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Sample records for acute stroke trials

  1. Acute reperfusion therapy and stroke care in Asia after successful endovascular trials.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Yamagami, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The current status of and prospects for acute stroke care in Asia in the situation where both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapies have been recognized as established strategies for acute stroke are reviewed. Of 15 million people annually having stroke worldwide, ≈9 million are Asians. The burdens of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are severe in Asia. The unique features of stroke in Asia include susceptibility to intracranial atherosclerosis, high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage, effects of dietary and lifestyle habits, and several disorders with genetic causes. These features affect acute stroke care, such as the dosage of alteplase for thrombolysis and consideration of bleeding complications during antithrombotic therapy. Acute endovascular thrombectomy, as well as intravenous thrombolysis, is relatively prevalent in East Asia, but most of the other Asian countries need to develop their human resources and fundamental medical infrastructure for stroke care. A limitation of endovascular therapy in East Asia is the high prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis that can cause recanalization failure and require additional angioplasty or permanent stent insertion although intracranial stenting is not an established strategy. Multinational collaboration on stroke research among Asian countries is infrequent. Asians should collaborate to perform their own thrombolytic and endovascular trials and seek the optimal strategy for stroke care specific to Asia.

  2. GLUCOSE REGULATION IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS (GRASP) TRIAL A RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Karen C; Hall, Christiana E; Kissela, Brett M; Bleck, Thomas P; Conaway, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia is associated with worse outcome in acute stroke patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter, 3 arm trial [tight control (target 70 – 110 mg/dL), loose control (target 70 – 200 mg/dL), and control usual care (70 – 300 mg/dL)] to assess the feasibility and safety of two insulin infusion protocol targets in acute ischemic stroke patients. The planned sample was 72 subjects. Results A total of 74 subjects were enrolled. Seventy two (97%) had data available for the primary analyses and 73 (99%) had three month clinical outcome data. Median age was 67 years, median NIHSS score was 8, median glucose was 163 mg/dL and median time to randomization was 10. 7 hours. Fifty-nine percent of patients were diabetic, 35% received thrombolysis, and 14% of subjects died within 3 months. The loose control and usual care groups had median glucose concentrations of 151 mg/dL. The tight control group had a median glucose concentration of 111 mg/dL. The loose control group spent 90% of the first 24 hours in target and the tight group 44% of time in target. There was only 1 symptomatic hypoglycemic patient in the loose control group (4%) and 0 in the tight control group. The overall rates of hypoglycemia (<55 mg/dL) were 4% in control, 4% in loose and 30% in tight. Exploratory efficacy analysis was conducted. Conclusions Insulin infusion for acute ischemic stroke patients is feasible and safe using the insulin infusion protocol in the GRASP trial. Exploratory efficacy analysis supports further comparative study. PMID:19834016

  3. Preventive Antibacterial Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klehmet, Juliane; Rogge, Witold; Drenckhahn, Christoph; Göhler, Jos; Bereswill, Stefan; Göbel, Ulf; Wernecke, Klaus Dieter; Wolf, Tilo; Arnold, Guy; Halle, Elke; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a major risk factor of death after acute stroke. In a mouse model, preventive antibacterial therapy with moxifloxacin not only prevents the development of post-stroke infections, it also reduces mortality, and improves neurological outcome significantly. In this study we investigate whether this approach is effective in stroke patients. Methods Preventive ANtibacterial THERapy in acute Ischemic Stroke (PANTHERIS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 patients with severe, non-lacunar, ischemic stroke (NIHSS>11) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Patients received either intravenous moxifloxacin (400 mg daily) or placebo for 5 days starting within 36 hours after stroke onset. Primary endpoint was infection within 11 days. Secondary endpoints included neurological outcome, survival, development of stroke-induced immunodepression, and induction of bacterial resistance. Findings On intention-to treat analysis (79 patients), the infection rate at day 11 in the moxifloxacin treated group was 15.4% compared to 32.5% in the placebo treated group (p = 0.114). On per protocol analysis (n = 66), moxifloxacin significantly reduced infection rate from 41.9% to 17.1% (p = 0.032). Stroke associated infections were associated with a lower survival rate. In this study, neurological outcome and survival were not significantly influenced by treatment with moxifloxacin. Frequency of fluoroquinolone resistance in both treatment groups did not differ. On logistic regression analysis, treatment arm as well as the interaction between treatment arm and monocytic HLA-DR expression (a marker for immunodepression) at day 1 after stroke onset was independently and highly predictive for post-stroke infections. Interpretation PANTHERIS suggests that preventive administration of moxifloxacin is superior in reducing infections after severe non-lacunar ischemic stroke compared to placebo. In addition, the results emphasize the

  4. Acupuncture for acute stroke: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for more than 3,000 years. However, previous research has not yet shown that acupuncture is effective as a stroke treatment. We report a protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled, and outcome assessor-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture on acute ischemic stroke. Methods/Design In a prospective trial involving three hospitals in the Zhejiang Province (China) 250 patients with a recent (less than 1 week previous) episode of ischemic stroke will be included. Patients will be randomized into two groups: an acupuncture group given scalp acupuncture and electroacupuncture, and a control group given no acupuncture. Eighteen treatment sessions will be performed over a three-week period. The primary outcome will be measured by changes in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at the one, three, and four-week follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will be: 1) the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale for motor function; 2) the mini-mental state examination and Montreal cognitive assessment for cognitive function; 3) the video-fluoroscopic swallowing study for swallowing ability; and 4) the incidence of adverse events. Discussion This trial is expected to clarify whether or not acupuncture is effective for acute stroke. It will also show if acupuncture can improve motor, cognitive, or swallowing function. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12001971. PMID:24908241

  5. Review of technology development and clinical trials of transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Brian E.; Streeter, Jackson; de Taboada, Luis

    2010-02-01

    Stroke is the one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, claiming 600,000 lives each year. Evidence suggests that near infrared (NIR) illumination has a beneficial effect on a variety of cells when these cells are exposed to adverse conditions. Among these conditions is the hypoxic state produced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To demonstrate the impact NIR Transcranial Laser Therapy (TLT) has on AIS in humans, a series of double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials were designed using the NeuroThera(R) System (NTS). The NTS was designed and developed to treat subjects non-invasively using 808 nm NIR illumination. TLT, as it applies to stroke therapy, and the NTS will be described. The results of the two clinical trials: NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 1 (NEST-1) and NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 2 (NEST-2) will be reviewed and discussed.

  6. Implication of the recent positive endovascular intervention trials for organizing acute stroke care: European perspective.

    PubMed

    Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2015-06-01

    Timely recanalization leads to improved patient outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Recent trial results demonstrated a strong benefit for endovascular therapies over standard medical care in patients with acute ischemic stroke and a major intracranial artery occlusion≤6 hours or even beyond from symptom onset and independent of patients' age. Previous studies have shown the benefit of intravenous thrombolysis that had gradually, albeit slowly, reshaped acute stroke care worldwide. Now, given the superior benefits of endovascular intervention, the whole structure of acute stroke care needs to be reorganized to meet patient needs and to deliver evidence-based treatments effectively. However, a blueprint for success with novel stroke treatments should be composed of numerous elements and requires efforts from various parties. Regarding the endovascular therapies, the strengths of Europe include highly organized democratic society structures, high rate of urbanization, well-developed revenue-based healthcare systems, and high income levels, whereas the obstacles include the east-west disparity in wealth, the ongoing economic crisis hindering spread of fairly costly new treatments, and the quickly aging population putting more demands on health care in general. Regional and national plans for covering whole population with 24/7 adequate acute stroke care are necessary in close cooperation of professionals and decision-makers. Europe-wide new training programs for expert physicians in stroke care should be initiated shortly. European Stroke Organisation has a unique role in providing expertise, consultation, guidelines, and versatile training in meeting new demands in stroke care. This article discusses the current situation, prospects, and challenges in Europe offering personal views on potential solutions.

  7. Electroacupuncture for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Ju; Li, Ji-Huang; Li, Hui-Qin; Fu, Deng-Lei; Lu, Lin; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is an extension technique of acupuncture based on traditional acupuncture combined with modern electrotherapy. Here, we conducted a systematic review specifically to assess the effectiveness and safety of EA for acute ischemic stroke. Eight databases were searched for randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of EA for acute ischemic stroke published from inception to June 2013. Ultimately, 67 studies claimed to be RCTs. Eighteen studies with 1411 individuals were selected for the analyses, which got ≥ 4 "yes" in the domains of Cochrane risk of bias tool. The meta-analysis showed a significant effect of EA for improving Barthel Index (p < 0.00001), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (p < 0.00001), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (p < 0.00001), and Revised Scandinavian Stroke Scale (p < 0.00001) compared with western conventional treatments (WCTs). In an analysis of the total clinical efficacy rate, there was a significant difference between EA and WCTs (p=0.0002). Adverse effects were monitored in 6 studies, and were well tolerated in all stroke patients. According to the GRADE approach, the quality of evidence was mostly high or moderate. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed the evidence in support of the use of EA for acute ischemic stroke, although further larger sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required. PMID:26621442

  8. Phase IIB/III Trial of Tenecteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of a Prematurely Terminated Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haley, E. Clarke; Thompson, John L.P.; Grotta, James C.; Lyden, Patrick D.; Hemmen, Thomas G.; Brown, Devin L.; Fanale, Christopher; Libman, Richard; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Levine, Steven R.; Johnston, Karen C.; Buchsbaum, Richard; Levy, Gilberto; Levin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) remains the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its use remains limited. In a previous pilot dose-escalation study, intravenous tenecteplase showed promise as a potentially safer alternative. Therefore, a Phase IIB clinical trial was begun to a) choose a best dose of tenecteplase to carry forward, and b) to provide evidence for either promise or futility of further testing of tenecteplase versus rt-PA. If promise was established, then the trial would continue as a Phase III efficacy trial comparing the selected tenecteplase dose to standard rt-PA. Methods: The trial began as a small, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial comparing 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg/kg tenecteplase with standard 0.9 mg/kg rt-PA in patients with acute stroke within 3 hours of onset. An adaptive sequential design used an early (24 hour) assessment of major neurological improvement balanced against occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) to choose a “best” dose of tenecteplase to carry forward. Once a “best” dose was established, the trial was to continue until at least 100 pairs of the selected tenecteplase dose versus standard rt-PA could be compared by 3 month outcome using the modified Rankin Scale in an interim analysis. Decision rules were devised to yield a clear recommendation to either stop for futility or to continue into Phase III. Results: The trial was prematurely terminated for slow enrollment after only 112 patients had been randomized at 8 clinical centers between 2006 and 2008. The 0.4 mg/kg dose was discarded as inferior after only 73 patients were randomized, but the selection procedure was still unable to distinguish between 0.1 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg as a propitious dose at the time the trial was stopped. There were no statistically persuasive differences in 3 month outcomes between the remaining tenecteplase groups and rt-PA. Symptomatic ICH rates were highest in the

  9. Effect of IMOD™ on the inflammatory process after acute ischemic stroke: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Considering the role of inflammation in acute cerebrovascular accidents, anti-inflammatory treatment has been considered as an option in cerebrovascular diseases. Regarding the properties of Setarud (IMOD™) in immune regulation, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of this medication in treating patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 99 patients with their first ever acute ischemic stroke were divided into two groups of IMOD™ (n = 49) and control (n = 50). The control group underwent routine treatment and the intervention group underwent routine treatment plus daily intermittent infusion of IMOD™ (250mg on the first day and then 375mg into DW5% serum during a 30-minute period for 7 days). The serum levels of inflammatory markers were evaluated on the first day (baseline) and on 4th and 7th days. Data were analyzed and the results were compared. Results and major conclusion 58 males (58.6%) and 41 females (41.4%) with a mean age of 67.00 ± 8.82 years, who had their first ever stroke attack, were enrolled in this trial. Treatment with IMOD™ showed a decreasing trend in IL-6 levels compared to the control group (p = 0.04). In addition, the treatment resulted in the control of increasing serum levels of hsCRP after 7 days compared to the control group (p = 0.02). There was an insignificant decrease in TNF-α and IL-1 levels in the IMOD™ group. Considering the prominent role of inflammation after an ischemic cerebral damage, it appears that treatment with IMOD™ improves the inflammatory profile. Therefore, IMOD™ (Setarud) might be considered as a therapeutic option in the acute ischemic stroke. However, future studies are necessary on its long-term results and clinical efficacy. PMID:23514014

  10. Neurological emergencies: acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, R.; Dennis, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stroke causes a vast amount of death and disability throughout the world, yet for many healthcare professionals it remains an area of therapeutic nihilism, and thus uninteresting. This negative perception is shared by the general public, who often have a poor understanding of the early symptoms and significance of a stroke. Yet within the past few years there have been many important developments in the approach to caring for stroke patients, for both the acute management and secondary prevention. After the completion of numerous clinical trials, there is now robust evidence to either support or discredit various interventions. Even more exciting is the prospect of yet more data becoming available in the near future, testing a whole array of treatments, as clinical interest in stroke expands exponentially. In this review an evidence based approach to the management of acute stroke within the first few days is presented, including ischaemic and haemorrhagic events, but not subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is explained why stroke is regarded as a medical emergency, and the importance of a rational, methodic approach to the initial assessment, which is the key to accurate diagnosis and subsequent management, is emphasised. The potential early problems associated with stroke are identified and specific interventions for different stroke types are discussed. The review ends with a brief discussion of the implications that the evolving treatments have for the organisation of modern stroke services.

 PMID:10675208

  11. Stroke Trials Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2011 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  12. Albumin Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Safety Analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Moy, Claudia S.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Jones, Elizabeth B.; Weisman, David; Pettigrew, Creed; Ginsberg, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. Methods Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18–83 and a baseline NIHSS ≥ 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. Results Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01–5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3–26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). Conclusions ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495 PMID:26325387

  13. Analysis of the Modified Rankin Scale in Randomised Controlled Trials of Acute Ischaemic Stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Aimie; Bath, Philip M.; Gray, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Historically, most acute stroke clinical trials were neutral statistically, with trials typically dichotomising ordinal scales, such as the modified Rankin Scale. Studies published before 2007 have shown that preserving the ordinal nature of these scales increased statistical power. A systematic review of trials published since 2007 was conducted to reevaluate statistical methods used and to assess whether practice has changed. Methods. A search of electronic databases identified RCTs published between January 2007 and July 2014 in acute ischaemic stroke using an ordinal dependency scale as the primary outcome. Findings. Forty-two RCTs were identified. The majority used a dichotomous analysis (25, 59.5%), eight (21.4%) retained the ordinal scale, and nine (19.0%) used another type of analysis. Conclusions. Trials published since 2007 still favoured dichotomous analyses over ordinal. Stroke trials, where appropriate, should consider retaining the ordinal nature of dependency scales. PMID:27088036

  14. Homogeneity and the outcome of clinical trials: An appraisal of the outcome of recent clinical trials on endovascular intervention in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Shakir; Srijithesh, PR

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials that allow significant heterogeneity of population or interventions often result in uncertain outcomes. In this paper, we review the outcomes of five recent trials of endovascular interventions in acute ischemic stroke in the context of the neutral results of previous large clinical trials on the subject. PMID:27011623

  15. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  16. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke.

  17. [Pregnancy and acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Dániel

    2016-05-15

    Pregnancy-related ischemic strokes play an important role in both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Changes in hemostaseology and hemodynamics as well as risk factors related to or independent from pregnancy contribute to the increased stroke-risk during gestation and the puerperium. Potential teratogenic effects make diagnostics, acute therapy and prevention challenging. Because randomized, controlled trials are not available, a multicenter registry of patients with gestational stroke would be desirable. Until definite guidelines emerge, management of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy remains individual, involving experts and weighing the risks and benefits.

  18. Determining the Feasibility of Ambulance-Based Randomised Controlled Trials in Patients with Ultra-Acute Stroke: Study Protocol for the "Rapid Intervention with GTN in Hypertensive Stroke Trial" (RIGHT, ISRCTN66434824).

    PubMed

    Ankolekar, Sandeep; Sare, Gillian; Geeganage, Chamila; Fuller, Michael; Stokes, Lynn; Sprigg, Nikola; Parry, Ruth; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Bath, Philip M W

    2012-01-01

    Background. Time from acute stroke to enrolment in clinical trials needs to be reduced to improve the chances of finding effective treatments. No completed randomised controlled trials of ambulance-based treatment for acute stroke have been reported in the UK, and the practicalities of recruiting, consenting, and treating patients are unknown. Methods. RIGHT is an ambulance based, single-blind, randomised controlled trial with blinded-outcome assessment. The trial will assess feasibility of using ambulance services to deliver ultra-acute stroke treatments; a secondary aim is to assess the effect of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on haemodynamic variables and functional outcomes. Initial consent, randomisation, and treatment are performed by paramedics prior to hospitalisation. Patients with ultra-acute stroke (≤4 hours of onset) are randomised to transdermal GTN (5 mg/24 hours) or gauze dressing daily for 7 days. The primary outcome is systolic blood pressure at 2 hours. Secondary outcomes include feasibility, haemodynamics, dependency, and other functional outcomes. A nested qualitative study is included. Trial Status. The trial has all relevant ethics and regulatory approvals and recruitment started on February 15, 2010. The trial stopped recruitment in December 2011 after 41 patients were recruited. Trial Registration. The trial registration number is ISRCTN66434824 and EudraCT number is 2007-004766-40.

  19. Use of diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging as a tool in acute stroke clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Warach, Steven

    2001-01-01

    In light of the slow progress in developing effective therapies for ischemic stroke, magnetic resonance imaging techniques have emerged as new tools in stroke clinical trials. Rapid imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and angiography are being incorporated into phase II and phase III stroke trials to optimize patient selection based on positive imaging diagnosis of the ischemic pathophysiology specifically related to a drug's mechanism of action and as a direct biomarker of the effect of a treatment's effect on the brain. PMID:11806771

  20. Influence of trial design, heterogeneity and regulatory environment on the results of clinical trials: An appraisal in the context of recent trials on acute stroke intervention

    PubMed Central

    Srijithesh, P. R.; Husain, Shakir

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of randomized controlled trials can vary depending on the eligibility criteria of the patients entering into the trial, as well as the heterogeneity of the eligible population and/or the interventions. If the subject population and/or interventions are heterogeneous, the final outcome of the trial depends on the degree of concordance of effects of the subgroups of interventions on the subgroups of the subject population. The considerations that go into the calculation of sample size and determination of the study stopping rules also would affect the nature of the outcome of the study. In this paper we try to examine these phenomena with respect to the recent trials on endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25506154

  1. Haemodilution for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Timothy S; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischaemic stroke interrupts the flow of blood to part of the brain. Haemodilution is thought to improve the flow of blood to the affected areas of the brain and thus reduce infarct size. Objectives To assess the effects of haemodilution in acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to October 2013) and EMBASE (January 2008 to October 2013). We also searched trials registers, scanned reference lists and contacted authors. For the previous version of the review, the authors contacted manufacturers and investigators in the field. Selection criteria Randomised trials of haemodilution treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. We included only trials in which treatment was started within 72 hours of stroke onset. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trial quality and one review author extracted the data. Main results We included 21 trials involving 4174 participants. Nine trials used a combination of venesection and plasma volume expander. Twelve trials used plasma volume expander alone. The plasma volume expander was plasma alone in one trial, dextran 40 in 12 trials, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in five trials and albumin in three trials. Two trials tested haemodilution in combination with another therapy. Evaluation was blinded in 14 trials. Five trials probably included some participants with intracerebral haemorrhage. Haemodilution did not significantly reduce deaths within the first four weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.34). Similarly, haemodilution did not influence deaths within three to six months (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.20), or death and dependency or institutionalisation (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07). The results were similar in confounded and unconfounded trials, and in trials of isovolaemic and hypervolaemic haemodilution. No

  2. Recovery of hand function with robot-assisted therapy in acute stroke patients: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sale, Patrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Lombardi, Valentina; Galafate, Daniele; Massimiani, Maria P; Posteraro, Federico; Damiani, Carlo; Franceschini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, not many studies on the use of robot-assisted therapy to recover hand function in acute stroke patients have been carried out. This randomized-controlled observer trial is aimed at evaluating the effects of intensive robot-assisted hand therapy compared with intensive occupational therapy in the early recovery phases after stroke with a 3-month follow-up. Twenty acute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The experimental treatment was performed using the Amadeo Robotic System. Control treatment, instead, was carried out using occupational therapy executed by a trained physiotherapist. All participants received 20 sessions of treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). The following clinical scales, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI) and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (MAS), were performed at baseline (T0), after 20 sessions (end of treatment) (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). The Barthel Index was assessed only at T0 and T1. Evidence of a significant improvement was shown by the Friedman test for the FM [experimental group (EG): P=0.0039, control group (CG): P<0.0001], Box and Block Test (EG: P=0.0185, CG: P=0.0086), MI (EG: P<0.0001, CG: P=0.0303) and MRC (EG: P<0.0001, CG: P=0.001) scales. These results provide further support to the generalized therapeutic impact of intensive robot-assisted treatment on hand recovery functions in individuals with acute stroke. The robotic rehabilitation treatment may contribute toward the recovery of hand motor function in acute stroke patients. The positive results obtained through the safe and reliable robotic rehabilitation treatment reinforce the recommendation to extend it to a larger clinical practice.

  3. Informed consent for clinical trials in acute coronary syndromes and stroke following the European Clinical Trials Directive: investigators' experiences and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowski, Piotr; Budaj, Andrzej; Członkowska, Anna; Wąsek, Wojciech; Kozłowska-Boszko, Beata; Olędzka, Urszula; Masełbas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Background During clinical trials in emergency medicine, providing appropriate oral and written information to a patient is usually a challenge. There is little published information regarding patients' opinions and competence to provide informed consent, nor on physicians' attitudes towards the process. We have investigated the problem of obtaining consent from patients in emergency-setting clinical trials (such as acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stroke) from a physicians' perspective. Methods A standardised anonymous 14-item questionnaire was distributed to Polish cardiac and stroke centres. Results Two hundred and fourteen informative investigator responses were received. Of these investigators, 73.8% had experience with ACS and 25.2% had experience with acute stroke trials (and 1% with both fields). The complete model of informed consent (embracing all aspects required by Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and law) was used in 53.3% of cases in emergency settings, whereas the legal option of proxy consent was not used at all. While less than 15% of respondents considered written information to have been fully read by patients, 80.4% thought that the amount of information being given to emergency patients is too lengthy. Although there is no legal obligation, more than half of the investigators sought parallel consent (assent) from patients' relatives. Most investigators confirmed that they would adopt the model proposed by the GCP guidelines: abbreviated verbal and written consent in emergency conditions with obligatory "all-embracing" deferred consent to continue the trial once the patient is able to provide it. However, this model would not follow current Polish and European legislation. Conclusion An update of national and European regulations is required to enable implementation of the emergency trial consent model referred to in GCP guidelines. PMID:18644120

  4. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  5. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. PMID:27432672

  6. A multilevel intervention to increase community hospital use of alteplase for acute stroke (INSTINCT): a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Phillip A; Meurer, William J; Frederiksen, Shirley M; Kalbfleisch, John D; Xu, Zhenzhen; Haan, Mary N; Silbergleit, Robert; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Use of alteplase improves outcome in some patients with stroke. Several types of barrier frequently prevent its use. We assessed whether a standardised, barrier-assessment, multicomponent intervention could increase alteplase use in community hospitals in Michigan, USA. Methods In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, we selected adult, non-specialty, acute-care community hospitals in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Eligible hospitals discharged at least 100 patients who had had a stroke per year, had less than 100 000 visits to the emergency department per year, and were not academic comprehensive stroke centres. Using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, we selected 12 matched pairs of eligible hospitals. Within pairs, the hospitals were allocated to intervention or control groups with restricted randomisation in January, 2007. Between January, 2007, and December, 2007, intervention hospitals implemented a multicomponent intervention that included qualitative and quantitative assessment of barriers to alteplase use and ways to address the findings, and provided additional support. The primary outcome was change in alteplase use in patients with stroke in emergency departments between the pre-intervention period (January, 2005, to December, 2006) and the post-intervention period (January, 2008, to January, 2010). Physicians in participating hospitals and the coordinating centre could not be masked to group assignment, but were masked to progress made in paired control hospitals. External medical reviewers who were masked to group assignment assessed outcomes. We did intention-to-treat (ITT) and target-population (without one pair that was excluded after randomisation) analyses. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00349479. Findings All 24 hospitals completed the study. Overall, 745 of 40 823 patients with stroke received intravenous alteplase treatment. In the ITT analysis, the proportion of patients with

  7. Effect of Treatment Delay, Stroke Type, and Thrombolysis on the Effect of Glyceryl Trinitrate, a Nitric Oxide Donor, on Outcome after Acute Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient from Randomised Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Philip M.; Woodhouse, Lisa; Krishnan, Kailash; Anderson, Craig; Berge, Eivind; Ford, Gary A.; Robinson, Thompson G.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; in Acute Stroke Collaboration (BASC), Blood pressure

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nitric oxide (NO) donors are a candidate treatment for acute stroke and two trials have suggested that they might improve outcome if administered within 4–6 hours of stroke onset. We assessed the safety and efficacy of NO donors using individual patient data (IPD) from completed trials. Methods. Randomised controlled trials of NO donors in patients with acute or subacute stroke were identified and IPD sought from the trialists. The effect of NO donor versus control on functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and death, by time to randomisation. Secondary outcomes included measures of disability, mood, and quality of life. Results. Five trials (4,197 participants) were identified, all involving glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Compared with control, GTN lowered blood pressure by 7.4/3.3 mmHg. At day 90, GTN did not alter any clinical measures. However, in 312 patients randomised within 6 hours of stroke onset, GTN was associated with beneficial shifts in the mRS (odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34–0.78) and reduced death (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.78). Conclusions. NO donors do not alter outcome in patients with recent stroke. However, when administered within 6 hours, NO donors might improve outcomes in both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. PMID:27190674

  8. Desmoteplase for Acute Ischemic Stroke within 3 to 9 Hours after Symptom Onset: Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ligen; Liang, Feng; Li, Yunping; Shao, Anwen; Zhou, Keren; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the value of desmoteplase for treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS) when administered within an extended time window. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the value of desmoteplase in AIS treatment. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had evaluated desmoteplase versus placebo for AIS. The primary outcomes were intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) within 72 hours and favorable outcome at Day 90. We pooled 819 patients from 5 RCTs. Desmoteplase treatment showed a neutral effect on favorable outcome (P = 0.42) but a favorable safety profile in terms of ICH (P = 0.64) compared with the placebo group. In the subgroup analysis, 90 μg/kg desmoteplase, a late time to treatment (6–9 hours), and serious stroke symptoms at baseline (NIHSS > 12) subgroups showed high risks of ICH (P ≤ 0.02). A high dose of desmoteplase (125 μg/kg) showed a tendency to improve recanalization (P = 0.05), but was also associated with an increased risk of death (P = 0.04). In conclusion, desmoteplase administered over an extended time window had no significant effect on functional recovery but exhibited a favorable safety profile in patients with AIS. PMID:27671010

  9. Stroke: advances in medical therapy and acute stroke intervention.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.

  10. Effects of batroxobin with continuous transcranial Doppler monitoring in patients with acute cerebral stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yitao, He; Kefu, Ma; Bingshan, Tang; Xuejun, Fu; Ying, Zhan; Zhili, Cai; Xin, Jiang; Guo, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to determine whether continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring could safely enhance the efficacy of batroxobin, a thrombin-like enzyme extracted from Bothrops atrox moojeni venom, in the treatment for acute cerebral stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window. Ninety patients suffering an acute cerebral stroke were recruited into the study within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive batroxobin with (target group) or without 1 hour of continuous TCD monitoring (control group). Clinical evaluation of stroke was based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Barthel index (BI), Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia score (TIBI), the incidence of advancing stroke, and the recurrence of cerebral infarction. The patients receiving continuous TCD monitoring showed significant improvement in NIHSS score at 57 days post treatment compared with the control. Similarly, patients receiving continuous TCD monitoring also showed significant improvement in BI at 3 months compared with the controls. Consistently, both the incidence of advancing stroke after 1 week and the incidence of stroke recurrence after 3 months were significantly lower in TCD monitored group than control group. Moreover, the safety of the employment of TCD monitoring in the treatment of these patients was confirmed as there was no significant difference of the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage at 1 week after the treatment between the target and control groups. Taken together, our study showed that batroxobin, in combination with continuous TCD monitoring at the middle cerebral artery, reduced the incidence of advancing stroke and stroke recurrence after treatment without adverse effects in terms of poststroke intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:24684297

  11. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cerebrolysin in patients with acute ischaemic stroke in Asia--CASTA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z; Moessler, H; Bornstein, N; Brainin, M; Heiss, W-D

    2009-10-01

    Cerebrolysin has exhibited neuroprotective as well as neurotrophic properties in various animal models of cerebral ischaemia and has shown clinical efficacy and good safety in several small controlled clinical studies in ischaemic stroke. Therefore, a large double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was launched in Asia to prove the validity of this treatment strategy. In the more than 50 participating centres patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke are randomized within 12 hours of symptoms onset to treatment (30 ml Cerebrolysin diluted in physiologic saline) or placebo (saline) given as intravenous infusion once daily added to standard care for 10 days. The patients are followed with regular visits for 90 days. Efficacy is evaluated on day 90 by three outcome scales - modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and NIH Stroke Scale - combined to single global directional test. Additionally, adverse events are documented to prove safety. In this study a total of 1060 patients will be included and analysis of data will be completed in 2010. If positive, this trial will add an effective strategy to the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

  12. Adopting a Patient-Centered Approach to Primary Outcome Analysis of Acute Stroke Trials by Use of a Utility-Weighted Modified Rankin Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chaisinanunkul, Napasri; Adeoye, Opeolu; Lewis, Roger J.; Grotta, James C.; Broderick, Joseph; Jovin, Tudor G.; Nogueira, Raul G.; Elm, Jordan; Graves, Todd; Berry, Scott; Lees, Kennedy R.; Barreto, Andrew D.; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is the most commonly employed primary endpoint in acute stroke trials, its power is limited when analyzed in dichotomized fashion and its indication of effect size challenging to interpret when analyzed ordinally. Weighting the seven Rankin levels by utilities may improve scale interpretability while preserving statistical power. Methods A utility weighted mRS (UW-mRS) was derived by averaging values from time-tradeoff (patient centered) and person-tradeoff (clinician centered) studies. The UW-mRS, standard ordinal mRS, and dichotomized mRS were applied to 11 trials or meta-analyses of acute stroke treatments, including lytic, endovascular reperfusion, blood pressure moderation, and hemicraniectomy interventions. Results Utility values were: mRS 0–1.0; mRS 1 - 0.91; mRS 2 - 0.76; mRS 3 - 0.65; mRS 4 - 0.33; mRS 5 & 6 - 0. For trials with unidirectional treatment effects, the UW-mRS paralleled the ordinal mRS and outperformed dichotomous mRS analyses. Both the UW-mRS and the ordinal mRS were statistically significant in six of eight unidirectional effect trials, while dichotomous analyses were statistically significant in two to four of eight. In bidirectional effect trials, both the UW-mRS and ordinal tests captured the divergent treatment effects by showing neutral results whereas some dichotomized analyses showed positive results. Mean utility differences in trials with statistically significant positive results ranged from 0.026 to 0.249. Conclusion A utility-weighted mRS performs similarly to the standard ordinal mRS in detecting treatment effects in actual stroke trials and ensures the quantitative outcome is a valid reflection of patient-centered benefits. PMID:26138130

  13. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Uthra; babu, S. Karthik; Kumar, K. Vijay; Suresh, B. V.; Misri, Z. K.; Chakrapani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. Design: A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects: First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Intervention: Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Outcome Measures: Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA), Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). Results: Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11) and control group (N = 11). Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02). Significance was set at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility. PMID:24339596

  14. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  15. Association between brain imaging signs, early and late outcomes, and response to intravenous alteplase after acute ischaemic stroke in the third International Stroke Trial (IST-3): secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Brain scans are essential to exclude haemorrhage in patients with suspected acute ischaemic stroke before treatment with alteplase. However, patients with early ischaemic signs could be at increased risk of haemorrhage after alteplase treatment, and little information is available about whether pre-existing structural signs, which are common in older patients, affect response to alteplase. We aimed to investigate the association between imaging signs on brain CT and outcomes after alteplase. Methods IST-3 was a multicentre, randomised controlled trial of intravenous alteplase (0·9 mg/kg) versus control within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was independence at 6 months (defined as an Oxford Handicap Scale [OHS] score of 0–2). 3035 patients were enrolled to IST-3 and underwent prerandomisation brain CT. Experts who were unaware of the random allocation assessed scans for early signs of ischaemia (tissue hypoattenuation, infarct extent, swelling, and hyperattenuated artery) and pre-existing signs (old infarct, leukoaraiosis, and atrophy). In this prespecified analysis, we assessed interactions between these imaging signs, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (a secondary outcome in IST-3) and independence at 6 months, and alteplase, adjusting for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and time to randomisation. This trial is registered at ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN25765518. Findings 3017 patients were assessed in this analysis, of whom 1507 were allocated alteplase and 1510 were assigned control. A reduction in independence was predicted by tissue hypoattenuation (odds ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·55–0·81), large lesion (0·51, 0·38–0·68), swelling (0·59, 0·46–0·75), hyperattenuated artery (0·59, 0·47–0·75), atrophy (0·74, 0·59–0·94), and leukoaraiosis (0·72, 0·59–0·87). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was predicted by old infarct (odds ratio 1·72, 95% CI 1·18–2·51), tissue

  16. High-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (ALIAS): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Myron D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Barsan, William G.; Waldman, Bonnie D.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal models of ischaemic stroke, 25% albumin reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioral outcome. In a pilot clinical trial, albumin doses as high as 2 g per kg were safely tolerated. Trial Design and Methods This was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind trial to test the superiority of 25% albumin (dose 2 g [8 ml] per kg; maximum, 750 ml) over an equivalent volume of isotonic saline in improving the outcome of acute ischaemic stroke. Eligibility criteria were an ischaemic (i.e., non-haemorrhagic) stroke with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 6 or above, ability to treat within 5 hours of onset, age 18 through 83 years, and written informed consent. The major exclusion criteria were cardiovascular. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the primary outcome (defined as either a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1, or a NIHSS score of 0 or 1, or both, at 90 days) with albumin treatment was superior to saline by an absolute margin of 10 percentage points. Centralised web-based randomisation was by a minimisation-plus-biased-coin algorithm. Thrombolytic therapies were permitted. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00235495. Findings The trial was stopped prematurely for futility after 841 participants were randomised (422 patients to albumin and 419 to saline). The primary outcome did not differ by treatment assignment (albumin, 44.1%; saline, 44.2%; relative benefit, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 – 1.10 adjusted for baseline NIHSS score and thrombolysis stratum). Secondary outcomes were also neutral. The chief adverse event was mild-to-moderate pulmonary edema, which was more common with albumin than saline (13.1% and 1.2%, respectively), as was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 24 hours (albumin, 4.1%; saline, 1.7%). While the favourable outcome rate in albumin-treated subjects remained consistent at 44–45% over the course of the trial, the

  17. Early seizures in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Chraa; Kissani, Najib

    2015-01-01

    Early seizures (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and the predictive factors for early seizures as well the clinical outcome in patients with first-ever stroke. A total of 352 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke, admitted to our department, were included in this retrospective study. Early seizures were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. About 47 patients (13%) had early seizure, and 8 had a status epilepticus. We had 28 women and 19 men. The mean age was 71.6 ± 14.6. They were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical associated hemorrhage. ES were associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). Early seizures occured in about 13% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES seem to be associated with a worse outcome after acute stroke. PMID:26097640

  18. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Patients With Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg is seen in 75% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and in 80% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhages and is independently associated with poor functional outcome. While BP reduction in patients with chronic hypertension remains one of the most important factors in primary and secondary stroke prevention, the proper management strategy for acute hypertensive response within the first 72 hours of acute ischemic stroke has been a matter of debate. Recent guidelines recommend clinical trials to ascertain whether antihypertensive therapy in the acute phase of stroke is beneficial. This review summarizes the current data on acute hypertensive response or elevated BP management during the first 72 hours after an acute ischemic stroke. Based on the potential deleterious effect of lowering BP observed in some clinical trials in patients with acute ischemic stroke and because of the lack of convincing evidence to support acute BP lowering in those situations, aggressive BP reduction in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is currently not recommended. While the early use of angiotensin receptor antagonists may help reduce cardiovascular events, this benefit is not necessarily related to BP reduction. PMID:27366297

  19. More outcomes than trials: a call for consistent data collection across stroke rehabilitation trials.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; English, C; Bernhardt, J; Sunnerhagen, K S; Brady, M

    2013-01-01

    Stroke survivors experience complex combinations of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. The essential components of stroke rehabilitation remain elusive. Determining efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is challenging; there is no commonly agreed primary outcome measure for rehabilitation trials. Clinical guidelines depend on proof of efficacy in RCTs and meta-analyses. However, diverse trial aims, differing methods, inconsistent data collection, and use of multiple assessment tools hinder comparability across trials. Consistent data collection in acute stroke trials has facilitated meta-analyses to inform trial design and clinical practice. With few exceptions, inconsistent data collection has hindered similar progress in stroke rehabilitation research. There is an urgent need for the routine collection of a core dataset of common variables in rehabilitation trials. The European Stroke Organisation Outcomes Working Group, the National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Common Data Elements project, and the Collaborative Stroke Audit and Research project have called for consistency in data collection in stroke trials. Standardizing data collection can decrease study start up times, facilitate data sharing, and inform clinical guidelines. Although achieving consensus on which outcome measures to use in stroke rehabilitation trials is a considerable task, perhaps a feasible starting point is to achieve consistency in the collection of data on demography, stroke severity, and stroke onset to inclusion times. Longer term goals could include the development of a consensus process to establish the core dataset. This should be endorsed by researchers, funders, and journal editors in order to facilitate sustainable change.

  20. Selection of Patients and Anesthetic Types for Endovascular Treatment in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fubing; Chen, Yicong; Zhao, Yuhui; Dang, Ge; Liang, Jiahui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated consistent effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke, leading to update on stroke management guidelines. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of EVT overall and in subgroups stratified by age, baseline stroke severity, brain imaging feature, and anesthetic type. Methods Published randomized controlled trials comparing EVT and standard medical care alone were evaluated. The measured outcomes were 90-day functional independence (modified Rankin Scale ≤2), all-cause mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Results Nine trials enrolling 2476 patients were included (1338 EVT, 1138 standard medical care alone). For patients with large vessel occlusions confirmed by noninvasive vessel imaging, EVT yielded improved functional outcome (pooled odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–2.50), lower mortality (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58–0.97), and similar symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.72–1.76) compared with standard medical care. A higher proportion of functional independence was seen in patients with terminus intracranial artery occlusion (±M1) (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.64–6.06), baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score of 8–10 (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.25–3.57) and age ≤70 years (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.73–5.24). EVT performed under conscious sedation had better functional outcomes (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.47–2.96) without increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or short-term mortality compared with general anesthesia. Conclusions Vessel-imaging proven large vessel occlusion, a favorable scan, and younger age are useful predictors to identify anterior circulation stroke patients who may benefit from EVT. Conscious sedation is feasible and safe in EVT based on available data. However, firm conclusion on the choice of anesthetic types should be drawn from more

  1. The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke (the third international stroke trial [IST-3]): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Thrombolysis is of net benefit in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, who are younger than 80 years of age and are treated within 4·5 h of onset. The third International Stroke Trial (IST-3) sought to determine whether a wider range of patients might benefit up to 6 h from stroke onset. Methods In this international, multicentre, randomised, open-treatment trial, patients were allocated to 0·9 mg/kg intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or to control. The primary analysis was of the proportion of patients alive and independent, as defined by an Oxford Handicap Score (OHS) of 0–2 at 6 months. The study is registered, ISRCTN25765518. Findings 3035 patients were enrolled by 156 hospitals in 12 countries. All of these patients were included in the analyses (1515 in the rt-PA group vs 1520 in the control group), of whom 1617 (53%) were older than 80 years of age. At 6 months, 554 (37%) patients in the rt-PA group versus 534 (35%) in the control group were alive and independent (OHS 0–2; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·13, 95% CI 0·95–1·35, p=0·181; a non-significant absolute increase of 14/1000, 95% CI −20 to 48). An ordinal analysis showed a significant shift in OHS scores; common OR 1·27 (95% CI 1·10–1·47, p=0·001). Fatal or non-fatal symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 7 days occurred in 104 (7%) patients in the rt-PA group versus 16 (1%) in the control group (adjusted OR 6·94, 95% CI 4·07–11·8; absolute excess 58/1000, 95% CI 44–72). More deaths occurred within 7 days in the rt-PA group (163 [11%]) than in the control group (107 [7%], adjusted OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·22–2·08, p=0·001; absolute increase 37/1000, 95% CI 17–57), but between 7 days and 6 months there were fewer deaths in the rt-PA group than in the control group, so that by 6 months, similar numbers, in total, had died (408 [27%] in the rt-PA group vs 407 [27%] in the control group). Interpretation For the types of patient

  2. Catheter-based interventions for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Widimsky, Petr; Hopkins, L. Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-based interventions for acute ischaemic stroke currently include clot removal (usually from the medial cerebral artery) with modern stent-retrievers and in one of five patients (who have simultaneous or stand-alone internal carotid occlusion) also extracranial carotid intervention. Several recently published randomized trials clearly demonstrated superiority of catheter-based interventions (with or without bridging thrombolysis) over best medical therapy alone. The healthcare systems should adopt the new strategies for acute stroke treatment (including fast track to interventional lab) to offer the benefits to all suitable acute stroke patients. PMID:26429799

  3. Analysis of Workflow and Time to Treatment and the Effects on Outcome in Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results from the SWIFT PRIME Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Mayank; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Bonafe, Alain; Diener, Hans; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Levy, Elad; Baxter, Blaise; Jovin, Tudor; Jahan, Reza; Menon, Bijoy K; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between functional independence and time to reperfusion in the Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial in patients with disabling acute ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular therapy plus intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration versus tPA administration alone and to investigate variables that affect time spent during discrete steps. Materials and Methods Data were analyzed from the SWIFT PRIME trial, a global, multicenter, prospective study in which outcomes were compared in patients treated with intravenous tPA alone or in combination with the Solitaire device (Covidien, Irvine, Calif). Between December 2012 and November 2014, 196 patients were enrolled. The relation between time from (a) symptom onset to reperfusion and (b) imaging to reperfusion and clinical outcome was analyzed, along with patient and health system characteristics that affect discrete steps in patient workflow. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between time and outcome; negative binomial regression was used to evaluate effects on workflow. The institutional review board at each site approved the trial. Patients provided written informed consent, or, at select sites, there was an exception from having to acquire explicit informed consent in emergency circumstances. Results In the stent retriever arm of the study, symptom onset to reperfusion time of 150 minutes led to 91% estimated probability of functional independence, which decreased by 10% over the next hour and by 20% with every subsequent hour of delay. Time from arrival at the emergency department to arterial access was 90 minutes (interquartile range, 69-120 minutes), and time to reperfusion was 129 minutes (interquartile range, 108-169 minutes). Patients who initially arrived at a referring facility had longer symptom onset to groin puncture times compared with

  4. THE ALBUMIN IN ACUTE STROKE (ALIAS) MULTICENTER CLINICAL TRIAL: SAFETY ANALYSIS OF PART 1, AND RATIONALE AND DESIGN OF PART 2

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Myron D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Martin, Renee H.; Hill, Michael D.; Moy, Claudia S.; Waldman, Bonnie D.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Enrollment in the ALIAS Trial was suspended in late 2007 due to a safety concern. Here we present the safety data of that Trial (“Part 1”) and the rationale for the design of Part 2. Methods ALIAS Part 1 was designed to assess whether 25% albumin (ALB) begun within 5h of stroke onset would confer neuroprotection in subjects with acute ischemic stroke and baseline NIH Stroke Scale of 6 or above. Exclusion criteria included recent or current congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, or cardiac surgery. The study comprised 2 cohorts -- subjects who received thrombolysis and those who did not -- each with 1:1 randomization to ALB or placebo. The primary outcome was the NIHSS and modified Rankin scales at 90 days. The intended sample size was 1,800. Results 434 subjects were enrolled, and 424 were used in the safety analysis (ALB 207, saline 217). There were 36 deaths within the first 30 days in the ALB group, and 21 in the saline group. In contrast, death rates after 30 days were similar by treatment. Large strokes were the predominant cause of early death in both groups. In subjects older than 83 years, 90-day death rates were 2.3-fold higher with ALB than with saline (95% CI, 1.04-5.12). Similarly, 90-day deaths in subjects receiving excessive fluids were 2.10-fold greater with ALB than with saline (CI, 1.10-3.98). Conclusions The ALIAS Part 2 Trial, which commenced in early 2009, was modified as follows to enhance safety: upper age limit of 83 years; requirement for normal baseline serum troponin level; restriction of total IV fluids in the first 48 hours to 4200 ml or less; mandatory diuretic at 12-24h; and detailed site re-training. Because of insufficient non-thrombolysed subjects (22%) in Part 1, the two-cohort design was eliminated. The DSMB has reviewed the safety data of Part 2 three times and has approved continuation of the trial. PMID:21164127

  5. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  6. Heart Failure in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Ois, Angel; Roquer, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. Due to the aging of the population it has become a growing public health problem in recent decades. Diagnosis of HF is clinical and there is no diagnostic test, although some basic complementary testing should be performed in all patients. Depending on the ejection fraction (EF), the syndrome is classified as HF with low EF or HF with normal EF (HFNEF). Although prognosis in HF is poor, HFNEF seems to be more benign. HF and ischemic stroke (IS) share vascular risk factors such as age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. Persons with HF have higher incidence of IS, varying from 1.7% to 10.4% per year across various cohort studies. The stroke rate increases with length of follow-up. Reduced EF, independent of severity, is associated with higher risk of stroke. Left ventricular mass and geometry are also related with stroke incidence, with concentric hypertrophy carrying the greatest risk. In HF with low EF, the stroke mechanism may be embolism, cerebral hypoperfusion or both, whereas in HFNEF the mechanism is more typically associated with chronic endothelial damage of the small vessels. Stroke in patients with HF is more severe and is associated with a higher rate of recurrence, dependency, and short term and long term mortality. Cardiac morbidity and mortality is also high in these patients. Acute stroke treatment in HF includes all the current therapeutic options to more carefully control blood pressure. For secondary prevention, optimal control of all vascular risk factors is essential. Antithrombotic therapy is mandatory, although the choice of a platelet inhibitor or anticoagulant drug depends on the cardiac disease. Trials are ongoing to evaluate anticoagulant therapy for prevention of embolism in patients with low EF who are at

  7. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Chelsea S; Jahan, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Endovascular therapy for acute stroke has evolved with the use of intra-arterial thrombolytics, intravenous/intra-arterial bridging strategies, and mechanical thrombectomy/aspiration devices. Despite widespread use in clinical practice, randomized trials of first-generation devices failed to demonstrate improved outcomes compared with standard care. New-generation stent retriever devices demonstrate higher rates of revascularization and clinical outcomes compared with first-generation devices. Additional randomized trials are underway and have the potential to confirm clinical efficacy of new-generation devices compared with standard care. The role of additional advanced imaging for patient selection remains unclear, and further trials are needed to demonstrate the role of these techniques for patient selection. PMID:25907913

  8. Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Subgroup Analysis of the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke Trial

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa; Adami, Alessandro; Becker, Jennifer L.; Cala, Lesley A.; Casado, Ana M.; Chen, Christopher; Dineen, Robert A.; Gommans, John; Koumellis, Panos; Christensen, Hanna; Collins, Ronan; Czlonkowska, Anna; Lees, Kennedy R.; Ntaios, George; Ozturk, Serefnur; Phillips, Stephen J.; Sprigg, Nikola; Szatmari, Szabolcs; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Bath, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH remains unclear, a question that was addressed in the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial. Methods ENOS was an international multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded endpoint trial. Among 629 patients with ICH and systolic blood pressure between 140 and 220 mmHg, 246 patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs were assigned to continue (n = 119) or to stop (n = 127) taking drugs temporarily for 7 days. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Score at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included death, length of stay in hospital, discharge destination, activities of daily living, mood, cognition, and quality of life. Results Blood pressure level (baseline 171/92 mmHg) fell in both groups but was significantly lower at 7 days in those patients assigned to continue antihypertensive drugs (difference 9.4/3.5 mmHg, P < .01). At 90 days, the primary outcome did not differ between the groups; the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with continue versus stop drugs was .92 (95% confidence interval, .45-1.89; P = .83). There was no difference between the treatment groups for any secondary outcome measure, or rates of death or serious adverse events. Conclusions Among patients with acute ICH, immediate continuation of antihypertensive drugs during the first week did not reduce death or major disability in comparison to stopping treatment temporarily. PMID:26853137

  9. Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke patients: implications and interpretation of IMS III, MR RESCUE, and SYNTHESIS EXPANSION trials: A report from the Working Group of International Congress of Interventional Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aleu, Aitziber; Connors, John J.; Hanel, Ricardo A.; Hassan, Ameer E.; Hussein, Haitham M.; Janjua, Nazli A.; Khatri, Rakesh; Kirmani, Jawad F.; Mazighi, Mikael; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Miley, Jefferson T.; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Shah, Qaisar A.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Suarez, Jose I.; Suri, M. Fareed K.; Tolun, Reha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The results of Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III, Magnetic Resonance and REcanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy (MR RESCUE), and SYNTHESIS EXPANSION trials are expected to affect the practice of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this report is to review the components of the designs and methods of these trials and to describe the influence of those components on the interpretation of trial results. Methods: A critical review of trial design and conduct of IMS III, MR RESCUE, and SYNTHESIS EXPANSION is performed with emphasis on patient selection, shortcomings in procedural aspects, and methodology of data ascertainment and analysis. The influence of each component is estimated based on published literature including multicenter clinical trials reporting on endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. Results: We critically examined the time interval between symptom onset and treatment and rates of angiographic recanalization to differentiate between “endovascular treatment” and “parameter optimized endovascular treatment” as it relates to the IMS III, MR RESCUE, and SYNTHESIS EXPANSION trials. All the three trials failed to effectively test “parameter optimized endovascular treatment” due to the delay between symptom onset and treatment and less than optimal rates of recanalization. In all the three trials, the magnitude of benefit with endovascular treatment required to reject the null hypothesis was larger than could be expected based on previous studies. The IMS III and SYNTHESIS EXPANSION trials demonstrated that rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages subsequent to treatment are similar between IV thrombolytics and endovascular treatment in matched acute ischemic stroke patients. The trials also indirectly validated the superiority/equivalence of IV thrombolytics (compared with endovascular treatment) in patients with minor neurological deficits

  10. Evolving Role of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    del Zoppo, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceived advantages of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in terms of recanalization, the multimodal and targeted approaches, and perhaps the more permissive rules on devices than on medications for their licensing favored the assumption that endovascular treatment is superior to intravenous thrombolysis for acute treatment of ischemic stroke, and its adoption in more advanced stroke centers. However, this assumption has been questioned by recent clinical trial experience showing that endovascular treatment is not superior to intravenous thrombolysis. The new evidence has changed the perception and the importance of conducting randomized trials in this area. This summary examines the background and outcomes of the latest experience with endovascular techniques in acute stroke treatment based on historical data. The new challenge is how to study the latest generation of devices called stent retrievers, which are faster in recanalizing and easier to use, in selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the meantime, the available evidence does not provide support for the use of endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice. PMID:24258466

  11. Why caution is recommended with post-hoc individual patient matching for estimation of treatment effect in parallel-group randomized controlled trials: the case of acute stroke trials.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Nahid; Hearne, John; Churilov, Leonid

    2013-11-10

    A post-hoc individual patient matching procedure was recently proposed within the context of parallel group randomized clinical trials (RCTs) as a method for estimating treatment effect. In this paper, we consider a post-hoc individual patient matching problem within a parallel group RCT as a multi-objective decision-making problem focussing on the trade-off between the quality of individual matches and the overall percentage of matching. Using acute stroke trials as a context, we utilize exact optimization and simulation techniques to investigate a complex relationship between the overall percentage of individual post-hoc matching, the size of the respective RCT, and the quality of matching on variables highly prognostic for a good functional outcome after stroke, as well as the dispersion in these variables. It is empirically confirmed that a high percentage of individual post-hoc matching can only be achieved when the differences in prognostic baseline variables between individually matched subjects within the same pair are sufficiently large and that the unmatched subjects are qualitatively different to the matched ones. It is concluded that the post-hoc individual matching as a technique for treatment effect estimation in parallel-group RCTs should be exercised with caution because of its propensity to introduce significant bias and reduce validity. If used with appropriate caution and thorough evaluation, this approach can complement other viable alternative approaches for estimating the treatment effect. PMID:23761106

  12. Benchmarks for acute stroke care delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ruth E.; Khan, Ferhana; Bayley, Mark T.; Asllani, Eriola; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D.; O'Callaghan, Christina; Silver, Frank L.; Kapral, Moira K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread interest in many jurisdictions in monitoring and improving the quality of stroke care delivery, benchmarks for most stroke performance indicators have not been established. The objective of this study was to develop data-derived benchmarks for acute stroke quality indicators. Design Nine key acute stroke quality indicators were selected from the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Performance Measures Manual. Participants A population-based retrospective sample of patients discharged from 142 hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 (N = 3191) was used to calculate hospital rates of performance and benchmarks. Intervention The Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC™) methodology was used to create benchmarks based on the performance of the upper 15% of patients in the top-performing hospitals. Main Outcome Measures Benchmarks were calculated for rates of neuroimaging, carotid imaging, stroke unit admission, dysphasia screening and administration of stroke-related medications. Results The following benchmarks were derived: neuroimaging within 24 h, 98%; admission to a stroke unit, 77%; thrombolysis among patients arriving within 2.5 h, 59%; carotid imaging, 93%; dysphagia screening, 88%; antithrombotic therapy, 98%; anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, 94%; antihypertensive therapy, 92% and lipid-lowering therapy, 77%. ABC™ acute stroke care benchmarks achieve or exceed the consensus-based targets required by Accreditation Canada, with the exception of dysphagia screening. Conclusions Benchmarks for nine hospital-based acute stroke care quality indicators have been established. These can be used in the development of standards for quality improvement initiatives. PMID:24141011

  13. Reperfusion Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mònica; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset significantly improves clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This narrow window for treatment leads to a small proportion of eligible patients to be treated. Intravenous or intra-arterial trials, combined intravenous/intra-arterial trials, and newer devices to mechanically remove the clot from intracranial arteries have been investigated or are currently being explored to increase patient eligibility and to improve arterial recanalization and clinical outcome. New retrievable stent-based devices offer higher revascularization rates with shorter time to recanalization and are now generally preferred to first generation thrombectomy devices such as Merci Retriever or Penumbra System. These devices have been shown to be effective for opening up occluded vessels in the brain but its efficacy for improving outcomes in patients with acute stroke has not yet been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. We summarize the results of the major systemic thrombolytic trials and the latest trials employing different endovascular approaches to ischemic stroke. PMID:24646159

  14. Acute ischemic stroke in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Gorchynski, Julie; Herrick, John; Cortes, Edgar

    2008-11-01

    Acute ischemic stroke in a pediatric patient is a complex disease with a variety of etiologies that differ from adults. Though rare, they are a real phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences. Some treating institutions are using anti-thrombotic drug therapy with unclear benefits. Available literature, which is limited to case reports and retrospective reviews of databases, clouds this topic with both positive and negative outcomes. Emergency department management should focus on stabilization and resuscitation with immediate involvement of a pediatric neurologist and intensivist. The decision to use anti-thrombotic drug therapy, including anti-platelet drugs and thrombolytics, should be in consult with the specialists involved until randomized controlled trials determine their safety and efficacy in the pediatric population.

  15. Solitaire™ with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial: protocol for a randomized, controlled, multicenter study comparing the Solitaire revascularization device with IV tPA with IV tPA alone in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Goyal, Mayank; Bonafe, Alain; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Levy, Elad I; Pereira, Vitor M; Albers, Gregory W; Cognard, Christophe; Cohen, David J; Hacke, Werner; Jansen, Olav; Jovin, Tudor G; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nogueira, Raul G; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Yavagal, Dileep R; Devlin, Thomas G; Lopes, Demetrius K; Reddy, Vivek; du Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard; Jahan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Early reperfusion in patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke is critical, especially for patients with large vessel occlusion who have poor prognosis without revascularization. Solitaire™ stent retriever devices have been shown to immediately restore vascular perfusion safely, rapidly, and effectively in acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions. Aim The aim of the study was to demonstrate that, among patients with large vessel, anterior circulation occlusion who have received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, treatment with Solitaire revascularization devices reduces degree of disability 3 months post stroke. Design The study is a global multicenter, two-arm, prospective, randomized, open, blinded end-point trial comparing functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients who are treated with either intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone or intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in combination with the Solitaire device. Up to 833 patients will be enrolled. Procedures Patients who have received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator are randomized to either continue with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone or additionally proceed to neurothrombectomy using the Solitaire device within six-hours of symptom onset. Study Outcomes The primary end-point is 90-day global disability, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary outcomes include mortality at 90 days, functional independence (mRS ≤ 2) at 90 days, change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at 27 h, reperfusion at 27 h, and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b/3 flow at the end of the procedure. Analysis Statistical analysis will be conducted using simultaneous success criteria on the overall distribution of modified Rankin Scale (Rankin shift) and proportions of subjects achieving functional independence (mRS 0–2). PMID:25777831

  16. [Stunned myocardium after acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Varela, Daniel; Díaz, Fernanda; Hlavnicka, Alejandro; Wainsztein, Néstor; Leiguarda, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    The so-called stunned myocardium, defined as transitory myocardial contractile dysfunction, has been clearly demonstrated in diverse clinical situations. However, stunned myocardium related to ischemic stroke has been poorly identified. We describe two patients with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who developed eletrocardiographic changes, cardiac enzyme increasing levels and myocardial dysfunction secondary to abnormal cardiac wall motion. At the same time the patients developed acute lung injury with rapid resolution, perhaps as a consequence of neurocardiogenic components.

  17. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  18. Imaging-based management of acute ischemic stroke patients: current neuroradiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Na, Dong Gyu; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Kim, Eung Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Advances in imaging-based management of acute ischemic stroke now provide crucial information such as infarct core, ischemic penumbra/degree of collaterals, vessel occlusion, and thrombus that helps in the selection of the best candidates for reperfusion therapy. It also predicts thrombolytic efficacy and benefit or potential hazards from therapy. Thus, radiologists should be familiar with various imaging studies for patients with acute ischemic stroke and the applicability to clinical trials. This helps radiologists to obtain optimal rapid imaging as well as its accurate interpretation. This review is focused on imaging studies for acute ischemic stroke, including their roles in recent clinical trials and some guidelines to optimal interpretation.

  19. Trends of hospitalized acute stroke care in Germany from clinical trials to bedside. Comparison of nation-wide administrative data 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Krogias, Christos; Bartig, Dirk; Kitzrow, Martin; Weber, Ralph; Eyding, Jens

    2014-10-15

    Promising advances in stroke medicine have been reported recently regarding specialized stroke unit (SU) care, expansion of the time window of iv thrombolysis (IVT), mechanical thrombectomy (MT), and decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) for malignant brain infarction. It remains unclear to what extent new evidence of therapeutic procedures is transferred to the "real-world" of everyday hospital care. We analyzed epidemiologic and procedural therapeutic trends of hospitalized acute stroke patients in Germany by the comparison of administrative hospital data of the years 2008 (n=219,359) and 2012 (n=239,394). Proportion of specialized SU care rose from 43.4% to 56.9%. Even in age-matched analysis women were less likely to obtain this procedure. Rate of IVT increased from 5.6% to 10.2%. 32% of IVT therapies in 2012 were performed in patients over 80 years. Number of MT increased exponentially from 298 to 3906 procedures. Number of DHC did not increase significantly (2008=636; 2011=796). A strong momentum in transferring scientific insights to the "real-world" stroke care in Germany was documented. Increase of IVT therapy is largely due to the increase of off-label treatment. Almost every 46 th patient <80 years was treated by MT in 2012. Despite proven benefits in selected patients, utilization of DHC remained almost stable. PMID:25109534

  20. First aid in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Reitmayer, Michael; Raschick, Marlitt; Erbguth, Frank; Neundörfer, Bernhard; Babjar, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Objective First aid training is well established to teach the public how to recognize a medical emergency and take appropriate action. Though it is now handled as a high priority emergency stroke is not among the main topics of first aid. We investigated if first aid training may be useful for enhancing stroke awareness. Methods We developed a 15–20 minute teaching session about stroke as an emergency including signs and symptoms and first hands-on measures. The session was integrated in standard first aid training of the St John Ambulance of Germany and participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their knowledge about stroke. Subjects were questioned before the stroke lesson and again at the end of the training. Results 532 participants of the training responded to the questionnaire (mean age 28.6 years, 53.6% male). There was a significant increase in proportion of subjects correctly defining what stroke is (28.4% vs. 69.9%, p < 0,001) and in the mean number of stroke symptoms listed (1.52 vs. 3.35, p < 0,001) by the participants. The number of participants unable to list at least 1 symptom decreased significantly (12.8 vs. 3.6%, p<0.001). Conclusions In our study a teaching lesson integrated in first aid training was effective in improving stroke knowledge of participants. First aid training should be used for stroke information complementary to other activities like mass media campaigns as it is effective, could reach younger people that are not primarily interested in stroke and provides connections to other health topics. PMID:16896518

  1. Still cooling after all these years: Meta-analysis of pre-clinical trials of therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, Oana M; Lamb, Jessica; Lyden, Patrick D

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the most potent neuroprotectant for experimental cerebral ischemia, illustrated in a 2007 meta-analysis published in this journal. To address recent therapeutic nihilism, we systematically reviewed recent experimental literature. Quality scoring showed considerable improvement in study design. Using several outcome measures in a variety of models and species, therapeutic hypothermia was protective compared with normothermia, with powerful and statistically significant normalized treatment effect sizes, in 60 papers comprising 216 comparisons. In the past 5 years, preclinical studies of ischemic stroke re-emphasize that therapeutic hypothermia is potently effective, justifying further development in larger human clinical trials. PMID:27089911

  2. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum Joon; Kang, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Kim, Na Young; Warach, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Although intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator is the only proven treatment after acute ischemic stroke, there is always a concern of hemorrhagic risk after thrombolysis. Therefore, selection of patients with potential benefits in overcoming potential harms of thrombolysis is of great importance. Despite the practical issues in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for acute stroke treatment, multimodal MRI can provide useful information for accurate diagnosis of stroke, evaluation of the risks and benefits of thrombolysis, and prediction of outcomes. For example, the high sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) can help distinguish acute ischemic stroke from stroke-mimics. Additionally, the lesion mismatch between perfusion-weighted image (PWI) and DWI is thought to represent potential salvageable tissue by reperfusion therapy. However, the optimal threshold to discriminate between benign oligemic areas and the penumbra is still debatable. Signal changes of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image within DWI lesions may be a surrogate marker for ischemic lesion age and might indicate risks of hemorrhage after thrombolysis. Clot sign on gradient echo image may reflect the nature of clot, and their location, length and morphology may provide predictive information on recanalization by reperfusion therapy. However, previous clinical trials which solely or mainly relied on perfusion-diffusion mismatch for patient selection, failed to show benefits of MRI-based thrombolysis. Therefore, understanding the clinical implication of various useful MRI findings and comprehensively incorporating those variables into therapeutic decision-making may be a more reasonable approach for expanding the indication of acute stroke thrombolysis. PMID:25328872

  4. Prevention of poststroke depression with milnacipran in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Shu; Wu, Chen-Long; Chou, Shih-Yong; Tsang, Hin-Yeung; Hung, Tai-Hsin; Su, Jian-An

    2011-09-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke. It has been shown to be associated with both impaired recovery and increased mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prophylactic effect of milnacipran in PSD. Ninety-two patients were enrolled in the 12 months of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The assessment was performed at baseline, and at the first, third, sixth, ninth and 12th month after enrollment. The definition of PSD was in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of major depressive episode based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition. Forty-six patients were randomized to the treatment group with milnacipran and another 46 patients to the placebo group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of sex (P=0.83), age (P=0.08), marital status (P=0.66), occupation (P=0.22), educational level (P=0.29), and drug side-effects (P=0.73). The incidence of depression in the two groups was 2.22% and 15.22%, respectively. Milnacipran was proved to have a statistically significant advantage in preventing PSD (P<0.05). In conclusion, milnacipran could prevent the development of depression in the first year following a stroke and is safe to use without significant adverse effects in stroke patients. PMID:21811172

  5. The Beta-hCG + Erythropoietin in Acute Stroke (BETAS) study A three center, single dose, open label, non-controlled, Phase IIa safety trial

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Steven C.; Fitzpatrick, Camille; Warren, Michael; Hill, Michael D.; Brown, David; Whitaker, Laura; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Plon, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal data suggest the utility beta-hCG followed by erythropoietin to promote brain repair after stroke. The current study directly translated these results by evaluating safety of this sequential growth factor therapy via a three center, single dose, open label, non-controlled, Phase IIa trial. Methods Patients with ischemic stroke 24–48 hours old and NIHSS score of 6–24 started a nine day course of beta-hCG (once-daily on days 1, 3 and 5 of study participation) followed by erythropoietin (once-daily on days 7, 8, and 9 of study participation). This study also evaluated performance of serially measured domain-specific endpoints. Results A total of 15 patients were enrolled. Two deaths occurred, neither related to study medications. No safety concerns were noted among clinical or laboratory measures, including screening for DVT and serial measures of serum hemoglobin. In several instances, domain-specific endpoints provided greater insight into impairments as compared to global outcome measures. Conclusions Results support the safety of this sequential, two growth factor therapy initiated 24–48 hours after stroke onset. PMID:20203320

  6. Early treatment of hypertension in acute ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: progress achieved, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of stroke. Additionally, high blood pressure (BP) in the acute cerebrovascular event is associated with poor outcome, and a high percentage of stroke survivors have inadequate control of hypertension. The present is a systematic review of prospective, randomized, and controlled trials carried out on safety and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of both subtypes of acute stroke. Six trials involving 7512 patients were included, which revealed controversies on the speed and the goals of treatment. These controversies could be due at least in part, from the fact that some studies analyzed the results of antihypertensive treatment in ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of acute stroke together, and from a different prevalence of past-stroke in the randomized groups. Further research is necessary to establish whether standard antihypertensive treatment provides greater benefit than simple observation in patients with ischemic acute stroke and Stage 2 hypertension of JNC 7, albeit they were not candidates for acute reperfusion. In that case, the target reduction in BP could be 10% to 15% within 24 hours. The recently published INTERACT 2 has provided evidence that patients with hemorrhagic stroke may receive intensive antihypertensive treatment safely with the goal of reducing systolic BP to levels no lower than 130 mm Hg. It is important to take into account that marked BP lowering in acute stroke increases the risk of poor outcome by worsening cerebral ischemia from deterioration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. PMID:24220549

  7. Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ning; Liew, Gerald; Lindley, Richard I; Liu, Erica Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Hand, Peter; Baker, Michelle; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether retinal fractal dimension, a quantitative measure of microvascular branching complexity and density, is associated with lacunar stroke. A total of 392 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke had retinal fractal dimension measured from digital photographs, and lacunar infarct ascertained from brain imaging. After adjusting for age, gender, and vascular risk factors, higher retinal fractal dimension (highest vs lowest quartile and per standard deviation increase) was independently and positively associated with lacunar stroke (odds ratio [OR], 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-12.17 and OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.20-2.84, respectively). Increased retinal microvascular complexity and density is associated with lacunar stroke.

  8. Using telemedicine for acute stroke assessment.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jo; Fitzgerald, Jane; Gibson, Alison; McAdam, Joanna; Lightbody, Liz; McLoughlin, Alison; Watkins, Caroline; Day, Elaine

    In acute stroke care, urgent specialist assessment and treatment are essential to reduce the risk of death and disability. However, many patients do not receive them due to a lack of specialist services. One solution is to use telemedicine. This can give all patients with acute stroke symptoms access to immediate expert assessment and advice, regardless of when and where they present to hospital. This article describes a telemedicine system developed and implemented in Lancashire and Cumbria. In its first year of operation, 319 patients received a telestroke video assessment with a consultant stroke physician; 131 of these patients were given thrombolysis. We discuss how the service was designed, staff training and development, and the implications for nursing practice. The development of a standardised telemedicine toolkit that may facilitate future telemedicine projects is also discussed.

  9. The Quest for Arterial Recanalization in Acute Ischemic Stroke-The Past, Present and the Future

    PubMed Central

    L.L.Yeo, Leonard; Sharma, Vijay K

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the major causes of mortality and long-term disability. In the recent past, only very few treatment options were available and a considerable proportion of stroke survivors remained permanently disabled. However, over the last 2 decades rapid advances in acute stroke care have resulted in a corresponding improvement in mortality rates and functional outcomes. In this review, we describe the evolution of systemic thrombolytic agents and various interventional devices, their current status as well as some of the future prospects. We reviewed literature pertaining to acute ischemic stroke reperfusion treatment. We explored the current accepted treatment strategies to attain cerebral reperfusion via intravenous modalities and compare and contrast them within the boundaries of their clinical trials. Subsequently we reviewed the trials for interventional devices for acute ischemic stroke, categorizing them into thrombectomy devices, aspiration devices, clot disruption devices and thrombus entrapment devices. Finally we surveyed several of the alternative reperfusion strategies available. We also shed some light on the controversies surrounding the current strategies of treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Acute invasive interventional strategies continue to improve along with the noninvasive modalities. Both approaches appear promising. We conducted a comprehensive chronological review of the existing treatments as well as upcoming remedies for acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23864913

  10. Clinical trial design for endovascular ischemic stroke intervention

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S.; Edgell, Randall C.; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine M.; Kalia, Junaid S.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials have significant impact on clinical practice. The ultimate goal of a clinical trial of therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is to compare 2 interventions. Challenges may include interventional therapy standardization, enrollment rate, patient selection, biases, data and safety monitoring, reporting, and financial and logistical support. Method: Selected randomized and single-arm prospective AIS trial designs. Clinical trial elements and their challenges are reviewed. Innovative designs and proposed recommendations to overcome some of the specific challenges and limitations are discussed. Results: AIS therapy trials have specific challenges related to ethical issues, enrollment rate, outcome measures, limited time to treatment, efficacy, safety, and limited or variable operator experience with complex technology in a delicate end organ. Proposed suggestions for improving trial design include the following: incorporation of a lead-in phase; careful patient and outcome measure selection; historical, concurrent, or hybrid controls; open data access; and a Bayesian approach. An open data paradigm may facilitate creation of computerized prediction models for future trials (minimizing cost by decreasing sample size or providing futility analyses and directing resources to other trials). Collaborative, consortium, and network infrastructures may allow more effective and efficient study completion. Self-learning, self-correcting trials with intrinsic flexibility to adapt may help future clinical trial design in AIS. Conclusion: The randomized clinical trial design in AIS endovascular therapy is challenging. Lead-in phases, careful patient selection, use of innovative outcome measures, control groups, and newer clinical trial design may enhance conduct of future trials, their validity, and their results. PMID:23008403

  11. Acute Kidney Injury is More Common in Acute Haemorrhagic Stroke in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ray, N C; Chowdhury, M A; Sarkar, S R

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after acute stroke and is an independent predictor of both early and long-term mortality after acute stroke. Acute kidney injury is associated with increased mortality in haemorrhagic stroke patients. This cross sectional observational study was conducted in Nephrology, Neuromedicine and Medicine department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2012 to June 2014. A total of 240 patients with newly detected acute stroke confirmed by CT scan of brain were included in this study. According to this study, 15.42% of acute stroke patients developed AKI. Among the patients with haemorrhagic stroke 21.87% developed AKI while only 13.07% patients with ischaemic stroke developed AKI. So, early diagnosis and management of AKI in patients with acute stroke especially in haemorrhagic stroke is very important to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these patients. PMID:26931240

  12. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes. PMID:26189890

  13. [Current registry studies of acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Veltkamp, R; Jüttler, E; Pfefferkorn, T; Purrucker, J; Ringleb, P

    2012-10-01

    Study registries offer the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new therapies or to observe the consequences of new treatments in clinical practice. The SITS-MOST registry confirmed the validity of findings from randomized trials on intravenous thrombolysis concerning safety and efficacy in the clinical routine. Current study registries concerning new interventional thrombectomy techniques suggest a high recanalization rate; however, the clinical benefit can only be evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Similarly, the experiences of the BASICS registry on basilar artery occlusion have led to the initiation of a controlled trial. The benefit of hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction has been demonstrated by the pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Numerous relevant aspects are currently documented in the DESTINY-R registry. Finally, the recently started RASUNOA registry examines diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurring during therapy with new oral anticoagulants.

  14. Predicting Hemorrhagic Transformation of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Hillis, Argye E.; Lawrence, Erin; Dziedzic, Peter; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) increases the morbidity and mortality of ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation is often indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, or mechanical valves who are hospitalized with acute stroke, but increases the risk of HT. Risk quantification would be useful. Prior studies have investigated risk of systemic hemorrhage in anticoagulated patients, but none looked specifically at HT. In our previously published work, age, infarct volume, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) significantly predicted HT. We created the hemorrhage risk stratification (HeRS) score based on regression coefficients in multivariable modeling and now determine its validity in a prospectively followed inpatient cohort. A total of 241 consecutive patients presenting to 2 academic stroke centers with acute ischemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation over a 2.75-year period were included. Neuroimaging was evaluated for infarct volume and HT. Hemorrhages were classified as symptomatic versus asymptomatic, and by severity. HeRS scores were calculated for each patient and compared to actual hemorrhage status using receiver operating curve analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) comparing predicted odds of hemorrhage (HeRS score) to actual hemorrhage status was 0.701. Serum glucose (P < 0.001), white blood cell count (P < 0.001), and warfarin use prior to admission (P = 0.002) were also associated with HT in the validation cohort. With these variables, AUC improved to 0.854. Anticoagulation did not significantly increase HT; but with higher intensity anticoagulation, hemorrhages were more likely to be symptomatic and more severe. The HeRS score is a valid predictor of HT in patients with ischemic stroke and indication for anticoagulation. PMID:26765425

  15. Systematic Review and Pooled Analyses of Recent Neurointerventional Randomized Controlled Trials: Setting a New Standard of Care for Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammed; Moussavi, Mohammad; Korya, Daniel; Mehta, Siddhart; Brar, Jaskiran; Chahal, Harina; Qureshi, Ihtesham; Mehta, Tapan; Ahmad, Javaad; Zaidat, Osama O.; Kirmani, Jawad F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advances in the treatment of ischemic stroke have focused on revascularization and led to better clinical and functional outcomes. A systematic review and pooled analyses of 6 recent multicentered prospective randomized controlled trials (MPRCT) were performed to compare intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) and endovascular therapy (intervention) with IV tPA alone (control) for anterior circulation ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Objectives Six MPRCTs (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, EXTEND IA, SWIFT PRIME, REVASCAT and THERAPY) incorporating image-based LVO AIS were selected for assessing the following: (1) prespecified primary clinical outcomes of AIS patients in intervention and control arms: good outcomes were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days; (2) secondary clinical outcomes were: (a) revascularization rates [favorable outcomes defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale (mTICI) score of 2b/3]; (b) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rates and mortality; (c) derivation of number needed to harm (NNH), number needed to treat (NNT), and relative percent difference (RPD) between intervention and control groups, and (d) random effects model to determine overall significance (forest and funnel plots). Results A total of 1,386 patients were included. Good outcomes at 90 days were seen in 46% of patients in the intervention (p < 0.00001) and in 27% of patients in the control groups (p < 0.00002). An mTICI score of 2b/3 was achieved in 70.2% of patients in the intervention arm. The sICH and mortality in the intervention arm compared with the control arm were 4.7 and 14.3% versus 7.9 and 17.8%, respectively. The NNT and NNH in the intervention and control groups were 5.3 and 9.1, respectively. Patients in the intervention arm had a 50.1% (RPD) better chance of achieving a good 90-day outcome as compared to controls. Conclusions Endovascular therapy combined with IV t

  16. Systematic Review and Pooled Analyses of Recent Neurointerventional Randomized Controlled Trials: Setting a New Standard of Care for Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammed; Moussavi, Mohammad; Korya, Daniel; Mehta, Siddhart; Brar, Jaskiran; Chahal, Harina; Qureshi, Ihtesham; Mehta, Tapan; Ahmad, Javaad; Zaidat, Osama O.; Kirmani, Jawad F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent advances in the treatment of ischemic stroke have focused on revascularization and led to better clinical and functional outcomes. A systematic review and pooled analyses of 6 recent multicentered prospective randomized controlled trials (MPRCT) were performed to compare intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) and endovascular therapy (intervention) with IV tPA alone (control) for anterior circulation ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Objectives Six MPRCTs (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, EXTEND IA, SWIFT PRIME, REVASCAT and THERAPY) incorporating image-based LVO AIS were selected for assessing the following: (1) prespecified primary clinical outcomes of AIS patients in intervention and control arms: good outcomes were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days; (2) secondary clinical outcomes were: (a) revascularization rates [favorable outcomes defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale (mTICI) score of 2b/3]; (b) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rates and mortality; (c) derivation of number needed to harm (NNH), number needed to treat (NNT), and relative percent difference (RPD) between intervention and control groups, and (d) random effects model to determine overall significance (forest and funnel plots). Results A total of 1,386 patients were included. Good outcomes at 90 days were seen in 46% of patients in the intervention (p < 0.00001) and in 27% of patients in the control groups (p < 0.00002). An mTICI score of 2b/3 was achieved in 70.2% of patients in the intervention arm. The sICH and mortality in the intervention arm compared with the control arm were 4.7 and 14.3% versus 7.9 and 17.8%, respectively. The NNT and NNH in the intervention and control groups were 5.3 and 9.1, respectively. Patients in the intervention arm had a 50.1% (RPD) better chance of achieving a good 90-day outcome as compared to controls. Conclusions Endovascular therapy combined with IV t

  17. Relevance of stroke code, stroke unit and stroke networks in organization of acute stroke care--the Madrid acute stroke care program.

    PubMed

    Alonso de Leciñana-Cases, María; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a neurological emergency. The early administration of specific treatment improves the prognosis of the patients. Emergency care systems with early warning for the hospital regarding patients who are candidates for this treatment (stroke code) increases the number of patients treated. Currently, reperfusion via thrombolysis for ischemic stroke and attention in stroke units are the bases of treatment. Healthcare professionals and health provision authorities need to work together to organize systems that ensure continuous quality care for the patients during the whole process of their disease. To implement this, there needs to be an appropriate analysis of the requirements and resources with the objective of their adjustment for efficient use. It is necessary to provide adequate information and continuous training for all professionals who are involved in stroke care, including primary care physicians, extrahospital emergency teams and all physicians involved in the care of stroke patients within the hospital. The neurologist has the function of coordinating the protocols of intrahospital care. These organizational plans should also take into account the process beyond the acute phase, to ensure the appropriate application of measures of secondary prevention, rehabilitation, and chronic care of the patients that remain in a dependent state. We describe here the stroke care program in the Community of Madrid (Spain).

  18. Current trends in the management of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability and most of the cases are those of ischemic stroke. Management strategies especially for large vessel occlusive stroke have undergone a significant change in the recent years that include widespread use of thrombolytic medications followed by endovascular clot removal. For successful treatment by endovascular thrombectomy, the important factors are patient selection based on clinical criterion including age, time of onset, premorbid clinical condition, co-morbidities, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and imaging criterion including computed tomography (CT) head, CT angiogram and CT perfusion. Patients presenting within 4.5 hours of onset are considered for intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment. Mechanical clot retrieval devices have evolved over the past decade. The Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia device was approved first followed by the penumbra revascularization system. They have proven in various studies to improve recanalization with acceptable rates of symptomatic intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Introduction of stent retrievers has led to a new era in the interventional management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Recent trials namely MRCLEAN, ESCAPE, SWIFT PRIMEs, and EXTEND-IA have used the stent retriever predominantly and have shown unequivocal benefit in the outcome at 90 days for AIS patients with large vessel occlusion. More recently, a new catheter namely 5 MAX ACE was introduced along with improvement in the suction device. This has led to a direct aspiration first pass technique resulting in faster recanalization. Advancements in the endovascular management of AIS with large vessel occlusion have resulted in a paradigm shift in the way this disease is managed. Improvements in patient selection using clinical and imaging criterion along with technical and technological advancements in mechanical thrombectomy have made possible a significantly improved outcome

  19. Current trends in the management of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability and most of the cases are those of ischemic stroke. Management strategies especially for large vessel occlusive stroke have undergone a significant change in the recent years that include widespread use of thrombolytic medications followed by endovascular clot removal. For successful treatment by endovascular thrombectomy, the important factors are patient selection based on clinical criterion including age, time of onset, premorbid clinical condition, co-morbidities, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and imaging criterion including computed tomography (CT) head, CT angiogram and CT perfusion. Patients presenting within 4.5 hours of onset are considered for intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment. Mechanical clot retrieval devices have evolved over the past decade. The Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia device was approved first followed by the penumbra revascularization system. They have proven in various studies to improve recanalization with acceptable rates of symptomatic intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Introduction of stent retrievers has led to a new era in the interventional management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Recent trials namely MRCLEAN, ESCAPE, SWIFT PRIMEs, and EXTEND-IA have used the stent retriever predominantly and have shown unequivocal benefit in the outcome at 90 days for AIS patients with large vessel occlusion. More recently, a new catheter namely 5 MAX ACE was introduced along with improvement in the suction device. This has led to a direct aspiration first pass technique resulting in faster recanalization. Advancements in the endovascular management of AIS with large vessel occlusion have resulted in a paradigm shift in the way this disease is managed. Improvements in patient selection using clinical and imaging criterion along with technical and technological advancements in mechanical thrombectomy have made possible a significantly improved outcome

  20. Acute isolated capsular stroke. A clinical study of 148 cases.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià; Martínez-Rebollar, María; Oliveres, Montserrat; García-Eroles, Luis; Massons, Joan; Targa, Cecilia

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess differential features between capsular stroke of ischemic and hemorrhagic origin, and to compare capsular strokes with all other (non-capsular) strokes. Data of 148 patients with isolated capsular stroke were collected from a prospective hospital-based stroke registry in which 2000 consecutive acute stroke patients were included. Isolated capsular stroke accounted for 8.4% of strokes included in the registry (8.4% of ischemic strokes and 10.5% of intracerebral hemorrhages). Capsular stroke of hemorrhagic origin (n = 24) was more severe than ischemic capsular stroke (n = 124) as determined by a significantly higher in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and lower number of patients free of functional deficit at discharge. After multivariate analysis, limb weakness, sudden onset, and sensory symptoms were independently associated with capsular hemorrhage, whereas pure motor hemiparesis appeared to be associated with capsular infarction. In summary, one of each 12 patients with acute ischemic stroke and one of each 10 patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage had an isolated capsular stroke. Lacunar syndrome was the most frequent clinical presentation being more common (particularly pure motor hemiparesis) in ischemic than in hemorrhagic capsular stroke. Capsular hemorrhage and capsular infarction showed identical risk factor profiles suggesting the same underlying vascular pathology for both conditions.

  1. How to improve walking, balance and social participation following stroke: a comparison of the long term effects of two walking aids--canes and an orthosis TheraTogs--on the recovery of gait following acute stroke. A study protocol for a multi-centre, single blind, randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Annually, some 9000 people in Switzerland suffer a first time stroke. Of these 60% are left with moderate to severe walking disability. Evidence shows that rehabilitation techniques which emphasise activity of the hemiplegic side increase ipsilesional cortical plasticity and improve functional outcomes. Canes are commonly used in gait rehabilitation although they significantly reduce hemiplegic muscle activity. We have shown that an orthosis "TheraTogs" (a corset with elasticated strapping) significantly increases hemiplegic muscle activity during gait. The aim of the present study is to investigate the long term effects on the recovery of gait, balance and social participation of gait rehabilitation with TheraTogs compared to gait rehabilitation with a cane following first time acute stroke. Methods/Design Multi-centre, single blind, randomised trial with 120 patients after first stroke. When subjects have reached Functional Ambulation Category 3 they will be randomly allocated into TheraTogs or cane group. TheraTogs will be applied to support hip extensor and abductor musculature according to a standardised procedure. Cane walking held at the level of the radial styloid of the sound wrist. Subjects will walk throughout the day with only the assigned walking aid. Standard therapy treatments and usual care will remain unchanged and documented. The intervention will continue for five weeks or until patients have reached Functional Ambulation category 5. Outcome measures will be assessed the day before begin of intervention, the day after completion, 3 months, 6 months and 2 years. Primary outcome: Timed "up and go" test, secondary outcomes: peak surface EMG of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius, activation patterns of hemiplegic leg musculature, temporo-spatial gait parameters, hemiplegic hip kinematics in the frontal and sagittal planes, dynamic balance, daily activity measured by accelerometry, Stroke Impact Scale. Significance levels will be 5% with 95

  2. Hip Hop Stroke: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Stroke Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Hecht, Mindy; Hedmann, Monique; Huq, Saima; Gerin, William; Chinchilli, Vernon; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Noble, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of serious long-term adult disability in the US. Acute stroke treatments with intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy are proven to reduce disability, however a critical limitation on their effectiveness is the narrow time window for administration, which is 4.5 hours and 6 hours respectively from the onset of symptoms. Our overarching goal is to reduce pre-hospital delays to acute stroke treatments in economically disadvantaged minority communities where the greatest delays exist, using Hip Hop Stroke. Methods Hip Hop Stroke (HHS) is a school-based, child-mediated, culturally-tailored stroke communication multimedia intervention developed using validated models of behavior change and designed to improve stroke literacy (knowledge of stroke symptoms, the urgent need to call 911, and prevention measures) of 4th, 5th and 6th grade students and their parents residing in poor urban communities. Children in the intervention arm will receive the HHS intervention, while those in the attentional control arm will receive standardized nutrition education based on the USDA's MyPyramid program. Children will be trained and motivated to share stroke information with their parents or other adult caregiver. Both children and parents will complete a stroke knowledge assessment at baseline, immediately following the program, and at 3-months post-program. The primary outcome is the effect of the child mediation on parental stroke literacy. Conclusion Stroke literate children, a captive audience in school systems, may represent a viable channel for spreading stroke information into households of poor urban communities where mass media stroke campaigns have shown the lowest penetration. These children may also call 911 when witnessing a stroke in their homes or communities. The HHS program may highlight the potential role of children in the chain of stroke recovery as a strategy for reducing

  3. Plasminogen Activators and Ischemic Stroke: Conditions for Acute Delivery

    PubMed Central

    del Zoppo, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate acute treatment with plasminogen activators (PAs) can significantly increase the probability of minimal or no disability in selected ischemic stroke patients. There is a great deal of evidence showing that intravenous recombinant tissue PAs (rt-PA) infusion accomplishes this goal, recanalization with other PAs has also been demonstrated in the development of this treatment. Recanalization of symptomatic, documented carotid or vertebrobasilar arterial territory occlusions have also been achieved by local intra-arterial PA delivery, although only a single prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study has been reported. The increase in intracerebral hemorrhage with these agents by either delivery approach underscores the need for careful patient selection, dose-appropriate safety and efficacy, proper clinical trial design, and an understanding of the evolution of cerebral tissue injury due to focal ischemia. Principles underlying the evolution of focal ischemia have been expanded by experience with acute PA intervention. Several questions remain open that concern the manner in which PAs can be applied acutely in ischemic stroke and how injury development can be limited. PMID:23539414

  4. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Abnormal Electrocardiograms After Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; Julayanont, Parunyou; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Kim, Jongyeol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities occur frequently but are often underrecognized after strokes. Acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in some particular area of brain can disrupt central autonomic control of the heart, precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, ECG abnormalities, myocardial injury and sometimes sudden death. Identification of high-risk patients after acute stroke is important to arrange appropriate cardiac monitoring and effective management of arrhythmias, and to prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to better clarify pathogenesis, localization of areas associated with arrhythmias and practical management of arrhythmias and abnormal ECGs after acute stroke.

  5. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele; Rabinov, James; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular thrombectomy is an effective treatment for major acute ischemic stroke syndromes caused by major anterior circulation artery occlusions (commonly referred to as large vessel occlusion) and is superior to intravenous thrombolysis and medical management. Treatment should occur as quickly as is reasonably possible. All patients with moderate to severe symptoms (National Institutes of Health stroke scale >8) and a treatable occlusion should be considered. The use of neuroimaging is critical to exclude hemorrhage and large ischemic cores. Very shortly after stroke onset (<3 hours) computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography provide sufficient information to proceed; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is less reliable during this early stage. After 3 hours from onset diffusion MRI is the most reliable method to define ischemic core size and should be used in centers that can offer it rapidly. Recanalization is highly effective with a stentriever or using a direct aspiration technique, with the patient awake or under conscious sedation rather than general anesthesia, if it may be performed safely. After thrombectomy the patient should be admitted to an intensive care setting and inpatient rehabilitation undertaken as soon as feasible. Patient outcomes should be assessed at 3 months, preferably using the modified Rankin score. PMID:27430469

  6. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Corte, Vittoriano Della; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile. PMID:27043681

  7. Is hyperglycaemia an independent predictor of poor outcome after acute stroke? Results of a long-term follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C. J.; Murray, G. D.; Dyker, A. G.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether raised plasma glucose concentration independently influences outcome after acute stroke or is a stress response reflecting increased stroke severity. DESIGN: Long-term follow up study of patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. SETTING: Western Infirmary, Glasgow. SUBJECTS: 811 patients with acute stroke confirmed by computed tomography. Analysis was restricted to the 750 non-diabetic patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival time and placement three months after stroke. RESULTS: 645 patients (86%) had ischaemic stroke and 105 patients (14%) haemorrhagic stroke. Cox's proportional hazards modelling with stratification according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project categories identified increased age (relative hazard 1.36 per decade; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.53), haemorrhagic stroke (relative hazard 1.67; 1.22 to 2.28), time to resolution of symptoms > 72 hours (relative hazard 2.15; 1.15 to 4.05), and hyperglycaemia (relative hazard 1.87; 1.43 to 2.45) as predictors of mortality. The effect of glucose concentration on survival was greatest in the first month. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glucose concentration above 8 mmol/l after acute stroke predicts a poor prognosis after correcting for age, stroke severity, and stroke subtype. Raised plasma glucose concentration is therefore unlikely to be solely a stress response and should arguably be treated actively. A randomised trial is warranted. PMID:9158464

  8. What is the Role for Intra-Arterial Therapy in Acute Stroke Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Mark N.; Chong, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator continues to be first-line therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting within the appropriate time window, but one potential limitation is the low rate of recanalization in the setting of large artery occlusions. Intra-arterial (IA) treatment is effective for emergency revascularization of proximal intracranial arterial occlusions, but proof of benefit has been lacking until recently. Our goal is to outline the history of endovascular therapy and review both IA thrombolysis and mechanical interventions. In addition, we will discuss the impact of important trials such as the Third Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS3) trial, and the more recent trials Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE), Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits—Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA), and Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment (SWIFT PRIME) on acute stroke management and the implications for the practicing neurohospitalist. PMID:26288670

  9. Management of acute stroke: impact of registration studies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Harold P

    2010-09-01

    Stroke is a life-threatening or life-changing disease that is expensive in health care costs and lost productivity. Stroke also is a leading cause of human suffering. While the risk of stroke may be reduced with advances in prevention, recent advances in acute care can limit the consequences of stroke. In particular, the success of reperfusion therapies including intra-arterial interventions and intravenous administration of thrombolytic agents means that some patients with stroke may be cured. Still, the time window for effective treatment of stroke is relatively short. As a result, modern stroke management requires the close collaboration of the public, health care providers, administrators, insurance companies, and the government. Potential strategies to extend modern stroke care to as many patients as possible include 1) educational programs to train community emergency medical service personnel and physicians, 2) development of stroke care plans at community hospitals, 3) an integrated community-comprehensive stroke center program based on consultation, and telemedicine. The goal is to have a highly integrated approach to provide emergency treatment of the stroke that provides key emergency treatment, including intravenous administration of thrombolytic medications, at a community hospital (primary stroke center) with evacuation to a comprehensive stroke center that has resources and expertise that are not available in the primary stroke center. Taiwan is an ideal location for the development of such regional stroke programs.

  10. Acute Diagnosis and Management of Stroke Presenting Dizziness or Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Han; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-08-01

    Stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum frequently presents acute vestibular syndrome. Although vascular vertigo is known to usually accompany other neurologic symptoms and signs, isolated vertigo from small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem has been increasingly recognized. Bedside neuro-otologic examination can reliably differentiate acute vestibular syndrome due to stroke from more benign inner ear disease. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Accurate identification of isolated vascular vertigo is very important because misdiagnosis of acute stroke may result in significant morbidity and mortality.

  11. Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care in Taiwan: The Breakthrough Collaborative in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Chang, Hang; LaBresh, Kenneth A.; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the management of acute ischemic stroke, guideline adherence is often suboptimal, particularly for intravenous thrombolysis or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. We sought to improve stroke care quality via a collaborative model, the Breakthrough Series (BTS)-Stroke activity, in a nationwide, multi-center activity in Taiwan. A BTS Collaborative, a short-term learning system for a large number of multidisciplinary teams from hospitals, was applied to enhance acute ischemic stroke care quality. Twenty-four hospitals participated in and submitted data for this stroke quality improvement campaign in 2010–2011. Totally, 14 stroke quality measures, adopted from the Get With The Guideline (GWTG)-Stroke program, were used to evaluate the performance and outcome of the ischemic stroke patients. Data for a one-year period from 24 hospitals with 13,181 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. In 14 hospitals, most stroke quality measures improved significantly during the BTS-activity compared with a pre-BTS-Stroke activity period (2006–08). The rate of intravenous thrombolysis increased from 1.2% to 4.6%, door-to-needle time ≤60 minutes improved from 7.1% to 50.8%, symptomatic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis decreased from 11.0% to 5.6%, and anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation increased from 32.1% to 64.1%. The yearly composite measures of five stroke quality measures revealed significant improvements from 2006 to 2011 (75% to 86.3%, p<0.001). The quarterly composite measures also improved significantly during the BTS-Stroke activity. In conclusion, a BTS collaborative model is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients with acute ischemic stroke. GWTG-Stroke recommendations can be successfully applied in countries besides the United States. PMID:27487190

  12. Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care in Taiwan: The Breakthrough Collaborative in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Fang-I; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Chang, Hang; LaBresh, Kenneth A; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the management of acute ischemic stroke, guideline adherence is often suboptimal, particularly for intravenous thrombolysis or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. We sought to improve stroke care quality via a collaborative model, the Breakthrough Series (BTS)-Stroke activity, in a nationwide, multi-center activity in Taiwan. A BTS Collaborative, a short-term learning system for a large number of multidisciplinary teams from hospitals, was applied to enhance acute ischemic stroke care quality. Twenty-four hospitals participated in and submitted data for this stroke quality improvement campaign in 2010-2011. Totally, 14 stroke quality measures, adopted from the Get With The Guideline (GWTG)-Stroke program, were used to evaluate the performance and outcome of the ischemic stroke patients. Data for a one-year period from 24 hospitals with 13,181 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. In 14 hospitals, most stroke quality measures improved significantly during the BTS-activity compared with a pre-BTS-Stroke activity period (2006-08). The rate of intravenous thrombolysis increased from 1.2% to 4.6%, door-to-needle time ≤60 minutes improved from 7.1% to 50.8%, symptomatic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis decreased from 11.0% to 5.6%, and anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation increased from 32.1% to 64.1%. The yearly composite measures of five stroke quality measures revealed significant improvements from 2006 to 2011 (75% to 86.3%, p<0.001). The quarterly composite measures also improved significantly during the BTS-Stroke activity. In conclusion, a BTS collaborative model is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients with acute ischemic stroke. GWTG-Stroke recommendations can be successfully applied in countries besides the United States. PMID:27487190

  13. Meta-Analysis of Local Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sean A; Baerlocher, Mark O; Baerlocher, Felix; Socko, Daniel; Sacks, David; Nikolic, Boris; Wojak, Joan C; Haskal, Ziv J

    2016-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to assess randomized controlled trials comparing local endovascular therapy (with and without intravenous thrombolysis) versus standard care (intravenous thrombolysis alone when appropriate) for acute ischemic stroke. Local endovascular therapy showed a significant improvement in functional independence versus standard care (odds ratio, 1.779; 95% confidence interval, 1.262-2.507; P < .001). This benefit strengthened further on subgroup analyses of trials in which a majority of cases used stent retrievers, trials with intravenous thrombolysis use in both arms when appropriate, and trials that required preprocedural imaging of all patients. There were no significant differences between arms in terms of mortality, hemicraniectomy, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral edema rates (P > .05). In conclusion, in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, local endovascular therapy leads to improved functional independence compared with standard care. PMID:26803573

  14. Study protocol: ICONS: Identifying continence options after stroke: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence following acute stroke is common, affecting between 40%-60% of people in hospital after a stroke. Despite the availability of clinical guidelines for urinary incontinence and urinary incontinence after stroke, national audit data suggest incontinence is often poorly managed. Conservative interventions (e.g. bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training and prompted voiding) have been shown to have some effect with participants in Cochrane systematic reviews, but have not had their effectiveness demonstrated with stroke patients. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled pilot trial designed to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomised trial and to provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a systematic voiding programme for the management of continence after stroke. Stroke services will be randomised to receive the systematic voiding programme, the systematic voiding programme plus supported implementation, or usual care. The trial aims to recruit at least 780 participants in 12 stroke services (4 per arm). The primary outcome is presence/absence of incontinence at six weeks post-stroke. Secondary outcomes include frequency and severity of incontinence, quality of life and cost-utility. Outcomes will be measured at six weeks, three months and (for participants recruited in the first three months) twelve months after stroke. Process data will include rates of recruitment and retention and fidelity of intervention delivery. An integrated qualitative evaluation will be conducted in order to describe implementation and assist in explaining the potential mediators and modifiers of the process. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN08609907 PMID:21599945

  15. Optimizing stroke clinical trial design: estimating the proportion of eligible patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alexis; Castle, Amanda; Merino, José G.; Hsia, Amie; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Warach, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Clinical trial planning and site selection require an accurate estimate of the number of eligible patients at each site. In this study, we developed a tool to calculate the proportion of patients that would meet a specific trial's age, baseline severity and time to treatment inclusion criteria. Methods From a sample of 1322 consecutive patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular syndromes, we developed regression curves relating the proportion of patients within each range of the three variables. We used half the patients to develop the model, and the other half to validate it by comparing predicted versus actual proportions that met the criteria for four current stroke trials. Results The predicted proportion of patients meeting inclusion criteria ranged from 6% to 28% among the different trials. The proportion of trial-eligible patients predicted from the first half of the data was within 0.4% to 1.4% of the actual proportion of eligible patients. This proportion increased logarithmically with NIHSS score and time from onset: lowering the baseline limits of the NIHSS score and the treatment window would have the greatest impact on the proportion of patients eligible for a stroke trial. Conclusions This model helps estimate the proportion of stroke patients eligible for a study based on different upper and lower limits for age, stroke severity and time to treatment, and may be a useful tool in clinical trial planning. PMID:20798375

  16. The assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after acute stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, S P; Wilson, B; Wroot, A; Halligan, P W; Lange, L S; Marshall, J C; Greenwood, R J

    1991-01-01

    Forty four consecutive patients with acute hemispheric stroke and forty seven elderly controls with no neurological disease were assessed for visuo-spatial neglect, using a modified neglect test battery. Neglect was found to be equally common in patients with right hemisphere and left hemisphere stroke three days after stroke (72% versus 62%). It was more severe in those with a right hemisphere stroke and resolved more frequently in those with a left hemisphere stroke. The battery was validated against an occupational therapist's assessment of neglect on self-care tasks. The inter-observer reliability was good and it was possible to monitor changes over time with the battery. Images PMID:2056321

  17. Effect of a 72 Hour Stroke Care Bundle on Early Outcomes after Acute Stroke: A Non Randomised Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakibuuka, Jane; Sajatovic, Martha; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Ssendikadiwa, Charles; Kalema, Nelson; Kwizera, Arthur; Byakika-Tusiime, Jayne; Furlan, Anthony J.; Kayima, James; Ddumba, Edward; Katabira, Elly

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrated care pathways (ICP) in stroke management are increasingly being implemented to improve outcomes of acute stroke patients. We evaluated the effect of implementing a 72 hour stroke care bundle on early outcomes among patients admitted within seven days post stroke to the national referral hospital in Uganda. Methods In a one year non-randomised controlled study, 127 stroke patients who had ‘usual care’ (control group) were compared to 127 stroke patients who received selected elements from an ICP (intervention group). Patients were consecutively enrolled (controls first, intervention group second) into each group over 5 month periods and followed to 30-days post stroke. Incidence outcomes (mortality and functional ability) were compared using chi square test and adjusted for potential confounders. Kaplan Meier survival estimates and log rank test for comparison were used for time to death analysis for all strokes and by stroke severity categories. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, median survival time and median length of hospital stay. Results Mortality within 7 days was higher in the intervention group compared to controls (RR 13.1, 95% CI 3.3–52.9). There was no difference in 30-day mortality between the two groups (RR 1.2, 95% CI 0.5–2.6). There was better 30-day survival in patients with severe stroke in the intervention group compared to controls (P = 0.018). The median survival time was 30 days (IQR 29–30 days) in the control group and 30 days (IQR 7–30 days) in the intervention group. In the intervention group, 41patients (32.3%) died in hospital compared to 23 (18.1%) in controls (P < 0.001). The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (IQR 5–12 days) in the controls and 4 days (IQR 2–7 days) in the intervention group. There was no difference in functional outcomes between the groups (RR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4–2.2). Conclusions While implementing elements of a stroke-focused ICP in a Ugandan national referral

  18. Endovascular intervention for acute stroke due to infective endocarditis: case report.

    PubMed

    Dababneh, Haitham; Hedna, V Shushrutha; Ford, Jenna; Taimeh, Ziad; Peters, Keith; Mocco, J; Waters, Michael F

    2012-02-01

    The overall incidence of neurological complications due to infective endocarditis is as high as 40%, with embolic infarcts more common than hemorrhagic strokes. The standard of care for typical strokes does not apply to infective endocarditis because there is a substantial risk of hemorrhage with thrombolysis. In the last decade there have been multiple case reports of intravenous and intraarterial thrombolysis with successful outcomes for acute strokes with related infective endocarditis, but successful endovascular interventions for acute strokes associated with infective endocarditis are rarely reported. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first case in the literature to use a mechanical retrieval device in successful vegetation retrieval in an infective endocarditis acute stroke. Although an interventional approach for treatment of acute stroke related to infective endocarditis is a promising option, it is controversial and a cautious clinical decision should be made on a case-by-case basis. The authors conclude that this approach can be tested in a case series with matched controls, because this condition is rare and a randomized clinical trial is not a realistic option.

  19. Anticoagulation for the Acute Management of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Austin A.; Ikuta, Kevin; Soverow, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Few prospective studies support the use of anticoagulation during the acute phase of ischemic stroke, though observational data suggest a role in certain populations. Depending on the mechanism of stroke, systemic anticoagulation may prevent recurrent cerebral infarction, but concomitantly carries a risk of hemorrhagic transformation. In this article, we describe a case where anticoagulation shows promise for ischemic stroke and review the evidence that has discredited its use in some circumstances while showing its potential in others. PMID:24910565

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients.

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  3. Early Sitting in Ischemic Stroke Patients (SEVEL): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herisson, Fanny; Godard, Sophie; Volteau, Christelle; Le Blanc, Emilie; Guillon, Benoit; Gaudron, Marie

    2016-01-01

    outcome with a realized 37% power. However, enrollment was sufficient to rule out effect sizes greater than 25% with 80% power, indicating that early sitting is unlikely to have an extreme effect in either direction on stroke outcome. Additionally, we were not able to provide a blinded assessment of the primary outcome. Taking these limitations into account, our results may help guide the development of more effective acute stroke rehabilitation strategies, and the design of future acute stroke trials involving out of bed activities and other mobilization regimens. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01573299 PMID:27023901

  4. Imaging Recommendations for Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Sanelli, Pina C.; Albers, Gregory W.; Bello, Jacqueline A.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Hetts, Steven W.; Johnson, Michele H.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Rowley, Howard A.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Zaharchuk, Greg; Meltzer, Carolyn C.

    2014-01-01

    In the article entitled “Imaging Recommendations for Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients: A Joint Statement by the American Society of Neuroradiology, the American College of Radiology and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery”, we are proposing a simple, pragmatic approach that will allow the reader to develop an optimal imaging algorithm for stroke patients at their institution. PMID:23948676

  5. Developing practice recommendations for endovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Edgell, Randall C.; English, Joey; Frei, Donald; Jamieson, Dara G.; Janardhan, Vallabh; Janjua, Nazli; Janjua, Rashid M.; Katzan, Irene; Khatri, Pooja; Kirmani, Jawad F.; Liebeskind, David S.; Linfante, Italo; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Shutter, Lori; Xavier, Andrew; Yavagal, Dileep; Zaidat, Osama O.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines have been established for the management of acute ischemic stroke; however, specific recommendations for endovascular revascularization therapy are lacking. Burgeoning investigation of endovascular revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke, rapid device development, and a diverse training background of the providers performing the procedures underscore the need for practice recommendations. This review provides a concise summary of the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology endovascular acute ischemic stroke roundtable meeting. This document was developed to review current clinical efficacy of pharmacologic and mechanical revascularization therapy, selection criteria, periprocedure management, and endovascular time metrics and to highlight current practice patterns. It therefore provides an outline for the future development of multisociety guidelines and recommendations to improve patient selection, procedural management, and organizational strategies for revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23008406

  6. Deep vein thrombosis after ischemic stroke: rationale for a therapeutic trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.M.; Norris, J.W.

    1988-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the legs occurs in 23% to 75% of patients with acute ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism accounts for about 5% of deaths. New heparinoid substances, lacking the hazards of more established anticoagulants, raise the question of DVT prophylaxis for these patients. Two hundred fifty consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients were evaluated for the presence of DVT of the legs in a feasibility study for a trial of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis. Forty-nine patients were found suitable for the study, of whom 11 (22.5%) developed DVT. All patients underwent clinical examination, I-125 fibrinogen leg scanning, and impedance plethysmography. Five patients were sufficiently alert and without serious neurologic deficits to justify DVT prophylaxis. Recent advances in noninvasive diagnostic techniques to detect DVT early and the development of relatively safe heparinoid compounds increase the need for a prophylactic study in patients with ischemic stroke.

  7. Contralateral diaphragmatic palsy in acute stroke: an interesting observation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Reddy, Rajesh; Prabhakar, Subhashini

    2009-01-01

    Diaphragmatic palsy in hemiparetic stroke is not well recognized. Further, its implications on stroke outcome have not been studied. Here, we report a patient with left-sided diaphragmatic palsy due to an acute right middle cerebral artery territory infarction. The diagnosis was suspected on finding an elevated dome of the diaphragm on the left side in a routine chest radiograph and was confirmed by finding decreased movements of the left hemidiaphragm on fluoroscopic examination. We hypothesize that this condition is probably under-recognized in clinical practice and its clinical importance not well known. The pathophysiological basis of diaphragmatic palsy in acute stroke and its possible clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19881177

  8. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents increase the risk of acute stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Seliger, Stephen L.; Zhang, Amy D.; Weir, Matthew R.; Walker, Loreen; Hsu, Van Doren; Parsa, Afshin; Diamantidis, Clarissa; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are effective in ameliorating anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a recent trial in diabetic CKD patients suggested a greater stroke risk associated with full correction of anemia using ESAs. We performed a case-control study examining the association of incident ESA use with acute stroke in CKD patients, using national Veterans Affairs data. Patients with eGFR<60 cc/min/1.73m2 and outpatient hemoglobin (Hb)<12g/dL were included. Acute hospitalized stroke cases (N=2071) were identified using diagnosis codes and matched 1:5 to controls without stroke. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association of ESA use with stroke, adjusting for potential confounders. After multivariate adjustment, ESA use (N=1026, 8.3%) was associated with 30% greater odds of stroke (odds ratio[OR]=1.30, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.06, 1.58). There was significant interaction (p=.015) between ESA use and cancer; ESA use was associated with 85% greater odds of stroke in cancer patients (95% CI: 1.26, 2.65), but not associated with stroke in patients without cancer (OR=1.07, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.35). ESA-treated patients with cancer received a median initial dose 2.5 to 4 times greater than ESA patients without cancer, but pre-ESA Hb and rate of Hb change did not differ between groups. Among a large national sample of anemic CKD patients, ESA treatment is associated with an increased risk of acute stroke, with the greatest effect among patients with cancer. PMID:21389972

  9. Perfusion Angiography in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Visualization and quantification of blood flow are essential for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. For rapid imaging of the cerebrovasculature, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard as it offers high spatial resolution. This paper lays out a methodological framework, named perfusion angiography, for the quantitative analysis and visualization of blood flow parameters from DSA images. The parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time-to-peak (TTP), and Tmax, are computed using a bolus tracking method based on the deconvolution of the time-density curve on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The method is tested on 66 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombectomy and/or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and also evaluated on an estimation task with known ground truth. This novel imaging tool provides unique insights into flow mechanisms that cannot be observed directly in DSA sequences and might be used to evaluate the impact of endovascular interventions more precisely. PMID:27446232

  10. Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Dong-Eog; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Broderick, Joseph P; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14,792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14 h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n = 598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization = 6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries.

  11. Anesthesia for Endovascular Approaches to Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Avitsian, Rafi; Machado, Sandra B

    2016-09-01

    Involvement of the Anesthesiologist in the early stages of care for acute ischemic stroke patient undergoing endovascular treatment is essential. Anesthetic management includes the anesthetic technique (general anesthesia vs sedation), a matter of much debate and an area in need of well-designed prospective studies. The large numbers of confounding factors make the design of such studies a difficult process. A universally agreed point in the endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke is the importance of decreasing the time to revascularization. Hemodynamic and ventilatory management and implementation of neuroprotective modalities and treatment of acute procedural complications are important components of the anesthetic plan. PMID:27521194

  12. Aphemia as a presenting symptom in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Pawan K; Nandavar, Shobha; Pearson, Dawn M; Demchuk, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Aphemia is an apraxia of speech characterized by complete articulatory failure in the presence of preserved writing, comprehension and oropharyngeal function and can be the presenting manifestation of acute stroke. The responsible lesion is commonly in the left inferior frontal gyrus or the left motor cortex near the face M1 area. Three patients who developed aphemia due to acute ischemic stroke are described here. All had apraxia of speech due to acute infarct in the left motor cortex near face M1 area. Understanding the underlying speech disorder is crucial in planning the appropriate rehabilitation strategy.

  13. Pioglitazone for Secondary Prevention after Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: Rationale and Design of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Viscoli, Catherine M.; Brass, Lawrence M.; Carolei, Antonio; Conwit, Robin; Ford, Gary A.; Furie, Karen L.; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Lovejoy, Anne M.; Parsons, Mark W.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Ringleb, Peter; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Spence, J. David; Tanne, David; Young, Lawrence H.; Kernan, Walter N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrent vascular events remain a major source of morbidity and mortality after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial is evaluating an approach to secondary prevention based on the established association between insulin resistance and increased risk for ischemic vascular events. Specifically, IRIS will test the effectiveness of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug of the thiazolidinedione class, for reducing the risk for stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) among insulin resistant, non-diabetic patients with a recent ischemic stroke or TIA. Design: Eligible patients for IRIS must have had insulin resistance defined by a Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance greater than 3.0 without meeting criteria for diabetes. Within 6 months of the index stroke or TIA, patients were randomly assigned to pioglitazone (titrated from 15mg to 45mg/day) or matching placebo and followed for up to 5 years. The primary outcome is time to stroke or MI. Secondary outcomes include time to stroke alone, acute coronary syndrome, diabetes, cognitive decline and all-cause mortality. Enrollment of 3876 participants from 179 sites in seven countries was completed in January, 2013. Participant follow-up will continue until July, 2015. Summary: The IRIS Trial will determine whether treatment with pioglitazone improves cardiovascular outcomes of non-diabetic, insulin-resistant patients with stroke or TIA. Results are expected in early 2016. PMID:25458644

  14. AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE STROKE HOSPITAL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kes, Vanja Bašić; Jurašić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Lisak, Marijana; Jelec, Vjekoslav; Matovina, Lucija Zadro

    2016-03-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the most important cause of adult disability worldwide and in Croatia. In the past, stroke was almost exclusively considered to be a disease of the elderly; however, today the age limit has considerably lowered towards younger age. The aim of this study was to determine age and gender impact on stroke patients in a Croatian urban area during one-year survey. The study included all acute stroke patients admitted to our Department in 2004. A compiled stroke questionnaire was fulfilled during hospitalization by medical personnel on the following items: stroke risk factors including lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol), pre-stroke physical ability evaluation, stroke evolution data, laboratory and computed tomography findings, outcome data and post-stroke disability assessment. Appropriate statistical analysis of numerical and categorical data was performed at the level of p < 0.05. Analysis was performed on 396 patients, 24 of them from the younger adult stroke group. Older stroke patients had worse disability at hospital discharge and women had worse disabilities at both stroke onset and hospital discharge, probably due to older age at stroke onset. Younger patients recovered better, while older patients had to seek secondary medical facilities more often, as expected. The most important in-hospital laboratory findings in young stroke patients were elevated lipid levels, while older patients had elevated serum glucose and C-reactive protein. Stroke onset in younger patients most often presented with sudden onset headache; additionally, onset seizure was observed more frequently than expected. Stroke risk factor analysis showed that women were more prone to hypertension, chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation, whereas men had carotid disease more frequently, were more often smokers and had higher alcohol intake. Additionally, age analysis showed that heart conditions and smoking were more prevalent among older

  15. Application of acute stroke imaging: selecting patients for revascularization therapy.

    PubMed

    Shang, Tiesong; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2012-09-25

    Due to the dynamic and versatile characteristics of ischemic penumbra, selecting the right acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients for revascularization therapy (RT) based on initial available imaging can be challenging. The main patient selection criterion for RT is the size of the mismatch between the potentially salvageable tissue (penumbra) and the irreversibly damaged tissue (core). The goal of revascularization RT is to "freeze" the core and prevent it from extending to the penumbral tissue. Penumbral imaging selection of AIS patients for RT, using magnetic resonance or CT-based studies, may provide more clinical benefit to the appropriate patients, although direct evidence is pending. Not all penumbra-core mismatches beyond 3 hours are equal and need treatment, and defining which mismatches to target for RT is the current goal of ongoing clinical trials. In addition to "penumbral"-based imaging, large vessel occlusion and clot length estimation based on CT angiography and noncontrasted ultrathin CT scan has been used to identify patients who are refractory to systemic thrombolysis and may be eligible for endovascular therapy. The application of various imaging modalities in selecting and triaging AIS patients for RT is discussed in this review. Larger prospective randomized trials are needed to better understand the role of various imaging modalities in selecting AIS patients for RT and to understand its influence on clinical outcome.

  16. Role of emergency care staff in managing acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Caroline; Anderson, Craig; Forshaw, Denise; Lightbody, Liz

    2014-09-01

    In June, the University of Central Lancashire opened its clinical trials unit, where staff will run complex intervention trials in a range of care areas, including stroke, musculoskeletal health, public health and mental health. One of the first trials looks at how hospital nursing policies in the first 24 hours after patients have had stroke affect their subsequent survival and disabilities. Known as HeadPoST, the study will recruit 20,000 patients globally, with the 6,000 UK research participants managed by Lancashire. This article explores the role of emergency nurses in supporting the research.

  17. Successful intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke in a child.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Gustavo A; Koch, Sebastian; Wallace, Douglas M; Lopez-Alberola, Robert

    2007-06-01

    We report an 8-year-old white girl with no previous medical history who developed sudden onset right hemiplegia, left gaze preference, and global aphasia. An acute left middle cerebral artery stroke syndrome was diagnosed. She was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, 2 hours after the onset of symptoms. A magnetic resonance image demonstrated an acute left middle cerebral artery stroke, and a magnetic resonance angiography showed a patent left middle cerebral artery. At discharge, she was able to speak normally and walk without support. She was also able to raise the right arm up to the level of the shoulder and showed increased motility of the hand and fingers. No treatment-related complications happened. To the best of our knowledge, this is, so far, the youngest child successfully treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Evaluation of a stroke family care worker: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Slattery, J.; Staniforth, T.; Warlow, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of contact with a stroke family care worker on the physical, social, and psychological status of stroke patients and their carers. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with broad entry criteria and blinded outcome assessment six months after randomisation. SETTING: A well organised stroke service in an Edinburgh teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 417 patients with an acute stroke in the previous 30 days randomly allocated to be contacted by a stroke family care worker (210) or to receive standard care (207). The patients represented 67% of all stroke patients assessed at the hospital during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient completed Barthel index, Frenchay activities index, general health questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, social adjustment scale, mental adjustment to stroke scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire; carer completed Frenchay activities index, general health questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, social adjustment scale, caregiving bassles scale, and carer satisfaction questionnaire. RESULTS: The groups were balanced for all important baseline variables. There were no significant differences in physical outcomes in patients or carers, though patients in the treatment group were possibly more helpless less well adjusted socially, and more depressed, whereas carers in the treatment group were possibly less hassled and anxious. However, both patients and carers in the group contacted by the stroke family care worker expressed significantly greater satisfaction with certain aspects of their care, in particular those related to communication and support. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a stroke family care worker improved patients' and their carers' satisfaction with services and may have had some effect on psychological and social outcomes but did not improve measures of patients' physical wellbeing. PMID:9133884

  19. Critical early thrombolytic and endovascular reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke victims: a call for adjunct neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Lapchak, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    Today, there is an enormous amount of excitement in the field of stroke victim care due to the recent success of MR. CLEAN, SWIFT PRIME, ESCAPE, EXTEND-IA, and REVASCAT endovascular trials. Successful intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) clinical trials [i.e., National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) rt-PA trial, Third European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASSIII), and Third International Stroke study (IST-3)] also need to be emphasized. In the recent endovascular and thrombolytic trials, there is statistically significant improvement using both the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Score (mRS) scale, but neither approach promotes complete recovery in patients enrolled within any particular NIHSS or mRS score tier. Absolute improvement (mRS 0-2 at 90 days) with endovascular therapy is 13.5-31 %, whereas thrombolytics alone also significantly improve patient functional independence, but to a lesser degree (NINDS rt-PA trial 13 %). This article has 3 main goals: (1) first to emphasize the utility and cost-effectiveness of rt-PA to treat stroke; (2) second to review the recent endovascular trials with respect to efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness as a stroke treatment; and (3) to further consider and evaluate strategies to develop novel neuroprotective drugs. A thesis will be put forth so that future stroke trials and therapy development can optimally promote recovery so that stroke victims can return to "normal" life. PMID:26314402

  20. Serum Uric Acid Level among Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, M; Das, S N; Haque, M F; Shikha, S S; Bhuiyan, A S; Saha, P L; Das, B R; Chowdhury, M; Jahan, M K; Rahman, M M

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed as well as developing countries like Bangladesh. Elevated serum uric acid levels may predict an increased risk for cerebro-vascular (CV) events including stroke. Aim of the study was to measure the serum uric acid level among stroke patients and determine the relationship between serum uric acid level and stroke. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to measure serum uric acid level among 102 stroke patients in a period of one year by using non-probability sampling procedure. Finally, collected data were analyzed using SPSS software Version 17.0. It was observed that the mean age of patients was 60.87±8.05 years, of them 80(78.43%) patients were male and the rest 22(21.57%) were female. About 66(64.70%) of respondents were in age group 60 years and above, while 36(35.30%) were in age group 59 years and below. At least 23(22.55%) of stroke patients had elevated serum uric acid with a mean serum uric acid level of 5.18mg/dl and standard deviation 1.26mg/dl. About 23(27.38%) patients in ischemic stroke had elevated serum uric acid whereas 18(100%) patients in hemorrhagic stroke had normal uric acid level. Uric acid level was elevated in ischemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke patients (p<0.001). High uric acid level may be considered as a risk factor in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27277350

  1. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  2. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  3. Current status of mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Yilmaz, Hasan; Pellaton, Alain; Slater, Lee-Anne; Krings, Timo; Lovblad, Karl-Olof

    2015-02-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a morbid and disabling medical condition with a significant social and economic impact throughout the world. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has been the first line treatment for patients presenting up to 4.5 hours after symptom onset for many years. Endovascular stroke treatment has been used successfully as rescue therapy after failed IVT; in patients with contraindications to rtPA or presenting outside the 4.5-hour window. The effectiveness of IVT is high for distal thrombi but significantly lower for proximal occlusions. Endovascular treatment has been revolutionized by the evolution from intra-arterial thrombolysis and first generation mechanical devices to the current generation of stent retrievers and aspiration systems with large bore catheters. These devices have been associated with excellent revascularization, improved clinical outcomes, shorter procedure times and reduced device and procedure related complications. We report the current literature, clinical standards and perspectives on mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke.

  4. Domain-specific versus generalized cognitive screening in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Demeyere, Nele; Riddoch, M J; Slavkova, E D; Jones, K; Reckless, I; Mathieson, P; Humphreys, G W

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive assessments after stroke are typically short form tests developed for dementia that generates pass/fail classifications (e.g. the MoCA). The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) provides a domain-specific cognitive profile designed for stroke survivors. This study compared the use of the MoCA and the OCS in acute stroke with respect to symptom specificity and aspects of clinical utility. A cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 200 stroke patients within 3 weeks of stroke completing MoCA and OCS. Demographic data, lesion side and Barthel scores were recorded. Inclusivity was assessed in terms of completion rates and reasons for non-completion were evaluated. The incidence of cognitive impairments on both the MoCA and OCS sub-domains was calculated and differences in stroke specificity, cognitive profiles and independence of the measures were addressed. The incidence of acute cognitive impairment was high: 76% of patients were impaired on MoCA, and 86% demonstrated at least one impairment on the cognitive domains assessed in the OCS. OCS was more sensitive than MoCA overall (87 vs 78% sensitivity) and OCS alone provided domain-specific information on prevalent post-stroke cognitive impairments (neglect, apraxia and reading/writing ability). Unlike the MOCA, the OCS was not dominated by left hemisphere impairments but gave differentiated profiles across the contrasting domains. The OCS detects important cognitive deficits after stroke not assessed in the MoCA, it is inclusive for patients with aphasia and neglect and it is less confounded by co-occurring difficulties in these domains. PMID:26588918

  5. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Lotti, Fiorenza; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization. We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) by measuring resting and active motor threshold (AMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI), to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. AMT differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p = 0.004), not in females (p > 0.200), and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p = 0.033 and p = 0.042). LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery. PMID:26858590

  6. Cell Therapy for Stroke: Review of Previous Clinical Trials and Introduction of Our New Trials

    PubMed Central

    SHICHINOHE, Hideo; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is still a leading cause of death and disability, and despite intensive research, few treatment options exist. A recent breakthrough in cell therapy is expected to reverse the neurological sequelae of stroke. Although some pioneer studies on the use of cell therapy for the treatment of stroke have been reported, certain problems still remain unsolved. We investigated the use of autologous bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation for the treatment of stroke, to develop it as the next-generation cell therapy. In this study, we introduce the preparation of a new clinical trial, the Research on Advanced Intervention using Novel Bone marrow stem cell (RAINBOW) study. The trial will start in 2016, and we hope that it will not only be helpful for treating patients but also for clarifying the therapeutic mechanisms. Moreover, we review stem cell therapeutics as an emerging paradigm in stroke (STEPS) and the guidelines for the development of cell therapy for stroke in the United States as well as introduce the development of new guidelines in Japan. These guidelines are expected to encourage the development of cell therapy for stroke management. PMID:27302193

  7. RESULTS OF THE MRI SUBSTUDY OF THE INTRAVENOUS MAGNESIUM EFFICACY IN STROKE (IMAGES) TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Muir, Keith W.; Chen, Christopher; Davis, Stephen M.; De Silva, Deidre A.; Weir, Christopher J.; Starkman, Sidney; Alger, Jeffry R.; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although magnesium is neuroprotective in animal stroke models, no clinical benefit was confirmed in the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke (IMAGES) trial of acute stroke patients. The Magnetic Resonance in IMAGES (MR IMAGES) substudy investigated the effects of magnesium on the imaging surrogate outcome of infarct growth. Methods IMAGES trial patients in participating centers were randomized to receive either intravenous magnesium or placebo within 12 hours of stroke onset. Infarct growth was defined as volume difference between baseline DWI and day 90 FLAIR lesions. Patients who died were imputed the largest infarct growth observed. Results Among the 90 patients included in the primary analysis, there was no difference in infarct growth (median absolute growth p=0.639; median percentage growth p=0.616; proportion with any growth p=0.212) between the 46 treated with magnesium and 44 with placebo). Infarct growth correlated with NIHSS score change from baseline to day 90. There was a trend showing baseline serum glucose correlated with infarct growth with magnesium treatment but not in the placebo group. The mismatch frequency was reduced from 73% to 47% by increasing the mismatch threshold from >20% to >100% of core volume. Conclusions Infarct growth, confirmed here as a surrogate for clinical progression, was similar between magnesium and placebo treatment, paralleling the main IMAGES trial clinical outcomes. Glucose was a covariate for infarct growth with magnesium treatment. A more stringent mismatch threshold to define penumbra more appropriately would have excluded half of the patients in this sub-12 hour stroke study. PMID:19299636

  8. Does the sex of acute stroke patients influence the effectiveness of rt-PA?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women have been reported to show more frequent recanalization and better recovery after intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment for acute stroke compared with men. To investigate this we studied a series of stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA and undergoing acute transcranial doppler (TCD) examination. Methods Acute stroke patients received IV rt-PA and had acute TCD examination within 4 hours of symptom onset at 4 major stroke centers. TCD findings were interpreted using the Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia (TIBI) flow grading system. The recanalization rates, and poor 3-month outcomes (modified Rankin scale >2) of men and women were compared using the chi-square test. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess sex as a predictor of recanalization and poor 3-month outcome after controlling for age, baseline NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), time to treatment, hypertension, and blood glucose. Results 369 patients had TCD examinations before or during IV rt-PA treatment. The 199 (53.9%) men and 170 (46.1%) women had mean ages of 67 ± 13 and 70 ± 14 years, respectively. The sexes did not differ significantly in baseline stroke severity, time to TCD examination, or time to thrombolysis. Of the men, 68 (34.2%) had complete recanalization, 58 (29.1%) had partial recanalization, and 73 (36.6%) had no recanalization. Of the women, 53 (31.2%) had complete recanalization, 46 (27%) had partial recanalization, and 71 (41.8%) had no recanalization (p = 0.6). Multiple regression analyses showed no difference between the sexes in recanalization rate, time to recanalization, or clinical outcome at 3 months. Conclusions In our study; sex is not a significant predictor of recanalization rate, time to recanalization or 3-month outcome in stroke patients following IV rt-PA. Trial registration Data from CLOTBUST trial Clinicaltrails.gov Identifier: NCT01240356. PMID:24669960

  9. Neuroanatomical correlates of severe cardiac arrhythmias in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Frank; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Gutjahr, Isabell; Breuer, Lorenz; Winder, Klemens; Kaschka, Iris; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd; Hilz, Max-Josef; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Neurocardiological interactions can cause severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The relationship between the lesion location in the brain and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardiac arrhythmias were systematically assessed in patients with acute ischemic stroke during the first 72 h after admission to a monitored stroke unit. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of clinically relevant severe arrhythmias. Overall 150 patients, 56 with right-hemispheric and 94 patients with a left-hemispheric lesion, were eligible to be included in the VLSM study. Severe cardiac arrhythmias were present in 49 of these 150 patients (32.7%). We found a significant association (FDR correction, q < 0.05) between lesions in the right insular, right frontal and right parietal cortex as well as the right amygdala, basal ganglia and thalamus and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. Because left- and right-hemispheric lesions were analyzed separately, the significant findings rely on the 56 patients with right-hemispheric lesions. The data indicate that these areas are involved in central autonomic processing and that right-hemispheric lesions located to these areas are associated with an elevated risk for severe cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Physical fitness training in Subacute Stroke (PHYS-STROKE) - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rising number of strokes worldwide, and the large number of individuals left with disabilities after stroke, novel strategies to reduce disability, increase functions in the motor and the cognitive domains, and improve quality of life are of major importance. Physical activity is a promising intervention to address these challenges but, as yet, there is no study demonstrating definite outcomes. Our objective is to assess whether additional treatment in the form of physical fitness-based training for patients early after stroke will provide benefits in terms of functional outcomes, in particular gait speed and the Barthel Index (co-primary outcome measures) reflecting activities of daily living (ADL). We will gather secondary functional outcomes as well as mechanistic parameters in an exploratory approach. Methods/Design Our phase III randomised controlled trial will recruit 215 adults with moderate to severe limitations of walking and ADL 5 to 45 days after stroke onset. Participants will be stratified for the prognostic variables of “centre”, “age”, and “stroke severity”, and randomly assigned to one of two groups. The interventional group receives physical fitness training delivered as supported or unsupported treadmill training (cardiovascular active aerobic training; five times per week, over 4 weeks; each session 50 minutes; total of 20 additional physical fitness training sessions) in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. The control intervention consists of relaxation sessions (non-cardiovascular active; five times per week week, over 4 weeks; each session 50 minutes) in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. Co-primary efficacy endpoints will be gait speed (in m/s, 10 m walk) and the Barthel Index (100 points total) at 3 months post-stroke, compared to baseline measurements. Secondary outcomes include standard measures of quality of life, sleep and mood, cognition, arm function, maximal oxygen uptake

  11. Complexity of Heart Rate Variability Can Predict Stroke-In-Evolution in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Huang, Pei-Wen; Tang, Sung-Chun; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Lai, Dar-Ming; Wu, An-Yu; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-12-01

    About one-third of acute stroke patients may experience stroke-in-evolution, which is often associated with a worse outcome. Recently, we showed that multiscale entropy (MSE), a non-linear method for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is an early outcome predictor in non-atrial fibrillation (non-AF) stroke patients. We aimed to further investigate MSE as a predictor of SIE. We included 90 non-AF ischemic stroke patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Nineteen (21.1%) patients met the criteria of SIE, which was defined as an increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥2 points within 3 days of admission. The MSE of HRV was analyzed from 1-hour continuous ECG signals during the first 24 hours of admission. The complexity index was defined as the area under the MSE curve. Compared with patients without SIE, those with SIE had a significantly lower complexity index value (21.3 ± 8.5 vs 26.5 ± 7.7, P = 0.012). After adjustment for clinical variables, patients with higher complexity index values were significantly less likely to have SIE (odds ratio = 0.897, 95% confidence interval 0.818-0.983, P = 0.020). In summary, early assessment of HRV by MSE can be a potential predictor of SIE in ICU-admitted non-AF ischemic stroke patients.

  12. [Investigation on acute stroke patients being admitted to hospital].

    PubMed

    Zi, X; Song, Z; Fan, X

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and twelve patients with acute stroke were studied. The results revealed that about 42 percent of 112 patients could get to hospital within 6 hours after onset, in which included 60.4 percent of the hemorrhagic group and 28.1 percent of the infarction group. Comparatively, among 30.3 percent of 112 patients CT scan was carried out within 6 hours, which included 41.7 percent of the hemorrhagic group and 21.8 percent of the infarction group. Linear correlation analysis was studied between admission time(AT) and the assessment of neural function defect(ANFD). The results showed that there was significant negative correlation between AT and ANFD in stroke patients. After analysing the serial reasons of delaying hospitalization, the authors have found that the key factor is the ignorance of the importance of stroke in early stage. PMID:12080684

  13. Taste perception abnormalities after acute stroke in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kwon, Sun U; Kwon, Jee-Hyun

    2009-06-01

    The study aims to elucidate the characteristics of post-stroke taste dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Taste function in 120 consecutive postmenopausal women with acute (<7 days) stroke was compared with that of age-matched control subjects (n=109). The agents used were: sodium chloride for saltiness, sucrose for sweetness, glacial acetic acid for sourness and quinine hemisulfate for bitterness. Detection and recognition thresholds were performed by the three-stimulus drop technique. Taste threshold values beyond two standard deviations of normal were considered "abnormal". For postmenopausal women after acute stroke, abnormal detection thresholds for the ability to taste sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness were found in 33%, 21%, 35% and 30% of women, respectively, and abnormal recognition thresholds were found in 40%, 34%, 42% and 33% of women respectively. The taste dysfunction occurred ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally, and was not related to the side or location of the lesion. Large (>2 cm) lesions were more frequently associated with sweet and salty taste dysfunction than small lesions (p<0.05). Follow-up examination in 23 patients at 24 to 31 months (mean 27 months) after the initial evaluation showed that the taste abnormality persisted in 8 (35%) patients. Taste perception abnormalities are common and often persistent in stroke patients. The dysfunction can occur ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally. PMID:19297163

  14. Validation and Recalibration of Two Multivariable Prognostic Models for Survival and Independence in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Teece, Lucy; Dennis, Martin S.; Roffe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various prognostic models have been developed for acute stroke, including one based on age and five binary variables (‘six simple variables’ model; SSVMod) and one based on age plus scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSSMod). The aims of this study were to externally validate and recalibrate these models, and to compare their predictive ability in relation to both survival and independence. Methods Data from a large clinical trial of oxygen therapy (n = 8003) were used to determine the discrimination and calibration of the models, using C-statistics, calibration plots, and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Methods of recalibration in the large and logistic recalibration were used to update the models. Results For discrimination, both models functioned better for survival (C-statistics between .802 and .837) than for independence (C-statistics between .725 and .735). Both models showed slight shortcomings with regard to calibration, over-predicting survival and under-predicting independence; the NIHSSMod performed slightly better than the SSVMod. For the most part, there were only minor differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Logistic recalibration successfully updated the models for a clinical trial population. Conclusions Both prognostic models performed well overall in a clinical trial population. The choice between them is probably better based on clinical and practical considerations than on statistical considerations. PMID:27227988

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury Following Mannitol Infusion in Patients With Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic, is commonly used to treat patients with acute brain edema, but its use also increases the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigated the incidence and risk factors of mannitol-related AKI in acute stroke patients. A total of 432 patients (ischemic stroke 62.3%) >20 years of age who were admitted to the neurocritical care center in a tertiary hospital and received mannitol treatment were enrolled in this study. Clinical parameters including the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, vascular risk factors, laboratory data, and concurrent nephrotoxic medications were registered. Acute kidney injury was defined as an absolute elevation in the serum creatinine (Scr) level of ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline or a ≥50% increase in Scr. The incidence of mannitol-related AKI was 6.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.5%–9.3%) in acute stroke patients, 6.3% in patients with ischemic stroke, and 6.7% in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline, higher initial NIHSS score, and concurrent use of diuretics increased the risk of mannitol-related AKI. When present, the combination of these elements displayed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 (95% confidence interval, 0.770–0.909). In conclusion, mannitol-related AKI is not uncommon in the treatment of acute stroke patients, especially in those with vulnerable risk factors. PMID:26632702

  16. [Stroke].

    PubMed

    Luft, A R; Weller, M

    2009-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is a very frequent neurological disorder. It's incidence is increasing as western societies are aging. Effective therapies that reduce mortality and increase the chances of living symptom-free or, at least, in independence are available. Intravenous or intraarterial thrombolysis is an effective treatment with a number needed to treat of 6 if given within 4.5 hours after symptom onset. The safe use of thrombolysis requires an effective and repeatedly trained workflow established within a team of a neurologist and specialized nursing staff in an optimized environment (admission, imaging facility, laboratory, stroke unit). After peracute treatment, the patient should be transferred to a stroke unit. This unit is a spatially defined intermediate care unit with specifically trained personnel (physicians, nurses, therapists). Treating the patient in a stroke unit is as effective in improving outcome as thrombolysis and also reduces the length of hospital stay. In contrast to thrombolysis, which can be provided, on average, to only 5% of stroke patients, stroke unit care is applicable to most. The organization of medical care in most European countries and in Switzerland separate the acute phase from subacute rehabilitation and chronic stroke treatment. This can be highly confusing for the patient who, during the course of the disease, meets different physicians, nurses and therapists with often diverging opinions about prognosis and therapies. Consistent treatment approaches and patient/caregiver information is necessary and can only be implemented by providing a homogeneous pathway for continuous stroke care. PMID:20029781

  17. Design and Rationale of the Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy (MR RESCUE) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Jahan, Reza; Alger, Jeffry R.; Schaewe, Timothy J.; Guzy, Judy; Starkman, Sidney; Elashoff, Robert; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Nenov, Val; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Rationale Multimodal imaging has the potential to identify acute ischemic stroke patients most likely to benefit from late recanalization therapies. Aims The general aim of the MR RESCUE Trial is to investigate whether multimodal imaging can identify patients who will benefit substantially from mechanical embolectomy for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke up to 8 hours from symptom onset. Design MR RESCUE is a randomized, controlled, blinded-outcome clinical trial. Population Studied Acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 or M2 occlusion enrolled within 8 hours of symptom onset are eligible. The study sample size is 120 patients. Study Intervention Patients are randomized to endovascular embolectomy employing the Merci Retriever (Concentric Medical, Mountain View, California) or the Penumbra System (Penumbra, Alameda, California) vs. standard medical care, with randomization stratified by penumbral pattern. Outcomes The primary aim of the trial is to test the hypothesis that the presence of substantial ischemic penumbral tissue visualized on multimodal imaging (MRI or CT) predicts patients most likely to respond to mechanical embolectomy for treatment of acute ischemic stroke due to a large vessel, intracranial occlusion up to 8 hours from symptom onset. This hypothesis will be tested by analyzing whether pretreatment imaging pattern has a significant interaction with treatment as a determinant of functional outcome based on the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) measure of global disability assessed 90 days post-stroke. Nested hypotheses test for 1) treatment efficacy in patients with a penumbral pattern pretreatment, and 2) absence of treatment benefit (equivalency) in patients without a penumbral pattern pretreatment. An additional aim will only be tested if the primary hypothesis of an interaction is negative: that patients treated with

  18. Imaging of acute stroke prior to treatment: current practice and evolving techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mair, G

    2014-01-01

    Standard imaging in acute stroke is undertaken with the aim of diagnosing the underlying cause and excluding stroke mimics. In the presence of ischaemic stroke, imaging is also needed to assess patient suitability for treatment with intravenous thrombolysis. Non-contrast CT is predominantly used, but MRI can also exclude any contraindications to thrombolysis treatment. Advanced stroke imaging such as CT and MR angiography and perfusion imaging are increasingly used in an acute setting. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the application of these advanced techniques in the imaging of acute stroke. PMID:24936980

  19. Developments in mechanical thrombectomy devices for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several recent prospective randomized controlled trials of endovascular stroke therapy using latest generation thrombectomy devices, so called stent-retrievers, have shown significantly improved clinical outcome compared to the standard treatment with intra-venous thrombolysis using r-tPA alone. Despite some differences in inclusion criteria between these studies, all required non-invasive vessel imaging to proof occlusion of a major brain supplying vessel. Furthermore, in most studies additional imaging techniques were used to exclude patients with already established large cerebral infarction or unfavorable collateral or penumbral status. Patients with small infarct volume, severe neurological deficits and in whom thrombectomy can be initiated within the first 6 hours after symptom onset seem to benefit the most. Therefore, mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retrievers in addition to intra-venous thrombolysis is recommended for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with proven major vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation.

  20. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sherita N; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Johansen, Michelle C; McMurry, Timothy L; Johnston, Karen C; Southerland, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15%) compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. PMID:24591838

  1. Synthesis of Intervention Trials To Improve Motor Recovery following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Duncan, P W

    1997-01-01

    Therapists have used multiple interventions to improve motor recovery following stroke. However, the clinical research studies to support efficacy of the interventions are few. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the results of the clinical trials that have assessed therapeutic interventions to enhance motor recovery. The results of the current research provide some evidence that physical interventions may improve intrinsic motor recovery. The interventions that have been shown to be effective require active participation of the patient and repetitive training. The improvements in motor control have been limited to select patients with volitional motor control. PMID:27620372

  2. Acute vertigo due to hemispheric stroke: a case report and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    von Brevern, Michael; Süßmilch, Sina; Zeise, Daniel

    2014-04-15

    Acute cortical lesions rarely cause vertigo. We report a 51-year-old patient presenting with an acute vestibular syndrome including spontaneous vertigo and nystagmus, lateropulsion and nausea due to middle cerebral artery infarction. The central origin of the acute vestibular syndrome was revealed by a normal head impulse test. A comprehensive literature review on patients with hemispheric stroke manifesting with acute vertigo is provided. Typically, patients with an acute vestibular syndrome due to cortical stroke have involvement of the temporoparietal junction.

  3. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  4. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  5. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64–2.89) and 3.10 (2.35–4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49–2.20) and 2.04 (1.57–2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06–1.76) and 1.40 (1.07–1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with

  6. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  7. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Nikpour, Mohammad Reza; Nazarbaghi, Surena; Ahmadi-Salmasi, Babak; Mokari, Tayebeh; Tahamtan, Urya; Rezaei, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23) or normal saline alone (n=23) adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008) and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001). The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05). One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%). Conclusion Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. PMID:25516711

  8. Protocol for the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-stroke (LEAPS) trial: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Pamela W; Sullivan, Katherine J; Behrman, Andrea L; Azen, Stanley P; Wu, Samuel S; Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce H; Rose, Dorian K; Tilson, Julie K

    2007-01-01

    Background Locomotor training using body weight support and a treadmill as a therapeutic modality for rehabilitation of walking post-stroke is being rapidly adopted into clinical practice. There is an urgent need for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. The objective of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) trial is to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of participants who recover walking ability at one year post-stroke when randomized to a specialized locomotor training program (LTP), conducted at 2- or 6-months post-stroke, or those randomized to a home based non-specific, low intensity exercise intervention (HEP) provided 2 months post-stroke. We will determine if the timing of LTP delivery affects gait speed at 1 year and whether initial impairment severity interacts with the timing of LTP. The effect of number of treatment sessions will be determined by changes in gait speed taken pre-treatment and post-12, -24, and -36 sessions. Methods/Design We will recruit 400 adults with moderate or severe walking limitations within 30 days of stroke onset. At two months post stroke, participants are stratified by locomotor impairment severity as determined by overground walking speed and randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) LTP-Early; (b) LTP-Late or (c) Home Exercise Program -Early. The LTP program includes body weight support on a treadmill and overground training. The LTP and HEP interventions are delivered for 36 sessions over 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure include successful walking recovery defined as the achievement of a 0.4 m/s gait speed or greater by persons with initial severe gait impairment or the achievement of a 0.8 m/s gait speed or greater by persons with initial moderate gait impairment. LEAPS is powered to detect a 20% difference in the proportion of participants achieving successful locomotor recovery between the LTP groups and the HEP group, and a 0.1 m/s mean

  9. [Spinal stroke in the acute myeloblast leucosis].

    PubMed

    Kotova, N A; Klimovich, A V; Krasnoruzhskiĭ, A I; Skoromets, A A; Aliev, K T; Volkova, S A; Lalaian, T V

    2013-01-01

    Data of literature on the frequency of the nervous system lesions in different variants of leucosis are analyzed. A case of a man with petechial skin rash and bruises on the body, gingival hemorrhage and general sickness is described in details. The hematologic tests revealed acute myeloblast leucosis. A lumbar puncture revealed blood in the cerebrospinal fluid and MRI showed an epidural hematoma in lumbar segments 3 and 4. At this level, the hematoma compressed the dural bag and roots of the horse tail with accompanying vessels (the radicular medullar artery and large radicular veins). A paracentetic removal of the hematoma with the decompression of spinal roots was carried out. The blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid and symptoms of the left facial nerve lesion allowed to diagnose neuroleucosis. This case presented the mixed pathogenesis of myeloischemia. The epidural hematoma compressed not only the roots of the horse tail but the accompanying vessels (arteries and veins). The venous outflow obstruction along radicular veins worsened the microcirculation in the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord. Complex polychemotherapy in the combination with neuroprotectors (cortexin, gliatiline), antiaggregants and vitamins is recommended. PMID:23612398

  10. Acute cerebral paragonimiasis presenting as hemorrhagic stroke in a child.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang; Lin, Jiangkai; Wu, Nan; Feng, Hua

    2008-08-01

    A hemorrhagic stroke in children is rarely secondary to cerebral paragonimiasis. We describe a 9-year-old boy in whom an intracerebral hemorrhage was the leading clinical indication of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. He was hospitalized because of a sudden onset of headache, right hemiparesis, and dysarthria. A computed tomography scan revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance angiography did not confirm any vascular abnormalities at the location of the hematoma. Four weeks later, he presented with right hemiparesis again, and fever. A diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis was based on repeated magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for paragonimiasis. The patient gradually recovered with praziquantel treatment. Cerebral paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic strokes in children in areas where paragonimiasis is epidemic.

  11. Exertional heat stroke and acute liver failure: a late dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Rodeia, Simão C; Silvestre, Joana; Póvoa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is defined as a severe elevation of core body temperature along with central nervous system dysfunction. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) with acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare condition. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man with a history of cognitive enhancers' intake who developed hyperthermia and neurological impairment while running an outdoor marathon. The patient was cooled and returned to normal body temperature after 6 h. He subsequently developed ALF and was transferred to the intensive care unit. Over-the-counter drug intake may have been related to heat intolerance and contributed to the event. The patient was successfully treated with conservative measures. In the presence of EHS, it is crucial to act promptly with aggressive total body cooling, in order to prevent progression of the clinical syndrome. Liver function must also be monitored, since it can be a late organ dysfunction. PMID:26969359

  12. The effects of very early mirror therapy on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26696729

  13. The effects of very early mirror therapy on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26696729

  14. [Telemedicine in acute stroke care--a health economics view].

    PubMed

    Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M

    2010-05-01

    Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.

  15. Effectiveness of thigh-length graduated compression stockings to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis after stroke (CLOTS trial 1): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism are common after stroke. In small trials of patients undergoing surgery, graduated compression stockings (GCS) reduce the risk of DVT. National stroke guidelines extrapolating from these trials recommend their use in patients with stroke despite insufficient evidence. We assessed the effectiveness of thigh-length GCS to reduce DVT after stroke. Methods In this outcome-blinded, randomised controlled trial, 2518 patients who were admitted to hospital within 1 week of an acute stroke and who were immobile were enrolled from 64 centres in the UK, Italy, and Australia. Patients were allocated via a central randomisation system to routine care plus thigh-length GCS (n=1256) or to routine care plus avoidance of GCS (n=1262). A technician who was blinded to treatment allocation undertook compression Doppler ultrasound of both legs at about 7–10 days and, when practical, again at 25–30 days after enrolment. The primary outcome was the occurrence of symptomatic or asymptomatic DVT in the popliteal or femoral veins. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN28163533. Findings All patients were included in the analyses. The primary outcome occurred in 126 (10·0%) patients allocated to thigh-length GCS and in 133 (10·5%) allocated to avoid GCS, resulting in a non-significant absolute reduction in risk of 0·5% (95% CI −1·9% to 2·9%). Skin breaks, ulcers, blisters, and skin necrosis were significantly more common in patients allocated to GCS than in those allocated to avoid their use (64 [5%] vs 16 [1%]; odds ratio 4·18, 95% CI 2·40–7·27). Interpretation These data do not lend support to the use of thigh-length GCS in patients admitted to hospital with acute stroke. National guidelines for stroke might need to be revised on the basis of these results. Funding Medical Research Council (UK), Chief Scientist Office of Scottish Government, Chest Heart and Stroke

  16. The Relation Between GABA and L-Arginine Levels With Some Stroke Risk Factors in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hosinian, Mohsen; Qujeq, Durdi; Ahmadi Ahangar, Alijan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in extra and intracellular neurotransmitter amino acids concentration in the early stage of acute cerebral ischemia have been reported. In this the study, serum level of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-Arginine in acute ischemic stroke patients was assessed. 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke and sixthy healthy volunteers as a control group were assessed. Serum GABA was measured with modified enzymatic method and serum L- Arginine was measured by modified Sakaguchi method. Serum GABA level in stroke cases was lower than that of the control group. There was no relationship between GABA level and age or gender. Also, no significant correlation was observed between GABA levels with ischemic stroke risk factors such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Serum L- Arginine level in patients was slightly increased in comparison with control group. There was a positive relationship between serum L- Arginine level and acute ischemic stroke risk factors. Serum GABA level was reduced in patients and had no correlation with acute ischemic stroke risk factors. PMID:27478806

  17. Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke in pregnancy using the penumbra system.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Sanjith; Shyamkumar, N K; Alexander, Sunithi; Babu, P Suresh; Prabhakar, A T; Moses, Vinu; Murthy, T V; Alexander, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Even though intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) is the standard of care in acute ischemic stroke, its use in pregnancy is not clearly defined. Mechanical thrombectomy devices can be an option; however, literature on the use of such mechanical devices in stroke in pregnancy is lacking. Here we describe two cases that developed acute embolic stroke during pregnancy who were successfully treated by mechanical clot retrieval using the Penumbra system 28 (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, California, USA). To the best of our knowledge, these are the only case reports on the use of the Penumbra device in pregnant patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27293343

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure associated with classic heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Tan, W; Herzlich, B C; Funaro, R; Koutelos, K; Pagala, M; Amaladevi, B; Grob, D

    1995-10-01

    Classic heat stroke is a disorder of thermal regulation that predominantly affects elderly patients during heat waves. In contrast to exertional heat stroke, rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure are considered to be unusual manifestations of classic heat stroke. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of seven patients admitted to Maimonides Medical Center with classic heat stroke over a 3-day period during a heat wave in July 1993. Three of these patients with classic heat stroke had rhabdomyolysis, but no renal failure; two completely recovered; and one had an ataxic gait disturbance. Three additional patients had rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure; one of them completely recovered, one survived with quadriplegia, and one died. Our findings suggest that rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure are common manifestations of classic heat stroke. Recognition of this complication warrants rigorous hydration and alkalinization of the urine to prevent or attenuate myoglobinuric acute renal failure. PMID:7481965

  19. [Peri-interventional management of acute endovascular stroke treatment].

    PubMed

    Schönenberger, S; Bösel, J

    2015-10-01

    Due to the ground breaking consistent evidence that supports the effect of endovascular stroke treatment (EST), many acute care hospitals and stroke centers will have to be prepared to provide this treatment in an optimal way within the coming years. In addition to the intervention itself, patient preparation, stabilization and monitoring during the treatment as well as the aftercare represent significant challenges and have mostly not yet been sufficiently investigated. Under these aspects, the questions of optimal sedation and airway management have received the highest attention. Based on retrospective study results it already seems to be justified, respecting certain criteria, to prefer EST with the patient under conscious sedation (CS) in comparison to general anesthesia (GA) and to only switch to GA in cases of emergency until this question has been clarified by prospective studies. This and other aspects of peri-interventional management, such as logistics, monitoring, blood pressure, ventilation settings, postprocedural steps of intensive or stroke unit care and imaging follow-up are summarized in this overview. The clinical and radiological selection of patients and thus the decision for intervention or technical aspects of the intervention itself will not be part of this article. PMID:26311331

  20. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke: Consensus statement by ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update 2014/2015, supported by ESO, ESMINT, ESNR and EAN.

    PubMed

    Wahlgren, Nils; Moreira, Tiago; Michel, Patrik; Steiner, Thorsten; Jansen, Olav; Cognard, Christophe; Mattle, Heinrich P; van Zwam, Wim; Holmin, Staffan; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Petersson, Jesper; Caso, Valeria; Hacke, Werner; Mazighi, Mikael; Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Szikora, Istvan; Pierot, Laurent; Fiehler, Jens; Gralla, Jan; Fazekas, Franz; Lees, Kennedy R

    2016-01-01

    The original version of this consensus statement on mechanical thrombectomy was approved at the European Stroke Organisation (ESO)-Karolinska Stroke Update conference in Stockholm, 16-18 November 2014. The statement has later, during 2015, been updated with new clinical trials data in accordance with a decision made at the conference. Revisions have been made at a face-to-face meeting during the ESO Winter School in Berne in February, through email exchanges and the final version has then been approved by each society. The recommendations are identical to the original version with evidence level upgraded by 20 February 2015 and confirmed by 15 May 2015. The purpose of the ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update meetings is to provide updates on recent stroke therapy research and to discuss how the results may be implemented into clinical routine. Selected topics are discussed at consensus sessions, for which a consensus statement is prepared and discussed by the participants at the meeting. The statements are advisory to the ESO guidelines committee. This consensus statement includes recommendations on mechanical thrombectomy after acute stroke. The statement is supported by ESO, European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR), and European Academy of Neurology (EAN).

  1. The home stroke rehabilitation and monitoring system trial: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Susan M.; Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Reiss, Aimee; Buchanan, Sharon; Sahu, Komal; Bay, Curtis R.; Wolf, Steven L.; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Because many individuals post-stroke lack access to the quality and intensity of rehabilitation to improve upper extremity (UE) motor function, a home-based robotic-assisted UE rehabilitation device is being paired with an individualized home exercise program (HEP). Aims/Hypothesis The primary aim of this project is to determine the effectiveness of robotic-assisted home therapy compared to a home exercise program on UE motor recovery and health-related quality of life for stroke survivors in rural and underserved locations. The secondary aim is to explore whether initial degree of motor function of the upper limb may be a factor in predicting the extent to which patients with stroke may be responsive to a home therapy approach. The HEP intervention, when enhanced with robotic-assisted therapy will result in significantly better outcomes in motor function and quality of life. Design A total of 96 participants within six months of a single, unilateral ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke will be recruited in this prospective, single-blind, multi-site randomized clinical trial. Study Outcomes The primary outcome is the change in UE function using the Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes include changes in: UE function (Wolf Motor Function Test), UE impairment (UE portion of the Fugl-Meyer Test), self-reported quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale), and affect (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Discussion Similar or greater improvements in UE function using the combined robotic-HEP intervention compared to HEP alone will be interpreted as evidence that supports the introduction of in-home technology to augment the recovery of function post-stroke. PMID:23280269

  2. Aspiration-Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Acute Stroke Patient

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-nan; Liu, Yao; Li, Huai-chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspiration of oral or gastric contents into the larynx and lower respiratory tract is a common problem in acute stroke patients, which significantly increases the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of aspiration-related ARDS in acute stroke patients. Methods Over 17-month period a retrospective cohort study was done on 1495 consecutive patients with acute stroke. The data including demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, chest imaging, and hospital discharge status were collected to analysis. Results Aspiration-related ARDS was diagnosed in 54 patients (3.6%). The most common presenting symptom was tachypnea (respiratory rate ≥25 breaths/min) in 50 cases. Computed tomography (CT) images usually demonstrated diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and inhomogeneous patchy consolidations involving the low lobes. Age, NIHSS score, GCS score, dysphagia, dysarthria, hemoglobin concentration, serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST), serum albumin, serum sodium, and admission glucose level were independently associated with aspiration-related ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.04–1.07); OR 2.87, (2.68–3.63); OR 4.21, (3.57–5.09); OR 2.18, (1.23–3.86); OR 1.67, (1.31–2.14); OR 2.31, (1.11–4.84); OR 1.68, (1.01–2.80); OR 2.15, (1.19–3.90); OR 1.92, (1.10–3.36) and OR 1.14, (1.06–1.21) respectively). Conclusions Aspiration-related ARDS frequently occurs in acute stroke patient with impairment consciousness. It is advisable that performing chest CT timely may identify disease early and prompt treatment to rescue patients. PMID:25790377

  3. Is Intra-Arterial Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Less Effective in Women than in Men?

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Inger R.; Fransen, Puck S.S.; Beumer, Debbie; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Wermer, Marieke J.; Lingsma, Hester; van Zwam, Wim H.; Roos, Yvo B.; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Majoie, Charles B.; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke etiology and outcome after ischemic stroke differ between men and women. We examined if sex modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in a randomized clinical trial of IAT for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). Patients and Methods The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We tested for interaction between sex and treatment and estimated the treatment effect by sex with multiple ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for prognostic factors. Results All 500 patients were included in the analysis; 292 (58.4%) were men. The treatment effect (adjusted common odds ratio) was 2.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55–3.68] in men and 0.99 (95% CI 0.60–1.66) in women (pinteraction = 0.016). In women, mortality was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (24 vs. 15%, p = 0.07). Serious adverse events occurred more often in women than in men undergoing intervention. There were no differences in neuro-imaging outcomes. Discussion and Conclusion Contrary to other studies, we found a significant interaction between sex and treatment effect in the MR CLEAN trial. Pooled analyses of all published thrombectomy trials did not confirm this finding. In MR CLEAN, women seem to have a slightly more unfavorable profile, causing higher mortality and more serious adverse events, but insufficient to explain the absence of an overall effect. This suggests a play of chance and makes it clear that IAT should not be withheld in women.

  4. Feasibility of SaeboFlex upper-limb training in acute stroke rehabilitation: a clinical case series.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Rebecca A; Marshall, Lisa M; Sivakumar, Ramachandran

    2014-09-01

    Upper-limb (UL) recovery following stroke is often poor. UL rehabilitation therefore continues to be a major focus for occupational therapy. Published evidence for the effectiveness of SaeboFlex training in acute stroke rehabilitation is scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and patient experience of SaeboFlex training in acute stroke. This feasibility study recruited stroke patients (< 84 days post-stroke) with moderate/severe UL weakness. They participated in SaeboFlex sessions for 12 weeks in addition to conventional rehabilitation. A battery of measures was taken at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Eight participants were recruited. For the action research arm test score and UL Motricity Index, clinically significant improvements were noted in five out of seven (71%) and six out of seven participants (86%) respectively. Clinically significant improvements were also noted in secondary outcomes. Shoulder complications occurred in one participant. SaeboFlex training facilitated clinically significant improvements in UL function. It has the potential to improve participation and independence in ADLs, reduce carer burden and associated costs. Being a feasibility study with no control arm, we urge caution in interpreting these results. Future research is needed to evaluate the efficacy, optimum dosage and impact on dependency levels of SaeboFlex training as part of a randomized controlled trial.

  5. Sex Disparities in Access to Acute Stroke Care: Can Telemedicine Mitigate this Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K.; Albright, Karen C.; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T.; Branas, Charles C.; Grotta, James C.; Savitz, Sean I.; Carr, Brendan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Women have more frequent and severe ischemic strokes than men, and are less likely to receive treatment for acute stroke. Primary stroke centers (PSCs) have been shown to utilize treatment more frequently. Further, as telemedicine (TM) has expanded access to acute stroke care we sought to investigate the association between PSC, TM and access to acute stroke care in the state of Texas. Methods Texas hospitals and resources were identified from the 2009 American Hospital Association Annual Survey. Hospitals were categorized as: (1) stand-alone PSCs not using telemedicine for acute stroke care, (2) PSCs using telemedicine for acute stroke care (PSC-TM), (3) non-PSC hospitals using telemedicine for acute stroke care, or (4) non-PSC hospitals not using telemedicine for acute stroke care. The proportion of the population who could reach a PSC within 60 minutes was determined for stand-alone PSCs, PSC-TM, and non-PSCs using TM for stroke care. Results Overall, women were as likely to have 60-minute access to a PSC or PSC-TM as their male counterparts (POR 1.02, 95% CI 1.02-1.03). Women were also just as likely to have access to acute stroke care via PSC or PSC-TM or TM as men (POR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04). Discussion Our study found no sex disparities in access to stand alone PSCs or to hospitals using TM in the state of Texas. The results of this study suggest that telemedicine can be used as part of an inclusive strategy to improve access to care equally for men and women.

  6. Combined neurothrombectomy or thrombolysis with adjunctive delivery of 3K3A-activated protein C in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Arun Paul; Griffin, John H.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), vessel recanalization correlates with improved functional status and reduced mortality. Mechanical neurothrombectomy achieves a higher likelihood of revascularization than intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), but there remains significant discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome. The poor neurological recovery among some stroke patients despite successful recanalization confirms the need for adjuvant therapy, such as pharmacological neuroprotection. Prior clinical trials of neuroprotectant drugs failed perhaps due to inability of the agent to reach the ischemic tissue beyond the occluded artery. A protocol that couples mechanical neurothrombectomy with concurrent delivery of a neuroprotectant overcomes this pitfall. Activated protein C (APC) exerts pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antithrombotic, cytoprotective, and neuroregenerative effects in stroke and appears a compelling candidate for this novel approach. PMID:26388732

  7. Neurothrombectomy trial results: stroke systems, not just devices, make the difference.

    PubMed

    Mocco, J; Fargen, Kyle M; Goyal, Mayank; Levy, Elad I; Mitchell, Peter J; Campbell, Bruce C V; Majoie, Charles B L M; Dippel, Diederik W J; Khatri, Pooja; Hill, Michael D; Saver, Jeffery L

    2015-10-01

    The overwhelming benefit demonstrated in the four recent randomized trials comparing intra-arterial therapies to medical management alone will have a transformative effect on the emergent management of strokes throughout the world. New generation neurothrombectomy devices were critical to trial success, but not the sole driver of patient outcomes in these trials. Patients in the positive trials were treated at hospitals with complex, efficient, resource-rich, team-based stroke systems in place. To ensure attainment of trial results in actual practice, patients should receive treatment at facilities certified as having the resources, personnel, organization, and continuous quality improvement processes characteristic of trial centers. It is our hope that, through greater education initiatives, robust resource investment, and developing quality-based certification processes, the results demonstrated by these trials may be extrapolated to greater numbers of centers - in turn allowing greater access for patients to high-quality, advanced stroke care.

  8. Ancrod causes rapid thrombolysis in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pollak, V E; Glas-Greenwalt, P; Olinger, C P; Wadhwa, N K; Myre, S A

    1990-05-01

    Clot lysis is desirable in patients with thrombi in arteries and arterioles by a safe rapidly-acting thrombolytic agent. Ancrod cleaves fibrinogen; the resulting circulating ancrod-fibrin stimulates fibrinolysis. Ancrod action and effect were studied in 20 patients with acute developing stroke in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, and received either normal saline or ancrod 0.5 mu/kg in normal saline administered as a constant-rate intravenous infusion over 6 hours. Subsequent doses of ancrod (or saline placebo) were determined daily thereafter for a total treatment period of 7 days. Neither bleeding nor re-thrombosis occurred within the 90 day follow-up period. That ancrod acted rapidly was shown by a significant decrease in functional plasminogen activator inhibitor (PA-I) within 60 minutes, and by significant elevations of fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer within 3 and 4 hours. The biological effect of fibrinolysis in ancrod infused patients was demonstrated by a greater improvement in stroke score when compared to those infused with saline. PMID:2186630

  9. Technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.P.

    1998-02-09

    From October 1994 to June 1997, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were funded through LDRD to develop and integrate technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. The project was summarized in a Science and Technology Review article `Brain Attack` that appeared in June 1997 and again in the Center for Healthcare Technologies Report (UCRL-LR-124761). This article is the best overview of the project, epidemiology of stroke and technical progress. Most of the technical progress has been documented in conference papers and presentations and refereed journal articles. Additional technical publication can be expected as our remaining patent applications progress through the US Patent and Trademark Office. The purpose of this report is to provide an appropriate introduction and organization to the numerous publications so that interested readers can quickly find information. Because there is no documentation for the history of this project, this report provides a summary. It also provides the final status report for the LDRD funding.

  10. Emergency EEG and continuous EEG monitoring in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kenneth G

    2004-01-01

    There is physiologic coupling of EEG morphology, frequencies, and amplitudes with cerebral blood flow. Intraoperative continuous electroencephalographic monitoring (CEEG) is an established modality that has been used for 30 years to detect cerebral ischemia during carotid surgery. These facts have generated interest in applying EEG/CEEG in the intensive care unit to monitor cerebral ischemia. However, its use in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been limited, and its value has been questioned in comparison with modern MRI imaging techniques and the clinical neurologic examination. This review presents evidence that EEG/CEEG adds value to early diagnosis, outcome prediction, patient selection for treatment, clinical management, and seizure detection in AIS. Research studies correlating EEG/CEEG and advanced imaging techniques in AIS are encouraged. Improvements in real-time ischemia detection systems are needed for EEG/CEEG to have wider application in AIS. PMID:15592008

  11. Sleep-related breathing disorders in acute lacunar stroke.

    PubMed

    Bonnin-Vilaplana, Marc; Arboix, Adrià; Parra, Olga; García-Eroles, Luis; Montserrat, Josep M; Massons, Joan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose was to examine the occurrence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) and variables related to SRBD in patients with acute lacunar stroke. In 68 consecutive patients with radiologically proven lacunes, respiratory polygraphy within the first 48 h of stroke onset was performed. SRBDs were classified according to mutually exclusive cutoff values of the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) as mild (AHI ≥ 10), moderate (AHI ≥ 20), and severe (AHI ≥ 30). Variables independently associated with SRBDs were assessed by logistic regression analysis. The mean (standard deviation) AHI was 21.9 (17.4). A total of 69.1% of patients showed AHI ≥ 10, 44.1% AHI ≥ 20, and 25% AHI ≥ 30. Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) was present in 20.6% of patients. Smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) or location of lacunes in the internal capsule or the pons was significantly more frequent in the AHI ≥ 10 group than in the remaining AHI groups (80.9% vs. 57.1%, P = 0.041). AHI ≥ 20 and AHI ≥ 30 occurred more frequently in smokers or in capsular or pontine lacunes than in the remaining patients (20% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.053; 29.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.01, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, smoking or capsular or pontine topographies were associated with AHI ≥ 10 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–9.79; P = 0.045]. Lacunes in the internal capsule or the pons in smokers were associated with AHI ≥ 20 (OR = 9.25, 95% CI 1.05–81.70; P = 0.045). Smoking (OR = 19.64, 95% CI 1.68–229.85; P = 0.010) and body mass index (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.13–2.50; P = 0.010) were associated with AHI ≥ 30. Smoker patients with capsular or pontine acute lacunar stroke should be screened for SRDB.

  12. [Clinical thinking about treating acute ischemic stroke by targeting the neurovascular unit of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ya-Ling; Liu, Qing; Luo, Yi

    2013-09-01

    Neurovascular unit (NVU) concept proposed for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) provides a new target, i.e., we should target as an integrity including neurons, glia, and microcirculation, thus supplementing limitations of previous treatment targeting neurons or blood vessels alone. Meanwhile, many clinical trials have failed after NVU protection against AIS drug research has developed at home and abroad. Chinese medicine has multi-component, multi-target, and overall regulation advantages, and is in line with clinical requirement for overall treatment targeting multiple targets of NVU. Currently clinical studies of Chinese medicine treatment of AIS targeting NVU are few. Standardized and systematic clinical efficacy evaluation is lack. Clinical studies for improving AIS-NVU injured blood markers by Chinese medicine are rarer. We hope to pave the way for performing clinical studies on Chinese medicine treatment of AIS targeting NVU.

  13. Early Mobilization in Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Trial of Safety and Feasibility in a Public Hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Simone Rosa; Rebello, Letícia Costa; Valença, Maria Júlia Monteiro; Rossato, Daniele; Almeida, Andrea Garcia; Brondani, Rosane; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Nasi, Luiz Antônio; Martins, Sheila Cristina Ouriques

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of early mobilization after acute stroke is still unclear, although some studies have suggested improvement in outcomes. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial seeking to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and benefit of early mobilization for patients with acute ischemic stroke treated in a public teaching hospital in Southern Brazil. This report presents the feasibility and safety findings for the pilot phase of this trial. Methods The primary outcomes were time to first mobilization, total duration of mobilization, complications during early mobilization, falls within 3 months, mortality within 3 months, and medical complications of immobility. We included adult patients with CT- or MRI-confirmed ischemic stroke within 48 h of symptom onset who were admitted from March to November 2012 to the acute vascular unit or general emergency unit of a large urban emergency department (ED) at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The severity of the neurological deficit on admission was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The NIHSS and modified Rankin Scale (mRS, functional outcome) scores were assessed on day 14 or at discharge as well as at 3 months. Activities of daily living (ADL) were measured with the modified Barthel Index (mBI) at 3 months. Results Thirty-seven patients (mean age 65 years, mean NIHSS score 11) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). The IG received earlier (p = 0.001) and more frequent (p < 0.0001) mobilization than the CG. Of the 19 patients in the CG, only 5 (26%) underwent a physical therapy program during hospitalization. No complications (symptomatic hypotension or worsening of neurological symptoms) were observed in association with early mobilization. The rates of complications of immobility (pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis) and mortality were similar in the two groups. No statistically significant

  14. A Trial of Imaging Selection and Endovascular Treatment for Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Jahan, Reza; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Alger, Jeffry R.; Nenov, Val; Ajani, Zahra; Feng, Lei; Meyer, Brett C.; Olson, Scott; Schwamm, Lee H.; Yoo, Albert J.; Marshall, Randolph S.; Meyers, Philip M.; Yavagal, Dileep R.; Wintermark, Max; Guzy, Judy; Starkman, Sidney; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Whether brain imaging can identify patients who are most likely to benefit from therapies for acute ischemic stroke and whether endovascular thrombectomy improves clinical outcomes in such patients remains unclear. METHODS In this study, we randomly assigned patients within 8 hours after the onset of large-vessel, anterior-circulation strokes to undergo mechanical embolectomy (Merci Retriever or Penumbra System) or receive standard care. All patients underwent pretreatment computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Randomization was stratified according to whether the patient had a favorable penumbral pattern (substantial salvageable tissue and small infarct core) or a non-penumbral pattern (large core or small or absent penumbra). We assessed outcomes using the 90-day modified Rankin scale, ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 6 (dead). RESULTS Among 118 eligible patients, the mean age was 65.5 years, the mean time to enrollment was 5.5 hours, and 58% had a favorable penumbral pattern. Revascularization in the embolectomy group was achieved in 67% of the patients. Ninety-day mortality was 21%, and the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 4%; neither rate differed across groups. Among all patients, mean scores on the modified Rankin scale did not differ between embolectomy and standard care (3.9 vs. 3.9, P = 0.99). Embolectomy was not superior to standard care in patients with either a favorable penumbral pattern (mean score, 3.9 vs. 3.4; P = 0.23) or a nonpenumbral pattern (mean score, 4.0 vs. 4.4; P = 0.32). In the primary analysis of scores on the 90-day modified Rankin scale, there was no interaction between the pretreatment imaging pattern and treatment assignment (P = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS A favorable penumbral pattern on neuroimaging did not identify patients who would differentially benefit from endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke, nor was embolectomy shown to be superior to standard care. (Funded by the

  15. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  16. Complex Versus Simple Ankle Movement Training in Stroke Using Telerehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huiqiong; Durfee, William K.; Nuckley, David J.; Rheude, Brandon S.; Severson, Amy E.; Skluzacek, Katie M.; Spindler, Kristen K.; Davey, Cynthia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Telerehabilitation allows rehabilitative training to continue remotely after discharge from acute care and can include complex tasks known to create rich conditions for neural change. Objectives The purposes of this study were: (1) to explore the feasibility of using telerehabilitation to improve ankle dorsiflexion during the swing phase of gait in people with stroke and (2) to compare complex versus simple movements of the ankle in promoting behavioral change and brain reorganization. Design This study was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Training was done in the participant's home. Testing was done in separate research labs involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-camera gait analysis. Patients Sixteen participants with chronic stroke and impaired ankle dorsiflexion were assigned randomly to receive 4 weeks of telerehabilitation of the paretic ankle. Intervention Participants received either computerized complex movement training (track group) or simple movement training (move group). Measurements Behavioral changes were measured with the 10-m walk test and gait analysis using a motion capture system. Brain reorganization was measured with ankle tracking during fMRI. Results Dorsiflexion during gait was significantly larger in the track group compared with the move group. For fMRI, although the volume, percent volume, and intensity of cortical activation failed to show significant changes, the frequency count of the number of participants showing an increase versus a decrease in these values from pretest to posttest measurements was significantly different between the 2 groups, with the track group decreasing and the move group increasing. Limitations Limitations of this study were that no follow-up test was conducted and that a small sample size was used. Conclusions The results suggest that telerehabilitation, emphasizing complex task training with the paretic limb, is feasible and can be effective in promoting

  17. The Combined Approach to Lysis Utilizing Eptifibatide and rt-PA in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pancioli, Arthur M.; Broderick, Joseph; Brott, Thomas; Tomsick, Thomas; Khoury, Jane; Bean, Judy; del Zoppo, Gregory; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Woo, Daniel; Khatri, Pooja; Castaldo, John; Frey, James; Gebel, James; Kasner, Scott; Kidwell, Chelsea; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Libman, Richard; Mackenzie, Richard; Scott, Phillip; Starkman, Sidney; Thurman, R. Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multiple approaches are being studied to enhance the rate of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Treatment of myocardial infarction with a combination of a reduced-dose fibrinolytic agent and a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist has been shown to improve the rate of recanalization versus fibrinolysis alone. The combined approach to lysis utilizing eptifibatide and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) (CLEAR) stroke trial assessed the safety of treating acute ischemic stroke patients within 3 hours of symptom onset with this combination. Methods The CLEAR trial was a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–funded multicenter, double-blind, randomized, dose-escalation and safety study. Patients were randomized 3:1 to either low-dose rt-PA (tier 1=0.3 mg/kg, tier 2=0.45 mg/kg) plus eptifibatide (75 μg/kg bolus followed by 0.75 μg/kg per min infusion for 2 hours) or standard-dose rt-PA (0.9 mg/kg). The primary safety end point was the incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours. Secondary analyses were performed regarding clinical efficacy. Results Ninety-four patients (40 in tier 1 and 54 in tier 2) were enrolled. The combination group of the 2 dose tiers (n=69) had a median age of 71 years and a median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 14, and the standard-dose rt-PA group (n=25) had a median age of 61 years and a median baseline NIHSS score of 10 (P=0.01 for NIHSS score). Fifty-two (75%) of the combination treatment group and 24 (96%) of the standard treatment group had a baseline modified Rankin scale score of 0 (P=0.04). There was 1 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.3%) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the combination group and 2 (8.0%; 95% CI, 0% to 19.2%) in the rt-PA–only arm (P=0.17). During randomization in tier 2, a review by the independent data safety monitoring board demonstrated that the safety

  18. Pediatric Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2016 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  19. Testing a Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic versus Placebo Shoulder Strapping as an Adjuvant Intervention Early after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Appel, Caroline; Perry, Lin; Jones, Fiona

    2015-06-01

    This study tested a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic versus placebo shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention early after stroke. Despite widespread use, there is little evidence of the efficacy or acceptability of shoulder strapping to improve arm function in patients with shoulder paresis following stroke. This study tested a protocol designed to trial shoulder strapping as an adjuvant therapy in patients with shoulder paresis after stroke and tested its acceptability for patients and clinical staff. A multiple-method design comprised one quantitative randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and two qualitative exploratory investigations entailing patient interviews and staff surveys. Seventeen sub-acute stroke patients with shoulder paresis were recruited in London stroke service settings between November 2007 and December 2009. Outcomes from a 4-week therapeutic strapping protocol were compared with those of placebo strapping as an adjunct to conventional rehabilitation. Minimal adverse events and greater improvement in arm function (Action Research Arm Test) were seen with therapeutic compared with placebo strapping (effect size 0.34). Patients and staff found the strapping acceptable with minimal adverse effects. This study provided data for sample size calculation and demonstrated a workable research protocol to investigate the efficacy of shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention to routine rehabilitation for stroke patients. Small-scale findings continue to flag the importance of investigating this topic. The protocol is recommended for a definitive trial of shoulder strapping as an adjuvant intervention. PMID:25664993

  20. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  1. Right Hemispatial Neglect: Frequency and Characterization Following Acute Left Hemisphere Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of various types of unilateral spatial neglect and associated areas of neural dysfunction after left hemisphere stroke are not well characterized. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) in distinct spatial reference frames have been identified after acute right, but not left hemisphere stroke. We studied 47 consecutive right handed…

  2. Best practices for stroke patient and family education in the acute care setting: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    After a stroke, patients and families face many changes--physical, mental, and emotional. It is imperative that the nurse is able to appropriately educate the patient and family in preparation for discharge from the acute care center.

  3. A Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring Strategies After Cryptogenic Stroke (from the Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying AF Trial).

    PubMed

    Choe, William C; Passman, Rod S; Brachmann, Johannes; Morillo, Carlos A; Sanna, Tommaso; Bernstein, Richard A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Rymer, Marilyn M; Beckers, Frank; Koehler, Jodi; Ziegler, Paul D

    2015-09-15

    Ischemic stroke cause remains undetermined in 30% of cases, leading to a diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke but may go undetected with short periods of ECG monitoring. The Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying Atrial Fibrillation trial (CRYSTAL AF) demonstrated that long-term electrocardiographic monitoring with insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) is superior to conventional follow-up in detecting AF in the population with cryptogenic stroke. We evaluated the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of various external monitoring techniques within a cryptogenic stroke cohort. Simulated intermittent monitoring strategies were compared to continuous rhythm monitoring in 168 ICM patients of the CRYSTAL AF trial. Short-term monitoring included a single 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holter and 21-day and 30-day event recorders. Periodic monitoring consisted of quarterly monitoring through 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holters and monthly 24-hour Holters. For a single monitoring period, the sensitivity for AF diagnosis was lowest with a 24-hour Holter (1.3%) and highest with a 30-day event recorder (22.8%). The NPV ranged from 82.3% to 85.6% for all single external monitoring strategies. Quarterly monitoring with 24-hour Holters had a sensitivity of 3.1%, whereas quarterly 7-day monitors increased the sensitivity to 20.8%. The NPVs for repetitive periodic monitoring strategies were similar at 82.6% to 85.3%. Long-term continuous monitoring was superior in detecting AF compared to all intermittent monitoring strategies evaluated (p <0.001). Long-term continuous electrocardiographic monitoring with ICMs is significantly more effective than any of the simulated intermittent monitoring strategies for identifying AF in patients with previous cryptogenic stroke. PMID:26183793

  4. Clinical Trials of Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bang, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke.

  5. Is the Posner Reaction Time Test More Accurate Than Clinical Tests in Detecting Left Neglect in Acute and Chronic Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Rengachary, Jennifer; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Sapir, Ayelet; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of common clinical tests for left neglect with that of a computerized reaction time Posner test in a stroke population. Design Neglect measures were collected longitudinally in stroke patients at the acute (≈2wk) and chronic (≈9mo) stage. Identical measures were collected in a healthy control group. Setting Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Participants Acute stroke patients (n=59) with left neglect, 30 of whom were tested longitudinally; healthy age-matched controls (n=30). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures A receiver operating characteristic analysis, ranking the measures' sensitivity and specificity using a single summary statistic. Results Most clinical tests were adequately accurate at the acute stage, but many were near chance at the chronic stage. The Posner test was the most sensitive test at both stages, the most sensitive variable being the reaction time difference for detecting targets appearing on the left compared to the right side. Conclusions Computerized reaction time tests can be used to screen for subtle but potentially clinically relevant left neglect, which may not be detectable by conventional clinical tests, especially at the chronic stage. Such tests may be useful to assess the severity of the patients' deficits and provide more accurate measures of the degree of recovery in clinical trials than established clinical measures. PMID:19969172

  6. Twenty four hour pulse pressure predicts long term recurrence in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, G; Spengos, K; Zakopoulos, N; Manios, E; Xinos, K; Vassilopoulos, D; Vemmos, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The impact of different blood pressure (BP) components during the acute stage of stroke on the risk of recurrent stroke is controversial. The present study aimed to investigate by 24 hour BP monitoring a possible association between acute BP values and long term recurrence. Methods: A total of 339 consecutive patients with first ever acute stroke underwent 24 hour BP monitoring within 24 hours of ictus. Known stroke risk factors and clinical findings on admission were documented. Patients given antihypertensive medication during BP monitoring were excluded. The outcome of interest during the one year follow up was recurrent stroke. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyse association of casual and 24 hour BP recordings with one year recurrence after adjusting for stroke risk factors, baseline clinical characteristics, and secondary prevention therapies. Results: The cumulative one year recurrence rate was 9.2% (95% CI 5.9% to 12.3%). Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed age, diabetes mellitus, and 24 hour pulse pressure (PP) as the only significant predictors for stroke recurrence. The relative risk for one year recurrence associated with every 10 mm Hg increase in 24 hour PP was 1.323 (95% CI 1.019 to 1.718, p = 0.036). Higher casual PP levels were significantly related to an increased risk of one year recurrence on univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate Cox regression model. Conclusions: Elevated 24 hour PP levels in patients with acute stroke are independently associated with higher risk of long term recurrence. Further research is required to investigate whether the risk of recurrent stroke can be reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the pulsatile component of BP in patients with acute stroke. PMID:16170077

  7. Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Clinical Outcomes after Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Ryu; Ago, Tetsuro; Hata, Jun; Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Kuroda, Junya; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Kamouchi, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is elevated in response to inflammation caused by brain infarction, the association of CRP with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke remains uncertain. This study examined whether plasma high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) levels at onset were associated with clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke independent of conventional risk factors and acute infections after stroke. Methods We prospectively included 3653 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who had been functionally independent and were hospitalized within 24 h of onset. Plasma hsCRP levels were measured on admission and categorized into quartiles. The association between hsCRP levels and clinical outcomes, including neurological improvement, neurological deterioration, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≥3 at 3 months), were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. Results Higher hsCRP levels were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes after adjusting for age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, stroke subtype, conventional risk factors, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy, and acute infections during hospitalization (multivariate-adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] in the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile as a reference: 0.80 [0.65–0.97] for neurological improvement, 1.72 [1.26–2.34] for neurological deterioration, and 2.03 [1.55–2.67] for a poor functional outcome). These associations were unchanged after excluding patients with infectious diseases occurring during hospitalization, or those with stroke recurrence or death. These trends were similar irrespective of stroke subtypes or baseline stroke severity, but more marked in patients aged <70 years (Pheterogeneity = 0.001). Conclusions High plasma hsCRP is independently associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27258004

  8. Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Xue-Ting; Kang, De-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to conduct an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for delivery of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine (TCPMs) for patients with acute ischemic stroke. SRs were assessed for quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool and the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). We assessed the quality of the evidence of high methodological quality (an AMSTAR score ≥9 or an OQAQ score ≥7) for reported outcomes using the GRADE (the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. (1) Dan Shen agents: tiny trends toward the improvement in different neurological outcomes (RR = 1.16, 1.10, 1.23, 1.08, 1.12); (2) Mailuoning: a tiny trend toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18); (3) Ginkgo biloba: tiny trends toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18, MD = 0.81); (4) Dengzhanhua: a tiny trend toward an improvement in neurological (RR = 1.23); (5) Acanthopanax: a small positive (RR = 1.17, 1.31) result on neurological improvement reported; (6) Chuanxiong-type preparations: neurological functional improved (MD = 2.90);(7) Puerarin: no better effect on the rate of death or disability (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.35–1.87); (8) Milk vetch: no better effect on the rate of death (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11–2.83);(9) Qingkailing: rate of death reduced (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11–2.83). Limitations in the methodological quality of the RCTs, inconsistency and imprecision led to downgrading of the quality of the evidence, which varied by review and by outcome. Consequently, there are currently only weak evidences to support those TCPMs. The 9 TCPMs may be effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, as the GRADE approach indicated a weak recommendation for those TCPMs’ usage. PMID:27015174

  9. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Telemedicine Service for the Treatment of Acute Stroke Patients: TeleStroke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care service based on telemedicine can reduce both physical and time barriers in stroke treatments. Moreover, this service connects centers specializing in stroke treatment with other centers and practitioners, thereby increasing accessibility to neurological specialist care and fibrinolytic treatment. Objective Development, implementation, and evaluation of a care service for the treatment of acute stroke patients based on telemedicine (TeleStroke) at Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. Methods The evaluation phase, conducted from October 2008 to January 2011, involved patients who presented acute stroke symptoms confirmed by the emergency physician; they were examined using TeleStroke in two hospitals, at a distance of 16 and 110 kilometers from Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. We analyzed the number of interconsultation sheets, the percentage of patients treated with fibrinolysis, and the number of times they were treated. To evaluate medical professionals’ acceptance of the TeleStroke system, we developed a web-based questionnaire using a Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 28 patients were evaluated through the interconsultation sheet. Out of 28 patients, 19 (68%) received fibrinolytic treatment. The most common reasons for not treating with fibrinolysis included: clinical criteria in six out of nine patients (66%) and beyond the time window in three out of nine patients (33%). The mean “onset-to-hospital” time was 69 minutes, the mean time from admission to CT image was 33 minutes, the mean “door-to-needle” time was 82 minutes, and the mean “onset-to-needle” time was 150 minutes. Out of 61 medical professionals, 34 (56%) completed a questionnaire to evaluate the acceptability of the TeleStroke system. The mean values for each item were over 6.50, indicating that respondents positively evaluated each item. This survey was assessed using the Cronbach alpha test to determine the reliability of the

  10. Clinical trial endpoints in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Billings, Frederic T; Shaw, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    The development and use of consensus criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and the inclusion of recently identified markers of renal parenchymal damage as endpoints in clinical trials have improved the ability of physicians to compare the incidence and severity of AKI across patient populations, provided targets for testing new treatments, and may increase insight into the mechanisms of AKI. To date, these markers have not consistently translated into important clinical outcomes. Is that because these markers of renal injury/dysfunction are measurements of process of care (and not indicative of persistently impaired renal function), or is it because patients do actually recover from AKI? Physicians currently have limited ability to measure renal function reserve, and the ultimate consequence of a case of AKI on long-term morbidity remains unclear. There is little doubt that groups of patients who develop AKI have worse outcomes than groups of patients who do not, but investigators are now realizing the value of measuring clinically meaningful renal endpoints in all subjects enrolled in AKI clinical trials. Important examples of these outcomes include persistently impaired renal function, new hemodialysis, and death. We propose that these major adverse kidney events (MAKE) be included in all effectiveness clinical trials. Adaptation of the MAKE composite assessed 30, 60, or 90 days following AKI (i.e., MAKE30 or MAKE90) will improve our capacity to understand and treat AKI and may also provide a consensus composite to allow comparison of different interventions. Primary endpoints for phase I and II clinical trials, on the other hand, should continue to use continuous markers of renal injury/dysfunction as well as 'hard' clinical outcomes in order to generate meaningful data with limited subject exposure to untested treatments. By doing so, investigators may assess safety without requiring large sample sizes, demonstrate treatment effect of an unknown

  11. [Changes of homeostasis and immunity in the acute period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Burtsev, E M; Grinshteĭn, V B; Nazarov, S B

    2001-01-01

    We studied homeostasis, immunity and rheological blood properties in the acute period of ischemic stroke. As intravascular blood coagulation and depression of fibrinolysis happen the amount of "rough" red blood cells increased as well as their aggregates enlarged in size. These changes haven't been seen in patients with lacunar stroke and transient ischemic attacks. Deep depression of T-cell immunity in stroke and inhibition of total fibrinolysis were observed. The most significant depression of cells immunity was found in patients with poor outcome. We recommend to evaluate T-cell immunity in stroke patients and proceed immunocorrection of necessity. PMID:12830541

  12. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000–1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. PMID:26116854

  13. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke. PMID:27226775

  14. Statins for the Prevention of Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a frequently encountered clinical event that has a detrimental impact on the quality of life. Evidence has increasingly shown that statins can substantially reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. However, it remains to be determined whether statins are definitively effective in preventing stroke. Methods We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Central databases for studies that compared the effects of statins and placebo in patients at high risk for stroke. The outcome measures were overall incidence of stroke, incidence of fatal stroke, and incidence of hemorrhagic stroke. Results Eighteen randomized controlled trials satisfied all the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The analysis revealed that statins reduced the overall incidence of stroke than placebo (odds ratio [OR]: 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74–0.87; P<0.00001). In particular, statins showed efficacy in reducing the incidence of fatal stroke (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.67–1.21; P = 0.47) and hemorrhagic stroke (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60–1.25; P = 0.45). On the contrary, they were found to increase the overall incidence of stroke (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.89–1.41; P = 0.32) and fatal stroke (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.93–2.03; P = 0.11) in renal transplant recipients and patients undergoing regular hemodialysis. Conclusion The results of this analysis suggest that statins may be beneficial in reducing the overall incidence of stroke and they may decrease the risk of fatal stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. However, statins should be used with caution in patients with a history of renal transplantation, regular hemodialysis, transient ischemic attack, or stroke. Further analyses should focus on multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials with data stratification according to the nature of primary diseases and dose–effect relationship, to clarify the benefits of statins in protection against stroke. PMID:24643199

  15. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ontario, current treatment for eligible patients who have an acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). However, there are some limitations and contraindications to IVT, and outcomes may not be favourable for patients with stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. An alternative is mechanical thrombectomy with newer devices, and a number of recent studies have suggested that this treatment is more effective for improving functional independence and clinical outcomes. The objective of this health technology assessment was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices (with or without IVT) compared to IVT alone (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature, limited to randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers and thromboaspiration devices for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) versus IVT alone (if eligible), calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using a 5-year time horizon, and conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the estimates. Results There was a substantial, statistically significant difference in rate of functional independence (GRADE: high quality) between those who received mechanical thrombectomy (with or without IVT) and IVT alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–3.04). We did not observe a difference in mortality (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60–1.07) or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (GRADE: moderate quality) (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.66–1.87). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, which had a 5 year time horizon, the costs and effectiveness for

  16. Repurposing an old drug to improve the safety and use of tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: Minocycline

    PubMed Central

    Hess, David C; Fagan, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There is only 1 US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for acute ischemic stroke: tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Due to a short time window and fear of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), tPA remains underutilized. There is great interest in developing combination drugs to use with tPA to improve the odds of a favorable recovery and to reduce the risk of ICH. Minocycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic that has been found to be a neuroprotective agent in preclinical ischemic stroke models. Minocycline inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9, a biomarker for ICH associated with tPA use. Minocycline is also an anti-inflammatory agent and inhibits poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase- 1. Minocycline has been safe and well tolerated in the clinical trials conducted to date. PMID:20575623

  17. Do empowered stroke patients perform better at self-management and functional recovery after a stroke? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Janet WH; Chair, Sek Ying; Choi, Kai Chow; Chan, Carmen WH; Lee, Diana TF; Chan, Aileen WK; Cheung, Jo LK; Tang, Siu Wai; Chan, Po Shan; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-management after a stroke is a challenge because of multifaceted care needs and complex disabling consequences that cause further hindrance to patient participation. A 13-week stroke patient empowerment intervention (Health Empowerment Intervention for Stroke Self-management [HEISS]) was developed to enhance patients’ ability to participate in self-management. Purpose To examine the effects of the empowerment intervention on stroke patients’ self-efficacy, self-management behavior, and functional recovery. Methods This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with stroke survivors assigned to either a control group (CG) receiving usual ambulatory rehabilitation care or the HEISS in addition to usual care (intervention group [IG]). Outcome data were collected at baseline (T0), 1 week (T1), 3 months (T2), and 6 months (T3) postintervention. Data were analyzed on the intention-to-treat principle. The generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the differential change of self-efficacy in illness management, self-management behaviors (cognitive symptom management, communication with physician, medication adherence, and self-blood pressure monitoring), and functional recovery (Barthel and Lawton indices) across time points (baseline = T0, 1 week = T1, 3 months = T2, and 6 months = T3 postintervention) between the two groups. Results A total of 210 (CG =105, IG =105) Hong Kong Chinese stroke survivors (mean age =69 years, 49% women, 72% ischemic stroke, 89% hemiparesis, and 63% tactile sensory deficit) were enrolled in the study. Those in IG reported better self-efficacy in illness management 3-month (P=0.011) and 6-month (P=0.012) postintervention, along with better self-management behaviors at all follow-up time points (all P<0.05), apart from medication adherence (P>0.05). Those in IG had significantly better functional recovery (Barthel, all P<0.05; Lawton, all P<0.001), compared to CG. The overall dropout rate was 16

  18. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  19. Neuroendocrinal, Neurodevelopmental, and Embryotoxic Effects of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment for Pregnant Women with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Anna; Moreira, Tiago P.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) was the first evidence-based treatment approved for acute stroke. Ischemic stroke is relatively uncommon in fertile women but treatment is often delayed or not given. In randomized trials, pregnancy has been an exclusion criterion for thrombolysis. Physiologic TPA has been shown to have neuroendocrine effects namely in vasopressin secretion. Important TPA effects in brain function and development include neurite outgrowth, migration of cerebellar granular neurons and promotion of long-term potentiation, among others. Until now, no neuroendocrine side-effects have been reported in pregnant women treated with rTPA. The effects of rTPA exposure in the fetus following intravenous thrombolysis in pregnant women are still poorly understood. This depends on low case frequency, short-duration of exposure and the fact that rTPA molecule is too large to pass the placenta. rTPA has a short half-life of 4–5 min, with only 10% of its concentration remaining in circulation after 20 min, which may explain its safety at therapeutically doses. Ischemic stroke during pregnancy occurs most often in the third trimester. Complication rates of rTPA in pregnant women treated for thromboembolic conditions and ischemic stroke were found to be similar when compared to non-pregnant women (7–9% mortality). In embryos of animal models so far, no indications of a teratogenic or mutagenic potential were found. Pregnancy is still considered a relative contraindication when treating acute ischemic stroke with rTPA, however, treatment risk must be balanced against the potential of maternal disability and/or death. PMID:26941596

  20. Two cases of acute atraumatic compartment syndrome complicated with severe heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tsukada, Yasuhiko; Abe, Yoshinobu; Shimada, Jiro; Tase, Choichiro

    2010-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a life-threatening complication in trauma patients. Not only regional neuromuscular disability, but also systemic organ disorders can result from prolonged tissue ischemia. In this report, we describe 2 cases of acute atraumatic compartment syndrome complicated with severe heat stroke. In both cases, emergency fasciotomy was rapidly performed after recognition of the syndrome, but serious regional neuromuscular disabilities remained. Microvascular endothelial injury is an important mechanism of acute atraumatic compartment syndrome. Thrombi diffusely formed in the compartmental space hinder establishment of reperfusion even after fasciotomy. Furthermore, disruption of fibrinolysis due to heat stroke could enhance this damage.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    Chalela, Julio A; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Nentwich, Lauren M; Luby, Marie; Butman, John A; Demchuk, Andrew M; Hill, Michael D; Patronas, Nicholas; Latour, Lawrence; Warach, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background Although the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of acute stroke is increasing, this method has not proved more effective than computed tomography (CT) in the emergency setting. We aimed to prospectively compare CT and MRI for emergency diagnosis of acute stroke. Methods We did a single-centre, prospective, blind comparison of non-contrast CT and MRI (with diffusion-weighted and susceptibility weighted images) in a consecutive series of patients referred for emergency assessment of suspected acute stroke. Scans were independently interpreted by four experts, who were unaware of clinical information, MRI-CT pairings, and follow-up imaging. Results 356 patients, 217 of whom had a final clinical diagnosis of acute stroke, were assessed. MRI detected acute stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic), acute ischaemic stroke, and chronic haemorrhage more frequently than did CT (p<0.0001, for all comparisons). MRI was similar to CT for the detection of acute intracranial haemorrhage. MRI detected acute ischaemic stroke in 164 of 356 patients (46%; 95% CI 41-51%), compared with CT in 35 of 356 patients (10%; 7-14%). In the subset of patients scanned within 3 h of symptom onset, MRI detected acute ischaemic stroke in 41 of 90 patients (46%; 35-56%); CT in 6 of 90 (7%; 3-14%). Relative to the final clinical diagnosis, MRI had a sensitivity of 83% (181 of 217; 78-88%) and CT of 26% (56 of 217; 20-32%) for the diagnosis of any acute stroke. Interpretation MRI is better than CT for detection of acute ischaemia, and can detect acute and chronic haemorrhage; therefore it should be the preferred test for accurate diagnosis of patients with suspected acute stroke. Because our patient sample encompassed the range of disease that is likely to be encountered in emergency cases of suspected stroke, our results are directly applicable to clinical practice. PMID:17258669

  2. Differences in the diagnostic accuracy of acute stroke clinical subtypes defined by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Allder, S; Moody, A; Martel, A; Morgan, P; Delay, G; Gladman, J; Lennox, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: Despite its importance for acute stroke management, little is known about the underlying pathophysiology when patients with acute stroke are classified using clinical methods. Objective: To examine the relation between the magnetic resonance defined stroke subtype and clinical stroke classifications using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), and angiographic magnetic resonance techniques. Methods: Consecutive patients with clinical syndromes consistent with acute anterior circulation stroke were assessed clinically within six hours of onset and scanned as soon as possible using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients were classified clinically into total or partial anterior circulation syndromes using the Oxford classification, or according the severity of the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) (severe > 15; mild/moderate ≤ 15). At day seven, patients were classified by combining clinical course and MRI data as misdiagnosed, misclassified, suffering transient ischaemic attack, infarct with recanalisation, or infarction with persisting occlusion. Patients with occlusion were further divided on the basis of a large diffusion–perfusion mismatch. Results: 84 patients with clinical anterior circulation syndromes were studied. Using the NIHSS, 42 were mild to moderate (0–15) and 42 were severe (> 15). There were 42 with partial anterior circulation syndromes (PACS) and 42 with total anterior circulation syndromes (TACS). Patients with TACS or severe stroke were more likely to have actually suffered a stroke (Fischer's exact test, p = 0.01), to have a correctly classified stroke (χ2 28.2, p < 0.01), to have persisting occlusion (χ2 30.6, p < 0.01), and to have a large DWI–PWI mismatch (χ2 17.1, p < 0.01). Conclusions: There is more inaccuracy in patients presenting with acute PACS or clinically mild to moderate anterior circulation stroke than in those with TACS or severe acute stroke

  3. Starting early: integration of self-management support into an acute stroke service

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Petra; Gawned, Sara; Jones, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Self-management support following stroke is rare, despite emerging evidence for impact on patient outcomes. The promotion of a common approach to self-management support across a stroke pathway requires collaboration between professionals. To date, the feasibility of self-management support in acute stroke settings has not been evaluated. The Bridges stroke self-management package (SMP) is based on self-efficacy principles. It is delivered by professionals and supported by a patient-held workbook. The aim of this project was to introduce the Bridges stroke SMP to the multidisciplinary staff of a London hyperacute and acute stroke unit. The ‘Plan Do Study Act’ (PDSA) cycle guided iterative stages of project development, with normalisation process theory helping to embed the intervention into existing ways of working. Questionnaires explored attitudes, beliefs and experiences of the staff who were integrating self-management support into ways of working in the acute stroke setting. Self-management support training was delivered to a total of 46 multidisciplinary stroke staff. Of the staff who attended the follow-up training, 66% had implemented Bridges self-management support with patients since initial training, and 100% felt their practice had changed. Questionnaire findings demonstrated that staff attitudes and beliefs had changed following training, particularly regarding ownership and type of rehabilitation goals set, and prioritisation of self-management support within acute stroke care. Staff initiated an audit of washing and dressing practices pre- and post-training. This was designed to evaluate the number of occasions when techniques were used by staff to facilitate patients’ independence and self-management. They found that the number of occasions featuring optimum practice went from 54% at baseline to 63% at three months post-training. This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating self-management support into an acute stroke setting

  4. Noninvasive ventilatory correction as an adjunct to an experimental systemic reperfusion therapy in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Barlinn, Kristian; Balucani, Clotilde; Palazzo, Paola; Zhao, Limin; Sisson, April; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2010-01-01

    Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and enrolled into a thrombolytic research study. During tPA infusion, she became drowsy, developed apnea episodes, desaturated and neurologically deteriorated without recanalization, re-occlusion or intracerebral hemorrhage. Urgent noninvasive ventilatory correction with biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP) reversed neurological fluctuation. Her MCA completely recanalized 24 hours later. Conclusions. Noninvasive ventilatory correction should be considered more aggressively as a complementary treatment option in selected acute stroke patients. Early initiation of BiPAP can stabilize cerebral hemodynamics and may unmask the true potential of other therapies. PMID:21052540

  5. Incremental Value of Left Atrial Global Longitudinal Strain for Prediction of Post Stroke Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Darae; Cho, In Jeong; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Ha, Jong-Won; Heo, Ji Hoe; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-established risk factor for stroke. Interestingly, ischemic stroke increases risk of incident AF in patients without prior diagnosed AF. For better risk stratification for post-stroke AF, we studied left atrial (LA) size and mechanical function using two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking imaging in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods A total of 227 patients (132 males, age 67 ± 12) with acute ischemic stroke without a history of AF underwent 2D transthoracic echocardiography and speckle tracking imaging for the assessment of LA volume index and global LA longitudinal strain (LALS). From clinical variables, the CHA2DS2-VASc score and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were calculated in each patient. Post-stroke AF was defined as newly diagnosed AF during the course after ischemic stroke. Results Post-stroke AF occurred in 25 patients (11%). Patients with post-stroke AF were older and showed a higher tendency of CHA2DS2-VASc score, significantly higher log NIHSS, larger LA volume index and lower global LALS than those without. In multivariate analysis, global LALS was an independent predictor for post-stroke AF (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.83.0.97, p < 0.01) after controlling for confounding factors. Furthermore, global LALS provided incremental predictive value for post-stroke AF over the CHA2DS2-VASc score, NIHSS, and LA volume index. The global LALS < 14.5% better distinguished post-stroke AF (area under the curve 0.837, sensitivity 60%, specificity 95%, p < 0.01) than CHA2DS2-VASc score. Conclusion Global LALS as a marker of LA mechanical function has incremental predictive value for post-stroke AF in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27081440

  6. Assessment of long-term outcomes for the STRokE DOC telemedicine trial.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Brett C; Raman, Rema; Ernstrom, Karin; Tafreshi, Gilda M; Huisa, Branko; Stemer, Andrew B; Hemmen, Thomas M

    2012-05-01

    Telemedicine can provide stroke evaluations in locations with limited available expertise. The reliability of telestroke has been established. Decision making efficacy has been shown in the National Institutes of Health's STRokE DOC trial. No prospective trial has assessed long-term telestroke outcomes, however. In an institutional review board-approved trial (NCT00936455), we contacted patients originally enrolled in the STRokE DOC trial. A telephone script was used to verify consent. Patients were asked standardized questions regarding disposition, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, mortality, and recurrent stroke for 2 retrospective time points (6 and 12 months postevent) and one current time point. Blind was maintained. Primary outcome measures of mortality and percent mRS score of 0-1 [%mRS(0-1)] at 6 months are reported. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for continuous variables, and Fisher's exact was used for categorical variables. Of the original 222 participants, 75 patients or surrogates could be contacted. Mean time from enrollment was 3.96 ± 1.0 years (range, 2.33-5.45 years). Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 8 ± 7 (5 ± 8 for telephone; 12 ± 8 for telemedicine; P = .002). The rate of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) use was 31%. Six-month %mRS(0-1) outcome was not different, at 42%. Mortality after imputation to the entire study sample also was not different, at 18%. There was no difference in the rate of recurrent stroke (P = .61). Some 85% of patients were home at 6 months. This study reports a good 6-month outcome for stroke patients evaluated by telemedicine or telephone. This design is limited by the time since original enrollment and resultant inability to contact participants. Although these findings can add to the limited data on telemedicine outcomes, a prospective trial is needed.

  7. Effect of space balance 3D training using visual feedback on balance and mobility in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, YoungJun; Ha, HyunGeun; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, WanHee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of balance training with Space Balance 3D, which is a computerized measurement and visual feedback balance assessment system, on balance and mobility in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This was a randomized controlled trial in which 52 subjects were assigned randomly into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group, which contained 26 subjects, received balance training with a Space Balance 3D exercise program and conventional physical therapy interventions 5 times per week during 3 weeks. Outcome measures were examined before and after the 3-week interventions using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS). The data were analyzed by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 19.0. [Results] The results revealed a nonsignificant interaction effect between group and time period for both groups before and after the interventions in the BBS score, TUG score, and PASS score. In addition, the experimental group showed more improvement than the control group in the BBS, TUG and PASS scores, but the differences were not significant. In the comparisons within the groups by time, both groups showed significant improvement in BBS, TUG, and PASS scores. [Conclusion] The Space Balance 3D training with conventional physical therapy intervention is recommended for improvement of balance and mobility in acute stroke patients. PMID:26157270

  8. Effect of space balance 3D training using visual feedback on balance and mobility in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Ko, YoungJun; Ha, HyunGeun; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, WanHee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of balance training with Space Balance 3D, which is a computerized measurement and visual feedback balance assessment system, on balance and mobility in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This was a randomized controlled trial in which 52 subjects were assigned randomly into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group, which contained 26 subjects, received balance training with a Space Balance 3D exercise program and conventional physical therapy interventions 5 times per week during 3 weeks. Outcome measures were examined before and after the 3-week interventions using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS). The data were analyzed by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS 19.0. [Results] The results revealed a nonsignificant interaction effect between group and time period for both groups before and after the interventions in the BBS score, TUG score, and PASS score. In addition, the experimental group showed more improvement than the control group in the BBS, TUG and PASS scores, but the differences were not significant. In the comparisons within the groups by time, both groups showed significant improvement in BBS, TUG, and PASS scores. [Conclusion] The Space Balance 3D training with conventional physical therapy intervention is recommended for improvement of balance and mobility in acute stroke patients.

  9. Interleukin 6 promoter 174 G/C polymorphisms in acute ischemic stroke: G allele is protective but not associated with IL-6 levels or stroke outcome.

    PubMed

    Yan, J; J M, Greer; P A, McCombe

    2016-04-15

    Our study investigated the frequency of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter polymorphism rs1800795 (-174 G>C), possible association of this polymorphism with IL-6 levels and the outcome after stroke in 95 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 268 healthy subjects. It shows a significant reduction in the frequency of G alleles in stroke patients compared to healthy controls. Carriage of G allele is not associated with stroke subtypes, the initial severity or the outcome after stroke. The -174 polymorphisms were not associated with variation in IL-6 levels post-stroke. Our results indicate that IL-6 promoter -174 polymorphisms may play a role in susceptibility to stroke, but not stroke outcome.

  10. Intravenous thrombolysis guided by a telemedicine consultation system for acute ischaemic stroke patients in China: the protocol of a multicentre historically controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziwen; Wang, Bo; Li, Feijiang; Wang, Jing; Zhi, Jin; Luo, Erping; Liu, Zhirong; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rate of intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator or urokinase for stroke patients is extremely low in China. It has been demonstrated that a telestroke service may help to increase the rate of intravenous thrombolysis and improve stroke care quality in local hospitals. The aim of this study, also called the Acute Stroke Advancing Program, is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of decision-making concerning intravenous thrombolysis via a telemedicine consultation system for acute ischaemic stroke patients in China. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre historically controlled study with a planned enrolment of 300 participants in each of two groups. The telestroke network consists of one hub hospital and 14 spoke hospitals in underserved regions of China. The usual stroke care quality in the spoke hospitals without guidance from the hub hospital will be used as the historical control. The telemedicine consultation system is an interactive, two-way, wireless, audiovisual system accessed on portable devices. The primary outcome is the percentage of patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h of stroke onset. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Xijing Hospital. The results will be published in scientific journals and presented to local government and relevant institutes. Trial registration number NCT02088346 (12 March 2014). PMID:25979867

  11. Motor recovery monitoring using acceleration measurements in post acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Its recovery and treatment depends on close clinical monitoring by a clinician especially during the first few hours after the onset of stroke. Patients who do not exhibit early motor recovery post thrombolysis may benefit from more aggressive treatment. Method A novel approach for monitoring stroke during the first few hours after the onset of stroke using a wireless accelerometer based motor activity monitoring system is developed. It monitors the motor activity by measuring the acceleration of the arms in three axes. In the presented proof of concept study, the measured acceleration data is transferred wirelessly using iMote2 platform to the base station that is equipped with an online algorithm capable of calculating an index equivalent to the National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) motor index. The system is developed by collecting data from 15 patients. Results We have successfully demonstrated an end-to-end stroke monitoring system reporting an accuracy of calculating stroke index of more than 80%, highest Cohen’s overall agreement of 0.91 (with excellent κ coefficient of 0.76). Conclusion A wireless accelerometer based ‘hot stroke’ monitoring system is developed to monitor the motor recovery in acute-stroke patients. It has been shown to monitor stroke patients continuously, which has not been possible so far with high reliability. PMID:23590690

  12. Acute Stroke Care at Rural Hospitals in Idaho: Challenges in Expediting Stroke Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt, James G.; Norris, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Thrombolytics are currently the most effective treatment for stroke. However, the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for initiation of thrombolytic therapy, most notably the 3-hour time limit from symptom onset, have proven challenging for many rural hospitals to achieve. Purpose: To provide a snapshot of…

  13. Why are patients with acute stroke admitted to hospital?

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Warlow, C; Gray, M

    1986-01-01

    Data on 515 consecutive patients registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project were used to compare the characteristics of those patients who were admitted to hospital within one month after their first stroke with those who remained in the community during that time. Twenty eight patients had their stroke while in hospital for other conditions, and of the remaining 487, 266 were admitted. Though patients with a severe neurological deficit were significantly more likely to be admitted, 47 out of 202 such patients were managed in the community. In a substudy of 162 consecutive patients the general practitioners' reasons for either arranging admission to hospital or continuing with community care in the first week after the stroke were ascertained. Sixty patients were admitted. The only reason for admission was diagnostic uncertainty in five cases (though this was a contributing factor in 25) and to provide nursing or general, non-medical care in 25. Patients who lived alone were more likely to be admitted. All 12 patients who presented directly to the casualty department were admitted, though only five had had a severe stroke. A stroke service that provides a facility for rapid outpatient and domiciliary diagnosis as well as a rapidly acting domiciliary nursing team might reduce the number of patients with stroke admitted to hospital without adversely affecting the quality of patient care: this should be properly evaluated. PMID:3085852

  14. Acute Stroke: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care

    PubMed Central

    Glober, Nancy K.; Sporer, Karl A.; Guluma, Kama Z.; Serra, John P.; Barger, Joe A.; Brown, John F.; Gilbert, Gregory H.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Rudnick, Eric M.; Salvucci, Angelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the state of California. Methods We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the stroke protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were the use of a stroke scale, blood glucose evaluation, use of supplemental oxygen, patient positioning, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac monitoring, fluid assessment and intravenous access, and stroke regionalization. Results Protocols across EMS agencies in California varied widely. Most used some sort of stroke scale with the majority using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS). All recommended the evaluation of blood glucose with the level for action ranging from 60 to 80mg/dL. Cardiac monitoring was recommended in 58% and 33% recommended an ECG. More than half required the direct transport to a primary stroke center and 88% recommended hospital notification. Conclusion Protocols for a patient with a suspected stroke vary widely across the state of California. The evidence-based recommendations that we present for the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of this condition may be useful for EMS medical directors tasked with creating and revising these protocols. PMID:26973735

  15. Current knowledge on the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of citicoline in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Martynov, Mikhail Yu; Gusev, Eugeny I

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of long-lasting disability and death. Two main strategies have been proposed for the treatment of ischemic stroke: restoration of blood flow by thrombolysis or mechanical thrombus extraction during the first few hours of ischemic stroke, which is one of the most effective treatments and leads to a better functional and clinical outcome. The other direction of treatment, which is potentially applicable to most of the patients with ischemic stroke, is neuroprotection. Initially, neuroprotection was mainly targeted at protecting gray matter, but during the past few years there has been a transition from a neuron-oriented approach toward salvaging the whole neurovascular unit using multimodal drugs. Citicoline is a multimodal drug that exhibits neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects in a variety of experimental and clinical disorders of the central nervous system, including acute and chronic cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and global cerebral hypoxia. Citicoline has a prolonged therapeutic window and is active at various temporal and biochemical stages of the ischemic cascade. In acute ischemic stroke, citicoline provides neuroprotection by attenuating glutamate exitotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and blood–brain barrier dysfunction. In the subacute and chronic phases of ischemic stroke, citicoline exhibits neuroregenerative effects and activates neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis and enhances neurotransmitter metabolism. Acute and long-term treatment with citicoline is safe and in most clinical studies is effective and improves functional outcome. PMID:27186142

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Kirchgessner, Annette; Tepper, Deborah; Leonard, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke continues to be one of the most challenging diseases in translational neurology. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its use is limited to the first hours after stroke onset due to an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation over time resulting in enhanced brain injury. In this review we discuss the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption as a consequence of ischemic stroke. MMP-9 in particular appears to play an important role in tPA-associated hemorrhagic complications. Reactive oxygen species can enhance the effects of tPA on MMP activation through the loss of caveolin-1 (cav-1), a protein encoded in the cav-1 gene that serves as a critical determinant of BBB permeability. This review provides an overview of MMPs’ role in BBB breakdown during acute ischemic stroke. The possible role of MMPs in combination treatment of acute ischemic stroke is also examined. PMID:23565108

  17. What to do With Wake-Up Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Wake-up stroke, defined as the situation where a patient awakens with stroke symptoms that were not present prior to falling asleep, represents roughly 1 in 5 acute ischemic strokes and remains a therapeutic dilemma. Patients with wake-up stroke were excluded from most ischemic stroke treatment trials and are often not eligible for acute reperfusion therapy in clinical practice, leading to poor outcomes. Studies of neuroimaging with standard noncontrast computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and multimodal perfusion-based CT and MRI suggest wake-up stroke may occur shortly before awakening and may assist in selecting patients for acute reperfusion therapies. Pilot studies of wake-up stroke treatment based on these neuroimaging features are promising but have limited generalizability. Ongoing randomized treatment trials using neuroimaging-based patient selection may identify a subset of patients with wake-up stroke that can safely benefit from acute reperfusion therapies. PMID:26288674

  18. [Stroke from the Perspective of Neurologists (Part 1): Update in the Acute Diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Schur, Patrick; Luft, Andreas

    2016-04-27

    Stroke care is rapidly changing. The next three «Praxis» editions will give you an update and the neurological perspective of stroke including acute diagnosis, acute therapy and secondary prevention. The first article focuses on diagnostic procedures in the acute stage. In spite of the tremendous progress stroke remains frequent and the major cause of adult-onset disability. The pathophysiological correlate is the cerebral ischemia or the cerebral bleeding, which are in most reason responsible for persistent disability and high health care and social costs. The shortest work-up to the right diagnoses and the favored therapies can save life and improve quality of daily living. The rapid clinical and radiological identification of the target groups which benefit is essential. In the last years several randomized controlled studies show new medical evidence. PMID:27120210

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Xingnaojing Treatment for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weihao; Xing, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Xingnaojing injection (XNJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) for stroke. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of XNJ for stroke including ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods. An extensive search was performed within using eight databases up to November 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on XNJ for treatment of stroke were collected. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Cochrane standards, and RevMan5.0 was used for meta-analysis. Results. This review included 13 RCTs and a total of 1,514 subjects. The overall methodological quality was poor. The meta-analysis showed that XNJ combined with conventional treatment was more effective for total efficacy, neurological deficit improvement, and reduction of TNF-α levels compared with those of conventional treatment alone. Three trials reported adverse events, of these one trial reported mild impairment of kidney and liver function, whereas the other two studies failed to report specific adverse events. Conclusion. Despite the limitations of this review, we suggest that XNJ in combination with conventional medicines might be beneficial for the treatment of stroke. Currently there are various methodological problems in the studies. Therefore, high-quality, large-scale RCTs are urgently needed. PMID:24707306

  20. Apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: a review of the clinical trial evidence.

    PubMed

    Yates, Scott W

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize data from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) and Apixaban Versus Acetylsalicylic Acid to Prevent Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Who Have Failed or Are Unsuitable for Vitamin K Antagonist Treatment (AVERROES) trials of apixaban for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The ARISTOTLE trial compared apixaban with warfarin in 18 201 patients with AF and ≥ 1 additional risk factor for stroke. The AVERROES trial compared apixaban with aspirin in 5599 patients with AF who were at increased risk of stroke and for whom vitamin K antagonists were unsuitable. In ARISTOTLE, apixaban reduced the risk of stroke or systemic embolism by 21% compared with warfarin (1.27% vs 1.60% per year; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.95). The reduction was significant and demonstrated the superiority of apixaban over warfarin for the primary outcome of preventing stroke or systemic embolism (P = 0.01 for superiority). Apixaban also reduced all-cause mortality by 11% (P = 0.047) and major bleeding by 31% (P < 0.001) compared with warfarin. The benefits of apixaban observed in ARISTOTLE are further supported by the results from AVERROES, which demonstrated a 55% reduction in the risk of stroke or systemic embolism compared with aspirin. Risk of major bleeding was not significantly different between apixaban and aspirin. Subgroup analyses in both trials demonstrated that the effects of apixaban are highly consistent across various patient subpopulations. Discontinuation of study medication was significantly lower with apixaban than with either warfarin in ARISTOTLE or aspirin in AVERROES. Apixaban is the first new oral anticoagulant that has been shown to be superior to warfarin in reducing stroke or systemic embolism, all-cause mortality, and major bleeding in patients with AF. Moreover, in patients with AF who are considered

  1. Prehospital and in-hospital delays in acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Evenson, K R; Rosamond, W D; Morris, D L

    2001-05-01

    Current guidelines emphasize the need for early stroke care. However, significant delays occur during both the prehospital and in-hospital phases of care, making many patients ineligible for stroke therapies. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and summarize the existing scientific literature reporting prehospital and in-hospital stroke delay times in order to assist future delivery of effective interventions to reduce delay time and to raise several key issues which future studies should consider. A comprehensive search was performed to find all published journal articles which reported on the prehospital or in-hospital delay time for stroke, including intervention studies. Since 1981, at least 48 unique reports of prehospital delay time for patients with stroke, transient ischemic attack, or stroke-like symptoms were published from 17 different countries. In the majority of studies which reported median delay times, the median time from symptom onset to arrival in the emergency department was between 3 and 6 h. The in-hospital times from emergency department arrival to being seen by an emergency department physician, initiation and interpretation of a computed tomography (CT) scan, and being seen by a neurologist were consistently longer than recommended. However, prehospital delay comprised the majority of time from symptom onset to potential treatment. Definitions and methodologies differed across studies, making direct comparisons difficult. This review suggests that the majority of stroke patients are unlikely to arrive at the emergency department and receive a diagnostic evaluation in under 3 h. Further studies of stroke delay and corresponding interventions are needed, with careful attention to definitions and methodologies. PMID:11359072

  2. Therapeutic implications of transesophageal echocardiography after transthoracic echocardiography on acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, Tiago Tribolet; Mateus, Sonia; Carreteiro, Cecilia; Correia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Background The role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the evaluation of acute stroke patients is still ill-defined. We conducted a prospective observational study to find the prevalence of TEE findings that indicate anticoagulation as beneficial, in acute ischemic stroke patients without indication for anticoagulation based on clinical, electrocardiographic and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. Methods We prospectively studied all patients referred to our laboratory for TTE and TEE. Patients were excluded if the diagnosis was not acute ischemic stroke or if they had an indication for anticoagulation based on clinical, electrocardiographic, or TTE data. Patients with TEE findings that might indicate anticoagulation as beneficial were identified. Results A total of 84 patients with acute ischemic stroke and without indication for anticoagulation based on clinical and electrocardiographic or TTE data were included in the study. Findings indicating anticoagulation as beneficial were found in 32.1%: spontaneous echo contrast (1.2%), complex aortic atheroma (27.4%), thrombus (8.3%), and simultaneous patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm (2.4%). Conclusions The results of our study show that TEE can have therapy implications in 32.1% of ischemic stroke patients in sinus rhythm and with TTE with no indication for anticoagulation. PMID:18629351

  3. The Effect of Pulsatility Index on Infarct Volume in Acute Lacunar Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon; Lee, Hanbin; An, Se-A; Yim, Byeongsoo; Kim, Jonguk; Kim, Ok Joon; Kim, Won Chan; Kim, Hyun Sook; Oh, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lacunar stroke, in the context of small vessel disease, is a type of cerebral infarction caused by occlusion of a penetrating artery. Pulsatility index (PI) is an easily measurable parameter in Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study. PI reflects distal cerebral vascular resistance and has been interpreted as a surrogate marker of small vessel disease. We hypothesized that an increased PI, a marker of small vessel disease, might be associated with a larger infarct volume in acute lacunar stroke. Materials and Methods This study included 64 patients with acute lacunar stroke who underwent TCD and brain MRI. We evaluated the association between the mean PI value of bilateral middle cerebral arteries and infarct volume on diffusion-weighted MRI using univariate and multivariate linear regression. Results The mean infarct volume and PI were 482.18±406.40 mm3 and 0.86±0.18, respectively. On univariate linear regression, there was a significant positive association between PI and infarct volume (p=0.001). In the multivariate model, a single standard deviation increase of PI (per 0.18) was associated with an increase of 139.05 mm3 in infarct volume (95% confidence interval, 21.25 to 256.85; p=0.022). Conclusion We demonstrated that PI was an independent determinant of infarct volume in acute lacunar stroke. The PI value measured in acute stroke may be a surrogate marker of the extent of ischemic injury. PMID:27189290

  4. The efficacy of SMART Arm training early after stroke for stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recovery of upper limb function after stroke is poor. The acute to subacute phase after stroke is the optimal time window to promote the recovery of upper limb function. The dose and content of training provided conventionally during this phase is however, unlikely to be adequate to drive functional recovery, especially in the presence of severe motor disability. The current study concerns an approach to address this shortcoming, through evaluation of the SMART Arm, a non-robotic device that enables intensive and repetitive practice of reaching by stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability, with the aim of improving upper limb function. The outcomes of SMART Arm training with or without outcome-triggered electrical stimulation (OT-stim) to augment movement and usual therapy will be compared to usual therapy alone. Methods/Design A prospective, assessor-blinded parallel, three-group randomised controlled trial is being conducted. Seventy-five participants with a first-ever unilateral stroke less than 4 months previously, who present with severe arm disability (three or fewer out of a possible six points on the Motor Assessment Scale [MAS] Item 6), will be recruited from inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of three dose-matched groups: SMART Arm training with OT-stim and usual therapy; SMART Arm training without OT-stim and usual therapy; or usual therapy alone. All participants will receive 20 hours of upper limb training over four weeks. Blinded assessors will conduct four assessments: pre intervention (0-weeks), post intervention (4-weeks), 26 weeks and 52 weeks follow-up. The primary outcome measure is MAS item 6. All analyses will be based on an intention-to-treat principle. Discussion By enabling intensive and repetitive practice of a functional upper limb task during inpatient rehabilitation, SMART Arm training with or without OT-stim in combination with usual therapy, has the potential to

  5. Treatment Strategies for Acute Ischemic Stroke Caused by Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yin, Qin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion usually has a poor prognosis, especially the T occlusion cases without functional collaterals. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) remains ambiguous in these patients. Eendovascular recanalization of the occluded carotid has been attempted in recent years as a potential strategy. However, the different etiologies of ICA occlusion pose a significant challenge to neurointerventionists. Recently, several endovascular evolvements have been reported in treating carotid occlusion-related stroke. This review summarizes the current status of treatment for acute ICA occlusion.

  6. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Guo, Jie; Meng, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhijun; Yao, Yang; Yang, Jiajia; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution. PMID:27403202

  7. Clinical features associated with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms presenting to an acute stroke unit.

    PubMed

    Nazir, F S; Lees, K R; Bone, I

    2005-02-01

    In many areas of secondary care, symptoms unexplained by disease account for around one-third of all patients seen. We sought to investigate patients presenting with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms to identify distinguishing features which may help to identify a non-organic aetiology. Patients given a discharge diagnosis of medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms over the preceding 11 years were identified retrospectively from a prospectively completed stroke unit database. Age- and sex-matched controls with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke or transient ischaemic attack were also identified. Clinical features on presentation, ischaemic risk factors, alcohol history, marital status and history of depression or anxiety were examined. Previous or subsequent admissions with medically unexplained syndromes were also examined via record linkage with hospital discharge records. A medically unexplained syndrome was assumed to be present if an International Classification of Diseases 9 discharge code for one or more of the thirteen conditions forming recognized functional syndromes was given. Logistic regression was applied to determine predictors of non-organicity. One hundred and five patients and controls, 1.6% of all stroke unit admissions were identified, 62% (65 patients) were females. Mean age was 50.3 +/- 14.9. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls patients with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms were significantly more probable to have a headache at presentation (47% vs. 26%, P = 0.0004), have a diagnosis of one or more additional medically unexplained syndromes (24% vs. 11%, P = 0.007) but significantly less probable to present with symptoms of vertebrobasilar dysfunction (32% vs. 61%, P < 0.0001). A history of anxiety or depression, as recorded in the notes, was not found to be associated with a medically unexplained presentation. Medically unexplained stroke-like presentations are common (1.6% of all stroke presentations), they are

  8. Design of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chimowitz, Marc I.; Lynn, Michael J.; Turan, Tanya N.; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F.; Janis, Scott; Derdeyn, Colin P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with recent transient ischemic attack or stroke caused by 70–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery are at high risk of recurrent stroke on usual medical management, suggesting the need for alternative therapies for this disease. Methods The Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent stroke in Intracranial Stenosis trial is an ongoing, randomized, multicenter, two-arm trial that will determine whether intracranial angioplasty and stenting adds benefit to aggressive medical management alone for preventing the primary endpoint (any stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after any revascularization procedure of the qualifying lesion during follow-up, or stroke in the territory of the symptomatic intracranial artery beyond 30 days) during a mean follow-up of 2 years in patients with recent TIA or stroke caused by 70–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Aggressive medical management in both arms consists of aspirin 325 mg per day, clopidogrel 75mg per day for 90 days after enrollment, intensive risk factor management primarily targeting systolic blood pressure < 140 mm Hg (< 130 mm Hg in diabetics) and low density cholesterol < 70 mg / dl, and a lifetsyle modification program. The sample size required todetect a 35% reduction in the rate of the primary endpoint from angioplasty and stenting based on the log-rank test with an alpha of 0.05, 80% power, and adjusting for a 2% loss to follow-up and 5% crossover from the medical to the stenting arm is 382 patients per group. Conclusion This is the first randomized trial to compare intracranial angioplasty and stenting with medical therapy and to incorporate intensive management of multiple risk factors and a lifestyle modification program in the study design. Hopefully, the results of the trial will lead to more effective therapy for this high-risk disease. PMID:21729789

  9. Early development of spasticity following stroke: a prospective, observational trial

    PubMed Central

    Schelosky, Ludwig D.; Scott, Jeffrey; Christe, Walter; Faiss, Jürgen H.; Mueller, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This study followed a cohort of 103 patients at median 6 days, 6 and 16 weeks after stroke and recorded muscle tone, pain, paresis, Barthel Index and quality of life score (EQ-5D) to identify risk-factors for development of spasticity. 24.5% of stroke victims developed an increase of muscle tone within 2 weeks after stroke. Patients with spasticity had significantly higher incidences of pain and nursing home placement and lower Barthel and EQ-5D scores than patients with normal muscle tone. Early predictive factors for presence of severe spasticity [modified Ashworth scale score (MAS) ≥3] at final follow-up were moderate increase in muscle tone at baseline and/or first follow-up (MAS = 2), low Barthel Index at baseline, hemispasticity, involvement of more than two joints at first follow-up, and paresis at any assessment point. The study helps to identify patients at highest risk for permanent and severe spasticity, and advocates for early treatment in this group. PMID:20140444

  10. The Multidisciplinary Swallowing Team Approach Decreases Pneumonia Onset in Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Shiro; Hirayama, Junko; Nakamori, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Nezu, Tomohisa; Kubo, Satoshi; Nagano, Yuka; Nagao, Akiko; Yamane, Naoya; Nishikawa, Yuichi; Takamoto, Megumi; Ueno, Hiroki; Ochi, Kazuhide; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in acute stroke patients at high rates, and many of them develop aspiration pneumonia. Team approaches with the cooperation of various professionals have the power to improve the quality of medical care, utilizing the specialized knowledge and skills of each professional. In our hospital, a multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team was organized. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of a team approach on dysphagia by comparing the rates of pneumonia in acute stroke patients prior to and post team organization. All consecutive acute stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2009 and March 2014 were registered. We analyzed the difference in the rate of pneumonia onset between the periods before team organization (prior period) and after team organization (post period). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the predictors of pneumonia. We recruited 132 acute stroke patients from the prior period and 173 patients from the post period. Pneumonia onset was less frequent in the post period compared with the prior period (6.9% vs. 15.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Based on a multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was determined that a swallowing team approach was related to pneumonia onset independent from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (adjusted hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19–0.84, p = 0.02). The multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team effectively decreased the pneumonia onset in acute stroke patients. PMID:27138162

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Stent Retrievers in the Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischaemic Stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Puñal-Riobóo, Janet; Atienza, Gerardo; Blanco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment of choice for acute ischaemic stroke is the intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 3-4.5 h of symptom onset. However, the use of a thrombolytic would be limited by its narrow therapeutic window and contraindications. As a result, in recent years, techniques such as mechanical thrombectomy have emerged, which employ thrombus retrieval devices, such as stent retrievers (Solitaire™, Trevo® or Revive™), whose safety and efficacy in the endovascular treatment of acute ischaemic stroke is analysed in this article. Methods A systematic literature search was undertaken until March 2015. The quality of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE methodology. A meta-analysis of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed, and the weighted average for the case series' sample size was calculated (Review Manager v5.2 and SPSS v19). Results Seventeen primary studies (2 RCTs, Solitaire™ and Trevo® vs. Merci®, and 15 case series) were selected. The RCT results show that stent retrievers have a safety profile similar to the Merci® device. However, both Solitaire™ and Trevo® achieved a higher recanalisation success rate (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.63-7.90; p < 0.00001) and appropriate clinical outcome at 90 days (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.52-4.25; p < 0.0004), although the 90-day mortality rate was similar in both groups (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.17-3.37; p = 0.70). Conclusions Stent retrievers appear to be safe and effective devices, achieving high recanalisation rates and good clinical outcomes in the endovascular treatment of patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to the occlusion of intracranial arteries in comparison with the clot retriever Merci®. PMID:26279662

  12. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds ... blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused ...

  13. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ari L.; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Goldfine, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). 44 (21%) of patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were 10 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions. PMID:24323716

  14. Paediatric arterial ischemic stroke: acute management, recent advances and remaining issues.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Margherita; De Lucia, Silvana; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Le Gal, Julie; Desmarest, Marie; Veropalumbo, Claudio; Romanello, Silvia; Titomanlio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a rare disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1-6/100.000. It has an increasingly recognised impact on child mortality along with its outcomes and effects on quality of life of patients and their families. Clinical presentation and risk factors of paediatric stroke are different to those of adults therefore it can be considered as an independent nosological entity. The relative rarity, the age-related peculiarities and the variety of manifested symptoms makes the diagnosis of paediatric stroke extremely difficult and often delayed. History and clinical examination should investigate underlying diseases or predisposing factors and should take into account the potential territoriality of neurological deficits and the spectrum of differential diagnosis of acute neurological accidents in childhood. Neuroimaging (in particular diffusion weighted magnetic resonance) is the keystone for diagnosis of paediatric stroke and other investigations might be considered according to the clinical condition. Despite substantial advances in paediatric stroke research and clinical care, many unanswered questions remain concerning both its acute treatment and its secondary prevention and rehabilitation so that treatment recommendations are mainly extrapolated from studies on adult population. We have tried to summarize the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of arterial ischemic stroke in children and the most recent international guidelines and practical directions on how to recognise and manage it in paediatric emergency.

  15. Post-stroke apathy and hypersomnia lead to worse outcomes from acute rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ari L; Elder, Jessica; Schiff, Nicholas D; Victor, Jonathan D; Goldfine, Andrew M

    2014-04-01

    Apathy and hypersomnia occur after stroke and, by definition, reduce participation in rehabilitation, but their effect on outcome from acute rehabilitation is not known. We performed a retrospective review of 213 patients admitted to a stroke-specialized acute rehabilitation unit in the United States. All patients had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and no dementia or dependence on others pre-stroke. We diagnosed apathy and hypersomnia using standardized documentation by treating therapists. We used multiple regression analysis to control for overall impairment (combination of strength, cognitive and sensory measures), age, time since stroke, and stroke type (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Forty-four (21%) of the patients had persistent apathy, and 12 (5.6%) had persistent hypersomnia. Both groups were more impaired in cognition, sustained attention, and more likely to be treated for depression. Patients with apathy were 2.4 times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 12 points below the mean. Patients with hypersomnia were ten times more likely to go to a nursing home, and had discharge FIM scores 16 points below the mean. These findings indicate that studies to prospectively define these clinical factors and potential confounds using standardized tools are indicated, and if confirmed, justify studies to identify these patients early and develop targeted interventions.

  16. An evidence-based causative classification system for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ay, Hakan; Furie, Karen L; Singhal, Aneesh; Smith, Wade S; Sorensen, A Gregory; Koroshetz, Walter J

    2005-11-01

    Regular, evidence-based assignment of patients to etiologic stroke categories is essential to enable valid comparison among studies. We designed an algorithm (SSS-TOAST) that incorporated recent advances in stroke imaging and epidemiology to identify the most probable TOAST category in the presence of evidence for multiple mechanisms. Based on the weight of evidence, each TOAST subtype was subdivided into 3 subcategories as "evident", "probable", or "possible". Classification into the subcategories was determined via predefined specific clinical and imaging criteria. These criteria included published risks of ischemic stroke from various mechanisms and published reports of the strength of associations between clinical and imaging features and particular stroke mechanisms. Two neurologists independently assessed 50 consecutively admitted patients with acute ischemic stroke through reviews of abstracted data from medical records. The number of patients classified as "undetermined-unclassified" per the original TOAST system decreased from 38-40% to 4% using the SSS-TOAST system. The kappa value for inter-examiner reliability was 0.78 and 0.90 for the original TOAST and SSS-TOAST respectively. The SSS-TOAST system successfully classifies patients with acute ischemic stroke into determined etiologic categories without sacrificing reliability. The SSS-TOAST is a dynamic algorithm that can accommodate modifications as new epidemiological data accumulate and diagnostic techniques advance. PMID:16240340

  17. Functional outcome in acute stroke patients with oropharyngeal Dysphagia after swallowing therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P < .05). When comparing the results of the VFS among the 3 groups, we found significant improvements in patients eating cookies and thick liquid after combined NMES/TS therapy (P < .05). In acute stroke patients with dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids.

  18. Blood-brain barrier permeability is increased after acute adult stroke but not neonatal stroke in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, David; Faustino, Joel; Daneman, Richard; Zhou, Lu; Lee, Sarah Y; Derugin, Nikita; Wendland, Michael F; Vexler, Zinaida S

    2012-07-11

    The immaturity of the CNS at birth greatly affects injury after stroke but the contribution of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the differential response to stroke in adults and neonates is poorly understood. We asked whether the structure and function of the BBB is disrupted differently in neonatal and adult rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. In adult rats, albumin leakage into injured regions was markedly increased during 2-24 h reperfusion but leakage remained low in the neonates. Functional assays employing intravascular tracers in the neonates showed that BBB permeability to both large (70 kDa dextran) and small (3 kDa dextran), gadolinium (III)-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid tracers remained largely undisturbed 24 h after reperfusion. The profoundly different functional integrity of the BBB was associated with the largely nonoverlapping patterns of regulated genes in endothelial cells purified from injured and uninjured adult and neonatal brain at 24 h (endothelial transcriptome, 31,042 total probe sets). Within significantly regulated 1266 probe sets in injured adults and 361 probe sets in neonates, changes in the gene expression of the basal lamina components, adhesion molecules, the tight junction protein occludin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were among the key differences. The protein expression of collagen-IV, laminin, claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occludens protein 1 was also better preserved in neonatal rats. Neutrophil infiltration remained low in acutely injured neonates but neutralization of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 in the systemic circulation enhanced neutrophil infiltration, BBB permeability, and injury. The markedly more integrant BBB in neonatal brain than in adult brain after acute stroke may have major implications for the treatment of neonatal stroke. PMID:22787045

  19. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  20. Early phase combined therapeutic management of acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bassi, P; Lattuada, P; Tonietti, S

    2005-05-01

    An adequate treatment of ischaemic stroke in the early phase (28-48 h) is the most important factor for a better outcome. Thrombolysis with rTPA (within 3 h) and oral ASA 300 mg/days are the first therapeutic misures. Continuous monitoring of cardiological and haemodinamic parameters allows early detection of cardiac disturbances. Treatment of hypertension, low haematic oxigenation, hyperglicaemia, seizures and hypertermia is basic to improve outcome. Pharmacological therapy is only one of the components of effective multidisciplinary integrated management of ischaemic stroke; we remind also the precocity of rehabilitation procedures and an accurate psychological assessment. PMID:15883687

  1. Recognizing and responding to symptoms of acute coronary syndromes and stroke in women.

    PubMed

    DeVon, Holli A; Saban, Karen L; Garrett, Donna K

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that women experience less traditional symptoms than men and delay longer in seeking care for acute coronary syndromes. Women ignore symptoms and delay treatment due to lack of awareness of risk, passivity, inaccurate symptom attribution, and barriers to self-care. The purpose of this article is to describe the current knowledge of symptoms of acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke in women, appropriate responses to symptoms, and implications for nurses caring for women.

  2. Should Blood Pressure Targets After Lacunar Stroke Vary by Body Size? The SPS3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Leslie A.; White, Carole L.; Pergola, Pablo E.; Hart, Robert G.; Benavente, Oscar R.; Hill, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unknown whether the physiological impact of a given blood pressure (BP) varies by body size. We explored interactions between higher vs. lower systolic BP (SBP) targets and anthropometric measures (body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), height, weight) and recurrent stroke and death in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) Trial. METHODS Patients with recent magnetic resonance imaging-proven lacunar infarcts were randomized to 2 BP targets (130–149mm Hg vs. <130) in a prospective, open-label, blinded end-point design. Time to outcome was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard models and compared between targets. We examined multiplicative interactions between each anthropometric measure and target and mean difference in achieved BP 1 year after randomization between BP groups by quartile. We also computed rates of recurrent stroke and death by quartiles of anthropometrics. RESULTS Three thousand and twenty patients were followed over a mean of 3.7 (SD 2.0) years. Mean age was 63; 63% were male. Mean height was 167 (SD 11) cm, weight 81 (18) kg, BMI 29 (5.9) kg/m2, and BSA 1.9 (0.25) m2. Achieved BP at 1 year was comparable between quartiles for each anthropometric measurement. We found no consistent interactions between BP target and anthropometrics for either outcome, nor were there any significant associations between hazard of stroke or death when assessed by BMI, BSA, height, or weight. CONCLUSIONS We found no interactions between BP target groups and quartiles of anthropometrics for rates of stroke and death in SPS3. There is no evidence at this time supporting body size-based modifications to current BP targets for secondary prevention after lacunar stroke. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION Trial Number NCT00059306 PMID:25452300

  3. [Glial fibrillary acidic protein in patients with symptoms of acute stroke: diagnostic marker of cerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Foerch, C; Pfeilschifter, W; Zeiner, P; Brunkhorst, R

    2014-08-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a highly brain-specific protein that is expressed in large quantities in astrocytes and has important functions in terms of maintaining and stabilizing the cytoskeleton. Acute intracerebral hemorrhage leads to an immediate mechanical destruction of astroglial cells with the subsequent release of GFAP into the extracellular space and the bloodstream. On the other hand, necrosis, cytolysis and GFAP release does not occur before 6-12 h after symptom onset in ischemic stroke. Thus, in the early hours after stroke increased GFAP values could indicate intracerebral hemorrhage. This review article describes the underlying pathophysiology of the test and guides the reader through the available data. Potential implications regarding the prehospital triage of acute stroke patients are discussed, including the possibility to initiate hyperacute treatment, such as blood pressure reduction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Other areas of interest for a potential GFAP test include traumatic brain injury and malignant gliomas.

  4. Targets of vascular protection in acute ischemic stroke differ in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Cobbs, Aisha I; Prakash, Roshini; Li, Weiguo; Pillai, Bindu; Hafez, Sherif; Coucha, Maha; Johnson, Maribeth H; Ogbi, Safia N; Fagan, Susan C; Ergul, Adviye

    2013-03-15

    Hemorrhagic transformation is an important complication of acute ischemic stroke, particularly in diabetic patients receiving thrombolytic treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute manipulation of potential targets for vascular protection [i.e., NF-κB, peroxynitrite, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)] on vascular injury and functional outcome in a diabetic model of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment groups received a single dose of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron (III), the nonspecific NF-κB inhibitor curcumin, or the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor minocycline at reperfusion. Poststroke infarct volume, edema, hemorrhage, neurological deficits, and MMP-9 activity were evaluated. All acute treatments reduced MMP-9 and hemorrhagic transformation in diabetic groups. In addition, acute curcumin and minocycline therapy reduced edema in these animals. Improved neurological function was observed in varying degrees with treatment, as indicated by beam-walk performance, modified Bederson scores, and grip strength; however, infarct size was similar to untreated diabetic animals. In control animals, all treatments reduced MMP-9 activity, yet bleeding was not improved. Neuroprotection was only conferred by curcumin and minocycline. Uncovering the underlying mechanisms contributing to the success of acute therapy in diabetes will advance tailored stroke therapies. PMID:23335797

  5. Pilot study of the safety of starting administration of low-dose aspirin and cilostazol in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Komatsu, Yoji; Sato, Naoaki; Higuchi, Osamu; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Kamezaki, Takao; Suzuki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Progressive stroke is a serious problem due to the associated morbidity and mortality. Aspirin is recommended for acute ischemic stroke, but does not reduce the frequency of stroke progression. No standard treatment has been approved for the prevention of stroke progression. Cilostazol, which reduces platelet aggregation about 3 hours after single administration, does not increase the frequency of bleeding events when compared with aspirin or a placebo. Moreover, the combination of 100 mg aspirin and 200 mg cilostazol does not increase the frequency of bleeding events compared with only 100 mg aspirin, and thus is expected to prevent stroke progression with a high degree of safety. The present study investigated the safety of this combination of two drugs administered at the above concentrations in 54 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours of stroke onset. Modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) measurements were performed at baseline and again on day 4 to 7. Progressive stroke was defined as an increase greater than or equal to 1 point on NIHSS. Patient scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after enrollment. Stroke progression occurred in 11.1% of the patients. The percentages of patients with mRS score from 0 to 2 were 42.6% and 75% at baseline and 3 months, respectively. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or major extracranial hemorrhage occurred. These results suggest that administration of aspirin and cilostazol is safe for acute ischemic stroke.

  6. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  7. “Missing clot” during mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke using Solitaire stent retrieval system

    PubMed Central

    Huded, Vikram; Nambiar, Vivek; De Souza, Romnesh; Bohra, Vikram; Ramankutty, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Stent retrieval system is an established treatment modality in acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion. Here, we describe a complication which occurred during mechanical thrombectomy in three cases where the clot dislodged during retrieval. There was a possibility of the clot getting reinjected into the artery with possible dire consequences. PMID:27293350

  8. Asymmetric oro-facial angioedema following alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teddy Y; Wei, Diana Y; Baker, Yvette; Sharkey, Brendan; Frith, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    We present a patient with asymmetric oro-facial angioedema following thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke with serial photographs of this phenomenon. We discuss the mechanism for the development of asymmetric oro-facial oedema following thrombolysis and suggest a management plan. PMID:24974191

  9. [Results of the multicenter prospective study of cerebrolysin safety and efficacy in acute stroke].

    PubMed

    Skwortsova, V I; Stakhovskaia, L V; Shamalov, N A; Kerbikov, O B

    2006-01-01

    The multicenter prospective study of cerebrolysin safety and efficacy included 277 patients with ischemic stroke aged 55-85 years, who received therapy within 12 h from the disease development. Cerebrolysin was used in dosage 10 ml daily along with concomitant standard basic treatment during 10 days after stroke onset in 138 patients. A control group comprised 139 patients who received basic treatment only. A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of neurological deficit revealed the accelerated improvement by NIHSS score, modified Rankin score and Barthel index in the cerebrolysin group on days 10 and 28 (p<0,05). The significant improvement of NIHSS score was observed on day 28 (p<0,05) in patients treated with cerebrolysin within the first 3h after stroke onset comparing to those treated within 6-12h. The trial demonstrated cerebrolysin safety and good tolerability in treatment of ischemic stroke in the carotid artery territory as well as its favorable clinical effect.

  10. Machine Learning for Outcome Prediction of Acute Ischemic Stroke Post Intra-Arterial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Hamed; Dowling, Richard; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Accurately predicting stroke outcome from a set of predictive variables may identify high-risk patients and guide treatment approaches, leading to decreased morbidity. Logistic regression models allow for the identification and validation of predictive variables. However, advanced machine learning algorithms offer an alternative, in particular, for large-scale multi-institutional data, with the advantage of easily incorporating newly available data to improve prediction performance. Our aim was to design and compare different machine learning methods, capable of predicting the outcome of endovascular intervention in acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. Method We conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected database of acute ischaemic stroke treated by endovascular intervention. Using SPSS®, MATLAB®, and Rapidminer®, classical statistics as well as artificial neural network and support vector algorithms were applied to design a supervised machine capable of classifying these predictors into potential good and poor outcomes. These algorithms were trained, validated and tested using randomly divided data. Results We included 107 consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients treated by endovascular technique. Sixty-six were male and the mean age of 65.3. All the available demographic, procedural and clinical factors were included into the models. The final confusion matrix of the neural network, demonstrated an overall congruency of ∼80% between the target and output classes, with favourable receiving operative characteristics. However, after optimisation, the support vector machine had a relatively better performance, with a root mean squared error of 2.064 (SD: ±0.408). Discussion We showed promising accuracy of outcome prediction, using supervised machine learning algorithms, with potential for incorporation of larger multicenter datasets, likely further

  11. Use of Accelerometers to Examine Sedentary Time on an Acute Stroke Unit

    PubMed Central

    Mattlage, Anna E.; Redlin, Sara A.; Rippee, Michael A.; Abraham, Michael G.; Rymer, Marilyn M.; Billinger, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Observational studies demonstrate low levels of physical activity during in-patient stroke rehabilitation. There is no objective measure of sedentary time on the acute stroke unit and whether sedentary time is related to functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize sedentary time after acute stroke and determine whether there is a relationship to functional performance at discharge. Methods Thirty-two individuals (18 males; 56.5 ± 12.7 years) with acute stroke were enrolled within 48 hours of hospital admission. An accelerometer was placed on the stroke-affected ankle to measure 24-hour activity and was worn for 4 days or until discharge from the hospital. Performance of activities of daily living, walking endurance, and functional mobility was assessed using the Physical Performance Test (PPT), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and Timed-Up and Go (TUG), respectively. Results Mean percent time spent sedentary was 93.9 ± 4.1% and percent time in light activity was 5.1 ± 2.4%. When controlling for baseline performance, the mean time spent sedentary per day was significantly related to PPT performance at discharge (r = −0.37; p = 0.05), but not the 6MWT or TUG. Discussion and Conclusions Patients with acute stroke were sedentary most of their hospital stay. To minimize the potential negative effects of inactivity, our data suggest that there should be an emphasis towards increasing physical activity during the hospital stay. Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1). PMID:26035120

  12. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  13. Feasibility study of an integrated stroke self-management programme: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Fiona; Gage, Heather; Drummond, Avril; Bhalla, Ajay; Grant, Robert; Lennon, Sheila; McKevitt, Christopher; Riazi, Afsane; Liston, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility of conducting a controlled trial into the effectiveness of a self-management programme integrated into stroke rehabilitation. Design A feasibility cluster-randomised design was utilised with stroke rehabilitation teams as units of randomisation. Setting Community-based stroke rehabilitation teams in London. Participants 78 patients with a diagnosis of stroke requiring community based rehabilitation. Intervention The intervention consisted of an individualised approach to self-management based on self-efficacy. Clinicians were trained to integrate defined self-management principles into scheduled rehabilitation sessions, supported by a patient-held workbook. Main outcomes measures Patient measures of quality of life, mood, self-efficacy and functional capacity, and health and social care utilisation, were carried out by blinded assessors at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Fidelity and acceptability of the delivery were evaluated by observation and interviews. Results 4 community stroke rehabilitation teams were recruited, and received a total of 317 stroke referrals over 14 months. Of these, 138 met trial eligibility criteria and 78 participants were finally recruited (56.5%). Demographic and baseline outcome measures were similar between intervention and control arms, with the exception of age. All outcome measures were feasible to use and clinical data at 12 weeks were completed for 66/78 participants (85%; 95% CI 75% to 92%). There was no significant difference in any of the outcomes between the arms of the trial, but measures of functional capacity and self-efficacy showed responsiveness to the intervention. Observation and interview data confirmed acceptability and fidelity of delivery according to predetermined criteria. Costs varied by site. Conclusions It was feasible to integrate a stroke self-management programme into community rehabilitation, using key principles. Some data were lost to follow-up, but overall

  14. Five Years of Acute Stroke Unit Care: Comparing ASU and Non-ASU Admissions and Allied Health Involvement.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Isobel J; Evans, Malcolm; McMullen-Roach, Sarah; Marquez, Jodie; Parsons, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Background. Evidence indicates that Stroke Units decrease mortality and morbidity. An Acute Stroke Unit (ASU) provides specialised, hyperacute care and thrombolysis. John Hunter Hospital, Australia, admits 500 stroke patients each year and has a 4-bed ASU. Aims. This study investigated hospital admissions over a 5-year period of all strokes patients and of all patients admitted to the 4-bed ASU and the involvement of allied health professionals. Methods. The study retrospectively audited 5-year data from all stroke patients admitted to John Hunter Hospital (n = 2525) and from nonstroke patients admitted to the ASU (n = 826). The study's primary outcomes were admission rates, length of stay (days), and allied health involvement. Results. Over 5 years, 47% of stroke patients were admitted to the ASU. More male stroke patients were admitted to the ASU (chi(2) = 5.81; P = 0.016). There was a trend over time towards parity between the number of stroke and nonstroke patients admitted to the ASU. When compared to those admitted elsewhere, ASU stroke patients had a longer length of stay (z = -8.233; P = 0.0000) and were more likely to receive allied healthcare. Conclusion. This is the first study to report 5 years of ASU admissions. Acute Stroke Units may benefit from a review of the healthcare provided to all stroke patients. The trends over time with respect to the utilisation of the John Hunter Hospitall's ASU have resulted in a review of the hospitall's Stroke Unit and allied healthcare.

  15. Understanding Reasons for Delay in Seeking Acute Stroke Care in an Underserved Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Amie W.; Castle, Amanda; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Brown, Nina C.; Higgins, Tara M.; Wallace, Jasmine L.; Koslosky, Sara S.; Gibbons, M. Chris; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Fokar, Ali; Shara, Nawar; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few patients arrive early enough at hospitals to be eligible for emergent stroke treatment. There may be barriers specific to underserved, urban populations that need to be identified before effective educational interventions to reduce delay times can be developed. Methods A survey of respondents’ likely action in a hypothetical stroke situation was given to 253 community volunteers in the catchment areas of a large urban community hospital. Concurrently, 100 structured interviews were conducted in the same hospital with acute stroke patients or proxy. Results In this predominantly urban, black population, if faced with a hypothetical stroke, 89% of community volunteers surveyed said they would call 911 first, and few felt any of the suggested potential barriers applied to them. However, only 12% of stroke patients interviewed actually called 911 first (OR 63.9; 95% CI 29.5 to 138.2). Instead, 75% called a relative/friend. Eighty-nine percent of stroke patients reported significant delay in seeking medical attention, and almost half said the reason for delay was thinking the symptoms were not serious and/or they would self-resolve. For those arriving by ambulance, only 25% did so because they thought it would be faster, while 35% cited having no other transportation options. Conclusions In this predominantly black urban population, while 89% of community volunteers report the intent of calling 911 during a stroke only 12% of actual stroke patients did so. Further research is needed to determine and conquer the barriers between behavioral intent and actual behavior to call 911 for witnessed stroke. PMID:21546471

  16. Oxaloacetate: a novel neuroprotective for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco; Sobrino, Tomás; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Castillo, José

    2012-02-01

    It is well established that glutamate acts as an important mediator of neuronal degeneration during cerebral ischemia. Different kind of glutamate antagonists have been used to reduce the deleterious effects of glutamate. However, their preclinical success failed to translate into practical treatments. Far from the classical use of glutamate antagonists employed so far, the systemic administration of oxaloacetate represents a novel neuroprotective strategy to minimize the deleterious effect of glutamate in the brain tissue after ischemic stroke. The neuroprotective effect of oxaloacetate is based on the capacity of this molecule to reduce the brain and blood glutamate levels as a result of the activation of the blood-resident enzyme glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Here we review the recent experimental and clinical results where it is demonstrated the potential applicability of oxaloacetate as a novel and powerful neuroprotective treatment against ischemic stroke.

  17. Evidence-based guideline: The role of diffusion and perfusion MRI for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schellinger, P.D.; Bryan, R.N.; Caplan, L.R.; Detre, J.A.; Edelman, R.R.; Jaigobin, C.; Kidwell, C.S.; Mohr, J.P.; Sloan, M.; Sorensen, A.G.; Warach, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the evidence for the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in the diagnosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We systematically analyzed the literature from 1966 to January 2008 to address the diagnostic and prognostic value of DWI and PWI. Results and Recommendations: DWI is established as useful and should be considered more useful than noncontrast CT for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke within 12 hours of symptom onset. DWI should be performed for the most accurate diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (Level A); however, the sensitivity of DWI for the diagnosis of ischemic stroke in a general sample of patients with possible acute stroke is not perfect. The diagnostic accuracy of DWI in evaluating cerebral hemorrhage is outside the scope of this guideline. On the basis of Class II and III evidence, baseline DWI volumes probably predict baseline stroke severity in anterior territory stroke (Level B) but possibly do not in vertebrobasilar artery territory stroke (Level C). Baseline DWI lesion volumes probably predict (final) infarct volumes (Level B) and possibly predict early and late clinical outcome measures (Level C). Baseline PWI volumes predict to a lesser degree the baseline stroke severity compared with DWI (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the value of PWI in diagnosing acute ischemic stroke (Level U). GLOSSARY ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient; ASPECTS = Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CI = confidence interval; DWI = diffusion-weighted imaging; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; MR = magnetic resonance; NIHSS = National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; PWI = perfusion-weighted imaging; tPA = tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:20625171

  18. Urine specific gravity as a predictor of early neurological deterioration in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, L C; Fann, W C; Chou, M H; Chen, H W; Su, Y C; Chen, J C

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that a blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Cr) ratio>15 is an independent predictor of early neurological deterioration after acute ischemic stroke, which suggests that dehydration may be a cause of early deterioration. The aim of this study was to determine whether urine specific gravity, which is another indicator of hydration status and one that is more easily obtained, is also an independent predictor of early deterioration or stroke-in-evolution (SIE). Demographic and clinical data were recorded at admission from patients with acute ischemic stroke who were prospectively enrolled from October 2007 to June 2010. We compared patients with and without stroke-in-evolution (based on an increase of 3 points or more points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale within 3 days). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out. A total of 317 patients (43 SIE and 274 non-SIE) were enrolled; the first 196 patients comprised the cohort of our previous study. The only two independent predictors of early deterioration or SIE were BUN/Cr>15 and urine specific gravity>1.010. After adjusting for age and gender, patients with a urine specific gravity>1.010 were 2.78 times more likely to develop SIE (95% CI=1.11-6.96; P=0.030). Urine specific gravity may be useful as an early predictor of early deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients with urine specific gravity ≤ 1.010 therefore may have a reduced likelihood of early neurological deterioration.

  19. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  20. Predictors of poor hospital discharge outcome in acute stroke due to atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Melissa J; Tayal, Ashis H; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent cause of acute ischemic stroke that results in severe neurological disability and death despite treatment with intravenous thrombolysis (intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rtPA]). We performed a retrospective review of a single-center registry of patients treated with intravenous rtPA for stroke. The purposes of this study were to compare intravenous rtPA treated patients with stroke with and without AF to examine independent predictors of poor hospital discharge outcome (in-hospital death or hospital discharge to a skilled nursing facility, long-term acute care facility, or hospice care). A univariate analysis was performed on 144 patients receiving intravenous rtPA for stroke secondary to AF and 190 patients without AF. Characteristics that were significantly different between the two groups were age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, length of hospital stay, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking status, presence of large cerebral infarct, and hospital discharge outcome. Bivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that patients with stroke secondary to AF with a poor hospital discharge outcome had a greater likelihood of older age, higher initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, longer length of hospital stay, intubation, and presence of large cerebral infarct compared with those with good hospital discharge outcome (discharged to home or inpatient rehabilitation or signed oneself out against medical advice). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, longer length of hospital stay, and presence of large cerebral infarct were independent predictors of poor hospital discharge outcome. These predictors can guide nursing interventions, aid the multidisciplinary treating team with treatment decisions, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:25503541

  1. Mechanical Revascularization for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Single-Center, Retrospective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeromel, Miran Milosevic, Z. V. Kocijancic, I. J. Lovric, D.; Svigelj, V. Zvan, B.

    2013-04-15

    BackgroundEndovascular mechanical revascularization (thrombectomy) is an increasingly used method for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke. The purpose of the study was to analyze the recanalization rate, clinical outcome, and complication rate in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. A total of 57 patients with large vessel stroke (within 3 h for anterior and 12 h for posterior circulation) were treated with mechanical revascularization at a single center during 24 months. The primary goal of endovascular treatment using different mechanical devices was recanalization of the occluded vessel. Recanalization rate (reported as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] score), clinical outcome (reported as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score and modified Rankin scale [mRS] score), as well as periprocedural complications were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 63.1 {+-} 12.9 years, with baseline median NIHSS score of 14 (interquartile range, 9.5-19). Successful recanalization (TICI 2b or 3) was achieved in 41 (72 %) patients. Twenty patients (35 %) presented with favorable outcome (mRS {<=}2) 30 days after stroke. Overall, significant neurological improvement ({>=}4 NIHSS point reduction) occurred in 36 (63 %) patients. A clinically significant procedure-related adverse events (vessel disruption, peri/postprocedural intracranial bleeding) defined with decline in NIHSS of {>=}4 or death occurred in three (5 %) patients. The study showed a high recanalization rate with improved clinical outcome and a low rate of periprocedural complications in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. Therefore, we could conclude that endovascular revascularization (primary or in combination with a bridging thrombolysis) was an effective and safe procedure for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke.

  2. Copolymer-1 Promotes Neurogenesis and Improves Functional Recovery after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Yolanda; Lorea, Jonathan; Mestre, Humberto; Kim-Lee, Jennifer Hyuna; Herrera, Judith; Mellado, Raúl; Gálvez, Vanesa; Cuellar, Leopoldo; Musri, Carolina; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stroke triggers a systemic inflammatory response that exacerbates the initial injury. Immunizing with peptides derived from CNS proteins can stimulate protective autoimmunity (PA). The most renowned of these peptides is copolymer-1 (Cop-1) also known as glatiramer acetate. This peptide has been approved for use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Cop-1-specific T cells cross the blood-brain barrier and secrete neurotrophins and anti-inflammatory cytokines that could stimulate proliferation of neural precursor cells and recruit them to the injury site; making it an ideal therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Cop-1 on neurogenesis and neurological recovery during the acute phase (7 days) and the chronic phase of stroke (60 days) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). BDNF and NT-3 were quantified and infarct volumes were measured. We demonstrated that Cop-1 improves neurological deficit, enhances neurogenesis (at 7 and 60 days) in the SVZ, SGZ, and cerebral cortex through an increase in NT-3 production. It also decreased infarct volume even at the chronic phase of tMCAo. The present manuscript fortifies the support for the use of Cop-1 in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25821957

  3. Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy in Acute Stroke: Do Rural Patients Receive Less Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess whether acute stroke patients in rural hospitals receive less occupational therapy and physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. Design. Retrospective case-control study of health data in patients ≤10 days after stroke. Setting. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy services in four rural hospitals and one metropolitan hospital. Participants. Acute stroke patients admitted in one health district. Main Outcome Measures. Frequency and duration of face-to-face and indirect therapy sessions. Results. Rural hospitals admitted 363 patients and metropolitan hospital admitted 378 patients. Mean age was 73 years. Those in rural hospitals received more face-to-face (p > 0.0014) and indirect (p = 0.001) occupational therapy when compared to those in the metropolitan hospital. Face-to-face sessions lasted longer (p = 0.001). Patients admitted to the metropolitan hospital received more face-to-face (p > 0.000) and indirect (p > 0.000) physiotherapy when compared to those admitted to rural hospitals. Face-to-face sessions were shorter (p > 0.000). Almost all were seen within 24 hours of referral. Conclusions. Acute stroke patients in Australian rural hospital may receive more occupational therapy and less physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. The dose of therapy was lower than recommended, and the referral process may unnecessarily delay the time from admission to a patient's first therapy session. PMID:27752389

  4. Vertebrobasilar ectasia in patients with lacunar stroke: The SPS3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Makoto; Pearce, Lesly A.; Ohara, Nobuyuki; Field, Thalia S.; Bazan, Carlos; Anderson, David C.; Hart, Robert G.; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical implications of vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE) in patients with cerebral small artery disease are not well defined. We investigated whether VBE is associated with recurrent stroke, major hemorrhage, and death in a large cohort of patients with recent lacunar stroke. Materials and methods Maximum diameters of the vertebral and basilar arteries were measured by magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomographic angiography in 2621 participants in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial. VBE was defined a priori as basilar artery >4.5 mm and/or vertebral artery >4.0 mm. Patient characteristics and risks of stroke recurrence and mortality during follow-up (median 3.5 years) were compared between patients with and without VBE. Results VBE affecting ≥1 artery was present in 200 (7.6%) patients. Patient features independently associated with VBE were increasing age, male sex, white race-ethnicity, hypertension, and higher baseline diastolic blood pressure. Baseline systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with VBE. After adjustment for other risk factors, VBE was not predictive of recurrent stroke (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.85-1.9) or major hemorrhage (HR 1.5, CI 0.94-2.6), but was of death (HR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.7). Conclusion In this large well-characterized cohort of patients with recent lacunar stroke, VBE was predictive of death, but not recurrent stroke or major hemorrhage. In these exploratory analyses, the frequency of VBE was directly related to diastolic blood pressure but inversely related to systolic blood pressure. PMID:25817614

  5. Controlled trial of Penfluridol in Acute Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, H. M.; Schut, T.; Dols, L.; van Schilfgaarden, R.

    1971-01-01

    A controlled study was made of penfluridol medication consisting of a single weekly oral dose of 30 mg in 30 patients with acute psychoses of varying type and origin. This medication was found to be effective. No significant side effects occurred. Several long-acting neuroleptics for injection are now available. The development of an oral compound of this type is an asset because of the manageability of the oral drug in the hands of family doctors and social psychiatrists. PMID:4943034

  6. Platelets Proteomic Profiles of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Sener, Azize

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke and antiplatelet agents exist for its treatment and prevention. Through the use of LC-MS based protein expression profiling, platelets from stroke patients were analyzed and then correlated with the proteomic analyses results in the context of this disease. This study was based on patients who post ischemic stroke were admitted to hospital and had venous blood drawn within 24 hrs of the incidence. Label-free protein expression analyses of the platelets’ tryptic digest was performed in triplicate on a UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS system and ProteinLynx Global Server (v2.5, Waters) was used for tandem mass data extraction. The peptide sequences were searched against the reviewed homo sapiens database (www.uniprot.org) and the quantitation of protein variation was achieved through Progenesis LC-MS software (V4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics). These Label-free differential proteomics analysis of platelets ensured that 500 proteins were identified and 83 of these proteins were found to be statistically significant. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in various processes such as inflammatory response, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development and function and nucleic acid metabolism. The expressions of myeloperoxidase, arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase and histidine-rich glycoprotein are involved in cellular metabolic processes, crk-like protein and ras homolog gene family member A involved in cell signaling with vitronectin, thrombospondin 1, Integrin alpha 2b, and integrin beta 3 involved in cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein H, immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 are involved in structural, apolipoprotein A-I, and alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor is involved in transport, complement component 3 and clusterin is involved in immunity proteins as has been discussed. Our data provides an insight

  7. Platelets Proteomic Profiles of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Ozge; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Sener, Azize

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke and antiplatelet agents exist for its treatment and prevention. Through the use of LC-MS based protein expression profiling, platelets from stroke patients were analyzed and then correlated with the proteomic analyses results in the context of this disease. This study was based on patients who post ischemic stroke were admitted to hospital and had venous blood drawn within 24 hrs of the incidence. Label-free protein expression analyses of the platelets' tryptic digest was performed in triplicate on a UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS system and ProteinLynx Global Server (v2.5, Waters) was used for tandem mass data extraction. The peptide sequences were searched against the reviewed homo sapiens database (www.uniprot.org) and the quantitation of protein variation was achieved through Progenesis LC-MS software (V4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics). These Label-free differential proteomics analysis of platelets ensured that 500 proteins were identified and 83 of these proteins were found to be statistically significant. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in various processes such as inflammatory response, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development and function and nucleic acid metabolism. The expressions of myeloperoxidase, arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase and histidine-rich glycoprotein are involved in cellular metabolic processes, crk-like protein and ras homolog gene family member A involved in cell signaling with vitronectin, thrombospondin 1, Integrin alpha 2b, and integrin beta 3 involved in cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein H, immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 are involved in structural, apolipoprotein A-I, and alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor is involved in transport, complement component 3 and clusterin is involved in immunity proteins as has been discussed. Our data provides an insight into

  8. Platelets Proteomic Profiles of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Ozge; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Sener, Azize

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke and antiplatelet agents exist for its treatment and prevention. Through the use of LC-MS based protein expression profiling, platelets from stroke patients were analyzed and then correlated with the proteomic analyses results in the context of this disease. This study was based on patients who post ischemic stroke were admitted to hospital and had venous blood drawn within 24 hrs of the incidence. Label-free protein expression analyses of the platelets' tryptic digest was performed in triplicate on a UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS system and ProteinLynx Global Server (v2.5, Waters) was used for tandem mass data extraction. The peptide sequences were searched against the reviewed homo sapiens database (www.uniprot.org) and the quantitation of protein variation was achieved through Progenesis LC-MS software (V4.0, Nonlinear Dynamics). These Label-free differential proteomics analysis of platelets ensured that 500 proteins were identified and 83 of these proteins were found to be statistically significant. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in various processes such as inflammatory response, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development and function and nucleic acid metabolism. The expressions of myeloperoxidase, arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase and histidine-rich glycoprotein are involved in cellular metabolic processes, crk-like protein and ras homolog gene family member A involved in cell signaling with vitronectin, thrombospondin 1, Integrin alpha 2b, and integrin beta 3 involved in cell adhesion. Apolipoprotein H, immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 and immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 are involved in structural, apolipoprotein A-I, and alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor is involved in transport, complement component 3 and clusterin is involved in immunity proteins as has been discussed. Our data provides an insight into

  9. Phase-based metamorphosis of diffusion lesion in relation to perfusion values in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Luby, Marie; Carpenter, Trevor K; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-01-01

    Examining the dynamics of stroke ischemia is limited by the standard use of 2D-volume or voxel-based analysis techniques. Recently developed spatiotemporal models such as the 4D metamorphosis model showed promise for capturing ischemia dynamics. We used a 4D metamorphosis model to evaluate acute ischemic stroke lesion morphology from the acute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to final T2-weighted imaging (T2-w). In 20 representative patients, we metamorphosed the acute lesion to subacute lesion to final infarct. From the DWI lesion deformation maps we identified dynamic lesion areas and examined their association with perfusion values inside and around the lesion edges, blinded to reperfusion status. We then tested the model in ten independent patients from the STroke Imaging Repository (STIR). Perfusion values varied widely between and within patients, and were similar in contracting and expanding DWI areas in many patients in both datasets. In 25% of patients, the perfusion values were higher in DWI-contracting than DWI-expanding areas. A similar wide range of perfusion values and ongoing expansion and contraction of the DWI lesion were seen subacutely. There was more DWI contraction and less expansion in patients who received thrombolysis, although with widely ranging perfusion values that did not differ. 4D metamorphosis modeling shows promise as a method to improve use of multimodal imaging to understand the evolution of acute ischemic tissue towards its fate. PMID:26288755

  10. Ischemic penumbra in acute stroke: Demonstration by PET with fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.H.; Liu, R.S.; Hu, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    Ischemic penumbra (IP) in acute stroke has gained clinical interest since tissue functions may be recovered if perfusion can be reestablished. However, such therapeutic intervention is {open_quotes}blind{close_quotes} since clinical examination can not distinguish IP from developing infarction. In vivo demonstration of IP may have significance for stroke patient management. This study was a preliminary evaluation of detecting IP in vivo by F-18 fluoromisonidazole ([F-18]-FMISO), a hypoxic imaging agent. Static PET imaging was performed after IV injection of 370 MBq of [F-18]-FMISO at 20 and 120 min. Tomograms were reconstructed and evaluated visually in correlation with CT or MR scans. In acute stroke, patients (pts) were called back for the second PET study one month after the initial study. CT was used for confirming infarction. In 6 pts with acute cerebral infarction, three of them had intense [F-18]-FMISO retention in the penumbra surrounding the central, eclipse-like zone of absent radio-activity (infarction) at 2 hr in the acute state, and the penumbra disappeared in association with increased area of infarction on CT in one case in the chronic state. In five pts with chronic infarction, all had no penumbra of [F-18]-FMISO retention. In summary, our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of using [F-18]-FMISO PET to detect ischemic penumbra in vivo.

  11. Simultaneously Presented Acute Ischemic Stroke and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Zo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Myung-A

    2013-01-01

    Although atrial fibrillation is the most frequent cause of embolic stroke, coronary embolism from atrial fibrillation is a very rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, simultaneously presented acute ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarction due to atrial fibrillation in the same patient has not been documented. The present report describes the case of a 58-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who initially presented with a large cerebral infarction due to embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Four hours after the diagnosis of cerebral embolism, he was subsequently diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction due to concurrent coronary embolism. He underwent successful coronary revascularization with a drug-eluting stent. The possibility of combined coronary embolism as a rare etiology should be kept in mind when a patient with acute embolic stroke presents, especially when there is evidence of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24363753

  12. Predictors of diagnostic neuroimaging delays among adults presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute stroke in Ontario: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Kirsteen R.; Kapral, Moira K.; Li, Shudong; Fang, Jiming; Moody, Alan R.; Krahn, Murray; Laupacis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have examined the timeliness of thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, but less is known about door-to-imaging time. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the timing of neuroimaging among patients with suspected acute stroke in the province of Ontario, Canada, and to examine factors associated with delays in neuroimaging. Methods: We included all patients 18 years and older with suspected acute stroke seen at hospitals with neuroimaging capacity within the Ontario Stroke Registry between Apr. 1, 2010, and Mar. 31, 2011. We used a hierarchical, multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between patient and hospital factors and the likelihood of receiving timely neuroimaging (≤ 25 min) after arrival in the emergency department. Results: A total of 13 250 patients presented to an emergency department with stroke-like symptoms during the study period. Of the 3984 who arrived within 4 hours after symptom onset, 1087 (27.3%) had timely neuroimaging. The factors independently associated with an increased likelihood of timely neuroimaging were less time from symptom onset to presentation, more severe stroke, male sex, no history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, arrival to hospital from a setting other than home and presentation to a designated stroke centre or an urban hospital. Interpretation: A minority of patients with stroke-like symptoms who presented within the 4-hour thrombolytic treatment window received timely neuroimaging. Neuroimaging delays were influenced by various patient and hospital factors, some of which are modifiable. PMID:27398382

  13. Availability of Diagnostic and Treatment Services for Acute Stroke in Frontier Counties in Montana and Northern Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okon, Nicholas J.; Rodriguez, Daniel V.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Oser, Carrie S.; Blades, Lynda L.; Burnett, Anne M.; Russell, Joseph A.; Allen, Martha J.; Chasson, Linda; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Rapid diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke can lead to improved patient outcomes. Hospitals in rural and frontier counties, however, face unique challenges in providing diagnostic and treatment services for acute stroke. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the availability of key diagnostic technology and programs for acute…

  14. Association of deep venous thrombosis with calf vein diameter in acute hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the association between the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and calf vein diameter in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke. We measured the maximum diameter of paralytic side posttibial veins (PTVs) and peroneal veins (PVs) in 49 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage on admission and at 2 weeks after stroke onset by ultrasonography. We also examined for the presence or absence of DVT, and then analyzed the association of DVT with the maximum vein diameter. At 2 weeks after stroke, DVTs were detected in PTVs in 7 patients and in PVs in 6 patients. The maximum calf vein diameters at 2 weeks were significantly greater in patients with DVT compared with those without DVT (PTV, P = .033; PV, P = .015). Although calf vein diameter at admission did not influence the future incidence of DVT in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, the presence of DVT was associated with calf vein dilatation.

  15. Early acute ischaemic stroke in two patients with acute type B aortic dissection: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    AlGhamdi, Abdullah; Alqahtani, Saeed; Ricketti, Meagan; Aziz, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Aortic thoracic dissection (AD) is a serious cardiovascular disease. According to the Stanford classification; type A involves the ascending aorta and type B the descending distal to the left subclavian artery. Neurological complications secondary to AD are devastating. Ischaemic stroke and hypoxic encephalopathy are early-recognised complications of type A as the arch vessels can be involved AD. Although, late ischaemic stroke had been reported in 1.4-5% of patients with type B dissection, early stroke is very unusual as it cannot be simply explained by AD anatomical pathogenesis. We report two patients who presented with type B AD complicated by early ischaemic strokes. Work-up revealed significant cardiomyopathies in both patients but with left ventricle thrombus in one. In both patients the strokes were felt to be of cardioembolic origin. PMID:26243540

  16. Glycated Hemoglobin Independently Predicts Stroke Recurrence within One Year after Acute First-Ever Non-Cardioembolic Strokes Onset in A Chinese Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuolin; Shi, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunxue; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Hyperglycemia is related to stroke. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can reflect pre-stroke glycaemia status. However, the information on the direct association between HbA1c and recurrence after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic strokes is rare and there is no consistent conclusion. Methods The ACROSS-China database comprised of 2186 consecutive first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients with baseline HbA1c values. After excluding patients who died from non-stroke recurrence and patients lost to follow up, 1817 and 1540 were eligible for 3-month and 1-year analyses, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to evaluate the associations between HbA1c and 3-month and 1-year stroke recurrence. Results The HbA1c values at admission were divided into 4 levels by quartiles: Q1 (<5.5%); Q2 (5.5 to <6.1%); Q3 (6.1% to <7.2%); and Q4 (≥7.2%). The cumulative recurrence rates were 8.3% and 11.0% for 3 months and 1 year, respectively. In multivariate analyses, when compared with Q1, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) were 2.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.26) in Q3 and 3.71(95% CI 1.68-8.21) in Q4 for 3-month stroke recurrence; 3.30 (95% CI 1.31-8.34) in Q3 and 3.35 (95% CI 1.36-8.21) in Q4 for 1-year stroke recurrence. Adding fasting plasma glucose in the multivariate analyses did not modify the association: AHRs were 2.75 (95% CI 1.24-6.11) in Q3 and 3.67 (95% CI 1.59-8.53) in Q4 for 3-month analysis; AHRs were 3.08 (95% CI 1.10-8.64) in Q3 and 3.31(95% CI 1.35-8.14) in Q4 for 1-year analysis. Conclusions A higher “normal” HbA1c level reflecting pre-stroke glycaemia status independently predicts stroke recurrence within one year after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic stroke onset. HbA1c is recommended as a routine test in acute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:24236195

  17. Effect of Heparin on Recanalization in Acute Stroke Patients with Intra-Arterial Thrombi

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bijal K.; Kamal, Haris; McMurtray, Aaron; Shafie, Mohammed; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant use, such as heparin, is usually contraindicated in acute stroke patients. We present a study of patients, who were treated with intravenous heparin after a stroke that were also found to have an intraluminal thrombus. Prior studies imply that recanalization is achieved with heparin; however heparin should only prevent thrombus propagation. Therefore it is unclear whether and how IV heparin can achieve recanalization of intraluminal thrombi in acute stroke patients. A retrospective review of all acute stroke patients from a single stroke center who received a therapeutic IV heparin infusion from 5/2006 to 9/2011 were included in the study. We compared patients who had complete/partial recanalization and/or improved flow versus those that did not, with both these groups on a standard intravenous heparin infusion protocol. Demographic data was compared between the groups. Average partial thromboplastin time (PTT) during heparin infusion, time between computed tomography angiographies (CTAs), time from stroke onset to receiving IV heparin, and vessel occluded were also compared between groups. Forty-one patients (19 female, 22 male) were included in the study with a total of 55 vessels (either carotid, middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery/posterior circulation) having intraluminal thrombi; 31 patients had 41 vessels with either partial or complete recanalization of effected vessels, while 10 patients had 14 vessels that did not have at least one vessel recanalize while on heparin. Using t-test we noted that the average PTT between the vessels that had partial/complete recanalization group (61.74) and nonrecanalization group (66.30) was not statistical significantly different (P=0.37).The average time in days on heparin between vascular imaging studies (CTA/conventional angiogram) in the group of vessels with partial/complete recanalization (7.12 days) and the ones with no change (6.11 days) was not significantly

  18. The Relationship between C-Reactive Protein Level and Discharge Outcome in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Geng, He-Hong; Wang, Xin-Wang; Fu, Rong-Li; Jing, Meng-Juan; Huang, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, was associated with stroke severity and long-term outcome. However, the relationship between the acute-phase CRP level and discharge outcome has received little attention. We prospectively studied 301 patients with acute ischemic stroke (over a period of two weeks) from two hospital stroke wards and one rehabilitation department in Henan, China. Patients’ demographic and clinical data were collected and evaluated at admission. Poor discharge outcome was assessed in patients at discharge using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS > 2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors of poor discharge outcome after adjusting for potential confounders. Poor discharge outcome was observed in 78 patients (25.9%). Univariate analyses showed that factors significantly influencing poor discharge outcome were age, residence, recurrent acute ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, non-lacunar stroke, time from onset of stroke to admission, CRP, TBIL (total bilirubin), direct bilirubin (DBIL), ALB (albumin), FIB (fibrinogen) and D-dimer (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, residence, recurrent ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, NIHSS score at admission, lacunar stroke, time from onset of stroke to admission, CRP, TBIL, DBIL, ALB, FIB and D-dimer, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that poor outcome at discharge was associated with recurrent acute ischemic stroke (OR, 2.115; 95% CI, 1.094–4.087), non-lacunar stroke (OR, 2.943; 95% CI, 1.436–6.032), DBIL (OR, 1.795; 95% CI, 1.311–2.458), and CRP (OR, 4.890; 95% CI, 3.063–7.808). In conclusion, the CRP level measured at admission was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome at discharge. Recurrent acute ischemic stroke, non-lacunar stroke and DBIL were also significantly associated with discharge

  19. A Model for Predicting Persistent Elevation of Factor VIII among Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Samai, Alyana A.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Shaban, Amir; George, Alexander J.; Dowell, Lauren; Monlezun, Dominique J.; Leissinger, Cindy; Schluter, Laurie; El Khoury, Ramy; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevated levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) may persist independent of the acute-phase response; however, this relationship has not been investigated relative to acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We examined the frequency and predictors of persistently elevated FVIII in AIS patients. Methods AIS patients admitted between July 2008 and May 2014 with elevated baseline FVIII levels and repeat FVIII levels drawn for more than 7 days postdischarge were included. The patients were dichotomized by repeat FVIII level for univariate analysis at 150% and 200% activity thresholds. An adjusted model was developed to predict the likelihood of persistently elevated FVIII levels. Results Among 1616 AIS cases, 98 patients with elevated baseline FVIII had repeat FVIII levels. Persistent FVIII elevation was found in more than 75% of patients. At the 150% threshold, the prediction score ranged from 0 to 7 and included black race, female sex, prior stroke, hyperlipidemia, smoking, baseline FVIII > 200%, and baseline von Willebrand factor (vWF) level greater than 200%. At the 200% threshold, the prediction score ranged from 0–5 and included female sex, prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, baseline FVIII level greater 200%, and baseline vWF level greater than 200%. For each 1-point increase in score, the odds of persistent FVIII at both the 150% threshold (odds ratio [OR] = 10.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63–66.9, P = .0134) and 200% threshold (OR = 10.2, 95% CI 1.82–57.5, P = .0083) increased 10 times. Conclusion Because an elevated FVIII level confers increased stroke risk, our model for anticipating a persistently elevated FVIII level may identify patients at high risk for recurrent stroke. FVIII may be a target for secondary stroke prevention. PMID:26777556

  20. Variations and Determinants of Hospital Costs for Acute Stroke in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jade W.; Heeley, Emma L.; Jan, Stephen; Huang, Yining; Huang, Qifang; Wang, Ji-Guang; Cheng, Yan; Xu, En; Yang, Qidong; Anderson, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The burden of stroke is high and increasing in China. We modelled variations in, and predictors of, the costs of hospital care for patients with acute stroke in China. Methods and Findings Baseline characteristics and hospital costs for 5,255 patients were collected using the prospective register-based ChinaQUEST study, conducted in 48 Level 3 and 14 Level 2 hospitals in China during 2006–2007. Ordinary least squares estimation was used to determine factors associated with hospital costs. Overall mean cost of hospitalisation was 11,216 Chinese Yuan Renminbi (CNY) (≈US$1,602) per patient, which equates to more than half the average annual wage in China. Variations in cost were largely attributable to stroke severity and length of hospital stay (LOS). Model forecasts showed that reducing LOS from the mean of 20 days for Level 3 and 18 days for Level 2 hospitals to a duration of 1 week, which is common among Western countries, afforded cost reductions of 49% and 19%, respectively. Other lesser determinants varied by hospital level: in Level 3 hospitals, health insurance and the occurrence of in-hospital complications were each associated with 10% and 18% increases in cost, respectively, whilst treatment in a teaching hospital was associated with approximately 39% decrease in cost on average. For Level 2 hospitals, stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage was associated with a 19% greater cost than for ischaemic stroke. Conclusions Changes to hospital policies to standardise resource use and reduce the variation in LOS could attenuate costs and improve efficiencies for acute stroke management in China. The success of these strategies will be enhanced by broader policy initiatives currently underway to reform hospital reimbursement systems. PMID:20927384

  1. Functional gain following rehabilitation of recurrent ischemic stroke in the elderly: experience of a post-acute care rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, E H; Fleissig, Y; Arad, M; Adunsky, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether rehabilitation of patients with recurrent ischemic strokes is associated with functional gain. We studied a total of 919 consecutive post-acute ischemic stroke elderly patients admitted for rehabilitation. 22% out of the patients had recurrent stroke on index day. Functional outcomes of first-ever stroke patients and recurrent ischemic stroke patients were assessed by the Functional Independence Measurement scale (FIM™) at admission and discharge. Data was analyzed by t-test, Chi-square test and by multiple linear regression analysis. There were 716 patients with first ever stroke and 203 patients with recurrent stroke. Total and motor FIM scores at admission and total, motor, gain and Montebello Rehabilitation Factor (RFG) FIM scores at discharge were similar in the two groups. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (beta=-0.13, p=0.001) length of stay (beta=0.21, p<0.001), Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) (beta=0.1, p=0.01), and admission total FIM (beta=-0.12, p=0.01) emerged as the only independent predictors of higher gain FIM scores at discharge. The finding suggests that elderly patients with recurrent ischemic stroke admitted to rehabilitation ward, showed similar FIM gain scores at discharge, compared with first-ever stroke patients. It is concluded that recurrent stroke should not be considered as adversely affecting the short-term functional outcomes of patients in a post-acute rehabilitation setting.

  2. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bentsen, L.; Nygård, A.; Ovesen, C.; Christensen, A.; Rosenbaum, S.; Havsteen, I.; Christensen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke. Method The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA scans systematically, assessing the four segments of the extracranial vertebral arteries. First, the frequency of pathological findings including stenosis, plaques, dissection, kinked artery and coiling was assessed. Subsequently, we explored the extent of the pathological findings that were the most plausible causes of stroke, namely either a possible dissection or a kinked artery. Results Findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries included significant stenosis (0.8%), atherosclerotic plaque types (3.8%), possible dissections (2.6%), kinked arteries (2.6%) and coiling (32.0%). Eighteen patients (2.8%) with pathological findings had an unknown cause of stroke, likely posterior symptoms and no clinical stroke symptoms from the anterior circuit. Of these, 3 cases were kinked arteries (0.5%) and 15 cases (2.3%) were possible dissections. Conclusion We found that in approximately 3% of the study population, the most plausible cause of the cryptogenic strokes was due to a pathological finding in the posterior extracranial vertebral arteries, being either a possible dissection or

  3. Endovascular Acute Stroke Treatment Performed by Vascular Interventional Radiologists: Is It Safe and Efficacious?

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit; Kurz, Kathinka D.; Larsen, Jan Petter; Kurz, Martin W.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of neurointerventional procedures in acute stroke patients performed by a team of vascular interventional radiologists in close cooperation with diagnostic neuroradiologists and stroke neurologists and to compare the results with those of previous reports from centres with specialised interventional neuroradiologists. Material and Methods: A total of 39 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion not responding to or not eligible for intravenous thrombolysis were treated with either intra-arterial thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy (Penumbra System or solitaire FR thrombectomy system, respectively) and included in our prospective study. Outcomes were measured using the modified Rankin scale after 90 days, and recanalization was assessed by thrombolysis using the myocardial infarction score. Results: Mean patient age was 68.3 {+-} 14.2 years; the average National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at hospital admission was 17.2 (SD = 6.2 [n = 38]). Successful recanalization was achieved in 74.4 % of patients. Median time from clinical onset to recanalization was 5 h 11 min. Procedure-related complications occurred in 5 % of patients, and 7.5 % had a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Of the patients, 22.5 % died within the first 90 postprocedural days, 5 % of these from cerebral causes. Patients who were successfully recanalized had a clinical better outcome at follow-up than those in whom treatment failed. Of the patients, 35.9 % had an mRS score {<=}2 after 90 days. Conclusion: Our results are in line with those in the published literature and show that a treatment strategy with general interventional radiologists performing neurointerventional procedures in acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusions can be achieved to the benefit of patients.

  4. Stroke is an emergency.

    PubMed

    Futrell, N; Millikan, C H

    1996-04-01

    Stroke is an emergency. Ischemic stroke is similar to myocardial infarction in that the pathogenesis is loss of blood supply to the tissue, which can result in irreversible damage if blood flow is not restored quickly. Public education is needed to emphasize the warning signs of stroke. Patients should seek medical help immediately, using emergency transport systems. Therapy geared toward minimizing the damage from an acute stroke should be started without delay in the emergency room. This includes measures to protect brain tissue, support perfusion pressure, and minimize cerebral edema. Strategies for improving recovery should also begin immediately. All major medical centers need stroke teams and stroke units. Stroke prevention should be given high priority as a public health strategy. Risk factor management should be part of general health care and should begin in childhood, with emphasis on nutrition, exercise, weight control, and avoidance of tobacco. Health screening and early treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia has decreased the incidence of stroke and heart disease, but these efforts need to be expanded to reach all segments of the population. Basic research has opened the door to new therapies aimed at re-establishing blood flow and limiting tissue damage. Clinical trials have already led to changes in stroke prevention, including studies of carotid endarterectomy and ticlopidine and warfarin therapy (for patients with atrial fibrillation). Trials in progress are testing the usefulness of ancrod, neuroprotective agents, antioxidant agents, anti-inflammatory agents, low-molecular-weight heparin, thrombolytic drugs, and angioplasty. Any delay starting therapy after an acute stroke will result in progressive, irreversible loss of brain tissue. Clinicians should remember that for a stroke patient, time is brain tissue.

  5. Mental practice with motor imagery in stroke recovery: randomized controlled trial of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Marie; Dijkerman, H. Chris; Joice, Sara; Scott, Clare L.; MacWalter, Ronald S.; Hamilton, Steven J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the therapeutic benefit of mental practice with motor imagery in stroke patients with persistent upper limb motor weakness. There is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects normally attributed to practising the actual movements. Imagining hand movements could stimulate restitution and redistribution of brain activity, which accompanies recovery of hand function, thus resulting in a reduced motor deficit. Current efficacy evidence for mental practice with motor imagery in stroke is insufficient due to methodological limitations. This randomized controlled sequential cohort study included 121 stroke patients with a residual upper limb weakness within 6 months following stroke (on average <3 months post-stroke). Randomization was performed using an automated statistical minimizing procedure. The primary outcome measure was a blinded rating on the Action Research Arm test. The study analysed the outcome of 39 patients involved in 4 weeks of mental rehearsal of upper limb movements during 45-min supervised sessions three times a week and structured independent sessions twice a week, compared to 31 patients who performed equally intensive non-motor mental rehearsal, and 32 patients receiving normal care without additional training. No differences between the treatment groups were found at baseline or outcome on the Action Research Arm Test (ANCOVA statistical P = 0.77, and effect size partial η2 = 0.005) or any of the secondary outcome measures. Results suggest that mental practice with motor imagery does not enhance motor recovery in patients early post-stroke. In light of the evidence, it remains to be seen whether mental practice with motor imagery is a valid rehabilitation technique in its own right. PMID:21515905

  6. Assessment of arterial collateralization and its relevance to intra-arterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, Siva Seeta; Mitchell, Peter; Dowling, Richard; Yan, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Evidence from recent randomized controlled studies comparing intra-arterial (IA) therapy with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator highlighted the mismatch between recanalization success and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. There is emerging interest in the impact of arterial collateralization, as determined by leptomeningeal anastomoses (LMAs), on the treatment outcomes of IA therapy. The system of LMA constitutes the secondary network of cerebral collateral circulation apart from the Circle of Willis. Both anatomic and angiographic studies confirmed significant interindividual variability in LMA. This review aims to outline the current understanding of arterial collateralization and its impact on outcomes after IA therapy for acute ischemic stroke, underpinning the possible role of arterial collateralization assessment as a selection tool for patients most likely to benefit from IA therapy.

  7. Computed tomography angiography in acute stroke (revisiting the 4Ps of imaging).

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Shriram; Saini, Jitender; Acharya, Ullas V; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Imaging in acute stroke has traditionally focussed on the 4Ps-parenchyma, pipes, perfusion, and penumbra-and has increasingly relied upon advanced techniques including magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate such patients. However, as per European Magnetic Resonance Forum estimates, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging scanners for the general population in India (0.5 per million inhabitants) is quite low as compared to Europe (11 per million) and United States (35 per million), with most of them only present in urban cities. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) is more widely available and has reduced scanning duration. Computed tomography angiography of cervical and intracranial vessels is relatively simpler to perform with extended coverage and can provide all pertinent information required in such patients. This imaging review will discuss relevant imaging findings on CT angiography in patients with acute ischemic stroke through illustrated cases.

  8. Problems and limitations in thrombolysis of acute stroke patients at a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Gurav, Sushma K.; Zirpe, Kapil G.; Wadia, R. S.; Pathak, Manishprasad K.; Deshmukh, Abhijeet M.; Sonawane, Rahul V.; Goli, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: (1) To evaluate the number of patients thrombolysed within 1 h of arrival to emergency room (ER) (2) To identify reasons for delay in thrombolysis of acute stroke patients. Materials and Methods: All patients admitted to ER with symptoms suggestive of stroke from January 2011 to November 2013 were studied. Retrospective data were collected to evaluate ER to needle (door to needle time [DTNt]) time and reasons for delay in thrombolysis. The parameters studied (1) onset of symptoms to ER time, (2) ER to imaging time (door to imaging time [DTIt]), (4) ER to needle time (door to needle) and (5) contraindications for thrombolysis. Results: A total of 695 patients with suspected stroke were admitted during study period. 547 (78%) patients were out of window period. 148 patients (21%, M = 104, F = 44) arrived within window period (<4.5 h.). 104 (70.27%) were contraindicated for thrombolysis. Majority were intracerebral bleeds. 44 (29.7%) were eligible for thrombolysis. 7 (15.9%) were thrombolysed within 1 h. The mean time for arrival of patients from onset of symptoms to hospital (symptom to door) 83 min (median - 47). The mean door to neuro-physician time (DTPt) was 32 min (median - 15 min). The mean DTIt was 58 min (median - 50 min). The mean DTNt 104 (median - 100 min). Conclusion: Reasons for delay in thrombolysis are: Absence of stroke education program for common people. Lack of priority for triage and imaging for stroke patients. PMID:25983432

  9. A systematic review and critical appraisal of quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sauser, Kori; Burke, James F; Reeves, Mathew J; Barsan, William G; Levine, Deborah A

    2014-09-01

    Acute stroke is an important focus of quality improvement efforts. There are many organizations involved in quality measurement for acute stroke, and a complex landscape of quality measures exists. Our objective is to describe and evaluate existing US quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke patients in the emergency department (ED) setting. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify the existing quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke. We then convened a panel of experts to appraise how well the measures satisfy the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) criteria for performance measure development (strength of the underlying evidence, clinical importance, magnitude of the relationship between performance and outcome, and cost-effectiveness). We identified 7 quality measures relevant to the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke that fall into 4 main categories: brain imaging, thrombolytic administration, dysphagia screening, and mortality. Three of the 7 measures met all 4 of the ACC/AHA evaluation criteria: brain imaging within 24 hours, thrombolytic therapy within 3 hours of symptom onset, and thrombolytic therapy within 60 minutes of hospital arrival. Measures not satisfying all evaluation criteria were brain imaging report within 45 minutes, consideration for thrombolytic therapy, dysphagia screening, and mortality rate. There remains room for improvement in the development and use of measures that reflect high-quality emergency care of acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States.

  10. Prediction of responders for outcome measures of Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke trial

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Bruce H. K.; Nadeau, Stephen E.; Behrman, Andrea L.; Wu, Samuel S.; Rose, Dorian K.; Bowden, Mark; Studenski, Stephanie; Lu, Xiaomin; Duncan, Pamela W.

    2015-01-01

    The Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke rehabilitation trial found equivalent walking outcomes for body weight-supported treadmill plus overground walking practice versus home-based exercise that did not emphasize walking. From this large database, we examined several clinically important questions that provide insights into recovery of walking that may affect future trial designs. Using logistic regression analyses, we examined predictors of response based on a variety of walking speed-related outcomes and measures that captured disability, physical impairment, and quality of life. The most robust predictor was being closer at baseline to the primary outcome measure, which was the functional walking speed thresholds of 0.4 m/s (household walking) and 0.8 m/s (community walking). Regardless of baseline walking speed, a younger age and higher Berg Balance Scale score were relative predictors of responding, whether operationally defined by transitioning beyond each speed boundary or by a continuous change or a greater than median increase in walking speed. Of note, the cutoff values of 0.4 and 0.8 m/s had no particular significance compared with other walking speed changes despite their general use as descriptors of functional levels of walking. No evidence was found for any difference in predictors based on treatment group. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00243919, “Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke Trial”; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24805892

  11. Passive smoking as well as active smoking increases the risk of acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bonita, R.; Duncan, J.; Truelsen, T.; Jackson, R.; Beaglehole, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To estimate the relative risk of stroke associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, passive smoking) and to estimate the risk of stroke associated with current smoking (active smoking) using the traditional baseline group (never-smokers) and a baseline group that includes lifelong non-smokers and long-term (>10 years) ex-smokers who have not been exposed to ETS.
DESIGN AND SETTING—Population-based case-control study in residents of Auckland, New Zealand.
SUBJECTS—Cases were obtained from the Auckland stroke study, a population-based register of acute stroke. Controls were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of major cardiovascular risk factors measured in the same population. A standard questionaire was administered to patients and controls by trained nurse interviewers.
RESULTS—Information was available for 521 patients with first-ever acute stroke and 1851 community controls aged 35-74 years. After adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, history of hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes) using logistic regression, exposure to ETS among non-smokers and long-term ex-smokers was associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke (odds ratio (OR) = 1.82; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.34 to 2.49). The risk was significant in men (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.33 to 3.32) and women (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.57). Active smokers had a fourfold risk of stroke compared with people who reported they had never smoked cigarettes (OR = 4.14; 95% CI = 3.04 to 5.63); the risk increased when active smokers were compared with people who had never smoked or had quit smoking more than 10 years earlier and who were not exposed to ETS (OR = 6.33; 95% CI = 4.50 to 8.91).
CONCLUSIONS—This study is one of the few to investigate the association between passive smoking and the risk of acute stroke. We found a significantly increased risk of stroke in men and in women. This study also confirms the higher

  12. Delayed Surgery for Aortic Dissection after Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nari; Yoon, Jee-Eun; Park, Byoung-Won; Chang, Won-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jo; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of aortic dissection masquerading as acute ischemic stroke followed by intravenous thrombolysis. A 59-year-old man presented with dizziness. After examination, the patient had a seizure with bilateral Babinski signs. Soon after identifying multiple acute infarctions in both hemispheres on diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was administered. Both common carotid arteries were invisible on MR angiography, and subsequent chest computed tomography revealed an aortic dissection. The emergency operation was delayed for 13 hours due to t-PA administration. The patient died of massive bleeding. PMID:27734002

  13. Supporting Treatment decision making to Optimise the Prevention of STROKE in Atrial Fibrillation: The STOP STROKE in AF study. Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Suboptimal uptake of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has persisted for over 20 years, despite high-level evidence demonstrating its effectiveness in reducing the risk of fatal and disabling stroke. Methods The STOP STROKE in AF study is a national, cluster randomised controlled trial designed to improve the uptake of anticoagulation in primary care. General practitioners from around Australia enrolling in this ‘distance education’ program are mailed written educational materials, followed by an academic detailing session delivered via telephone by a medical peer, during which participants discuss patient de-identified cases. General practitioners are then randomised to receive written specialist feedback about the patient de-identified cases either before or after completing a three-month posttest audit. Specialist feedback is designed to provide participants with support and confidence to prescribe anticoagulation. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation at the time of the posttest audit. Discussion The STOP STROKE in AF study aims to evaluate a feasible intervention via distance education to prevent avoidable stroke due to atrial fibrillation. It provides a systematic test of augmenting academic detailing with expert feedback about patient management. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry Registration Number: ACTRN12611000076976. PMID:22770423

  14. Comprehensive rehabilitation with integrative medicine for subacute stroke: A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Ma, Ruijie; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Xu, Shouyu

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) that combines conventional rehabilitation (CR) with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine has better effects for subacute stroke than CR alone, we conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial that involved three hospitals in China. Three hundred sixty patients with subacute stroke were randomized into IMR and CR groups. The primary outcome was the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). The secondary outcomes were the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton’s Depression Scale (HAMD), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). All variables were evaluated at week 0 (baseline), week 4 (half-way of intervention), week 8 (after treatment) and week 20 (follow-up). In comparison with the CR group, the IMR group had significantly better improvements (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in all the primary and secondary outcomes. There were also significantly better changes from baseline in theses outcomes in the IMR group than in the CR group (P < 0.01). A low incidence of adverse events with mild symptoms was observed in the IMR group. We conclude that conventional rehabilitation combined with integrative medicine is safe and more effective for subacute stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27174221

  15. Comprehensive rehabilitation with integrative medicine for subacute stroke: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Ma, Ruijie; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Xu, Shouyu

    2016-05-13

    To determine whether integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) that combines conventional rehabilitation (CR) with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine has better effects for subacute stroke than CR alone, we conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial that involved three hospitals in China. Three hundred sixty patients with subacute stroke were randomized into IMR and CR groups. The primary outcome was the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). The secondary outcomes were the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton's Depression Scale (HAMD), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). All variables were evaluated at week 0 (baseline), week 4 (half-way of intervention), week 8 (after treatment) and week 20 (follow-up). In comparison with the CR group, the IMR group had significantly better improvements (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in all the primary and secondary outcomes. There were also significantly better changes from baseline in theses outcomes in the IMR group than in the CR group (P < 0.01). A low incidence of adverse events with mild symptoms was observed in the IMR group. We conclude that conventional rehabilitation combined with integrative medicine is safe and more effective for subacute stroke rehabilitation.

  16. Outstanding Symptoms of Poststroke Depression during the Acute Phase of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Taizen; Tobisawa, Maiko; Sasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Akifumi

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is a critical complication which might lead to unfavorable outcomes. However, most cases of PSD in the acute phase, during the 2 or 3 weeks following a stroke, are neglected because of the variable comorbid conditions. In this study, aimed at revealing the outstanding symptoms of PSD during the acute phase, consecutive patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or brain infarction (BI) were asked to fill out a depression questionnaire (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report: QIDS-SR) at 1 week and 1 month following stroke onset. Patients with disturbed consciousness or aphasia were excluded from this study. Forty-nine ICH patients and 222 BI patients completed the QIDS-SR at 1 week and 27 of ICH and 62 of BI at 1 month. The PSD rate was 67% and 46% at 1 week in ICH and BI, respectively. Although sleep disturbance was the most frequent symptom of PSD, psychomotor agitation and appetite disturbance were the most distinguishing symptoms in ICH at 1 week and fatigue at 1 month. On the other hand, most of the depressive symptoms addressed in QIDS-SR were observed in PSD of BI patients both at 1 week and 1 month. In conclusion, while sleep disturbance was a frequent but non-specific symptom, appetite disturbance and fatigue might be critical symptoms to suggest PSD during the acute phase of stroke. PMID:27706193

  17. Prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis in Iranian patients with acute ischemic stroke using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, Abdolhamid; Niknam, Leila; Izadi, Sadegh; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke in Iran. Methods: A total of 169 patients with acute ischemic stroke were eligible to participate and were enrolled in this study from January 2012 to February 2013. All the patients were admitted to the Nemazee ‎Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. They underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. Mean flow velocity (MFV) of basilar artery, vertebral artery, middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were evaluated. Results: A mean of patients’ age was 67.80 ± 8.14 years. There were 83 men (49.1%) and 86 women (50.9%). Overall, 43 patients (25.4%), with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.2 years, had intracranial stenosis. The number of men and women with intracranial stenosis was comparable (52.4% men vs. 47.6% women). Hypertension (P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001) were major risk factors for intracranial stenosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke is 25.4% which is comparable with previous reports from Iran and other Middle East countries. PMID:27648174

  18. Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke: The protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial

    PubMed Central

    van de Port, Ingrid GL; Wevers, Lotte; Roelse, Hanneke; van Kats, Lenneke; Lindeman, Eline; Kwakkel, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Background Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a circuit with a series of task-oriented workstations. Primary aim of the FIT-Stroke trial is to evaluate the effects and cost-effectiveness of a structured, progressive task-oriented circuit class training (CCT) programme, compared to usual physiotherapeutic care during outpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The task-oriented CCT will be applied in groups of 4 to 6 patients. Outcome will be defined in terms of gait and gait-related ADLs after stroke. The trial will also investigate the generalizability of treatment effects of task-oriented CCT in terms of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression and perceived HRQoL. Methods/design The multicentre single-blinded randomized trial will include 220 stroke patients discharged to the community from inpatient rehabilitation, who are able to communicate and walk at least 10 m without physical, hands-on assistance. After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, patients in the experimental group will receive task-oriented CCT two times a week for 12 weeks at the physiotherapy department of the rehabilitation centre. Control group patients will receive usual individual, face-to-face, physiotherapy. Costs will be evaluated by having each patient keep a cost diary for the first 24 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are the mobility part of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0) and the EuroQol. Secondary outcomes are the other domains of SIS-3.0, lower limb muscle strength, walking endurance, gait speed, balance, confidence not to fall, instrumental ADL, fatigue, anxiety, depression and HRQoL. Discussion Based on assumptions about the effect of intensity of practice and specificity of treatment effects, FIT-Stroke

  19. Trials of Novel Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention In Patients with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Jonathan L; Dorian, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) face an increased risk of stroke compared with those in normal sinus rhythm. The vitamin K antagonist warfarin, available for over half a century, is highly effective in reducing the risk of stroke in patients with AF, but it is a difficult drug to use properly. As a result, it is challenging to keep the anticoagulant effect of warfarin in the desired range. Newer oral anticoagulants (NOACs) that directly inhibit Factor IIa (thrombin) or Factor Xa provide reliable anticoagulation when administer in fixed oral doses without routine coagulation monitoring. This manuscript will review in detail the pivotal trials of these NOACs that led to their approval as well as comment on the factors that should influence their selection. PMID:24821657

  20. Severity of Spatial Neglect During Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation Predicts Community Mobility After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Hung, Cynthia; Chen, Peii; Barrett, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether stroke survivors with more severe spatial neglect during their acute inpatient rehabilitation had poorer mobility after returning to their communities. Design A prospective observational study. Setting Acute inpatient rehabilitation and follow-up in the community. Participants Thirty-one consecutive stroke survivors with right-brain damage (women, n = 15 [48.4%]), with the mean (standard deviation) age of 60 ± 11.5 years, were included in the study if they demonstrated spatial neglect within 2 months after stroke. Methods Spatial neglect was assessed with the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) (range, 0-146 [a lower score indicates more severity]) and the Catherine Bergego Scale (range, 0-30 [a higher score indicates more severity]). A score of the Behavioral Inattention Test <129 or of the Catherine Bergego Scale >0 defined the presence of spatial neglect. Main Outcome Measurements The outcome measure is community mobility, defined by the extent and frequency of traveling within the home and in the community, and is assessed with the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment (range, 0-120 [a lower score indicates less mobile]). This measure was assessed after participants returned home ≥6 months after stroke. The covariates were age, gender, functional independence at baseline; follow-up interval; and depressed mood, which may affect the relationship between spatial neglect and community mobility. Results A lower Behavioral Inattention Test score was a significant predictor of a lower Life-Space Assessment score after controlling for all the covariates (β = 0.009 [95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.017]); P = .020). The proportion of participants unable to travel independently beyond their homes was 0%, 27.3%, and 72.7% for those with mild, moderate, and severe acute neglect, respectively (Catherine Bergego Scale range, 1-10, 11-20, and 21-30, respectively). Conclusions Our result indicates that acute

  1. Twelve-month Clinical and Quality-of-Life Outcomes in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Palesch, Yuko Y.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Tomsick, Thomas A; Foster, Lydia D.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Khatri, Pooja; Hill, Michael D.; Jauch, Edward C.; Jovin, Tudor G.; Yan, Bernard; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Molina, Carlos A.; Goyal, Mayank; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Mazighi, Mikael; Engelter, Stefan T.; Anderson, Craig; Spilker, Judith; Carrozzella, Janice; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Janis, L. Scott; Simpson, Annie; Simpson, Kit N.; Broderick, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Randomized trials have indicated a benefit for endovascular therapy in appropriately selected stroke patients at 3 months but data regarding outcomes at 12 months are currently lacking. Methods We compared functional and quality of life outcomes at 12 months overall and by stroke severity in stroke patients treated with intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) followed by endovascular treatment as compared to IV t-PA alone in the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III Trial. The key outcome measures were a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤ 2 (functional independence) and the Euro-QoL EQ-5D, a health-related quality-of-life measure (HRQoL). Results 656 subjects with moderate to severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥ 8) were enrolled at 58 centers in the United States (41 sites), Canada (7), Australia (4), and Europe (6). There was an interaction between treatment group and stroke severity in the repeated measures analysis of mRS ≤ 2 outcome (p=0.039). In the 204 participants with severe stroke (NIHSS ≥ 20), a greater proportion of the endovascular group had a mRS ≤ 2 (32.5%) at 12 months as compared to the IV t-PA group (18.6%, p=0.037); no difference was seen for the 452 participants with moderately-severe strokes (55.6% vs. 57.7%). In participants with severe stroke, the endovascular group had 35.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 73.3) more quality-adjusted-days over 12 months as compared to IV t-PA alone. Conclusions Endovascular therapy improves functional outcome and HRQoL at 12 months after severe ischemic stroke. PMID:25858239

  2. ASTRAL-R score predicts non-recanalisation after intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Vanacker, Peter; Heldner, Mirjam R; Seiffge, David; Mueller, Hubertus; Eskandari, Ashraf; Traenka, Christopher; Ntaios, George; Mosimann, Pascal J; Sztajzel, Roman; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Cras, Patrick; Engelter, Stefan; Lyrer, Philippe; Fischer, Urs; Lambrou, Dimitris; Arnold, Marcel; Michel, Patrik

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) as treatment in acute ischaemic strokes may be insufficient to achieve recanalisation in certain patients. Predicting probability of non-recanalisation after IVT may have the potential to influence patient selection to more aggressive management strategies. We aimed at deriving and internally validating a predictive score for post-thrombolytic non-recanalisation, using clinical and radiological variables. In thrombolysis registries from four Swiss academic stroke centres (Lausanne, Bern, Basel and Geneva), patients were selected with large arterial occlusion on acute imaging and with repeated arterial assessment at 24 hours. Based on a logistic regression analysis, an integer-based score for each covariate of the fitted multivariate model was generated. Performance of integer-based predictive model was assessed by bootstrapping available data and cross validation (delete-d method). In 599 thrombolysed strokes, five variables were identified as independent predictors of absence of recanalisation: Acute glucose > 7 mmol/l (A), significant extracranial vessel STenosis (ST), decreased Range of visual fields (R), large Arterial occlusion (A) and decreased Level of consciousness (L). All variables were weighted 1, except for (L) which obtained 2 points based on β-coefficients on the logistic scale. ASTRAL-R scores 0, 3 and 6 corresponded to non-recanalisation probabilities of 18, 44 and 74 % respectively. Predictive ability showed AUC of 0.66 (95 %CI, 0.61-0.70) when using bootstrap and 0.66 (0.63-0.68) when using delete-d cross validation. In conclusion, the 5-item ASTRAL-R score moderately predicts non-recanalisation at 24 hours in thrombolysed ischaemic strokes. If its performance can be confirmed by external validation and its clinical usefulness can be proven, the score may influence patient selection for more aggressive revascularisation strategies in routine clinical practice. PMID:25589216

  3. ASTRAL-R score predicts non-recanalisation after intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Vanacker, Peter; Heldner, Mirjam R; Seiffge, David; Mueller, Hubertus; Eskandari, Ashraf; Traenka, Christopher; Ntaios, George; Mosimann, Pascal J; Sztajzel, Roman; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Cras, Patrick; Engelter, Stefan; Lyrer, Philippe; Fischer, Urs; Lambrou, Dimitris; Arnold, Marcel; Michel, Patrik

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) as treatment in acute ischaemic strokes may be insufficient to achieve recanalisation in certain patients. Predicting probability of non-recanalisation after IVT may have the potential to influence patient selection to more aggressive management strategies. We aimed at deriving and internally validating a predictive score for post-thrombolytic non-recanalisation, using clinical and radiological variables. In thrombolysis registries from four Swiss academic stroke centres (Lausanne, Bern, Basel and Geneva), patients were selected with large arterial occlusion on acute imaging and with repeated arterial assessment at 24 hours. Based on a logistic regression analysis, an integer-based score for each covariate of the fitted multivariate model was generated. Performance of integer-based predictive model was assessed by bootstrapping available data and cross validation (delete-d method). In 599 thrombolysed strokes, five variables were identified as independent predictors of absence of recanalisation: Acute glucose > 7 mmol/l (A), significant extracranial vessel STenosis (ST), decreased Range of visual fields (R), large Arterial occlusion (A) and decreased Level of consciousness (L). All variables were weighted 1, except for (L) which obtained 2 points based on β-coefficients on the logistic scale. ASTRAL-R scores 0, 3 and 6 corresponded to non-recanalisation probabilities of 18, 44 and 74 % respectively. Predictive ability showed AUC of 0.66 (95 %CI, 0.61-0.70) when using bootstrap and 0.66 (0.63-0.68) when using delete-d cross validation. In conclusion, the 5-item ASTRAL-R score moderately predicts non-recanalisation at 24 hours in thrombolysed ischaemic strokes. If its performance can be confirmed by external validation and its clinical usefulness can be proven, the score may influence patient selection for more aggressive revascularisation strategies in routine clinical practice.

  4. Cognitive performance following lacunar stroke in Spanish-speaking patients: Results from the SPS3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Jacova, Claudia; Pearce, Lesly A.; Roldan, Ana M.; Arauz, Antonio; Tapia, Jorge; Costello, Raymond; McClure, Leslie A.; Hart, Robert G.; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in lacunar stroke patients. The prevalence and pattern of among Spanish-speaking patients (SSP) are unknown and have not been compared across regions or to English-speaking patients (ESP). Aims To characterize cognitive impairment in SSP and compare to ESP. Methods The baseline neuropsychological test (NPT) performance and the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), defined as a z score ≤ −1.5 on memory and/or non-memory tests, were evaluated in SSP in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial. Results Out of 3020 participants, 1,177 were SSP residing in Latin America (n=693), the US (n=121) and Spain (n=363). Low education (0-8 years) was frequent in SSP (49-57%). Latin American SSP had frequent post-stroke upper extremity motor impairment (83%). Compared to ESP, all SSP groups had smaller memory deficits and larger non-memory/motor deficits, with Latin American SSP showing the largest deficits (median z-score 0.6 to −1.3 for non-memory tests; ≥ −5.0 grooved pegboard; −0.4 to −0.7 memory tests). The prevalence of MCI was high and comparable to ESP in the US and Latin American SSP but not Spanish group: ESP=47%, Latin American SSP=51%, US SSP=40%, Spanish SSP=29%, with >50% characterized as non-amnestic in SSP groups. Older age (OR per 10-y =1.52, CI=1.35-1.71), lower education (OR 0-4-y=1.23, CI=0.90-1.67), being a Latin American resident (OR=1.31, CI=0.87-1.98), and post-stroke disability (OR Barthel Index<95=1.89, CI-1.43-2.50) were independently associated with MCI. Conclusions Mild cognitive impairment in SPS3 Spanish-speaking patients with recent lacunar stroke is highly prevalent but has a different pattern to that observed in English-speaking patients. A combination of socio-demographics, stroke biology, and stroke care may account for these differences. PMID:25973704

  5. Changes of deceleration and acceleration capacity of heart rate in patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xing-De; Yang, Jia-Jun; Zhou, Li; Pan, Yong-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Autonomic dysfunction is common after stroke, which is correlated with unfavorable outcome. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a newly developed technique for assessing cardiac autonomic function, by detecting sympathetic and vagal nerve activity separately through calculating acceleration capacity (AC) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. In this study, we used this technique for the first time to investigate the cardiac autonomic function of patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke. Methods A 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed in 63 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke in hemisphere and sinus rhythm, as well as in 50 controls with high risk of stroke. DC, AC, heart rate variability parameters, standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD) were calculated. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. We analyzed the changes of DC, AC, SDNN, and RMSSD and also studied the correlations between these parameters and NIHSS scores. Results The R–R (R wave to R wave on electrocardiogram) intervals, DC, AC, and SDNN in the cerebral infarction group were lower than those in controls (P=0.003, P=0.002, P=0.006, and P=0.043), but the difference of RMSSD and the D-value and ratio between absolute value of AC (|AC|) and DC were not statistically significant compared with those in controls. The DC of the infarction group was significantly correlated with |AC|, SDNN, and RMSSD (r=0.857, r=0.619, and r=0.358; P=0.000, P=0.000, and P=0.004). Correlation analysis also showed that DC, |AC|, and SDNN were negatively correlated with NIHSS scores (r=−0.279, r=−0.266, and r=−0.319; P=0.027, P=0.035, and P=0.011). Conclusion Both DC and AC of heart rate decreased in patients with hemispheric infarction, reflecting a decrease in both vagal

  6. Pilot clinical trial of a robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation workstation with stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Hermano I.; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes our efforts to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neuro-rehabilitation. It reviews a pilot clinical trial involving twenty stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at MIT and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital. In particular, we present a few results: (a) on the patient's tolerance of the procedure, (b) whether peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb influences brain recovery, (c) on the development of a robot-aided assessment procedure.

  7. Antiplatelet Usage Impacts Clot Density in Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Pikija, Slaven; Magdic, Jozef; Lukic, Anita; Schreiber, Catharina; Mutzenbach, Johannes Sebastian; McCoy, Mark R; Sellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We explored whether clot density in middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion is related to clinical variables, stroke etiology, blood constituents, and prestroke medication. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with acute ischemic stroke of the anterior circulation admitted to two Central European stroke centers. The acquisition of non-contrast enhanced CT (NECT) and CT angiography (CTA) within 4.5 h of symptom onset was obligatory. We assessed the site of MCA occlusion as well as density, area, and length of the clot in 150 patients. The Hounsfield unit values for the clot were divided with contralateral MCA segment to yield relative Hounsfield Unit ratio (rHU). The site of the vessel occlusion (M1 vs. M2) and antiplatelet usage, but not stroke etiology, significantly influenced rHU. We found an inverse correlation of rHU with erythrocyte count (p < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that a higher rHU (i.e., clot being more hyperdense) was more likely with the use of antiplatelets (OR 4.24, CI 1.10-16.31, p = 0.036). Erythrocyte (OR 0.18, CI 0.05-0.55, p = 0.003), and thrombocyte counts (OR 0.99, CI 0.98-0.99, p = 0.029) were associated with odds for more hypodense clots (lower rHU). Our study disclosed that antiplatelet therapy impacts the composition of intracranial clots of the anterior circulation. PMID:27563874

  8. The validity of the repeatable battery of neuropsychological status in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Wilde, M C

    2006-12-01

    The construct validity of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was investigated in a sample of 210 acute ischemic stroke patients seen on an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Intercorrelations between the six index scores were found to be relatively consistent with previously published work. A principal components analysis yielded a two-factor (Language/Verbal Memory and Visuospatial/Visual Memory) solution that accounted for 61% of the variance. Correlations generated between the resulting factor scores, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWA), the Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFD), Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE) Complex Ideational Material Test (CIM), the presence of neglect as determined by Line Bisection Test performance, and the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) supported the validity of these factors. A comparison of the obtained factor scores in a subgroup of 111 left and right hemispheric stroke patients showed that the left hemispheric stroke patients performed more poorly on the Language/Verbal Memory factor score than did right hemispheric stroke patients while the converse was true for the Visuospatial/Visual Memory factor score. Implications for the construct validity of the RBANS and its use and interpretation in clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:16980256

  9. Detecting anti-prothrombin antibodies in young women with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Cojocaru, M; Tănăsescu, R; Burcin, Cecilia; Mitu, Andreea Cristina; Iliescu, Iuliana; Dumitrescu, Laura; Pavel, Isabela; Silosi, Isabela

    2008-01-01

    Prothrombin (PT) is a target for antibodies with lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity. Anti-prothrombin antibodies (aPT) were recently identified as antibodies directed toward a phospholipid-binding protein. aPT are a new serologic marker of antiphospholipid syndrome. The objective was to detect aPT in a group of 46 patients with acute ischemic stroke in order to correlate their presence with clinical diagnosis, laboratory and neuroradiological findings. We tested aPT, lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin (aCL), and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-bbeta2-GPI) in 46 young women with acute ischemic stroke aged 34-45 years and 43 patients with nonischemic neurologic diseases and 141 normal controls. Anti-prothrombin antibodies were detected by calcium-containing aPT ELISA, aCL and anti-beta2-GPI by ELISA. All samples were screened using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); the dilute Russell viper venous time (dRVV) coagulation test was performed. The results were statistically analyzed. Anti-prothrombin antibodies were found in 26 (57%) of 46 stroke patients. Out of 43 patients with nonischemic neurological disorders, 2 (4.18%) were positive for aPT. aPT were detected in one (0.70%) of the normal controls. Ten stroke patients (21%) were positive for IgG aPT only, 9 stroke patients (18.2%) for IgM aPT only, and 8 stroke patients (16.9%) for both IgG and IgM isotypes of aPT. Two nonischemic neurological disorders patients (4.18%) presented IgM isotype of aPT. Patients with ischemic stroke presented aPT much more frequently than the healthy controls (OR 182.00 [95% CI 23.382-1416.6]. p < 0.0001). Patients with ischemic stroke presented aPT much frequently than the nonischemic neurological disorders patients (OR 26.650 [95% CI 5.743-123.66], p < 0.0001). When IgG or IgM aPT were considered separately, they were more frequently found in patients with ischemic stroke than in healthy control group (OR 38.889 [95% CI 4.817-313.95], p < 0.0001) and

  10. High-Performance Upconversion Nanoprobes for Multimodal MR Imaging of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hua; Ni, Dalong; Fan, Wenpei; Qu, Jianxun; Liu, Yanyan; Jin, Yingying; Cui, Zhaowen; Xu, Tianyong; Wu, Yue; Bu, Wenbo; Yao, Zhenwei

    2016-07-01

    Multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including MR angiography (MRA) and MR perfusion (MRP), plays a critical role in the diagnosis and surveillance of acute ischemic stroke. However, these techniques are hindered by the low T1 relaxivity, short circulation time, and high leakage rate from vessels of clinical Magnevist. To address these problems, nontoxic polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated upconversion nanoprobes (PEG-UCNPs) are synthesized and first adopted for excellent MRA and MRP imaging, featuring high diagnostic sensitivity toward acute ischemic stroke in high-resolution imaging. The investigations show that the agent possesses superior advantages over clinical Magnevist, such as much higher relaxivity, longer circulation time, and lower leakage rate, which guarantee much better imaging efficiency. Remarkably, an extremely small dosage (5 mg Gd kg(-1) ) of PEG-UCNPs provides high-resolution MRA imaging with the vascular system delineated much clearer than the Magnevist with clinical dosage as high as 108 mg Gd kg(-1) . On the other hand, the long circulation time of PEG-UCNPs enables the surveillance of the progression of ischemic stroke using MRA or MRP. Once translated, these PEG-UCNPs are expected to be a promising candidate for substituting the clinical Magnevist in MRA and MRP, which will significantly lengthen the imaging time window and improve the overall diagnostic efficiency. PMID:27219071

  11. The Potential Roles of 18F-FDG-PET in Management of Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Yuan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Extensive efforts have recently been devoted to developing noninvasive imaging tools capable of delineating brain tissue viability (penumbra) during acute ischemic stroke. These efforts could have profound clinical implications for identifying patients who may benefit from tPA beyond the currently approved therapeutic time window and/or patients undergoing neuroendovascular treatments. To date, the DWI/PWI MRI and perfusion CT have received the most attention for identifying ischemic penumbra. However, their routine use in clinical settings remains limited. Preclinical and clinical PET studies with [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) have consistently revealed a decreased 18F-FDG uptake in regions of presumed ischemic core. More importantly, an elevated 18F-FDG uptake in the peri-ischemic regions has been reported, potentially reflecting viable tissues. To this end, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the utilization of 14C-2-DG and 18F-FDG-PET in experimental as well as human stroke studies. Possible cellular mechanisms and physiological underpinnings attributed to the reported temporal and spatial uptake patterns of 18F-FDG are addressed. Given the wide availability of 18F-FDG in routine clinical settings, 18F-FDG PET may serve as an alternative, non-invasive tool to MRI and CT for the management of acute stroke patients. PMID:23762852

  12. Simple In-Hospital Interventions to Reduce Door-to-CT Time in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Rikhtegar, Reza; Mehrvar, Kaveh; Mehrara, Mehrdad; Hassasi, Rogayyeh; Aliyar, Hannane; Farzi, Mohammadamin; Hasaneh Tamar, Somayyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, a time dependent therapy, can reduce the morbidity and mortality of acute ischemic stroke. This study was designed to assess the effect of simple in-hospital interventions on reducing door-to-CT (DTC) time and reaching door-to-needle (DTN) time of less than 60 minutes. Methods. Before any intervention, DTC time was recorded for 213 patients over a one-year period at our center. Five simple quality-improvement interventions were implemented, namely, call notification, prioritizing patients for CT scan, prioritizing patients for lab analysis, specifying a bed for acute stroke patients, and staff education. After intervention, over a course of 44 months, DTC time was recorded for 276 patients with the stroke code. Furthermore DTN time was recorded for 106 patients who were treated with IV thrombolytic therapy. Results. The median DTC time significantly decreased in the postintervention period comparing to the preintervention period [median (IQR); 20 (12–30) versus 75 (52.5–105), P < 0.001]. At the postintervention period, the median (IQR) DTN time was 55 (40–73) minutes and proportion of patients with DTN time less than 60 minutes was 62.4% (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our interventions significantly reduced DTC time and resulted in an acceptable DTN time. These interventions are feasible in most hospitals and should be considered. PMID:27478641

  13. Tailor-made rehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb robots for acute stroke patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Takashi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Saita, Kazuya; Hyakutake, Koichi; Watanabe, Junko; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the feasibility of a tailor-made neurorehabilitation approach using multiple types of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) robots for acute stroke patients. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent rehabilitation using the HAL robots. The Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index (BI), and functional independence measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and when patients were transferred to a rehabilitation facility. Scores were compared between the multiple-robot rehabilitation and single-robot rehabilitation groups. Nine hemiplegic acute stroke patients (five men and four women; mean age 59.4 ± 12.5 years; four hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using multiple types of HAL robots for 19.4 ± 12.5 days, and 14 patients (six men and eight women; mean age 63.2 ± 13.9 years; nine hemorrhagic stroke and five ischemic stroke) underwent rehabilitation using a single type of HAL robot for 14.9 ± 8.9 days. The multiple-robot rehabilitation group showed significantly better outcomes in the Brunnstrom stage of the upper extremity, BI, and FIM scores. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first pilot study demonstrating the feasibility of rehabilitation using multiple exoskeleton robots. The tailor-made rehabilitation approach may be useful for the treatment of acute stroke.

  14. Serum IL-33 Is a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Lin, Yuanshao; Huang, Wensi; Zhou, Yulei; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Brian; Zhang, Wanli; Cai, Zhengyi; Xue, Jie; Zhang, Wenhui; Yu, Tieer; Wang, Hong; He, Jincai; Jin, Kunlin; Shao, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly recognized IL-1 family member, is expressed in various tissues and cells, and involved in pathogenesis of many human diseases. For example, IL-33 plays a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of IL-33 in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether IL-33 level in AIS patient serum can be used as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker. The study included two hundred and six patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, who were admitted within 72 hours after stroke onset. The serum level of IL-33 was measured with ELISA and the severity of AIS patients on admission was evaluated based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. The functional outcome at 3 months was determined using the Barthel index (BI). We found that serum IL-33 was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with AIS [57.68 ng/L (IQR, 44.95-76.73)] compared with healthy controls [47.48 ng/L (IQR, 38.67-53.78)]. IL-33 was an independent diagnostic biomarker for AIS with an OR of 1.051 (95%Cl, 1.018-1.085; P=0.002). Serum IL-33 was higher (P < 0.05) in the stroke patients with small cerebral infarction volume compared to AIS patients with large cerebral infarction. In addition, serum IL-33 was also significantly higher (P = 0.001) in the patients with mild stroke, compared to the patients with severe stroke. Furthermore, serum IL-33 level in AIS patients with a worse outcome was higher (P < 0.001) compared to AIS patients with a better outcome. IL-33 was also an independent predictor for the functional outcome with an adjusted OR of 0.932 (95% CI, 0.882-0.986). Our results suggest that the lower level of serum IL-33 is associated with large infarction volume and greater stroke severity in AIS patients. Thus, IL-33 can be used as a novel and independent diagnostic and predicting prognostic marker in AIS. PMID:27699084

  15. Serum IL-33 Is a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Yuanshao, Lin; Wensi, Huang; Yulei, Zhou; Xiaoli, Chen; Brian, Wang; Wanli, Zhang; Zhengyi, Cai; Jie, Xue; Wenhui, Zhang; Tieer, Yu; Hong, Wang; Jincai, He; Kunlin, Jin; Bei, Shao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly recognized IL-1 family member, is expressed in various tissues and cells, and involved in pathogenesis of many human diseases. For example, IL-33 plays a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of IL-33 in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether IL-33 level in AIS patient serum can be used as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker. The study included two hundred and six patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, who were admitted within 72 hours after stroke onset. The serum level of IL-33 was measured with ELISA and the severity of AIS patients on admission was evaluated based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. The functional outcome at 3 months was determined using the Barthel index (BI). We found that serum IL-33 was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients with AIS [57.68 ng/L (IQR, 44.95-76.73)] compared with healthy controls [47.48 ng/L (IQR, 38.67-53.78)]. IL-33 was an independent diagnostic biomarker for AIS with an OR of 1.051 (95%Cl, 1.018-1.085; P=0.002). Serum IL-33 was higher (P < 0.05) in the stroke patients with small cerebral infarction volume compared to AIS patients with large cerebral infarction. In addition, serum IL-33 was also significantly higher (P = 0.001) in the patients with mild stroke, compared to the patients with severe stroke. Furthermore, serum IL-33 level in AIS patients with a worse outcome was higher (P < 0.001) compared to AIS patients with a better outcome. IL-33 was also an independent predictor for the functional outcome with an adjusted OR of 0.932 (95% CI, 0.882-0.986). Our results suggest that the lower level of serum IL-33 is associated with large infarction volume and greater stroke severity in AIS patients. Thus, IL-33 can be used as a novel and independent diagnostic and predicting prognostic marker in AIS.

  16. The Effect of Out of Hours Presentation with Acute Stroke on Processes of Care and Outcomes: Analysis of Data from the Stroke Improvement National Audit Programme (SINAP)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James T. P.; Bray, Benjamin D.; Hoffman, Alex M.; Kavanagh, Sara J.; Rudd, Anthony G.; Tyrrell, Pippa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is inconsistent evidence that patients with stroke admitted to hospital out of regular working hours (such as weekends) experience worse outcomes. We aimed to identify if inequalities in the quality of care and mortality exist in contemporary stroke care in England. Methods SINAP is a prospective database of acute stroke patients, documenting details of processes of care over the first 72 hours. We compared quality of care indicators and mortality at 72 hours, 7 days and 30 days, for patients who arrived within normal hours (Monday–Friday 8am to 6pm) and for those who arrived out of hours, using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazard models. Quality of care was defined according to time from arrival at hospital to interventions (e.g., brain scan), and whether the patient received therapeutic interventions (such as thrombolysis). Results 45,726 stroke patients were admitted to 130 hospitals in England between 1 April 2010 and 31 January 2012. Patients admitted out of hours (n = 23779) had more features indicative of worse prognosis (haemorrhagic stroke, reduced consciousness, pre stroke dependency). Out of hours admission was significantly associated with longer delays in receiving a CT scan or being admitted to a stroke unit, and reduced odds of receiving thrombolysis. After adjusting for casemix, there was no consistent evidence of higher mortality for patients admitted out of hours, but patients admitted at the weekends had a higher risk of 30 day mortality (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06–1.21) Conclusion Inequalities in the provision of stroke care for people admitted out of regular hours persist in contemporary stroke in England. The association with mortality is small and largely attributable to higher illness severity in patients admitted out of hours. PMID:24533063

  17. Acupuncture for Spasticity after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Hyeong Sik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine how effective acupuncture or electroacupuncture (acupuncture with electrical stimulation) is in treating poststroke patients with spasticity. We searched publications in Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in English, 19 accredited journals in Korean, and the China Integrated Knowledge Resources Database in Chinese through to July 30, 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with no language restrictions that compared the effects of acupuncture or electroacupuncture with usual care or placebo acupuncture. The two investigators assessed the risk of bias and statistical analyses were performed. Three RCTs in English, 1 in Korean, and 1 in Chinese were included. Assessments were performed primarily with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture or electroacupuncture significantly decreased spasticity after stroke. A subgroup analysis showed that acupuncture significantly decreased wrist, knee, and elbow spasticity in poststroke patients. Heterogeneity could be explained by the differences in control, acupoints, and the duration after stroke occurrence. In conclusion, acupuncture could be effective in decreasing spasticity after stroke, but long-term studies are needed to determine the longevity of treatment effects. PMID:25628750

  18. Domiciliary occupational therapy for patients with stroke discharged from hospital: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Louise; Langhorne, Peter; Walker, Andrew; Allen, Ann; Murray, Gordon D

    2000-01-01

    Objective To establish if a brief programme of domiciliary occupational therapy could improve the recovery of patients with stroke discharged from hospital. Design Single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Two hospital sites within a UK teaching hospital. Subjects 138 patients with stroke with a definite plan for discharge home from hospital. Intervention Six week domiciliary occupational therapy or routine follow up. Main outcome measures Nottingham extended activities of daily living score and “global outcome” (deterioration according to the Barthel activities of daily living index, or death). Results By eight weeks the mean Nottingham extended activities of daily living score in the intervention group was 4.8 points (95% confidence interval −0.5 to 10.0, P=0.08) greater than that of the control group. Overall, 16 (24%) intervention patients had a poor global outcome compared with 30 (42%) control patients (odds ratio 0.43, 0.21 to 0.89, P=0.02). These patterns persisted at six months but were not statistically significant. Patients in the intervention group were more likely to report satisfaction with a range of aspects of services. Conclusion The functional outcome and satisfaction of patients with stroke can be improved by a brief occupational therapy programme carried out in the patient's home immediately after discharge. Major benefits may not, however, be sustained. PMID:10698876

  19. Assessment of cognitive engagement in stroke patients from single-trial EEG during motor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Park, Wanjoo; Kwon, Gyu Hyun; Kim, Da-Hye; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil; Kim, Laehyun

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel method for monitoring cognitive engagement in stroke patients during motor rehabilitation. Active engagement reflects implicit motivation and can enhance motor recovery. In this study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive engagement in 11 chronic stroke patients while they executed active and passive motor tasks involving grasping and supination hand movements. We observed that the active motor task induced larger event-related desynchronization (ERD) than the passive task in the bilateral motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA). ERD differences between tasks were observed during both initial and post-movement periods . Additionally, differences in beta band activity were larger than differences in mu band activity . EEG data was used to help classify each trial as involving the active or passive motor task. Average classification accuracy was 80.7 ±0.1% for grasping movement and 82.8 ±0.1% for supination movement. Classification accuracy using a combination of movement and post-movement periods was higher than in other cases . Our results support using EEG to assess cognitive engagement in stroke patients during motor rehabilitation.

  20. [Cognitive disorders and its correction in the acute period of ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, S V; Mozheĭko, E Iu; Levin, O S; Koriagina, T D; Chernykh, T V; Berezovskaia, M A

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using of original stimulating programs for correction of memory decline, attention impairment and optical-spatial gnosis disorders was evaluated in 100 post stroke patients with the degree of cognitive decline from mild cognitive impairment to mild dementia in the acute period of stroke. In addition to traditional methods of treatment, we applied training using computer programs within 20-30 minutes daily 5 times a week during 14 days. Efficiency of treatment was measured by the MMSE, the FAB, the Clock drawing test, Shulte's tables and a letter correction test. After the treatment, the statistically significant improvement of cognitive functions was found in the group of patients receiving the correction with computer programs. PMID:23390653

  1. Elevated Homocysteine Level Related to Poor Outcome After Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yao, En-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Ming-Huan; Wang, Hong; Luo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, whether HHcy can influence the treatment outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level and prognosis in AIS patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were recruited according to the research criteria and grouped by their serum Hcy levels. Neurological outcome was evaluated by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score system before and 1 week after treatment, and functional outcome was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score system after 3 months. All patients took CT/MRI examination to detect cerebral hemorrhage in 24 hours after tPA treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was employed to assess if serum homocysteine level can be used as an index to predict the outcome after tPA treatment. RESULTS The mean (±SD) serum Hcy level of 194 patients was 22.62±21.23 μmol/L. After 1-week tPA treatment, the NIHSS scores of high Hcy level group were significantly higher than those of low level group (p<0.05), meantime the high Hcy group showed obvious symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk after 24 hours (p<0.05). Poor outcome was presented in mRS score results after 3 months in high Hcy level group, which compared with low Hcy level group (p<0.01). The ROC showed that Hcy level was a moderately sensitive and specific index to predict the prognosis with an optimal cut-off value at 19.95 µmol/L (sensitivity [58.2%], specificity [80.3%]). CONCLUSIONS High serum homocysteine level could potentially predict poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients after tPA treatment. PMID:27629768

  2. Elevated Homocysteine Level Related to Poor Outcome After Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yao, En-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Ming-Huan; Wang, Hong; Luo, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, whether HHcy can influence the treatment outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has yet to be fully determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level and prognosis in AIS patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment. Material/Methods Patients were recruited according to the research criteria and grouped by their serum Hcy levels. Neurological outcome was evaluated by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score system before and 1 week after treatment, and functional outcome was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score system after 3 months. All patients took CT/MRI examination to detect cerebral hemorrhage in 24 hours after tPA treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was employed to assess if serum homocysteine level can be used as an index to predict the outcome after tPA treatment. Results The mean (±SD) serum Hcy level of 194 patients was 22.62±21.23 μmol/L. After 1-week tPA treatment, the NIHSS scores of high Hcy level group were significantly higher than those of low level group (p<0.05), meantime the high Hcy group showed obvious symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk after 24 hours (p<0.05). Poor outcome was presented in mRS score results after 3 months in high Hcy level group, which compared with low Hcy level group (p<0.01). The ROC showed that Hcy level was a moderately sensitive and specific index to predict the prognosis with an optimal cut-off value at 19.95 μmol/L (sensitivity [58.2%], specificity [80.3%]). Conclusions High serum homocysteine level could potentially predict poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients after tPA treatment. PMID:27629768

  3. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Predict Cardiovascular Events after Atherothrombotic Stroke and Acute Myocardial Infarction. A PROCELL Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Regueiro, Ander; Núñez, Julio; Díaz-Ricard, Maribel; Novella, Susana; Oliveras, Anna; Valverde, Miguel A.; Marrugat, Jaume; Ois, Angel; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Sanchís, Juan; Escolar, Ginès; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Roquer, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors for the risk of new vascular events during the first 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or atherothrombotic stroke (AS). We were interested in the prognostic role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) Methods Between February 2009 and July 2012, 100 AMI and 50 AS patients were consecutively studied in three Spanish centres. Patients with previously documented coronary artery disease or ischemic strokes were excluded. Samples were collected within 24h of onset of symptoms. EPC and CEC were studied using flow cytometry and categorized by quartiles. Patients were followed for up to 6 months. NVE was defined as new acute coronary syndrome, transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, or any hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. The variables included in the analysis included: vascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), atherosclerotic burden and basal EPC and CEC count. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using Cox regression analysis. Results During follow-up, 19 patients (12.66%) had a new vascular event (5 strokes; 3 TIAs; 4 AMI; 6 hospitalizations; 1 death). Vascular events were associated with age (P = 0.039), carotid IMT≥0.9 (P = 0.044), and EPC count (P = 0.041) in the univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed an independent association with EPC in the lowest quartile (HR: 10.33, 95%CI (1.22–87.34), P = 0.032] and IMT≥0.9 [HR: 4.12, 95%CI (1.21–13.95), P = 0.023]. Conclusions Basal EPC and IMT≥0.9 can predict future vascular events in patients with AMI and AS, but CEC count does not affect cardiovascular risk. PMID:26332322

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Acute Clopidogrel Load in Patients with Moderate and Severe Ischemic Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Monlezun, Dominique J.; Rincon, Natalia; Tiu, Jonathan; Valmoria, Melisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To study the safety and efficacy of a clopidogrel loading dose in patients with moderate and severe acute ischemic strokes. Background. The safety of clopidogrel loading has been extensively investigated in patients with minor strokes and transient ischemic attacks. Methods. Acute ischemic stroke patients presenting consecutively to our center from 07/01/08 to 07/31/13 were screened. Clopidogrel loading was defined as at least 300 mg dose (with or without aspirin) given within 6 hours of admission. We compared outcomes in patients with baseline NIHSS > 3 with and without clopidogrel loading. Results. Inclusion criteria were met for 1011 patients (43.6% females, 69.1% black, median age 63). Patients with clopidogrel loading had lower baseline NIHSS than patients who were not loaded (8 versus 9, p = 0.005). The two groups had similar risk for hemorrhagic transformation (p = 0.918) and symptomatic hemorrhage (p = 0.599). Patients who were loaded had a lower rate of neurological worsening (38.9% versus 48.3%, p = 0.031) and less in-hospital mortality (4.3% versus 13.4%, p = 0.001) compared to those who were not loaded. The likelihood of having a poor functional outcome did not differ between the two groups after adjusting for NIHSS on admission (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.4633–1.0906, p = 0.118). Conclusion. Clopidogrel loading dose was not associated with increased risk for hemorrhagic transformation or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in our retrospective study and was associated with reduced rates of neuroworsening following moderate and severe stroke.

  5. Effectiveness of CT Computed Tomography Perfusion in Diagnostics of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Mete, Ahmet; Ünverdi, Zeyni

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Stroke is the third most common death reason after the cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Cerebral ischemia is a pathology that stems from a decrease in cerebral perfusion. Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) is an additional method to the conventional Computed Tomography (CT) that could be performed by using developed softwares, in a short period of time and with a low risk of complications. CTP not only allows early detection of cerebral ischemia but also gives valuable information on the ischemic penumbra which are very important in early diagnosis and treatment. Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) can be cured by trombolytic treapy within 3–6 hours after symptom onset. Since rapid screening and accurate diagnosis increase the success of the treatment, the role of neuroradiology in acute ischemia diagnostics and treatment has become more important. Our aim was to define CT skills in early diagnosis of AIS, to define its contribution to patient’s diagnosis and treatment and to define its importance regarding patient’s prognosis. Material/Methods We included 42 patients that presented to the emergency service and neurology outpatient clinic with the symptoms of acute cerebral incidence. Results In our study, we found that Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) is 90.91% sensitive and 100% specific in examining ischemia. Conclusions Tissue hemodynamic data, especially sensitivity and specificity rates, which cannot be acquired by conventional CT and MRI methods, can be acquired by the CTP method. PMID:26740827

  6. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of telestroke in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R.E.; Saltzman, G.M.; Skalabrin, E.J.; Demaerschalk, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of telestroke—a 2-way, audiovisual technology that links stroke specialists to remote emergency department physicians and their stroke patients—compared to usual care (i.e., remote emergency departments without telestroke consultation or stroke experts). Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed for both 90-day and lifetime horizons. Model inputs were taken from published literature where available and supplemented with western states' telestroke experiences. Costs were gathered using a societal perspective and converted to 2008 US dollars. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained were combined with costs to generate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). In the lifetime horizon model, both costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Both one-way sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. Results: In the base case analysis, compared to usual care, telestroke results in an ICER of $108,363/QALY in the 90-day horizon and $2,449/QALY in the lifetime horizon. For the 90-day and lifetime horizons, 37.5% and 99.7% of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations yielded ICERs <$50,000/QALY, a ratio commonly considered acceptable in the United States. Conclusion: When a lifetime perspective is taken, telestroke appears cost-effective compared to usual care, since telestroke costs are upfront but benefits of improved stroke care are lifelong. If barriers to use such as low reimbursement rates and high equipment costs are reduced, telestroke has the potential to diminish the striking geographic disparities of acute stroke care in the United States. PMID:21917781

  8. Clinically-relevant reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke MTT performs better than Tmax and TTP

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Linglong; Zhu, Hongtu; Vo, Katie D.; Powers, William J.; Lin, Weili; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2014-01-01

    Background While several MRI parameters are used to assess tissue perfusion during hyperacute stroke, it is unclear which is optimal for measuring clinically-relevant reperfusion. We directly compared MTT prolongation (MTTp), TTP, and time-to-maximum (Tmax) to determine which best predicted neurological improvement and tissue salvage following early reperfusion. Methods Acute ischemic stroke patients underwent three MRI's: <4.5hr (tp1), at 6hr (tp2), and at 1 month after onset. Perfusion deficits at tp1 and tp2 were defined by MTTp, TTP, or Tmax beyond four commonly-used thresholds. Percent reperfusion (%Reperf) was calculated for each parameter and threshold. Regression analysis was used to fit %Reperf for each parameter and threshold as a predictor of neurological improvement [defined as admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) – 1 month NIHSS (ΔNIHSS)] after adjusting for baseline clinical variables. Volume of reperfusion, for each parameter and threshold, was correlated with tissue salvage, defined as tp1 perfusion deficit volume – final infarct volume. Results 50 patients were scanned at 2.7 hours and 6.2 hours after stroke onset. %Reperf predicted ΔNIHSS for all MTTp thresholds, for Tmax > 6s and > 8s, but for no TTP thresholds. Tissue salvage significantly correlated with reperfusion for all MTTp thresholds and with Tmax > 6s, while there was no correlation with any TTP threshold. Among all parameters, reperfusion defined by MTTp was most strongly associated with ΔNIHSS (MTTp>3s, p=0.0002) and tissue salvage (MTTp> 3s and 4s, P<0.0001). Conclusion MTT-defined reperfusion was the best predictor of neurological improvement and tissue salvage in hyperacute ischemic stroke. PMID:24500786

  9. Influence of the application of inelastic taping on shoulder subluxation and pain changes in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Heo,, Min-Yeong; Kim,, Cheol-Yong; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on the shoulder joints of performing inelastic taping and bed physical therapy for acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention was conducted for eight weeks with an experimental group of 18 stroke patients who received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping and a control group of 18 stroke patients who received only bed physical therapy. [Results] After the intervention, the subluxation degree of the experimental group, which received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping, was found to be significantly different from that of the control group, which received only bed physical therapy. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of inelastic taping for acute stroke patients was confirmed to be effective at reducing shoulder subluxation and pain, and was confirmed to be a good physical therapy intervention, based on its efficacy. PMID:26696705

  10. Iterative Reconstruction Improves Both Objective and Subjective Image Quality in Acute Stroke CTP

    PubMed Central

    Flottmann, Fabian; Kabath, Jan; Illies, Till; Schneider, Tanja; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik; Fiehler, Jens; Kemmling, André

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) suffers from measurement errors due to image noise. The purpose of this study was to investigate if iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms can be used to improve the diagnostic value of standard-dose CTP in AIS. Methods Twenty-three patients with AIS underwent CTP with standardized protocol and dose. Raw data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and IR with intensity levels 3, 4, 5. Image quality was objectively (quantitative perfusion values, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) and subjectively (overall image quality) assessed. Ischemic core and perfusion mismatch were visually rated. Discriminative power for tissue outcome prediction was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) resulting from the overlap between follow-up infarct lesions and stepwise thresholded CTP maps. Results With increasing levels of IR, objective image quality (SNR and CNR in white matter and gray matter, elimination of error voxels) and subjective image quality improved. Using IR, mean transit time (MTT) was higher in ischemic lesions, while there was no significant change of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Visual assessments of perfusion mismatch changed in 4 patients, while the ischemic core remained constant in all cases. Discriminative power for infarct prediction as represented by AUC was not significantly changed in CBV, but increased in CBF and MTT (mean (95% CI)): 0.72 (0.67–0.76) vs. 0.74 (0.70–0.78) and 0.65 (0.62–0.67) vs 0.67 (0.64–0.70). Conclusion In acute stroke patients, IR improves objective and subjective image quality when applied to standard-dose CTP. This adds to the overall confidence of CTP in acute stroke triage. PMID:26930290

  11. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. Methods and analysis In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. PMID:26739742

  12. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  13. Quantification of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC) in the detection of acute stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulipano, P. Karina; Millar, William S.; Imielinska, Celina; Liu, Xin; Rosiene, Joel; D'Ambrosio, Anthony L.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an imaging modality that is used in the management and diagnosis of acute stroke. Common MR imaging techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC) are used routinely in the diagnosis of acute infarcts. However, advances in radiology information systems and imaging protocols have led to an overload of image information that can be difficult to manage and time consuming. Automated techniques to assist in the identification of acute ischemic stroke can prove beneficial to 1) the physician by providing a mechanism for early detection and 2) the patient by providing effective stroke therapy at an early stage. We have processed DW images and ADC maps using a novel automated Relative Difference Map (RDM) method that was tailored to the identification and delineation of the stroke region. Results indicate that the technique can delineate regions of acute infarctions on DW images and ADC maps. A formal evaluation of the RDM algorithm was performed by comparing accuracy measurements between 1) expert generated ground truths with the RDM delineated DWI infarcts and 2) RDM delineated DWI infarcts with RDM delineated ADC infarcts. The accuracy measurements indicate that the RDM delineated DWI infarcts are comparable to the expert generated ground truths. The true positive volume fraction value (TPVF), between RDM delineated DWI and ADC infarcts, is nonzero for all cases with an acute infarct while the value for non-acute cases remains zero.

  14. Early prognosis of survival or death after a recent stroke by blood levels of acute-phase proteins.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D A; Haţegan, D; Jipescu, I; Steinbruch, L; Ghiţescu, M

    1991-01-01

    From 129 patients with a recent stroke 105 survived and 24 died within 3 weeks from stroke-onset. At around 40 hours after the latter, the blood-levels of the acute-phase proteins ceruloplasmin and albumin did not forecast the death of the respective patients, but, in contradistinction, the level of fibrinogen was significantly higher in those who eventually died, than in those who survived. Therefore, a higher level of fibrinogen could be a risk-factor for death after stroke.

  15. Intravenous Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation for Stroke: Phase1/2a Clinical Trial in a Homogeneous Group of Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Akihiko; Sakai, Chiaki; Soma, Toshihiro; Kasahara, Yukiko; Stern, David M; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Daimon, Takashi; Yamahara, Kenichi; Doi, Kaori; Kohara, Nobuo; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of transplanting autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells into patients suffering severe embolic stroke. Major inclusion criteria included patients with cerebral embolism, age 20-75 years, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score displaying improvement of ≤ 5 points during the first 7 days after stroke, and NIHSS score of ≥ 10 on day 7 after stroke. Bone marrow aspiration (25 or 50 mL; N = 6 patients in each case) was performed 7-10 days poststroke, and bone marrow mononuclear cells were administrated intravenously. Mean total transplanted cell numbers were 2.5 × 10(8) and 3.4 × 10(8) cells in the lower and higher dose groups, respectively. No apparent adverse effects of administering bone marrow cells were observed. Compared with the lower dose, patients receiving the higher dose of bone marrow cells displayed a trend toward improved neurologic outcomes. Compared with 1 month after treatment, patients receiving cell therapy displayed a trend toward improved cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen consumption 6 months after treatment. In comparison with historical controls, patients receiving cell therapy had significantly better neurologic outcomes. Our results indicated that intravenous transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells is safe and feasible. Positive results and trends favoring neurologic recovery and improvement in cerebral blood flow and metabolism by cell therapy underscore the relevance of larger scale randomized controlled trials using this approach.

  16. SOD1 overexpression prevents acute hyperglycemia-induced cerebral myogenic dysfunction: relevance to contralateral hemisphere and stroke outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coucha, Maha; Li, Weiguo; Hafez, Sherif; Abdelsaid, Mohammed; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Admission hyperglycemia (HG) amplifies vascular injury and neurological deficits in acute ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms remain controversial. We recently reported that ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury impairs the myogenic response in both hemispheres via increased nitration. However, whether HG amplifies contralateral myogenic dysfunction and whether loss of tone in the contralateral hemisphere contributes to stroke outcomes remain to be determined. Our hypothesis was that contralateral myogenic dysfunction worsens stroke outcomes after acute hyperglycemic stroke in an oxidative stress-dependent manner. Male wild-type or SOD1 transgenic rats were injected with saline or 40% glucose solution 10 min before surgery and then subjected to 30 min of ischemia/45 min or 24 h of reperfusion. In another set of animals (n = 5), SOD1 was overexpressed only in the contralateral hemisphere by stereotaxic adenovirus injection 2–3 wk before I/R. Myogenic tone and neurovascular outcomes were determined. HG exacerbated myogenic dysfunction in contralateral side only, which was associated with infarct size expansion, increased edema, and more pronounced neurological deficit. Global and selective SOD1 overexpression restored myogenic reactivity in ipsilateral and contralateral sides, respectively, and enhanced neurovascular outcomes. In conclusion, our results show that SOD1 overexpression nullified the detrimental effects of HG on myogenic tone and stroke outcomes and that the contralateral hemisphere may be a novel target for the management of acute hyperglycemic stroke. PMID:25552308

  17. Design of clinical trials in acute kidney injury: report from an NIDDK workshop on trial methodology.

    PubMed

    Palevsky, Paul M; Molitoris, Bruce A; Okusa, Mark D; Levin, Adeera; Waikar, Sushrut S; Wald, Ron; Chertow, Glenn M; Murray, Patrick T; Parikh, Chirag R; Shaw, Andrew D; Go, Alan S; Faubel, Sarah G; Kellum, John A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Liu, Kathleen D; Cheung, Alfred K; Weisbord, Steven D; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Kaufman, James S; Devarajan, Prasad; Toto, Robert M; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Greene, Tom; Mehta, Ravindra L; Stokes, John B; Thompson, Aliza M; Thompson, B Taylor; Westenfelder, Christof S; Tumlin, James A; Warnock, David G; Shah, Sudhir V; Xie, Yining; Duggan, Emily G; Kimmel, Paul L; Star, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a complex clinical problem associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality and lacking effective pharmacologic interventions. Patients with AKI experience longer-term risks for progressive chronic ESRD, which diminish patients' health-related quality of life and create a larger burden on the healthcare system. Although experimental models have yielded numerous promising agents, translation into clinical practice has been unsuccessful, possibly because of issues in clinical trial design, such as delayed drug administration, masking of therapeutic benefit by adverse events, and inadequate sample size. To address issues of clinical trial design, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases sponsored a workshop titled "Clinical Trials in Acute Kidney Injury: Current Opportunities and Barriers" in December 2010. Workshop participants included representatives from academia, industry, and government agencies whose areas of expertise spanned basic science, clinical nephrology, critical care medicine, biostatistics, pharmacology, and drug development. This document summarizes the discussions of collaborative workgroups that addressed issues related to patient selection, study endpoints, the role of novel biomarkers, sample size and power calculations, and adverse events and pilot/feasibility studies in prevention and treatment of AKI. Companion articles outline the discussions of workgroups for model trials related to prevention or treatment of established AKI in different clinical settings, such as in patients with sepsis.

  18. Cerebrorenal interaction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the original meaning of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as high-risk state for future dialysis, CKD is now known as an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Stroke is a major player of cardiovascular disease and has deep two-way relationships with CKD. CKD is an evident risk factor for stroke. Meta-analyses of cohort studies and trials indicate that proteinuria/albuminuria increases the risk of stroke by 71-92%, and reduced glomerular filtration rate increases the risk by 43%. In addition, CKD has a strong relationship with subclinical brain damage including white matter changes, microbleeds, cognitive impairment, and carotid atherosclerosis. CKD is prevalent in acute stroke patients; patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or proteinuria amounted to 46% of total ischemic stroke patients and 39% of total intracerebral hemorrhage patients in our institute. Acute and chronic management of stroke are influenced by CKD. Therapeutic effects of several antithrombotic and thrombolytic agents, including recently-developed novel oral anticoagulants, are affected by renal function. Moreover, reduced glomerular filtration rate is independently associated with increased 1- and 10-year mortalities in the end. Stroke also has deep relationships with end-stage kidney disease. Stroke occurs much more commonly in dialysis patients than general population or CKD patients without need for dialysis. The triggers of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in patients with end-stage kidney disease include special characteristics unique to dialysis, such as drastic hemodynamic change, dialysate and anticoagulants, and vascular calcification. As cohorts of dialysis patients become older, more hypertensive, and more diabetic than before, stroke become more prevalent and more serious events in dialysis clinics. Now, clinicians should have much interest in the association between CKD and cerebrovascular diseases, so-called the cerebro

  19. Efficacy and safety comparison of DL-3-n-butylphthalide and Cerebrolysin: Effects on neurological and behavioral outcomes in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    XUE, LI-XIA; ZHANG, TING; ZHAO, YU-WU; GENG, ZHI; CHEN, JING-JIONG; CHEN, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrolysin and DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) have each shown neuroprotective efficacy in preclinical models of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and passed clinical trials as therapeutic drugs for AIS. The present study was a clinical trial to assess and compare the efficacy and safety of NBP and Cerebrolysin in the reduction of neurological and behavioral disability following AIS. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted with enrolment of 60 patients within 12 h of AIS. In addition to routine treatment, patients were randomly assigned to receive a 10-day intravenous administration of NBP, Cerebrolysin or placebo. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Barthel Index (BI) scores were used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment in the patients with AIS at 11 and 21 days after the initiation of therapy. Adverse events were also analyzed among the three groups. After 10 days of treatment with NBP or Cerebrolysin, the NIHSS and BI scores at day 21 showed statistical differences compared with those in the placebo group (P<0.05). The improvements of NIHSS and BI scores in the NBP and Cerebrolysin groups were higher than those in the placebo group at days 11 and 21 (P<0.05). A statistically significant difference in the improvement of 21-day NIHSS scores was observed between the two treatment groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was found among the three groups with regard to the rate of adverse events. Favorable outcomes and good safety were observed in the patients with moderate AIS treated with NBP or Cerebrolysin. The results indicate that NBP may be more effective than Cerebrolysin in improving short-term outcomes following AIS. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with clinical trial identifier number NCT02149875. PMID:27168844

  20. [Intravenous administration of a tissue plasminogen activator beyond 3 hours of the onset of acute ischemic stroke--MRI-based decision making].

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro

    2008-10-01

    After large CT-based clinical trials have failed to prove the benefits of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration for ischemic stroke patients beyond 3 hours of the onset of the concept of PWI/DWI mismatch which is the volume difference between a PWI lesion and DWI lesion on MRI scans, has been proposed to facilitate the selection of patients with a salvageable area. PWI/DWI mismatch is considered to represent the tissue that is not irreversibly injured and can respond to early reperfusion therapy. When an ischemic lesion is divided into 4 regions, namely, ischemic core, reversible DWI lesion, penumbra and benign oligemia, both the reversible DWI lesion and penumbra are considered to be an optimal targets for thrombolysis. In order to clarify the clinical significance of PWI/DWI mismatch in the selection of candidates for tPA therapy, some multicenter trials were performed. The results of DIAS (desmoteplase in acute ischemic stroke)/DEDAS (dose escalation of desmoteplase for acute ischemic stroke)/DIAS-2 did not difinitly demonstrate the clinical benefits of desmoteplase administration in patients with PWI/DWI mismatch between 3 to 9 hours of onset; in fact, DIAS-2 could not prove any effect of the drug. DEFUSE (diffusion and perfusion imaging evaluation for understanding stroke evolution), in which tPA was administered to all participants between 3 to 6 hours of stroke onset, showed that the occurrence of early reperfusion led to a favorable clinical response in patients with PWI/DWI mismatch. In contrast, early reperfusion was not beneficial in patients without PWI/DWI mismatch. In EPITHET (echoplanar imaging thrombolysis evaluation trial), stroke patients who showed PWI/DWI mismatch after 3 to 6 hours of the onset were assigned to receive either alteplase or placebo administration: lesion growth was lesser in patients with alteplase than in those who received placebo, although the difference was not statistically significant because of a

  1. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongli; Pi, Fuhua; Ding, Zan; Chen, Wei; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Wenya; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    Background Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke. Methods A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions. Results B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12. Conclusions B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied. PMID:26355679

  2. Drug-Like Property Profiling of Novel Neuroprotective Compounds to Treat Acute Ischemic Stroke: Guidelines to Develop Pleiotropic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lapchak, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of novel neuroprotective compounds to treat acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been problematic and quite complicated, since many candidates that have been tested clinically lacked significant pleiotropic activity, were unable to effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), had poor bioavailability or were toxic. Moreover, the compounds did not confer significant neuroprotection or clinical efficacy measured using standard behavioral endpoints, when studied in clinical trials in a heterogeneous population of stroke patients. To circumvent some of the drug development problems describe above, we have used a rational funnel approach to identify and develop promising candidates. Using a step-wise approach, we have identified a series of compounds based upon two different neuroprotection assays. We have then taken the candidates and determined their “drug-like” properties. This guidelines article details in vitro screening assays used to show pleiotropic activity of a series of novel compounds; including enhanced neuroprotective activity compared to the parent compound fisetin. Moreover, for preliminary drug de-risking or risk reduction during development, we used compound assessment in the CeeTox assay, ADME toxicity using the AMES test for genotoxicity and interaction with Cytochrome P450 using CYP450 inhibition analysis against a spectrum of CYP450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) as a measure of drug interaction. Moreover, the compounds have been studied using a transfected Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell assay to assess blood brain barrier penetration (BBB). Using this series of assays, we have identified 4 novel molecules to be developed as an AIS treatment. PMID:23687519

  3. A novel effect of Noscapine on patients with massive ischemic stroke: A pseudo-randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Rezvani, Mohammad; Rohani, Mohammad; Benaissa, Foozya; Jalili, Mehdi; Ghourchian, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Massive ischemic stroke causes significant mortality and morbidity in stroke patients. The main treatments for massive ischemic stroke are recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), craniotomy, and endovascular interventions. Due to destructive effects of bradykinin on the nervous system in ischemic stroke, it seems reasonable that using Noscapine as a Bradykinin antagonist may improve patients’ outcome after ischemic stroke. The effect of Noscapine on massive ischemic stroke was shown by the previous pilot study by our group. This pseudo-randomized clinical trial study was designed to assess the result of the pilot study. Methods: Patients who had clinical symptoms or computed tomography scan indicative of massive stroke (in full middle cerebral artery territory) were entered to the study. The cases received the drugs according to their turns in emergency ward (pseudo-randomized). The patient group received Noscapine, and the control group received common supportive treatments. The patients and data analyzer were blinded about the data. At the end of the study, to adjust confounding variables we used logistic regression. Results: After 1-month follow-up, 16 patients in the control group and 11 patients in the case group expired (P = 0.193). Analyzing the data extracted from Rankin scale and Barthel index check lists, revealed no significant differences in the two groups. Conclusion: Despite the absence of significant statistical results in our study, the reduction rate of 16% for mortality rate in Noscapine recipients is clinically remarkable and motivates future studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:25874051

  4. Rethinking the continuum of stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Teasell, Robert W; Murie Fernandez, Manuel; McIntyre, Amanda; Mehta, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Suffering a stroke can be a devastating and life-changing event. Although there is a large evidence base for stroke rehabilitation in the acute and subacute stages, it has been long accepted that patients with stroke reach a plateau in their rehabilitation recovery relatively early. We have recently published the results of a systematic review designed to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where a rehabilitation intervention was initiated more than 6 months after the onset of the stroke. Of the trials identified, 339 RCTs met inclusion criteria, demonstrating an evidence base for stroke rehabilitation in the chronic phase as well. This seems at odds with the assumption that further recovery is unlikely and the subsequent lack of resources devoted to chronic stroke rehabilitation and management.

  5. Serum Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and their Ratio in Acute Ischemic Stroke: on the Trail of a Biomarker?

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Verkerk, Robert; Sandvik, Leiv

    2016-01-01

    Fast diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of utmost importance to improving the outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A rapid and sensitive blood test for ischemic stroke is required. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of phenylalanine (PHE) and tyrosine (TYR) as diagnostic biomarkers in AIS. Serum levels of PHE and TYR, measured using HPLC, and their ratio (PHE/TYR) were compared between 45 patients with AIS and 40 healthy control subjects. The relationship between PHE/TYR and the serum levels of several cytokines were also examined. PHE/TYR was significantly higher in AIS patients than in healthy controls (1.75 vs 1.24, p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of PHE/TYR in AIS patients relative to healthy controls revealed promising sensitivity and specificity, which at an optimal cutoff of 1.45 were 76 and 85 %, respectively. PHE/TYR was positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-1β (r = 0.37, p = 0.011) and IL-6 (r = 0.33, p = 0.025). This study shows that PHE/TYR is highly elevated in the acute phase of AIS, and that this elevation is coupled to the inflammatory response. The ROC analysis documents the possible value of PHE/TYR as a biomarker for AIS and demonstrates its clinical potential as a blood-based test for AIS.

  6. Partial Aortic Occlusion and Cerebral Venous Steal: Venous Effects of Arterial Manipulation in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and “luxury perfusion” in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifest by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution, analogous to positive end expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs. PMID:21441149

  7. [Asystolias in the acute phase of brain stroke. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Belvis, R; Marti-Fàbregas, J; Franquet, E; Cocho, D; Valencia, C; Martí-Vilalta, J L

    2003-04-01

    Brain areas involved in heart autonomic control are not well characterized. Insulae have been proposed as control centers. A lesion in these areas may induce a cardiac autonomic dysfunction (arrhythmias, atrioventricular conduction abnormalities). Asystolia has not been previously reported. A 65-year-old man suffered an acute ischemia of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. NIHSS score was 19 points. Brain CT scan was normal. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) showed occlusion of the right MCA. Fibrinolysis was initiated 135 minutes after stroke onset with TCD monitoring. Twenty minutes later he suffered cardiac arrest with asystolia trace in the ECG monitor. Fibrinolysis was stopped during resuscitation. Four minutes later, he recovered with the same NIHSS score. Aggressive resuscitation maneuvers were not necessary. A repeated brain CT scan showed infarct signs in the whole MCA territory and a new TCD did not show any change. Serial blood analyses including cardiac nzymes were normal. The patient experienced four brief cardiac arrests in the next nine hours, so a temporary cardiac pacemaker was placed for four days. He was treated with aspirin and was discharged 14 days after admission. He has not experienced recurrences during a 6-month follow-up. We could not diagnose the etiology of the cardiac arrests. All the episodes occurred in the acute stroke stage and arrhythmia, atrioventricular block, myocardial ischemia or structural lesions were not found in the cardiac study. We propose that ischemia in the right insula induced sudden and transitory interruptions of the sympathetic cardiac tone. PMID:12677486

  8. Antiplatelet Usage Impacts Clot Density in Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pikija, Slaven; Magdic, Jozef; Lukic, Anita; Schreiber, Catharina; Mutzenbach, Johannes Sebastian; McCoy, Mark R.; Sellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We explored whether clot density in middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion is related to clinical variables, stroke etiology, blood constituents, and prestroke medication. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with acute ischemic stroke of the anterior circulation admitted to two Central European stroke centers. The acquisition of non-contrast enhanced CT (NECT) and CT angiography (CTA) within 4.5 h of symptom onset was obligatory. We assessed the site of MCA occlusion as well as density, area, and length of the clot in 150 patients. The Hounsfield unit values for the clot were divided with contralateral MCA segment to yield relative Hounsfield Unit ratio (rHU). The site of the vessel occlusion (M1 vs. M2) and antiplatelet usage, but not stroke etiology, significantly influenced rHU. We found an inverse correlation of rHU with erythrocyte count (p < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that a higher rHU (i.e., clot being more hyperdense) was more likely with the use of antiplatelets (OR 4.24, CI 1.10–16.31, p = 0.036). Erythrocyte (OR 0.18, CI 0.05–0.55, p = 0.003), and thrombocyte counts (OR 0.99, CI 0.98–0.99, p = 0.029) were associated with odds for more hypodense clots (lower rHU). Our study disclosed that antiplatelet therapy impacts the composition of intracranial clots of the anterior circulation. PMID:27563874

  9. Primary Angioplasty Versus Stenting for Endovascular Management of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease Following Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Villwock, Mark R.; Padalino, David J.; Ramaswamy, Raghu; Deshaies, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The future of neuroendovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has been debated since the results of SAMMPRIS reflected poor outcomes following endovascular therapy. There is currently a large spectrum of current management strategies. We compared historical outcomes of patients with ICAD and stroke that were treated with angioplasty-alone versus stent placement. Methods We extracted a population from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2005–2011) and the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2012) composed of patients with ICAD and infarction that were admitted nonelectively and received endovascular revascularization. Patients treated with thrombectomy or thrombolysis were excluded. Categorical variables were compared with Chi-squared tests. Binary logistic regression was performed to evaluate mortality while controlling for age, sex, severity, and comorbidities. Results About 2059 admissions met our criteria. A majority were treated via stent placement (71%). Angioplasty-alone had significantly higher mortality (17.6% vs. 8.4%, P<0.001), but no difference in iatrogenic stroke rate (3.4% vs. 3.6%, P=0.826), compared to stent placement. The adjusted odds ratio of mortality for stented patients was 0.536 (95% CI: 0.381–0.753, P<0.001) in comparison to patients treated with angioplasty alone. Conclusions This study found the risk of mortality to be elevated following angioplasty alone in comparison to revascularization with stent placement, without a corresponding significant difference in iatrogenic stroke rate. This may represent selection bias due to patient characteristics not defined in the database, but it also may indicate that patients with ICAD and acute stroke have increased odds of stenosis that is refractory to angioplasty alone and have a high risk of mortality without revascularization. PMID:27403216

  10. CT AND MRI EARLY VESSEL SIGNS REFLECT CLOT COMPOSITION IN ACUTE STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S.; Sanossian, Nerses; Yong, William H.; Starkman, Sidney; Tsang, Michael P.; Moya, Antonio L.; Zheng, David D.; Abolian, Anna M.; Kim, Doojin; Ali, Latisha K.; Shah, Samir H.; Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Tateshima, Satoshi; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Viñuela, Fernando; Salamon, Noriko; Villablanca, J. Pablo; Vinters, Harry V.; Marder, Victor J.; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose To provide the first correlative study of the hyperdense MCA sign (HMCAS) and gradient-echo (GRE) MRI blooming artifact (BA) with pathology of retrieved thrombi in acute ischemic stroke. Methods Noncontrast CT and GRE MRI studies prior to mechanical thrombectomy in 50 consecutive cases of acute MCA ischemic stroke were reviewed, blinded to clinical and pathology data. Occlusions retrieved by thrombectomy underwent histopathologic analysis, including automated quantitative and qualitative rating of proportion composed of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and fibrin on microscopy of sectioned thrombi. Results Among 50 patients, mean age was 66 years and 48% were female. Mean (SD) proportion was 61% (±21) fibrin, 34% (±21) RBC, and 4% (±2) WBC. Of retrieved clots, 22 (44%) were fibrin-dominant, 13 (26%) RBC-dominant and 15 (30%) mixed. HMCAS was identified in 10/20 MCA stroke cases with CT, with mean Hounsfield Unit (HU) density of 61 (SD±8). BA occurred in 17/32 with GRE MRI. HMCAS was more commonly seen with RBC-dominant and mixed than fibrin-dominant clots (100% vs. 67% vs. 20%, p=0.016). Mean percent RBC composition was higher in clots associated with HMCAS (47% vs. 22%, p=0.016). BA was more common in RBC-dominant and mixed clots compared to fibrin-dominant clots (100% vs. 63% vs. 25%, p=0.002). Mean percent RBC was greater with BA (42% vs. 23%, p=0.011). Conclusions CT HMCAS and GRE MRI BA reflect pathology of occlusive thrombus. RBC content determines appearance of HMCAS and BA, whereas absence of HMCAS or BA may indicate fibrin-predominant occlusive thrombi. PMID:21393591

  11. Limited Reliability of CT perfusion acute infarct volume measurements compared to DWI in anterior circulation stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Pamela W.; Souza, Leticia; Kamalian, Shervin; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Yoo, Albert J.; Kamalian, Shahmir; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Lev, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose DWI can reliably identify critically ischemic tissue (CIT) shortly after stroke onset. We tested if thresholded CT-CBF and CT-CBV maps are sufficiently accurate to substitute for DWI for estimating CIT volume. Methods Ischemic volumes of 55 patients with acute anterior circulation stroke were assessed on DWI by visual segmentation, and CT-CBF and CT-CBV with segmentation using 15% and 30% thresholds, respectively. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of ischemic regions on the DWI and CTP images were measured. Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess reliability of CTP. Results Mean CNRs for DWI, CT-CBF and CT-CBV were 4.3, 0.9 and 0.4, respectively. CTP and DWI lesion volumes were highly correlated (R2=0.87 for CT-CBF; R2=0.83 for CT-CBV; p<0.001). Bland-Altman analyses revealed little systemic bias (−2.6 ml) but high measurement variability (95% CI ±56.7 ml) between mean CT-CBF and DWI lesion volumes, and systemic bias (−26 ml) and high measurement variability (95% CI ±64.0 ml) between mean CT-CBV and DWI lesion volumes. A simulated treatment study demonstrated that using CTP-CBF instead of DWI for detecting a statistically significant effect would require at least twice as many patients. Conclusions The poor CNRs of CT-CBV and CT-CBF compared to DWI result in large measurement error making it problematic to substitute CTP for DWI in selecting individual acute stroke patients for treatment. CTP could be used for treatment studies of patient groups, but the number of patients needed to identify a significant effect is much higher than if DWI is used. PMID:25550366

  12. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G.

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤9, ASPECTS=10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS>2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability. PMID:25961856

  13. Googling Stroke ASPECTS to Determine Disability: Exploratory Analysis from VISTA-Acute Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G

    2015-01-01

    The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤ 9, ASPECTS = 10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS > 2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5 ± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability.

  14. Imaging of prehospital stroke therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602

  15. Stroke and the american presidency.

    PubMed

    Meschia, J; Safirstein, B E; Biller, J

    1997-01-01

    Eight past presidents of the United States have suffered at least one stroke: John Quincy Adams, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester Arthur, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Richard Milhous Nixon. Survival from time of last stroke was greater than one month in only President John Tyler. Nixon represents the first president to be on scientifically validated prophylaxis (warfarin). He was also the first president to be considered for a controlled therapeutic trial in acute stroke and the first to have had an advanced directive regarding terminal care. PMID:17894986

  16. Collaterals at Angiography and Outcomes in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, David S; Tomsick, Thomas A; Foster, Lydia D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Carrozzella, Janice; Demchuk, Andrew M; Jovin, Tudor G; Khatri, Pooja; von Kummer, Ruediger; Sugg, Rebecca M; Zaidat, Osama O; Hussain, Syed I; Goyal, Mayank; Menon, Bijoy K; Al Ali, Firas; Yan, Bernard; Palesch, Yuko Y; Broderick, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Endovascular strategies provide unique opportunity to correlate angiographic measures of collateral circulation at the time of endovascular therapy. We conducted systematic analyses of collaterals at conventional angiography on recanalization, reperfusion and the clinical outcomes in the endovascular treatment arm of the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III Trial. Methods: Prospective evaluation of angiographic collaterals was conducted via central review of subjects treated with endovascular therapy in IMS III (n=331). Collateral grade prior to endovascular therapy was assessed with the ASITN/SIR scale, blinded to all other data. Statistical analyses investigated the association between collaterals with baseline clinical variables, angiographic measures of recanalization, reperfusion and clinical outcomes. Results: Adequate views of collateral circulation to the ischemic territory were available in 276/331 (83%) subjects. Collateral grade was strongly related to both recanalization of the occluded arterial segment (p=0.0016) and downstream reperfusion (p<0.0001). Multivariable analyses confirmed that robust angiographic collateral grade was a significant predictor of good clinical outcome (mRS≤2) at 90 days (p=0.0353), adjusted for age, history of diabetes, NIHSS strata, and ASPECTS. The relationship between collateral flow and clinical outcome may depend on the degree of reperfusion. Conclusions: More robust collateral grade was associated with better recanalization, reperfusion, and subsequent better clinical outcomes. These data, from the largest endovascular trial to date, suggest that collaterals are an important consideration in future trial design. PMID:24473178

  17. The FLASSH study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating falls prevention after stroke and two sub-studies

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Frances A; Hill, Keith D; Mackintosh, Shylie F; Said, Catherine M; Whitehead, Craig H

    2009-01-01

    Background Falls are common in stroke survivors returning home after rehabilitation, however there is currently a lack of evidence about preventing falls in this population. This paper describes the study protocol for the FLASSH (FaLls prevention After Stroke Survivors return Home) project. Methods and design This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-factorial falls prevention program for stroke survivors who are at high risk of falling when they return home after rehabilitation. Intervention will consist of a home exercise program as well as individualised falls prevention and injury minimisation strategies based on identified risk factors for falls. Additionally, two sub-studies will be implemented in order to explore other key areas related to falls in this population. The first of these is a longitudinal study evaluating the relationship between fear of falling, falls and function over twelve months, and the second evaluates residual impairment in gait stability and obstacle crossing twelve months after discharge from rehabilitation. Discussion The results of the FLASSH project will inform falls prevention practice for stroke survivors. If the falls prevention program is shown to be effective, low cost strategies to prevent falls can be implemented for those at risk around the time of discharge from rehabilitation, thus improving safety and quality of life for stroke survivors. The two sub-studies will contribute to the overall understanding and management of falls risk in stroke survivors. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012607000398404). PMID:19335909

  18. Peer education for secondary stroke prevention in inner-city minorities: Design and methods of the Prevent Recurrence of All Inner-city Strokes through Education randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfinger, Judith Z.; Kronish, Ian M.; Fei, Kezhen; Graciani, Albert; Rosenfeld, Peri; Lorig, Kate; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The highest risk for stroke is among survivors of strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIA). However, use of proven-effective cardiovascular medications to control stroke risk is suboptimal, particularly among the Black and Latino populations disproportionately impacted by stroke. Methods A partnership of Harlem and Bronx community representatives, stroke survivors, researchers, clinicians, outreach workers and patient educators used community-based participatory research to conceive and develop the Prevent Recurrence of All Inner-city Strokes through Education (PRAISE) trial. Using data from focus groups with stroke survivors, they tailored a peer-led, community-based chronic disease self-management program to address stroke risk factors. PRAISE will test, in a randomized controlled trial, whether this stroke education intervention improves blood pressure control and a composite outcome of blood pressure control, lipid control, and use of antithrombotic medications. Results Of the 582 survivors of stroke and TIA enrolled thus far, 81% are Black or Latino and 56% have an annual income less than $15,000. Many (33%) do not have blood pressures in the target range, and most (66%) do not have control of all three major stroke risk factors. Conclusions Rates of stroke recurrence risk factors remain suboptimal in the high risk, urban, predominantly minority communities studied. With a community-partnered approach, PRAISE has recruited a large number of stroke and TIA survivors to date, and may prove successful in engaging those at highest risk for stroke and reducing disparities in stroke outcomes in inner-city communities. PMID:22710563

  19. Acute stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion: Characteristics of cardioembolism and atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Tateishi, Yohei; Morikawa, Minoru; Morofuji, Yoichi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2016-10-01

    Acute ischemic stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion is commonly due to cardioembolic or atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion, and immediate identification of these subtypes is important to establish the optimal treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in clinical presentation, radiological findings, neurological temporal courses, and outcomes between these etiologies, which have not been fully evaluated. Consecutive emergency patients with acute ischemic stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, patients with stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion were analyzed with a focus on clinical and radiological findings, and a comparison was performed for those with cardioembolic or atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion. Of 1053 patients, 80 had stroke with acute major intracranial vessel occlusion (45 with cardioembolic and 35 with atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion). Interestingly, the susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) on T2-weighted MR angiography was more frequently detected in cardioembolic stroke (80.0%) than in atherosclerosis (in situ stenosis: 5.9%, chronic occlusion: 14.3%). Moreover, the proximal intra-arterial signal (IAS) on arterial spin labeling MRI and the distal IAS on fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI was less frequently detected in chronic occlusion (27.3% and 50.0%, respectively) than in acute occlusion due to cardioembolic or in situ stenosis. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the SVS was significantly related to cardioembolism (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 21.68, P=0.004). Clinical characteristics of acute stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion differ depending on the etiology. The SVS and proximal/distal IAS on MRI are useful to distinguish between cardioembolic and atherosclerotic-related in situ stenosis/occlusion. PMID:27506779

  20. Feasibility of early functional rehabilitation in acute stroke survivors using the Balance-Bed—a technology that emulates microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Finkelstein, Marsha J.; Meissner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines recommend early functional rehabilitation of stroke patients when risk of patient harm can be managed. Current tools do not allow balance training under load conditions sufficiently low for acute stroke patients. This single-arm pilot study tested feasibility and safety for acute stroke survivors to use “Balance-Bed”, a technology for balance exercises in supine initially developed to emulate microgravity effects on balance. Nine acute stroke patients (50–79 years) participated in 3–10 sessions over 16–46 days as part of their rehabilitation in a hospital inpatient setting. Standard inpatient measures of outcome were monitored where lack of progress from admission to discharge might indicate possible harm. Total FIM scores at admission (median 40, range 22–53) changed to (74, 50–96), Motor FIM scores from (23, 13–32) to (50, 32–68) and Berg Balance scores from (3, 0–6) to (19, 7–43) at discharge. Changes reached Minimal Clinical Important Difference for a sufficient proportion (>0.6) of the patients to indicate no harm to the patients. In addition, therapists reported the technology was safe, provided a positive experience for the patient and fit within the rehabilitation program. They reported the device should be easier to set up and exit. We conclude acute stroke patients tolerated Balance-Bed exercises such as standing on one or two legs, squats, stepping in place as well as balance perturbations provided by the therapist. We believe this is the first time it has been demonstrated that acute stroke patients can safely perform whole body balance training including balance perturbations as part of their rehabilitation program. Future studies should include a control group and compare outcomes from best practices to interventions using the Balance-Bed. In addition, the technology is relevant for countermeasure development for spaceflight and as a test-bed of balance function under microgravity-like conditions. PMID

  1. Feasibility of early functional rehabilitation in acute stroke survivors using the Balance-Bed-a technology that emulates microgravity.

    PubMed

    Oddsson, Lars I E; Finkelstein, Marsha J; Meissner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines recommend early functional rehabilitation of stroke patients when risk of patient harm can be managed. Current tools do not allow balance training under load conditions sufficiently low for acute stroke patients. This single-arm pilot study tested feasibility and safety for acute stroke survivors to use "Balance-Bed", a technology for balance exercises in supine initially developed to emulate microgravity effects on balance. Nine acute stroke patients (50-79 years) participated in 3-10 sessions over 16-46 days as part of their rehabilitation in a hospital inpatient setting. Standard inpatient measures of outcome were monitored where lack of progress from admission to discharge might indicate possible harm. Total FIM scores at admission (median 40, range 22-53) changed to (74, 50-96), Motor FIM scores from (23, 13-32) to (50, 32-68) and Berg Balance scores from (3, 0-6) to (19, 7-43) at discharge. Changes reached Minimal Clinical Important Difference for a sufficient proportion (>0.6) of the patients to indicate no harm to the patients. In addition, therapists reported the technology was safe, provided a positive experience for the patient and fit within the rehabilitation program. They reported the device should be easier to set up and exit. We conclude acute stroke patients tolerated Balance-Bed exercises such as standing on one or two legs, squats, stepping in place as well as balance perturbations provided by the therapist. We believe this is the first time it has been demonstrated that acute stroke patients can safely perform whole body balance training including balance perturbations as part of their rehabilitation program. Future studies should include a control group and compare outcomes from best practices to interventions using the Balance-Bed. In addition, the technology is relevant for countermeasure development for spaceflight and as a test-bed of balance function under microgravity-like conditions.

  2. Acute cerebrovascular incident in a young woman: Venous or arterial stroke? – Comparative analysis based on two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Katarzyna; Zimny, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edyta; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common neurological disorders. Most of them are arterial strokes, mainly ischemic, less often of hemorrhagic origin. Changes in the course of cerebral venous thrombosis are less common causes of acute cerebrovascular events. Clinical and radiological presentation of arterial and venous strokes (especially in emergency head CT) may pose a diagnostic problem because of great resemblance. However, the distinction between arterial and venous stroke is important from a clinical point of view, as it carries implications for the treatment and determinates patient’s prognosis. Case Report In this article, we present cases of two young women (one with an acute venous infarction, the second with an arterial stroke) who presented with similar both clinical and radiological signs of acute vascular incident in the cerebral cortex. We present main similarities and differences between arterial and venous strokes regarding the etiology, clinical symptoms and radiological appearance in various imaging techniques. Conclusions We emphasize that thorough analysis of CT (including cerebral vessels), knowledge of symptoms and additional clinical information (e.g. risk factors) may facilitate correct diagnosis and allow planning further diagnostic imaging studies. We also emphasize the importance of MRI, especially among young people, in the differential diagnosis of venous and arterial infarcts. PMID:24505227

  3. The evolution of clinical trials for infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, R S; Gottardo, N G; Kees, U R; Cole, C H

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants has a significantly inferior outcome in comparison with older children. Despite initial improvements in survival of infants with ALL since establishment of the first pediatric cooperative group ALL trials, the poor outcome has plateaued in recent years. Historically, infants were treated on risk-adapted childhood ALL protocols. These studies were pivotal in identifying the need for infant-specific protocols, delineating prognostic categories and the requirement for a more unified approach between study groups to overcome limitations in accrual because of low incidence. This subsequently led to the development of collaborative infant-specific studies. Landmark outcomes have included the elimination of cranial radiotherapy following the discovery of intrathecal and high-dose systemic therapy as a superior and effective treatment strategy for central nervous system disease prophylaxis, with improved neurodevelopmental outcome. Universal prospective identification of independent adverse prognostic factors, including presence of a mixed lineage leukemia rearrangement and young age, has established the basis for risk stratification within current trials. The infant-specific trials have defined limits to which conventional chemotherapeutic agents can be intensified to optimize the balance between treatment efficacy and toxicity. Despite variations in therapeutic intensity, there has been no recent improvement in survival due to the equilibrium between relapse and toxicity. Ultimately, to improve the outcome for infants with ALL, key areas still to be addressed include identification and adaptation of novel prognostic markers and innovative therapies, establishing the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission, treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory disease and monitoring and timely intervention of late effects in survivors. This would be best achieved through a single unified

  4. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  5. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, H. C. Meyers, P. M.; Yavagal, D. R.; Harel, N. Y.; Elkind, M. S. V.; Mohr, J. P.; Pile-Spellman, J.

    2003-06-15

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents.

  6. Designing phase 3 sepsis trials: application of learned experiences from critical care trials in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Laterre, Pierre François; Russell, James A; Bergmann, Andreas; Gattinoni, Luciano; Gayat, Etienne; Harhay, Michael O; Hartmann, Oliver; Hein, Frauke; Kjolbye, Anne Louise; Legrand, Matthieu; Lewis, Roger J; Marshall, John C; Marx, Gernot; Radermacher, Peter; Schroedter, Mathias; Scigalla, Paul; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Struck, Joachim; Van den Berghe, Greet; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Angus, Derek C

    2016-01-01

    Substantial attention and resources have been directed to improving outcomes of patients with critical illnesses, in particular sepsis, but all recent clinical trials testing various interventions or strategies have failed to detect a robust benefit on mortality. Acute heart failure is also a critical illness, and although the underlying etiologies differ, acute heart failure and sepsis are critical care illnesses that have a high mortality in which clinical trials have been difficult to conduct and have not yielded effective treatments. Both conditions represent a syndrome that is often difficult to define with a wide variation in patient characteristics, presentation, and standard management across institutions. Referring to past experiences and lessons learned in acute heart failure may be informative and help frame research in the area of sepsis. Academic heart failure investigators and industry have worked closely with regulators for many years to transition acute heart failure trials away from relying on dyspnea assessments and all-cause mortality as the primary measures of efficacy, and recent trials have been designed to assess novel clinical composite endpoints assessing organ dysfunction and mortality while still assessing all-cause mortality as a separate measure of safety. Applying the lessons learned in acute heart failure trials to severe sepsis and septic shock trials might be useful to advance the field. Novel endpoints beyond all-cause mortality should be considered for future sepsis trials. PMID:27034779

  7. Primary and Comprehensive Stroke Centers: History, Value and Certification Criteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the United States (US) stroke care has undergone a remarkable transformation in the past decades at several levels. At the clinical level, randomized trials have paved the way for many new stroke preventives, and recently, several new mechanical clot retrieval devices for acute stroke treatment have been cleared for use in practice by the US Federal Drug Administration. Furthermore, in the mid 1990s we witnessed regulatory approval of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for administration in acute ischemic stroke. In the domain of organization of medical care and delivery of health services, stroke has transitioned from a disease dominated by neurologic consultation services only to one managed by vascular neurologists in geographical stroke units, stroke teams and care pathways, primary stroke center certification according to The Joint Commission, and most recently comprehensive stroke center designation under the aegis of The Joint Commission. Many organizations in the US have been involved to enhance stroke care. To name a few, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, Brain Attack Coalition, and National Stroke Association have been on the forefront of this movement. Additionally, governmental initiatives by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and legislative initiatives such as the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry program have paved the way to focus on stroke prevention, acute treatment and quality improvement. In this invited review, we discuss a brief history of organized stroke care in the United States, evidence to support the value of primary and comprehensive stroke centers, and the certification criteria and process to become a primary or comprehensive stroke center. PMID:24324943

  8. Do Motor Imagery Performances Depend on the Side of the Lesion at the Acute Stage of Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Kemlin, Claire; Moulton, Eric; Samson, Yves; Rosso, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery has been considered a substitute for overt motor execution to study post-stroke motor recovery. However, motor imagery abilities at the acute stage (<3 weeks) are poorly known. The aim of this study was to compare explicit and implicit motor imagery abilities in stroke patients and healthy subjects, correlate them with motor function, and investigate the role of right or left hemisphere lesions on performance. Twenty-four stroke patients at the acute stage and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers performed implicit (Hand Laterality Judgment Task) and explicit (number of imagined/executed hand movements) motor imagery tasks and a clinical motor assessment. Differences between healthy subjects and patients as well as the impact of lesion side on motor imagery were studied using ANOVA. We analyzed the relationship between motor executed and imagined movements (temporal congruence) using Pearson correlations. Our study shows that for implicit imagery, stroke patients had slower reaction times [RTs, t(46) = 1.7, p = 0.02] and higher error rates for the affected hand [t(46) = 3.7, p < 0.01] yet shared similar characteristics [angle effect: F(1,46) = 30.8, p ≤ 0.0001] with respect to healthy subjects. For the unaffected hand, right-sided stroke patients had a higher error rate and similar RTs whereas left sided stroke had higher RTs but similar error rate than healthy subjects. For explicit imagery, patients exhibited bilateral deficits compared to healthy subjects in the executed and imagined condition (p < 0.0001). Patients and healthy subjects exhibited a temporal congruence between executed and imagined movements (p ≤ 0.04) except for right-sided strokes who had no correlation for both hands. When using motor imagery as a tool for upper limb rehabilitation early after stroke, caution must be taken related to the side of the lesion. PMID:27445761

  9. Mean transit time on Aquilion ONE and its utilization in patients undergoing acute stroke intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dababneh, Haitham; Bashir, Asif; Guerrero, Waldo R; Wilson, Kelvin; Hussain, Mohammed; Misthal, Sara; Morgan, Walter; Peters, Keith; Kirmani, Jawad F; Mocco, J

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging techniques have been beneficial in identifying patients with salvageable penumbra. We sought to validate the mean transit time (MTT) map on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging utilizing an Aquilion ONE computed tomography (CT) scanner running a singular value decomposition plus algorithm in patients with acute large vessel ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular therapy. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients presenting to the emergency room who met the following criteria: 1) had a large vessel acute ischemic stroke; 2) had a high-quality whole-brain CTP; 3) treated with endovascular therapy; and 4) received a follow-up MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) within 48 h. A blinded neurologist, neuroradiologist, and neurosurgeon utilized the Vitrea software to process the images independently using an infarct perimeter method. Results Twelve patients met the inclusion criteria. A comparison was made between the volumes of infarct core (IC) utilizing MTT and DWI after accounting for other co-founding factors (i.e., recanalization rate, time between CT and MRI, time to achieve recanalization, and IV t-PA administration). MTT was redefined as capillary MTT (cMTT) which represented evolving capillary flow influenced by hypoxia induced vasodilation/vasoconstriction. We divided the patients into two groups based on the degree of reperfusion: A) patients with a TICI score of IIb or III and B) patients with a TICI score of I or IIa. We compared the two groups and found that the rate of reperfusion significantly affected the volume of the infarct on MTT when compared with a follow-up MRI (p value < 0.04). Furthermore, we found a strong positive correlation R2 = 0.6 between the average MTT infarct volume and the final DWI MR volumes. In addition, the averaged MTT IC volumes were 84% of the final averaged DWI IC volumes. Conclusion Although further studies are required to validate this retrospective study

  10. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, A. A.; Abolfazli, R.; Hatemian, A.; Ghragozlee, K.; Ghaffar-Pour, M.; Karimi, M.; Shahbegi, S.; Pakdaman, H.; Tabasi, M.; Tabatabae, A. L.; Nourian, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  11. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Harandi, A A; Abolfazli, R; Hatemian, A; Ghragozlee, K; Ghaffar-Pour, M; Karimi, M; Shahbegi, S; Pakdaman, H; Tabasi, M; Tabatabae, A L; Nourian, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  12. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2016 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  13. Lipoic Acid Use and Functional Outcomes after Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Ja-Hae; Nam, Tai-Seung; Choi, Seong-Min; Lee, Seung-Han; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) is a strong antioxidant commonly used for treating diabetic polyneuropathy. Previously, we demonstrated the neurorestorative effects of aLA after cerebral ischemia in rats. However, its effects on patients with stroke remain unknown. We investigated whether patients treated with aLA have better functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and reperfusion therapy than patients not receiving aLA. Methods In this retrospective study of 172 prospectively registered patients with diabetes and AIS treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), we investigated the relationship between aLA use and functional outcome both after 3 months and after 1 year. The functional outcomes included occurrence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), early neurological deterioration (END), and early clinical improvement (ECI). Favorable outcomes were defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–2. Results Of the 172 patients with AIS and diabetes, 47 (27.3%) used aLA. In the entire cohort, favorable outcomes occurred at significantly higher rates both at 3 months and at 1 year in those treated with aLA. The risks for END and HT were lower and the occurrence of ECI was higher in patients treated with aLA. In multivariable analysis, aLA use was associated with favorable outcomes both at 3 months and at 1 year. Age, HT, and increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were negative predictors of a favorable outcome. Conclusions The use of aLA in patients with AIS and diabetes who are treated with tPA is associated with favorable outcomes. These results indicate that aLA could be a useful intervention for the treatment of AIS after reperfusion therapy. PMID:27677185

  14. `An observational report of intensive robotic and manual gait training in sub-acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of automated electromechanical devices for gait training in neurological patients is increasing, yet the functional outcomes of well-defined training programs using these devices and the characteristics of patients that would most benefit are seldom reported in the literature. In an observational study of functional outcomes, we aimed to provide a benchmark for expected change in gait function in early stroke patients, from an intensive inpatient rehabilitation program including both robotic and manual gait training. Methods We followed 103 sub-acute stroke patients who met the clinical inclusion criteria for Body Weight Supported Robotic Gait Training (BWSRGT). Patients completed an intensive 8-week gait-training program comprising robotic gait training (weeks 0-4) followed by manual gait training (weeks 4-8). A change in clinical function was determined by the following assessments taken at 0, 4 and 8 weeks (baseline, mid-point and end-point respectively): Functional Ambulatory Categories (FAC), 10 m Walking Test (10 MWT), and Tinetti Gait and Balance Scales. Results Over half of the patients made a clinically meaningful improvement on the Tinetti Gait Scale (> 3 points) and Tinetti Balance Scale (> 5 points), while over 80% of the patients increased at least 1 point on the FAC scale (0-5) and improved walking speed by more than 0.2 m/s. Patients responded positively in gait function regardless of variables gender, age, aetiology (hemorrhagic/ischemic), and affected hemisphere. The most robust and significant change was observed for patients in the FAC categories two and three. The therapy was well tolerated and no patients withdrew for factors related to the type or intensity of training. Conclusions Eight-weeks of intensive rehabilitation including robotic and manual gait training was well tolerated by early stroke patients, and was associated with significant gains in function. Patients with mid-level gait dysfunction showed the most robust

  15. Leukocytosis in Patients with Neurologic Deterioration after Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Andre D.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Siegler, James E.; Gillette, Michael; Albright, Karen C.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurologic deterioration (ND) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been shown to result in poor outcomes. ND is thought to arise from penumbral excitotoxic cell death caused in part by leukocytic infiltration. Elevated admission peripheral leukocyte levels are associated with poor outcomes in stroke patients who suffer ND, but little is known about the dynamic changes that occur in leukocyte counts around the time of ND. We sought to determine if peripheral leukocyte levels in the days surrounding ND are correlated with poor outcomes. Methods Patients with AIS who presented to our center within 48 hours of symptom onset between July 2008 and June 2010 were retrospectively identified by chart review and screened for ND (defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥2 within a 24-hour period). Patients were excluded for steroid use during hospitalization or in the month before admission and infection within the 48 hours before or after ND. Demographics, daily leukocyte counts, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3–6) were investigated. Results Ninety-six of the 292 (33%) patients screened had ND. The mean age was 69.5 years; 62.5% were male and 65.6% were black. Patients with a poor functional outcome had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil levels 1 day before ND (P =.048 and P =.026, respectively), and on the day of ND (P =.013 and P =.007, respectively), compared to patients with good functional outcome. Conclusions Leukocytosis at the time of ND correlates with poor functional outcomes and may represent a marker of greater cerebral damage through increased parenchymal inflammation. PMID:23031742

  16. Emergent extracranial internal carotid artery stenting and mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ankit; Stockley, Hannah; Goddard, Tony; Sonwalker, Hemant; Wuppalapati, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tandem occlusions involving both the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and an intracranial artery typically respond poorly to intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). We retrospectively review our experience with proximal ICA stenting and stent-assisted thrombectomy of the distal artery. Methods The data included patients that underwent carotid stenting and mechanical thrombectomy between 2012–2013. Radiographic, clinical, and procedural data were drawn from case notes, imaging records and discharge reports. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin scale (mRs). Results Seven patients, with a mean age of 66.4 years and a mean admission NIHSS of 18.3, underwent this procedure and were included. Each presented with an occlusion of the proximal ICA, with additional occlusions of the ICA terminus (n = 3), middle cerebral artery (n = 5), or anterior cerebral artery (n = 1). Recanalisation of all identified occlusions was achieved in all patients, with a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score of 3 and a Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score >2b achieved in each case. Mean time from onset of stroke symptoms to recanalisation was 287 min; mean time from first angiography to recanalisation was 52 min. Intracranial haemorrhages occurred in two patients, with no increase in NIHSS. There were no mortalities. Mean NIHSS at discharge was 4.9, and mRs at 90 days was one in all patients. Conclusions Treatment of tandem extracranial ICA and intracranial occlusions in the setting of acute ischaemic stroke with extracranial carotid artery stenting followed by adjunctive intracranial mechanical thrombectomy is both safe and effective, but further evaluation of this treatment modality is necessary. PMID:25943850

  17. The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

  18. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541-18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  19. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541–18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  20. Changing contraindications for t-PA in acute stroke: review of 20 years since NINDS.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sarah; Ali, Yasmin

    2015-10-01

    When intravenous (IV) tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) was originally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in 1996, there was a lengthy list of contraindications. In the 19 years since the approval of t-PA for AIS, it has been used off label and in patients with those contraindications. In February 2015, the list of contraindications for IV t-PA in AIS was revised and several of the previous contraindications were removed. As only 4 % of patients with ischemic stroke receive treatment with IV t-PA, these changes increase the number of patients eligible for treatment. Anytime there is a significant change in the indications and treatment paradigm with a medication, there can be some resistance to the adaptation of the change into physician's treating habits. We seek to review what the changes to t-PA contraindications are, how they came about, as well as the literature on the previously off-label and currently off-label use of IV t-PA for patients with AIS. PMID:26277361

  1. Oxidative Stress Markers and Their Dynamic Changes in Patients after Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kollár, Branislav; Chomová, Mária; Pazderová, Petra; Andrezálová, Lucia; Ježovičová, Miriam; Koňariková, Katarína; Laubertová, Lucia; Krivošíková, Zuzana; Slezáková, Laura; Turčáni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have focused on determining the range of oxidative stress biomarkers and their dynamic changes in patients at different time points after the acute ischemic stroke (AIS). 82 patients with AIS were involved in our study and were tested: within 24 h from the onset of the attack (group A); at 7-day follow-up (group B); and at 3-month follow-up (group C). 81 gender and age matched volunteers were used as controls. Stroke patients in group A had significantly higher concentrations of plasma lipid peroxides and urine 8-isoprostanes when compared with controls. Protein carbonyls were not significantly different in any experimental group compared to controls. Antioxidant capacity of plasma was increased only in experimental group C. Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were elevated in all three experimental AIS groups compared to controls. Paraoxonase activity was reduced in groups A and B and unchanged in group C when compared to controls. Glutathione peroxide activity was elevated only in group A. Our results suggest that free radical damage is the highest within 24 h after the attack. During the next 3 months oxidative damage to lipids caused by free radicals is reduced due to activated antioxidant system. PMID:27774120

  2. Reappraisal of early CT signs to predict the arterial occlusion site in acute embolic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Koga, M; Saku, Y; Toyoda, K; Takaba, H; Ibayashi, S; Iida, M

    2003-01-01

    Patients: 105 consecutive patients with acute embolic stroke affecting the anterior circulation. Methods: Four early signs were evaluated on cranial CT within six hours of stroke onset: loss of the insular ribbon (LIR); attenuation of the lentiform nucleus (ALN); hemispherical sulcus effacement (HSE); and the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS). The arterial occlusion site was definitively identified on cerebral angiography within two hours of the CT examination. Results: LIR was present in 55% of patients with internal carotid artery occlusion. ALN was present in 65% of patients with occlusion of the sphenoidal portion (M1) of the middle cerebral artery. HSE was present in 47% of patients with middle cerebral artery branch occlusion. LIR was related independently to internal carotid artery occlusion (odds ratio (OR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 6.8)), ALN to M1 occlusion (OR 2.9 (1.2 to 7.4)), and isolated HSE without ALN or LIR to branch occlusion (OR 12.8 (3.2 to 51.5)). The combined presence of the three signs was indicative of internal carotid artery occlusion (p < 0.05), and the presence of ALN and LIR without HSE was indicative of M1 occlusion (p < 0.05) by univariate analysis. HMCAS bore no relation to either arterial occlusion site. Conclusions: LIR, ALS, HSE, and combinations of these were useful predictors of the arterial occlusion site. PMID:12700311

  3. Mechanical thrombectomy with ‘ADAPT’ technique by transcervical access in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Remollo, Sebastian; García, Maria Rosa; Hidalgo, Cristina; Hernández-Perez, Maria; Ciorba, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for endovascular clot retrieval has dramatically improved successful revascularization and clinical outcome in selected acute stroke patients. MT is typically performed via a transfemoral approach, but catheterization of the occluded vessel can be problematic in cases of extensive vessel tortuosity. We describe a case of MT with the ‘ADAPT’ technique by direct carotid access due to an inability to catheterize the ICA by a transfemoral approach for acute cerebral ischemia in the setting of left MCA occlusion. Excellent angiographic and good clinical results were obtained without any complications. Case report An 80-year-old woman was admitted with a stroke by occlusion of the left MCA, with an NIHSS: 11, and an ASPECT: 7 in the CT. Under sedation a transfemoral angiography was performed, but after multiple attempts, it was impossible to make a stable catheterization of the left CCA. A transcervical approach was pursued. With ultrasound guidance the CCA was catheterized. Using the ‘ADAPT’ technique, we performed a successful MT. Post-procedure angiography (at 14 minutes) demonstrated recanalization of the entire left MCA (TICI: 3), without complications. The carotid access point was closed with a percutaneous closure. Control TC at 24 h showed a slight hypodensity in the left lenticular nucleus, and loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the adjacent cortex. Neurologically, the patient presented with progressive improvement. At discharge, she had an NIHSS: 0, mRS: 0 and Barthel: 100. Conclusions MT by direct carotid access is an effective alternative technique in those cases where it is not accessible by a transfemoral approach. PMID:26443297

  4. [Outcomes of carotid endarterectomy performed in acute stage of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Shatravka, A V; Sokurenko, G Yu; Suvorov, S A; Rizakhanova, M R; Loginov, I A; Alekseeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed several studies concerning optimal terms of performing carotid endarterectomy after endured acute cerebral circulation disorder (ACCD). However up to now there is no common opinion regarding feasibility and safety of performing carotid endarterectomy in the acute period of ischaemic stroke. The 2013 Russian National Guidelines on surgical management of diseases of extracranial arteries point to feasibility of performing carotid endarterectomy at terms within up to 2 weeks after endured ischaemic stroke (level B evidence). At the same time, there is no data concerning possibility of performing this type of operation in patients with neurological deficit scoring 4 points according to the Rankin scale. Analysing the results of 110 carotid endarterectomies performed in patients with haemodynamically meaningful stenosis of carotid arteries at terms varying from 2 to 14 days after the development of ipsilateral ACCD showed safety of the operation (the rate of postoperative cerebral circulation disorders amounted to 0.9% - 1 patient) and its efficacy in prevention of recurrent ischaemic complications, also determining regression of neurological symptomatology in the overwhelming majority - 86 (78%) patients. Despite the absence of recommendations on possibility to perform carotid endarterectomy in patients after endured ACCD with neurological deficiency scoring 4 points according to the modified Rankin scale we proved efficiency and feasibility of performing this type of operation in the cohort of patients concerned. There was not a single case of transformation of the ischaemic focus into haemorrhagic one. One patient developed fatal ACCD. During the follow up period (12 months) regression of neurological symptomatology was observed in 16 (66.7%) patients of 24 operated patients with baseline deficit of stage 4 according to the Rankin scale.

  5. Simulation training for emergency teams to manage acute ischemic stroke by telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Richard, Sébastien; Mione, Gioia; Varoqui, Claude; Vezain, Arnaud; Brunner, Arielle; Bracard, Serge; Debouverie, Marc; Braun, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Telemedicine contributes to initiating early intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment for patients with acute cerebral infarction in areas without a stroke unit. However, the experience and skills of the emergency teams in the spokes to prepare patients and administer rt-PA treatment are ill-defined. Improving these skills could vastly improve management of acute stroke by telemedicine. We developed a medical simulation training model for emergency teams to perform intravenous rt-PA treatment in a telestroke system.From February 2013 to May 2015, 225 learners from 6 emergency teams included in the telestroke system "Virtuall"-in Lorrain (northeastern France)-received a standardized medical simulation training module to perform rt-PA treatment. All learners were assessed with the same pretraining and posttraining test consisting of 52 items. The percentage of right answers was determined for every learner before and after training.Median percentages of right answers were significantly higher in the posttraining test overall (82 ± 10 vs. 59 ± 13% pretraining; P < 0.001), but also in all professional subgroups: physicians (88 ± 8 vs. 67 ± 12%; P < 0.001), paramedical staff (80 ± 9 vs. 54 ± 12%; P < 0.001), nurses (80 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 12%; P < 0.001), and auxiliary nurses (76 ± 17 vs. 37 ± 15%; P = 0.002).We describe for the first time a training model for emergency teams in a telestroke system. We demonstrate significant gain in knowledge for all groups of healthcare professionals. This simulation model could be applied in any medical simulation center and form the basis of a standardized training program of spokes in a telestroke system. PMID:27311003

  6. The velocity of collateral filling predicts recanalization in acute ischemic stroke after intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaocheng; Yan, Shenqiang; Lai, Yangxiao; Han, Quan; Sun, Jianzhong; Zhang, Minming; Parsons, Mark W; Wang, Shaoshi; Lou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretreatment quality of collaterals, involving velocity and extent of collateral filling, on recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). A retrospective analysis was performed of 66 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion who underwent MR perfusion (MRP) imaging before IVT. The velocity of collateral filling was defined as arrival time delay (ATD) of contrast bolus to Sylvian fissure between the normal and the affected hemisphere. The extent of collateral filling was assessed according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score on temporally fused maximum intensity projections (tMIP). Arterial occlusive lesion (AOL) score was used to assess the degree of arterial recanalization. ATD (OR = 0.775, 95% CI = 0.626-0.960, p = 0.020), but not tMIP-ASPECT score (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 0.820-1.405, p = 0.607), was independently associated with recanalization (AOL score of 2 and 3) at 24 hours after IVT. When recanalization was achieved, hemorrhagic transformation (HT) occurred more frequently in patients with slow collaterals (ATD ≥ 2.3 seconds) than those with rapid collaterals (ATD < 2.3 seconds) (88.9% vs 38.1%, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the velocity of collaterals related to recanalization, which may guide the decision-making of revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27296511

  7. [Outcomes of carotid endarterectomy performed in acute stage of ischaemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Shatravka, A V; Sokurenko, G Yu; Suvorov, S A; Rizakhanova, M R; Loginov, I A; Alekseeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed several studies concerning optimal terms of performing carotid endarterectomy after endured acute cerebral circulation disorder (ACCD). However up to now there is no common opinion regarding feasibility and safety of performing carotid endarterectomy in the acute period of ischaemic stroke. The 2013 Russian National Guidelines on surgical management of diseases of extracranial arteries point to feasibility of performing carotid endarterectomy at terms within up to 2 weeks after endured ischaemic stroke (level B evidence). At the same time, there is no data concerning possibility of performing this type of operation in patients with neurological deficit scoring 4 points according to the Rankin scale. Analysing the results of 110 carotid endarterectomies performed in patients with haemodynamically meaningful stenosis of carotid arteries at terms varying from 2 to 14 days after the development of ipsilateral ACCD showed safety of the operation (the rate of postoperative cerebral circulation disorders amounted to 0.9% - 1 patient) and its efficacy in prevention of recurrent ischaemic complications, also determining regression of neurological symptomatology in the overwhelming majority - 86 (78%) patients. Despite the absence of recommendations on possibility to perform carotid endarterectomy in patients after endured ACCD with neurological deficiency scoring 4 points according to the modified Rankin scale we proved efficiency and feasibility of performing this type of operation in the cohort of patients concerned. There was not a single case of transformation of the ischaemic focus into haemorrhagic one. One patient developed fatal ACCD. During the follow up period (12 months) regression of neurological symptomatology was observed in 16 (66.7%) patients of 24 operated patients with baseline deficit of stage 4 according to the Rankin scale. PMID:27336345

  8. Automated prediction of tissue outcome after acute ischemic stroke in computed tomography perfusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Pieter C.; Bennink, Edwin; de Jong, Hugo; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Viergever, Max A.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the extent of cerebral damage on admission in patients with acute ischemic stroke could play an important role in treatment decision making. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging can be used to determine the extent of damage. However, clinical application is hindered by differences among vendors and used methodology. As a result, threshold based methods and visual assessment of CTP images has not yet shown to be useful in treatment decision making and predicting clinical outcome. Preliminary results in MR studies have shown the benefit of using supervised classifiers for predicting tissue outcome, but this has not been demonstrated for CTP. We present a novel method for the automatic prediction of tissue outcome by combining multi-parametric CTP images into a tissue outcome probability map. A supervised classification scheme was developed to extract absolute and relative perfusion values from processed CTP images that are summarized by a trained classifier into a likelihood of infarction. Training was performed using follow-up CT scans of 20 acute stroke patients with complete recanalization of the vessel that was occluded on admission. Infarcted regions were annotated by expert neuroradiologists. Multiple classifiers were evaluated in a leave-one-patient-out strategy for their discriminating performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Results showed that a RandomForest classifier performed optimally with an area under the ROC of 0.90 for discriminating infarct tissue. The obtained results are an improvement over existing thresholding methods and are in line with results found in literature where MR perfusion was used.

  9. Simulation training for emergency teams to manage acute ischemic stroke by telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sébastien; Mione, Gioia; Varoqui, Claude; Vezain, Arnaud; Brunner, Arielle; Bracard, Serge; Debouverie, Marc; Braun, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Telemedicine contributes to initiating early intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment for patients with acute cerebral infarction in areas without a stroke unit. However, the experience and skills of the emergency teams in the spokes to prepare patients and administer rt-PA treatment are ill-defined. Improving these skills could vastly improve management of acute stroke by telemedicine. We developed a medical simulation training model for emergency teams to perform intravenous rt-PA treatment in a telestroke system. From February 2013 to May 2015, 225 learners from 6 emergency teams included in the telestroke system “Virtuall”—in Lorrain (northeastern France)—received a standardized medical simulation training module to perform rt-PA treatment. All learners were assessed with the same pretraining and posttraining test consisting of 52 items. The percentage of right answers was determined for every learner before and after training. Median percentages of right answers were significantly higher in the posttraining test overall (82 ± 10 vs. 59 ± 13% pretraining; P < 0.001), but also in all professional subgroups: physicians (88 ± 8 vs. 67 ± 12%; P < 0.001), paramedical staff (80 ± 9 vs. 54 ± 12%; P < 0.001), nurses (80 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 12%; P < 0.001), and auxiliary nurses (76 ± 17 vs. 37 ± 15%; P = 0.002). We describe for the first time a training model for emergency teams in a telestroke system. We demonstrate significant gain in knowledge for all groups of healthcare professionals. This simulation model could be applied in any medical simulation center and form the basis of a standardized training program of spokes in a telestroke system. PMID:27311003

  10. The velocity of collateral filling predicts recanalization in acute ischemic stroke after intravenous thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaocheng; Yan, Shenqiang; Lai, Yangxiao; Han, Quan; Sun, Jianzhong; Zhang, Minming; Parsons, Mark W.; Wang, Shaoshi; Lou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretreatment quality of collaterals, involving velocity and extent of collateral filling, on recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). A retrospective analysis was performed of 66 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion who underwent MR perfusion (MRP) imaging before IVT. The velocity of collateral filling was defined as arrival time delay (ATD) of contrast bolus to Sylvian fissure between the normal and the affected hemisphere. The extent of collateral filling was assessed according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score on temporally fused maximum intensity projections (tMIP). Arterial occlusive lesion (AOL) score was used to assess the degree of arterial recanalization. ATD (OR = 0.775, 95% CI = 0.626–0.960, p = 0.020), but not tMIP-ASPECT score (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 0.820–1.405, p = 0.607), was independently associated with recanalization (AOL score of 2 and 3) at 24 hours after IVT. When recanalization was achieved, hemorrhagic transformation (HT) occurred more frequently in patients with slow collaterals (ATD ≥ 2.3 seconds) than those with rapid collaterals (ATD < 2.3 seconds) (88.9% vs 38.1%, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the velocity of collaterals related to recanalization, which may guide the decision-making of revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27296511

  11. The velocity of collateral filling predicts recanalization in acute ischemic stroke after intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaocheng; Yan, Shenqiang; Lai, Yangxiao; Han, Quan; Sun, Jianzhong; Zhang, Minming; Parsons, Mark W; Wang, Shaoshi; Lou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretreatment quality of collaterals, involving velocity and extent of collateral filling, on recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). A retrospective analysis was performed of 66 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion who underwent MR perfusion (MRP) imaging before IVT. The velocity of collateral filling was defined as arrival time delay (ATD) of contrast bolus to Sylvian fissure between the normal and the affected hemisphere. The extent of collateral filling was assessed according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score on temporally fused maximum intensity projections (tMIP). Arterial occlusive lesion (AOL) score was used to assess the degree of arterial recanalization. ATD (OR = 0.775, 95% CI = 0.626-0.960, p = 0.020), but not tMIP-ASPECT score (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 0.820-1.405, p = 0.607), was independently associated with recanalization (AOL score of 2 and 3) at 24 hours after IVT. When recanalization was achieved, hemorrhagic transformation (HT) occurred more frequently in patients with slow collaterals (ATD ≥ 2.3 seconds) than those with rapid collaterals (ATD < 2.3 seconds) (88.9% vs 38.1%, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the velocity of collaterals related to recanalization, which may guide the decision-making of revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke.

  12. Association of global weather changes with acute coronary syndromes: gaining insights from clinical trials data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Westerhout, Cynthia M.; Boersma, Eric; Armstrong, Paul W.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for the identification of global weather parameters and patient characteristics associated with a type of heart attack in which there is a sudden partial blockage of a coronary artery. This type of heart attack does not demonstrate an elevation of the ST segment on an electrocardiogram and is defined as a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Data from the Global Summary of the Day database was linked with the enrollment and baseline data for a phase III international clinical trial in NSTE-ACS in four 48-h time periods covering the week prior to the clinical event that prompted enrollment in the study. Meteorological events were determined by standardizing the weather data from enrollment dates against an empirical distribution from the month prior. These meteorological events were then linked to the patients' geographic region, demographics and comorbidities to identify potential susceptible populations. After standardization, changes in temperature and humidity demonstrated an association with the enrollment event. Additionally there appeared to be an association with gender, region and a history of stroke. This methodology may provide a useful global insight into assessing the biometeorologic component of diseases from international data.

  13. Is use of mechanical ventilation a reasonable proxy indicator for coma among Medicare patients hospitalized for acute stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D; Sloane, R J; Kahn, K L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether use of mechanical ventilation on admission to the hospital is a proxy indicator of coma (i.e., very severe stroke) among acute stroke patients. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from a medical record review on a nationally representative sample of 2,824 Medicare patients, ages 65 years or older, who were hospitalized for stroke in 1982-1983 or 1985-1986 in 297 acute care hospitals in 30 areas within five geographically dispersed states. RESULTS: Use of mechanical ventilation on the first day of hospitalization was significantly associated with level of consciousness on admission: < 2 percent of noncomatose patients versus 17.5 percent of comatose (p < .001). With a high specificity and high likelihood ratio for a positive test, use of mechanical ventilation on the first day of hospitalization ruled-in coma. It was also significantly associated with severity of illness, prognostic indicators (i.e., admission through the emergency room, admission to intensive care, and having a "do-not-resuscitate" order written during the hospital stay), and with in-hospital death. Adjusting for patient demographics, stroke type, comorbidity, and process of care, early initiation of mechanical ventilation remained significantly associated with both coma and in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: A stroke patient's use of mechanical ventilation on the first day of hospitalization is a valid proxy indicator of level of consciousness. PMID:9460489

  14. Clinical factors associated with statins prescription in acute ischemic stroke patients: findings from the Lombardia Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins, due to their well-established pleiotropic effects, have noteworthy benefits in stroke prevention. Despite this, a significant proportion of high-risk patients still do not receive the recommended therapeutic regimens, and many others discontinue treatment after being started on them. The causes of non-adherence to current guidelines are multifactorial, and depend on both physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing statin prescription at Stroke Unit (SU) discharge. Methods This study included 12,750 patients enrolled on the web-based Lombardia Stroke Registry (LRS) from July 2009 to April 2012 and discharged alive, with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and without contra-indication to statin therapy. By logistic regression analysis and classification trees, we evaluated the impact of demographic data, risk factors, tPA treatment, in-hospital procedures and complications on statin prescription rate at discharge. Results We observed a slight increase in statins prescription during the study period (from 39.1 to 43.9%). Lower age, lower stroke severity and prestroke disability, the presence of atherothrombotic/lacunar risk factors, a diagnosis of non-cardioembolic stroke, tPA treatment, the absence of in-hospital complications, with the sole exception of hypertensive fits and hyperglycemia, were the patient-related predictors of adherence to guidelines by physicians. Overall, dyslipidemia appears as the leading factor, while TOAST classification does not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In our region, Lombardia, adherence to guidelines in statin prescription at Stroke Unit discharge is very different from international goals. The presence of dyslipidemia remains the main factor influencing statin prescription, while the presence of well-defined atherosclerotic etiopathogenesis of stroke does not enhance statin prescription. Some uncertainties about the risk

  15. Persistent Leukocytosis—Is this a Persistent Problem for Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Amelia K.; Kumar, Andre D.; Lyerly, Michael J.; Gillette, Michael A.; Siegler, James E.; Albright, Karen C.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background In the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), leukocytosis has been shown to be an indicator of inflammatory response. Although leukocytosis on admission has been shown to correlate with initial stroke severity in AIS patients, no work has been done to assess if there are differences in transient or persistent leukocytosis in patients without infection. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical significance of persistent versus transient leukocytosis during the early phase of AIS. Methods Patients who presented with AIS to our center within 48 hours of symptom onset between July 2008 and June 2010 were retrospectively identified by chart review. Patients were included if they had leukocytosis on admission (defined as white blood cell count >11,000/μL based on laboratory reference range values). A logistic regression model was used to evaluate persistent leukocytosis (leukocytosis 48 hours after admission) as a predictor of several outcome measures, including good functional outcome (discharge modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2). Marginal effects were used to estimate the probability of poor functional outcome. Results Of the 438 patients screened, 49 had leukocytosis on admission and of those 24 (49%) had persistent leukocytosis. NIHSS score correlated significantly with persistence of leukocytosis (r = .306; P =.0044). More people with transient leukocytosis (leukocytosis lasting <48 hours) had a good functional outcome (44% versus 16%; P = .006). After adjusting for baseline NIHSS score, persistent leukocytosis was not a significant independent predictor of good functional outcome, but showed an association (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, .562-10.7; P = .2322). Persistent leukocytosis after adjusting for age and NIHSS score at admission is associated with a poor functional outcome, but it is not statistically significant (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, .59-9.87; P = .2151). After controlling for age and NIHSS score on admission, for patients with persistent

  16. Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Surgery for Stroke Prevention in Hemodynamic Cerebral Ischemia: The Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Powers, William J.; Clarke, William R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Videen, Tom O; Adams, Harold P.; Derdeyn, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    Context Patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion (AICAO) and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia are at high risk for subsequent stroke when treated medically. Objective Test the hypothesis that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, added to best medical therapy, reduces subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with recently symptomatic AICAO and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Design Parallel group, randomized, open-label, blinded-adjudication clinical treatment trial conducted from 2002–2010. Setting 49 clinical centers and 18 positron emission tomography (PET) centers in the United States and Canada. The majority were academic medical centers. Participants Arteriographically-confirmed AICAO causing hemispheric symptoms within 120 days and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia identified by ipsilateral increased oxygen extraction fraction measured by PET. 195 were randomized: 97 to surgery and 98 to no surgery. Follow-up for the primary endpoint until occurrence, 2 years, or end of trial was 99% complete. No participant withdrew because of adverse events. Interventions Anastomosis of superficial temporal artery branch to a middle cerebral artery cortical branch for the surgical group. Anti-thrombotic therapy and risk factor intervention were recommended for all. Main Outcome Measure For all participants who were assigned to surgery and received surgery, the combination of (1) all stroke and death from surgery through 30 days post surgery and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within 2 years of randomization. For the nonsurgical group and participants assigned to surgery who did not receive surgery was the combination of (1) all stroke and death from randomization to randomization plus 30 days and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within two years of randomization. Results The trial was terminated early for futility. Two-year rates for the primary endpoint were 21.0% (95% CI, 12.8% to 29.2%; 20 events) for the surgical group

  17. Quantifying the risk of heart disease following acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of over 50 000 participants

    PubMed Central

    Gunnoo, Trishna; Hasan, Nazeeha; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Slark, Julia; Bentley, Paul; Sharma, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Objective Following an acute stroke, there is a high risk of recurrence. However, the leading cause of mortality following a stroke is due to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) but that risk has not been robustly quantified. We sought to reliably quantify the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) in the absence of a known cardiac history. Setting A meta-analysis study. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for potential studies up to October 2015. Included studies reported an acute cerebral ischaemic event and followed for CAD or MI within 1 year in patients without known IHD. Using arcsine transformed proportions for meta-analysis, studies were combined using a generic inverse variance random-effects model to calculate the pooled standardised mean difference and 95% CIs. These were interpreted as the percentage prevalence of CAD or incidence of MI following AIS. Results 17 studies with 4869 patients with AIS demonstrated a mean average of asymptomatic CAD in 52%. Anatomical methods of CAD detection revealed a prevalence of asymptomatic ≥50% coronary stenosis in 32% (95% CI 19% to 47%; p<0.00001). 8 studies with 47229 patients with ischaemic stroke revealed an overall risk of MI in the year following stroke of 3% (95% CI 1% to 5%; p<0.00001) despite the absence of any cardiac history. Conclusions One-third of patients with ischaemic stroke with no cardiac history have more than 50% coronary stenosis and 3% are at risk of developing MI within a year. Our findings provide a reliable quantitative measure of the risk of IHD following AIS in patients with no cardiac history. PMID:26792217

  18. Utilization of a New Intracranial Support Catheter as an Intermediate Aspiration Catheter in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Technical Report on Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, J. Diego; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary C; de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Brooks, Christopher; Perras, Mary; Rex, David E; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Kühn, Anna Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergency large vessel occlusion (ELVO) has become the standard of care after the recent publication of landmark randomized, controlled trials. Mechanical thrombectomy, in addition to intravenous thrombolysis (within 4.5 hours when eligible), is now part of the algorithm of the standard of care when treating AIS in patients with ELVO in the anterior circulation up to six hours after symptom onset. A newly introduced device, the Arc™ intracranial support catheter (Medtronic, Irvine, USA), is specifically designed for the introduction of neurointerventional devices into the cerebral vasculature and facilitates the delivery of microcatheters into smaller, more distal intracranial vessels. This technical report describes the use of the Arc™ intracranial support catheter in the setting of AIS. PMID:27382525

  19. Accessing Inpatient Rehabilitation after Acute Severe Stroke: Age, Mobility, Prestroke Function and Hospital Unit Are Associated with Discharge to Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Hill, Keith D.; Brock, Kim; Bernhardt, Julie; Churilov, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the variables associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation following acute severe stroke and to determine whether hospital unit contributed to access. Five acute hospitals in Victoria, Australia participated in this study. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had suffered an acute severe…

  20. Stroke rehabilitation research needs to be different to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-01-01

    Stroke continues to be a major cause of adult disability. In contrast to progress in stroke prevention and acute medical management, there have been no major breakthroughs in rehabilitation therapies. Most stroke rehabilitation trials are conducted with patients at the chronic stage of recovery and this limits their translation to clinical practice. Encouragingly, several multi-centre rehabilitation trials, conducted during the first few weeks after stroke, have recently been reported; however, all were negative. There is a renewed focus on improving the quality of stroke rehabilitation research through greater harmonisation and standardisation of terminology, trial design, measures, and reporting. However, there is also a need for more pragmatic trials to test interventions in a way that assists their translation to clinical practice. Novel interventions with a strong mechanistic rationale need to be tested in both explanatory and pragmatic trials if we are to make a meaningful difference to stroke rehabilitation practice and outcomes.

  1. Regression Analysis of Ordinal Stroke Clinical Trial Outcomes: An Application to the NINDS t-PA Trial

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia M; Lazaridis, Christos; Palesch, Yuko; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background The modified Rankin scale (mRS) is the most common functional outcome assessed in stroke trials. The proportional odds model is commonly used to analyze this ordinal outcome but it requires a restrictive assumption that a single odds ratio applies across the entire outcome scale. Aims To model the effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator on ordinal mRS, test model assumptions, and compare fits and predictive ability of the statistical models. Methods Several ordinal regression methods are presented and applied to a re-analysis of the 1995 NINDS tissue-type plasminogen activator study. Violations of the proportional odds assumption are demonstrated using graphs and statistical tests, and the partial proportional odds model is introduced and recommended as an alternative for the analysis of mRS. Results The partial proportional odds model relaxes the assumptions about treatment effect on the ordinal outcome scale and provides a better fit to the data than the commonly used proportional odds model (likelihood ratio test chi square = 8.05, p=0.005). It provides easily interpretable odds ratios and it is able to detect efficacy at the lower end and a lack of efficacy at the upper end of the mRS scale. Further, it provides lower prediction error than the proportional odds model (0.002 versus 0.005). Conclusions Assuming proportional odds when it does not hold can mask differential treatment effects at the upper end of the ordinal mRS scale and has implications for reduced power when studies are designed under this assumption. PMID:23803174

  2. Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial (PODCAST): a study protocol for a factorial randomised controlled trial of intensive versus guideline lowering of blood pressure and lipids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is a common cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. However, effective strategies for reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia remain undefined. Potential strategies include intensive lowering of blood pressure and/or lipids. Methods/Design Design: multi-centre prospective randomised open-label blinded-endpoint controlled partial-factorial phase IV trial in secondary and primary care. Participants: 100 participants from 30 UK Stroke Research Network sites who are post- ischemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage by three to seven months. Interventions - all patients (1:1): intensive versus guideline blood pressure lowering (target systolic < 125 mmHg versus < 140 mmHg). Interventions - ischemic stroke (1:1): intensive versus guideline lipid lowering (target low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 1.4 mmol/l versus < 3 mmol/l). Hypotheses: does ‘intensive’ blood pressure lowering therapy and/or ‘intensive’ lipid control reduce cognitive decline and dementia in people with ischemic stroke; and does ‘intensive’ blood pressure lowering therapy reduce cognitive decline and dementia in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. Primary outcome: Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised. Secondary outcomes: feasibility of recruitment and retention of participants, tolerability and safety of the interventions, achieving and maintaining the blood pressure and lipid targets, maintaining differences in systolic blood pressure (> 10 mmHg) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (> 1 mmol/l) between the treatment groups, and performing clinic and telephone follow-up of cognition measures. Randomisation: using stratification, minimization and simple randomization. Blinding: participants receive open-label management. Cognition is assessed both unblinded (in clinic) and blinded (by telephone) to treatment. Adjudication of events (dementia, vascular, serious adverse events) is blinded to management. Discussion The PODCAST

  3. Role of Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Acute Stroke Management using Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Resource-limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Chinonye K; Ogbole, Godwin I; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Ogun, Olufunmilola; Adeyinka, Abiodun; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2015-01-01

    A variety of imaging modalities exist for the diagnosis of stroke. Several studies have been carried out to ascertain their contribution to the management of acute stroke and to compare the benefits and limitations of each modality. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been described as the optimal imaging technique for diagnosing acute ischemic stroke, yet limited evidence is available on the value of DWI in the management of ischemic stroke with low-field magnetic resonance (MR) systems. Although high-field MR imaging (MRI) is desirable for DWI, low-field scanners provide an acceptable clinical compromise which is of importance to developing countries posed with the challenge of limited availability of high-field units. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the usefulness of DWI in acute stroke management with low-field MRI scanners and present the experience in Nigeria. PMID:26709342

  4. Severe envenomation by Cerastes cerastes viper: an unusual mechanism of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rebahi, Houssam; Nejmi, Hicham; Abouelhassan, Taoufik; Hasni, Khadija; Samkaoui, Mohamed-Abdenasser

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral complications after snake bites--particularly ischemic complications--are rare. Very few cases of cerebral infarction resulting from a viper bite have been reported, and we call attention to this uncommon etiology. We discuss 3 authenticated reports of acute ischemic cerebrovascular accidents after 3 typical severe envenomations by Cerastes cerastes vipers. The 3 patients developed extensive local swelling and life-threatening systemic envenomation characterized by disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, increased fibrinolysis, thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute renal failure. This clinical picture involved atypical neurologic manifestations. These patients had either low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) or hemiparesis within hours to 4 days after being bitten, and they were found to have computed tomographic evidence of single or multiple ischemic (nonhemorrhagic) strokes of small- to large-vessel territories of the brain. One patient had good clinical recovery without neurologic deficits. Thrombotic complications occurred an average of 36 hours after being bitten, and their importance depends on the degree of envenomation. The possible mechanisms for cerebral infarction in these cases include generalized prothrombotic action of the venom (consumptive coagulopathy), toxin-induced vasculitis, and endothelial damage.

  5. Acute exacerbation of COPD: is it the “stroke of the lungs”?

    PubMed Central

    Hillas, Georgios; Perlikos, Fotis; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the top five major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite worldwide health care efforts, costs, and medical research, COPD figures demonstrate a continuously increasing tendency in mortality. This is contrary to other top causes of death, such as neoplasm, accidents, and cardiovascular disease. A major factor affecting COPD-related mortality is the acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. Despite the underestimation by the physicians and the patients themselves, AECOPD is a really devastating event during the course of the disease, similar to acute myocardial infarction in patients suffering from coronary heart disease. In this review, we focus on the evidence that supports the claim that AECOPD is the “stroke of the lungs”. AECOPD can be viewed as: a Semicolon or disease’s full-stop period, Triggering a catastrophic cascade, usually a Relapsing and Overwhelming event, acting as a Killer, needing Emergent treatment. PMID:27471380

  6. Design of a symmetry controller for cycling induced by electrical stimulation: preliminary results on post-acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Schauer, Thomas; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    This study deals with the design of a controller for cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation. The controller will be exploitable in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic patients who need to recover motor symmetry. It uses the pulse width as the control variable in the stimulation of the two legs in order to nullify the unbalance between the torques produced at the two crank arms. It was validated by means of isokinetic trials performed both by healthy subjects and stroke patients. The results showed that the controller was able to reach, and then maintain, a symmetrical pedaling. In the future, the controller will be validated on a larger number of stroke patients.

  7. Design of a symmetry controller for cycling induced by electrical stimulation: preliminary results on post-acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Emilia; Ferrante, Simona; Schauer, Thomas; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    This study deals with the design of a controller for cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation. The controller will be exploitable in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic patients who need to recover motor symmetry. It uses the pulse width as the control variable in the stimulation of the two legs in order to nullify the unbalance between the torques produced at the two crank arms. It was validated by means of isokinetic trials performed both by healthy subjects and stroke patients. The results showed that the controller was able to reach, and then maintain, a symmetrical pedaling. In the future, the controller will be validated on a larger number of stroke patients. PMID:20528850

  8. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor and Physiotherapy after Stroke: Results of a Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial: Stem Cell Trial of Recovery EnhanceMent after Stroke-3 (STEMS-3 ISRCTN16714730)

    PubMed Central

    Sprigg, Nikola; O’Connor, Rebecca; Woodhouse, Lisa; Krishnan, Kailash; England, Timothy J.; Connell, Louise A.; Walker, Marion F.; Bath, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilises endogenous haematopoietic stem cells and enhances recovery in experimental stroke. Recovery may also be dependent on an enriched environment and physical activity. G-CSF may have the potential to enhance recovery when used in combination with physiotherapy, in patients with disability late after stroke. Methods A pilot 2 x 2 factorial randomised (1:1) placebo-controlled trial of G-CSF (double-blind), and/or a 6 week course of physiotherapy, in 60 participants with disability (mRS >1), at least 3 months after stroke. Primary outcome was feasibility, acceptability and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included death, dependency, motor function and quality of life measured 90 and 365 days after enrolment. Results Recruitment to the trial was feasible and acceptable; of 118 screened patients, 92 were eligible and 32 declined to participate. 60 patients were recruited between November 2011 and July 2013. All participants received some allocated treatment. Although 29 out of 30 participants received all 5 G-CSF/placebo injections, only 7 of 30 participants received all 18 therapy sessions. G-CSF was well tolerated but associated with a tendency to more adverse events than placebo (16 vs 10 patients, p = 0.12) and serious adverse events (SAE) (9 vs 3, p = 0.10). On average, patients received 14 (out of 18 planned) therapy sessions, interquartile range [12, 17]. Only a minority (23%) of participants completed all physiotherapy sessions, a large proportion of sessions (114 of 540, 21%) were cancelled due to patient (94, 17%) and therapist factors (20, 4%). No significant differences in functional outcomes were detected in either the G-CSF or physiotherapy group at day 90 or 365. Conclusions Delivery of G-CSF is feasible in chronic stroke. However, the study failed to demonstrate feasibility for delivering additional physiotherapy sessions late after stroke therefore a definitive study using this trial design

  9. Perfusion computer tomography: imaging and clinical validation in acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bivard, Andrew; Spratt, Neil; Levi, Christopher; Parsons, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Computed tomography perfusion imaging in acute stroke requires further validation. We aimed to establish the optimal computed tomography perfusion parameters defining the infarct core and critically hypoperfused tissue. Sub-6-h computed tomography perfusion and 24-h magnetic resonance imaging were analysed from 314 consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke. Diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume at 24 h was used to define the extent of critically hypoperfused tissue (in patients without reperfusion between acute and 24-h time points), and infarct core (in patients with major reperfusion at 24 h). Pixel-based analysis of co-registered computed tomography perfusion and diffusion-weighted imaging was then used to define the optimum computed tomography perfusion thresholds for critically hypoperfused at-risk tissue and infarct core. These optimized acute computed tomography perfusion threshold-based lesion volumes were then compared with 24-h diffusion-weighted imaging infarct volume, as well as 24-h and 90-day clinical outcomes for validation. Relative delay time >2 s was the most accurate computed tomography perfusion threshold in predicting the extent of critically hypoperfused tissue with both receiver operating curve analysis (area under curve 0.86), and the volumetric validation (mean difference between computed tomography perfusion and 24-h diffusion-weighted imaging lesions = 2 cm(2), 95% confidence interval 0.5-3.2 cm(2)). Cerebral blood flow <40% (of contralateral) within the relative delay time >2 s perfusion lesion was the most accurate computed tomography perfusion threshold at defining infarct core with both receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under curve = 0.85) and the volumetric validation. Using these thresholds, the extent of computed tomography perfusion mismatch tissue (the volume of 'at-risk' tissue between the critically hypoperfused and core thresholds) salvaged from infarction correlated with clinical improvement at 24 h (R(2

  10. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings. PMID:26683233

  11. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings.

  12. From QASC to QASCIP: successful Australian translational scale-up and spread of a proven intervention in acute stroke using a prospective pre-test/post-test study design

    PubMed Central

    Lydtin, Anna; Comerford, Daniel; Cadilhac, Dominique A; McElduff, Patrick; Dale, Simeon; Hill, Kelvin; Longworth, Mark; Ward, Jeanette; Cheung, N Wah; D'Este, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To embed an evidence-based intervention to manage FEver, hyperglycaemia (Sugar) and Swallowing (the FeSS protocols) in stroke, previously demonstrated in the Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) trial to decrease 90-day death and dependency, into all stroke services in New South Wales (NSW), Australia's most populous state. Design Pre-test/post-test prospective study. Setting 36 NSW stroke services. Methods Our clinical translational initiative, the QASC Implementation Project (QASCIP), targeted stroke services to embed 3 nurse-led clinical protocols (the FeSS protocols) into routine practice. Clinical champions attended a 1-day multidisciplinary training workshop and received standardised educational resources and ongoing support. Using the National Stroke Foundation audit collection tool and processes, patient data from retrospective medical record self-reported audits for 40 consecutive patients with stroke per site pre-QASCIP (1 July 2012 to 31 December 2012) were compared with prospective self-reported data from 40 consecutive patients with stroke per site post-QASCIP (1 November 2013 to 28 February 2014). Inter-rater reliability was substantial for 10 of 12 variables. Primary outcome measures Proportion of patients receiving care according to the FeSS protocols pre-QASCIP to post-QASCIP. Results All 36 (100%) NSW stroke services participated, nominating 100 site champions who attended our educational workshops. The time from start of intervention to completion of post-QASCIP data collection was 8 months. All (n=36, 100%) sites provided medical record audit data for 2144 patients (n=1062 pre-QASCIP; n=1082 post-QASCIP). Pre-QASCIP to post-QASCIP, proportions of patients receiving the 3 targeted clinical behaviours increased significantly: management of fever (pre: 69%; post: 78%; p=0.003), hyperglycaemia (pre: 23%; post: 34%; p=0.0085) and swallowing (pre: 42%; post: 51%; p=0.033). Conclusions We obtained unprecedented statewide scale-up and spread

  13. The shoulder-hand syndrome after stroke: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braus, D F; Krauss, J K; Strobel, J

    1994-11-01

    Shoulder-hand syndrome developed in 36 (27%) of 132 hemiplegic patients in a prospective study. Subluxation, paresis of the shoulder girdle, moderate spasticity, and deficits in confrontation visual field testing were the major risk factors. In a placebo-controlled, nonblinded trial, 31 of the 36 patients became almost symptom free within 10 days' treatment with low doses of oral corticosteroids. Shoulder joint capsules taken at autopsy of 7 patients showed signs of previous trauma of the affected shoulder. In the second part of this study on another 86 patients, early awareness of potential injuries to shoulder joint structures reduced the frequency of shoulder-hand syndrome from 27 to 8%. These clinical findings suggest that shoulder-hand syndrome in hemiplegia is initiated by peripheral lesions. A self-perpetuating vicious cycle may be established, followed by the clinical picture of a "reflex sympathetic dystrophy." In the majority of stroke patients, this clinical phenomenon seems to be preventable by avoiding shoulder trauma.

  14. Resolving Thrombus in the Left Atrial Appendage by Edoxaban Treatment after Acute Ischemic Stroke: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shin; Shindo, Seigo; Tsudaka, Shun; Uchida, Kazutaka; Shirakawa, Manabu; Yoshimura, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    Here we report first 2 cases of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with acute cardioembolic stroke in whom thrombi in the left atrial appendage (LAA) were resolved by edoxaban administration. Case 1 reports an 86-year-old woman who suddenly showed right hemiparesis and aphasia due to occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. She received mechanical thrombectomy and recovered neurologically. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) performed on day 1 demonstrated thrombus in the LAA. The thrombus was resolved on day 13 after initiation of edoxaban (30 mg once daily) instead of warfarin, which was administered before stroke onset. Case 2 reports a 49-year-old man who was admitted because of the sudden onset of left hemiparesis and aphasia. TEE demonstrated thrombus in the LAA on day 4, and edoxaban therapy (60 mg once daily) was initiated. The thrombus resolution was observed on day 16, and no embolic stroke occurred. PMID:27562709

  15. Acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in a patient taking dabigatran with radiographic evidence of recanalization.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Navdeep; El Khoury, Ramy; Misra, Vivek; Lopez, George

    2012-11-01

    Dabigatran etexelate is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to prevent stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A 51-year-old man with a history of atrial fibrillation who was taking dabigatran presented with an acute ischemic stroke. The patient had a normal international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and an elevated thrombin time of 26.4 seconds. Recanalization of the middle cerebral artery with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was apparent on digital subtraction angiography, and there was no evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage on the repeat computed tomographic scan. This is the first report of a patient who was taking dabigatran etexilate and who had an ischemic stroke caused by a middle cerebral artery occlusion, with an elevated thrombin time and radiographic recanalization with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator without evidence of hemorrhagic transformation. PMID:22683118

  16. Growth factors and stem cells as treatments for stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Kevin; Finklestein, Seth P

    2003-02-01

    Both polypeptide growth factors and stem cell populations from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hold promise as treatments to enhance neurologic recovery after stroke. Growth factors may exert their effects through stimulation of neural sprouting and enhancement of endogenous progenitor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in brain. Exogenous stem cells may exert their effects by acting as miniature "factories" for trophic substances in the poststroke brain. The combination of growth factors and stem cells may be more effective than either treatment alone. Stroke recovery represents a new and relatively untested target for stroke therapeutics. Whereas acute stroke treatments focus on agents that dissolve blot clots (thrombolytics) and antagonize cell death (neuroprotective agents), stroke recovery treatments are likely to enhance structural and functional reorganization (plasticity) of the damaged brain. Successful clinical trials of stroke recovery-promoting agents are likely to be quite different from trials testing acute stroke therapies. In particular, the time window of effective treatment to enhance stroke recovery is likely to be far longer than that for acute stroke treatments, perhaps days or weeks rather than minutes or hours after stroke. This longer time window means that time is available for careful screening and testing of potential subjects for stroke recovery trials, both in terms of size and location of cerebral infarcts and in type and severity of neurologic deficits. Detailed baseline information can be obtained for each patient against which eventual clinical outcome can be compared. Finally, separate and detailed outcome measures can be obtained in both the sensorimotor and cognitive neurologic spheres, because it is possible that these two kinds of function may recover differently or be differentially responsive to recovery-promoting treatments. Stroke recovery represents an important and underexplored opportunity for the

  17. Trial participants’ experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explore trial participants’ experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Design: Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Setting: Eight English NHS usual care settings. Method: Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Results: Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. Conclusions: As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect. PMID:22837542

  18. Inflammatory and metabolic markers and short-time outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke in relation to TOAST subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcio Francisco; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Delongui, Franciele; de Sousa Parreira, Johnathan; de Araújo, Maria Caroline Martins; Rossato, Carolina; de Almeida, Jéssica Tavares; Pelegrino, Larissa Moliterno; Bragato, Erick Frank; Lehmann, Ana Lucia Cruz Fürstenberger; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andrea Name Colado; Kaimen-Maciel, Damácio Ramon; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between inflammatory and metabolic markers and short-time outcome with acute ischemic stroke subtypes. A total of 121 patients was classified according to TOAST criteria, such as large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), lacunar infarct (LAC), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), other determined etiology (ODE), and undetermined etiology (UDE). The functional impairment was evaluated within the first eight hours of stroke and the outcome after three-month follow-up using the modified Rankin Scale. Blood samples were obtained up to 24 h of stroke. Compared with 96 controls, patients with LAAS, CEI, and LAC subtypes showed higher levels of white blood cells, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), glucose, and iron (p < 0.05); and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.0001); platelets, insulin, insulin resistance, and homocysteine were higher in LAC (p < 0.0001); ferritin was higher in LAAS (p < 0.0001); and total cholesterol (TC) was lower in LAAS and CEI (p < 0.01). When stroke subtypes were compared, insulin was higher in LAAS vs. LAC and in LAC vs. CEI (p < 0.05); and TC was lower in LAAS vs. LAC (p < 0.05). Outcome and rate of mortality after three-month were higher in LAAS vs. LAC (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0391 respectively). The results underscored the important role of the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke subtypes that might be considered on the initial evaluation of stroke patients to identify those that could benefit with individualized therapeutic strategies that taken into account these markers after acute ischemic event. PMID:26359121

  19. Procedural Predictors of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Ansaar T. Jhadhav, Yahodeep; Domico, Jennifer; Hobbs, Gerald R.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To identify factors impacting outcome in patients undergoing interventions for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing endovascular therapy for AIS secondary during a 30 month period. Outcome was based on modified Rankin score at 3- to 6-month follow-up. Recanalization was defined as Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score 2 to 3. Collaterals were graded based on pial circulation from the anterior cerebral artery either from an ipsilateral injection in cases of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion or contralateral injection for internal carotid artery terminus (ICA) occlusion as follows: no collaterals (grade 0), some collaterals with retrograde opacification of the distal MCA territory (grade 1), and good collaterals with filling of the proximal MCA (M2) branches or retrograde opacification up to the occlusion site (grade 2). Occlusion site was divided into group 1 (ICA), group 2 (MCA with or without contiguous M2 involvement), and group 3 (isolated M2 or M3 branch occlusion). Results: A total of 89 patients were studied. Median age and National Institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) score was 71 and 15 years, respectively. Favorable outcome was seen in 49.4% of patients and mortality in 25.8% of patients. Younger age (P = 0.006), lower baseline NIHSS score (P = 0.001), successful recanalization (P < 0.0001), collateral support (P = 0.0008), distal occlusion (P = 0.001), and shorter procedure duration (P = 0.01) were associated with a favorable outcome. Factors affecting successful recanalization included younger age (P = 0.01), lower baseline NIHSS score (P = 0.05), collateral support (P = 0.01), and shorter procedure duration (P = 0.03). An ICA terminus occlusion (P < 0.0001), lack of collaterals (P = 0.0003), and unsuccessful recanalization (P = 0.005) were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusion: Angiographic findings and preprocedure variables can help

  20. Association between neuroserpin and molecular markers of brain damage in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroserpin has shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia and has been associated with functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Our aim was to study whether neuroserpin serum levels could be associated to biomarkers of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption. Methods We prospectively included 129 patients with ischemic stroke (58.1% male; mean age, 72.4 ± 9.6 years) not treated with tPA within 12 hours (h) of symptoms onset (mean time, 4.7 ± 2.1 h). Poor functional outcome at 3 months was considered as a modified Rankin scale score >2. Serum levels of neuroserpin, Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), active Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and cellular fibronectin (cFn) (determined by ELISA) and glutamate (determined by HPLC) were measured on admission, 24 and 72 h. The main variable was considered the decrease of neuroserpin levels within the first 24 h. ROC analysis was used to select the best predictive value for neuroserpin to predict poor functional outcome due to a lack of linearity. Results The decrease of neuroserpin levels within the first 24 h was negatively correlated with serum levels at 24 hours of glutamate (r = -0.642), IL-6 (r = -0.678), ICAM-1 (r = -0.345), MMP-9 (r = -0.554) and cFn (r = -0.703) (all P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, serum levels of glutamate (OR, 1.04; CI95%, 1.01-1.06, p = 0.001); IL-6 (OR, 1.4; CI95%, 1.1-1.7, p = 0.001); and cFn (OR, 1.3; CI95%, 1.1-1.6, p = 0.002) were independently associated with a decrease of neuroserpin levels <70 ng/mL at 24 h after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that neuroprotective properties of neuroserpin may be related to the inhibition of excitotoxicity, inflammation, as well as blood brain barrier disruption that occur after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:21569344

  1. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Affects Cognition and Upper-Extremity Function in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timothy J; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; McEwen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) compared with usual occupational therapy on upper-extremity movement, cognitive flexibility, and stroke impact in people less than 3 mo after stroke. An exploratory, single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with people referred to outpatient occupational therapy services at two rehabilitation centers. Arm movement was measured with the Action Research Arm Test, cognitive flexibility with the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making subtest, and stroke impact with subscales of the Stroke Impact Scale. A total of 35 participants were randomized, and 26 completed the intervention. CO-OP demonstrated measurable effects over usual care on all measures. These data provide early support for the use of CO-OP to improve performance and remediate cognitive and arm movement impairments after stroke over usual care; however, future study is warranted to confirm the effects observed in this trial.

  2. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping; Tong, Kai-yu

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p < 0.05) and De Ryck's test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely

  3. Towards a basic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in acute stroke – identification of salient findings by the inexperienced examiner

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Tobias; Teismann, Inga; Oelenberg, Stephan; Hamacher, Christina; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Schäbitz, Wolf R; Dziewas, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Background Dysphagia is common after stroke. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is a powerful tool for dysphagia assessment. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a previously established endoscopic examination protocol based on the identification of typical findings indicative of stroke – related dysphagia may be learned and adopted by clinicians so far inexperienced in this field. Methods After receiving a structured lecture on this topic, participants were asked to rate video sequences of endoscopic swallowing examinations of acute stroke patients. The first part of the testing ("single findings-rating") comprised of 16 single sequences, the second part ("complete examination-rating") presented the key sequences of 8 complete examinations. Before the second part was started, results of the first were discussed. Results At the "single findings-rating" 88.8% of video-sequences were assessed correctly, while at the "complete examination-rating" the average performance had improved to 96%. Furthermore, no overlooking of relevant pathologies was noted in the second part of the testing. Conclusion This study suggests that the presented endoscopic examination protocol is reliably interpreted by inexperienced clinicians after a short lecture and may therefore easily and successfully be adopted in dysphagia management of acute stroke care. PMID:19284543

  4. Optical bedside monitoring of cerebral perfusion: technological and methodological advances applied in a study on acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkellner, Oliver; Gruber, Clemens; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Jelzow, Alexander; Steinbrink, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; MacDonald, Rainer; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2010-11-01

    We present results of a clinical study on bedside perfusion monitoring of the human brain by optical bolus tracking. We measure the kinetics of the contrast agent indocyanine green using time-domain near-IR spectroscopy (tdNIRS) in 10 patients suffering from acute unilateral ischemic stroke. In all patients, a delay of the bolus over the affected when compared to the unaffected hemisphere is found (mean: 1.5 s, range: 0.2 s to 5.2 s). A portable time-domain near-IR reflectometer is optimized and approved for clinical studies. Data analysis based on statistical moments of time-of-flight distributions of diffusely reflected photons enables high sensitivity to intracerebral changes in bolus kinetics. Since the second centralized moment, variance, is preferentially sensitive to deep absorption changes, it provides a suitable representation of the cerebral signals relevant for perfusion monitoring in stroke. We show that variance-based bolus tracking is also less susceptible to motion artifacts, which often occur in severely affected patients. We present data that clearly manifest the applicability of the tdNIRS approach to assess cerebral perfusion in acute stroke patients at the bedside. This may be of high relevance to its introduction as a monitoring tool on stroke units.

  5. Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri; Murphy, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Each year, more than 795,000 people in the United States suffer a stroke and by 2030, it is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population will have had a stroke. Home healthcare clinicians will be increasingly called upon to assist stroke survivors and their caregivers adjust to disability and assist the survivor during their reintegration into the community. Therapeutic modalities are changing with advanced technology. Great strides are being made in the treatment of acute stroke; particularly endovascular interventions. More patients are surviving the acute stroke event and therefore will need to learn how to live with various degrees of disability. It is important for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute event to medical stabilization, and from rehabilitation to long-term adaptation.

  6. Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri; Murphy, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Each year, more than 795,000 people in the United States suffer a stroke and by 2030, it is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population will have had a stroke. Home healthcare clinicians will be increasingly called upon to assist stroke survivors and their caregivers adjust to disability and assist the survivor during their reintegration into the community. Therapeutic modalities are changing with advanced technology. Great strides are being made in the treatment of acute stroke; particularly endovascular interventions. More patients are surviving the acute stroke event and therefore will need to learn how to live with various degrees of disability. It is important for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute event to medical stabilization, and from rehabilitation to long-term adaptation. PMID:27145407

  7. Deficit in automatic sound-change detection may underlie some music perception deficits after acute hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Kohlmetz, C; Altenmüller, E; Schuppert, M; Wieringa, B M; Münte, T F

    2001-01-01

    Music perception deficits following acute neurological damage are thought to be rare. By a newly devised test battery of music-perception skills, however, we were able to identify among a group of 12 patients with acute hemispheric stroke six patients with music perception deficits (amusia) while six others had no such deficits. In addition we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a passive listening task with frequent standard and infrequent pitch deviants designed to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN in the patients with amusia was grossly reduced, while the non-amusic patients and control subjects had MMNs of equal size. These data show that amusia is quite common in unselected stroke patients. The MMN reduction suggests that amusia is related to unspecific automatic stimulus classification deficits in these patients.

  8. Association of Indoor Smoke-Free Air Laws with Hospital Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Three States

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether comprehensive smoke-free air laws enacted in Florida, New York, and Oregon are associated with reductions in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. Methods. Analyzed trends in county-level, age-adjusted, hospital admission rates for AMI and stroke from 1990 to 2006 (quarterly) for Florida, 1995 to 2006 (monthly) for New York, and 1998 to 2006 (monthly) for Oregon to identify any association between admission rates and passage of comprehensive smoke-free air laws. Interrupted time series analysis was used to adjust for the effects of preexisting moderate local-level laws, seasonal variation in hospital admissions, differences across counties, and a secular time trend. Results. More than 3 years after passage of statewide comprehensive smoke-free air laws, rates of hospitalization for AMI were reduced by 18.4% (95% CI: 8.8–28.0%) in Florida and 15.5% (95% CI: 11.0–20.1%) in New York. Rates of hospitalization for stroke were reduced by 18.1% (95% CI: 9.3–30.0%) in Florida. The few local comprehensive laws in Oregon were not associated with reductions in AMI or stroke statewide. Conclusion. Comprehensive smoke-free air laws are an effective policy tool for reducing the burden of AMI and stroke. PMID:22778759

  9. Racial Differences by Ischemic Stroke