recommendations on mechanical thrombectomy after acute stroke. The statement is supported by ESO, European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR), and European Academy of Neurology (EAN).

  4. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. Methods: We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40–79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Results: Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86–7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13–16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke. PMID:27025681

  5. Feasibility and safety of acute phase rehabilitation after stroke using the hybrid assistive limb robot suit.

    PubMed

    Ueba, Tetsuya; Hamada, Omi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Inoue, Tooru; Shiota, Etsuji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Acute phase rehabilitation is an important treatment for improving the functional outcome of patients after stroke. The present cohort study analyzed the feasibility and safety of acute phase rehabilitation using the hybrid assistive limb robot suit in 22 patients, 7 males and 15 females (mean age 66.6 ± 17.7 years). Neurological deterioration, mortality, or other accidents were recorded as adverse events. Baseline characteristics of each patient were recorded at the first hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation. Hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation was conducted for 12.1 ± 7.0 days with the patients in stable condition. Acute phase hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation was performed a total of 84 times with no adverse events recorded except for orthostatic hypotension. Good functional outcomes were obtained in 14 patients. Orthostatic hypotension was observed during the first hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation in four patients, and was significantly associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (p = 0.007) and lower Brunnstrom stage (p = 0.033). Acute phase rehabilitation using the hybrid assistive limb suit is feasible and safe. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and lower Brunnstrom stage should be carefully monitored for orthostatic hypotension.

  6. Treatment Result in the Initial Stage of Kanazawa Mobile Embolectomy Team for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    UCHIYAMA, Naoyuki; MISAKI, Kouichi; MOHRI, Masanao; KAMIDE, Tomoya; HIROTA, Yuichi; HIGASHI, Ryo; MINAMIDE, Hisato; KOHDA, Yukihiko; ASAHI, Takashi; SHOIN, Katsuo; IWATO, Masayuki; KITA, Daisuke; HAMADA, Yoshitaka; YOSHIDA, Yuya; NAKADA, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Five recent multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have clearly shown the superiority of mechanical thrombectomy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke compared to systemic thrombolysis. Although 14 hospitals in Ishikawa prefecture have uninterrupted availability of systemic thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy is not available at all of these hospitals. Therefore, we established a Kanazawa mobile embolectomy team (KMET), which could travel to these hospitals and perform the acute reperfusion therapy. In this article, we report early treatment outcomes and validate the effectiveness of a network between affiliated hospitals and KMET. Between January 2014 and December 2015, 48 patients, aged 45–92 years (mean: 73.0 years), underwent acute reperfusion therapy provided by KMET in 10 affiliated hospitals of Kanazawa University Hospital. The pre-treatment NIHSS scores ranged from 5 to 39 (mean: 19.1). ASPECTS+W ranged from 1 to 11 (mean: 7.3). Successful revascularization, defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b or 3, was achieved in 38/48 cases (80%), and a good outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from 0 to 2 at 90 days after the treatment, was achieved in 24/48 cases (50%). There were two cases of intracranial bleeding (4%). Mean time from onset to recanalization was 297 min. These results, which are similar to those of five previous RCTs, suggest that a collaborative network between affiliated hospitals and KMET is effective for acute reperfusion therapy in local areas wherein experienced neuroendovascular specialists are insufficient. PMID:27725522

  7. Feasibility of early functional rehabilitation in acute stroke survivors using the Balance-Bed—a technology that emulates microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Finkelstein, Marsha J.; Meissner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines recommend early functional rehabilitation of stroke patients when risk of patient harm can be managed. Current tools do not allow balance training under load conditions sufficiently low for acute stroke patients. This single-arm pilot study tested feasibility and safety for acute stroke survivors to use “Balance-Bed”, a technology for balance exercises in supine initially developed to emulate microgravity effects on balance. Nine acute stroke patients (50–79 years) participated in 3–10 sessions over 16–46 days as part of their rehabilitation in a hospital inpatient setting. Standard inpatient measures of outcome were monitored where lack of progress from admission to discharge might indicate possible harm. Total FIM scores at admission (median 40, range 22–53) changed to (74, 50–96), Motor FIM scores from (23, 13–32) to (50, 32–68) and Berg Balance scores from (3, 0–6) to (19, 7–43) at discharge. Changes reached Minimal Clinical Important Difference for a sufficient proportion (>0.6) of the patients to indicate no harm to the patients. In addition, therapists reported the technology was safe, provided a positive experience for the patient and fit within the rehabilitation program. They reported the device should be easier to set up and exit. We conclude acute stroke patients tolerated Balance-Bed exercises such as standing on one or two legs, squats, stepping in place as well as balance perturbations provided by the therapist. We believe this is the first time it has been demonstrated that acute stroke patients can safely perform whole body balance training including balance perturbations as part of their rehabilitation program. Future studies should include a control group and compare outcomes from best practices to interventions using the Balance-Bed. In addition, the technology is relevant for countermeasure development for spaceflight and as a test-bed of balance function under microgravity-like conditions. PMID

  8. Plastic Change along the Intact Crossed Pathway in Acute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia Revealed by Optical Intrinsic Signal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoli; He, Yongzhi; Lu, Hongyang; Li, Yao; Su, Xin; Jiang, Ying; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    The intact crossed pathway via which the contralesional hemisphere responds to the ipsilesional somatosensory input has shown to be affected by unilateral stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasticity of the intact crossed pathway in response to different intensities of stimulation in a rodent photothrombotic stroke model. Using optical intrinsic signal imaging, an overall increase of the contralesional cortical response was observed in the acute phase (≤48 hours) after stroke. In particular, the contralesional hyperactivation is more prominent under weak stimulations, while a strong stimulation would even elicit a depressed response. The results suggest a distinct stimulation-response pattern along the intact crossed pathway after stroke. We speculate that the contralesional hyperactivation under weak stimulations was due to the reorganization for compensatory response to the weak ipsilateral somatosensory input. PMID:27144032

  9. An observational study on electrolyte disorders in the acute phase of ischemic stroke and their prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Fofi, Luisa; Dall'armi, Valentina; Durastanti, Laura; Valenza, Alessandro; Lorenzano, Svetlana; Prencipe, Massimiliano; Toni, Danilo

    2012-04-01

    Data on electrolyte disorders in neurological conditions and in acute stroke are somewhat scanty and not easily compared. In our Stroke Unit we studied patients hospitalized within six hours of the onset of an acute ischemic stroke and recorded their demographic and clinical data. Blood test results were recorded before any pharmacological therapy. A total of 475 individuals (256 M, 219 F; range: 14-96 years) treated over a period of 18 consecutive months, were selected. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (odds ratio [OR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.44) and natremia alterations (OR=6.89; 95% CI=1.94-24.40) were associated with higher odds of death. Based on the ordinal logistic regression analysis, the baseline NIHSS score (OR=1.07; 95% CI=1.03-1.10) and baseline hypernatremia (OR=9.69; 95% CI=1.55-60.69) were related to early neurological worsening. Our work suggests an association between serum sodium alterations and mortality, and between high sodium levels and neurological clinical impairment, in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke.

  10. The effects of very early mirror therapy on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

  11. The effects of very early mirror therapy on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26696729

  12. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ontario, current treatment for eligible patients who have an acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). However, there are some limitations and contraindications to IVT, and outcomes may not be favourable for patients with stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. An alternative is mechanical thrombectomy with newer devices, and a number of recent studies have suggested that this treatment is more effective for improving functional independence and clinical outcomes. The objective of this health technology assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices (with or without IVT) compared to IVT alone (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature, limited to randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers and thromboaspiration devices for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) versus IVT alone (if eligible), calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using a 5-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates. Results There was a substantial, statistically significant difference in rate of functional independence (GRADE: high quality) between those who received mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) and IVT alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–3.04). We did not observe a difference in mortality (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.66–1.87). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, which had a 5 year time horizon, the costs and effectiveness for

  13. Recurrent ischaemic stroke unveils polycythaemia vera

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Islam; Murphy, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Polycythaemia vera is a recognised cause of ischaemic stroke. If not treated, this condition may result in recurrent strokes. This is a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian man presenting with the inability to ambulate for 3 days. Brain imaging revealed acute and chronic infarctions in the brain stem and the cerebrum. Polycythaemia vera was diagnosed and treated during the admission. The unique mechanisms and management issues of ischaemic stroke associated with polycythaemia vera are discussed. PMID:25754163

  14. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  15. Capillary Index Score and Correlation with Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jagani, Manoj; Brinjikji, Waleed; Murad, Mohammad H.; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.; Cloft, Harry J.; Kallmes, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose The capillary index score (CIS) has been recently introduced as a metric for rating the collateral circulation of ischemic stroke patients. Multiple studies in the last five years have evaluated the correlation of good CIS with clinical outcomes and suggested the use of CIS in selecting patients for endovascular treatment. We performed a meta-analysis of these studies comparing CIS with clinical outcomes. Methods We conducted a computerized search of three databases from January 2011 to November 2015 for studies related to CIS and outcomes. A CIS = 0 or 1 is considered poor (pCIS) and a CIS = 2 or 3 is considered favorable (fCIS). Using random-effect meta-analysis, we evaluated the relationship of CIS to neurological outcome (modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2), recanalization, and post-treatment hemorrhage. Meta-regression analysis of good neurological outcome was performed for adjusting baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) between groups. Results Six studies totaling 338 patients (212 with fCISs and 126 with pCISs) were included in the analysis. Patients with fCIS had higher likelihood of good neurological outcome [relative risk (RR) = 3.03; confidence interval (CI) = 95%, 2.05–4.47; p < 0.001] and lower risk of post-treatment hemorrhage (RR = 0.38; CI = 95%, 0.19–0.93; p = 0.04) as compared with patients in the pCIS group. When adjusting for baseline NIHSS, patients with fCIS had higher RR of good neurological outcome when compared with those with pCIS (RR = 2.94; CI = 95%, 1.23–7, p < 0.0001). Favorable CIS was not associated with higher rates of recanalization. Conclusions Observational evidence suggests that acute ischemic stroke patients with fCIS may have higher rates of good neurological outcomes compared with patients with pCIS, independent of baseline NIHSS. CIS may be used as another tool to select patients for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:28243344

  16. [Clinical-electrophysiological characteristics of the cognitive sphere in patients in the acute period of the first cerebral ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kispaeva, T T; Kichuk, I V; Shetova, I M; Memetova, D Sh; Gudkova, V V; Ivanova, G E; Skvortsova, V I

    2011-01-01

    A neuropsychological and neurophysiological study using computed EEG was carried out in 31 stroke patients who did not have a cognitive impairment according to MMSE. Thirty age-matched patients with the same risk factors without a history of stroke were included into the control group. The examination of the control group was performed only once. The examination of stroke patients was performed on days 1, 7 and 21. It was shown that cognitive neurodynamic disturbances (memory disorders and the visual memory decrease) and bioelectrical brain activity disturbances (the decrease in a- and beta band activities and the increase of theta-band power) occurred from the first day and lasted during the acute stroke period even after the improvement of neurological status.

  17. Analysis of the Modified Rankin Scale in Randomised Controlled Trials of Acute Ischaemic Stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Aimie; Bath, Philip M.; Gray, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Historically, most acute stroke clinical trials were neutral statistically, with trials typically dichotomising ordinal scales, such as the modified Rankin Scale. Studies published before 2007 have shown that preserving the ordinal nature of these scales increased statistical power. A systematic review of trials published since 2007 was conducted to reevaluate statistical methods used and to assess whether practice has changed. Methods. A search of electronic databases identified RCTs published between January 2007 and July 2014 in acute ischaemic stroke using an ordinal dependency scale as the primary outcome. Findings. Forty-two RCTs were identified. The majority used a dichotomous analysis (25, 59.5%), eight (21.4%) retained the ordinal scale, and nine (19.0%) used another type of analysis. Conclusions. Trials published since 2007 still favoured dichotomous analyses over ordinal. Stroke trials, where appropriate, should consider retaining the ordinal nature of dependency scales. PMID:27088036

  18. Perceived value of stroke outcome measures across the post-acute care continuum: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Megan M; Hunter, Elizabeth G

    2013-04-01

    Connecting the continuum of post-acute care stroke services may be important for easing patients' transition between settings and facilitating recovery and community reintegration. The use of outcome measures is suggested as one means of connecting the continuum. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to describe administrators' and physiotherapists' perceived value of an outcomes program across the post-acute care stroke continuum at a rehabilitation hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups with 18 participants. Three themes emerged on the value of the outcomes program: 1) enhanced communication; 2) supports clinical decision-making; and 3) value of objective data. These findings lend support for the use of standardized outcome measures by physiotherapists in stroke rehabilitation. Findings from this study may be useful for organizations and physiotherapists who wish to integrate outcome measures into practice.

  19. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, H. C. Meyers, P. M.; Yavagal, D. R.; Harel, N. Y.; Elkind, M. S. V.; Mohr, J. P.; Pile-Spellman, J.

    2003-06-15

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents.

  20. Accelerated recovery from acute brain injuries: clinical efficacy of neurotrophic treatment in stroke and traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, N; Poon, W S

    2012-04-01

    Stroke is one of the most devastating vascular diseases in the world as it is responsible for almost five million deaths per year. Almost 90% of all strokes are ischemic and mainly due to atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism and small-vessel disease. Intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage can lead to hemorrhagic stroke, which usually has the poorest prognosis. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation which mimics the action of a neurotrophic factor, protecting stroke-injured neurons and promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Cerebrolysin has been widely studied as a therapeutic tool for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as traumatic brain injury. In ischemic stroke, Cerebrolysin given as an adjuvant therapy to antiplatelet and rheologically active medication resulted in accelerated improvement in global, neurological and motor functions, cognitive performance and activities of daily living. Cerebrolysin was also safe and well tolerated when administered in patients suffering from hemorrhagic stroke. Traumatic brain injury leads to transient or chronic impairments in physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. This is associated with deficits in the recognition of basic emotions, the capacity to interpret the mental states of others, and executive functioning. Pilot clinical studies with adjuvant Cerebrolysin in the acute and postacute phases of the injury have shown faster recovery, which translates into an earlier onset of rehabilitation and shortened hospitalization time.

  1. Functional outcomes and recanalization rates of stent retrievers in acute ischaemic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mizzi, Adrian; Pullicino, Richard; Thornton, John; Downer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Intra-arterial therapy for acute ischaemic stroke has evolved rapidly in the last few years. Stent retrievers have now replaced ‘first-generation’ devices, which have been the principle devices tested in stroke trials. Our aims were to determine the rates of successful recanalization and functional independence in acute stroke patients treated with stent retrievers. We also sought to assess the safety outcomes of stent retrievers by assessing the rates of mortality and intra-cranial haemorrhage. Materials and methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which utilized stent retrievers as sole treatment or as part of a multi-modal approach in acute ischaemic stroke. Results We identified 20 eligible studies: 17 on Solitaire (ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA) (n = 762) and three on Trevo (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) (n = 210). The mean age of participants was 66.8 (range 62.1–73.0) years and the M:F ratio was 1.1:1. The average stroke severity score (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)) at presentation was 17.2. The weighted mean symptom onset to arterial puncture and procedural duration were 265.4 minutes and 54.8 minutes, respectively. Successful recanalization was achieved in 84.5% of patients with a weighted mean of 2.0 stent retriever passes. Independent functional outcome was achieved in 51.2% and the mortality rate was 16.8%. Conclusion Stent retrievers have the potential to achieve a high rate of recanalization and functional independence whilst being relatively safe. They should be assessed in well-designed randomized controlled trials to determine their efficacy and assess whether they compare favourably with ‘standard treatment’ in stroke. PMID:26156097

  2. Do Motor Imagery Performances Depend on the Side of the Lesion at the Acute Stage of Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Kemlin, Claire; Moulton, Eric; Samson, Yves; Rosso, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery has been considered a substitute for overt motor execution to study post-stroke motor recovery. However, motor imagery abilities at the acute stage (<3 weeks) are poorly known. The aim of this study was to compare explicit and implicit motor imagery abilities in stroke patients and healthy subjects, correlate them with motor function, and investigate the role of right or left hemisphere lesions on performance. Twenty-four stroke patients at the acute stage and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers performed implicit (Hand Laterality Judgment Task) and explicit (number of imagined/executed hand movements) motor imagery tasks and a clinical motor assessment. Differences between healthy subjects and patients as well as the impact of lesion side on motor imagery were studied using ANOVA. We analyzed the relationship between motor executed and imagined movements (temporal congruence) using Pearson correlations. Our study shows that for implicit imagery, stroke patients had slower reaction times [RTs, t(46) = 1.7, p = 0.02] and higher error rates for the affected hand [t(46) = 3.7, p < 0.01] yet shared similar characteristics [angle effect: F(1,46) = 30.8, p ≤ 0.0001] with respect to healthy subjects. For the unaffected hand, right-sided stroke patients had a higher error rate and similar RTs whereas left sided stroke had higher RTs but similar error rate than healthy subjects. For explicit imagery, patients exhibited bilateral deficits compared to healthy subjects in the executed and imagined condition (p < 0.0001). Patients and healthy subjects exhibited a temporal congruence between executed and imagined movements (p ≤ 0.04) except for right-sided strokes who had no correlation for both hands. When using motor imagery as a tool for upper limb rehabilitation early after stroke, caution must be taken related to the side of the lesion. PMID:27445761

  3. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yueniwati, Yuyun; Darmiastini, Ni Komang; Arisetijono, Eko

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4) as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm), while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL). There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741). A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029) and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018). Conclusion There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF cannot specifically assess vascular condition as it can be triggered by ischemic conditions in tissues of the whole body. PMID:28008280

  4. Dissociated functional connectivity profiles for motor and attention deficits in acute right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristi; Siegel, Joshua S; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Strube, Michael J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Strokes often cause multiple behavioural deficits that are correlated at the population level. Here, we show that motor and attention deficits are selectively associated with abnormal patterns of resting state functional connectivity in the dorsal attention and motor networks. We measured attention and motor deficits in 44 right hemisphere-damaged patients with a first-time stroke at 1-2 weeks post-onset. The motor battery included tests that evaluated deficits in both upper and lower extremities. The attention battery assessed both spatial and non-spatial attention deficits. Summary measures for motor and attention deficits were identified through principal component analyses on the raw behavioural scores. Functional connectivity in structurally normal cortex was estimated based on the temporal correlation of blood oxygenation level-dependent signals measured at rest with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Any correlation between motor and attention deficits and between functional connectivity in the dorsal attention network and motor networks that might spuriously affect the relationship between each deficit and functional connectivity was statistically removed. We report a double dissociation between abnormal functional connectivity patterns and attention and motor deficits, respectively. Attention deficits were significantly more correlated with abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity within the dorsal attention network than motor networks, while motor deficits were significantly more correlated with abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity patterns within the motor networks than dorsal attention network. These findings indicate that functional connectivity patterns in structurally normal cortex following a stroke link abnormal physiology in brain networks to the corresponding behavioural deficits.

  5. Spatiotemporal Dynamic Simulation of Acute Perfusion/Diffusion Ischemic Stroke Lesions Evolution: A Pilot Study Derived from Longitudinal MR Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Durrleman, Stanley; Carpenter, Trevor; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of stroke lesions, from acute injury to final tissue damage, is complex. Diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PWI) imaging is commonly used to detect early ischemic changes and attempts to distinguish between permanently damaged and salvageable tissues. To date, 2D and 3D measures of diffusion/perfusion regions at individual timepoints have been widely used but may underestimate the true lesion spatio-temporal dynamics. Currently there is no spatio-temporal 4D dynamic model that simulates the continuous evolution of ischemic stroke from MR images. We determined whether a 4D current-based diffeomorphic model, developed in the field of statistical modeling for measuring the variability of anatomical surfaces, could estimate patient-specific spatio-temporal continuous evolution for MR PWI (measured as mean transit time, (MTT)) and DWI lesions. In our representative pilot sample, the model fitted the data well. Our dynamic analysis of lesion evolution showed different patterns; for example, some DWI/PWI dynamic changes corresponded with DWI lesion expansion into PWI lesions, but other patterns were much more complex and diverse. There was wide variation in the time when the final tissue damage was reached after stroke for DWI and MTT. PMID:23853669

  6. Susceptibility weighted imaging of stroke brain in response to normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Iris Y.; Igarashi, Takahiro; Guo, Yingkun; Sun, Phillip Z.

    2015-03-01

    The neuroprotective effect of oxygen leads to recent interest in normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy after acute ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism remains unclear and inconsistent outcomes were reported in human studies. Because NBO aims to improve brain tissue oxygenation by enhancing oxygen delivery to ischemic tissue, monitoring the oxygenation level changes in response to NBO becomes necessary to elucidate the mechanism and to assess the efficacy. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) which provides a new MRI contrast by combining the magnitude and phase images is fit for purpose. SWI is sensitive to deoxyhemoglobin level changes and thus can be used to evaluate the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. In this study, SWI was used for in vivo monitoring of oxygenation changes in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) before, during and after 30 min of NBO treatment. Regions of interest in ischemic core, penumbra and contralateral normal area were generated based on diffusionweighted imaging and perfusion imaging. Significant differences in SWI indicating different oxygenation levels were generally found: contralateral normal > penumbra > ischemic core. Ischemic core showed insignificant increase in oxygenation during NBO and returned to pre-treatment level after termination of NBO. Meanwhile, the oxygenation levels slightly increased in contralateral normal and penumbra regions during NBO and significantly decreased to a level lower than pre-treatment after termination of NBO, indicating secondary metabolic disruption upon the termination of transient metabolic support from oxygen. Further investigation of NBO effect combined with reperfusion is necessary while SWI can be used to detect hemorrhagic transformation after reperfusion.

  7. The Combined Approach to Lysis Utilizing Eptifibatide and rt-PA in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pancioli, Arthur M.; Broderick, Joseph; Brott, Thomas; Tomsick, Thomas; Khoury, Jane; Bean, Judy; del Zoppo, Gregory; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Woo, Daniel; Khatri, Pooja; Castaldo, John; Frey, James; Gebel, James; Kasner, Scott; Kidwell, Chelsea; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Libman, Richard; Mackenzie, Richard; Scott, Phillip; Starkman, Sidney; Thurman, R. Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multiple approaches are being studied to enhance the rate of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Treatment of myocardial infarction with a combination of a reduced-dose fibrinolytic agent and a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist has been shown to improve the rate of recanalization versus fibrinolysis alone. The combined approach to lysis utilizing eptifibatide and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) (CLEAR) stroke trial assessed the safety of treating acute ischemic stroke patients within 3 hours of symptom onset with this combination. Methods The CLEAR trial was a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–funded multicenter, double-blind, randomized, dose-escalation and safety study. Patients were randomized 3:1 to either low-dose rt-PA (tier 1=0.3 mg/kg, tier 2=0.45 mg/kg) plus eptifibatide (75 μg/kg bolus followed by 0.75 μg/kg per min infusion for 2 hours) or standard-dose rt-PA (0.9 mg/kg). The primary safety end point was the incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours. Secondary analyses were performed regarding clinical efficacy. Results Ninety-four patients (40 in tier 1 and 54 in tier 2) were enrolled. The combination group of the 2 dose tiers (n=69) had a median age of 71 years and a median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 14, and the standard-dose rt-PA group (n=25) had a median age of 61 years and a median baseline NIHSS score of 10 (P=0.01 for NIHSS score). Fifty-two (75%) of the combination treatment group and 24 (96%) of the standard treatment group had a baseline modified Rankin scale score of 0 (P=0.04). There was 1 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.3%) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the combination group and 2 (8.0%; 95% CI, 0% to 19.2%) in the rt-PA–only arm (P=0.17). During randomization in tier 2, a review by the independent data safety monitoring board demonstrated that the safety

  8. Lipoic Acid Use and Functional Outcomes after Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Ja-Hae; Nam, Tai-Seung; Choi, Seong-Min; Lee, Seung-Han; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) is a strong antioxidant commonly used for treating diabetic polyneuropathy. Previously, we demonstrated the neurorestorative effects of aLA after cerebral ischemia in rats. However, its effects on patients with stroke remain unknown. We investigated whether patients treated with aLA have better functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and reperfusion therapy than patients not receiving aLA. Methods In this retrospective study of 172 prospectively registered patients with diabetes and AIS treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), we investigated the relationship between aLA use and functional outcome both after 3 months and after 1 year. The functional outcomes included occurrence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), early neurological deterioration (END), and early clinical improvement (ECI). Favorable outcomes were defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–2. Results Of the 172 patients with AIS and diabetes, 47 (27.3%) used aLA. In the entire cohort, favorable outcomes occurred at significantly higher rates both at 3 months and at 1 year in those treated with aLA. The risks for END and HT were lower and the occurrence of ECI was higher in patients treated with aLA. In multivariable analysis, aLA use was associated with favorable outcomes both at 3 months and at 1 year. Age, HT, and increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were negative predictors of a favorable outcome. Conclusions The use of aLA in patients with AIS and diabetes who are treated with tPA is associated with favorable outcomes. These results indicate that aLA could be a useful intervention for the treatment of AIS after reperfusion therapy. PMID:27677185

  9. Diagnostic imaging of the acutely injured patient

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of pathophysiologic concepts of trauma and reviews the effectiveness of the available imaging modalities in acute trauma of various organ system. Topics covered are chest injuries; abdominal trauma; fractures of long bones; the foot and ankle; the knee; hand and wrist; the elbow; the shoulder; the pelvis hips; the spine; the skull and facial trauma and the clinical assessment of multiple injuries patients. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic techniques of radiography is discussed. Normal anatomy and bone fractures along with soft-tissue injuries are described.

  10. Trends in oral anticoagulant choice for acute stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Japan: The SAMURAI‐NVAF Study

    PubMed Central

    Arihiro, Shoji; Todo, Kenichi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumi; Furui, Eisuke; Terasaki, Tadashi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takizawa, Shunya; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakashima, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Nagatsuka, K; Minematsu, K; Nakagawara, J; Akiyama, H; Shibazaki, K; Maeda, K; Shibuya, S; Yoshimura, S; Endo, K; Miyagi, T; Osaki, M; Kobayashi, J; Okata, T; Tanaka, E; Sakamoto, Y; Takizawa, H; Takasugi, J; Tokunaga, K; Homma, K; Kinoshita, N; Matsuki, T; Higashida, K; Shiozawa, M; Kanai, H; Uehara, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Large clinical trials are lack of data on non‐vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for acute stroke patients. Aim To evaluate the choice of oral anticoagulants at acute hospital discharge in stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and clarify the underlying characteristics potentially affecting that choice using the multicenter Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk‐factor Assessment and Improvement‐NVAF registry (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01581502). Method The study included 1192 acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (527 women, 77·7 ± 9·9 years old) between September 2011 and March 2014, during which three nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant oral anticoagulants were approved for clinical use. Oral anticoagulant choice at hospital discharge (median 23‐day stay) was assessed. Results Warfarin was chosen for 650 patients, dabigatran for 203, rivaroxaban for 238, and apixaban for 25. Over the three 10‐month observation periods, patients taking warfarin gradually decreased to 46·5% and those taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants increased to 48·0%. As compared with warfarin users, patients taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants included more men, were younger, more frequently had small infarcts, and had lower scores for poststroke CHADS 2, CHA 2 DS 2‐VASc, and HAS‐BLED, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale, and discharge modified Rankin Scale. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were started at a median of four‐days after stroke onset without early intracranial hemorrhage. Patients starting nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants earlier had smaller infarcts and lower scores for the admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale and the discharge modified Rankin Scale than those starting later. Choice of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants was independently associated with 20‐day or

  11. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541–18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  12. How temporal evolution of intracranial collaterals in acute stroke affects clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Prakash; Low, Adrian F.; Tay, Edgar L.W.; Gopinathan, Anil; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ting, Eric; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Seet, Raymond C.S.; Ahmad, Aftab; Chan, Bernard P.L.; Teoh, Hock L.; Soon, Derek; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We compared intracranial collaterals on pretreatment and day 2 brain CT angiograms (CTA) to assess their evolution and relationship with functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods: Consecutive AIS patients who underwent pretreatment and day 2 CTA and received IV tPA during 2010–2013 were included. Collaterals were evaluated by 2 independent neuroradiologists using 3 predefined criteria: the Miteff system, the Maas system, and 20-point collateral scale by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score methodology. We stratified our cohort by baseline pre-tPA state of their collaterals and by recanalization status of the primary vessel for analysis. Good outcomes at 3 months were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–1. Results: This study included 209 patients. Delayed collateral recruitment by any grading system was not associated with good outcomes. All 3 scoring systems showed that collateral recruitment on the follow-up CTA from a baseline poor collateral state was significantly associated with poor outcome and increased bleeding risk. When the primary vessel remained persistently occluded, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with worse outcomes. Interestingly, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with increased mortality in 2 of the 3 grading systems. Conclusions: Not all collateral recruitment is beneficial; delayed collateral recruitment may be different from early recruitment and can result in worse outcomes and higher mortality. Prethrombolysis collateral status and recanalization are determinants of how intracranial collateral evolution affects functional outcomes. PMID:26740681

  13. Localizing text in scene images by boundary clustering, stroke segmentation, and string fragment classification.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework to extract text regions from scene images with complex backgrounds and multiple text appearances. This framework consists of three main steps: boundary clustering (BC), stroke segmentation, and string fragment classification. In BC, we propose a new bigram-color-uniformity-based method to model both text and attachment surface, and cluster edge pixels based on color pairs and spatial positions into boundary layers. Then, stroke segmentation is performed at each boundary layer by color assignment to extract character candidates. We propose two algorithms to combine the structural analysis of text stroke with color assignment and filter out background interferences. Further, we design a robust string fragment classification based on Gabor-based text features. The features are obtained from feature maps of gradient, stroke distribution, and stroke width. The proposed framework of text localization is evaluated on scene images, born-digital images, broadcast video images, and images of handheld objects captured by blind persons. Experimental results on respective datasets demonstrate that the framework outperforms state-of-the-art localization algorithms.

  14. Effectiveness of a pressure-relieving mattress in an acute stroke ward.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah

    2016-11-10

    Between the 10 May and 18 July 2016, St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust conducted a small, non-controlled evaluation set out to assess the performance of the Apex Pro-care Auto pressure-relieving mattress in an acute stroke ward. Seven patients, assessed as being at medium-to-high risk of developing a pressure ulcer (PU), were recruited into the evaluation; the mean age was 73.1 years. Three patients were bed bound and four had restricted mobility. The average length of time spent on the mattress was 31 days. At the end of the evaluation, none of the patients had developed a PU while using the mattress. These results indicate that, when combined with a robust PU prevention plan inclusive of repositioning, this pressure-relieving mattress is effective in preventing pressure ulceration.

  15. Evolution of thrombectomy approaches and devices for acute stroke: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Chaudry, M Imran; Hui, Ferdinand K; Turner, Raymond D; Kellogg, Ryan T; Turk, Aquilla S

    2015-01-01

    While intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only FDA-approved treatment modality for acute ischemic stroke, many patients do not meet the criteria for intravenous tPA and are offered intra-arterial therapy. Rapid advances in devices and approaches have marked the evolution of thrombectomy over the past decade from rudimentary mechanical disruption, followed by intra-arterial thrombolytic infusions to increasingly effective thrombectomy devices. We review the critical advancements in thrombectomy technique that have evolved and the key anatomic and technical challenges they address, from first-generation Merci retrieval systems to second-generation Penumbra aspiration systems and third-generation stent retrievers, as well as nuances of their uses to maximize their effectiveness. We also highlight more recent advances that offer patients hope for more expedient vessel recanalization.

  16. Simulation training for emergency teams to manage acute ischemic stroke by telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sébastien; Mione, Gioia; Varoqui, Claude; Vezain, Arnaud; Brunner, Arielle; Bracard, Serge; Debouverie, Marc; Braun, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Telemedicine contributes to initiating early intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment for patients with acute cerebral infarction in areas without a stroke unit. However, the experience and skills of the emergency teams in the spokes to prepare patients and administer rt-PA treatment are ill-defined. Improving these skills could vastly improve management of acute stroke by telemedicine. We developed a medical simulation training model for emergency teams to perform intravenous rt-PA treatment in a telestroke system. From February 2013 to May 2015, 225 learners from 6 emergency teams included in the telestroke system “Virtuall”—in Lorrain (northeastern France)—received a standardized medical simulation training module to perform rt-PA treatment. All learners were assessed with the same pretraining and posttraining test consisting of 52 items. The percentage of right answers was determined for every learner before and after training. Median percentages of right answers were significantly higher in the posttraining test overall (82 ± 10 vs. 59 ± 13% pretraining; P < 0.001), but also in all professional subgroups: physicians (88 ± 8 vs. 67 ± 12%; P < 0.001), paramedical staff (80 ± 9 vs. 54 ± 12%; P < 0.001), nurses (80 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 12%; P < 0.001), and auxiliary nurses (76 ± 17 vs. 37 ± 15%; P = 0.002). We describe for the first time a training model for emergency teams in a telestroke system. We demonstrate significant gain in knowledge for all groups of healthcare professionals. This simulation model could be applied in any medical simulation center and form the basis of a standardized training program of spokes in a telestroke system. PMID:27311003

  17. Association of Cytochrome P450 Genetic Variants with Clopidogrel Resistance and Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xingyang; Wang, Yanfen; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Chun; Cheng, Wen; Chi, Lifen

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug primarily used to treat or prevent acute ischemic stroke (IS) or myocardial infarction (MI). This prodrug requires biotransformation to an active metabolite by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and CYP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could affect the efficiency of such biotransformation. Methods: A total of 375 consecutive IS patients were genotyped for eight CYP SNPs using mass spectrometry. Platelet aggregation activity was measured before and after the 7 – 10 day treatment. Gene–gene interactions were analyzed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) analysis. All patients received clopidogrel therapy and were followed up for six months. Primary outcomes were evaluated as a composite of recurrent ischemic stroke (RIS), MI, and death. The secondary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Clopidogrel resistance occurred in 153 patients (40.8%). The frequency of CYP3A5 (rs776746) GG/AG and CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) AA/AG genotypes was significantly higher in clopidogrel-resistant patients than in sensitive patients. There was a significant gene-gene interaction between CYP3A5 (rs776746) and CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285). CYP2C19*2 AA and its interaction with CYP3A5 GG were independent predictors of clopidogrel resistance and affected the activity of platelet aggregation. Diabetes mellitus, CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285), clopidogrel resistance, and the interaction of CYP2C19*2 with CYP3A5 were all independent risk factors for the primary outcomes of clopidogrel treatment. Clopidogrel-resistant patients were more likely to have poor outcomes (mRS > 2 points) compared with clopidogrel-sensitive patients. Conclusion: CYP SNPs and their interactions are associated with drug resistance and outcomes in acute IS patients. PMID:26961113

  18. Developing complex interventions: lessons learned from a pilot study examining strategy training in acute stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Dawson, Deirdre R.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Butters, Meryl A.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S.; Becker, James T.; Holm, Margo B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Design Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study Setting Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health center Participants Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than 5 days were excluded. Intervention Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30–40 minutes daily, 5 days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures We assessed feasibility through participants’ recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants’ comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants’ satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Results Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at 6 months [M(SE)=117 (3)] than attention control participants [M(SE)=96 (14); t8=7.87, p=.02]. Conclusions It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability. PMID:24113727

  19. Clinical factors associated with statins prescription in acute ischemic stroke patients: findings from the Lombardia Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins, due to their well-established pleiotropic effects, have noteworthy benefits in stroke prevention. Despite this, a significant proportion of high-risk patients still do not receive the recommended therapeutic regimens, and many others discontinue treatment after being started on them. The causes of non-adherence to current guidelines are multifactorial, and depend on both physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing statin prescription at Stroke Unit (SU) discharge. Methods This study included 12,750 patients enrolled on the web-based Lombardia Stroke Registry (LRS) from July 2009 to April 2012 and discharged alive, with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and without contra-indication to statin therapy. By logistic regression analysis and classification trees, we evaluated the impact of demographic data, risk factors, tPA treatment, in-hospital procedures and complications on statin prescription rate at discharge. Results We observed a slight increase in statins prescription during the study period (from 39.1 to 43.9%). Lower age, lower stroke severity and prestroke disability, the presence of atherothrombotic/lacunar risk factors, a diagnosis of non-cardioembolic stroke, tPA treatment, the absence of in-hospital complications, with the sole exception of hypertensive fits and hyperglycemia, were the patient-related predictors of adherence to guidelines by physicians. Overall, dyslipidemia appears as the leading factor, while TOAST classification does not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In our region, Lombardia, adherence to guidelines in statin prescription at Stroke Unit discharge is very different from international goals. The presence of dyslipidemia remains the main factor influencing statin prescription, while the presence of well-defined atherosclerotic etiopathogenesis of stroke does not enhance statin prescription. Some uncertainties about the risk

  20. Prognostic value of trans-thoracic echocardiography in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation: findings from the RAF study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Lees, Kennedy R

    2016-02-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is recommended for the secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). T he identification of patients at high risk for early recurrence, which are potential candidates to prompt anticoagulation, is crucial to justify the risk of bleeding associated with early anticoagulant treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF the association between findings at trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 90 days recurrence. In consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF, TTE was performed within 7 days from hospital admission. Study outcomes were recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular events (stroke or TIA) and systemic embolism. 854 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 9.5 years) underwent a TTE evaluation; 63 patients (7.4%) had at least a study outcome event. Left atrial thrombosis was present in 11 patients (1.3%) among whom 1 had recurrent ischemic event. Left atrial enlargement was present in 548 patients (64.2%) among whom 51 (9.3%) had recurrent ischemic events. The recurrence rate in the 197 patients with severe left atrial enlargement was 11.7%. On multivariate analysis, the presence of atrial enlargement (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.06-4.29, p = 0.033) and CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04-1.45, p = 0.018, for each point increase) were correlated with ischemic recurrences. In patients with AF-associated acute stroke, left atrial enlargement is an independent marker of recurrent stroke and systemic embolism. The risk of recurrence is accounted for by severe atrial enlargement. TTE-detected left atrial thrombosis is relatively uncommon.

  1. PCA-based artifact removal algorithm for stroke detection using UWB radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Elisa; di Domenico, Simone; Cianca, Ernestina; Rossi, Tommaso; Diomedi, Marina

    2016-09-16

    Stroke patients should be dispatched at the highest level of care available in the shortest time. In this context, a transportable system in specialized ambulances, able to evaluate the presence of an acute brain lesion in a short time interval (i.e., few minutes), could shorten delay of treatment. UWB radar imaging is an emerging diagnostic branch that has great potential for the implementation of a transportable and low-cost device. Transportability, low cost and short response time pose challenges to the signal processing algorithms of the backscattered signals as they should guarantee good performance with a reasonably low number of antennas and low computational complexity, tightly related to the response time of the device. The paper shows that a PCA-based preprocessing algorithm can: (1) achieve good performance already with a computationally simple beamforming algorithm; (2) outperform state-of-the-art preprocessing algorithms; (3) enable a further improvement in the performance (and/or decrease in the number of antennas) by using a multistatic approach with just a modest increase in computational complexity. This is an important result toward the implementation of such a diagnostic device that could play an important role in emergency scenario.

  2. Induction and imaging of photothrombotic stroke in conscious and freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongyang; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Li, Hangdao; Lu, Xiaodan; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    In experimental stroke research, anesthesia is common and serves as a major reason for translational failure. Real-time cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring during stroke onset can provide important information for the prediction of brain injury; however, this is difficult to achieve in clinical practice due to various technical problems. We created a photothrombotic focal ischemic stroke model utilizing our self-developed miniature headstage in conscious and freely moving rats. In this model, a high spatiotemporal resolution imager using laser speckle contrast imaging technology was integrated to acquire real-time two-dimensional CBF information during thrombosis. The feasibility, stability, and reliability of the system were tested in terms of CBF, behavior, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. After completion of occlusion, the CBF in the targeted cortex of the stroke group was reduced to 16±9% of the baseline value. The mean infarct volume measured by MRI 24 h postmodeling was 77±11 mm3 and correlated well with CBF (R2=0.74). This rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia and real-time blood flow imaging opens the possibility of performing various fundamental and translational studies on stroke without the influence of anesthetics.

  3. Impact of nutritional status on long-term functional outcomes of post-acute stroke patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hsiu-Chu; Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Peng, Li-Ning; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Kung; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lo, Yuk-Keung; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status is important in stroke care, but little is known regarding to the prognostic role of nutritional status on long-term functional outcomes among stroke survivors. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate to the prognostic role of nutritional status on long-term functional outcomes among stroke survivors. Data of acute stroke registry in Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital were retrieved for analysis. Overall, 483 patients (mean age = 70.7 ± 10.3 years) with first-ever stroke were found. Among them, 95 patients (19.7%) were malnourished at admission, 310 (mean age = 70.4 ± 10.1 years, 63.5% males) survived for 6 months, and 244 (78.7%) had good functional outcomes. Subjects with poor functional outcomes were older (74.7 ± 8.9 vs. 69.0 ± 10.1 years, p < 0.001), more likely to be malnourished (56.2% vs. 26.6%, p < 0.001), to develop pneumonia upon admission (23.3% vs. 12.7%, p = 0.027), had a longer hospital stay (23.5 ± 13.9 vs. 12.5 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), had a higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (12.9 ± 9.3 vs. 4.9 ± 4.3, p < 0.001), poorer stroke recovery (NIHSS improvement: 6.9% vs. 27.4%, p = 0.005), and poorer functional improvement (Barthel index = BI improvement in the first month: 31.4% vs. 138%, p < 0.001). Older age (odds ratio = OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.03-1.11, p<0.001), baseline NIHSS score (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.15-1.31, p < 0.001) and malnutrition at acute stroke (OR = 2.57, 95%CI: 1.29-5.13, p<0.001) were all independent risk factors for poorer functional outcomes. In conclusion, as a potentially modifiable factor, more attentions should be paid to malnutrition to promote quality of stroke care since the acute stage.

  4. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging during and after transient cerebral ischemia: multinuclear stroke protocols for double-tuned 23Na/1H resonator systems