Science.gov

Sample records for acute systemic administration

  1. Both acute and prolonged administration of EPO reduce cerebral and systemic vascular conductance in humans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Peter; Kim, Yu-Sok; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Niels V; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2012-03-01

    Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) has been linked to cerebrovascular events. EPO reduces vascular conductance, possibly because of the increase in hematocrit. Whether EPO in itself affects the vasculature remains unknown; here it was evaluated in healthy males by determining systemic and cerebrovascular variables following acute (30,000 IU/d for 3 d; n=8) and chronic (5000 IU/week for 13 wk; n=8) administration of EPO, while the responsiveness of the vasculature was challenged during cycling exercise, with and without hypoxia. Prolonged administration of EPO increased hematocrit from 42.5 ± 3.7 to 47.6 ± 4.1% (P<0.01), whereas hematocrit was unaffected following acute EPO administration. Yet, the two EPO regimes increased arterial pressure similarly (by 8±4 and 7±3 mmHg, respectively; P=0.01) through reduced vascular conductance (by 7±3 and 5±2%; P<0.05). Also, both EPO regimes widened the arterial-to-jugular O(2) differences at rest as well as during normoxic and hypoxic exercise (P<0.01), which indicated reduced cerebral blood flow despite preserved dynamic cerebral autoregulation, and an increase in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity (P<0.05), therefore, reflected vasoconstriction. Thus, administration of EPO to healthy humans lowers systemic and cerebral conductance independent of its effect on hematocrit.

  2. Effects of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute periodontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Kasai, Shunsuke; Ihara, Yuichiro; Imamura, Kentaro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Saito, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect(s) of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microbial profiles of acute periodontal lesions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates was also investigated. Patients with acute phases of chronic periodontitis were subjected to clinical examination and microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples by culture technique. Sitafloxacin was then administered (100 mg/day for 5 days) systemically. The clinical and microbiological examinations were repeated 6-8 days after administration. Susceptibilities of clinical isolates to various antimicrobials were determined using the broth and agar dilution methods. From the sampled sites in 30 participants, a total of 355 clinical isolates (34 different bacterial species) were isolated and identified. Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus mitis were the most prevalent cultivable bacteria in acute sites. Systemic administration of sitafloxacin yielded a significant improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters. Among the antimicrobials tested, sitafloxacin was the most potent against the clinical isolates with an MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml at baseline. After administration, most clinical isolates were still highly susceptible to sitafloxacin although some increase in MICs was observed. The results suggest that systemic administration of sitafloxacin is effective against subgingival bacteria isolated from acute periodontal lesions.

  3. An evaluation process for an electronic bar code medication administration information system in an acute care unit.

    PubMed

    Bargren, Michelle; Lu, Der-Fa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to present an evaluation process and recommendations for addressing the gaps found with the implementation of a new bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology in a busy acute care hospital unit. The case study analyzes workflow procedures associated with administration of medications in an inpatient labor and delivery care unit before and one year after implementation of BCMA technology. The comparison reveals a twofold increase in workflow procedures for nursing staff because of the new technology. System gaps are identified from a nursing user's perspective, and recommendations are offered to close those gaps.

  4. Intra-Peritoneal Administration of Mitochondrial DNA Provokes Acute Lung Injury and Systemic Inflammation via Toll-Like Receptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lemeng; Deng, Songyun; Zhao, Shuangping; Ai, Yuhang; Zhang, Lina; Pan, Pinhua; Su, Xiaoli; Tan, Hongyi; Wu, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sepsis is complex. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which is responsible for energy metabolism, intrinsic apoptotic pathway, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammatory responses, is closely related with severe sepsis induced death. Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) contain un-methylated cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) motifs, which exhibit immune stimulatory capacities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of mtDNA release on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI) and systemic inflammation. Following LPS injection, plasma mtDNA copies peak at 8 h. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, mtDNA in toll like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were significantly decreased. MtDNA intra-peritoneal administration causes apparent ALI as demonstrated by increased lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total protein and wet/dry (W/D) ratio; mtDNA injection also directly provokes systemic inflammation, as demonstrated by increased IL-1β, IL-6, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) level; while nuclear DNA (nDNA) could not induce apparent ALI and systemic inflammation. However, compared with WT mice, TLR4 KO could not protect from mtDNA induced ALI and systemic inflammation. Specific TLR9 inhibitor, ODN 2088 pretreatment can significantly attenuate mtDNA induced ALI and systemic inflammation, as demonstrated by improved lung injury score, decreased lung wet/dry ratio, BALF total protein concentration, and decreased systemic level of IL-1β, IL-6 and HMGB1. MtDNA administration activates the expression of p-P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in lung tissue and specific TLR9 inhibitor pretreatment can attenuate this activation. Thus, LPS-induced mtDNA release occurs in a TLR4-dependent manner, and mtDNA causes acute lung injury and systemic inflammation in a TLR9-dependent and TLR4-independent manner. PMID:27589725

  5. TRAIL administration down-modulated the acute systemic inflammatory response induced in a mouse model by muramyldipeptide or lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Secchiero, Paola; Crovella, Sergio; Zauli, Giorgio

    2012-10-01

    The potent inducer of apoptosis TRAIL/Apo2 ligand is now under considerations in clinical trials for the treatment of different types of cancer. Since the natural history of cancer is often characterized by microbial infections, we have investigated the effect of recombinant human TRAIL in a mouse model of systemic acute inflammation of microbial origin represented by BALB/c mice treated with either bacterial muramyldipeptide (MDP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). When administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), these inflammatory bacterial compounds triggered a severe systemic inflammatory response within 2h, represented by body temperature elevation, increase of circulating serum amyloid-A (SAA) and of the number of leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, both MDP and LPS induced a significant elevation of the circulating levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Noteworthy, pre-treatment with recombinant human TRAIL 48 and 72 h before administration of either MDP or LPS, significantly counteracted all acute inflammatory responses, including the elevation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as IL-1α, IL-6, G-CSF, MCP-1. These data demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL has a potent anti-inflammatory activity, which might be beneficial for the anti-tumoral activity of TRAIL.

  6. Acute and subacute IL-1β administrations differentially modulate neuroimmune and neurotrophic systems: possible implications for neuroprotection and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and brain injuries, activated microglia can release proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β. These cytokines may change astrocyte and neurotrophin functions, which influences neuronal survival and induces apoptosis. However, the interaction between neuroinflammation and neurotrophin functions in different brain conditions is unknown. The present study hypothesized that acute and subacute elevated IL-1β differentially modulates glial and neurotrophin functions, which are related to their role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Method Rats were i.c.v. injected with saline or IL-1β for 1 or 8 days and tested in a radial maze. mRNA and protein expressions of glial cell markers, neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in the hippocampus. Results When compared to controls, memory deficits were found 4 days after IL-1 administrations, however the deficits were attenuated by IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA). Subacute IL-1 administrations increased expressions of APP, microglial active marker CD11b, and p75 neurotrophin receptor, and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β, but decreased expressions of astrocyte active marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrK B. By contrast, up-regulations of NGF, BDNF and TrK B expressions were found after acute IL-1 administration, which are associated with the increase in both glial marker expressions and IL-10 concentrations. However, TrK A was down-regulated by acute and up-regulated by subacute IL-1 administrations. Subacute IL-1-induced changes in the glial activities, cytokine concentrations and expressions of BDNF and p75 were reversed by IL-1RA treatment. Conclusion These results indicate that acute and subacute IL-1 administrations induce different changes toward neuroprotection

  7. Acute effect of potassium canrenoate administration on renin-angiotensin, kallikrein-kinin and prostaglandin systems.

    PubMed

    Lahera, V; Cachofeiro, V; Duran, F; Cañizo, F J; Rodriguez, F J; Tresguerres, J A

    1988-01-01

    1. To investigate the possible effects of potassium canrenoate (PC) on plasma renin activity (PRA) and on renal prostaglandins (PGS) and kinins under elevated sodium and/or potassium intakes, a single dose of PC was administered to four groups of Wistar male rats. 2. They were fed a normal diet (C), a diet supplemented with 4% of NaCl, (Na), with 1% of KCl: (K) or both supplements (NaK). 3. PRA and urinary PGS excretion did not show changes after PC administration, but total urinary kinins showed higher values after the treatment in all groups. 4. A diuretic but not natriuretic effect was observed only in C animals. 5. In conclusion, the single dose of PC was able to stimulate urinary kinins and to spare potassium independently of dietary electrolyte supplements that were able to block the diuretic effect of the drug.

  8. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  9. Antidepressant-like activity of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, following systemic acute and chronic administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Partyka, Anna; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    The study was designed to examine the potency of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, to exert antidepressant-like properties in animal models following acute and chronic intraperitoneal administration to rats. The modified rat forced swim test (FST) was utilized to examine a potential antidepressant effect of EMD 386088 after acute treatment (30 min before the test) and three times in a 24-h administration scheme (24 h, 5 h, and 30 min prior to the FST). The olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model was used to assess its antidepressant-like properties after chronic treatment (the drug was administered once daily for 14 days). EMD 386088 showed an antidepressant-like effect in all conducted tests. Its activity in FST after its acute administration (5 mg/kg) was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046. The obtained results seem to be specific, as there was no observed locomotor stimulation by the drug given at a lower/antidepressant dose. In the three times in the 24-h treatment scheme, EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) exerted antidepressant properties in FST as well as increased locomotor activity in the open field test. Chronic administration of EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) significantly improved the learning deficit in OB rats without affecting performance in Sham-operated (SH) animals in the passive avoidance test, and reduced OB-related rats' locomotor hyperactivity, but did not change the number of rearing + peeping episodes. The obtained findings suggest that EMD 386088 produces antidepressant-like activity after systemic acute and chronic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors.

  10. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility profile and prevalence of quinolone low-sensitive strains in subgingival plaque from acute periodontal lesions after systemic administration of sitafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Kasai, Shunsuke; Imamura, Kentaro; Ihara, Yuichiro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Sekino, Jin; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Saito, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities of subgingival bacteria in acute periodontal lesions following systemic administration of a new-generation fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin and to monitor the occurrence and fate of quinolone low-sensitive strains. Patients with acute phase of chronic periodontitis were subjected to microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples at baseline (A1). Sitafloxacin was then administered systemically (100 mg/day for 5 days). The microbiological examinations were repeated one week after administration (A2). Susceptibilities of clinical isolates from acute sites to various antimicrobials were determined using broth and agar dilution methods. At A2, subgingival bacteria with low sensitivity to levofloxacin were identified in four patients, and they were subjected to a follow-up microbiological examination at on the average 12 months after sitafloxacin administration (A3). The patients received initial and supportive periodontal therapy during the period A2 to A3. From the examined subgingival sites, 8 and 19 clinical isolates were obtained at A2 and A3, respectively. Some Streptococcus strains isolated at A2 were found to be resistant to levofloxacin (MIC 16-64 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC 2->128 μg/ml) or clarithromycin (MIC 1->32 μg/ml). At A3, isolated streptococci were highly susceptible to levofloxacin (MIC 0.5-2 μg/ml), while those resistant to azithromycin or clarithromycin were still isolated. It is suggested that the presence of the quinolone low-sensitive strains in initially acute lesions after sitafloxacin administration was transient, and they do not persist in the subgingival milieu during the periodontal therapy.

  11. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption.

  12. Long-term effects of an acute and systemic administration of LPS on adult neurogenesis and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Valero, Jorge; Mastrella, Giorgia; Neiva, Ismael; Sánchez, Silvia; Malva, João O

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive reserve is the capacity of the brain to maintain normal performance while exposed to insults or ageing. Increasing evidences point to a role for the interaction between inflammatory conditions and cognitive reserve status during Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The production of new neurons along adult life can be considered as one of the components of the cognitive reserve. Interestingly, adult neurogenesis is decreased in mouse models of AD and following inflammatory processes. The aim of this work is to reveal the long-term impact of a systemic inflammatory event on memory and adult neurogenesis in wild type (WT) and triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). Four month-old mice were intraperitoneally injected once with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their performance on spatial memory analyzed with the Morris water maze (MWM) test 7 weeks later. Our data showed that a single intraperitoneal injection with LPS has a long-term impact in the production of hippocampal neurons. Consistently, LPS-treated WT mice showed less doublecortin-positive neurons, less synaptic contacts in newborn neurons, and decreased dendritic volume and complexity. These surprising observations were accompanied with memory deficits. 3xTg-AD mice showed a decrease in new neurons in the dentate gyrus compatible with, although exacerbated, the pattern observed in WT LPS-treated mice. In 3xTg-AD mice, LPS injection did not significantly affected the production of new neurons but reduced their number of synaptic puncta and impaired memory performance, when compared to the observations made in saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. These data indicate that LPS treatment induces a long-term impairment on hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Our results show that acute neuroinflammatory events influence the production of new hippocampal neurons, affecting the cognitive reserve and leading to the development of memory deficits associated to AD pathology.

  13. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

    2015-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus.

  14. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Acutely Decreases Monoaminergic Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Stout, Kristen A.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Allen, Scott C.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that non-contingent methamphetamine (METH) administration rapidly decreases both dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine-2 transporter (VMAT-2) function. Because of the importance of transporter function to the abuse and neurotoxic liabilities of METH, and previous research indicating that the effects of non-contingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure, the present study examined the acute impact of METH self-administration on these transporters. Results revealed that five days of METH self-administration (4 h/session; 0.06 mg/infusion) decreased DAT and VMAT-2 activity, as assessed in synaptosomes and vesicles, respectively, prepared from striatal tissue 1 h after the final self-administration session. METH self-administration increased core body temperatures as well. Brain METH and amphetamine (AMPH) levels, assessed 1 h after the final self-administration session, were approximately twice greater in high-pressing rats compared to low-pressing rats despite similar changes in DAT function. In conclusion, the present manuscript is the first to describe transporter function and METH/AMPH levels after self-administration in rodents. These data provide a foundation to investigate complex questions including how the response of dopaminergic systems to METH self-administration contributes to contingent-related processes such as dependence. PMID:22120988

  15. Methamphetamine self-administration acutely decreases monoaminergic transporter function.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Stout, Kristen A; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Allen, Scott C; Nielsen, Shannon M; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2012-03-01

    Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that noncontingent methamphetamine (METH) administration rapidly decreases both dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine-2 transporter (VMAT-2) function. Because of the importance of transporter function to the abuse and neurotoxic liabilities of METH, and previous research indicating that the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure, the present study examined the acute impact of METH self-administration on these transporters. Results revealed that five days of METH self-administration (4 h/session; 0.06 mg/infusion) decreased DAT and VMAT-2 activity, as assessed in synaptosomes and vesicles, respectively, prepared from striatal tissue 1 h after the final self-administration session. METH self-administration increased core body temperatures as well. Brain METH and amphetamine (AMPH) levels, assessed 1 h after the final self-administration session, were approximately twice greater in high-pressing rats compared to low-pressing rats despite similar changes in DAT function. In conclusion, the present manuscript is the first to describe transporter function and METH/AMPH levels after self-administration in rodents. These data provide a foundation to investigate complex questions including how the response of dopaminergic systems to METH self-administration contributes to contingent-related processes such as dependence.

  16. Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus type 1: prevention of acute herpetic encephalitis by systemic administration of virus-specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Davis, W B; Taylor, J A; Oakes, J E

    1979-10-01

    The effects of virus-specific antibody on the pathogenesis of infection due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) following corneal inoculation of young adult mice were studied. HSV-1 was inoculated onto the corneal surface immediately after trephination with a capillary pipette. After inoculation, virus spread to the trigeminal ganglion and brain within two days and caused acute herpetic encephalitis, which killed infected animals eight to 10 days after infection. Rabbit hyperimmune antisera to HSV-1 were prepared, diluted to contain antibody at a titer of 1:150, and administered intraperitoneally to mice 8 hr after corneal infection. Administration of antisera did not interfere with the spread of HSV-1 from the site of infection to the trigeminal ganglion and brain but did reduce the multiplication of virus within the central nervous system. Reduction in viral replication resulted in complete recovery of the animals that were given antibody to HSV-1. however, the animals were not protected if they were irradiated with 390 rad 24 hr prior to administration of antibody. This observation suggested that antibody-mediated protection was not the result of in vivo neutralization of virus but instead required the presence of antibody as well as one or more radiation-sensitive components.

  17. Antiallodynic Activity of Ceftriaxone and Clavulanic Acid in Acute Administration is Associated with Serum TNF-α Modulation and Activation of Dopaminergic and Opioidergic Systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Aguilar, A; Sotomayor-Sobrino, M A; Jaimez, R; Rodríguez, R; Plancarte-Sánchez, R; Ventura-Martinez, R

    2017-03-26

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to determine the antiallodynic effect of acute administration of the β-lactam antimicrobials, ceftriaxone (CFX) and clavulanic acid (CLAV), for the control of established pain on a model of neuropathic pain (NP). We also investigated the involvement of dopaminergic and opioidergic pathways as well as alterations in serum concentrations of TNF-α in the antiallodynic actions of these drugs. CFX, CLAV, or gabapentin (GAP), a reference drug, were administered i.p. twelve days after constriction of the sciatic nerve in rats. Mechanic and cold allodynia were evaluated for 3 h and alterations in serum concentration of TNF-α determined. Both CFX and CLAV had antiallodynic effects in response to mechanical and cold stimulation, similar to GAP. The antiallodynic effects of CFX and CLAV were blocked by haloperidol (HAL), a D2 receptor antagonist, and by naloxone (NLX), an opioid receptor antagonist. Additionally, serum TNF-α levels were attenuated following CFX and CLAV administration. These results suggest that acute administration of CFX and CLAV may represent a promising approach for treating the acute allodynia of NP, and that the mechanisms involved in these effects involve activation of dopaminergic and opioidergic pathways as well as modulation of TNF-α production. Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Markus; Noss, Roger S; Hämmig, Robert; Wielepp, Peter; Bundeli, Petra; Heidbreder, Rebeca; Kinser, Jane A; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Kayser, Sarah; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.v. heroin and 45 s after administration of saline (placebo). Plasma concentration of diacetylmorphine and its metabolites were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus. Our results are in line with recent reports indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids.

  19. Impact of administrative technology on acute care bed need.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J B; Dahlstrom, G A; Johnston, C M

    1985-01-01

    This article reports an evaluation of the impact of three administrative technologies--Admission Scheduling (AS) Systems, Outpatient Surgery (OPS) Programs, and Preadmission Testing (PAT) Programs--on the number of acute care beds required by a hospital. The evaluation mechanism reported here is called the ADTECH Computerized Planning Model. ADTECH uses parameters of each technology, identified from previous literature and discussions with health care professionals, to predict the changes in bed requirements resulting from implementation of these programs. Data from eight hospitals of various characteristics and sizes were run to test the ADTECH model. The results from these test runs indicate that the proper implementation of AS, OPS, and PAT can significantly influence a hospital's required bed complement. PMID:3988530

  20. Network Systems Administration Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lexington Community Coll., KY. Office of Institutional Research.

    In spring 1996, Lexington Community College (LCC) in Kentucky, conducted a survey to gather information on employment trends and educational needs in the field of network systems administration (NSA). NSA duties involve the installation and administration of network operating systems, applications software, and networking infrastructure;…

  1. Altered prefrontal connectivity after acute heroin administration during cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Borgwardt, Stefan; Gerber, Hana; Schmid, Otto; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Smieskova, Renata; Lang, Undine E; Rubia, Katya; Walter, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies have reported reduced activity in a broad network of brain regions during response inhibition in heroin-dependent patients. However, how heroin in an acute dose modulates the neural correlates of response inhibition and the underlying brain connectivity has not yet been investigated. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether acute heroin administration changed whole brain activity during response inhibition in 26 heroin-dependent patients. We then applied dynamic causal modelling to investigate the effect of an acute dose of heroin on the functional interactions between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFG). Heroin acutely reduced dACC activity, as well as the inhibition-induced modulation of connectivity from the dACC to the right IFG compared with placebo. Furthermore, dACC activity was positively related to false alarm rates after placebo but not heroin administration. These results suggest that acute heroin administration impairs cognitive control in dependent patients by reducing the activity in the dACC activity and the functional connectivity from the dACC to the right IFG.

  2. Chronic and acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine ('Ecstasy') administration on the dynorphinergic system in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, M; D'addario, C; Candeletti, S; Romualdi, P

    2006-01-01

    The prodynorphin system is implicated in the neurochemical mechanism of psychostimulants. Exposure to different drugs of abuse can induce neuroadaptations in the brain and affect opioid gene expression. The present study aims to examine the possibility of a common neurobiological substrate in drug addiction processes. We studied the effects of single and repeated 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine ('Ecstasy') on the gene expression of the opioid precursor prodynorphin, and on the levels of peptide dynorphin A in the rat brain. Acute (8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine markedly raised, two hours later, prodynorphin mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, and in the caudate putamen, whereas it decreased gene expression in the ventral tegmental area. Chronic (8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice a day for 7 days) 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine increased prodynorphin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and caudate putamen and decreased it in the ventral tegmental area. Dynorphin A levels increased after chronic treatment in the ventral tegmental area and decreased after acute treatment in the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus. These findings confirm the role of the dynorphinergic system in mediating the effects of drugs of abuse, such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, in various regions of the rat brain, which may be important sites for the opioidergic mechanisms activated by addictive drugs.

  3. Different angiogenesis effect of mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS by systemic administration of modified siRNAs in rats with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Zeng, Zhi; Liu, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Rui; Qiang, Ou; Li, Xian

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to clarify the different angiogenesis effects of mini-tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS)/minitryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) in rodent primates with acute myocardial infarction, by delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) systemically in a liposomal formulation. Left coronary artery ligation was used to establish the model of acute myocardial infarction in rats; mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS-specific siRNAs were encapsulated in stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALP), and administered by intravenous injection to rats. Rats were divided into four experiment groups: sham operated group (no left anterior descending artery [LAD] occlusion); negative control group (LAD occlusion + saline injection); mock transfection group (LAD occlusion + mock transfected injection); experiment group (LAD occlusion + mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS-specific siRNAs injection). Silencing efficiency was assayed by Western blotting. To determine whether mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS affected the angiogenesis activity of rats with myocardial infarction, we measured the myocardial infarction size by TTC staining, and the capillary density using immunohistochemistry staining, to investigate the expression of factor VIII. The myocardial infarction size and the capillary density of mini-TyrRS-siRNA group were respectively 18.89% and 8.64/0.1 mm(2) 1 month after ligation, while in the mini-TrpRS-siRNA group these values were 7.33% and 17.32/0.1 mm(2), significantly different compared with the mock transfection group (14.19%; 13.56/0.1 mm(2)) and negative control group (14.28%; 13.89/0.1 mm(2)), P < 0.05. There were no significant changes between the mock transfection group and the negative control group, P > 0.05. These results indicated that angiogenesis is either stimulated by mini-TyrRS or inhibited by mini-TrpRS in rat models with acute myocardial infarction.

  4. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  5. Acute caffeine administration affects zebrafish response to a robotic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Mwaffo, Violet; Li, Jasmine; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Zebrafish has been recently proposed as a valid animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms regulating emotional behavior and evaluate the modulatory effects exerted by psychoactive compounds. In this study, we propose a novel methodological framework based on robotics and information theory to investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish exposed to acute caffeine treatment. In a binary preference test, we studied the response of caffeine-treated zebrafish to a replica of a shoal of conspecifics moving in the tank. A purely data-driven information theoretic approach was used to infer the influence of the replica on zebrafish behavior as a function of caffeine concentration. Our results demonstrate that acute caffeine administration modulates both the average speed and the interaction with the replica. Specifically, zebrafish exposed to elevated doses of caffeine show reduced locomotion and increased sensitivity to the motion of the replica. The methodology developed in this study may complement traditional experimental paradigms developed in the field of behavioral pharmacology.

  6. Stroke Code Improves Intravenous Thrombolysis Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Huang, Kuang-Yu; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Timely intravenous (IV) thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is associated with better clinical outcomes. Acute stroke care implemented with “Stroke Code” (SC) may increase IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of SC on thrombolysis. Methods The study period was divided into the “pre-SC era” (January 2006 to July 2010) and “SC era” (August 2010 to July 2013). Demographics, critical times (stroke symptom onset, presentation to the emergency department, neuroimaging, thrombolysis), stroke severity, and clinical outcomes were recorded and compared between the two eras. Results During the study period, 5957 patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted; of these, 1301 (21.8%) arrived at the emergency department within 3 h of stroke onset and 307 (5.2%) received IV-tPA. The number and frequency of IV-tPA treatments for patients with an onset-to-door time of <3 h increased from the pre-SC era (n = 91, 13.9%) to the SC era (n = 216, 33.3%) (P<0.001). SC also improved the efficiency of IV-tPA administration; the median door-to-needle time decreased (88 to 51 min, P<0.001) and the percentage of door-to-needle times ≤60 min increased (14.3% to 71.3%, P<0.001). The SC era group tended to have more patients with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) at discharge (49.5 vs. 39.6%, P = 0.11), with no difference in symptomatic hemorrhage events or in-hospital mortality. Conclusion The SC protocol increases the percentage of acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV-tPA and decreases door-to-needle time. PMID:25111200

  7. Nurses' medication administration practices at two Singaporean acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Choo, Janet; Johnston, Linda; Manias, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    This study examined registered nurses' overall compliance with accepted medication administration procedures, and explored the distractions they faced during medication administration at two acute care hospitals in Singapore. A total of 140 registered nurses, 70 from each hospital, participated in the study. At both hospitals, nurses were distracted by personnel, such as physicians, radiographers, patients not under their care, and telephone calls, during medication rounds. Deviations from accepted medication procedures were observed. At one hospital, the use of a vest during medication administration alone was not effective in avoiding distractions during medication administration. Environmental factors and distractions can impact on the safe administration of medications, because they not only impair nurses' level of concentration, but also add to their work pressure. Attention should be placed on eliminating distractions through the use of appropriate strategies. Strategies that could be considered include the conduct of education sessions with health professionals and patients about the importance of not interrupting nurses while they are administering medications, and changes in work design.

  8. Bonneville, Power Administration Timing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Time is an integral part of the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) operational systems. Generation and power transfers are planned in advance. Utilities coordinate with each other by making these adjustments on a timed schedule. Price varies with demand, so billing is based on time. Outages for maintenance are scheduled to assure they do not interrupt reliable power delivery. Disturbance records are aligned with recorded timetags for analysis and comparison with related information. Advanced applications like traveling wave fault location and real-time phase measurement require continuous timing with high precision. Most of BPA is served by a Central Time System (CTS) at the Dittmer Control Center near Portland, OR. This system keeps time locally and supplies time to both the control center systems and field locations via a microwave signal. It is kept synchronized to national standard time and coordinated with interconnected utilities. It is the official BPA time. Powwer system control and operation is described, followed by a description of BPA timing systems including CTS, the Fault Location Acquisition Reporter, time dissemination, and phasor measurements. References are provided for further reading.

  9. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  10. Effects of acute and chronic administration of venlafaxine and desipramine on extracellular monoamine levels in the mouse prefrontal cortex and striatum.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosuke; Ago, Yukio; Umehara, Masato; Kita, Yuki; Fujita, Kazumi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-04-15

    Prefrontal catecholamine neurotransmission plays a key role in the therapeutic actions of drugs for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have recently shown that serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine attenuated horizontal hyperactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model of ADHD, and that these drugs are potential pharmacotherapeutics for ADHD. In this study, we used in vivo microdialysis to study the effects of acute and chronic (once daily for 3 weeks) administration of the serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine on noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin levels, and the expression of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in the mouse prefrontal cortex and striatum. Both acute and chronic venlafaxine administration increased prefrontal noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin levels and striatal noradrenaline and serotonin levels. Both acute and chronic desipramine administration increased prefrontal noradrenaline and dopamine levels and striatal noradrenaline levels, with chronic administration yielding stronger increase. Chronic desipramine did not affect striatal dopamine and serotonin levels. Both acute and chronic venlafaxine administration increased the expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex, whereas chronic, but not acute, desipramine administration increased the expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex. Both acute and chronic venlafaxine administration increased the striatal c-Fos expression to some degree, whereas desipramine administration did not. These results suggest that acute and chronic venlafaxine and chronic desipramine administration maximally activate the prefrontal adrenergic and dopaminergic systems without affecting striatal dopaminergic systems in mice.

  11. Administrative Job Level Study and Factoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    The administrative job classification system and generic job descriptions presented in this report were developed at Portland Community College (PCC) as management tools. After introductory material outlining the objectives of and criteria used in the administrative job-level study, and offering information on the administrative job factoring…

  12. Acute coronary vasospasm in a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis following NSAID administration

    PubMed Central

    Benallegue, Naïl; Lozach, Pierre; Belizna, Cristina; Lavigne, Christian; Urbanski, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eosinophilic with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare systemic disease characterized by a small-vessel necrotizing vasculitis. Cardiac manifestations are broad-ranging and are associated with a poor prognosis. Coronary vasospasm is uncommon. Here, we report a case of an acute coronary vasospasm in a patient with EGPA after corticosteroids withdrawal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) introduction. This patient was initially misdiagnosed as bradykinin-mediated angioedema. A 30-year-old man presented with recurrence of abdominal pain and acute dyspnea. NSAID administration for pain during a flare was followed by coronary vasospasms leading to cardiac arrest. Corticosteroid treatment was recently interrupted by the patient. This case reports a rare cardiac complication of EGPA. NSAID might contribute to coronary vasospasm by eosinophilic degranulation in EGPA. Moreover, corticosteroid compliance must be emphasized among patients who display EGPA with high cardiac risk to prevent fatal issues. PMID:27893661

  13. Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Comorbidity Between Acute Stress and Cocaine Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Kupchik, Yonatan; Gipson, Cassandra D; Brown, Robyn M; Spencer, Sade; Bollati, Flavia; Esparza, Maria A; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Cancela, Liliana M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining if the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate mediated synaptic currents, and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined if acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport, and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  14. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bahareh; Nakhsaz, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST). Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg) and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration. PMID:26468466

  15. Acute immune-mediated thrombocytopenia due to oxaliplatin administration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pietrantonio, Filippo; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Buzzoni, Roberto; Bajetta, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced acute thrombocytopenia is an extremely rare side effect that may occur immediately after oxaliplatin infusion. This potentially fatal reaction is immune mediated and can be anticipated by mild hemorrhagic signs during previous administrations. This is the first report of acute thrombocytopenia occurring during adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer with oxaliplatin. Clinicians should be aware of this adverse event in order to prevent possible serious consequences and stop further oxaliplatin administration.

  16. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2015-03-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are disregarded by subjects scoring high on depressive mood who are low in reward drive. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mixed mu-opioid agonist/kappa-antagonist, buprenorphine, would influence short-term memory for happy, angry or fearful expressions relative to neutral faces. Healthy human subjects (n38) participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, and performed an emotional face relocation task after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. We show that, compared to placebo, buprenorphine administration results in a significant improvement of memory for happy faces. Our data demonstrate that acute manipulation of the opioid system by buprenorphine increases short-term memory for social reward cues.

  17. Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juckiewicz, Robert; Kroculick, Joseph

    Columbia University's major program to distribute its central administrative data processing to its various schools and departments is described. The Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS) will link every department and school within the university via micrcomputers, terminals, and/or minicomputers to the central…

  18. Nasa-wide Standard Administrative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneck, P.

    1984-01-01

    Factors to be considered in developing agency-wide standard administrative systems for NASA include uniformity of hardware and software; centralization vs. decentralization; risk exposure; and models for software development.

  19. Central nervous insulin administration does not potentiate the acute glucoregulatory impact of concurrent mild hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik; Staub, Josefine; Wönne, Kathrin; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Experiments in rodents suggest that hypothalamic insulin signaling essentially contributes to the acute control of peripheral glucose homeostasis. Against this background, we investigated in healthy humans whether intranasal (IN) insulin, which is known to effectively reach the brain compartment, impacts systemic glucose metabolism. Twenty overnight-fasted healthy, normal-weight men were IN administered 210 and 420 international units [IU] (10 and 20 IU every 15 min) of the insulin analog aspart (ins-asp) and placebo, respectively, during experimental sessions lasting 6 h. The use of ins-asp rather than human insulin enabled us to disentangle exogenous and endogenous insulin kinetics. IN insulin dose-dependently decreased plasma glucose concentrations while reducing C-peptide and attenuating endogenous insulin levels. However, we also observed a slight dose-dependent permeation of ins-asp into the circulation. In control experiments mimicking the systemic but not the central nervous uptake of the IN 210 IU dose via intravenous infusion of ins-asp at a dose of 0.12 IU/kg/24 h (n = 10), we obtained essentially identical effects on fasting plasma glucose concentrations. This pattern indicates that sustained IN insulin administration to the human brain to enhance central nervous insulin signaling does not acutely alter systemic glucose homeostasis beyond effects accounted for by concurrent mild hyperinsulinemia.

  20. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  1. A Database System for Course Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbasat, Izak; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted testing system which produces multiple-choice examinations for a college course in business administration. The system uses SPIRES (Stanford Public Information REtrieval System) to manage a database of questions and related data, mark-sense cards for machine grading tests, and ACL (6) (Audit Command Language) to…

  2. Acute hepatopathy associated with mitotane administration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig B; Twedt, David C

    2006-01-01

    An adult dog with a persistent elevation in alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity was started on mitotane for suspected hyperadrenocorticism. One month later, the dog was presented for intermittent anorexia and acute icterus. The dog's liver enzyme activities and total bilirubin were markedly elevated, prothrombin time was prolonged, and blood urea nitrogen and glucose were low. Histopathology revealed marked, centrilobular, hepatocellular loss. After discontinuation of the mitotane, the dog recovered with supportive care and was normal 3 months later, which was consistent with mitotane-associated hepatic failure.

  3. Inhibition of nociceptive responses after systemic administration of amidated kyotorphin

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, MMB; Pinto, A; Pinto, M; Heras, M; Martins, I; Correia, A; Bardaji, E; Tavares, I; Castanho, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Kyotorphin (KTP; L-Tyr-L-Arg), an endogenous neuropeptide, is potently analgesic when delivered directly to the central nervous system. Its weak analgesic effects after systemic administration have been explained by inability to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and detract from the possible clinical use of KTP as an analgesic. In this study, we aimed to increase the lipophilicity of KTP by amidation and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of a new KTP derivative (KTP-amide – KTP-NH2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We synthesized KTP-NH2. This peptide was given systemically to assess its ability to cross the BBB. A wide range of pain models, including acute, sustained and chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, were used to characterize analgesic efficacies of KTP-NH2. Binding to opioid receptors and toxicity were also measured. KEY RESULTS KTP-NH2, unlike its precursor KTP, was lipophilic and highly analgesic following systemic administration in several acute and chronic pain models, without inducing toxic effects or affecting motor responses and blood pressure. Binding to opioid receptors was minimal. KTP-NH2 inhibited nociceptive responses of spinal neurons. Its analgesic effects were prevented by intrathecal or i.p. administration of naloxone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Amidation allowed KTP to show good analgesic ability after systemic delivery in acute and chronic pain models. The indirect opioid-mediated actions of KTP-NH2 may explain why this compound retained its analgesic effects although the usual side effects of opioids were absent, which is a desired feature in next-generation pain medications. PMID:21366550

  4. Acute neuropsychological effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-)administration in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Wezenberg, E.; Valkenberg, M. M. G. J.; de Jong, C. A. J.; Buitelaar, J. K.; van Gerven, J. M. A.; Verkes, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”). Commonly, ecstasy is used in combination with other substances, in particular alcohol (ethanol). MDMA induces both arousing as well as hallucinogenic effects, whereas ethanol is a general central nervous system depressant. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the acute effects of single and co-administration of MDMA and ethanol on executive, memory, psychomotor, visuomotor, visuospatial and attention function, as well as on subjective experience. Materials and methods We performed a four-way, double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers (nine male, seven female) between the ages of 18–29. MDMA was given orally (100 mg) and blood alcohol concentration was maintained at 0.6‰ by an ethanol infusion regime. Results Co-administration of MDMA and ethanol was well tolerated and did not show greater impairment of performance compared to the single-drug conditions. Impaired memory function was consistently observed after all drug conditions, whereas impairment of psychomotor function and attention was less consistent across drug conditions. Conclusions Co-administration of MDMA and ethanol did not exacerbate the effects of either drug alone. Although the impairment of performance by all drug conditions was relatively moderate, all induced significant impairment of cognitive function. PMID:18305926

  5. Effects of acute and repeated administration of salvinorin A on dopamine function in the rat dorsal striatum

    PubMed Central

    Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Acute systemic administration of salvinorin A, a naturally occurring κ-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist, decreases locomotion and striatal dopamine (DA) overflow. Objectives Conventional and quantitative microdialysis techniques were used to determine whether salvinorin A infusion into the dorsal striatum (DSTR) decreases DA overflow by altering DA uptake or release. The influence of repeated salvinorin A administration on basal DA dynamics and cocaine-evoked alterations in DA overflow and locomotion was also assessed. Materials and methods Salvinorin A was administered via the dialysis probe (0; 20–200 nM) or via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (1.0 or 3.2 mg/kg per day×5 days). The effects of a challenge dose of cocaine were examined 48 h after repeated salvinorin treatment. Results Retrodialysis of salvinorin A produced a dose-related, KOPr antagonist reversible, decrease in DA levels. Extracellular DA levels were decreased whereas DA extraction fraction, which provides an estimate of DA uptake, was unaltered. In contrast to its acute administration, repeated salvinorin A administration did not modify dialysate DA levels. Similarly, neither basal extracellular DA levels nor DA uptake was altered. Unlike synthetic KOPr agonists, prior repeated administration of salvinorin A did not attenuate the locomotor activating effects of an acute cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) challenge. However, cocaine-evoked DA overflow was enhanced. Conclusions These data demonstrate that acute, but not repeated, salvinorin A administration decreases mesostriatal neurotransmission and that activation of DSTR KOPr is sufficient for this effect. Differences in the interaction of salvinorin and synthetic KOPr agonists with cocaine suggest that the pharmacology of these agents may differ. PMID:18246329

  6. Administrators' Personal and Social Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Miller, Linda Demarco

    This study maintains that social support systems alleviate the physical and psychological effects of stress; however, the school administrator often has no peers in the same building and therefore stands apart from any of the built in support systems developed by the subculture within his school. Further, as discovered through interviews with 35…

  7. Research Administration as a Living System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Delphi study was to gather expert opinions and recommendations for change in the research administration system to bring about growth and collaboration. This study was deemed important because at the heart of every system is the fact that individuals need each other to continue to exist. The results of the Delphi study give…

  8. GABAergic modulation of human social interaction in a prisoner's dilemma model by acute administration of alprazolam.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L

    2009-10-01

    Recent work in neuroeconomics has used game theory paradigms to examine neural systems that subserve human social interaction and decision making. Attempts to modify social interaction through pharmacological manipulation have been less common. Here we show dose-dependent modification of human social behavior in a prisoner's dilemma model after acute administration of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A modulating benzodiazepine alprazolam. Nine healthy adults received doses of placebo, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg alprazolam in a counterbalanced within-subject design, while completing multiple test blocks per day on an iterated prisoner's dilemma game. During test blocks in which peak subjective effects of alprazolam were reported, cooperative choices were significantly decreased as a function of dose. Consistent with previous reports showing that high acute doses of GABA-modulating drugs are associated with violence and other antisocial behavior, our data suggest that at sufficiently high doses, alprazolam can decrease cooperation. These behavioral changes may be facilitated by changes in inhibitory control facilitated by GABA. Game theory paradigms may prove useful in behavioral pharmacology studies seeking to measure social interaction, and may help inform the emerging field of neuroeconomics.

  9. Effect of acute thioacetamide administration on rat brain phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, J.; Aylagas, H.; Miro-Obradors, M.J.; Arce, C.; Palacios-Alaiz, E.; Cascales, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Brain phospholipid composition and the ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate incorporation into brain phospholipids of control and rats treated for 3 days with thioacetamide were studied. Brain phospholipid content, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid did not show any significant change by the effect of thioacetamide. In contrast, thioacetamide induced a significant decrease in the levels of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. After 75 minutes of intraperitoneal label injection, specific radioactivity of all the above phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine significantly increased. After 13 hours of isotope administration the specific radioactivity of almost all studied phospholipid classes was elevated, except for phosphatidic acid, the specific radioactivity of which did not change and for diphosphatidylglycerol which showed a decrease in specific radioactivity. These results suggest that under thioacetamide treatment brain phospholipids undergo metabolic transformations that may contribute to the hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

  10. Neurocognitive performance following acute mephedrone administration, with and without alcohol.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Papaseit, E; Pérez-Mañá, C; Mateus, J; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, Kpc; de la Torre, R; Farré, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-12-01

    Recreational use of mephedrone, alone and in combination with alcohol, has increased over the past years. Pharmacological properties of mephedrone share similarities with methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but its effect on neurocognitive function has not been well established in humans. The present study assessed the effect of mephedrone alone and after co-administration with alcohol on neurocognitive function. It was hypothesised that mephedrone would improve psychomotor performance but impair memory performance, when administered alone. Neurocognitive performance was expected to be impaired following mephedrone when combined with alcohol. Eleven participants received single doses of 200 mg mephedrone or placebo combined with 0.8 g/kg alcohol or placebo. Neurocognitive performance was assessed at baseline (T0), at one hour (T1) and four hours after (T2) mephedrone administration, by means of the Divided Attention Task (DAT), Critical Tracking Task (CTT), and the Spatial Memory Test (SMT). Mephedrone intoxication impaired short-term spatial memory at T1 and improved critical tracking performance at T2 Mephedrone alone did not affect divided attention, but did show an interaction with alcohol on reaction time at T2 Reaction time decreased when mephedrone was combined with alcohol as compared to alcohol alone. Alcohol intoxication impaired both short- and long-term spatial memory at T1 and divided attention at T1 and T2 Critical tracking performance was not affected by alcohol intoxication. The current findings support the hypothesis that mephedrone improves psychomotor performance, impairs spatial memory and does not affect divided attention performance. Stimulatory effects of mephedrone were not sufficient to compensate for the impairing effects of alcohol on most performance parameters.

  11. Behavioural antecedents to pro re nata psychotropic medication administration on acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Duncan; Robson, Deborah; Chaplin, Robert; Quirk, Alan; Bowers, Len

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the antecedents to administration of pro re nata (PRN) psychotropic medication on acute psychiatric wards, with a particular focus on its use in response to patient aggression and other conflict behaviours. A sample of 522 adult in-patients was recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in England. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2  weeks of admission. Two-thirds of patients received PRN medication during this period, but only 30% of administrations were preceded by patient conflict (usually aggression). Instead, it was typically administered to prevent escalation of patient behaviour and to help patients sleep. Overall, no conflict behaviours or further staff intervention occurred after 61% of PRN administrations. However, a successful outcome was less likely when medication was administered in response to patient aggression. The study concludes that improved monitoring, review procedures, training for nursing staff, and guidelines for the administration of PRN medications are needed.

  12. Brain and Muscle Redox Imbalance Elicited by Acute Ethylmalonic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2’,7’-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy. PMID:26010931

  13. Brain and muscle redox imbalance elicited by acute ethylmalonic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

  14. TMACS Test Procedure TP007: System administration

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, P.; Washburn, S.; Seghers, R.

    1994-05-24

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS System Administration functions.

  15. People & Change: Success in Implementing Administrative Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Cecil

    The implementation of an administrative on-line data-base system for the San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) is explained in this report. The report begins by describing the SDCCD environment, a multi-campus district under the direction of a chancellor and a cabinet. District headcount in Fall, 1981 consisted of over 100,000 students and…

  16. Michigan Occupational Information System. Administrator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Michigan Occupational Information System.

    This handbook is designed to give introductory and reference information about the Michigan Occupational Information System (MOIS). Although focused in Michigan, it is not specifically oriented to any particular population; rather, it answers basic questions common to administrators, school principals, Michigan Employment Security Directors,…

  17. Decision Support Systems for Academic Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laurence J.; Greenwood, Allen G.

    1984-01-01

    The history and features of Decision Support Systems (DSS) and use of the approach by academic administrators are discussed. The objective of DSS is to involve the manager/decision maker in the decision-analysis process while simultaneously relieving that person of the burden of developing and performing detailed analysis. DSS represents a…

  18. TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE
    AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    Michael F. Hughes, Ph.D., Brenda C. Edwards, Carol T. Mitchell and Elaina M. Kenyon, Ph.D. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Nation...

  19. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  20. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minmin; Lu, Chengwen; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Duan, Sijin; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. PMID:26199634

  1. Association of Geographical Factors With Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Morishima, Toshitaka; Ukawa, Naoto; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke if administered within a few hours of stroke onset. Because of this time restriction, tPA administration remains infrequent. Ambulance use is an effective strategy for increasing tPA administration but may be influenced by geographical factors. The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between tPA administration and ambulance use and to examine how patient travel distance and population density affect tPA utilization. Methods and Results We analyzed administrative claims data from 114 194 acute ischemic stroke cases admitted to 603 hospitals between July 2010 and March 2012. Mixed‐effects logistic regression models of patients nested within hospitals with a random intercept were generated to analyze possible predictive factors (including patient characteristics, ambulance use, and driving time from home to hospital) of tPA administration for different population density categories to investigate differences in these factors in various regional backgrounds. Approximately 5.1% (5797/114 194) of patients received tPA. The composition of baseline characteristics varied among the population density categories, but adjustment for covariates resulted in all factors having similar associations with tPA administration in every category. The administration of tPA was associated with patient age and severity of stroke symptoms, but driving time showed no association. Ambulance use was significantly associated with tPA administration even after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion The association between ambulance use and tPA administration suggests the importance of calling an ambulance for suspected stroke. Promoting ambulance use for acute ischemic stroke patients may increase tPA use. PMID:24045119

  2. CLARA: an integrated clinical research administration system

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Hogan, William; Hutchins, Laura; Topaloglu, Umit; Lane, Cheryl; Holland, Jennifer; Wells, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Administration of human subject research is complex, involving not only the institutional review board but also many other regulatory and compliance entities within a research enterprise. Its efficiency has a direct and substantial impact on the conduct and management of clinical research. In this paper, we report on the Clinical Research Administration (CLARA) platform developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. CLARA is a comprehensive web-based system that can streamline research administrative tasks such as submissions, reviews, and approval processes for both investigators and different review committees on a single integrated platform. CLARA not only helps investigators to meet regulatory requirements but also provides tools for managing other clinical research activities including budgeting, contracting, and participant schedule planning. PMID:24778201

  3. CLARA: an integrated clinical research administration system.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Hogan, William; Hutchins, Laura; Topaloglu, Umit; Lane, Cheryl; Holland, Jennifer; Wells, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Administration of human subject research is complex, involving not only the institutional review board but also many other regulatory and compliance entities within a research enterprise. Its efficiency has a direct and substantial impact on the conduct and management of clinical research. In this paper, we report on the Clinical Research Administration (CLARA) platform developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. CLARA is a comprehensive web-based system that can streamline research administrative tasks such as submissions, reviews, and approval processes for both investigators and different review committees on a single integrated platform. CLARA not only helps investigators to meet regulatory requirements but also provides tools for managing other clinical research activities including budgeting, contracting, and participant schedule planning.

  4. The effects of the acute administration of low-dosage ethanol on the phasic neurochemical oscillations of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Noori, H R

    2012-09-01

    The effects of the acute ethanol consumption on the brain's neurochemistry are largely studied at the synaptic level. Here, the acute action of low dosages of ethanol, in terms of the inhibition of the glutamatergic system through antagonizing the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, on the neurochemical oscillations along the neurocircuitry of the basal ganglia is investigated by mathematical models. Substantial alterations in the dynamical behaviour of the neurochemical oscillations after single administration of low dosages of ethanol have been observed. Significant dynamical changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate systems along the subthalamic-pallidal feedback loop and the dopamine system of the striatal complex suggest new perspectives in the understanding of the ethanol-induced motor dysfunctions.

  5. Acute amygdaloid response to systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Engler, Harald; Doenlen, Raphael; Engler, Andrea; Riether, Carsten; Prager, Geraldine; Niemi, Maj-Britt; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Krügel, Ute; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2011-10-01

    The amygdala, a group of nuclei located in the medial temporal lobe, is a key limbic structure involved in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions. Functional neuroanatomical studies suggest that this brain region plays also an important role in the central integration of afferent signals from the peripheral immune system. In the present study, intracerebral electroencephalography and microdialysis were employed to investigate the electrophysiological and neurochemical consequences of systemic immune activation in the amygdala of freely moving rats. Intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg) induced with a latency of about 2 h a significant increase in amygdaloid neuronal activity and a substantial rise in extracellular noradrenaline levels. Activated neurons in the amygdaloid complex, identified by c-Fos immunohistochemistry, were mainly located in the central nucleus and, to a lesser extent, in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. Gene expression analysis in micropunches of the amygdala revealed that endotoxin administration induced a strong time-dependent increase in IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA levels indicating that these cytokines are de novo synthesized in the amygdala in response to peripheral immune activation. The changes in amygdaloid activity were timely related to an increase in anxiety-like behavior and decreased locomotor activity and exploration in the open-field. Taken together, these data give novel insights into different features of the acute amygdaloid response during experimental inflammation and provides further evidence that the amygdala integrates immune-derived information to coordinate behavioral and autonomic responses.

  6. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  7. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy

  8. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  9. Effects of Acute Administration of Ketorolac on Mammalian Vestibular Sensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, G Christopher; Jones, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac is a candidate for use as a supplemental analgesic during major surgery in anesthetized rodents. The use of ketorolac during surgery is believed to reduce the anesthetic dose required to achieve and maintain an adequate surgical plane, thus improving the physiologic condition and survival of animals during long experimental procedures. Ketorolac has reported side effects that include dizziness, ear pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo in humans, but ketorolac has not been reported to affect the vestibular system in animals. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the acute effects of ketorolac on vestibular compound action potentials in C57BL/6 mice. Linear vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEP) were recorded during the administration of ketorolac at doses 3 to 14 times the effective analgesic dose. VsEP results for ketorolac were compared with those from a control group maintained under anesthesia for the same period. Ketorolac did not significantly affect the temporal profiles of response latencies and amplitudes or the rate of change in response measures over time between controls and ketorolac-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ketorolac can be used as an analgesic to supplement anesthesia in mice without concerns of modifying the amplitudes and latencies of the linear VsEP. PMID:23562034

  10. Prevention of reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy by neonatal administration of MSG

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.Y.; Wiedemann, E.; Deschepper, C.F.; Alper, R.H.; Humphreys, M.H.

    1987-02-01

    Acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN) results in natriuresis from the remaining kidney through reflex pathways involving the central nervous system and requiring an intact pituitary gland. The natriuresis is accompanied by an increase in the plasma concentration of a peptide or peptides derived from the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of proopiomelanocortin. The authors measured plasma immunoreactive NTF-like material (IR-NTF) by radioimmunoassay, before and after AUN in control rats and rats treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG), a procedure that produces neuroendocrine dysfunction by destroying cell bodies in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, median eminence, and other brain regions. In control rats, IR-NTF increased from 85.8 +/- 54.9 (SD) to 207 +/- 98.1 fmol/ml after AUN as sodium excretion (U/sub Na/V) doubled. In MSG-treated rats, AUN produced no change in plasma IR-NTF concentration, nor did U/sub Na/V increase. Tissue content of IR-NTF was reduced in the arcuate nucleus and anterior lobe of pituitaries from MSG-treated rats compared with controls, but was no different in the neurointermediate lobe. These results indicate that the hypothalamic lesion produced by neonatal administration of MSG prevents both the increase in plasma IR-NTF concentration and the natruiuresis after AUN, and therefore lend further support to the concept of a casual relationship between these two consequences of AUN.

  11. Effects of acute administration of ketorolac on mammalian vestibular sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Gaines, G Christopher; Jones, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac is a candidate for use as a supplemental analgesic during major surgery in anesthetized rodents. The use of ketorolac during surgery is believed to reduce the anesthetic dose required to achieve and maintain an adequate surgical plane, thus improving the physiologic condition and survival of animals during long experimental procedures. Ketorolac has reported side effects that include dizziness, ear pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo in humans, but ketorolac has not been reported to affect the vestibular system in animals. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the acute effects of ketorolac on vestibular compound action potentials in C57BL/6 mice. Linear vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEP) were recorded during the administration of ketorolac at doses 3 to 14 times the effective analgesic dose. VsEP results for ketorolac were compared with those from a control group maintained under anesthesia for the same period. Ketorolac did not significantly affect the temporal profiles of response latencies and amplitudes or the rate of change in response measures over time between controls and ketorolac-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ketorolac can be used as an analgesic to supplement anesthesia in mice without concerns of modifying the amplitudes and latencies of the linear VsEP.

  12. Acute intravenous administration of dietary constituent theanine suppresses noxious neuronal transmission of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Shiori; Kubota, Yoshiko; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yui, Kei; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2017-03-15

    Theanine is a non-dietary amino acid linked to the modulation of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, although the acute effects of theanine in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The present study investigated whether acute intravenous theanine administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 15 SpVc neurons in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were analyzed. The mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neurons in response to all mechanical stimuli was dose-dependently inhibited by theanine (10, 50, and 100mM, i.v.) with the maximum inhibition of discharge frequency reached within 5min. These inhibitory effects were reversed after approximately 10min. The relative magnitude of theanine's inhibition of SpVc WDR neuronal discharge frequency was significantly greater for noxious than non-noxious stimulation. Iontophoretic application of l-glutamate induced the mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neuron responding to noxious mechanical stimulation was also inhibited by intravenous administration of 100mM theanine. These results suggest that acute intravenous theanine administration suppresses glutaminergic noxious synaptic transmission in the SpVc, implicating theanine as a potential complementary and alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain.

  13. Acute transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Bucknall, R C

    1989-01-01

    A sixteen year old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus developed acute transverse myelopathy. She was treated with high dose steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange and regained partial neurological function. Previous descriptions of transverse myelopathy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus are reviewed, with particular reference to the efficacy of high dose steroid treatment. PMID:2662918

  14. Acute oral 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) decreases both alcohol intake and IV nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Slade, Susan; Wells, Corinne; Glick, Stanley; Rose, Jed E; Levin, Edward D

    The ibogaine derivative 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) has been found to decrease self-administration of morphine, nicotine and alcohol in rats after systemic injection. However oral dosing is the preferred route clinically. The current study evaluated the effect of oral 18-MC dosing in rats on alcohol and nicotine self-administration. For the nicotine study, young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with IV jugular infusion catheters and trained for nicotine self-administration in 45min. sessions. At weekly intervals they were administered by oral gavage doses of 18-MC (0, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg) following a repeated measures counterbalanced design twice. Acute oral 18-MC, at the 40mg/kg dosage, significantly reduced nicotine self-administration. There was a differential effect of 18-MC with rats above or below the median level of nicotine self-administration during the pretreatment baseline performance. Rats with lower baseline performance showed a significant reduction in nicotine self-administration with the 40mg/kg dosage, while those in the higher baseline group did not show a significant effect of 18-MC. In alcohol studies, the effects of the same doses of 18-MC were tested in both male and female alcohol preferring (P) rats that had free access to water and alcohol (10% v/v) 6h/day. The results show that 18-MC dose-dependently reduced alcohol intake in both male and female rats. All doses caused significant reductions in alcohol self-administration. These data reinforce previous findings that 18-MC is significantly effective in reducing alcohol intake and nicotine self-administration. The finding that 18-MC is also effective orally makes it advantageous for further development as a possible new therapy for treating alcoholism as well as smoking addiction.

  15. Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results of the SOAP study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223

  16. Acute d-Amphetamine Pretreatment Does Not Alter Stimulant Self-Administration in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Vansickel, Andrea R.; Lile, Joshua A.; Rush, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent clinical research indicates that d-amphetamine is effective in treating cocaine and methamphetamine dependence. There is concern, however, with the use of d-amphetamine as a pharmacotherapy because acute administration of d-amphetamine decreases inhibition in cocaine-using individuals and may increase drug-taking behavior. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether acute d-amphetamine pretreatment would alter the reinforcing, subject-rated, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine. To this end, 7 human volunteers first sampled doses of oral d-amphetamine (0, 8, and 16 mg). These doses engender moderate drug taking and were selected to avoid a ceiling or floor effect. Volunteers were then allowed to self-administer these sampled doses using a modified-progressive ratio procedure in two sessions in which they received pretreatments with either 0 or 15 mg oral d-amphetamine 2 hours prior to completing the modified progressive-ratio procedure. d-Amphetamine produced prototypical stimulant-like effects (e.g., increased ratings of stimulated, elevated blood pressure) and maintained responding on the modified progressive-ratio schedule. Pretreatment with 15 mg oral d-amphetamine also produced prototypical stimulant-like effects, but failed to alter break points for d-amphetamine on the modified progressive-ratio procedure relative to placebo pretreatment. These results indicate that acute d-amphetamine pretreatment does not increase stimulant self-administration. PMID:17490738

  17. Anticataleptic activity of cathinone and MDMA (Ecstasy) upon acute and subchronic administration in rat.

    PubMed

    Banjaw, Mehret Yerdaw; Mayerhofer, Andreas; Schmidt, Werner J

    2003-09-15

    It was recently demonstrated that acute administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphet-amine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is capable of counteracting haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. The present study was done with another psychostimulant, S-(-)-cathinone. In these experiments, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats, 225 +/- 25 g, were used. They were divided into three groups. All groups received 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol in normal saline (s.c.) as a first injection. Then 30 min later each group received either isotonic phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg/kg S-(-)-cathinone, or 2.5 mg/kg (RS)-MDMA (s.c.) as a second injection. The results of descent latency on both the horizontal bar and vertical grid showed that S-(-)-cathinone or (RS)-MDMA upon acute administration induces a strong anticataleptic activity (P < 0.0001) compared to rats treated with haloperidol plus vehicle. The effect of both drugs was later masked upon subchronic administration (days 2-7, 26-29). This is probably due to sensitization of cataleptic behavior. However, when the same groups of rats were tested on day 8 in a different task, i.e., open-field, they showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). The detailed mechanism of the observed strong anticataleptic activity of S-(-)-cathinone (which is considered a potent dopamine releaser) requires further investigation.

  18. [Albuminuria after acute oral administration of proteins in patients with renovascular hypertension].

    PubMed

    Stríbrná, J; Růzicka, M; Englis, M; Peregrín, J; Lánská, V

    1993-02-05

    In a group of 19 patients with renovascular hypertension the effect of a morning snack comprising meat (1 g protein per 1 kg body weight) on urinary albumin excretion was assessed. Concurrently the plasma creatinine concentration (Pcr) was examined which varied between normal and 260 mumol/l and the creatinine clearance (Ccr). After administration of an acute protein load the mean Ccr value increased by 23%. The albumin excretion, however, did not change substantially, as compared with the previous collection period (mean 17 and 18 micrograms/min). Microalbuminuria was recorded in 31% of the patients and its prevalence was directly related to the increasing Pcr value. The results revealed that an acute protein load did not increase albuminuria although the rise of Ccr was significant. The variability of albumin excretion in the course of the day is, however, influenced also by other factors and for assessment of microalbuminuria therefore examination of 24-hour urine samples should be preferred.

  19. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening.

  20. Acute effects of nicotine administration during prospective memory, an event related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Rusted, Jennifer; Ruest, Torsten; Gray, Marcus A

    2011-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that stimulating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulates prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember and implement a prior intention. Here we used fMRI to explore the neuronal correlates of acute nicotinic (1mg) modulation during PM, employing a double blind, valence-matched placebo-controlled design, and a solely event-related analysis. Eight healthy adults completed on two occasions (1 week washout) a simple attentional task containing infrequent PM trials. PM activated bilateral parietal, prefrontal (BA10) and anterior cingulate, and deactivated genual cingulate and medial prefrontal regions. Further, acute nicotine administration decreased activity within a largely overlapping right parietal region. This data validates a purely event-related approach to exploring PM, and suggests procholinergic modulation of PM by parietal rather than BA10/frontal regions.

  1. Corticosteroid Administration and Outcome of Adolescents and Adults With Acute Bacterial Meningitis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alasmari, Faisal A.; Zimmerman, Valerie A.; Baddour, Larry M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the effect of the adjunctive administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching several databases for reports (published from January 1966 through February 2008) of placebo-controlled randomized trials of corticosteroid use in the treatment of adolescents and adults with acute bacterial meningitis. We used random-effects models. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by preplanned subgroup analyses. RESULTS: The 4 eligible trials (published between 1999 and 2007) were of high methodological quality and included 1261 adult patients. Overall, the short-term mortality rate associated with corticosteroid administration was not significantly lower than that associated with placebo (relative risk [RR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.20; I2=54%). A significant interaction was found between the effect of corticosteroids and the income status of the country (P=.02) and the prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among study populations (P=.03). The administration of corticosteroids resulted in a lower short-term mortality rate than did the administration of placebo in high-income countries (pooled RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; I2=0%) and in the studies with a low prevalence of infection with HIV (RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99; I2=0%). In studies from high-income countries, the number needed to treat with corticosteriods to prevent 1 death and 1 neurologic sequela was 12.5 (95% CI, 7.1-100.0) and 11.0 (95% CI, 5.6-100.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests that the adjunctive administration of corticosteroids is beneficial in the treatment of adolescents and adults with bacterial meningitis in patient populations similar to those seen in high-income countries and in areas with a low prevalence of HIV infection. PMID:19411436

  2. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930.205 Section 930.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC POSITIONS AND EXAMINATIONS (MISCELLANEOUS) Administrative...

  3. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930.205 Section 930.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC POSITIONS AND EXAMINATIONS (MISCELLANEOUS) Administrative...

  4. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930.205 Section 930.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS FOR SPECIFIC POSITIONS AND EXAMINATIONS (MISCELLANEOUS) Administrative...

  5. Serotonin and suicidality: the impact of acute fluoxetine administration. I: Serotonin and suicide.

    PubMed

    King, R A; Segman, R H; Anderson, G M

    1994-01-01

    The general enhancement of central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission following long-term administration of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appears to play an important role in these drugs' anti-depressant efficacy. Because suicide and/or aggression appear linked to diminished levels of brain 5-HT and its metabolites, it has been suggested that SSRIs may be particularly effective in reducing suicidality. Case reports of increased or new suicidal ideation following administration of fluoxetine and other SSRIs, however, raise questions about how these potential side effects may relate to the SSRI's acute effects on 5-HT transmission. Part I of this review examines fluoxetine's effects on suicidality and related behaviors and reviews the relationship of suicidality to serotonergic dysregulation.

  6. The Spatial Structure of Administrative Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massam, Byran H.

    Designed to supplement undergraduate college geography courses, this paper discusses a particular type of territorial division--the administrative area within a state. The study of administrative patterns allows geographers to formulate and test hypotheses about man's organization of space, and also to assist in a very practical way by applying…

  7. Reform and Development of Educational Administration System in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qiang; Wu, Zhongyuan

    2008-01-01

    The paper mainly introduces the development of the educational administration agency in China, including the evolution of the educational administration agency, the Course of instituting legal system of education in China, the missions of the now Minister of Education, questions emerged in the development of the educational administration system,…

  8. The role of excessive versus acute administration of erythropoietin in attenuating hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pappo, Orit; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Shevtsov, Evgeni; Avlas, Orna; Gassmann, Max; Ravid, Amiram; Cheporko, Yelena; Hochhauser, Edith

    2010-12-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is the main cause of primary graft nonfunction. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of excessive versus acute administration of erythropoietin (EPO) in attenuating the hepatic injury induced by I/R in mice. The effect of segmental (70%) hepatic ischemia was evaluated in a transgenic mouse line with constitutive overexpression of human EPO cDNA and in wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were randomly allocated to 5 main experimental groups: (i) WT-sham, (ii) WT ischemia, (iii) WT ischemia + recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), (iv) transgenic-sham, and (v) transgenic ischemia. The EPO-pretreated mice showed a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels and intrahepatic caspase-3 activity and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes (p < 0.05 for all) compared with the WT untreated I/R group. EPO decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression during I/R. In transgenic I/R livers, baseline histology showed diffused hepatic injury, and no significant beneficial effect was noted between the WT untreated and the transgenic I/R mice. In conclusion, acute pretreatment with EPO in WT mice attenuated in vivo I/R liver injury. However, in excessive EPO overexpression, the initial liver injury abolished the beneficial effect of EPO. These findings have important implications for the potential use of acute EPO in I/R injury during liver transplantation.

  9. Acute Clinical Worsening after Steroid Administration in Cervical Myelitis May Reveal a Subdural Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Rain, Silvia; Udding, Jan; Broere, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Subdural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare condition characterized by clinical manifestations ranging from mild bilateral sensory deficits to quadriplegia. The diagnosis is often delayed due to unspecific neurological symptoms, initially diagnosed as polyneuropathy or myelopathy. The diagnosis can be delayed for as long as 1–15 years. The following report describes a cervical SDAVF case initially misdiagnosed as myelitis transversa and treated with intravenous steroids. A 56-year-old male presented with sensory deficits and mild leg and right arm weakness. Cervical MRI showed a central medullary hyperintense lesion with contrast enhancement. After metabolic, infectious, and malignant causes were excluded, myelitis transversa was presumed and the patient was treated intravenously with methylprednisolone. Shortly after that, he developed quadriplegia. Cervical MRI imaging showed engorged cervical perimedullary vessels, which were not visible on the initial MRI. The diagnosis was revised and a SDAVF identified. Prompt surgical treatment led to a complete recovery. The effect of intravenous steroids in SDAVF is controversial. Acute clinical worsening after steroid administration is previously reported in several publications; however, due to the paucity of clinical studies on SDAVF, this effect remains mostly overlooked or unknown. The findings in this patient support the causative relation between SDAVF clinical worsening and steroid administration. We propose that acute clinical worsening under steroids in patients initially diagnosed with myelitis should raise suspicion of an SDAVF. PMID:27920716

  10. Acute kidney function and morphology following topload administration of recombinant hemoglobin solution.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Alexandre Fabricio; Abreu Martucci, Ana Carolina Carvalho Ferreira; Cabrales, Pedro; Nascimento, Paulo do; Intaglietta, Marcos; Tsai, Amy G; Castiglia, Yara Marcondes Machado

    2017-02-01

    There is a 0.138% incidence of adverse reactions related to blood transfusion. Transfusion-related acute lung injury, immunosuppression, fever, pathogen transmission, and hemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common ones. Synthetic oxygen carriers have been developed to deal with blood shortages and for use in the field where stored blood was not available. They were also designed to be pathogen free, including unknown viruses. In this study, we used Male Golden Syrian Hamsters implemented with a dorsal window chamber to determine how infusion of three different, genetically crosslinked recombinant acellular hemoglobin (rHb) solutions with different oxygen affinities and nitric oxide kinetics affect mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), kidney function, and kidney structure. We found that the administration of all three rHb solutions caused mild hypertension and bradycardia 30 minutes after infusion. However, acute changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not detected, even though histological analysis was performed 72 hours after treatment revealed some structural changes. All the rHb solutions resulted in hypertension 30 minutes after a 10% topload administration. Regardless of their properties, the presence of acellular Hb causes significant alterations to kidney tissue.

  11. Combined administration of hyperbaric oxygen and hydroxocobalamin improves cerebral metabolism after acute cyanide poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M B; Olsen, N V; Hyldegaard, O

    2013-11-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) or intravenous hydroxocobalamin (OHCob) both abolish cyanide (CN)-induced surges in interstitial brain lactate and glucose concentrations. HBOT has been shown to induce a delayed increase in whole blood CN concentrations, whereas OHCob may act as an intravascular CN scavenger. Additionally, HBOT may prevent respiratory distress and restore blood pressure during CN intoxication, an effect not seen with OHCob administration. In this report, we evaluated the combined effects of HBOT and OHCob on interstitial lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations as well as lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in rat brain by means of microdialysis during acute CN poisoning. Anesthetized rats were allocated to three groups: 1) vehicle (1.2 ml isotonic NaCl intra-arterially); 2) potassium CN (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially); 3) potassium CN, OHCob (100 mg/kg intra-arterially) and subsequent HBOT (284 kPa in 90 min). OHCob and HBOT significantly attenuated the acute surges in interstitial cerebral lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations compared with the intoxicated rats given no treatment. Furthermore, the combined treatment resulted in consistent low lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations, as well as in low lactate-to-pyruvate ratios compared with CN intoxicated controls. In rats receiving OHCob and HBOT, respiration improved and cyanosis disappeared, with subsequent stabilization of mean arterial blood pressure. The present findings indicate that a combined administration of OHCob and HBOT has a beneficial and persistent effect on the cerebral metabolism during CN intoxication.

  12. Effect of acute and chronic cobalt administration on carotid body chemoreceptors responses.

    PubMed

    Morelli, L; Di Giulio, C; Iezzi, M; Data, P G

    1994-06-30

    Chronic cobalt exposure leads to release and production of erythropoietin and consequently to polycythemia. Accordingly, cellular elements sensitive to oxygen in the carotid body, would manifest responses during acute and chronic cobalt administration. The carotid body, detects gas changes (PO2, PCO2/pH) in the arterial blood and regulates ventilation and circulation by the afferent nerve discharge. We hypothesized that cobalt interacts with an oxygen sensitive mechanism in the carotid chemoreception and in erythropoietin producing cells. Twelve cats were anesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated; few fiber preparation of carotid sinus nerve were recorded during close intraarterial injection of cobalt. In another protocol, 12 rats received an intraperitoneal dose of CoCl2 (10 mg/kg) daily for 6 weeks. At the end, the carotid body was fixed in situ by superfusion. Ultrastructural and morphometric studies were made. Acute administration (0.08-2.3 mumol) promptly stimulated the chemoreceptor afferents. Type I cells increased significantly along with erythropoiesis in the chronic cobalt treated rats. The stimulatory effects of cobalt on the carotid body chemoreceptor showed that sensitive mechanisms in the kidney and in the carotid body are similar, and cobalt interacts with the physiological responses of oxygen.

  13. Cyproheptadine resembles clozapine in vivo following both acute and chronic administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew J; Cooper, Gillian D; Cole, Jon C; Sumnall, Harry R

    2007-03-01

    Cyproheptadine is a cheap, widely available anti-allergy drug with a broad receptor binding profile which resembles that of clozapine. In rats discriminating clozapine from vehicle cyproheptadine mimicked clozapine very closely. Acutely it induced full generalization in the absence of response suppression, as observed with clozapine. Chronic administration of clozapine and cyproheptadine induced tolerance and cross-tolerance respectively to the clozapine stimulus. This was characterized by circa 3.5-fold parallel shifts to the right in the clozapine generalization curves. Such tolerance and cross-tolerance was spontaneously reversible, suggesting that it was pharmacodynamic, and that clozapine and cyproheptadine induce similar neuroadaptations when administered chronically. Administration of chlordiazepoxide at a very high dose induced no cross-tolerance to the clozapine stimulus showing the pharmacological specificity of tolerance. The clozapine stimulus is a compound cue involving actions at various receptors, and various clozapine-like antipsychotic (APD) drugs generalize fully to it. These data demonstrate that in vivo cyproheptadine resembles clozapine both acutely and chronically. Our findings, in conjunction with other actions of cyproheptadine -- induction of weight gain, alleviation of clozapine withdrawal, anxiolytic actions, alleviation of 'typical' APD-induced motoric side effects, and some preliminary clinical findings -- suggest that further study of cyproheptadine in conjunction with a 'typical' APD for the possible treatment of schizophrenia is merited at both pre-clinical and clinical levels.

  14. Differential peptidomics assessment of strain and age differences in mice in response to acute cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Ossyra, John R; Zombeck, Jonathan A; Nosek, Michael R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-12-01

    Neurochemical differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis between individuals and between ages may contribute to differential susceptibility to cocaine abuse. This study measured peptide levels in the pituitary gland (Pit) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in adolescent (age 30 days) and adult (age 65 days) mice from four standard inbred strains, FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and BALB/cByJ, which have previously been characterized for acute locomotor responses to cocaine. Individual peptide profiles were analyzed using mass spectrometric profiling and principal component analysis. Sequences of assigned peptides were verified by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis classified all strains according to their distinct peptide profiles in Pit samples from adolescent mice, but not adults. Select pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were significantly higher in adolescent BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice than in FVB/NJ or C57BL/6J mice. A subset of peptides in the LH, but not in the Pit, was altered by cocaine in adolescents. A 15 mg/kg dose of cocaine induced greater peptide alterations than a 30 mg/kg dose, particularly in FVB/NJ animals, with larger differences in adolescents than adults. Neuropeptides in the LH affected by acute cocaine administration included pro-opiomelanocortin-, myelin basic protein-, and glutamate transporter-derived peptides. The observed peptide differences could contribute to differential behavioral sensitivity to cocaine among strains and ages. Peptides were measured using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) in individual lateral hypothalamus and pituitary samples from four strains and two ages of inbred mice in response to acute cocaine administration. Principal component analyses (PCA) classified the strains according to their peptide profiles from adolescent mice, and a subset of peptides in the lateral hypothalamus was altered by cocaine in adolescents.

  15. Use of Bioimpedance to Assess Changes in Hemodynamics During Acute Administration of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Digby, Genevieve C.; Driver, Helen S.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Ropchan, Glorianne; Parker, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attempts to investigate the mechanisms by which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves heart function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been limited by the lack of non-invasive methods to assess cardiac performance. We used transthoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) to assess acute hemodynamic changes including heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) during PAP titration in (1) post-operative cardiac surgery patients, (2) patients with severe OSA, and (3) normal healthy volunteers. Methods Post-operative cardiac surgery patients were studied via TEB and pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) during acute titration of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) while mechanically ventilated. Patients with severe OSA were studied non-invasively by TEB during acute CPAP titration in supine stage 2 sleep, and normal subjects while awake and recumbent. Results In post-operative cardiac surgery patients (n = 3), increasing PEEP to 18 cmH2O significantly reduced SV and CI relative to baseline. There was no difference between TEB and PAC in terms of ability to assess variations in hemodynamic parameters. In patients with severe OSA (n = 3), CPAP titration to optimal pressure to alleviate obstructive apneas reduced HR, SV, CO and CI significantly compared to without CPAP. In three healthy subjects, maximal tolerated CPAP reduced SV and CO significantly compared to baseline. Conclusions Acute administration of CPAP causes a decrease in CO and CI, apparently a consequence of a reduction in SV. TEB appears to be an accurate and reproducible non-invasive method of detecting changes in hemodynamics.

  16. Acute caffeine administration effect on brain activation patterns in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Sinanaj, Indrit; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that acute caffeine administration enhances task-related brain activation in elderly individuals with preserved cognition. To explore the effects of this widely used agent on cognition and brain activation in early phases of cognitive decline, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an n-back working memory task in 17 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). All individuals were regular caffeine consumers with an overnight abstinence and given 200 mg caffeine versus placebo tablets 30 minutes before testing. Analyses included assessment of task-related activation (general linear model), functional connectivity (tensorial-independent component analysis, TICA), baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling, ASL), grey matter density (voxel-based morphometry, VBM), and white matter microstructure (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS). Acute caffeine administration induced a focal activation of the prefrontal areas in HC with a more diffuse and posteromedial activation pattern in MCI individuals. In MCI, TICA documented a significant caffeine-related enhancement in the prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor and parietal cortex as well as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The absence of significant group differences in baseline ASL perfusion patterns supports a neuronal rather than a purely vascular origin of these differences. The VBM and TBSS analyses excluded potentially confounding differences in grey matter density and white matter microstructure between MCI and HC. The present findings suggest a posterior displacement of working memory-related brain activation patterns after caffeine administration in MCI that may represent a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance a frontal lobe dysfunction.

  17. 48 CFR 252.242-7006 - Accounting system administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting system... of Provisions And Clauses 252.242-7006 Accounting system administration. As prescribed in 242.7503, use the following clause: Accounting System Administration (FEB 2012) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  18. Acute systemic rapamycin induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Doenlen, Raphael; Krügel, Ute; Bösche, Katharina; Orlowski, Kathrin; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-10-15

    Rapamycin is a drug with antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties, widely used for prevention of acute graft rejection and cancer therapy. It specifically inhibits the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase known to play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and antibody production. Clinical observations show that patients undergoing therapy with immunosuppressive drugs frequently suffer from affective disorders such as anxiety or depression. However, whether these symptoms are attributed to the action of the distinct compounds remains rather elusive. The present study investigated in rats neurobehavioral consequences of acute rapamycin treatment. Systemic administration of a single low dose rapamycin (3mg/kg) led to enhanced neuronal activity in the amygdala analyzed by intracerebral electroencephalography and FOS protein expression 90min after drug injection. Moreover, behavioral investigations revealed a rapamycin-induced increase in anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field. The behavioral alterations correlated to enhanced amygdaloid expression of KLK8 and FKBP51, proteins that have been implicated in the development of anxiety and depression. Together, these results demonstrate that acute blockade of mTOR signaling by acute rapamycin administration not only causes changes in neuronal activity, but also leads to elevated protein expression in protein kinase pathways others than mTOR, contributing to the development of anxiety-like behavior. Given the pivotal role of the amygdala in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions, our findings raise the question whether therapy with rapamycin may induce alterations in patients neuropsychological functioning.

  19. Lethal acute lung injury and hypoglycemia after subcutaneous administration of monochloroacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junko; Dote, Tomotaro; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Shimbo, Yukari; Fujihara, Michiko; Kono, Koichi

    2006-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is suspected in the acute lethal toxicity induced by cutaneous exposure to monochloroacetic acid (MCA). Although it has been shown that hepato-renal dysfunction is involved, the mechanism and the target organs that directly affect mortality remain to be determined. We suspected respiratory failure as a main cause of death in some reported cases. We investigated dose-response effects, hypoglycemia, and lung injury in rats exposed to MCA. Serum glucose, blood gases, and parameters of alveolar injury in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed 2 and 4 h after subcutaneous administration of MCA (108, 135 or 163 mg/kg). Apparent pulmonary injury and hypoglycemia were not identified 2 h after administration, but lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total cells in BALF were dose-dependently increased; and severe hypoglycemia was identified 4 h after administration. Blood gas analysis showed remarkable alveolar gas dysfunction as exchange in the 163 mg/kg group. Thus, hypoglycemia and lung injury appear to cause death in response to MCA exposure.

  20. Administrator Perspectives of Ohio's Teacher Evaluation System: Implications for Educational Administration Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nicole V.; Crates, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit elementary and middle school administrators' perceptions of the Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES). The researchers created a questionnaire to learn administrators' experiences with and attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and knowledge of OTES thus far. The questionnaire consisted of twenty-five Likert-based…

  1. On-Line Administrative Information Systems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sire, Paul W.

    A case study approach is used to document the on-line information system developed by the Office of Management Information and Computing at the University of Vermont. Stanford University's Project INFO On-Line Administration Information System, OASIS, was chosen as a model. The administrative system is one of two on campus, the other designed for…

  2. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

  3. Effects of acute administration of brotizolam in subjects with disturbed sleep

    PubMed Central

    Roehrs, T.; Zorick, F.; Koshorek, G. L.; Wittig, R.; Roth, T.

    1983-01-01

    1 Effects of ingestion of brotizolam (0.25 and 0.50 mg) over 1-3 days on polysomnographic measures of sleep were assessed in patients complaining of insomnia. 2 Brotizolam reduced latency to sleep, number of awakenings and wake during sleep, and increased total sleep time. It also increased stage 2 sleep and decreased slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep. 3 Increasing the dose from 0.25 to 0.50 mg increased hypnotic efficacy, and there was a more consistent and reliable effect. 4 Discontinuation of brotizolam had minimal effects on sleep compared with placebo over the 3 nights after acute administration. 5 No side-effects or disruption of daytime function was found using questionnaires and objective tests of performance. PMID:6661383

  4. Behavioral consequences of chelator administration in acute cadmium toxicity (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, D.B.; Farmer, J.D.; MacPhail, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The conditioned flavor-aversion paradigm was used to assess the toxicity of acutely administered cadmium and the interaction of cadmium with the heavy-metal chelating agents dimercaprol (BAL) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Shortly after consuming saccharin, rats received cadmium either alone or in combination with BAL or DMSA. When compared to rats receiving either nothing or the vehicle, rats receiving cadmium displayed significant reductions in saccharin preference (i.e., conditioned flavor aversions). BAL and DMSA were also capable of producing conditioned flavor aversions when given alone. Rats receiving cadmium in combination with either BAL or DMSA displayed significant, but not complete, attenuations of conditioned flavor aversions when compared to rats receiving cadmium alone. Chelator-induced blockade of cadmium-induced flavor-aversion conditioning was not obtained when BAL or DMSA administration was delayed by 4 hrs.

  5. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Tiradentes, R.V.; Pires, J.G.P.; Silva, N.F.; Ramage, A.G.; Santuzzi, C.H.; Futuro, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central. PMID:25003632

  6. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Tiradentes, R V; Pires, J G P; Silva, N F; Ramage, A G; Santuzzi, C H; Futuro Neto, H A

    2014-07-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33 ± 4.7 and -31 ± 5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35 ± 5.4 and -31 ± 5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3 ± 2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4 ± 8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  7. Liver necrosis induced by acute intraperitoneal ethanol administration in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Giavarotti, Leandro; D'Almeida, Vania; Giavarotti, Karin A S; Azzalis, Ligia A; Rodrigues, Luciano; Cravero, Amerys A M; Videla, Luis A; Koch, Osvaldo R; Junqueira, Virginia B C

    2002-03-01

    It is generally agreed that the deleterious pathophysiological effects of ethanol are caused, at least partially by an increase in free radical production. However, little attention has been directed to the effects of ethanol upon elderly organisms. Male Wistar rats at ages 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months were treated either with a single i.p. dose of 35% ethanol (v/v) at 3 g ethanol/kg body weight or an isovolumetric amount of 0.9% saline solution. We then assessed the plasma levels of transaminases and hepatic levels of oxidative stress-related parameters, followed by liver histological evaluation. The younger rats (3 months old) were not affected by the treatment with ethanol with respect to any of the studied parameters except for a lowering of total hepatic GSH and an increase in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactants (TBARS) formation, while animals older than 3 months were increasingly more affected by the treatment. Acute ethanol treatment elicited the similar responses to those in the 3 months-old group, plus a decrease in the hepatic and plasma levels of beta-carotene and the plasma level of alpha-tocopherol, as well as an increase in the activity of plasma transaminases. In the 12,18 and 24 months old groups, there was increasing liver necrosis. These findings suggest that liver damage induced by acute ethanol administration in elderly rats may involve a lack of antioxidants.

  8. Acute pneumonia and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Medina, Vicente F; Musher, Daniel M; Shachkina, Svetlana; Chirinos, Julio A

    2013-02-09

    Although traditionally regarded as a disease confined to the lungs, acute pneumonia has important effects on the cardiovascular system at all severities of infection. Pneumonia tends to affect individuals who are also at high cardiovascular risk. Results of recent studies show that about a quarter of adults admitted to hospital with pneumonia develop a major acute cardiac complication during their hospital stay, which is associated with a 60% increase in short-term mortality. These findings suggest that outcomes of patients with pneumonia can be improved by prevention of the development and progression of associated cardiac complications. Before this hypothesis can be tested, however, an adequate mechanistic understanding of the cardiovascular changes that occur during pneumonia, and their role in the trigger of various cardiac complications, is needed. In this Review, we summarise knowledge about the burden of cardiac complications in adults with acute pneumonia, the cardiovascular response to this infection, the potential effects of commonly used cardiovascular and anti-infective drugs on these associations, and possible directions for future research.

  9. Relations among acute and chronic nicotine administration, short-term memory, and tactics of data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample stimulus offset and comparison stimuli onset are manipulated and accuracy is measured. The present research attempted to systematically replicate these enhancement effects with pigeons. In addition, the effects of nicotine were assessed under another, more dynamic, memory task called titrating-delay matching-to-sample. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Correct matches increase the delay, mismatches decrease the delay, and titrated delay values serve as the primary dependent measure. Both studies examined nicotine's effects under acute and chronic administration. Neither provided clear or compelling evidence of memory enhancement following nicotine administration despite reliable and systematic dose-related changes in response latency measures. A modest dose-related effect on accuracy was found, but the magnitude of the effect appears to be directly related to tactics of data analysis involving best-dose analyses of a very circumscribed subset of trial types.

  10. The effect of acute stress and long-term corticosteroid administration on plasma metabolites in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Rodriguez, Natalie S; Sweazea, Karen L; Deviche, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In response to stressful stimuli, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can result in transition to the "emergency life history stage." A key adaptive characteristic of this life history stage is the mobilization of energy stores. However, few data are available on the metabolic response to acute stress in wild-caught, free-ranging birds. We quantified the effect of acute capture and restraint stress on plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and uric acid in free-ranging Abert's towhees Melozone aberti. Furthermore, birds were caught from urban and desert localities of Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate potential effects of urban versus desert habitats on the corticosterone (CORT) and metabolic response to acute stress. Complementing work on free-ranging birds, captive towhees received CORT-filled Silastic capsules to investigate the response of urban and desert conspecifics to long-term CORT administration. We quantified the effect of CORT administration on baseline plasma glucose and uric acid, liver and pectoralis muscle glycogen stores, kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C, a key gluconeogenic enzyme), and body mass. Acute stress increased plasma CORT and glucose and decreased plasma uric acid but had no effect on plasma free fatty acid. There was no difference between urban and desert localities in body mass, fat scores, and the response to acute stress. CORT administration decreased body mass but had no effect on glucose and uric acid, pectoral muscle glycogen, or kidney PEPCK-C. However, liver glycogen of CORT-treated urban birds increased compared with corresponding controls, whereas glycogen decreased in CORT-treated desert birds. This study suggests that Abert's towhees principally mobilize glucose during acute stress but urban and desert towhees do not differ in their CORT and metabolic response to acute stress or long-term CORT administration.

  11. Delayed administration of darbepoetin or erythropoietin protects against ischemic acute renal injury and failure.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Pat, B; Vesey, D A; Guan, Z; Endre, Z; Gobe, G C

    2006-05-01

    Administration of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) at time of acute ischemic renal injury (IRI) inhibits apoptosis, enhances tubular epithelial regeneration, and promotes renal functional recovery. The present study aimed to determine whether darbepoetin-alfa (DPO) exhibits comparable renoprotection to that afforded by EPO, whether pro or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are involved, and whether delayed administration of EPO or DPO 6 h following IRI ameliorates renal dysfunction. The model of IRI involved bilateral renal artery occlusion for 45 min in rats (N = 4 per group), followed by reperfusion for 1-7 days. Controls were sham-operated. Rats were treated at time of ischemia or sham operation (T0), or post-treated (6 h after the onset of reperfusion, T6) with EPO (5000 IU/kg), DPO (25 mug/kg), or appropriate vehicle by intraperitoneal injection. Renal function, structure, and immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax were analyzed. DPO or EPO at T0 significantly abrogated renal dysfunction in IRI animals (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.04 +/- 0.01 mmol/l, P = 0.01). Delayed administration of DPO or EPO (T6) also significantly abrogated subsequent renal dysfunction (serum creatinine for IRI 0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/l vs DPO-IRI 0.06 +/- 0.01 mmol/l vs EPO-IRI 0.03 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, P = 0.01). There was also significantly decreased tissue injury (apoptosis, P < 0.05), decreased proapoptotic Bax, and increased regenerative capacity, especially in the outer stripe of the outer medulla, with DPO or EPO at T0 or T6. These results reaffirm the potential clinical application of DPO and EPO as novel renoprotective agents for patients at risk of ischemic acute renal failure or after having sustained an ischemic renal insult.

  12. Effect of early administration of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor on acute edematous pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Yao, Xing; Dai, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Guo-Lei; Ping, Jin-Liang; He, Jian-Fang; Han, Chun-Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effect of early administration of exogenous Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) in rats. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three (n = 10): normal control group (group I), AEP group (group II) and AEP with bFGF treatment group (group III). AEP was induced by subcutaneous injection of cerulein (5.5 μg/kg and 7.5 μg/kg) at 1 h interval into rats of groups II and III. Three hours after induction of AEP, 100 μg/kg bFGF was administrated intraperitoneally for 1h to group III rats. For test of DNA synthesis in acinar cells, 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling solution was intraperitoneally injected into the rats of groups II and III 24 h after bFGF treatment. The changes in serum amylase, lipase, pancreatic tissue wet/dry ratio were detected. RESULTS: In bFGF treatment group, there was a significant decrease in the volume of serum amylase, lipase and the pancreatic wet/dry weight ratio(1383.0 ± 94.6 U/L, 194.0 ± 43.6 U/L, 4.32 ± 0.32) compared to AEP group (3464 ± 223.7 U/L, 456 ±68.7 U/L, 6.89 ± 0.47) (P < 0.01), and no significant difference was found between bFGF treatment and control group (1289 ± 94.0 U/L, 171 ± 23.4 U/L, 4.12 ± 0.26, P > 0.05). The inflammatory changes such as interstitial edema, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and vacuolization were significantly ameliorated compared to AEP group (P < 0.01). A small number of BrdU-labeled nuclei were observed in acinar cells of AEP rats (1.8 ± 0.3 nuclei/microscopic field, n = 10) while diffuse BrdU-labeled nuclei were found in bFGF-treated rats (18.9 ± 1.4 nuclei/microscopic field, n = 10) (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical study showed increased DNA synthesis in pancreatic acinar cells. CONCLUSION: Early administration of exogenous bFGF has significant therapeutic effect on cerulein-induced acute edematous pancreatitis in rats. Its mechanism is related to the amelioration of inflammation

  13. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  14. [Administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil for Prophylaxis of the N-V-D Stage of Acute Radiation Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Drachouv, I S; Bykov, V N; Seleznev, A B

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on small (rats) and large (dogs) animals have shown that a sequential administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil decreases the intensity of the main manifestations of the N-V-D stage of acute radiation syndrome. These data show the appropriateness of a combined administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil to prevent a reduced work capacity in the individuals participating in elimination of the consequences of accidents associated with overexposure to radiation.

  15. Computer-Based Administrative Support Systems: The Stanford Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massy, William F.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-based administrative support tools are having a profound effect on the management of colleges and universities. Several such systems at Stanford University are discussed, including modeling, database management systems, networking, and electronic mail. (JN)

  16. An unusual cause of acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy in systemic scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Mascio, Heather M; Joya, Christie A; Plasse, Richard A; Baker, Thomas P; Flessner, Michael F; Nee, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. Far rarer is its association with scleroderma, with only one other published case report in the literature. We report a case of a 75-year-old African-American female with a history of systemic scleroderma manifested by chronic pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) treated with rifaximin, who presented with acute kidney injury with normal blood pressure. A renal biopsy demonstrated extensive acute tubular injury with numerous intratubular birefringent crystals, consistent with oxalate nephropathy. We hypothesize that her recent treatment with rifaximin for SIBO and decreased intestinal transit time in pseudo-obstruction may have significantly increased intestinal oxalate absorption, leading to acute kidney injury. Oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in scleroderma with normotension, and subsequent evaluation should be focused on bowel function to include alterations in gut flora due to antibiotic administration.

  17. System administrator`s guide to CDPS. Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Didier, B.T.; Portwood, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    The System Administrator`s Guide to CDPS is intended for those responsible for setting up and maintaining the hardware and software of a Common Mapping Standard (CMS) Date Production System (CDPS) installation. This guide assists the system administrator in performing typical administrative functions. It is not intended to replace the Ultrix Documentation Set that should be available for a DCPS installation. The Ultrix Documentation Set will be required to provide details on referenced Ultrix commands as well as procedures for performing Ultrix maintenance functions. There are six major sections in this guide. Section 1 introduces the system administrator to CDPS and describes the assumptions that are made by this guide. Section 2 describes the CDPS platform configuration. Section 3 describes the platform preparation that is required to install the CDPS software. Section 4 describes the CPS software and its installation procedures. Section 5 describes the CDS software and its installation procedures. Section 6 describes various operation and maintenance procedures. Four appendices are also provided. Appendix A contains a list of used acronyms. Appendix B provides a terse description of common Ultrix commands that are used in administrative functions. Appendix C provides sample CPS and CDS configuration files. Appendix D provides a required list and a recommended list of Ultrix software subsets for installation on a CDPS platform.

  18. Management Information Systems: Applications to Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Belle Ruth

    An orientation to management information systems (MIS) is offered which presents information about MIS in the context of public education and suggests some considerations that should be taken into account in designing and operating such systems. MIS is defined as a set of operating procedures that act as a control system to automatically provide…

  19. Acute intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid affects the expression of the coat protein AP-2 and its interaction with membranes.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Janina; Seltzer, Alicia; Sosa, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis is thought to be crucial for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and for the cell plasticity at the nervous system. In this study, we demonstrated that acute intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid (QUIN), an agonist of the N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor, induces a decrease of the coat protein AP-2 expression and affects their interaction with membranes. By western blot analysis we observed that at 24 h after QUIN intrastriatal injection, alpha1 subunit of AP-2 and alpha2, at lesser extent, were reduced in the striatal membranes. The decrease of both subunits expression was extended to 48 h after treatment, although the soluble proteins were mostly affected. Other areas of the brain were not affected by the treatment, except the cerebellum, where a significant increase of soluble AP-2 (both subunits) was observed at 48 h after injection. Another coat protein, as the phosphoprotein AP-180, was not affected by the injection of QUIN. We also confirmed that QUIN injection causes increasing loss of striatal neurons after the administration of the toxin. We concluded that QUIN may affect the endocytotic machinery of the striatum, by inducing changes in the AP-2 behaviour. Consequently, the internalization of NMDAR and/or AMPAR may be affected, by QUIN, contributing to the excitotoxic effect of the drug.

  20. Lycopene treatment prevents hematological, reproductive and histopathological damage induced by acute zearalenone administration in male Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del'Fabbro, Lucian; Roman, Silvane Souza; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Jessé, Cristiano Ricardo; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2014-07-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin commonly found as a contaminant in cereals. ZEA toxicity targets mainly the reproductive system, and oxidative stress plays an etiological role in its toxic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene, a potent carotenoid antioxidant, on markers of oxidative stress in liver, kidney and testes, and on reproductive, hematological and histopathological parameters after ZEA administration. Adult Swiss albino male mice received lycopene (20mg/kg, p.o.) for ten days before a single oral administration of ZEA (40mg/kg, p.o.), and 48h thereafter tissues (liver, kidney, testes and blood) were collected for biochemical, hematological and histological analyses. Lycopene prevented ZEA-induced changes in hematological parameters (increased number of leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, sticks, eosinophils and monocytes and decreased number of red blood cells (RBC), number of lymphocytes and platelets). Moreover, lycopene prevented the reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and the testicular tissue damage induced by ZEA. In addition, lycopene prevented the decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity in kidney and testes and increased glutathione-S-transferase activity per se in the liver, kidneys and testes as well as superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. In summary, lycopene was able to prevent ZEA-induced acute toxic effects in male mice, suggesting that this antioxidant carotenoid may represent a promising prophylactic strategy against ZEA toxicity.

  1. Effect of chronic estradiol administration on the acute pressor response to aortic coarctation in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Salgado, M C; Castania, J A; Ballejo, G; Salgado, H C

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the effect of chronic estradiol administration on the pressor response elicited by acute (45 min) partial aortic constriction in conscious Wistar rats and on vascular reactivity to angiotensin II and vasopressin in vitro. Estradiol (10 micrograms kg-1 day-1, sc) or vehicle was administered for 7 days to young castrated male and female rats and to female rats that had stopped cycling (14-16 months of age). In the acute experiment of aortic coarctation in conscious rats, carotid pressure was monitored continuously before and for 45 min after partial abdominal aortic coarctation. In ovariectomized females the mean carotid pressure and heart rate before aortic coarctation were significantly lower in estradiol-treated animals (107 +/- 3 vs 119 +/- 3 mmHg and 360 +/- 31 vs 494 +/- 12 bpm). Estradiol did not affect the pressor response (145-150 mmHg) to aortic coarctation of castrated male rats or ovariectomized female rats but blunted the reflex bradycardia of ovariectomized rats. The onset of the pressor response to aortic coarctation was delayed in aged female rats as compared to the other groups. While estradiol treatment significantly accelerated the onset of hypertension in aged rats, it did not affect the pressor response of castrated animals. Full dose-response curves to angiotensin II and vasopressin were constructed in vitro in the isolated mesenteric arterial bed obtained from similarly treated groups. Estradiol did not affect the vasopressin sensitivity or responsiveness of any group, but caused a significant increase in angiotensin II sensitivity in ovariectomized rats only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Albumin Administration in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Safety Analysis of the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Moy, Claudia S.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.; Jones, Elizabeth B.; Weisman, David; Pettigrew, Creed; Ginsberg, Myron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumin treatment of ischemic stroke was associated with cardiopulmonary adverse events in previous studies and a low incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to describe the neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events in the ALIAS Part 2 Multicenter Trial. Methods Ischemic stroke patients, aged 18–83 and a baseline NIHSS ≥ 6, were randomized to treatment with ALB or saline control within 5 hours of stroke onset. Neurological adverse events included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, hemicraniectomy, neurological deterioration and neurological death. Cardiopulmonary adverse events included pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism. Results Among 830 patients, neurological and cardiopulmonary adverse events were not differentially associated with poor outcome between ALB and saline control subjects. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the first 24h was low overall (2.9%, 24/830) but more common in the ALB treated subjects (RR = 2.4, CI95 1.01–5.8). The rate of pulmonary edema/CHF in the first 48h was 7.9% (59/830) and was more common among ALB treated subjects (RR = 10.7, CI95 4.3–26.6); this complication was expected and was satisfactorily managed with mandated diuretic administration and intravenous fluid guidelines. Troponin elevations in the first 48h were common, occurring without ECG change or cardiac symptoms in 52 subjects (12.5%). Conclusions ALB therapy was associated with an increase in symptomatic ICH and pulmonary edema/congestive heart failure but this did not affect final outcomes. Troponin elevation occurs routinely in the first 48 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT00235495 PMID:26325387

  3. Expert Systems for Civilian Personnel Administration,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    of them in a comparative mode, having an identical problem being solved using each system (see Hayes- Roth, Waterman and Douglas). There are several...This is fairly obvious. After a system is developed, certified expert, and placed in operation as a standardized system, identical ...results would be obtained given identical facts in all locations throughout Army. Although we do not like to admit it, human specialists do not always

  4. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  5. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss.

  6. Acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles cause DNA damage in the cerebral cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eria; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Zanoni, Elton Torres; de Souza Notoya, Frederico; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Daumann, Francine; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Ortiz; Benavides, Roberto; da Silva, Luciano; Andrade, Vanessa M; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques

    2014-01-01

    The use of gold nanoparticles is increasing in medicine; however, their toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Studies show that gold nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as accumulate in the brain. Therefore, this study was undertaken to better understand the effects of gold nanoparticles on rat brains. DNA damage parameters were evaluated in the cerebral cortex of adult rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of two different diameters: 10 and 30nm. During acute administration, adult rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of either gold nanoparticles or saline solution. During chronic administration, adult rats received a daily single injection for 28 days of the same gold nanoparticles or saline solution. Twenty-four hours after either single (acute) or last injection (chronic), the rats were euthanized by decapitation, their brains removed, and the cerebral cortices isolated for evaluation of DNA damage parameters. Our study showed that acute administration of gold nanoparticles in adult rats presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in their DNA compared to the control group. It was also observed that gold nanoparticles of 30nm presented higher levels of damage frequency and damage index in the DNA compared to the 10nm ones. When comparing the effects of chronic administration of gold nanoparticles of 10 and 30nm, we observed that occurred significant different index and frequency damage, comparing with control group. However, there is no difference between the 10 and 30nm groups in the levels of DNA damage for both parameters of the Comet assay. Results suggest that gold nanoparticles for both sizes cause DNA damage for chronic as well as acute treatments, although a higher damage was observed for the chronic one.

  7. Mode of inhibitory actions of acute and chronic chloroquine administration on the electrically stimulated mouse diaphragm in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Okwuasaba, F. K.; Otubu, J. A.; Udoh, F. V.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of bath applied chloroquine (Chlo) and of acute and chronic Chlo administration on skeletal muscle reactivity to electrical stimulation and to drugs have been studied on mouse hemidiaphragm preparations in vitro. 2. Chlo (0.15-150 micrograms) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition twitch and tetanic contractions due to direct muscle stimulation (MS). Acute and chronic administration of Chlo (45 mg kg-1, i.p. daily, for 3-28 days) progressively shifted the concentration-response curve to bath-applied Chlo to the right, with maximum effect occurring from day 14 of Chlo pretreatment. 3. Acute and chronic administration of Chlo decreased the twitch and tetanus tension, raised the minimal fusion frequency (MFR) for tetanic contraction to occur and did not alter the twitch/tetanus tension ratio. Tetanus tension unlike twitch tension was not significantly decreased on day 3. 4. Caffeine (5-500 microM)--and isoprenaline (0.001-0.8 microM)-induced potentiations of twitch contraction were attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by bath-applied Chlo and by acute and chronic administration of Chlo. Higher concentrations of caffeine (0.1-5 microM) and KCl (10 mM-130 mM) produced contracture of the muscle which was sensitive to inhibition by Chlo (50-150 microM). Moreover, the spike contractions superimposed on caffeine contracture were more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of Chlo than the contracture. 5. The inhibitory effects of dantrolene sodium and (+)-tubocurarine on MS and on indirectly stimulated hemidiaphragm respectively were not significantly altered by acute and chronic administration of Chlo. In contrast, the inhibitory concentration-response curve to procaine was shifted to the right.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2282456

  8. Administration: Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Staffing Standards System MSA Manpower Standards Application MSLS Missiles Procurement, Army (appropriation) MTMC Military Traffic Management Command MTOE...command. Military Traffic Management Command ( MTMC ), assigned to U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) National command authorities The President and

  9. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area

    PubMed Central

    García-Avilés, Álvaro; Albert-Gascó, Héctor; Arnal-Vicente, Isabel; Elhajj, Ebtisam; Sanjuan-Arias, Julio; Sanchez-Perez, Ana María; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if MPD administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered MPD doses (1.3, 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg) to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3 mg/Kg MPD; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum (MS), an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5 mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the MS the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibers did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons. PMID:25852493

  10. Neuroendocrine and neurochemical effects of acute ibogaine administration: a time course evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Slikker, W; Rothman, R B; Baumann, M H

    1996-10-21

    Ibogaine (IBO) is an indole alkaloid that is reported to facilitate drug abstinence in substance abusers. Despite considerable investigation, the mechanism of IBO action in vivo and its suitability as a treatment for drug addiction remains unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the time-course effects of acute IBO on neuroendocrine and neurochemical indices. Adult male rats were treated with i.p. saline or 50 mg/kg IBO and sacrificed 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h later. Trunk blood was collected for hormone measures and brains were dissected for neurochemical analyses. IBO produced a rapid elevation in plasma prolactin that declined to control levels by 60 min. Corticosterone levels increased 15 min after drug administration, continued to increase for 120 min, but returned to control levels 24 h after dosing. IBO decreased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the striatum and frontal cortex at 30, 60 and 120 min after injection while DA metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were elevated over the same time period. 24 h after IBO, DOPAC concentrations in striatum and HVA levels in the frontal cortex were below control values. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were decreased at 60 min after IBO administration only in the striatum. These data indicate that a single injection of IBO produces a spectrum of effects that includes: (1) elevation of plasma prolactin and corticosterone, (2) short- and long-term effects on DA neurotransmission, and (3) modest, transient effects of 5-HT neurotransmission. The effects of IBO reported herein may have relevance to the anti-addictive properties of this drug, and this proposal warrants further investigation.

  11. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    PubMed Central

    Melgari, Jean-Marc; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mastrolilli, Francesca; Salomone, Gaetano; Trotta, Laura; Tombini, Mario; di Biase, Lazzaro; Scrascia, Federica; Fini, Rita; Fabrizio, Emma; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods: We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD). Each patient underwent Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-part-III evaluation before and 60 min after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores) and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation) were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre and Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results: Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia). A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions: Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients. PMID:25452725

  12. Effects of acute cortisol administration on perceptual priming of trauma-related material.

    PubMed

    Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a "traumatic" context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or "traumatic" picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the "traumatic" stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a "traumatic" context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the "traumatic" stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support the idea that administration

  13. Glutathione Depletion and Recovery After Acute Ethanol Administration in the Aging Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Barbara L.; Richie, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in the detoxification of ethanol (EtOH) and acute EtOH administration leads to GSH depletion in the liver and other tissues. Aging is also associated with a progressive decline in GSH levels and impairment in GSH biosynthesis in many tissues. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the effects of aging on EtOH-induced depletion and recovery of GSH in different tissues of the C57Bl/6NNIA mouse. EtOH (2-5 g/kg) or saline was administered i.p. to mice of ages 6 mo (young), 12 mo (mature), and 24 mo (old); and GSH and cyst(e)ine concentrations were measured 0-24 hours thereafter. EtOH administration (5g/kg) depleted hepatic GSH levels >50% by 6 hr in all animals. By 24 hr, levels remained low in both young and old mice, but recovered to baseline levels in mature mice. At 6 hr, the decrease in hepatic GSH was dose-dependent up to 3 g/kg EtOH, but not at higher doses. The extent of depletion at the 3 g/kg dose was dependent upon age, with old mice demonstrating significantly lower GSH levels than mature mice (P<0.001). Altogether these results indicate that aging was associated with a greater degree of EtOH and fasting-induced GSH depletion and subsequent impaired recovery in liver. An impaired ability to recover was also observed in young animals. Further studies are required to determine if an inability to recover from GSH depletion by EtOH is associated with enhanced toxicity. PMID:17343832

  14. Microglia activation and cell death in response to diethyl-dithiocarbamate acute administration.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Gigliola Grassi; Laurenzi, Maria Assunta; Semprevivo, Massimo; Torni, Federica; Lindgren, Jan Ake; Marinucci, Eva

    2002-04-29

    An increasing body of evidence suggests a role for activated microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, it would be useful to have a better understanding of the significance of microglial activation for neuronal damage. Unfortunately, most models of microglial activation use invasive or long-lasting insults, which make it difficult to evaluate the role played by microglia. We have instead developed a model for microglial activation by using brief exposure to the widely available neurotoxin diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DDTC). Despite evidence for the neurotoxic nature of this substance, microglia involvement has not been hitherto investigated. After acute i.p. administration of DDTC at two different doses, microglia were already activated in selected areas of the rat brain (hippocampal dentate gyrus, entorhinal-pyriform cortex and hypothalamus) after 1 hour, reaching a peak at 3-6 hours and subsided within 6-48 hours, depending on the brain region. Microglia activation was associated with interleukin-1 beta immunopositivity between 3 and 6 hours and with up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II expression between 24 and 48 hours. No significant changes in astrocyte immunostaining were detected between 6 hours and 6 days. The TUNEL procedure revealed the death of a limited number of cells in the above-mentioned structures that peaked at 6h and then declined rapidly. Cell death was detected in sites with major, minor, or no microglial activation, indicating that these two events can occur concomitantly or independently. The study shows that the administration of DDTC provides a useful model for studying the implications of region-specific reactivity of microglia and its differential interaction with neuronal damage.

  15. Redox state and energy metabolism during liver regeneration: alterations produced by acute ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, J; Miranda-Garduño, L; Trejo-Izquierdo, E; Díaz-Muñoz, M; Vidrio, S; Morales-González, J A; Hernández-Muñoz, R

    1999-12-01

    Ethanol metabolism can induce modifications in liver metabolic pathways that are tightly regulated through the availability of cellular energy and through the redox state. Since partial hepatectomy (PH)-induced liver proliferation requires an oversupply of energy for enhanced syntheses of DNA and proteins, the present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of acute ethanol administration on the PH-induced changes in cellular redox and energy potentials. Ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) was administered to control rats and to two-thirds hepatectomized rats. Quantitation of the liver content of lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and adenine nucleotides led us to estimate the cytosolic and mitochondrial redox potentials and energy parameters. Specific activities in the liver of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes also were measured in these animals. Liver regeneration had no effect on cellular energy availability, but induced a more reduced cytosolic redox state accompanied by an oxidized mitochondrial redox state during the first 48 hr of treatment; the redox state normalized thereafter. Administration of ethanol did not modify energy parameters in PH rats, but this hepatotoxin readily blocked the PH-induced changes in the cellular redox state. In addition, proliferating liver promoted decreases in the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1); ethanol treatment prevented the PH-induced diminution of ADH activity. In summary, our data suggest that ethanol could minimize the PH-promoted metabolic adjustments mediated by redox reactions, probably leading to an ineffective preparatory event that culminates in compensatory liver growth after PH in the rat.

  16. Acute but not chronic administration of pioglitazone promoted behavioral and neurochemical protective effects in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Janaína K; Santiago, Ronise M; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ariza, Deborah; Morais, Lívia H; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neurochemical, motor and cognitive effects of pioglitazone in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the first experiment, we administered MPTP, and 1h later administered a single oral dose of pioglitazone (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg). The following day, we performed the open-field test and neurochemical dose response curve. We demonstrated that 30 mg/kg of pioglitazone was capable of restoring striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations and motor behaviors. A second experiment was conducted to test the effects of two protocols (acute and chronic) of pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) administration in the open-field test, two-way active avoidance task and in the DA and metabolites levels. The acute protocol consisted of a single oral administration 1 h after MPTP, whereas the chronic protocol was performed with daily administrations starting 1 h after MPTP and ending 22 days after that. Results showed that neither protocol was able to reverse the cognitive impairment promoted by MPTP. We also demonstrated that acute treatment generated some level of neuroprotection, as confirmed by the absence of DA reduction in the group treated with pioglitazone in comparison to the sham group. By contrast, chronic treatment leaded to a reduction of striatal DA, close to MPTP administration alone. These findings suggest that acute administration of pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) was more efficient in generating beneficial effects on motor behaviors and in striatal DA levels. Nevertheless, we failed to demonstrate that pioglitazone administration improved performance on a dopamine-related cognitive task after MPTP.

  17. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Auchenberg, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max: 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were included in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled parallel study. At baseline, after acute administration, and again after 2-week administration of the study drugs (8 mg salbutamol or placebo), subjects' maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps and isometric endurance of m. deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P < 0.05). Two-week administration of salbutamol increased (P < 0.05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol benefits athletes' sprint ability. Thus, the present study supports the restriction of oral salbutamol in competitive sports.

  18. Antibiotic treatment for acute haematogenous osteomyelitis of childhood: moving towards shorter courses and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, M; Peltola, H

    2011-10-01

    Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) of childhood usually affects the long bones of the lower limbs. Although almost any agent may cause AHOM, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterium, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and, in some countries, Salmonella spp. and Kingella kingae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnostic accuracy of traditional radiography and scintigraphy. Except for the pre-treatment diagnostic sample from bone before the institution of antibiotic therapy, no other surgery is usually required. Traditionally, non-neonatal AHOM has been treated with a 1-3-month course of antibiotics, including an intravenous (i.v.) phase for the first weeks, but recent prospective randomised studies challenge this approach. For most uncomplicated cases, a course of 20 days including an i.v. period of 2-4 days suffices, provided large enough doses of a well-absorbed agent (clindamycin or a first-generation cephalosporin, local resistance permitting) are used, administration is four times daily and most symptoms and signs subside within a few days. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a good guide in monitoring the course of illness, and the antimicrobial can usually be discontinued if CRP has decreased to <20 mg/L. Newer and costly agents, such as linezolid, should be reserved for cases due to resistant S. aureus strains. AHOM in neonates and immunocompromised patients probably requires a different approach. Because sequelae may develop slowly, follow-up for at least 1 year post hospitalisation is recommended.

  19. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticide diphacinone.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Horak, Katherine E; Warner, Sarah E; Day, Daniel D; Meteyer, Carol U; Volker, Steven F; Eisemann, John D; Johnston, John J

    2011-05-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell's viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  20. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  1. System Administration Support/SWORDS G2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) rocket is a dedicated small satellite launcher that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow soldiers in the field to put payloads of up to 25kg into orbit from the field. The SWORDSG2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the SWORDS rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. In addition, observation of the current cryogenic fluid delivery system in the Kennedy Space Center Cry Lab has allowed me to gain valuable experience of fluid systems and propelant delivery that is valuable to our team when developing amd modeling our own system.The ultimate goal of having a test-ready application to show to the heads of the project, and demonstrating G2's capabilities, by late 2014 will require hard work and intense study and understanding of not only the programming aspect but also the physical phenomena we want to model, observe, and control.

  2. Using Word Processing to Implement an Effective Administrative Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendy

    1978-01-01

    Describes the steps taken to reorganize the Administrative Support System of Houston Independent School District, to make it more efficient. A more flexible multi-function support team replaced the traditional private secretaries arrangement. (GA)

  3. Effects of inhaled CO administration on acute lung injury in baboons with pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fredenburgh, Laura E; Kraft, Bryan D; Hess, Dean R; Harris, R Scott; Wolf, Monroe A; Suliman, Hagir B; Roggli, Victor L; Davies, John D; Winkler, Tilo; Stenzler, Alex; Baron, Rebecca M; Thompson, B Taylor; Choi, Augustine M; Welty-Wolf, Karen E; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-10-15

    Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) gas has therapeutic potential for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome if a safe, evidence-based dosing strategy and a ventilator-compatible CO delivery system can be developed. In this study, we used a clinically relevant baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia to 1) test a novel, ventilator-compatible CO delivery system; 2) establish a safe and effective CO dosing regimen; and 3) investigate the local and systemic effects of CO therapy on inflammation and acute lung injury (ALI). Animals were inoculated with S. pneumoniae (10(8)-10(9) CFU) (n = 14) or saline vehicle (n = 5); in a subset with pneumonia (n = 5), we administered low-dose, inhaled CO gas (100-300 ppm × 60-90 min) at 0, 6, 24, and/or 48 h postinoculation and serially measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. We found that CO inhalation at 200 ppm for 60 min is well tolerated and achieves a COHb of 6-8% with ambient CO levels ≤ 1 ppm. The COHb level measured at 20 min predicted the 60-min COHb level by the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation with high accuracy. Animals given inhaled CO + antibiotics displayed significantly less ALI at 8 days postinoculation compared with antibiotics alone. Inhaled CO was associated with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in the lung and with augmentation of renal antioxidative programs. These data support the feasibility of safely delivering inhaled CO gas during mechanical ventilation and provide preliminary evidence that CO may accelerate the resolution of ALI in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate pneumonia model.

  4. Effects of inhaled CO administration on acute lung injury in baboons with pneumococcal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Bryan D.; Hess, Dean R.; Harris, R. Scott; Wolf, Monroe A.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Roggli, Victor L.; Davies, John D.; Winkler, Tilo; Stenzler, Alex; Baron, Rebecca M.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Choi, Augustine M.; Welty-Wolf, Karen E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) gas has therapeutic potential for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome if a safe, evidence-based dosing strategy and a ventilator-compatible CO delivery system can be developed. In this study, we used a clinically relevant baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia to 1) test a novel, ventilator-compatible CO delivery system; 2) establish a safe and effective CO dosing regimen; and 3) investigate the local and systemic effects of CO therapy on inflammation and acute lung injury (ALI). Animals were inoculated with S. pneumoniae (108-109 CFU) (n = 14) or saline vehicle (n = 5); in a subset with pneumonia (n = 5), we administered low-dose, inhaled CO gas (100–300 ppm × 60–90 min) at 0, 6, 24, and/or 48 h postinoculation and serially measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. We found that CO inhalation at 200 ppm for 60 min is well tolerated and achieves a COHb of 6–8% with ambient CO levels ≤ 1 ppm. The COHb level measured at 20 min predicted the 60-min COHb level by the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation with high accuracy. Animals given inhaled CO + antibiotics displayed significantly less ALI at 8 days postinoculation compared with antibiotics alone. Inhaled CO was associated with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in the lung and with augmentation of renal antioxidative programs. These data support the feasibility of safely delivering inhaled CO gas during mechanical ventilation and provide preliminary evidence that CO may accelerate the resolution of ALI in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate pneumonia model. PMID:26320156

  5. Acute and chronic administration of ibogaine to the rat results in astrogliosis that is not confined to the cerebellar vermis.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, J P; Rogers, T S; Rodman, L E; Page, J G

    1996-10-31

    Acute administration of high doses of ibogaine (IBG) to the male rat results in degeneration of Purkinje cells and reactive gliosis in the cerebellar vermis. We examined whether acute and chronic administration of IBG to male and female rats results in gliosis as determined by quantification of the astroglial intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). After acute administration of IBG, rats of both sexes showed dose-related increases in GFAP that were not confined to the cerebellar vermis. After chronic administration of IBG, female, but not male rats, showed large (as much as 200% of control), dose-related increases in GFAP in hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, brain stem and striatum, but not cerebellum. In hippocampus, the cytoskeletal proteins, neurofilament 68 (NF-68) and beta-tubulin were increased in females treated chronically with IBG, findings consistent with a damage-induced sprouting response. Together, the data indicate that IBG damages areas of the brain outside the cerebellum and that the sites damaged are dependent on sex and dosage regimen.

  6. The Dysfunctional Nature of Political Systems in University Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Bruce

    This paper argues that the rapid influx of information technology into society requires a change in university administration from the current political system to a computer based management system for higher productivity. The paper describes the dysfunctional nature of the political system of management in its lack of full accountability. The…

  7. Administrative Decision-Making and Computer-Based Planning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weischadle, David E.

    This paper presents the overall conceptual framework in which information gathered and stored by computers can be transformed into a comprehensive planning system useful in administrative decisionmaking. Identified and discussed are information needs (enrollment, costs, resources, and measurements) and a sample system (STEP - System for Trenton's…

  8. Acute cyanide intoxication and central transmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Persson, S A; Cassel, G; Sellström, A

    1985-12-01

    In rats treated with sodium cyanide (5-20 mg/kg, ip) dopamine was dose dependently decreased in the striatum within 60 sec. One of the main metabolites of dopamine in the central nervous system, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), was decreased in striatum, olfactory tubercle, and hippocampus. However, the oxidatively deaminated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), was not significantly altered in any of the brain regions studied. Naturally occurring levels of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-dopa), as well as L-dopa accumulated after inhibition of the neuronal L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, increased in cyanide-treated rats. The dopamine receptor antagonist spiperone (0.05 mg/kg, ip) slightly increased the survival in acute cyanide intoxication. Sodium cyanide increased the levels of glutamine in frontal cortex and striatum at all doses studied. Glutamic acid was increased in the cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus after sodium cyanide (5-10 mg/kg, ip). Higher doses decreased glutamic acid in the cerebellum, the frontal cortex, and the striatum. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were diminished at high doses in all regions studied. Cyanide increased the levels of cyclic GMP in the cerebellum. In the striatum cyclic GMP was decreased after sodium cyanide (10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant alterations in the concentrations of acetylcholine or choline were seen in the striatum of cyanide-treated rats. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine decreased the survival of mice given sodium cyanide. Acute cyanide intoxication thus produces rapid and fairly specific changes in central dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways.

  9. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

    2002-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

  10. An example of US Food and Drug Administration device regulation: medical devices indicated for use in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Li, Khan; Felten, Richard; Ogden, Neil; Melkerson, Mark

    2007-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has established requirements for protecting the public health by assuring the safety and effectiveness of a variety of medical products including drugs, devices, and biological products, and for promoting public health by expediting the approval of treatments that are safe and effective. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health is the center within the agency that is responsible for pre- and postmarket regulation of medical devices. In this article, we review current regulation of medical devices, research and development programs, pre- and postmarket perspectives, and future considerations of medical devices, particularly as they relate to devices targeting acute ischemic stroke as an example of the process. We also review the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's historical perspective of acute ischemic stroke trials and clinical trial design considerations used in prior studies that have led to US market clearance as they are related to currently marketed devices indicated for acute ischemic stroke.

  11. Effect of an acute intraluminal administration of capsaicin on oesophageal motor pattern in GORD patients with ineffective oesophageal motility.

    PubMed

    Grossi, L; Cappello, G; Marzio, L

    2006-08-01

    Ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM) is a functional disorder affecting about 50% of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients. This disease in a severe form limits the clearing ability of the oesophagus and is considered one of the predictive factors for poorer GORD resolution. Capsaicin, the active compound of red pepper, exerts a prokinetic effect on oesophageal motility in healthy subjects by increasing the amplitude of body waves, even if no evidence exists on its possible role in situations of reduced motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an acute administration of capsaicin on the oesophageal motor pattern in a group of GORD patients affected by severe IOM. Twelve GORD patients with severe IOM received an intra-oesophageal administration of 2 mL of a red pepper-olive oil mixture and 2 mL of olive oil alone serving as a control during a stationary manometry. The motor patterns of the oesophageal body and lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) were analysed at baseline and after the infusion of the two stimuli. The administration of capsaicin induced a significant improvement in oesophageal body contractility when compared with baseline. The velocity of propagation of waves and the LOS basal tone remained unchanged. The motor pattern was unaltered by the administration of olive oil alone. An acute administration of capsaicin seems to improve the motor performance of the oesophageal body in patients with ineffective motility. Whether this could represent the basis for further therapeutic approaches of GORD patients needs further study.

  12. Acute and long-term administration of citalopram desensitizes alpha2-adrenoceptors in the rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Grandoso, Laura; García, Laura; Pineda, Joseba; Ugedo, Luisa

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the sensitivity of rat vas deferens alpha2-adrenoceptors and to compare it with the effects of serotonin and the dual noradrenaline-serotonin uptake inhibitor duloxetine. To this end, we studied the inhibitory effect of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist bromoxidine on the electrically induced contraction of the vas deferens. Citalopram (1, 3 x 10(3) and 3 x 10(4) nM) applied in-vitro significantly attenuated the concentration-response inhibition induced by activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors on the electrically evoked contraction of the vas deferens (concentration of the agonist required to promote 50% of the maximal effect, EC50, for bromoxidine increased by 232%, 421% and 818%, respectively). Similarly, serotonin also attenuated the concentration-response inhibition mediated by presynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors (96% increase in EC50). Acute and long-term systemic administration of citalopram and duloxetine also produced a loss in the sensitivity of alpha2-adrenoceptors to bromoxidine (EC50 for bromoxidine increased by 97% and 144%, respectively, after citalopram, and by 214% and 167% after duloxetine). In addition, we observed that an increased fraction of receptors was required to be occupied to yield 50% of the inhibitory effect of bromoxidine after long-term administration of citalopram and duloxetine (KE increased by 142% and 83%). These results are indicative of early-onset and persistent down-regulation of peripheral alpha2-adrenoceptors by citalopram, which may account for some of its side effects.

  13. Dose-response relationship of an environmental mixture of pyrethroids following an acute oral administration in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose-response relationship of an environmental mixture of pyrethroids following an acute oral administration in the rat M.F. Hughes1, D.G. Ross1, J.M. Starr1, E.J. Scollon1,2, M.J. Wolansky1,3, K.M. Crofton1, M.J. DeVito1,4 1U.S. EPA, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2U.S. EPA,...

  14. Acute effect of hydralazine administration on pulmonary artery hemodynamics in dogs with chronic heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Keene, B W; McGuirk, S M; Sato, T

    1994-02-01

    In an effort to better understand the role of vasodilators in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic heartworm disease (HWD), pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were obtained from 7 experimentally infected, anesthetized dogs before and after hydralazine administration (mean dose, 1.96 mg/kg of body weight). Five dogs were maintained on room air, while 2 were maintained on 100% oxygen during the hydralazine study. The hemodynamic effect of hydralazine in dogs with HWD was evaluated, using heart rate, cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean arterial pressure, total pulmonary resistance, total systemic resistance, total systemic resistance/total pulmonary resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and left and right ventricular double products ([mean arterial pressure x heart rate] and [mean pulmonary artery pressure x heart rate], respectively). Responders were defined as those in which total pulmonary resistance decreased > or = 20% without an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and in which heart rate increase was < or = 10%. Comparison was also made between maximal hemodynamic effect of hydralazine with that after 100% oxygen administration for 15 minutes to previously normoxemic dogs (n = 5). Significance was determined if P < 0.05, using the paired t-test. Hydralazine induced significant reductions in mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and total pulmonary resistance, with no significant change in heart rate, cardiac index, total systemic resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, or right and left ventricular double products. Four (57%) of the 7 dogs studied were considered responders. Pretreatment cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and total pulmonary resistance did not allow differentiation of responders from nonresponders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Comparison of scientific and administrative database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics found to be different for scientific and administrative data bases are identified and some of the corresponding generic requirements for data base management systems (DBMS) are discussed. The requirements discussed are especially stringent for either the scientific or administrative data bases. For some, no commercial DBMS is fully satisfactory, and the data base designer must invent a suitable approach. For others, commercial systems are available with elegant solutions, and a wrong choice would mean an expensive work-around to provide the missing features. It is concluded that selection of a DBMS must be based on the requirements for the information system. There is no unique distinction between scientific and administrative data bases or DBMS. The distinction comes from the logical structure of the data, and understanding the data and their relationships is the key to defining the requirements and selecting an appropriate DBMS for a given set of applications.

  16. Paradoxical glucose-sensitizing yet proinflammatory effects of acute ASP administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Fisette, Alexandre; Poursharifi, Pegah; Oikonomopoulou, Katerina; Munkonda, Mercedes N; Lapointe, Marc; Cianflone, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system, which stimulates fat storage and is typically increased in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Using a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, the acute effects of ASP on energy metabolism and inflammatory processes in vivo were evaluated. We hypothesized that ASP would specifically exert proinflammatory effects. C57Bl/6 wild-type mice were put on a high-fat-high-sucrose diet for 12 weeks. Mice were then subjected to both glucose and insulin tolerance tests, each manipulation being preceded by recombinant ASP or vehicle (control) bolus injection. ASP supplementation increased whole-body glucose excursion, and this was accomplished with reduced concomitant insulin levels. However, ASP did not directly alter insulin sensitivity. ASP supplementation induced a proinflammatory phenotype, with higher levels of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α in plasma and in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle mRNA. Additionally, ASP increased M1 macrophage content of these tissues. ASP exerted a direct concentration-dependent role in the migration and M1 activation of cultured macrophages. Altogether, the in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that ASP plays a role in both energy metabolism and inflammation, with paradoxical whole-body glucose-sensitizing yet proinflammatory effects.

  17. Changes in cerebral neurotransmitters and metabolites induced by acute donepezil and memantine administrations: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Shearman, E; Rossi, S; Szasz, B; Juranyi, Z; Fallon, S; Pomara, N; Sershen, H; Lajtha, A

    2006-03-31

    Cholinesterase inhibitors including donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, memantine are the medications currently approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to their beneficial effects on cognitive and functional domains typically disrupted in AD, these agents have also been shown to slow down the emergence of behavioral and psychotic symptoms associated with this disease. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects remain poorly understood and could involve effects of these medications on non-cholinergic or non-glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems respectively. These considerations prompted us to initiate a series of investigations to examine the acute and chronic effects of donepezil (Aricept (+/-)-2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethoxy-2-[[1-(phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]methyl]-1H-inden-1-1 hydrochloride and memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane hydrochloride C12H21N.HCl)). The present study focuses on the acute effects of donepezil and memantine on brain extracellular levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and their metabolites. We assayed changes in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus and the prefrontal and medial temporal cortex by microdialysis. Memantine resulted in significant increases in extracellular dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and their metabolites, in the cortical regions, and in a reduction of DA in the hippocampus. Donepezil produced an increase in extracellular DA in the cortex and in the dorsal hippocampus. Norepinephrine increased in the cortex; with donepezil it increased in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial temporal cortex, and decreased in the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly both compounds decreased extracellular serotonin (5HT) levels. The metabolites of the neurotransmitters were increased in most areas. We also found an increase in extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) by memantine in the nucleus accumbens and the

  18. Systemic IL-12 Administration Alters Hepatic Dendritic Cell Stimulation Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tim; Back, Timothy C.; Subleski, Jeffrey J.; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Ortaldo, John R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The liver is an immunologically unique organ containing tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) that maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Although systemic IL-12 administration can improve responses to tumors, the effects of IL-12-based treatments on DC, in particular hepatic DC, remain incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate systemic IL-12 administration induces a 2–3 fold increase in conventional, but not plasmacytoid, DC subsets in the liver. Following IL-12 administration, hepatic DC became more phenotypically and functionally mature, resembling the function of splenic DC, but differed as compared to their splenic counterparts in the production of IL-12 following co-stimulation with toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Hepatic DCs from IL-12 treated mice acquired enhanced T cell proliferative capabilities similar to levels observed using splenic DCs. Furthermore, IL-12 administration preferentially increased hepatic T cell activation and IFNγ expression in the RENCA mouse model of renal cell carcinoma. Collectively, the data shows systemic IL-12 administration enables hepatic DCs to overcome at least some aspects of the inherently suppressive milieu of the hepatic environment that could have important implications for the design of IL-12-based immunotherapeutic strategies targeting hepatic malignancies and infections. PMID:22428016

  19. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Telang, Ravindra S; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Tingle, Malcolm; Thorne, Peter R; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous) administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was developed and validated in accordance with the USA FDA guidelines including accuracy, precision, specificity, and linearity. Perilymph was sampled from the apical turn of the cochlea to prevent contamination with the cerebrospinal fluid. ADAC was detected in cochlear perilymph within two minutes following intravenous administration and remained in perilymph above its minimal effective concentration for at least two hours. The pharmacokinetic pattern of ADAC was significantly altered by exposure to noise, suggesting transient changes in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier and/or cochlear blood flow. This study supports ADAC development as a potential clinical otological treatment for acute sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Thorne, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous) administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was developed and validated in accordance with the USA FDA guidelines including accuracy, precision, specificity, and linearity. Perilymph was sampled from the apical turn of the cochlea to prevent contamination with the cerebrospinal fluid. ADAC was detected in cochlear perilymph within two minutes following intravenous administration and remained in perilymph above its minimal effective concentration for at least two hours. The pharmacokinetic pattern of ADAC was significantly altered by exposure to noise, suggesting transient changes in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier and/or cochlear blood flow. This study supports ADAC development as a potential clinical otological treatment for acute sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise. PMID:28194422

  2. Pilot study of the safety of starting administration of low-dose aspirin and cilostazol in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Komatsu, Yoji; Sato, Naoaki; Higuchi, Osamu; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Kamezaki, Takao; Suzuki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Progressive stroke is a serious problem due to the associated morbidity and mortality. Aspirin is recommended for acute ischemic stroke, but does not reduce the frequency of stroke progression. No standard treatment has been approved for the prevention of stroke progression. Cilostazol, which reduces platelet aggregation about 3 hours after single administration, does not increase the frequency of bleeding events when compared with aspirin or a placebo. Moreover, the combination of 100 mg aspirin and 200 mg cilostazol does not increase the frequency of bleeding events compared with only 100 mg aspirin, and thus is expected to prevent stroke progression with a high degree of safety. The present study investigated the safety of this combination of two drugs administered at the above concentrations in 54 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours of stroke onset. Modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) measurements were performed at baseline and again on day 4 to 7. Progressive stroke was defined as an increase greater than or equal to 1 point on NIHSS. Patient scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after enrollment. Stroke progression occurred in 11.1% of the patients. The percentages of patients with mRS score from 0 to 2 were 42.6% and 75% at baseline and 3 months, respectively. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or major extracranial hemorrhage occurred. These results suggest that administration of aspirin and cilostazol is safe for acute ischemic stroke.

  3. Early thrombomodulin-α administration outcome for acute disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in gastrointestinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hirotaka; Okamoto, Kazuma; Shoda, Katsutoshi; Arita, Tomohiro; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the efficacy of thrombomodulin (TM)-α for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) in the field of gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS Thirty-six peri-operative DIC patients in the field of gastrointestinal surgery who were treated with TM-α were retrospectively investigated. The relationships between patient demographics and the efficacy of TM-α were examined. Analysis of survival at 28 d was also performed on some parameters by means of the Kaplan-Meier method. Relationships between the initiation of TM-α and patient demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS Abscess formation or bacteremia was the most frequent cause of DIC (33%), followed by digestive tract perforation (31%). Twenty-six patients developed DIC after surgery, frequently within 1 wk (81%). TM-α was most often administered within 1 d of the DIC diagnosis (72%) and was continued for more than 3 d (64%). Although bleeding tendency was observed in 7 patients (19%), a hemostatic procedure was not needed. DIC scores, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores, quick-sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) scores, platelet counts, and prothrombin time ratios significantly improved after 1 wk (P < 0.05, for all). The overall survival rate at 28 d was 71%. The duration of TM-α administration (≥ 4 , ≤ 6) and improvements in DIC-associated scores (DIC, SIRS and qSOFA) at 1 wk were significantly better prognostic factors for 28-d survival (P < 0.05, for all). TM-α was administered significantly earlier to patients with severe clinical symptoms, such as high qSOFA scores, sepsis, shock or high lactate values (P < 0.05, for all). CONCLUSION Early administration of TM-α and improvements in each parameter were essential for treatment of DIC. The diagnosis of patients with mild symptoms requires further study. PMID:28223734

  4. Serotonin-2C receptors in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediate the anxiogenic effect of acute imipramine and fluoxetine administration.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Maria Adrielle; Zangrossi, Helio

    2012-04-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that facilitation of serotonin-2C receptor (5-HT2CR)-mediated neurotransmission in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is involved in anxiety generation. We investigated here whether BLA 5-HT2CRs exert a differential role in the regulation of defensive behaviours related to generalized anxiety (inhibitory avoidance) and panic (escape) disorders. We also evaluated whether activation of BLA 5-HT2CRs accounts for the anxiogenic effect caused by acute systemic administration of the antidepressants imipramine and fluoxetine. Male Wistar rats were tested in the elevated T-maze after intra-BLA injection of the endogenous agonist 5-HT, the 5-HT2CR agonist MK-212 or the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB-242084. This test allows the measurement of inhibitory avoidance acquisition and escape expression. We also investigated whether intra-BLA administration of SB-242084 interferes with the acute anxiogenic effect caused by imipramine and fluoxetine in the Vogel conflict test, and imipramine in the elevated T-maze. While intra-BLA administration of 5-HT and MK-212 facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, SB-242084 had the opposite effect. None of these drugs affected escape performance. Intra-BLA injection of a sub-effective dose of SB-242084 fully blocked the anxiogenic effect caused either by the local microinjection of 5-HT or the systemic administration of imipramine and fluoxetine. Our findings indicate that 5-HT2CRs in BLA are selectively involved in the regulation of defensive behaviours associated with generalized anxiety, but not panic. The results also provide the first direct evidence that activation of BLA 5-HT2CRs accounts for the short-term aversive effect of antidepressants.

  5. Payee's Guide for the Grant Administration and Payment System (GAPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Chief Financial and Chief Information Officer.

    Information that payees need for program operation, as well as guidelines for grants and contracts paid through the Grant Administration and Payment System (GAPS), is provided in this guide. The guide is intended to help users understand their responsibilities in expediting payments, in completing forms and reports, and in controlling federal cash…

  6. Blending Administrative and Academic Units in a Systems Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, George C.; Rose, Warren

    1981-01-01

    Describes how the business computing science department at Texas A. & M. University devised a computerized information system about students for the university's new medical school. Discusses the roles of faculty members and administrators in the project and the design, implementation, and evaluation of the project. (Author/RW)

  7. Developing a Performance Measurement System for University Central Administrative Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, Marika; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni; Carlucci, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Central administrative services have recently received increasing attention from practitioners and academics due to the challenging need to both manage scarce resources and provide high-quality services. In this context, performance measurement systems (PMSs) may assume a central role, although an unresolved debate remains on the claimed benefits…

  8. Acute liver failure in a term neonate after repeated paracetamol administration

    PubMed Central

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Carla Borrasca; Branco, Maíra Migliari; Capitani, Eduardo Mello De; Hyslop, Stephen; Caldas, Jamil Pedro S.; Moreno, Carolina Araújo; Porta, Gilda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Severe hepatotoxicity caused by paracetamol is rare in neonates. We report a case of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure in a term neonate. Case description: A 26-day-old boy was admitted with intestinal bleeding, shock signs, slight liver enlargement, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis (pH=7.21; bicarbonate: 7.1mEq/L), hypoglycemia (18mg/dL), increased serum aminotransferase activity (AST=4,039IU/L; ALT=1,087IU/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (total: 9.57mg/dL; direct: 6.18mg/dL) after receiving oral paracetamol (10mg/kg/dose every 4 hours) for three consecutive days (total dose around 180mg/kg; serum concentration 36-48 hours after the last dose of 77µg/ mL). Apart from supportive measures, the patient was successfully treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion during 11 consecutive days, and was discharged on day 34. The follow-up revealed full recovery of clinical and of laboratory findings of hepatic function. Comments: The paracetamol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in neonates and infants differ substantially from those in older children and adults. Despite the reduced rates of metabolism by the P-450 CYP2E1 enzyme system and the increased ability to synthesize glutathione - which provides greater resistance after overdoses -, it is possible to produce hepatotoxic metabolites (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone) that cause hepatocellular damage, if glutathione sources are depleted. Paracetamol clearance is reduced and the half-life of elimination is prolonged. Therefore, a particular dosing regimen should be followed due to the toxicity risk of cumulative doses. This report highlights the risk for severe hepatotoxicity in neonates after paracetamol multiple doses for more than two to three days. PMID:24676202

  9. Acute jugular vein thrombosis during rituximab administration: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dada, Reyad; Zekri, Jamal; Ramal, Bilal; Ahmad, Kamel

    2016-02-01

    Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody is licensed for the treatment of CD20 positive lymphomas. Previous studies have found rituximab, in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy, is superior to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone alone in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and many other B-cell lymphomas. Acute hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients receiving rituximab infusion and usually manifesting as headache, fever, chills, sweats, skin rash, dyspnea, mild hypotension, and nausea. Acute major venous thrombosis and seizures have not been reported as manifestation of acute hypersensitivity reaction. We report on a 22-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with stage III B CD20 positive B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. During the first cycle of treatment, she developed grand-mal seizure while receiving rituximab infusion without any other features of acute hypersensitivity reaction. Imaging confirmed new onset jugular vein thrombosis with normal coagulation parameters. These events were managed by anticonvulsants and anticoagulation therapy. The patient completed eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone without rituximab and achieved complete remission. No further complications were noted. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature describing grand-mal seizures and acute thrombosis while on rituximab treatment. Clinicians should be aware of this rare side effect, as stopping rituximab can prevent recurrence of these complications.

  10. Acute Severe Thrombocytopenia Occurring After Administration of Eptifibatide Postpones Emergent Coronary Artery Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Brent T.; Olund, Timothy J.; Pagel, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eptifibatide is a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) receptor antagonist that inhibits fibrinogen binding to the activated GP IIb/IIIa site and prevents platelet-platelet interaction and clot formation. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors improve outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome. Thrombocytopenia is a complication of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, but severe thrombocytopenia is unusual. Most reported cases of severe thrombocytopenia after eptifibatide occurred in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The authors describe a patient who developed acute profound thrombocytopenia after receiving eptifibatide before emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Case Presentation A 67-year-old man with a normal platelet count (220 K/uL) developed atrial fibrillation, left bundle branch block, and respiratory insufficiency consistent with acute coronary syndrome two days after colectomy. He received eptifibatide during cardiac catheterization, where three-vessel coronary artery disease was encountered. Emergent coronary artery surgery was planned, but the platelet count before surgery was 2 K/uL. Eptifibatide was discontinued, surgery was postponed, and acute coronary syndrome was treated with intraaortic balloon counterpulsation. Conclusions The authors describe the second reported case of eptifibatide-induced severe thrombocytopenia associated with cardiac surgery. In this case, discontinuation of eptifibatide and transfusion of apheresis platelets increased the platelet count (137 K/uL) the following day, and the patient subsequently underwent successful coronary artery surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:27843778

  11. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  12. Acute Morphine Administration Reduces Cell-Mediated Immunity and Induces Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mojadadi, Shafi; Jamali, Abbas; Khansarinejad, Behzad; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Bamdad, Taravat

    2009-01-01

    Acute morphine administration is known to alter the course of herpes simplex virus infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine administration on the reactivation of latent herpes was investigated in a mouse model. Because of the important role of cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation, the effect of acute morphine administration on CTL responses was also evaluated. Furthermore, lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were evaluated for their roles in the induction of the CTL response. The findings showed that acute morphine administration significantly reduced CTL responses, lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ production. Furthermore, acute morphine administration has been shown to reactivate latent HSV-1. Previous studies have shown that cellular immune responses have important roles in the inhibition of HSV reactivation. These findings suggest that suppression of a portion of the cellular immune response after acute morphine administration may constitute one part of the mechanism that induces HSV reactivation. PMID:19403060

  13. The effects of acute ethanol administration on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like syndrome in rats: A biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jaya; Hapidin, Hermizi; Get Bee, Yvonne-Tee; Ismail, Zalina

    2016-02-01

    Withdrawal from long-term ethanol consumption results in overexcitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which induces an anxiety-like syndrome. Most alcoholics that suffer from such symptoms frequently depend on habitual drinking as self-medication to alleviate their symptoms. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon have been reported to mediate acute and chronic effects of ethanol. This study explores the changes in mGlu5 and PKC epsilon in the amygdala following acute administration of ethanol during ethanol withdrawal (EW) induced anxiety. Male Wistar rats were fed a modified liquid diet containing low-fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin, with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into EW, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and ethanol (2.5 g/kg, 20% v/v), and exposed to open-field and elevated plus maze tests. Then, amygdala tissue was dissected from the rat brain for Western blot and gene expression studies. EW-induced anxiety was accompanied by a significant increase in mGlu5, total PKC epsilon, and phosphorylated PKC epsilon protein levels, and also of mRNA of mGlu5 (GRM5) in the amygdala. Acute administration of ethanol significantly attenuated EW-induced anxiety as well as an EW-induced increase in GRM5. The acute challenge of ethanol to EW rats had little effect on the phosphorylated and total protein levels of PKC epsilon in the amygdala. Our results demonstrate that amygdala PKC epsilon may not be directly involved in the development of anxiety following EW.

  14. The validity of ICD codes coupled with imaging procedure codes for identifying acute venous thromboembolism using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Ghazi S; Wu, Cynthia; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McMurtry, M Sean

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of using a combination of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic codes and imaging procedure codes for identifying deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) within administrative databases. Information from the Alberta Health (AH) inpatients and ambulatory care administrative databases in Alberta, Canada was obtained for subjects with a documented imaging study result performed at a large teaching hospital in Alberta to exclude venous thromboembolism (VTE) between 2000 and 2010. In 1361 randomly-selected patients, the proportion of patients correctly classified by AH administrative data, using both ICD diagnostic codes and procedure codes, was determined for DVT and PE using diagnoses documented in patient charts as the gold standard. Of the 1361 patients, 712 had suspected PE and 649 had suspected DVT. The sensitivities for identifying patients with PE or DVT using administrative data were 74.83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.01-81.62) and 75.24% (95% CI: 65.86-83.14), respectively. The specificities for PE or DVT were 91.86% (95% CI: 89.29-93.98) and 95.77% (95% CI: 93.72-97.30), respectively. In conclusion, when coupled with relevant imaging codes, VTE diagnostic codes obtained from administrative data provide a relatively sensitive and very specific method to ascertain acute VTE.

  15. Suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by acute heroin challenge in rats during acute and chronic withdrawal from chronic heroin administration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    It is known that heroin dependence and withdrawal are associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of these studies in rats was to systematically investigate the level of HPA activity and response to a heroin challenge at two time points during heroin withdrawal, and to characterize the expression of associated stress-related genes 30 minutes after each heroin challenge. Rats received chronic (10-day) intermittent escalating-dose heroin administration (3×2.5 mg/kg/day on day 1; 3×20 mg/kg/day by day 10). Hormonal and neurochemical assessments were performed in acute (12 hours after last heroin injection) and chronic (10 days after the last injection) withdrawal. Both plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels were elevated during acute withdrawal, and heroin challenge at 20 mg/kg (the last dose of chronic escalation) at this time point attenuated this HPA hyperactivity. During chronic withdrawal, HPA hormonal levels returned to baseline, but heroin challenge at 5 mg/kg decreased ACTH levels. In contrast, this dose of heroin challenge stimulated the HPA axis in heroin naïve rats. In the anterior pituitary, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels were increased during acute withdrawal and retuned to control levels after chronic withdrawal. In the medial hypothalamus, however, the POMC mRNA levels were decreased during acute withdrawal, and increased after chronic withdrawal. Our results suggest a long-lasting change in HPA abnormal responsivity during chronic heroin withdrawal. PMID:23771528

  16. N-Acetylcysteine Administration Prevents Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vidart, Josi; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Leite, Rogério Sarmento; Manica, André; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Larsen, P. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Context: The acute phase of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by low T3 and high rT3 levels, affecting up to 75% of critically ill patients. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of the disturbed peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent intracellular antioxidant, can prevent NTIS in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Design: This was a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Settings: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and intensive care units of two tertiary hospitals in southern Brazil were recruited. Patients and intervention included 67 patients were randomized to receive NAC or placebo during 48 hours. Baseline characteristics and blood samples for thyroid hormones and oxidative parameters were collected. Main Outcome: Variation of serum T3 and rT3 levels was measured. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (all P > .05). T3 levels decreased in the placebo group at 12 hours of follow-up (P = .002) but not in NAC-treated patients (P = .10). Baseline rT3 levels were elevated in both groups and decreased over the initial 48 hours in the NAC-treated patients (P = .003) but not in the control group (P = .75). The free T4 and TSH levels were virtually identical between the groups throughout the study period (P > .05). Measurement of total antioxidant status and total carbonyl content demonstrated that oxidative balance was deranged in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas NAC corrected these alterations (P < .001). Conclusions: NAC administration prevents the derangement in thyroid hormone concentrations commonly occurring in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the NTIS pathophysiology. PMID:25148231

  17. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Sawant, Onkar B; Lunde, Emilie R; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model.

  18. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Shannon E.; Sawant, Onkar B.; Lunde, Emilie R.; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21–30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model. PMID:23315157

  19. HINDBRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVE DYSMORPHOGENESIS RESULT FROM ACUTE MATERNAL ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure of mouse embryos to ethanol during stages of hindbrain segmentation results in excessive cell death in specific cell populations. This study details the ethanol-induced cell loss and defines the subsequent effects of this early insult on rhombomere and cranial ner...

  20. Acute effects of intravenous administration of pamidronate in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mie Jin; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Park, Shin-Goo; Park, Won

    2010-09-01

    We investigated acute effects of intermittent large dose bisphosphonate therapy in osteoporotic patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with alendronate (100 microM) for 18 hr, in vitro and cytokine expressions were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Pamidronate 30 mg was administered on 26 osteoporotic patients; and acute phase reactants, inflammatory cytokines and bone biomarkers were measured. The in vitro study showed significant increase in mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. A notable rise in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed over 3 days after pamidronate infusion (P=0.026). Serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-gamma were also significantly increased (P=0.009, 0.014, 0.035, respectively) and the increase in IL-6 levels were strongly correlated with CRP levels (P=0.04). Serum calcium and c-telopeptide levels rapidly decreased after the treatment (P=0.02, <0.001, respectively). This study showed that mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines at peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) level were observed within 18 hr and marked elevation of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants were demonstrated after pamidronate infusion at the dose for osteoporosis. Our studies confirmed that intermittent large dose aminobisphosphonate causes acute inflammation.

  1. [Ultrastructural changes in the pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis after semax administration].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu V

    2000-01-01

    Semax favorably affects ultrastructural changes in the pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis (AP): a single introduction of semax (0.1 mg/kg) into the pancreatic duct of rats with AP model prevents increased necrosis of the acinar tissues and inhibits purulent inflammation of the necrotised lobules by inducing their sclerosis and atrophy, thus retaining large areas of the pancreas intact.

  2. Chronic and acute alcohol administration induced neurochemical changes in the brain: comparison of distinct zebrafish populations.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly utilized in the analysis of the effects of ethanol (alcohol) on brain function and behavior. We have shown significant population-dependent alcohol-induced changes in zebrafish behavior and have started to analyze alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic responses. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on levels of selected neurochemicals using a 2 × 3 (chronic × acute) between-subject alcohol exposure paradigm randomized for two zebrafish populations, AB and SF. Each fish first received the particular chronic treatment (0 or 0.5 vol/vol% alcohol) and subsequently the acute exposure (0, 0.5 or 1.0% alcohol). We report changes in levels of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, 5HIAA, glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and taurine as quantified from whole brain extracts using HPLC. We also analyze monoamine oxidase and tyrosine hydroxylase enzymatic activity. The results demonstrate that compared to SF, AB is more responsive to both acute alcohol exposure and acute alcohol withdrawal at the level of neurochemistry, a finding that correlates well with prior behavioral observations and one which suggests the involvement of genes in the observed alcohol effects. We discuss correlations between the current results and prior behavioral findings, and stress the importance of characterization of zebrafish strains for future behavior genetic and psychopharmacology studies.

  3. Prophylactic Administration of Silybin Ameliorates L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Uçmak, Feyzullah; Ekin, Nazım; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Arslan, Serkan; Kaplan, İbrahim; Şenateş, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of silybin, a potent antioxidant, on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in an experimental rat model. Material/Methods Forty female Wistar Albino rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: Group 1 (C): control group (n=8), Group 2 (SL): silybin group (n=8), Group 3 (LA): acute pancreatitis group (n=8), Group 4 (SLLA): prophylaxis group (n=8), and Group 5 (LASL): treatment group (n=8). Group C (control) received 2 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of physiological saline at an interval of 1 h. Group SL received only a single i.p. injection of silybin. The SLLA group received a single i.p. injection of silybin before the induction of acute pancreatitis with L-arginine, whereas the LASL group received the same injection after the induction of acute pancreatitis with L-arginine. Pancreatic tissues were histopathologically examined. Levels of amylase and oxidative stress markers (total oxidant status and total anti-oxidant status) were determined in the blood samples. Oxidative stress index was calculated. Results In comparison to the LA, the prophylaxis and treatment groups showed significant improvements in serum oxidative stress parameters (p=0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). Histopathological analysis showed that the treatment group had significant improvements in edema scores only (p=0.006), whereas the prophylaxis group had the same improvements in inflammation and necrosis scores as well as in total scores (p=0.004, 0.006, and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions When used for prophylactic rather than therapeutic purposes, silybin ameliorates serum oxidative stress parameters and improves histopathological results via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:27725627

  4. Compromised recovery of natural interferon-alpha/beta-producing cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation complicated by acute graft-versus-host disease and glucocorticoid administration.

    PubMed

    Kitawaki, T; Kadowaki, N; Ishikawa, T; Ichinohe, T; Uchiyama, T

    2003-07-01

    Delayed recovery of the immune system is a major cause of post-transplant infection. Natural interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta-producing cells (IPC) appear to play a critical role in inducing effective immune responses to a variety of microbial pathogens by producing an enormous amount of IFN-alpha/beta and thereafter by differentiating into dendritic cells. Here, we examined the recovery of IPC as well as other immune cells in 28 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in order to investigate the role of IPC in post-transplant immune reconstitution. In uncomplicated cases, IPC frequency recovered to the lower range of normal values within 30 days after transplantation, resembling the prompt recovery of other cell types in innate immunity. In contrast, the recovery of IPC was profoundly suppressed in the cases with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and glucocorticoid administration. The patients with lower numbers of IPC were significantly more susceptible to viral infection. The prompt recovery of IPC in uncomplicated cases may contribute to establishing a first line of host defense at the early stage after allogeneic HSCT, whereas the marked suppression of IPC recovery accompanying acute GVHD and glucocorticoid administration may increase the risk of opportunistic infections.

  5. Systemic administration of resveratrol suppress the nociceptive neuronal activity of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehana, Shiori; Sekiguchi, Kenta; Inoue, Maki; Kubota, Yoshiko; Ito, Yukihiko; Yui, Kei; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Although a modulatory role has been reported for the red wine polyphenol resveratrol on several types of ion channels and excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system, the acute effects of resveratrol in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission of the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous resveratrol administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 18 SpVc neurons in response to orofacial mechanical stimulation of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Responses to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were analyzed in the present study. The mean firing frequency of SpVc WDR neurons in response to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was inhibited by resveratrol (0.5-2 mg/kg, i.v.) and maximum inhibition of the discharge frequency of both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli was seen within 10 min. These inhibitory effects were reversed after approximately 20 min. The relative magnitude of inhibition by resveratrol of SpVc WDR neuronal discharge frequency was significantly greater for noxious than non-noxious stimulation. These results suggest that, in the absence of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, acute intravenous resveratrol administration suppresses trigeminal sensory transmission, including nociception, and so resveratrol may be used as a complementary and alternative medicine therapeutic agent for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain, including hyperalgesia.

  6. Effects of Ketamine on Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the Hippocampus of Mice Following Acute or Chronic Administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanning; Shen, Ruipeng; Wen, Gehua; Ding, Runtao; Du, Ao; Zhou, Jichuan; Dong, Zhibin; Ren, Xinghua; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua; Lu, Yan; Wu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic and recreational drug of abuse commonly used worldwide. Many experimental studies have shown that ketamine can impair cognitive function and induce psychotic states. Neuroinflammation has been suggested to play an important role in neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, ketamine has been shown to modulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that the effects of ketamine on the central nervous system are associated with inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we set out to establish acute and chronic ketamine administration models in C57BL/6 mice, to evaluate spatial recognition memory and emotional response, to analyze the changes in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the mouse hippocampus, employing behavioral tests, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that ketamine at the dose of 60 mg/kg induced spatial recognition memory deficit and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice after chronic administration. Moreover, we found that ketamine increased the hippocampal levels of IL-6 and IL-1β after single, multiple and long-term administration in a dose-dependent manner. However, the expression level of TNF-α differed in the mouse hippocampus under different conditions. Single administration of ketamine increased the level of TNF-α, whereas multiple and long-term administration decreased it significantly. We considered that TNF-α expression could be controlled by a bi-directional regulatory pathway, which was associated with the dose and duration of ketamine administration. Our results suggest that the alterations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α may be involved in the neurotoxicity of ketamine.

  7. Effects of Ketamine on Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the Hippocampus of Mice Following Acute or Chronic Administration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanning; Shen, Ruipeng; Wen, Gehua; Ding, Runtao; Du, Ao; Zhou, Jichuan; Dong, Zhibin; Ren, Xinghua; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua; Lu, Yan; Wu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic and recreational drug of abuse commonly used worldwide. Many experimental studies have shown that ketamine can impair cognitive function and induce psychotic states. Neuroinflammation has been suggested to play an important role in neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, ketamine has been shown to modulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that the effects of ketamine on the central nervous system are associated with inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we set out to establish acute and chronic ketamine administration models in C57BL/6 mice, to evaluate spatial recognition memory and emotional response, to analyze the changes in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the mouse hippocampus, employing behavioral tests, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that ketamine at the dose of 60 mg/kg induced spatial recognition memory deficit and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice after chronic administration. Moreover, we found that ketamine increased the hippocampal levels of IL-6 and IL-1β after single, multiple and long-term administration in a dose-dependent manner. However, the expression level of TNF-α differed in the mouse hippocampus under different conditions. Single administration of ketamine increased the level of TNF-α, whereas multiple and long-term administration decreased it significantly. We considered that TNF-α expression could be controlled by a bi-directional regulatory pathway, which was associated with the dose and duration of ketamine administration. Our results suggest that the alterations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α may be involved in the neurotoxicity of ketamine. PMID:28373844

  8. Prevalence of contraindications and conditions for precaution for prasugrel administration in a real world acute coronary syndrome population.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Mylona, Panagiota; Perperis, Angelos; Panagiotou, Aggeliki; Dimitropoulos, Gerasimos; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George; Davlouros, Periklis

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of prasugrel contraindications and specific conditions requiring precaution for its use in a real world acute coronary syndrome (ACS) population is not known. We performed a prospective descriptive study in 1016 consecutive moderate to high risk ACS patients. In 646 patients (63.6%) subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention, analysis of absolute contraindications (history of stroke/transient ischemic attack or active bleeding), relative contraindications and specific conditions (age ≥ 75 years and/or weight < 60 kg) for prasugrel theoretical administration was performed. In 242 (37.5%) patients there was at least one absolute or relative contraindication or specific condition requiring attention for its use. Overall, 23.1% of patients in our cohort had a prior stroke/transient ischemic attack and/or specific condition to be considered for prasugrel administration. Specifically, the prevalence of stroke/TIA was 3.6%, the prevalence of patients ≥75 years 20% and the prevalence of patients weighing <60 kg 2.2%. Among patients ≥75 years old, 63 (9.8%) had diabetes mellitus or previous myocardial infarction, consisting a high risk subgroup that might benefit from prasugrel administration. In a real world ACS population a relatively high proportion of patients have a potential contraindication for prasugrel administration or necessitate special attention for its use.

  9. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... judge position to one of the three levels of basic pay, AL-3, AL-2 or AL-1 of the administrative law judge pay system established under 5 U.S.C. 5372 in accordance with this section. Pay level AL-3 has six rates of basic pay, A, B, C, D, E, and F. (1) The rate of basic pay for AL-3, rate A, may not be...

  10. Effects of acute or chronic administration of novel 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine derivates on anxiety-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fedotova, Julia; Barishpolec, Victoria; Zulli, Anthony; Büsselberg, Dietrich; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Novel anxiolytic medications are necessary to broaden treatment therapy. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the clinically effective anxiolytic, diazepam with the novel 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine derivates. The novel 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine derivates (PK, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) were injected acutely or chronically in animals subjected to the black-white model and the open field test. The acute administration of PK-2122 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) exerted anxiogenic-like effect, while in the middle or high doses PK-2122 exerted anxiolytic-like effect compared with the control group (p<0.05). The repeated treatment with PK-2111 was followed by anxiolytic-like effect in doses of 0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg which was more significant compared not only with control group, but with comparison to group treated with diazepam (p<0.05). Chronic treatment with PK-2123 or PK-2122 in all tested doses produced anxiolytic-like effect (p<0.05), compared with control group and diazepam group. These results demonstrate that PK-2126, but not PK-2122, is dose independent and may be effective in experimental model of anxiety in rats when administered acutely or repeatedly. PMID:26807191

  11. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Blagaic, Vladimir; Romic, Zeljko; Sikiric, Predrag

    2004-09-24

    The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419), which was promising in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) trials, protects against both acute and chronic alcohol-induced lesions in stomach and liver, but also, given peripherally, affects various centrally mediated disturbances. Now, in male NMRI mice BPC 157 (10 pg intraperitoneally, 10 ng and 10 microg, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) (i) strongly opposed acute alcohol (4 g/kg intraperitoneally) intoxication (i.e., quickly produced and sustained anesthesia, hypothermia, increased ethanol blood values, 25% fatality, 90-min assessment period) given before or after ethanol, and (ii) when given after abrupt cessation of ethanol (at 0 or 3 or 7 h withdrawal time), attenuated withdrawal (assessed through 24 hours) after 20%-alcohol drinking (7.6 g/kg) through 13 days, with provocation on the 14th day.

  12. Acute adverse event signalling scheme using the Saskatchewan Administrative health care utilization datafiles: results for two benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Rawson, N S; Rawson, M J

    1999-01-01

    Linked administrative health care utilization databases offer potential benefits for postmarketing surveillance. The value of the Saskatchewan datafiles in an acute adverse event signalling scheme has been evaluated using two benzodiazepines. The first 20,000 patients dispensed lorazepam and the first 8525 patients dispensed alprazolam were followed through the datafiles over the year after their initial prescription of the relevant drug, and all medical services occurring during treatment were recorded. The most frequent adverse drug reactions to benzodiazepines are drowsiness, depression, impaired intellectual function and memory, lethargy, impaired coordination, dizziness, nausea and/or vomiting, skin rash, and respiratory disturbance. Data from our study showed that sleep disorders, depressive disorders, dizziness and/or vertigo, respiratory symptoms, esophagus and stomach disorders, and inflammatory skin conditions occurred significantly more often in the first 30 days after the initial prescription than in the succeeding six months in both drug groups, indicating that they are important adverse events. There are several limitations to the methodology; however, the results of the analysis indicate that the use of administrative health care utilization datafiles in a systematic assessment to signal potential acute adverse drug reactions is a feasible proposition, but further studies are required to assess whether events are real adverse reactions.

  13. [Influence of iron nanoparticles on cardiac performance and hemodynamics in rabbits after intravenous administration in acute experiment].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles are possessed by high potential in the creation of effective and safe antianemic drugs due to the enhanced biological activity of metal nanoparticles. As a step of intravenous dosage form development the study of short-term effects of iron nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system is important. Dose-dependent changes of systemic hemodynamics' parameters were established in acute experiment on rabbits after several intravenous injections of zero-valent iron nanoparticles solution.

  14. Exploring the Relationships between the Electronic Health Record System Components and Patient Outcomes in an Acute Hospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggley, Shirley L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the electronic health record system components and patient outcomes in an acute hospital setting, given that the current presidential administration has earmarked nearly $50 billion to the implementation of the electronic health record. The relationship between the…

  15. Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies. PMID:21284693

  16. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  17. Effect of sub-acute oral cyanide administration in rats: protective efficacy of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Tulsawani, R K; Debnath, M; Pant, S C; Kumar, Om; Prakash, A O; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R

    2005-09-10

    Chronic toxicity of cyanide in humans and animals has been previously described. Alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) and sodium thiosulfate (STS) are known to confer remarkable protection against acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. Their efficacy against sub-acute or chronic cyanide exposure is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) in female rats following oral administration of 7.0 mg/kg (0.5 LD50) for 14 d. The effect of alpha-KG (oral; 1.0 g/kg) and/or STS (intraperitoneal, 1.0 g/kg) on cyanide toxicity was also evaluated. Various hematological and biochemical indices were determined after 7 d of treatment and additional parameters like organ-body weight index (OBI) and histology of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen were performed after 14 and 21 d (recovery group) of cyanide exposure. Sub-acute exposure of KCN did not produce any significant change in body weight of the animals, OBI, hematology and the levels of blood urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). The levels of temporal glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSSG were unaffected. However, in KCN treated animals elevated levels of blood glucose and reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase were observed. Activities of cytochrome c oxidase in the brain and rhodanese in the liver were diminished. Reduced levels of GSH and enhanced levels of MDA in brain were observed. Increased levels of blood thiocyanate were observed in all the treatments of KCN. Additionally, KCN also produced various histological changes in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Although, treatment of alpha-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both interventions afforded to maximum protection. This study indicates a promising role of alpha-KG and STS for the treatment of prolonged cyanide exposures.

  18. Central nervous system administration of interleukin-6 produces splenic sympathoexcitation

    PubMed Central

    Helwig, Bryan G.; Craig, Robin A.; Fels, Richard J.; Blecha, Frank; Kenney, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been shown to play a pivotal role in centrally-mediated physiological responses including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of IL-6 are elevated in multiple pathophysiological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease, autoimmune disease, and meningitis. Despite this, the effect of IL-6 on central regulation of sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) remains unknown which limits understanding of sympathetic-immune interactions in health and disease. In the present study we determined the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv, lateral ventricle) administration of IL-6 on splenic SND in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats. A second goal was to determine if icv injected IL-6 enters the brain parenchyma and acts as a volume transmission signal to access areas of the brain involved in regulation of sympathetic nerve outflow. Icv administration of IL-6 (10 ng, 100 ng, and 400 ng) significantly and progressively increased splenic SND from control levels in baroreceptor denervated Sprague-Dawley rats. Administration of 100 ng and 400 ng IL-6 resulted in significantly higher SND responses when compared to those elicited with a 10 ng dose. Sixty minutes following icv administration, fluorescently labeled IL-6 was not distributed throughout the parenchyma of the brain but was localized to the periventricular areas of the ventricular system. Brain sections counter-stained for the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) revealed that IL-6 and the IL-6R were co-localized in periventricular areas adjoining the third ventricle. These results demonstrate that icv IL-6 administration increases splenic SND, an effect likely achieved via signaling mechanisms originating in the periventricular cells. PMID:18547874

  19. Effects of oral acute administration and subchronic feeding of several levels of D-psicose in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Izumori, Ken; Suzuki, Hiroo

    2002-12-01

    The effects of oral acute administration and subchronic (34 d) feeding of several levels of D-psicose, a C3-epimer of D-fructose, were studied in rats. In the acute administration test, five groups of eight male Wistar rats (3 wk old) were orally given D-psicose in doses of 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 g/kg. Three rats receiving 14 g/kg, three rats receiving 17 g/kg and eight rats receiving 20 g/kg of D-psicose died within 2 d after administration. The calculated LD50 values were 16.3 g/kg by the Behrens-Karber method and 15.8 g/kg by the Litchfield-Wilcoxon method. In the subcronic feeding test, eight groups of seven male Wistar rats (3 wk old) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% for 34 d. One rat fed 30% D-psicose diet and five rats fed 40% D-psicose diet died during the experimental period. Body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency were more extensively suppressed by the higher D-psicose diets. The weights of heart, spleen and abdominal adipose tissue were smaller in the order of dietary D-psicose concentration. Cecal weight increased with increasing D-psicose concentration in the diets. Cecal hypertrophy was observed in rats fed 10-40% D-psicose diets. These results suggest that D-psicose differs in nutritional characteristics from D-glucose or D-fructose. The feeding of diets extremely high in D-psicose seems to be harmful to the intestinal tract.

  20. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration.

  1. Administrative compensation for medical injuries: lessons from three foreign systems.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M; Kachalia, Allen; Studdert, David M

    2011-07-01

    The United States requires patients injured by medical negligence to seek compensation through lawsuits, an approach that has drawbacks related to fairness, cost, and impact on medical care. Several countries, including New Zealand, Sweden, and Denmark, have replaced litigation with administrative compensation systems for patients who experience an avoidable medical injury. Sometimes called "no-fault" systems, such schemes enable patients to file claims for compensation without using an attorney. A governmental or private adjudicating organization uses neutral medical experts to evaluate claims of injury and does not require patients to prove that health care providers were negligent in order to receive compensation. Information from claims is used to analyze opportunities for patient safety improvement. The systems have successfully limited liability costs while improving injured patients' access to compensation. American policymakers may find many of the elements of these countries' systems to be transferable to demonstration projects in the U.S.

  2. Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, Database Administrator`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    O`Callaghan, P.B.; Nelson, R.A.; Grambihler, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a guide for database administration and specific information for the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S). As a guide, this document discusses required database administration functions for the set up of database tables and for users of the system. It is assumed that general and user information has been obtained from the Classified Computer Configuration Control System (C{sup 4}S), Revision 3, User`s Information (WHC 1994).

  3. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  4. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Curtis, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that is being developed under the direction of the US Army Chemical biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS system package. System administrators, database administrators, and general users can use this guide to install, configure, and maintain the FEMIS client software package. This document provides a description of the FEMIS environment; distribution media; data, communications, and electronic mail servers; user workstations; and system management.

  5. Impairment of electron transfer chain induced by acute carnosine administration in skeletal muscle of young rats.

    PubMed

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I-III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I-III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α , and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  6. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Macarini, José Roberto; Maravai, Soliany Grassi; Cararo, José Henrique; Dimer, Nádia Webber; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III), malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM) in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients. PMID:24877122

  7. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in acute kidney injury is affected by administration timing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jieru; Jiao, Xiaoyan; Yu, Xiaofang; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2017-03-10

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for acute kidney injury; however, the efficacy is limited due to poor survival after transplantation. In this study, we investigated how MSC transplantation timing affected the survival and therapeutic potential of MSCs in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. After kidney I/R injury, the inflammatory process and tissue damage were characterized over 1 week post-I/R, we found that inflammation peaked at 12-24 h post-I/R (h.p.i.), and urine  neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) measurements correlated highly with measures of inflammation. We cultured MSCs with supernatants from I/R injured kidney tissue homogenates collected at different time points and found that kidney homogenates from 12 and 24 h.p.i. were most toxic to MSCs, whereas homogenates from 1 h.p.i. were not as cytotoxic as those from 12 and 24 h.p.i. Compared with MSCs administered at 12, or 24 h.p.i., cells administered immediately after ischemia or 1 h.p.i. yielded the highest renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Our findings indicate that MSC treatment for acute kidney injury is most effective when applied prior to the development of a potent inflammatory microenvironment, and urine NGAL may be helpful for detecting inflammation and selecting MSC transplantation timing in I/R kidney injury.

  8. Effect of acute and prolonged alcohol administration on Mg(2+) homeostasis in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Romani, Andrea M P

    2015-05-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy represents a major clinical complication in chronic alcoholics. Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that acute and chronic exposure of liver cells to ethanol results in a major loss of cellular Mg(2+) as a result of alcohol oxidation. We investigated whether exposure to ethanol induces a similar Mg(2+) loss in cardiac cells. The results indicate that chronic exposure to a 6% ethanol-containing diet depleted cardiac myocytes of >25% of their cellular Mg(2+) content. Acute ethanol exposure, instead, induced a time- and dose-dependent manner of Mg(2+) extrusion from perfused hearts and collagenase-dispersed cardiac ventricular myocytes. Pretreatment with chlormethiazole prevented ethanol-induced Mg(2+) loss to a large extent, suggesting a role of ethanol oxidation via cyP4502E1 in the process. Magnesium extrusion across the sarcolemma occurred via the amiloride-inhibited Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger. Taken together, our data indicate that Mg(2+) extrusion also occurs in cardiac cells exposed to ethanol as a result of alcohol metabolism by cyP4502E1. The extrusion, which is mediated by the Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger, only occurs at doses of ethanol ≥0.1%, and depends on ethanol-induced decline in cellular ATP. The significance of Mg(2+) extrusion for the onset of alcoholic cardiomyopathy remains to be elucidated.

  9. Deletion of mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells blunts renal vascular resistance following acute cyclosporine administration

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Cristian A.; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Andre-Gregoire, Gwennan; Placier, Sandrine; Van Huyen, Jean-Paul Duong; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Berger, Stefan; Warnock, David G.; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Rieu, Philippe; Jaisser, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CsA) are still commonly used after renal transplantation, despite CsA–induced nephrotoxicity (CIN), which is partly related to vasoactive mechanisms. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is now recognized as a key player in the control of vascular tone, and both endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-MR modulate the vasoactive responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Here we tested whether vascular MR is involved in renal hemodynamic changes induced by CsA. The relative contribution of vascular MR in acute CsA treatment was evaluated using mouse models with targeted deletion of MR in endothelial cell or SMC. Results indicate that MR expressed in SMC, but not in endothelium, contributes to the increase of plasma urea and creatinine, the appearance of isometric tubular vacuolization, and overexpression of a kidney injury biomarker (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin) after CsA treatment. Inactivation of MR in SMC blunted CsA–induced phosphorylation of contractile proteins. Finally, the in vivo increase of renal vascular resistance induced by CsA was blunted when MR was deleted from SMC cells, and this was associated with decreased L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Thus, our study provides new insights into the role of vascular MR in renal hemodynamics during acute CIN, and provides rationale for clinical studies of MR antagonism to manage the side effects of calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:26422501

  10. Acute administration of diosgenin or dioscorea improves hyperglycemia with increases muscular steroidogenesis in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Fujita, S; Iemitsu, M

    2014-09-01

    Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration improves hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diosgenin, a steroid structurally similar to DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), is contained highly levels in dioscorea; however, it is still unclear whether this natural product improves hyperglycemia in the type 1 diabetes model rats through an increase muscular GLUT4 signaling. After 1 week of STZ injection, fasting glucose level was measured in blood taken from the tail vein every 30 min for 150 min after injection of diosgenin or dioscorea (3mg/kg). On another day, muscle was resected 150 min after diosgenin or dioscorea injections. Serum DHEA level increased significantly 120 min after diosgenin or dioscorea injections; concomitantly, blood glucose level decreased significantly. Moreover, GLUT4 translocation, as well as phosphorylation of Akt and PKC ζ/λ, increased significantly by diosgenin or dioscorea administration. However, these effects of diosgenin and dioscorea were blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor that inhibits synthesizing dehydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone. Additionally, significant correlations were observed between blood glucose level, GLUT4 translocation level, and muscular sex steroid hormone level 150 min after the administrations. These results suggest that the diosgenin-induced increase in the DHEA level may contribute to the improvement of hyperglycemia by activating the muscular GLUT4 signaling pathway in type 1 diabetes model rats.

  11. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  12. Hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mechanisms evoked by the acute administration of CCL5 in mice.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Sara; Álvarez, Miguel G; García-Domínguez, Mario; Lastra, Ana; Cernuda-Cernuda, Rafael; Folgueras, Alicia R; Fernández-García, María Teresa; Hidalgo, Agustín; Baamonde, Ana; Menéndez, Luis

    2017-05-01

    We show here that the intraplantar administration of CCL5 in mice produces hyperalgesia at low doses but activates compensatory antinociceptive mechanisms at doses slightly higher. Thus, the injection of 3-10ng of CCL5 evoked thermal hyperalgesia through the activation of CCR1 and CCR5 receptors, as demonstrated by the inhibitory effect exerted by the selective antagonists J113863 (0.01-0.1μg) and DAPTA (0.3-3μg), respectively. The prevention of this hyperalgesia by diclofenac (1-10μg), the inhibitors of COX-1 SC-560 (0.1-1μg) or COX-2 celecoxib (1-5μg), the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (0.03-0.3μg) or the TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 (10-50μg) demonstrates the involvement of prostaglandin synthesis and TRP sensitization in CCL5-evoked hyperalgesia. Doses of CCL5 higher than 17μg did not evoke hyperalgesia. However, this effect was restored by the administration of naloxone-methiodide (5μg), nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg) or an anti-dynorphin A antibody (0.62-2.5ng). The administration of 30ng of CCL5 also induced hyperalgesia in mice with reduced number of circulating white blood cells in response to cyclophosphamide or with selective neutrophil depletion induced by an anti-Ly6G antibody. In fact, the number of neutrophils present in paws treated with 30ng of CCL5 was greater than in paws receiving the administration of the hyperalgesic dose of 10ng. Finally, the expression of the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin A was demonstrated by double immunofluorescence assays in these neutrophils attracted by CCL5. These results support previous data describing the hyperalgesic properties of CCL5 and constitute the first indication that a chemokine of the CC group can activate endogenous analgesic mechanisms.

  13. Implementing a bar-coded bedside medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Yates, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Hospitals across the nation are struggling with implementing electronic medication administration and reporting (eMAR) systems as part of patient safety programs. St Luke's Hospital in Chesterfield, Mo, initiated their eMAR initiative in June 2003, initiating program start-up in September 2004. This case study documents how the project was approached, its overall success, and what was learned along the way. Also included is a recent update highlighting the expansion of St Luke's patient safety initiative, adapting eMAR to two specialty units: dialysis and laboratory processes.

  14. Cycling efficiency and time to exhaustion are reduced after acute passive stretching administration.

    PubMed

    Esposito, F; Cè, E; Limonta, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acute passive stretching on cycling efficiency during an exercise of heavy intensity. After maximum aerobic power (VO(2max)) assessment, nine active males (24 ± 5 years; stature 1.71 ± 0.09 m; body mass 69 ± 7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) performed tests at 85% of VO(2max) (W(85)) until exhaustion, with and without pre-exercise stretching. During the tests, we determined the gas exchange, metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters. With stretching, no differences in VO(2max) occurred (3.64 ± 0.14 vs 3.66 ± 0.07 L/min for stretching and control, respectively). During W(85), pre-exercise stretching (i) decreased time to exhaustion (t(lim)) by 26% (P<0.05); (ii) increased average VO(2) by 4% (3.24 ± 0.07 and 3.12 ± 0.07 L/min in stretching and control, respectively; P<0.05); and (iii) reduced net mechanical efficiency (e(net) ) by 4% (0.185 ± 0.006 and 0.193 ± 0.006 in stretching and control, respectively; P<0.05). Although acute passive stretching did not have an effect on VO(2max), t(lim) and e(net) during heavy constant load exercise were significantly affected. These results are suggestive of an impairment in cycling efficiency due to changes in muscle neural activation and viscoelastic characteristics induced by stretching.

  15. Acute and chronic caffeine administration increases physical activity in sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Patrick; Panek, Leah M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used stimulant thought to have ergogenic properties. Most studies on the ergogenic effects of caffeine have been conducted in athletes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and increases liking of physical activity in sedentary adults. Participants completed treadmill walking at 60% to 70% of their maximal heart rate at baseline and for 6 subsequent visits, during which half of the participants were given caffeine (3 mg/kg) and half given placebo in a sports drink vehicle. To investigate the potential synergistic effects of acute and chronic caffeine on self-determined exercise duration, participants were rerandomized to either the same or different condition for the last visit, creating 4 chronic/acute treatment groups (placebo/placebo, placebo/caffeine, caffeine/placebo, caffeine/caffeine). Participants rated how much they liked the activity and perceived exertion at each visit. There was a main effect of time on liking of physical activity, with liking increasing over time and an interaction of sex and caffeine treatment on liking, with liking of activity increasing in female participants treated with caffeine, but not with placebo. There was no effect of caffeine on ratings of perceived exertion. Individuals who received caffeine on the final test day exercised for significantly longer than those who received placebo. These data suggest that repeated exposure to physical activity significantly increases liking of exercise and reduces ratings of perceived exertion and that caffeine does little to further modify these effects.

  16. Efficacy of Intravenous Administration of Landiolol in Patients With Acute Heart Failure and Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kiuchi, Shunsuke; Aikawa, Hiroto; Hisatake, Shinji; Kabuki, Takayuki; Oka, Takashi; Dobashi, Shintaro; Fujii, Takahiro; Ikeda, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with acute heart failure (HF) complicated by supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) often receive continuous intravenous infusion of landiolol or diltiazem for rate control. It is unclear whether the interval from initiation of infusion to commencement of oral beta-blocker (BB) therapy differs for these two drugs. Methods From January 2013 to July 2015, 94 consecutive patients were hospitalized for acute HF complicated by SVT. After 35 patients were excluded, the remaining 59 were divided into groups treated with diltiazem or landiolol. We investigated the blood pressure, heart rate, New York Heart Association classification, brain natriuretic peptide, chest X-ray film, echocardiographic findings (ejection fraction (EF)), time until commencement of oral BB therapy, and hospital stay. Results There were no significant between-group differences of heart rate, blood pressure, or the severity of HF. The time until commencing oral BB therapy was significantly shorter in the landiolol group compared with the diltiazem group (median: 2 vs. 4 days, P = 0.002), but there was no significant difference in hospital stay. This interval was significantly shorter in patients with a reduced EF in the landiolol group (median: 2 days) compared with those with a reduced EF in the diltiazem group (median: 5 days, P = 0.008), and patients with a preserved EF in the landiolol group tended to have a shorter interval (median: 2 days) than those with a preserved EF in the diltiazem group (median: 4 days, P = 0.092). Conclusions Switching to oral BBs was accomplished earlier with landiolol than with diltiazem. PMID:28392863

  17. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System... on plans and activities to create an occupational information system tailored specifically for our... System Development Planning. The comment period is open through November 8, 2010. Contact...

  18. Selected computer system controls at the Energy Information Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of our review of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) computer system was to evaluate disk and tape information storage and the adequacy of internal controls in the operating system programs. We used a set of computer-assisted audit techniques called CAATS, developed by the US Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General, in performing the review at the EIA Forrestal Computer Facility. Improved procedures are needed to assure more efficient use of disk space. By transferring data sets from disk to tape, deleting invalid data, releasing unused reserve space and blocking data efficiently, disk space with an estimated value of $1.1 million a year could be recovered for current use. Also, procedures governing the maximum times for storage of information on tapes should be enforced to help ensure that data is not lost. In addition, improved internal controls are needed over granting users system-wide privileges and over authorized program library names to prevent unauthorized access to the system and possible destruction or manipulation of data. Automated Data Processing (ADP) Services Staff officials indicated that software maintenance was not current, due to contractual difficulties with the operating contractor for the Forrestal Facility. Our review confirmed that improvements were needed to help prevent malfunctions of the operating system, which could cause performance degradations, system failures, or loss of either system or user data. Management generally concurred with the recommendations in the report.

  19. Acute Effect of Central Administration of Urotensin II on Baroreflex and Blood Pressure in Conscious Normotensive Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyungjoon; Sata, Yusuke; Jackson, Kristy L.; Burke, Sandra L.; Head, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of central administration of Urotensin II on blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreceptor heart rate reflexes in conscious normotensive rabbits. Preliminary operations were undertaken to implant a balloon cuff on the inferior vena cava for baroreflex assessments and to implant cannula into the lateral and fourth ventricle. After 2 weeks of recovery cumulative dose response curves to Urotensin II (10, 100 ng, 1, 10, and 100 μg) given into the ventricles, or Ringer's solution as a vehicle were performed on separate days. Injections were given each hour and baroreflex assessments were made 30 min after each administration. Analysis of the dose response curves to Urotensin II compared to vehicle administered into the lateral or fourth ventricle, indicated little change to blood pressure or heart rate. Analysis of the time course to the highest dose over a 30 min period revealed a small (−5 mmHg) depressor response maximal at 10 min when injected into the fourth ventricle but no effect when injected into the lateral ventricle. Baroreflex assessments made at each dose showed that there was no change in baroreflex sensitivity but that an increase in the upper plateau was observed when Urotensin was injected into the lateral ventricle and a tendency for a reduced lower heart rate plateau was observed after fourth ventricle administration. Clonidine administration in the fourth ventricle decreased blood pressure and heart rate, thus confirming catheter patency. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Urotensin II in the forebrain and brainstem may play a role in modulating cardiac sympathetic and vagal baroreflexes but only during large acute changes in blood pressure. PMID:28280470

  20. A Study of Intravenous Administration of Vitamin C in the Treatment of Acute Herpetic Pain and Postherpetic Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Dong Jin; Na, Chan Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there are several available management strategies for treatment of both acute pain of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), it is difficult to treat them adequately. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenously administrated vitamin C on acute pain and its preventive effects on PHN in patients with HZ. Methods Between September 2011 and May 2013 eighty-seven patients who were admitted for HZ were assessed according to age, sex, underlying diseases, duration of pain and skin lesion, dermatomal distribution, and PHN. It was a randomized controlled study, in which 87 patients were randomly allocated into the ascorbic acid group and control group. Each patient received normal saline infusion with or without 5 g of ascorbic acid on days 1, 3, and 5 then answered questionnaires that included side effects and pain severity using visual analogue scale on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. After discharge, the severity of pain was obtained at out-patient clinic or by telephone on weeks 2, 4, 8, and 16. Results There was no differences in severity of pain on patients' age, sex, underlying diseases, duration of pain and skin lesion and dermatomal distribution between two groups (p>0.05). Since 8th week, pain score in ascorbic acid treatment group was significantly lower than control group (p <0.05). The incidence of PHN was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (p=0.014). The changes of overall pain score was significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Intravenously administered ascorbic acid did not relieve acute HZ pain; but is effective for reducing the incidence of PHN. PMID:27904265

  1. Effects of Intracoronary Administration of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Results Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Conclusion Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model. PMID:26446632

  2. Impact of Timing of Eptifibatide Administration on Preprocedural Infarct-Related Artery Patency in Acute STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Firdaus, Isman; Danny, Siska Suridanda; Juzar, Dafsah A; Wardeh, Alexander J; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2014-09-01

    The appropriate timing of eptifibatide initiation for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the impact of timing of eptifibatide administration on infarct-related artery (IRA) patency in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Acute STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI (n = 324) were enrolled in this retrospective study; 164 patients received eptifibatide bolus ≤ 30 minutes after emergency department (ED) admission (group A) and 160 patients received eptifibatide bolus > 30 minutes after ED admission (group B). The primary endpoint was preprocedural IRA patency. Most patients in group A (90%) and group B (89%) were late presenters (> 2 hours after symptom onset). The two groups had similar preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 2 or 3 flow of the IRA (26 vs. 24%, p = not significant [NS]), similar creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels at 8 hours after admission (339 vs. 281 U/L, p = NS), similar left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (52 vs. 50%, p = NS), and similar 30-day mortality (2 vs. 7%, p = NS). Compared with group B, patients in group A had shorter door-to-device time (p < 0.001) and shorter procedural time (p = 0.004), without increased bleeding risk (13 vs. 18%, p = NS). Earlier intravenous administration of eptifibatide before primary PCI did not improve preprocedural IRA patency, CK-MB level at 8 hours after admission, LVEF and 30-day mortality compared with patients who received intravenous eptifibatide that was administered later.

  3. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that

  4. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  5. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  6. tPA Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, Lucy Dana; Grantz, Matthew Ryan; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Background IV tPA utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Methods Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010–11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and analyzed for association with outcomes. Results We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at CSC, 68% at CH (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, p<0.001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, p<0.001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, mRS) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Conclusion Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. PMID:26698642

  7. Acute ethanol administration inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in rat intestinal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Zhao, Ji; Li, Jing; Wang, Haiying; Tang, Chengwei

    2013-05-01

    Excess alcohol intake, as in binge drinking, increases susceptibility to microbial pathogens. Alcohol impairs macrophage function by suppression of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway. This study investigated the effects of acute ethanol intake on the TLR4 pathway in rat intestinal epithelia, which usually encounters luminal antigens at first and participates in the development of intestinal immunity. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to an ethanol group given ethanol as a 25% (v/v) solution in water at 7.5 g/kg, or a control group given saline, by oral gavage daily for 3 days. The epithelial histology and ultrastructure, the intestinal microflora, peripheral and portal venous plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, and somatostatin (SST) levels in the peripheral plasma and small intestine were evaluated. Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), TLR4, TANK binding kinase-1 (TBK1), activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the intestinal mucosa were assayed. LPS responsiveness with or without SST pretreatment was assayed in vitro by quantification of TLR4, TBK1, activated NF-κB, IFN-γ and TNF-α in isolated intestinal epithelia. Mucosal damage was observed in the ethanol group by light and electron microscopy. Escherichia coli cultures were unchanged in rat intestine of the ethanol group compared with controls, but lactobacilli cultures were reduced (p < 0.05). LPS levels increased in peripheral and portal venous plasma (p < 0.05), but mucosal TLR4, TBK1, nuclear NF-κB, IFN-γ and TNF-α were unchanged in the ethanol group. LPS treatment in vitro up-regulated the level of TLR4, TBK1 and nuclear NF-κB as well as the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in isolated intestinal epithelia in the control (p < 0.05), but not the ethanol group. The stimulatory effects of LPS on intestinal epithelia isolated from the control group were significantly inhibited by SST pretreatment (p < 0.05). The

  8. Acute ethanol administration affects zebrafish preference for a biologically inspired robot.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Chiara; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-08-01

    Preclinical animal models constitute a cornerstone against which the reward processes involved in drug addiction are often studied and dissected. While rodents have traditionally represented the species of choice, a growing body of literature indicates that zebrafish are emerging as a valuable model organism. Specifically, several studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at the level of emotional- and cognitive-related domains can be reliably investigated using zebrafish. The rapidly evolving nature of these efforts allows substantial room for the development of novel experimental paradigms suited to this freshwater species. The field of ethorobotics may prove particularly beneficial, due to its ability to convey fully controllable and easily reproducible experimental tools. In this study, we addressed the possibility of using a biologically inspired robot to investigate the emotionally related properties of ethanol in a preference task in zebrafish. To this aim, we evaluated wild-type zebrafish preference toward a robotic stimulus and addressed whether ethanol administration (0.25% and 1.00% ethanol/water concentration) may alter such preferences. In accordance with our previous studies, we observed that zebrafish exhibit a natural attraction toward the robot. Additionally, in agreement with our predictions, we showed that ethanol administration abolishes such preferences. This work is the first to demonstrate that robotic stimuli can be used in zebrafish to investigate the reward-related properties of alcohol.

  9. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  10. Improved outcomes from the administration of progesterone for patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guomin; Wei, Jing; Yan, Weiqi; Wang, Weimin; Lu, Zhenhui

    2008-01-01

    injury were lower in the progesterone group than in the placebo group, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups (P > 0.05). Instances of complications and adverse events associated with the administration of progesterone were not found. Conclusion Our data suggest that acute severe TBI patients with administration of progesterone hold improved neurologic outcomes for up to 6 months. These results provide information important for further large and multicenter clinical trials on progesterone as a promising neuroprotective drug. Trial Registration ACTRN12607000545460. PMID:18447940

  11. Weight-based contrast administration in the computerized tomography evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Lisa; Zamfirova, Ina; Sulo, Suela; Baral, Pesach

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Compare individualized contrast protocol, or weight-based protocol, to standard methodology in evaluating acute pulmonary embolism. Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing computed tomography angiography with standard contrast protocol (n = 50) or individualized protocol (n = 50). Computerized tomography images were assessed for vascular enhancement and image quality. Demographics were comparable, however, more patients in the individualized group were admitted to intensive care unit (48% vs 16%, P = 0.004). Vascular enhancement and image quality were also comparable, although individualized protocol had significantly fewer contrast and motion artifact limitations (28% vs 48%, P = 0.039). Fifteen percent decrease in intravenous contrast volume was identified in individualized group with no compromise in image quality. Individualized contrast protocol provided comparable vascular enhancement and image quality to the standard, yet with fewer limitations and lower intravenous contrast volume. Catheter-gauge flow rate restrictions resulting in inconsistent technologist exam execution were identified, supporting the need for further investigation of this regimen. PMID:28151887

  12. Basics of PK-PD using QEEG: acute/repetitive administration, interactions. Focus on anxiolytics with different neurochemical mechanisms as examples.

    PubMed

    Barbanoj, M J; Riba, J; Morte, A; Antonijoan, R M; Jané, F

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing computer-assisted quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in combination with certain statistical procedures and under specific design conditions, it is possible to objectively evaluate the functional bioavailability of psychotropic substances in the target organ: the human brain. Specifically, one may determine whether a drug is active in the central nervous system (CNS) compared with placebo in humans, the dose effect (including nonmonotonic drug effects along the continuum range of concentrations) and the time effect (including time-dependent pharmacodynamic phenomena as tolerance and sensitization), as well as its activity in relation to the formulation and route of application. Methodological aspects are introduced, discussing the usefulness of evaluating different treatments, doses, time points, states, target variables, electrodes and even different groups. Several issues are raised in relation to acute vs. repetitive administration, particularly those dealing with statistical comparisons when making conclusions about acute, repetitive or superimposed effects, and in relation to human psychotropic interactions, such as mechanistic drug-drug interaction descriptions, drug metabolites and enantiomers, as well as the importance of acquiring drug plasma concentrations, elapse of time and topographic distributions to accurately identify its occurrence. PK-PD modeling is introduced as a tool to enlarge the scope of inferences that can be derived when using pharmaco-EEG. The examples presented in order to develop the arguments are mainly focused on anxiolytic compounds belonging to the different neurochemical groups, benzodiazepines and azaspirones. Questions that have yet to been resolved are also addressed.

  13. Acute-Onset Type 1 Diabetes that Developed During the Administration of Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Iwaku, Kenji; Otuka, Fumiko; Taniyama, Matsuo

    2017-01-01

    The patient was 32-year-old man, who received olanzapine for schizophrenia and developed polyuria and thirst without drinking soft-drinks after 4 months. Five months after the initiation of treatment, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis (blood glucose: 490 mg/dL, HbA1c: 15.5%). He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-Ab: 5.6 U/mL, IA-2 Ab: 5.9 U/mL, fasting C-peptide: 0.12 ng/mL) and was put on intensive insulin therapy. At four months after the onset of 1A diabetes, he experienced a honeymoon phase that was sustained until the 40th month of treatment. We hypothesize that the administration of olanzapine to a patient with pre-type 1A diabetes induced marked hyperglycemia and accelerated the onset of type 1A diabetes. PMID:28154279

  14. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N

    2013-12-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33-P40) and adult (P100-P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, and for 3 h at 20 h post ethanol, during the rats' next sleep cycle. Significantly higher overall frontal and parietal cortical power was seen in a wide range of EEG frequencies in adolescent rats as compared to adult rats in their waking EEG. Acute administration of ethanol did not produce differences between adolescents and adults on behavioral measures of acute intoxication. However, it did produce a significantly less intense acute EEG response to ethanol in the theta frequencies in parietal cortex in the adolescents as compared to the adults. At 20 h following acute ethanol administration, during the rats' next sleep cycle, a decrease in slow-wave frequencies (1-4 Hz) was seen and the adolescent rats were found to display more reduction in the slow-wave frequencies than the adults did. The present study found that adolescent rats, as compared to adults, demonstrate low sensitivity to acute ethanol administration in the theta frequencies and more susceptibility to disruption of slow-wave sleep during hangover. These studies may lend support to the idea that these traits may contribute to increased risk for alcohol use disorders seen in adults who begin drinking in their early teenage years.

  15. Effects of chronic and acute protein administration on renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Schaap, G H; Blaak, E; Gans, R O; Oe, P L; Donker, A J

    1989-01-01

    In 6 volunteers with normal renal function, we investigated the effects of various kinds of protein (soy, lactoprotein and beef) and various amounts of an intravenously administered amino acid solution on glomerular filtration (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). As for the protein-induced changes in renal function, rises in GFR and ERPF were lowest with soy protein, and highest with beef (baseline GFR, 110 +/- 5; soy, 122 +/- 5; beef, 131 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2; mean +/- SEM). High doses of intravenous amino acids induced a rise in GFR comparable to that after beef (132 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2). In a combined test a liquid mixed meal together with intravenously administered amino acids induced a comparable increase of the GFR (baseline 114 +/- 5 versus 129 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2). When investigating 9 patients with chronic renal insufficiency after 4 weeks of low protein intake (LP) and after 4 weeks of high protein intake (HP), GFR and ERPF rose significantly under baseline conditions (GFR-LP41 +/- 9 versus GFR-HP 45 +/- 9 ml/min/1.73 m2, p less than 0.02; ERPF-LP 169 +/- 39 versus ERPF-HP 180 +/- 40 ml/min/1.73 m2, p less than 0.02; paired Wilcoxon). At the end of both dietary periods a comparable rise in renal function could be induced through acute stimulation (GFR-LP 20 +/- 5, GFR-HP 16 +/- 4; ERPF-LP 23 +/- 7, ERPF-HP 22 +/- 3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. National Veterans Health Administration inpatient risk stratification models for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Robert M; VanHouten, Jacob P; Siew, Edward D; Eden, Svetlana K; Fihn, Stephan D; Nielson, Christopher D; Peterson, Josh F; Baker, Clifton R; Ikizler, T Alp; Speroff, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is a potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Identifying high-risk patients prior to the onset of kidney injury is a key step towards AKI prevention. Materials and Methods A national retrospective cohort of 1,620,898 patient hospitalizations from 116 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record (EHR) data collected from 2003 to 2012. HA-AKI was defined at stage 1+, stage 2+, and dialysis. EHR-based predictors were identified through logistic regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression, and random forests, and pair-wise comparisons between each were made. Calibration and discrimination metrics were calculated using 50 bootstrap iterations. In the final models, we report odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and importance rankings for predictor variables to evaluate their significance. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the different model outcomes ranged from 0.746 to 0.758 in stage 1+, 0.714 to 0.720 in stage 2+, and 0.823 to 0.825 in dialysis. Logistic regression had the best AUC in stage 1+ and dialysis. Random forests had the best AUC in stage 2+ but the least favorable calibration plots. Multiple risk factors were significant in our models, including some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure medications, antibiotics, and intravenous fluids given during the first 48 h of admission. Conclusions This study demonstrated that, although all the models tested had good discrimination, performance characteristics varied between methods, and the random forests models did not calibrate as well as the lasso or logistic regression models. In addition, novel modifiable risk factors were explored and found to be significant. PMID:26104740

  17. Chronic smoking, but not acute nicotine administration, modulates neural correlates of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Thomas J.; Shakleya, Diaá M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Stein, Elliot A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Beyond the amelioration of deprivation-induced impairments, and in contrast to effects on attentional processes, the cognitive-enhancing properties of nicotine on working memory (WM) operations remain unclear. Objectives In an effort to elucidate potential enhancing effects, we explored the impact of transdermal nicotine on neural functioning in minimally deprived smokers and, in addition, assessed differences between smokers and non-smokers using a mixed block/event-related fMRI design that attempted to isolate specific central executive operations (attentional switch events) within general WM function (task blocks). Methods In task blocks, participants performed a continuous counting paradigm that required the simultaneous maintenance of, and frequent switching of attentional focus between, two running tallies in WM on some trials. Cigarette smokers (n=30) were scanned twice, once each with a nicotine and placebo patch, while non-smokers (n=27) were scanned twice with no patch. Results Across both groups, task blocks were associated with bilateral activation, notably in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior insula, and parietal regions, whereas individual attentional switch trials were associated with activation in a similar, but predominantly left-lateralized network. Within the smoker group, although nicotine increased heart rate, altered performance and mood, and reduced tobacco cravings, no acute drug (state-like) effect on brain activity was detected for either the task or switch effects. However, relative to non-smokers, smokers showed greater tonic activation in medial superior frontal cortex, right anterior insula, and bilateral anterior PFC throughout task blocks (trait-like effect). Conclusions These data suggest smokers require recruitment of additional WM and supervisory control operations during task performance. PMID:20862456

  18. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Liu, Zhiwei; Schlosser, Christopher; Spanogle, Terri L; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; McDaniel, Katherine L

    2016-12-15

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administered dose, the differences based on internal concentrations were less, with γ-cyhalothrin being 1.3- to 1.6-fold more potent than λ-cyhalothrin. These potency differences are consistent with the purity of the λ-isomer (approximately 43%) compared to the enriched isomer γ-cyhalothrin (approximately 98%). Thus, administered dose as well as differences in cyhalothrin isomers is a good predictor of behavioral effects.

  19. Acute Administration of Dopaminergic Drugs has Differential Effects on Locomotion in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Irons, T.D.; Kelly, P.; Hunter, D.L.; MacPhail, R.C.; Padilla, S.

    2013-01-01

    Altered dopaminergic signaling causes behavioral changes in mammals. In general, dopaminergic receptor agonists increase locomotor activity, while antagonists decrease locomotor activity. In order to determine if zebrafish (a model organism becoming popular in pharmacology and toxicology) respond similarly, the acute effects of drugs known to target dopaminergic receptors in mammals were assessed in zebrafish larvae. Larvae were maintained in 96-well microtiter plates (1 larva/well). Non-lethal concentrations (0.2–50 µM) of dopaminergic agonists (apomorphine, SKF-38393, and quinpirole) and antagonists (butaclamol, SCH-23390, and haloperidol) were administered at 6 days post-fertilization (dpf). An initial experiment identified the time of peak effect of each drug (20–260 minutes post-dosing, depending on the drug). Locomotor activity was then assessed for 70 minutes in alternating light and dark at the time of peak effect for each drug to delineate dose-dependent effects. All drugs altered larval locomotion in a dose-dependent manner. Both the D1- and D2-like selective agonists (SKF-38393 and quinpirole, respectively) increased activity, while the selective antagonists (SCH-23390 and haloperidol, respectively) decreased activity. Both selective antagonists also blunted the response of the larvae to changes in lighting conditions at higher doses. The nonselective drugs had biphasic effects on locomotor activity: apomorphine increased activity at the low dose and at high doses, while butaclamol increased activity at low to intermediate doses, and decreased activity at high doses. This study demonstrates that (1) larval zebrafish locomotion can be altered by dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists, (2) receptor agonists and antagonists generally have opposite effects, and (3) drugs that target dopaminergic receptors in mammals appear, in general, to elicit similar locomotor responses in zebrafish larvae. PMID:23274813

  20. Systemic and behavioral effects of intranasal administration of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Laurie L; Hsieh, Heidi; Eppert, Bryan L; Carreira, Vinicius S; Krishan, Mansi; Ingle, Taylor; Howard, Paul C; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Genter, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial properties is widespread. Much of the previous work on the toxicity of AgNPs has been conducted in vitro or following oral or intravenous administration in vivo. Intranasal (IN) instillation of AgNPs mimics inhalation exposure and allows further exploration of the toxicity of these particles via respiratory tract exposure. The present study involved 1) single-dose exposures to assess tissue distribution and toxicity and 2) repeated exposures to assess behavioral effects of IN AgNP exposure (nominally uncoated 25 nm AgNP). AgNP deposition was localized in the liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and brain. Decrease cellularity in spleen follicles was observed in treated mice, along with changes in cell number and populations in the spleen. The splenic GSH:GSSG ratio was also reduced following AgNP exposure. Expression of the oxidative stress-responsive gene Hmox1 was elevated in the hippocampus, but not cortex of treated mice, as was the level of HMOX1 protein. Mice receiving 7 days of IN exposure to 50 mg/kg AgNPs exhibited similar learning- and memory-related behaviors to control mice, except that treated mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant of the Morris Water Maze during the acquisition phase probe trial. These findings indicate systemic distribution and toxicity following IN administration of AgNPs.

  1. Systemic and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Administration of Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Laurie L.; Hsieh, Heidi; Eppert, Bryan L.; Carreira, Vinicius S.; Krishan, Mansi; Ingle, Taylor; Howard, Paul C.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Genter, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial properties is widespread. Much of the previous work on the toxicity of AgNPs has been conducted in vitro or following oral or intravenous administration in vivo. Intranasal (IN) instillation of AgNPs mimics inhalation exposure and allows further exploration of the toxicity of these particles via respiratory tract exposure. The present study involved 1) single-dose exposures to assess tissue distribution and toxicity and 2) repeated exposures to assess behavioral effects of IN AgNP exposure (nominally uncoated 25 nm AgNP). AgNP deposition was localized in the liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and brain. Decrease cellularity in spleen follicles was observed in treated mice, along with changes in cell number and populations in the spleen. The splenic GSH:GSSG ratio was also reduced following AgNP exposure. Expression of the oxidative stress-responsive gene Hmox1 was elevated in the hippocampus, but not cortex of treated mice, as was the level of HMOX1 protein. Mice receiving 7 days of IN exposure to 50 mg/kg AgNPs exhibited similar learning- and memory-related behaviors to control mice, except that treated mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant of the Morris Water Maze during the acquisition phase probe trial. These findings indicate systemic distribution and toxicity following IN administration of AgNPs. PMID:26340819

  2. Alterations of calmodulin and its mRNA in rat brain after acute and chronic administration of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Akiyama, K; Kodama, M; Ishihara, T; Hamamura, T; Kuroda, S

    1997-08-15

    The effect of acute and chronic administration of methamphetamine (METH) on the levels of calmodulin (CaM) and its mRNAs has been investigated in rat brain using antisense oligonucleotides to three distinct rat CaM genes (CaM I, CaM II, CaM III). CaM I mRNA was reduced in the striatum and nucleus accumbens within 2 h of acute administration of 4 mg/kg METH, but returned to the control level by 6 h. The CaM content in both the cytosolic and membrane fractions of the striatum was reduced 0.5, 2, and 6 h after acute administration of METH. In the chronic experiments, rats were treated with either 4 mg/kg METH or saline once daily for 14 days. This was followed by a withdrawal period of 28 days, and thereafter, the animals were challenged with either METH (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. All the animals were decapitated 6 h after this injection. There were four treatment groups: METH-METH (MM); METH-saline (MS); saline-METH (SM); and saline-saline (SS). There was a significant decrease in the mRNA for CaM I and CaM II in the striatum, and CaM II and CaM III in the nucleus accumbens in the MS group and the MS and MM groups, respectively, when compared to the SS group. The CaM content in the striatal membrane fraction decreased in both the SM and MS groups but not in the MM group. In contrast, the CaM content in the membrane fraction of the mesolimbic area showed a significant increase in the MM group. The CaM content in the cytosolic fraction of these brain areas decreased in both the SM and MM groups. The total CaM decreased significantly in the SM and MM groups of the striatum, but increased significantly in the MM group of the mesolimbic area. The mRNA for CaM I and CaM III decreased significantly in the MM group, and in the SM and MM groups, in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively. The CaM content in both the cytosolic and membrane fractions and total CaM content of the SN/VTA decreased significantly in the SM, MS and MM

  3. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1beta have different effects on memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Lisa M; Sutherland, Robert J

    2005-09-30

    Sickness behaviour is an adaptive response to infection that includes lethargy, anorexia and of direct relevance to this work, learning and memory impairments. It has been suggested that proinflammatory cytokines may disrupt learning and memory by interfering with memory consolidation [C.R. Pugh, K. Kumagawa, M. Fleshner, L.R. Watkins, S.F. Maier, J.R. Rudy, Selective effects of peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration on contextual and auditory-cue fear conditioning, Brain Behav. Immun. 12 (1998) 212-229]. We tested whether systemic interleukin-1beta is sufficient to induce impairments in memory consolidation by comparing the effects of post-learning administration of interleukin-1beta with, the potent endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide; and saline, on retention of conditioned fear of a context. We administered an acute intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta or saline immediately following a single conditioning episode in which rats received two tone-shock pairings. Two days following the learning episode, animals were tested for strength of conditioned responding to both the context and tone. Lipopolysaccharide-injected animals, but not interleukin-1beta-injected animals, exhibited less conditioned fear of context compared to saline-treated controls. All groups showed similar conditioned fear of tone. Our results suggest that systemic interleukin-1beta is not sufficient to disrupt memory consolidation, but rather, the synergistic actions of the proinflammatory cytokines released by lipopolysaccharide are required to disrupt memory consolidation.

  4. Effect of acute and chronic administration of methamphetamine on activator protein-1 binding activities in the rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Ishihara, T; Kashihara, K

    1996-10-31

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding activities in the three brain regions (striatum, nucleus accumbens, cingulate cortex) increased after a single methamphetamine (METH, 4 mg/kg) injection and reached maximum levels after 180 min. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 (0.5 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the enhanced AP-1 binding activities induced by acute METH (4 mg/kg) administration. In chronic experiments, rats were pretreated with METH (4 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. The AP-1 binding activities after a 1-week abstinence from chronic administration of MAP increased significantly in all the brain regions compared with those of the saline-treated controls, whereas after a 4-week abstinence, the AP-1 binding activity decreased significantly in the cingulate cortex, but not striatum or nucleus accumbens, compared with the saline-treated control group. A METH challenge after a 4-week abstinence period induced significantly more intense stereotypy, but lower AP-1 binding activities in all the brain regions of rats treated with repeated METH than repeated saline injections. The super-shift assay revealed that after a 1- or 4-week abstinence, there was no significant difference between the Fos-related antigens (Fras) contents of the saline- and METH-treated groups in any brain region examined, and that the Jun family protein levels of the METH-treated group increased significantly in the striatum and nucleus accumbens after a 1-, but not 4-, week abstinence. These results suggest that chronic METH administration leads to delayed decay of the induced AP-1 binding activities and Jun component levels after abstinence for up to 1 week, but results in no change in or decreases these activities and attenuates METH challenge-induced AP-1 binding activities after abstinence for 4 weeks.

  5. Administrators Build Their Own Systems at Loyola University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Kathlyn E.; Krumrey, Arthur J.

    1982-01-01

    The administrative user services instituted at Loyola University of Chicago, which provides administrators with immediate access to computing at low cost, is described. After preliminary training and file initialization, users are responsible for their own data processing. (Author/MLW)

  6. Implementation of an advanced clinical and administrative hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Vegoda, P R; Dyro, J F

    1986-01-01

    Over the last six years since University Hospital opened, the University Hospital Information System (UHIS) has continued to evolve to what is today an advanced administrative and clinical information system. At University Hospital UHIS is the way of conducting business. A wide range of patient care applications are operational including Patient Registration, ADT for Inpatient/Outpatient/Emergency Room visits, Advanced Order Entry/Result Reporting, Medical Records, Lab Automated Data Acquisition/Quality Control, Pharmacy, Radiology, Dietary, Respiratory Therapy, ECG, EEG, Cardiology, Physical/Occupational Therapy and Nursing. These systems and numerous financial systems have been installed in a highly tuned, efficient computer system. All applications are real-time, on-line, and data base oriented. Each system is provided with multiple data security levels, forward file recovery, and dynamic transaction backout of in-flight tasks. Sensitive medical information is safeguarded by job function passwords, identification codes, need-to-know master screens and terminal keylocks. University Hospital has an IBM 3083 CPU with five 3380 disk drives, four dual density tape drives, and a 3705 network controller. The network of 300 terminals and 100 printers is connected to the computer center by an RF broadband cable. The software is configured around the IBM/MVS operating system using CICS as the telecommunication monitor, IMS as the data base management system and PCS/ADS as the application enabling tool. The most extensive clinical system added to UHIS is the Physiological Monitoring/Patient Data Management System with serves 92 critical care beds. In keeping with the Hospital's philosophy of integrated computing, the PMS/PDMS with its network of minicomputers was linked to the UHIS system. In a pilot program, remote access to UHIS through the IBM personal computer has been implemented in several physician offices in the local community, further extending the communications

  7. Potential of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems by intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Javed; Ali, Mushir; Baboota, Sanjula; Sahani, Jasjeet Kaur; Ramassamy, Charles; Dao, Lé; Bhavna

    2010-05-01

    Due to number of problems related with oral, parenteral, rectal and other routes of drug administration, the interest of pharmaceutical scientists has increased towards exploring the possibilities of intranasal delivery of various drugs. Nasal drug delivery system is commonly known for the treatment of local ailments like cold, cough, rhinitis, etc. Efforts have been made to deliver various drugs, especially peptides and proteins, through nasal route for systemic use; utilizing the principles and concepts of various nanoparticulate drug delivery systems using various polymers and absorption promoters. The incorporation of drugs into nanoparticles might be a promising approach, since colloidal formulations have been shown to protect them from the degrading milieu in the nasal cavity and facilitate their transport across the mucosal barriers. The use of nanoparticles for vaccine delivery provides beneficial effect, by achieving good immune responses. This could be due to the fact that small particles can be transported preferentially by the lymphoid tissue of the nasal cavity (NALT). The brain gets benefited through the intranasal delivery as direct olfactory transport bypasses the blood brain barrier and nanoparticles are taken up and conveyed along cell processes of olfactory neurons through the cribriform plate to synaptic junctions with neurons of the olfactory bulb. The intranasal delivery is aimed at optimizing drug bioavailability for systemic drugs, as absorption decreases with increasing molecular weight, and for drugs, which are susceptible to enzymatic degradation such as proteins and polypeptides. This review discusses the potential benefits of using nanoparticles for nasal delivery of drugs and vaccines for brain, systemic and topical delivery. The article aims at giving an insight into nasal cavity, consideration of factors affecting and strategies to improve drug absorption through nasal route, pharmaceutical dosage forms and delivery systems with

  8. The effects of acute and chronic administration of phosphatidylserine on cell proliferation and survival in the dentate gyrus of adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Heloisa; Rodella, Patricia; Silva Freitas, Josiane da; Fernando Takase, Luiz

    2015-06-03

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an acidic phospholipid that is widely used as an alternative and/or complementary treatment of cognitive impairments. We hypothesize that these changes may be attributable, at least in part, to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic PS administration on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adult (5 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) male Wistar rats. PS was injected daily (50mg/kg, i.p.) during 7 days (acute experiment) or 21 days (chronic experiment). To label newly generated cells, rats received a single BrdU injection (200mg/kg, i.p.) one day before PS treatment. The object recognition test was performed, and the rats were perfused. The brains were removed and processed with immunohistochemistry techniques for Ki-67 (cell proliferation) and BrdU (cell survival). The acute and chronic regimens were unable to promote cognitive improvement in either age group in the object recognition test. The analysis of cell proliferation showed a significant increase in the number of Ki-67-positive cells after acute and chronic PS administration in both age groups. The analysis of cell survival showed that acute and chronic PS administration increased the number of BrdU-positive cells only in adult animals.

  9. [Acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Mayer, K; Askevold, I; Collet, P; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Padberg, W; Hecker, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with individually differing expression of systemic involvement. For this reason early diagnosis with subsequent risk stratification is essential in the clinical management of this frequent gastroenterological disorder. Severe forms of acute pancreatitis occur in approximately 20 % of cases often requiring intensive care monitoring and interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. In the acute phase adequate fluid replacement and sufficient analgesic therapy is of major therapeutic importance. Concerning the administration of antibiotics and the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis a change in paradigms could be observed in recent years. Furthermore, endoscopic, radiological or surgical interventions can be necessary depending on the severity of the disease and potential complications.

  10. Induction treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in an elderly patient with intramarrow injection/administration of cytarabine: first report of a case.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anwarul

    2015-12-01

    We have used intramarrow injection/administration of cytarabine (Ara-C) instead of conventional intravenous approach to induce remission in an elderly patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. We show for the first time that the intramarrow injection of chemotherapeutic agents such as Ara-C can be used safely and effectively.

  11. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.

    1996-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. 91 This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login, privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment.

  12. Sumatriptan (oral route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using oral sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Sixty-one studies (37,250 participants) compared oral sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 50 mg and 100 mg doses. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 50 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 6.1, 7.5, and 4.0 for pain-free at two hours and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively. NNTs for sustained pain-free and sustained headache relief during the 24 hours postdose were 9.5 and 6.0, respectively. For sumatriptan 100 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 4.7, 6.8, 3.5, 6.5, and 5.2, respectively, for the same outcomes. Results for the 25 mg dose were similar to the 50 mg dose, while sumatriptan 100 mg was significantly better than 50 mg for pain-free and headache relief at two hours, and for sustained pain-free during 24 hours. Treating early, during

  13. Early Administration of Selenium in Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Double-blinded Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Lahiji, Mohammad Niakan; Hassani, Valiollah; Mozari, Shakiba

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to examine this hypothesis that administration of selenium can prevent the development of injuries by brain trauma and thus can modulate patients’ functional recovery and also improve posttraumatic outcome. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded controlled trial was carried out on 113 patients who were hospitalized following traumatic brain injury (TBI) with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4–12 that were randomly assigned to receive selenium within 8 h after injury plus standard treatment group or routine standard treatment alone as the control. The primary endpoint was to assess patients’ functional recovery at 2 months after the injury based on extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score (GOS-E). Secondary outcomes included the changes in Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score (FOUR) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score, side effects of selenium, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay. Results: There was no difference in the length of ICU and hospital stay, the trend of the change in FOUR and SOFA scores within 15 days of first interventions, and the mean APACHE III score on the 1st and 15th days between the two groups. Mortality was 15.8% in selenium group and 19.6% in control group with no between-group difference. No difference was revealed between the two groups in appropriate outcome according to GOS-E score at 60 ± 10 days and also 30 ± 5 days according to the severity of TBI. Conclusion: This human trial study could not demonstrate beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of selenium in the improvement of outcomes in patients with acute TBI. PMID:28250601

  14. Meal-induced insulin sensitization is preserved after acute olanzapine administration in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Diána; Hegedűs, Csaba; Kiss, Rita; Sári, Réka; Németh, József; Szilvássy, Zoltán; Peitl, Barna

    2015-05-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, can acutely induce fasting insulin resistance, but we do not know whether it is able to modulate the meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS). Two main experimental groups (control and olanzapine-treated) were created with two subgroups (fasted and re-fed) within each. After oral vehicle/olanzapine administration, the first meal size and duration and the total amount of consumed food was recorded in conscious rats. Then, under anaesthesia, the carotid artery and jugular vein was prepared and cannulated to obtain samples for blood glucose and hormone determination as well as for insulin/glucose infusion, respectively. Basal insulin sensitivity and MIS was determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculation and by rapid insulin sensitivity test, respectively. In fasted animals, olanzapine increased blood glucose and plasma insulin and reduced basal insulin sensitivity, but it failed to modify other hormone levels. Postprandial leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels increased, and ghrelin level decreased significantly (p < 0.05) both in vehicle- and olanzapine-treated groups, but plasma insulin increased only in vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore, decrement in ghrelin level was attenuated in olanzapine-treated animals compared to controls. There was no significant change in the first meal size and duration or in the total amount of food consumed. Olanzapine had no effect on the MIS. We demonstrated that olanzapine can induce insulin resistance without weight gain in healthy rats. Furthermore, the MIS was preserved after acute olanzapine treatment. The blunted postprandial ghrelin and insulin response could contribute to the effect of olanzapine on feeding behaviour. Pharmacological induction of MIS may improve the olanzapine-induced insulin resistance.

  15. Effects of acute nicotine administration on behavioral and neural (EEG) correlates of working memory in non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Daniels, Richelle; Jaworska, Natalia; Knobelsdorf, Amy; Knott, Verner J

    2012-01-06

    Enhancements in working memory (WM) performance have been previously reported following acute smoking/nicotine. Neuroimaging and behavioral assessments of nicotine's effects on WM have yielded inconsistent findings. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of nicotine on WM-related neural activity in non-smokers. The present study examined the effect of acute nicotine gum administration (6 mg) on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (alpha(1), alpha(2) and theta bands) and performance on the parametrically manipulated N-back task of WM in 20 non-smoking adults. EEG activity varied with WM load (e.g. alpha(1) decreasing and theta increasing). Performance on the N-back was also load-sensitive, with slower reaction times and decreased accuracy associated with increasing memory load. Neither response speed nor accuracy measures were affected by nicotine but EEG was, with the effects varying by load and brain region. Nicotine-induced increases in alpha(2) and theta were observed under lower (0-, 1-back) memory load conditions Additionally, nicotine significantly reduced signal detection sensitivity values and altered response bias toward being more conservative at all levels of the N-back. Taken together, these findings suggest that while nicotine may boost WM neural processes at lower levels of WM load in non-smokers, it also may activate concurrent behavioral inhibition networks that negate any effects on behavioral performance. Additionally, nicotine appears to have no impact, or perhaps a negative impact, on these processes under more demanding (2-back, 3-back) conditions in non-smokers.

  16. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M.; Walentiny, D. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone’s abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to μ-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects. PMID:26491062

  17. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Walentiny, D Matthew; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone's abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to μ-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects.

  18. Pulmonary administration of aerosolised fentanyl: pharmacokinetic analysis of systemic delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Laurence E; Woodhouse, Annie; Ward, M Elizabeth; Farr, Stephen J; Rubsamen, Reid A; Eltherington, Lorne G

    1998-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary drug delivery is a promising noninvasive method of systemic administration. Our aim was to determine whether a novel breath-actuated, microprocessor-controlled metered dose oral inhaler (SmartMist™, Aradigm Corporation) could deliver fentanyl in a way suitable for control of severe pain. Methods Aersolised pulmonary fentanyl base 100–300 μg was administered to healthy volunteers using SmartMist™ and the resultant plasma concentration-time data were compared with those from the same doses administered by intravenous (i.v.) injection in the same subjects. Results Plasma concentrations from SmartMist™ were similar to those from i.v. injection. Time-averaged bioavailability based upon nominal doses averaged 100%, and was >50% within 5 min of delivery. Fentanyl systemic pharmacokinetics were similar to those previously reported with no trends to dose-dependence from either route. Side-effects (e.g. sedation, lightheadedness) were the same from both routes. Conclusions Fentanyl delivery using SmartMist™ can provide analgetically relevant plasma drug concentrations. This, combined with its ease of noninvasive use and transportability, suggests a strong potential for field and domicilliary use, and for patient controlled analgesia without the need for i.v. cannulae. PMID:9690947

  19. Effects of topical and systemic administration of Eugenia caryophyllata buds essential oil on corneal anesthesia and analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hazrati, Reza; Saiah, Gholamreza Vafaei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove) buds (EOEC) is efficacious in the treatment of dental pain. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic and local anesthetic effects of EOEC and its possible mechanisms of action in acute corneal pain in rats. EOEC was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus from clove buds. The acute corneal pain was induced by applying a drop (40 µl) of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface, and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. The mechanical sensation of the cornea was evaluated by calibrated Von Frey filaments. Systemic administration of EOEC (100 and 200 mg/kg, SC) and morphine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, IP) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in acute corneal pain. Pretreatment with naloxone or atropine prevented the EOEC-induced analgesia. However, L-arginine and methylene blue did not change the suppressive effect of EOEC on corneal pain response. Topical application of EOEC, eugenol and lidocaine significantly decreased corneal sensitivity. Combination treatments of eugenol (25 µg) with lidocaine (0.5%) and EOEC (50 µg) with lidocaine (0.5%) also significantly suppressed corneal sensitivity. Systemic administration of EOEC produced analgesia in the acute corneal pain through mechanisms that involved both opioidergic and cholinergic systems. In addition, topical instillation of EOEC, eugenol, and lidocaine produced local anesthesia in the rat cornea. Sub-anesthetic doses of EOEC or eugenol produced a significant local anesthetic effect when concurrently used with the sub-anesthetic dose of lidocaine. PMID:27651809

  20. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  1. Protracted increases in core body temperature and interleukin-1 following acute administration of lipopolysaccharide: implications for the stress response.

    PubMed

    Deak, Terrence; Bellamy, Cherie; Bordner, Kelly A

    2005-06-30

    Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a fever response often precipitated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS. This pro-inflammatory cascade has traditionally been regarded as a transitory event that, with a non-replicating antigen such as LPS, would subside within a few hours. We present data showing that central and peripheral levels of IL-1 were substantially elevated as much as 48 h after LPS in some structures. In order to explore other aspects of the sickness response that might follow a similarly protracted time course, rats were implanted with telemetry probes and injected (i.p.) with 0, 10 or 100 mug/kg of LPS and left undisturbed for 96 h. Rats injected with LPS evinced a polyphasic fever with intermediate temperature peaks at approximately 5 and 8 h. Although the fever appeared to subside during the first night cycle, more detailed analysis confirmed that it was masked by the circadian rise in core temperature during the dark cycle and actually persisted for approximately 36 h following LPS. In contrast, LPS produced a transient suppression of social interaction that was no longer evident 24 h after LPS. Finally, we report that prior LPS produced a sensitized fever response to social conflict 48 h later. Taken together, these results suggest that acute administration of LPS results in a protracted fever response and increased IL-1 that persist for at least 24-48 h, and that LPS may render certain aspects of the stress response to a sensitized state.

  2. Acute administration of Δ⁹ tetrahydrocannabinol does not prevent enhancement of sensory gating by clozapine in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Stevens, Karen E; Tregellas, Jason R

    2014-03-01

    Despite high rates of marijuana abuse in schizophrenia, the physiological interactions between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and antipsychotic medications are poorly understood. A well-characterized feature of schizophrenia is poor gating of the P50 auditory-evoked potential. This feature has been translationally modeled by the DBA/2 mouse, which exhibits poor suppression of the P20-N40 AEP, the rodent analog of the human P50. Previous work has demonstrated that this deficit is reversed by the antipsychotic clozapine. It is unknown, however, if this effect is altered by THC administration. Using a conditioning-testing paradigm with paired auditory stimuli, the effects of clozapine and dronabinol (a pharmaceutical THC formulation) on inhibitory P20-N40 AEP processing were assessed from in vivo hippocampal CA3 recordings in anesthetized DBA/2 mice. The effects of clozapine (0.33 mg/kg) and dronabinol (10 mg/kg) were assessed alone and in combination (0.33, 1 or 1.83 mg/kg clozapine with 10mg/kg dronabinol). Improved P20-N40 AEP gating was observed after acute administration of 0.33 mg/kg clozapine. Co-injection of 0.33 mg/kg clozapine and 10 mg/kg THC, however, did not improve gating relative to baseline. This effect was overcome by higher doses of clozapine (1 and 1.83 mg/kg), as these doses improved gating relative to baseline in the presence of 10 mg/kg THC. 10 mg/kg THC alone did not affect gating. In conclusion, THC does not prevent improvement of P20-N40 gating by clozapine.

  3. Acute porcine renal metabolic effect of endogastric soft drink administration assessed with hyperpolarized [1‐13c]pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Kjærgaard, Uffe; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde; Ringgaard, Steffen; Stødkilde‐Jørgensen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to determine the quantitative reproducibility of metabolic breakdown products in the kidney following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate and secondly to investigate the metabolic effect on the pyruvate metabolism of oral sucrose load using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization. By this technique, metabolic alterations in several different metabolic related diseases and their metabolic treatment responses can be accessed. Methods In four healthy pigs the lactate‐to‐pyruvate, alanine‐to‐pyruvate and bicarbonate‐to‐pyruvate ratio was measured following administration of regular cola and consecutive injections of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate four times within an hour. Results The overall lactate‐to‐pyruvate metabolic profile changed significantly over one hour following an acute sucrose load leading to a significant rise in blood glucose. Conclusion The reproducibility of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the healthy pig kidney demonstrated a repeatability of more than 94% for all metabolites and, furthermore, that the pyruvate to lactate conversion and the blood glucose level is elevated following endogastric sucrose administration. Magn Reson Med 74:558–563, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:26014387

  4. Acute Coronary Syndromes, Gastrointestinal Protection, and Recommendations Regarding Concomitant Administration of Proton-Pump Inhibitors (Omeprazol/Esomeprazole) and Clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Iñigo; Sanchez-Insa, Esther; de Leiras, Sergio Rodríguez; Carrillo, Pilar; Ruiz-Quevedo, Valeriano; Pinar, Eduardo; Gopar-Gopar, Silvia; Bayon, Jeremías; Mañas, Pilar; Lasa, Garikoitz; CruzGonzalez, Ignacio; Hernandez, Felipe; Fernandez-Portales, Javier; Fernandez-Fernandez, Javier; Pérez-Serradilla, Ana; de la Torre Hernandez, José M; Gomez-Jaume, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency sent a warning in 2010 discouraging the concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. The purpose is to know the gastroprotective approach in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the level of follow-up of the alert. In 17 hospitals with catheterization laboratory in Spain, 1 per region, we studied 25 consecutive patients per hospital whose diagnosis of discharge since October 1, 2013, had been any type of ACS. We analyzed their baseline clinical profile, the gatroprotective agents at admission and discharge and the antiplatelet therapy at discharge. The number of patients included was 425: age 67.2 ± 12.5 years, women 29.8%, diabetes 36.5%. The patients presented unstable angina in 21.6%, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 35.3% and ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 43.1%. Conservative approach was chosen in 17.9%, bare-metal stents 32.2%, ≥ 1 drug-eluting stent 48.5%, and surgery 1.4%. Aspirin was indicated in 1.9%, aspirin + clopidogrel 73.6%, aspirin + prasugrel 17.6%, and aspririn + ticagrelor 6.8%. Gastroprotective agents were present in 40.2% patients at admission and this percentage increased to 93.7% at discharge. Of the 313 (73.6%) on clopidogrel in 96 (30.6%) was combined with omeprazole and 3 (0.95%) with esomeprazole, whereas the most commonly used was pantoprazole with 190 patients (44.7%). In conclusion, almost the totality of the patients with an ACS receive gastroprotective agents at the moment of discharge, most of them with proton-pump inhibitors. In one every 3 cases of the patients who are on clopidogrel, the recommendation of the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency is not followed.

  5. The influence of the time of antidotal treatment administration on the potency of newly developed oximes to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun in mice.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jirí

    2005-01-01

    (1) The influence of the time of administration of antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug (atropine) and newly developed oxime (K027 or K048) on its effectiveness to eliminate tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was studied in mice. (2) The therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun-induced acute poisoning depends on the time of its administration regardless of the choice of the oxime. (3) Our results show that both oximes studied (K027, K048) are able to sufficiently eliminate lethal effects of tabun. Nevertheless, their efficacy significantly decreases when they were administered 5 min after tabun poisoning. (4) The findings support the hypothesis that both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes to counteract acute toxicity of tabun although their ability to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun significantly decreases with prolonged time interval between tabun challenge and antidotal treatment administration.

  6. Neuropeptide Y administration acutely increases hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity: lack of effect in other rat brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; George, S.R.

    1987-12-21

    The effect of acute central administration of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) to adult male rats on the brain content of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) was investigated. The brain regions studied included frontal cortex, hippocampus, medulla-pons, midbrain-thalamus, cerebellum, neurointermediate lobe of pituitary, median eminence and the remaining hypothalamus. CRF-ir was determined in each of these regions using radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF. CRF-ir was found to be significantly increased in the major site of CRF localization in the brain, the hypothalamus, in NPY-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated controls either 15 minutes (p<0.025) or 45 minutes (p<0.005) post-injection. This increase was localized to the median eminence (p<0.05 after 15 minutes, p<0.01 after 45 minutes). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other brain regions assessed. Plasma adrenocorticotropin levels were also found to increase following NPY treatment, an effect which became significant after 45 minutes (p<0.05). These data show that NPY can alter the content of hypothalamic CRF and may play a role in its regulation. 33 references, 4 figures.

  7. Acute inflammatory response secondary to intrapleural administration of two types of talc.

    PubMed

    Rossi, V F; Vargas, F S; Marchi, E; Acencio, M M P; Genofre, E H; Capelozzi, V L; Antonangelo, L

    2010-02-01

    Intrapleural instillation of talc has been used in the treatment of recurrent pleural effusions but can, in rare instances, result in respiratory failure. Side-effects seem to be related to composition, size and inflammatory power of talc particles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response to intrapleural injection of talc containing small particles (ST) or talc containing particles of mixed size (MT). 100 rabbits received intrapleural talc, 50 with ST (median 6.41 mum) and 50 with MT (median 21.15 mum); the control group was composed of 35 rabbits. Cells, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were evaluated in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage at 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Lung histology and the presence of talc were also analysed. Statistics were performed using ANOVA and an unpaired t-test. Most of the parameters showed greater levels in the animals injected with talc than in the controls, suggesting a systemic and pulmonary response. Higher serum levels of CRP and IL-8 were observed in the animals injected with ST. Talc particles were observed in both lungs with no differences between groups. Lung cell infiltrate was more evident in the ST group. In conclusion, talc with larger particles should be the preferred choice in clinical practice in order to induce safer pleurodesis.

  8. Systemic administration of lithium improves distracted bone regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Zhu, Songsong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Li, Yunfeng; Song, Donghui; Hu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Lithium, popular in psychology field, has been recognized as an activator component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The effect of lithium on osteogenesis or on the human fracture risk has been widely reported. However, little is known on its role in distraction osteogenesis to date. In this study, the effect of systematic administrated lithium on distraction osteogenesis in a rat model was investigated. The osteotomy was performed on the right tibia in 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Then they were randomly assigned into two equal groups (n = 20/group), which underwent Lithium or saline treatment through gastric gavage until the day they were killed. One week after the osteotomy, the tibias were distracted for 14 days (rate 0.6 mm/day). Following 8 weeks consolidation period, the distracted tibias in both groups were harvested and examined by X-ray plain radiography, histology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Micro-CT, and biomechanical tests. The results showed that lithium group possessed higher bone mineral density, more mature new bone tissue, and better regenerated bone mass continuity in the distraction gaps without any local or systemic adverse effects was encountered. This study suggested lithium could increase bony callus ossification volume and accelerate distracted tissue mineralization to facilitate bone regeneration in distraction gap.

  9. Salary Administration in the Political System vs. Management Systems of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Bruce

    This paper argues that the high output demands of the information age necessitate that higher education salary administration be shifted from political systems, where subjective evaluation makes patronage a criterion of success, to management systems which employ objective analysis to allocate remuneration according to productivity. The paper…

  10. Response of limbic neurotensin systems to methamphetamine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G R; Hoonakker, A J; Alburges, M E; McFadden, L M; Robson, C M; Frankel, P S

    2012-02-17

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is personally and socially devastating. Although effects of METH on dopamine (DA) systems likely contribute to its highly addictive nature, no medications are approved to treat METH dependence. Thus, we and others have studied the METH-induced responses of neurotensin (NT) systems. NT is associated with inhibitory feedback action on DA projections, and NT levels are elevated in both the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum after noncontingent treatment with high doses of METH. In the present study, we used a METH self-administration (SA) model (linked to lever pressing) to demonstrate that substitution of an NT agonist for METH, while not significantly affecting motor activity, dramatically reduced lever pressing but was not self-administered per se. We also found that nucleus accumbens NT levels were elevated via a D1 mechanism after five sessions in rats self-administering METH (SAM), with a lesser effect in corresponding yoked rats. Extended (15 daily sessions) exposure to METH SA manifested similar NT responses; however, more detailed analyses revealed (i) 15 days of METH SA significantly elevated NT levels in the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum, but not the nucleus accumbens core, with a lesser effect in the corresponding yoked METH rats; (ii) the elevation of NT in both the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum significantly correlated with the total amount of METH received in the self-administering, but not the corresponding yoked METH rats; and (iii) an NT agonist blocked, but an NT antagonist did not alter, lever-pressing behavior on day 15 in SAM rats. After 5 days in SAM animals, NT levels were also elevated in the ventral tegmental area, but not frontal cortex of rats self-administering METH.

  11. In vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor during acute SIV infection leads to significant increases in viral load during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Albrecht, Christina; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Russo, Robert; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Tara; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-03-01

    The studies reported herein are the first to document the effect of the in vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor for defining the potential role of NK cells during acute SIV infection of a group of 15 rhesus macaques (RM). An additional group of 16 MHC/KIR typed RM was included as controls. The previously optimized in vivo dose regimen (20 mg/kg daily for 35 days) led to a marked depletion of each of the major NK cell subsets both in the blood and gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) during acute infection. While such depletion had no detectable effects on plasma viral loads during acute infection, there was a significant sustained increase in plasma viral loads during chronic infection. While the potential mechanisms that lead to such increased plasma viral loads during chronic infection remain unclear, several correlates were documented. Thus, during acute infection, the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor besides depleting all NK cell subsets also decreased some CD8⁺ T cells and inhibited the mobilization of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the blood and their localization to the GIT. Of interest is the finding that the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor during acute infection also resulted in the sustained maintenance during chronic infection of a high number of naïve and central memory CD4⁺ T cells, increases in B cells in the blood, but decreases in the frequencies and function of NKG2a⁺ NK cells within the GIT and blood, respectively. These data identify a unique role for JAK3 inhibitor sensitive cells, that includes NK cells during acute infection that in concert lead to high viral loads in SIV infected RM during chronic infection without affecting detectable changes in antiviral humoral/cellular responses. Identifying the precise mechanisms by which JAK3 sensitive cells exert their influence is critical with important implications for vaccine design against lentiviruses.

  12. Enteric glial reactivity to systemic LPS administration: Changes in GFAP and S100B protein.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Franceschi, Raphaela; Nardin, Patrícia; Machado, Clivia Valle; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei; Zanotto, Caroline; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Zancan, Denise Maria

    2017-01-04

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to induce inflammation and promotes nervous system activation. Different regions of the brain present heterogeneous glial responses; thus, in order to verify whether systemic LPS-induced inflammation affects the enteric glia differently across the intestinal segments, we evaluated the expressions of two glial activity markers, GFAP and S100B protein, in different intestine segments, at 1h, 24h and 7days after acute systemic LPS administration (0.25 or 2.5mgkg(-1)) in rats. Histological inflammatory analysis indicated that the cecum was most affected when compared to the duodenum and proximal colon at the highest doses of LPS. LPS induced an increased S100B content after 24h in all three regions, which decreased at 7days after the highest dose in all regions. Moreover, at 24h, this dose of LPS increased ex-vivo S100B secretion only in the cecum. The highest dose of LPS also increased GFAP in all regions at 24h, but earlier in the cecum, where LPS-induced enteric S100B and GFAP alterations were dependent on dose, time and intestine region. No associated changes in serum S100B were observed. Our results indicate heterogeneous enteric glial responses to inflammatory insult, as observed in distinct brain areas.

  13. Strain Differences in Delay Discounting between Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats at Baseline and Following Acute and Chronic Administration of d-Amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Huskinson, Sally L.; Krebs, Christopher A.; Anderson, Karen G.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant drugs have been shown either to increase or decrease rates of delay discounting (impulsive choice). These mixed findings may result from genetic, neurochemical, or environmental factors. Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats have neurochemical and behavioral differences that may be relevant to delay discounting and were used to examine effects of acute and chronic administration of d-amphetamine (d-AMP) on impulsive choice using a within-session delay-discounting procedure. Male LEW (n=8) and F344 (n=8) rats chose between one food pellet delivered immediately and three food pellets delivered after an increasing delay. Saline and d-AMP (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 1.7 mg/kg) were tested acutely and during chronic d-AMP exposure. Choice for the larger reinforcer decreased as the delay to its presentation increased for both strains at baseline. LEW rats made more impulsive choices than F344 rats as indicated by shorter indifference points, and this is consistent with previous research. Acute administration of d-AMP dose dependently increased larger-reinforcer choice and area under the curve (AUC) for LEW, but not F344 rats. During chronic exposure to d-AMP, larger-reinforcer choice and AUC increased relative to acute administration for F344 rats responding in shorter delay series, but not for F344 rats responding in longer delay series or for LEW rats. Differential effects of acute and chronic administration of d-AMP on impulsive choice in LEW and F344 rats may be a result of various factors, including genetic, neurochemical, and environmental variables. Future research should attempt to tease apart the relative contribution of each of these factors on impulsive choice. PMID:22342664

  14. Infiltration of central nervous system in adult acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Pippard, M J; Callender, S T; Sheldon, P W

    1979-01-01

    Out of 64 consecutive unselected patients with acute myeloid leukaemia studied during 1973-6, five developed clinical evidence of spread to the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroradiological examination showed cerebral deposits in three, in whom rapid symptomatic relief was obtained with radiotherapy. In two of these patients who developed solid intracranial deposits haematological remission could be reinduced or maintained; they were still alive 86 and 134 weeks later. When patients presented with spread to the CNS complicating generalised uncontrolled leukaemia they had short survivals. CNS infiltration may respond dramatically to appropriate treatment provided that it is not associated with generalised uncontrolled leukaemia, which has a poor prognosis. In view of this, routine "prophylaxis" of the CNS in adult acute myeloid leukaemia does not seem justified at present. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 PMID:283873

  15. Responses of dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic networks to acute levo-tetrahydropalmatine administration in naïve rats detected at 9.4 T

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiping; Yang, Zheng; Li, Rupeng; Xie, Jun; Yin, Qian; Bloom, Alan S.; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to understand the neuropharmacological characteristics of levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a recently found potential treatment for drug addiction, and discover its neural correlates and sites of action. Methods High-field pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) was used to detect activation induced by acute l-THP administration in the naïve rat brain at dose levels of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Results Interestingly, the pharmacological profile of l-THP selectively binds to the receptors of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Using the phMRI method, it was demonstrated that l-THP selectively activated the key brain regions of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Numerous studies suggest a critical role of monoamines in the behavioral, pharmacological and addictive properties of psychostimulants. It is suggested that l-THP holds great potential to be a therapeutic medication for drug addiction. PMID:22079072

  16. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g+ = 0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g+ = -0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of a New Carbapenem, DA-1131, after Intravenous Administration to Rats with Uranyl Nitrate-Induced Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So H.; Shim, Hyun J.; Kim, Won B.; Lee, Myung G.

    1998-01-01

    Because the physiological changes that occur in patients with acute renal failure could alter the pharmacokinetics of the drugs used to treat the disease, the pharmacokinetics of DA-1131, a new carbapenem antibiotic, were investigated after 1-min intravenous administration of the drug (50 mg/kg of body weight) to control rats and rats with uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure (U-ARF rats). The impaired kidney function was observed in U-ARF rats on the basis of physiological parameters observed by microscopy of the kidney and obtained by chemical analysis of the plasma. After a 1-min intravenous infusion of DA-1131, the concentrations in plasma and the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity increased significantly in U-ARF rats compared with those in control rats (13,000 versus 4,400 μg · min/ml). This was due to the significantly slower total body clearance (CL) of DA-1131 (3.84 versus 11.4 ml/min/kg) from U-ARF rats than from control rats. The significantly slower CL of DA-1131 from U-ARF rats was due to both significantly slower renal clearance (0.000635 versus 4.95 ml/min/kg because of a significant decrease in the 8-h urinary excretion of unchanged DA-1131 [1.54 versus 43.8% of the intravenous dose] due to impaired kidney function, as proved by the significant decrease in creatinine clearance [0.0159 versus 4.29 ml/min/kg]) and significantly slower nonrenal clearance (3.80 versus 6.34 ml/min/kg because of a significant decrease in the metabolism of DA-1131 in the kidney) in U-ARF rats. The amounts of DA-1131 recovered from all tissues studied (except the kidneys) were significantly higher for U-ARF rats than for control rats; however, the ratios of the amount in tissue to the concentration in plasma (except those for the kidney, small intestine, and spleen) were not significantly different between the two groups of rats, indicating that the affinity of DA-1131 for rat tissues was not changed considerably in

  18. Decision support systems for robotic surgery and acute care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.

  19. Systemic sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure: about 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.

  20. Relationship of Acute Lung Inflammatory Injury to Fas/FasL System

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Thomas A.; Guo, Ren-Feng; Neff, Simona B.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Speyer, Cecilia L.; Gao, Hongwei; Bernacki, Kurt D.; Huber-Lang, Markus; McGuire, Stephanie; Hoesel, L. Marco; Riedemann, Niels C.; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Zetoune, Firas S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that apoptosis plays a significant role in tissue damage during acute lung injury. To evaluate the role of the apoptosis mediators Fas and FasL in acute lung injury, Fas (lpr)- or FasL (gld)-deficient and wild-type mice were challenged with intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. Lung injury parameters (125I-albumin leak, accumulation of myeloperoxidase, and wet lung weights) were measured and found to be consistently reduced in both lpr and gld mice. In wild-type mice, lung injury was associated with a marked increase in Fas protein in lung. Inflamed lungs of wild-type mice showed striking evidence of activated caspase-3, which was much diminished in inflamed lungs from lpr mice. Intratracheal administration of a monoclonal Fas-activating antibody (Jo2) in wild-type mice induced MIP-2 and KC production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) showed significantly increased MIP-2 production after incubation with this antibody. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid content of MIP-2 and KC was substantially reduced in lpr mice after lung injury when compared to levels in wild-type mice. These data suggest that the Fas/FasL system regulates the acute lung inflammatory response by positively affecting CXC-chemokine production, ultimately leading to enhanced neutrophil influx and tissue damage. PMID:15743781

  1. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  2. Acute central administration of immepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, suppresses hypothalamic histamine release and elicits feeding behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Seiichi; Itateyama, Emi; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2009-04-06

    Histamine suppresses feeding behavior via histamine H1 receptors in the hypothalamus. This study was performed to examine whether the acute reduction of histamine release in the hypothalamus caused by immepip, a histamine H3 agonist, modulates the feeding behavior of rats. Rats had a catheter implanted in the third cerebral ventricle (i3v) and were given central injections of phosphate-buffered-saline or immepip (100-300 pmol/rat). Following the i3v administration of immepip, the rats developed dose-dependent hypokinesia within 10 min of administration. Next to hypokinesia, the rats showed significant dose-dependent feeding behavior. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the reduction in histamine release in the hypothalamus of rats following i3v administration of immepip. These results suggest that i3v administration of immepip, an H3 receptor agonist, suppresses hypothalamic histamine release and elicits feeding behavior in rats.

  3. Augmented motor activity and reduced striatal preprodynorphin mRNA induction in response to acute amphetamine administration in metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, L; Conquet, F; Wang, J Q

    2001-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor and is expressed in the medium spiny projection neurons of mouse striatum. To define the role of mGluR1 in actions of psychostimulant, we compared both motor behavior and striatal neuropeptide mRNA expression between mGluR1 mutant and wild-type control mice after a single injection of amphetamine. We found that acute amphetamine injection increased motor activity in both mutant and control mice in a dose-dependent manner (1, 4, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.). However, the overall motor responses of mGluR1 -/- mice to all three doses of amphetamine were significantly greater than those of wild-type +/+ mice. Amphetamine also induced a dose-dependent elevation of preprodynorphin mRNA in the dorsal and ventral striatum of mutant and wild-type mice as revealed by quantitative in situ hybridization. In contrast to behavioral responses, the induction of dynorphin mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral striatum of mutant mice was significantly less than that of wild-type mice in response to the two higher doses of amphetamine. In addition, amphetamine elevated basal levels of substance P mRNA in the dorsal and ventral striatum of mGluR1 mutant mice to a similar level as that of wild-type mice. There were no differences in basal levels and distribution patterns of the two mRNAs between the two genotypes of mice treated with saline. These results demonstrate a clear augmented behavioral response of mGluR1 knockout mice to acute amphetamine exposure that is closely correlated with reduced dynorphin mRNA induction in the same mice. It appears that an intact mGluR1 is specifically critical for full dynorphin induction, and impaired mobilization of inhibitory dynorphin system as a result of lacking mGluR1 may contribute to an augmentation of motor stimulation in response to acute administration of psychostimulant.

  4. Food proteins and gut mucosal barrier. IV. Effects of acute and chronic ethanol administration on handling and uptake of bovine serum albumin by rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of ethanol exposure on small intestinal handling and uptake of radiolabeled bovine serum albumin were investigated using everted gut sacs. There was less breakdown of BSA after acute ethanol administration in vitro and after acute and chronic in vivo exposure. Thus, the vascular compartment of the small intestine was confronted with more complete and potentially more antigenic material after ethanol. Changes in BSA binding and uptake after acute exposure were shown to be reversible after 4-6 hr. In all groups, there was more BSA binding when the small intestine was exposed to ethanol. This difference was most pronounced after chronic exposure. In the same group, uptake of BSA was correlated with binding and significantly increased. Combined effects of ethanol on the gut mucosal barrier may account for changes in food antigen handling and uptake.

  5. 5 CFR 900.603 - Standards for a merit system of personnel administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for a merit system of personnel administration. 900.603 Section 900.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... relative ability, knowledge, and skills, including open consideration of qualified applicants for...

  6. Administrators' Perceptions Regarding the Effectiveness of the Teacher Observation Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathleen Riley

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study was designed to explore public school administrators' perceptions regarding Louisiana's Compass teacher observation evaluation system as a method for assessing teacher performance. Participants were administrators with at least two years of experience as a public school administrator at the secondary level,…

  7. Effect of interaction between acute administration of morphine and cannabinoid compounds on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents of magnocellular neurons of supraoptic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Opioids and cannabinoids are two important compounds that have been shown to influence the activity of magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON). The interaction between opioidergic and cannabinoidergic systems in various structures of the brain and spinal cord is now well established, but not in the MCNs of SON. Materials and methods: In this study, whole cell patch clamp recording of neurons in rat brain slice was used to investigate the effect of acute morphine and cannabinoid administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory spostsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. Results: Bath application of morphine produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency. In contrast, bath application of URB597 (fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor) produced a decrease in sEPSCs frequency but an increase in sIPSCs frequency. WIN55212-2 (cannabinoid receptor agonist) decreased both sIPSCs and sEPSCs frequencies of MCNs. Co-application of morphine and URB597 attenuated the effect of morphine on MCNs. Conclusion: Taken together, these data indicated that at the cellular level, pharmacological augmentation of endocannabinoids could attenuate morphine effects on MCNs. PMID:27482350

  8. Correlations between the Memory-Related Behavior and the Level of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Mice Brain, Provoked by an Acute Administration of CB Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Slomka, Tomasz; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptors, is involved in memory-related responses, as well as in processes that may affect cognition, like oxidative stress processes. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the impact of CB1 and CB2 receptor ligands on the long-term memory stages in male Swiss mice, using the passive avoidance (PA) test, as well as the influence of these compounds on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the mice brain. A single injection of a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM 251, improved long-term memory acquisition and consolidation in the PA test in mice, while a mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 impaired both stages of cognition. Additionally, JWH 133, a selective CB2 receptor agonist, and AM 630, a competitive CB2 receptor antagonist, significantly improved memory. Additionally, an acute administration of the highest used doses of JWH 133, WIN 55,212-2, and AM 630, but not AM 251, increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the brain. In turn, the processes of lipids peroxidation, expressed as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), were more advanced in case of AM 251. Thus, some changes in the PA performance may be connected with the level of oxidative stress in the brain.

  9. Correlations between the Memory-Related Behavior and the Level of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in the Mice Brain, Provoked by an Acute Administration of CB Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Slomka, Tomasz; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptors, is involved in memory-related responses, as well as in processes that may affect cognition, like oxidative stress processes. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate the impact of CB1 and CB2 receptor ligands on the long-term memory stages in male Swiss mice, using the passive avoidance (PA) test, as well as the influence of these compounds on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the mice brain. A single injection of a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM 251, improved long-term memory acquisition and consolidation in the PA test in mice, while a mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 impaired both stages of cognition. Additionally, JWH 133, a selective CB2 receptor agonist, and AM 630, a competitive CB2 receptor antagonist, significantly improved memory. Additionally, an acute administration of the highest used doses of JWH 133, WIN 55,212-2, and AM 630, but not AM 251, increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the brain. In turn, the processes of lipids peroxidation, expressed as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), were more advanced in case of AM 251. Thus, some changes in the PA performance may be connected with the level of oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:26839719

  10. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R.

    1997-11-21

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links.

  11. Systemic blood coagulation activation in acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Undas, Anetta; Szułdrzyński, Konstanty; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Tracz, Wiesława; Zmudka, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated systemic alterations to the blood coagulation system that occur during a coronary thrombotic event. Peripheral blood coagulation in patients with acute coronary thrombosis was compared with that in people with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood coagulation and platelet activation at the microvascular injury site were assessed using immunochemistry in 28 non-anticoagulated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus 28 stable CAD patients matched for age, sex, risk factors, and medications. AMI was associated with increased maximum rates of thrombin-antithrombin complex generation (by 93.8%; P < .001), thrombin B-chain formation (by 57.1%; P < .001), prothrombin consumption (by 27.9%; P = .012), fibrinogen consumption (by 27.0%; P = .02), factor (f) Va light chain generation (by 44.2%; P = .003), and accelerated fVa inactivation (by 76.1%; P < .001), and with enhanced release of platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand (by 44.4%; P < .001). FVa heavy chain availability was similar in both groups because of enhanced formation and activated protein C (APC)–mediated destruction. The velocity of coagulant reactions in AMI patients showed positive correlations with interleukin-6. Heparin treatment led to dampening of coagulant reactions with profiles similar to those for stable CAD. AMI-induced systemic activation of blood coagulation markedly modifies the pattern of coagulant reactions at the site of injury in peripheral vessels compared with that in stable CAD patients. PMID:18931343

  12. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....205 Section 930.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such adjustments take effect on the 1st day of the first pay period... pay under 5 U.S.C. 5303 take effect. (3) An agency must use the following procedures to convert...

  13. Chronic Disease Medication Administration Rates in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem

    2004-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…

  14. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... imminent cost savings that will result. Contractor business systems and internal controls are the first... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS... contractor business systems. DATES: Effective date: February 24, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  15. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  16. Effects of repeated psychostimulant administration on the prodynorphin system activity and kappa opioid receptor density in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Turchan, J; Przewłocka, B; Lasoń, W; Przewłocki, R

    1998-08-01

    The prodynorphin system is implicated in the neurochemical mechanism of psychostimulants. To elucidate the activity of the endogenous prodynorphin system upon treatment with psychostimulants, we investigated the effect of single and repeated cocaine and amphetamine on the prodynorphin messenger RNA level, the prodynorphin-derived peptide alpha-neoendorphin tissue level, and its in vitro release in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of rats. The density of kappa opioid receptors in those brain regions was also assessed. Rats were injected with cocaine following a "binge" administration pattern, 20 mg/kg i.p. every hour for 3 h, one (single treatment) or five days (chronic treatment). Amphetamine, 2.5 mg/kg i.p. was administered once (single treatment) or twice a day for five days (chronic treatment). As shown by an in situ hybridization study, the prodynorphin messenger RNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum were raised following single (at 3 h) and chronic (at 3 and 24 h) cocaine administration. The prodynorphin messenger RNA level in the nucleus accumbens was markedly elevated after single or repeated amphetamine administration. A similar tendency was observed in the striatum. Acute cocaine and amphetamine administration had no effect on the alpha-neoendorphin tissue level, whereas chronic administration of those drugs elevated the alpha-neoendorphin level in the nucleus accumbens and striatum at the late time-points studied. Acute and repeated cocaine administration had no effect on alpha-neoendorphin release in both the nucleus accumbens and striatum at 3 and 48 h after drug injection. In contrast, single and chronic (at 24 and 48 h) amphetamine administration profoundly elevated the release of alpha-neoendorphin in both these structures. Addition of cocaine or amphetamine to the incubation medium (10(-5)-10(-6) M) decreased the basal release of alpha-neoendorphin in the nucleus accumbens slices of naive rats, but it did not change the stimulated

  17. Systemic administration of 3-bromopyruvate in treating disseminated aggressive lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Niklaus G; Geschwind, Jean F; Engles, James; Buchanan, Julia W; Wahl, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    toxicity of the daily administration of 10 mg/kg 3-BrPA was a reduction in body weight. Body weight at day 0 was 17.22 g ± 0.84 g in the treatment group and 17.58 g ± 0.86 g in the control group. Body weight at day +6 was 15.02 g ± 2.04 g in the treated group and 19.4 g ± 0.63 g in the control group. 3-BrPA demonstrated a significant positive tumor response both in vitro and in vivo. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of the use of 3-BrPA in a systemic tumor model. Based on these data, 3-BrPA holds promise for treatment of systemic metastatic cancers.

  18. Fatal systemic adenoviral infection superimposed on pulmonary mucormycosis in a child with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Mi; Hwang-Bo, Seok; Kim, Seong koo; Han, Seung Beom; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. Case summary: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection. He had received reinduction chemotherapy for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia under continuing antifungal therapy for previously diagnosed fungal pneumonia. He complained of fever and right shoulder pain 4 days after completing the reinduction chemotherapy. In spite of appropriate antibiotic and antifungal therapy, pneumonia was aggravated and gross hematuria was accompanied. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction test for respiratory viruses was positive for ADV in a blood sample, and a urine culture was positive for ADV. He received oral ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and intravenous cidofovir therapy; however, he eventually died. Relapsed leukemia, concurrent fungal pneumonia, and delayed cidofovir administration were considered the cause of the grave outcome in this patient. Conclusion: ADV may cause severe infections not only in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, but also in patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia. The risk factors for severe ADV infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy should be determined in the future studies, and early antiviral therapy should be administered to immune compromised patients with systemic ADV infection. PMID:27749571

  19. Effects of acute and chronic social defeat stress are differentially mediated by the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor system

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Rachel J.; Landino, Samantha M.; Golden, Sam A.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Russo, Scott J.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligand dynorphin (DYN) can play important roles in regulating the effects of stress. Here, we examined the role of KOR systems in the molecular and behavioral effects of acute (1-day) and chronic (10-day) social defeat stress (SDS) in mice. We found that acute SDS increased DYN mRNA levels within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain dopamine (DA) systems. In contrast, chronic SDS produced long-lasting decreases in DYN mRNA levels. We then examined if disruption of KOR function would affect development of SDS-induced depressive-like behaviors as measured in the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and social interaction tests. Ablation of KORs from DA transporter (DAT)-expressing neurons delayed the development of SDS-induced anhedonia in the ICSS test, suggesting increased stress resilience. However, administration of the long-lasting KOR antagonist JDTic (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) before the SDS regimen did not affect anhedonia, suggesting that disruption of KOR function outside DA systems can oppose stress resilience. Social avoidance behavior measured after the 10-day SDS regimen was not altered by ablation of KORs in DAT-expressing neurons or by JDTic administration before testing. Our findings indicate that KORs expressed in DA systems regulate the effects of acute, but not chronic, social stress. PMID:26110224

  20. Effects of early pregnancy and acute 17 beta-estradiol administration on porcine uterine secretion, cyclic nucleotides, and catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Young, K H; Bazer, F W; Simpkins, J W; Roberts, R M

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated acute effects of 17 beta-estradiol (E) on ions, cyclic nucleotides, and catecholamines and their association with temporal changes in uterine secretory products in pregnant, cyclic, and nonpregnant gilts. Uterine flushings (UTF) and endometrium (ENDOM) from one uterine horn of nonpregnant and pregnant gilts (n = 9) were collected on days 10, 12, and 14 (n = 3). Protein, plasma inhibitor (P less than 0.05), Na+, and K+ (P less than 0.01) increased linearly in UTF of pregnant gilts. Ca2+ changed biphasically, with higher concentrations (P less than 0.01) in pregnant gilts on day 12. Endometrial cAMP and cGMP (P less than 0.05) increased between days 12 and 14 of pregnancy. The UTF norepinephrine (NE) concentrations increased (P less than 0.01) in cyclic gilts between days 12 and 14, while endometrial NE increased between days 10 and 12 and then decreased on day 14. The UTF of pregnant gilts had higher (P less than 0.05) concentrations of dopamine (DA), which peaked on day 12 and then decreased (P less than 0.01) by day 14. DA in UTF of nonpregnant gilts decreased between days 10 and 12 and remained low on day 14. A catecholamine metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, in ENDOM (P less than 0.05) and UTF (P less than 0.01) decreased linearly between days 10 and 14. The turnover rate of endometrial catecholamines was 2.4-fold higher (P less than 0.05) during early pregnancy compared with that in cyclic gilts. Effects of acute administration of exogenous E (0.5 mg) were also studied. The UTF and ENDOM were from day 11 nonpregnant gilts 0, 30, 60, and 360 min (n = 3) post-E or post-saline-ethanol (C) injection (n = 9). Potassium, plasma inhibitor (P less than 0.01), and cGMP (P less than 0.05) increased rapidly (30 min) after E injection. The K+ level changed biphasically, with increased concentrations again at 360 min. Plasmin inhibitor returned to levels similar to controls by 60 min, whereas cGMP remained elevated until 360 min postinjection

  1. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    PubMed

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.

  2. Data Administration and Its Role at Naval Supply Systems Headquarters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    often overlookePd i iffL-g the p1 -Anna np 1p4ase en.’Id re_;sources iare niot avai labl1e when neem ~rcod. ef feti *.ne.sAnd rel iabi 1 atw o ranv...the logistic chain, it will have to tree data design from applications. An effective data administration organization is needed to ensure the data

  3. Systemic uptake of buprenorphine by cats after oral mucosal administration.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S A; Taylor, P M; Sear, J W

    2003-05-31

    The plasma concentration of buprenorphine was measured by radioimmunoassay in six female cats after the administration of 0.01 mg/kg (0.033 ml/kg) buprenorphine hydrochloride solution into the side of the cat's mouth. Blood samples were taken through a preplaced jugular catheter before and one, two, four, six, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes, and two, four, six, 12 and 24 hours after the dose was administered. The buprenorphine was accepted well by all the cats and did not cause salivation or vomiting. Its median peak plasma concentration was 7.5 ng/ml and was reached after 15 minutes. The pharmacokinetic data were similar to the pharmacokinetic data obtained after the intramuscular and intravenous administration of buprenorphine to cats from the same colony, suggesting that the mucosal route of administration should be as effective as intravenous and intramuscular injections. In addition, the pH of the oral cavity of 26 cats was measured with pH paper, and 100 cat owners were asked their preferred method of administering drugs to cats. The pH of the cats' mouths was between 8 and 9, and the technique preferred by the cat owners was the use of drops placed in the mouth.

  4. Investigation of whether the acute hemolysis associated with Rho(D) immune globulin intravenous (human) administration for treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura is consistent with the acute hemolytic transfusion reaction model

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Ann Reed; Lee-Stroka, Hallie; Byrne, Karen; Scott, Dorothy E.; Uhl, Lynne; Lazarus, Ellen; Stroncek, David F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenic purpura and secondary thrombocytopenia patients treated with Rho(D) immune globulin intravenous (human; anti-D IGIV) have experienced acute hemolysis, which is inconsistent with the typical presentation of extravascular hemolysis—the presumed mechanism of action of anti-D IGIV. Although the mechanism of anti-D-IGIV–associated acute hemolysis has not been established, the onset, signs/symptoms, and complications appear consistent with the intravascular hemolysis of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTRs). In transfusion medicine, the red blood cell (RBC) antigen-antibody incompatibility(-ies) that precipitate AHTRs can be detected in vitro with compatibility testing. Under the premise that anti-D-IGIV–associated acute hemolysis results from RBC antigen-antibody–mediated complement activation, this study evaluated whether the incompatibility(-ies) could be detected in vitro with a hemolysin assay, which would support the AHTR model as the hemolytic mechanism. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Seven anti-D IGIV lots were tested to determine the RBC antibody identities in those lots, including four lots that had been implicated in acute hemolytic episodes. Hemolysin assays were performed that tested each of 73 RBC specimens against each lot, including the RBCs of one patient who had experienced acute hemolysis after anti-D IGIV administration. RESULTS Only two anti-D IGIV lots contained RBC antibodies beyond those expected. No hemolysis endpoint was observed in any of the hemolysin assays. CONCLUSION Although the findings did not support the AHTR model, the results are reported to contribute knowledge about the mechanism of anti-D-IGIV–associated acute hemolysis and to prompt continued investigation into cause(s), prediction, and prevention of this potentially serious adverse event. PMID:19220820

  5. Protracted Administration of L-Asparaginase in Maintenance Phase Is the Risk Factor for Hyperglycemia in Older Patients with Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideki; Imamura, Toshihiko; Saito, Akiko M; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Suenobu, So-ichi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Deguchi, Takao; Hashii, Yoshiko; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Endo, Mikiya; Hori, Hiroki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Koji; Yumura-Yagi, Keiko; Hara, Junichi; Oda, Megumi; Sato, Atsushi; Horibe, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Although L-asparaginase related hyperglycemia is well known adverse event, it is not studied whether the profile of this adverse event is affected by intensification of L-asparaginase administration. Here, we analyzed the profile of L-asparaginase related hyperglycemia in a 1,176 patients with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study ALL-02 protocol using protracted L-asparaginase administration in maintenance phase. We determined that a total of 75 L-asparaginase related hyperglycemia events occurred in 69 patients. Although 17 events (17/1176, 1.4%) developed in induction phase, which was lower incidence than those (10-15%) in previous reports, 45 events developed during the maintenance phase with protracted L-asparaginase administration. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at onset (≥ 10 years) was a sole independent risk factor for L-asparaginase-related hyperglycemia (P<0.01), especially in maintenance phase. Contrary to the previous reports, obesity was not associated with L-asparaginase-related hyperglycemia. These findings suggest that protracted administration of L-asparaginase is the risk factor for hyperglycemia when treating adolescent and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

  6. Effects of neonatal fluvoxamine administration on the physical development and activity of the serotoninergic system in white rats.

    PubMed

    Glazova, N Yu; Merchieva, S A; Volodina, M A; Sebentsova, E A; Manchenko, D M; Kudrun, V S; Levitskaya, N G

    2014-07-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluvoxamine, are widely used to treat depressive disorders in pregnant women. These antidepressants effectively penetrate through the placental barrier, affecting the fetus during the critical phase of neurodevelopment. Some clinical studies have linked prenatal exposure to SSRIs with increased neonatal mortality, premature birth, decreased fetal growth and delay in psychomotor development. However, the effects of prenatal exposure to SSRIs remain unknown. The administration of SSRIs in rodents during the first postnatal weeks is considered as an model for studying the effects of prenatal SSRIs exposure in human. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of chronic fluvoxamine (FA) administration in white rat pups. The study was carried out in male and female rat pups treated with FA (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) from postnatal days 1 to 14. The lethality level, body weight, age of eye opening, and motor reflex maturation were recorded. The contents of biogenic amines and their metabolites in different brain structures were also determined. It was shown that neonatal FA administration led to increased lethality level, reduced body weight, and delayed maturation of motor reflexes. Furthermore, increased noradrenalin level in hypothalamus, serotonin level in hippocampus and serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA level in frontal cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum were observed in drug-treated animals compared to the control group. We can conclude that the altered activity of the serotoninergic system induced by fluvoxamine administration at early developmental stages leads to a delay in physical and motor development.

  7. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  8. Systemic and intra-rhinal-cortical 17-β estradiol administration modulate object-recognition memory in ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Nicole J; Jacob, Sofia; Brake, Wayne G; Mumby, Dave G

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies using the novel-object-preference (NOP) test suggest that estrogen (E) replacement in ovariectomized rodents can lead to enhanced novelty preference. The present study aimed to determine: 1) whether the effect of E on NOP performance is the result of enhanced preference for novelty, per se, or facilitated object-recognition memory, and 2) whether E affects NOP performance through actions it has within the perirhinal cortex/entorhinal cortex region (PRh/EC). Ovariectomized rats received either systemic chronic low 17-β estradiol (E2; ~20 pg/ml serum) replacement alone or in combination with systemic acute high administration of estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 μg), or in combination with intracranial infusions of E2 (244.8 pg/μl) or vehicle into the PRh/EC. For one of the intracranial experiments, E2 was infused either immediately before, immediately after, or 2 h following the familiarization (i.e., learning) phase of the NOP test. In light of recent evidence that raises questions about the internal validity of the NOP test as a method of indexing object-recognition memory, we also tested rats on a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task of object recognition following systemic and intra-PRh/EC infusions of E2. Both systemic acute and intra-PRh/EC infusions of E enhanced novelty preference, but only when administered either before or immediately following familiarization. In contrast, high E (both systemic acute and intra-PRh/EC) impaired performance on the DNMS task. The findings suggest that while E2 in the PRh/EC can enhance novelty preference, this effect is probably not due to an improvement in object-recognition abilities.

  9. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case... the definition and administration of contractor business systems as follows: 1. DoD is proposing to... analysis is summarized as follows: The objective of the rule is to establish a definition for...

  10. 77 FR 34326 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... 0938-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident... Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term...

  11. 75 FR 60640 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Changes and FY... Rehabilitation and Respiratory Care Services; Medicaid Program: Accreditation for Providers of Inpatient... ``Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

  12. Nurses' attitudes toward the use of the bar-coding medication administration system.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sana Daya; Hasman, Arie; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Dimassi, Hani

    2010-01-01

    This study determines nurses' attitudes toward bar-coding medication administration system use. Some of the factors underlying the successful use of bar-coding medication administration systems that are viewed as a connotative indicator of users' attitudes were used to gather data that describe the attitudinal basis for system adoption and use decisions in terms of subjective satisfaction. Only 67 nurses in the United States had the chance to respond to the e-questionnaire posted on the CARING list server for the months of June and July 2007. Participants rated their satisfaction with bar-coding medication administration system use based on system functionality, usability, and its positive/negative impact on the nursing practice. Results showed, to some extent, positive attitude, but the image profile draws attention to nurses' concerns for improving certain system characteristics. The high bar-coding medication administration system skills revealed a more negative perception of the system by the nursing staff. The reasons underlying dissatisfaction with bar-coding medication administration use by skillful users are an important source of knowledge that can be helpful for system development as well as system deployment. As a result, strengthening bar-coding medication administration system usability by magnifying its ability to eliminate medication errors and the contributing factors, maximizing system functionality by ascertaining its power as an extra eye in the medication administration process, and impacting the clinical nursing practice positively by being helpful to nurses, speeding up the medication administration process, and being user-friendly can offer a congenial settings for establishing positive attitude toward system use, which in turn leads to successful bar-coding medication administration system use.

  13. Ethosomes as delivery system for transdermal administration of vinpocetine.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan-Ting; Hua, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiang-Guo; Zhu, Dong-Xue; Li, Feng; Gui, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Yong-Xing

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel transdermal vinpocetine patch containing a stable formulation and with good entrapment efficiency, and percutaneous absorption which via ethosome. Ethosome was found to be a more efficient delivery carrier with high encapsulation capacities (79.5% +/- 1.8%) and nanometric size (180.7 +/- 1.5 nm). In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of vinpocetine through abdominal skin of Sprague Dawley was significantly increased when ethosome was used. The vinpocetine transdermal fluxes from ethosome gel (3.56 +/- 0.13 microg/cm2/h) were 6.72 and 3.10 times higher than that of vinpocetine gel solution and vinpocetine aueous solution, respectively. Furthermore, the AUC(0 --> infinity), and eliminiation half-life by the transdermal administration were significantly higher than those by the intragastric administration (P < 0.01). The study demonstrated that ethosome is a promising vesicular carrier for enhancing percutaneous absorption of vinpocetine.

  14. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  15. 48 CFR 252.244-7001 - Contractor purchasing system administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Defense to rely upon information produced by the system that is needed for management purposes. (b... ability of officials of the Department of Defense to rely upon information produced by the system that is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contractor...

  16. Acute ethanol administration affects memory reactivation: a look at the neuronal density and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Alijan-pour, J; Abrari, K; Bluki, T Lashkar; Ghorbanian, M T; Goudarzi, I; Salmani, M Elahdadi; Mirshekar, M

    2012-08-01

    This study is an attempt to examine whether administration of ethanol after memory reactivation will modulate expression of memory in rats or not. We further examined whether this administration alters the number of tunnel positive cells in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning system using two 1s , 0.6 mA shock with an interval of 180 s. 24 h later the rats were returned to the chamber for reactivation, and then they were injected with ethanol (0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/kg) or saline, ip. Again, one, seven and fourteen days after reactivation, the rats were returned to the context for 5 min. The freezing time (absence of all movements except respiration) was scored in seconds. In the second experiment, after test 1, the animals were anesthetized and a transcardial perfuse with phosphate buffer and paraformaldehyde 4% was conducted. After post-fixation of brains 5-μm sections were stained with cresyl violet. Finally, paraffin-embedded sections of 10 μm were cut out throughout the tissue and each sample was processed with TUNEL. The number of apoptotic cells in a 130 μm-long segment of the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 fields and dentate gyrus was counted. The data demonstrate that ethanol exposure impairs post retrieval processes. Rats receiving ethanol (1.5 mg/kg) showed lower freezing levels during the first test. Moreover, ethanol decreases the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells and increases the density of apoptotic cells in all regions of hippocampus. Therefore, ethanol exposure impairs reconsolidation of contextual fear conditioning probably via decreasing the density of CA1, CA3 and DG cells.

  17. Role of the innate immune system in acute viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Vallejo, Jesus G; Kollias, George; Mann, Douglas L

    2009-05-01

    Although the adaptive immune system is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis, the role of the innate immune system has not been well defined. To address this deficiency, we employed a unique line of mice that harbor a genomic "knock in" of a mutated TNF gene lacking the AU rich element (TNF(ARE/ARE)) that is critical for TNF mRNA stability and translation, in order to examine the contribution of the innate immune system in encephalomyocarditis-induced myocarditis (EMCV). Heterozygous mice (TNF(ARE/+)) were infected with 500 plaque-forming units of EMCV. TNF(ARE/+)mice had a significantly higher 14-day mortality and myocardial inflammation when compared to littermate control mice. Virologic studies showed that the viral load at 14 days was significantly lower in the hearts of TNF(ARE/+) mice. TNF(ARE/+) mice had an exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine response in the heart following EMCV infection. Modulation of the innate immune response in TNF(ARE/+) mice by the late administration of prednisolone resulted in a significant improvement in survival and decreased cardiac inflammation, whereas early administration of prednisolone resulted in a blunted innate response and increased mortality in littermate control mice. Viewed together, these data suggest that the duration and degree of activation of the innate immune system plays a critical role in determining host outcomes in experimental viral myocarditis.

  18. Acute macular neuroretinopathy associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Lee, S C; Kim, M

    2016-04-01

    Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) is a rare disorder that presents with abrupt visual change with wedge-shaped or flower-like lesions pointing towards the fovea. Ischemic insults to the retinal capillary plexus may be important for development of this disease. While many case reports have been published on AMN, none have described AMN in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we report a case of AMN associated with newly-diagnosed SLE. We speculate that in patients with lupus flares, immune complex-mediated vascular injury and microvascular thrombosis may disrupt the deep retinal capillary network, causing ischemic damages to the outer retina and leading to the development of AMN. AMN can develop in patients with lupus flares, and must be considered as an SLE-associated ophthalmologic complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of AMN associated with SLE.

  19. System of acute medical support to emergency during dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, M; Takeshita, T; Akita, S

    1986-01-01

    The Resuscitation Committee of Hiroshima City Dental Association was established in 1983 in order to provide acute medical support in case of emergency during dental treatment at private dental clinics. This Committee is composed of representatives from the Hiroshima City Dental Association, Hiroshima University School of Dentistry, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima City Health Bureau, and Hiroshima City Fire and Ambulance Department. A portable ECG monitor with defibrillator and a resuscitation kit are held in readiness at the Hiroshima University Hospital. In case of emergency during dental treatment at a private dental clinic, we hurry to the clinic with the resuscitation set and give emergency treatment. We have been involved in two cases of emergency since this system started. Both of them recovered without any sequelae. Besides these activities, we give lectures annually to dentists and dental hygienists on the treatment of medical emergencies.

  20. Naval Supply Systems Command: Data Administration Planning and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    information systems and applications to meet specific needs. This approach resulted in an amalgam of stand-alone systems. Today these aging systems...Design Phase. The Core Module also includes a life-cycle- phase partition facility. It provides the user with the capability to construct partitions in the...IRD that correspond to the life-cycle-phases. Every user operates in an IRD-view, and each IRD-view relates to a partition . Each IRD- partition

  1. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Martin, T.J.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Stoops, L.R.; Tzemos, S.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  2. The development of a system to guide volatile anaesthetic administration.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R R; French, R A

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and deployed within our operating rooms a system which provides real-time estimates of effect-site levels of inhalational anaesthetic agents along with forward predictions of end-tidal and effect-site concentrations. The initial aim of this project was to provide users of inhalational agents with tools similar to those available in target-controlled infusion systems. This paper describes the development and implementation of the system and outlines evaluation and uses of the system. The prototype was developed by combining a locally developed data logging and trend display system with a model of uptake developed as a teaching tool in 1982. This uptake model performs as well as contemporary models of propofol uptake and distribution. Following initial evaluation, the system has been deployed in over half our operating rooms and uses data gathered from the Datex/GE Anaesthesia Delivery Unit anaesthetic machines. We have conducted a number of studies of the system itself explored aspects of the underlying models, and used the system to investigate effect-site guided anesthesia and as a tool for data collection in other studies. The system has been well accepted locally and has been shown to facilitate faster changes in inhalational levels. We have also seen a significant decrease in fresh gas flow rates over recent years and attribute this in part to the predictive system, which simplifies the task of determining the appropriate combination of gas flow and vapour dial setting. The system also provides a useful platform for a range of research projects.

  3. 48 CFR 252.244-7001 - Contractor purchasing system administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system or systems for purchasing and subcontracting, including make-or-buy decisions, the selection of... subcontractor and supplier proposal or quote to ensure fair and reasonable subcontract prices; (11) Document... company-wide volume discounts; (13) Ensure proper type of contract selection and prohibit issuance of...

  4. EFFECT OF SINGLE AND REPEATED TETRACYCLINE ADMINISTRATION ON THE PHAGOCYTIC FUNCTION OF RETICULENDOTHELIAL SYSTEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    upon repeated administration. The effect of single and repeated administration of chlortetracycline, tetracycline , and oxytetracycline on the absorptive function of mouse RES were studied....It was previously established that single administration of chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline to white mice stimulates the absorptive function of...the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) in several cases, depending on the dose of the preparation. Clinical use of tetracyclines is practically never

  5. Pediatric Medical Care System in China Has Significantly Reduced Abandonment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi; Hong, Dan; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Defei; Ashwani, Neetica

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed both administrative and clinical data from our hospital during 2002 to 2012 to evaluate the influence of government medical policies on reducing abandonment treatment in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two policies funding for the catastrophic diseases and the new rural cooperative medical care system (NRCMS) were initiated in 2005 and 2011, respectively. About 1151 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in our study during this period and 316 cases abandoned treatment. Statistical differences in sex, age, number of children in the family, and family financial status were observed. Of most importance, the medical insurance coverage was critical for reducing abandonment treatment. However, 92 cases abandoning treatment after relapse did not show significant difference either in medical insurance coverage or in duration from first complete remission. In conclusion, financial crisis was the main reason for abandoning treatment. Government-funded health care expenditure programs reduced families’ economic burden and thereby reduced the abandonment rate with resultant increased overall survival. PMID:25393454

  6. Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: first Croatian experiences.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Vesna; Alvir, Domagoj; Malojčić, Branko; Unušić, Lea; Supe, Svjetlana; Boban, Marina; Bujan-Kovač, Andrea; Habek, Mario; Poljaković, Zdravka

    2010-12-01

    In September 2003, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for acute treatment of ischemic stroke was finally approved by the Croatian Ministry of Health. For the next 5 years, only three stroke units in the country implemented this therapy in their routine practice until summer 2008, when neurological wards in most Croatian hospitals started to treat acute stroke patients with systemic thrombolysis. We present a 2-year experience of thrombolytic therapy (2006-2008) in the stroke unit of the University Hospital in Zagreb, Croatian largest hospital, serving nearly one-fifth of the citizens of Croatia. Obtained data (vitals at admission and before administration of rt-PA; NIHSS and MRS scores at admission, 2 h and 7th day after rt-PA treatment, "time to door" and "door to needle" intervals, duration of hospital treatment as well as outcomes and complications of our 66 thrombolysed patients) are presented and discussed. We also present our results regarding benefits of this therapy as well as possible reasons for complications noticed.

  7. Administration of rat acute-phase protein α(2)-macroglobulin before total-body irradiation initiates cytoprotective mechanisms in the liver.

    PubMed

    Bogojević, Desanka; Poznanović, Goran; Grdović, Nevena; Grigorov, Ilijana; Vidaković, Melita; Dinić, Svetlana; Mihailović, Mirjana

    2011-03-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of the acute-phase protein α(2)-macroglobulin (α(2)M) to rats before total-body irradiation with 6.7 Gy (LD(50/30)) of X-rays provides the same level of radioprotection as amifostine. Here, we compare the cytoprotective effects of α(2)M and amifostine on rat liver. The potential of the liver to replenish cells destroyed by ionizing radiation was assessed by immunoblot analysis with antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). After irradiation, in unprotected rats PCNA decreased 6-fold from the basal level. In rats pretreated with either α(2)M or amifostine, PCNA was increased throughout a 4 week follow-up period, indicating that hepatocyte proliferation was unaffected. Since PCNA is an important component of the repair machinery, its increased expression was accompanied by significantly lower DNA damage in α(2)M- and amifostine-treated rats. At 2 weeks after irradiation, the Comet assay revealed a 15-fold increase in DNA damage in unprotected rats, while in α(2)M- and amifostine-treated rats we observed 3- and 4-fold rise in damage, respectively. The improved protection to DNA damage was supported by elevated activity of the antioxidant systems. Compared to untreated rats, pretreatments with α(2)M and amifostine led to similar increases in levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the redox-sensitive transcription factor NFκB, promoting upregulation of MnSOD, the major component of the cell's antioxidant axis, and subsequent increases in Mn/CuZnSOD and catalase enzymatic activities. The results show that α(2)M induces protein factors whose interplay underlies radioprotection and support the idea that α(2)M is the central effector of natural radioprotection in the rat.

  8. [The origins of the basic healthcare system in Brazil: the District System of Sanitation Administration].

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos Eduardo Aguilera

    2007-01-01

    There exists an interaction between multiple issues involving policy making, the building of knowledge and the implementation of practices in the health sector, which results in the particular way health services are provided in different historical contexts. The emergence and consolidation of sanitation organization was the result of a political process based on an idea of meeting the needs perceived in a given historical context. The historical course taken by the basic healthcare system in Brazil is analyzed from the perspective of its organizational and welfare principles, its expansion in physical terms, and its function within the public health system between 1918 and 1942. The article seeks to describe in detail the antecedents and initiatives taken in the establishment of a district system of sanitation administration, first in Rio de Janeiro and later across Brazil, which was a precursor of the basic healthcare system in Brazil.

  9. Acute administration of MK-801 in an animal model of psychosis in rats interferes with cognitively demanding forms of behavioral flexibility on a rotating arena

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Jan; Stankova, Anna; Entlerova, Marie; Stuchlik, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel) requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF) or the stationary room (room frame task, RF). We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions) and a test phase (five sessions) in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility and in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal). In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively) task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively) task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather than

  10. Acute administration of MK-801 in an animal model of psychosis in rats interferes with cognitively demanding forms of behavioral flexibility on a rotating arena.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Jan; Stankova, Anna; Entlerova, Marie; Stuchlik, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel) requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF) or the stationary room (room frame task, RF). We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions) and a test phase (five sessions) in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility and in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal). In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively) task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively) task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather than

  11. Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Soheil Keihan; Deli, Alev; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

  12. Faculty and Administrators of Color in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Barbara M.; Montoya, Alicia L.

    Data from the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (SSHE) indicate that men of color represent 13.1 percent of administrative positions and 6.42 percent of faculty positions, while women of color hold 9.66 percent of administrative positions and 4.05 percent of faculty positions. A study was conducted to compare the perceptions of 32 SSHE…

  13. Science, Systems, and Theoretical Alternatives in Educational Administration: The Road Less Travelled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical reflection on ideas that have been published in the "Journal of Educational Administration" over the last 50 years that present perspectives on the nature of educational administration and its various aspects, that are alternatives to the mainstream systems-scientific view of…

  14. Systemic administration of D-penicillamine prevents the locomotor activation after intra-VTA ethanol administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Martí-Prats, Lucía; Sánchez-Catalán, María José; Hipólito, Lucía; Orrico, Alejandro; Zornoza, Teodoro; Polache, Ana; Granero, Luis

    2010-10-11

    Although recently published studies seem to confirm the important role displayed by acetaldehyde (ACH), the main metabolite of ethanol, in the behavioral effects of ethanol, the origin of ACH is still a matter of debate. While some authors confer more importance to the central (brain metabolism) origin of ACH, others indicate that the hepatic origin could be more relevant. In this study we have addressed this topic using an experimental approach that combines local microinjections of ethanol into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) (which guarantees the brain origin of the ACH) to induce motor activation in rats together with systemic administration (i.p.) of several doses (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of D-penicillamine (DP), a sequestering agent of ACH with contrasted efficiency to abolish the behavioral effects of the drug. Our results clearly show that DP prevented in a dose-dependent manner the motor activation induced by intra-VTA ethanol, being the 50 mg/kg dose the most efficient. DP per se did not affect the basal activity of the rats. In order to determine the specificity of the DP action, we also studied the effects of DP 50 mg/kg on the DAMGO-induced motor activation after the intra-VTA administration of this mu-opioid receptors agonist. DP did not significantly modify the motor activation induced by DAMGO thus confirming the specificity of the DP effects. Our results clearly suggest that the brain-derived ACH is necessary to manifest the activating effects resulting from ethanol administration.

  15. Effect of Corticosteroids on RVNA production of a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following rabies vaccination as well as administration of HRIG

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jun; Chen, Li; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan; Fang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    It has not been reported that administration of combining rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin resulted in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) yet. This report described that an old man acquired ADEM after being administrated with purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and Human Rabies Immunoglobulin (HRIG). Then he was given intravenous and oral glucocorticoids. Simultaneously, rabies vaccination was continued with purified Chick embryo cell vaccines (PCECV) instead of PVRV. Furthermore, we analyzed the rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) levels in the patient's blood at different time points after rabies vaccination. Collectively, we observed that PCECV vaccination did not affect the prognosis of ADEM, and glucocorticoid was crucial and effective, which had no significant influence on efficacy of PCECV. PMID:25668669

  16. Effect of Corticosteroids on RVNA production of a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following rabies vaccination as well as administration of HRIG.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Chen, Li; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan; Fang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    It has not been reported that administration of combining rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin resulted in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) yet. This report described that an old man acquired ADEM after being administrated with purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and Human Rabies Immunoglobulin (HRIG). Then he was given intravenous and oral glucocorticoids. Simultaneously, rabies vaccination was continued with purified Chick embryo cell vaccines (PCECV) instead of PVRV. Furthermore, we analyzed the rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) levels in the patient's blood at different time points after rabies vaccination. Collectively, we observed that PCECV vaccination did not affect the prognosis of ADEM, and glucocorticoid was crucial and effective, which had no significant influence on efficacy of PCECV.

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  18. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol.

  19. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide, version 1.4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication, data distribution, and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment. The UNIX server provides an Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) services, ARC/INFO GIS (optional) capabilities, and basic file management services. PNNL developed utilities that reside on the server include the Notification Service, the Command Service that executes the evacuation model, and AutoRecovery. To operate FEMIS, the Application Software must have access to a site specific FEMIS emergency management database. Data that pertains to an individual EOC`s jurisdiction is stored on the EOC`s local server. Information that needs to be accessible to all EOCs is automatically distributed by the FEMIS

  20. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on the Online system, which includes a very large and heterogeneous computing cluster. Ensuring the proper behavior of the different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small operator team and is a 24/7 task. At CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with steadily improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on Reinforcement Learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the submission at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present an implementation with improved algorithms and manipulation tools, and report on the experience gained with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  1. Marihuana-derived material: distribution and effects after systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Green, K; Cheeks, K; Bowman, K A; Hodges, L C; Deutsch, H M; Zalkow, L H

    1984-05-01

    Studies have been made in an attempt to elucidate the mode of action of water-soluble marihuana-derived material (MDM). MDM lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) at systemic dose levels greater than 5 micrograms/rabbit by reducing aqueous humor inflow. Blood pressure, body temperature, and PO2 remain constant despite the wide variation in IOP caused by high dose levels of MDM, viz. an initial hypertensive phase followed by a hypotensive phase. Blood PCO2 and pH, however, both decrease with 1 mg MDM/rabbit indicating an acidosis which may partially explain some of the fall in IOP caused by MDM at this high dose level. Low doses of MDM (50 micrograms/animal), however, induce no such changes in systemic chemistry, illustrating the absence of an MDM effect which can explain the greater than 50% fall in IOP. Repeated injections of MDM on a weekly basis indicate a sequentially reduced effect on IOP. MDM, when incubated in vitro for 6 hours with saline, aqueous or vitreous, always induced a fall in IOP; incubation in these media for 24 hours, however, reduced the capacity to induce an IOP decrease. When aqueous or vitreous was removed from animals which had received intravitreal injections of MDM 24 hours previously (thus, at a time when the IOP in these animals was low) and was reinjected intravitreally into fresh recipient rabbits, the IOP fell in the recipients with aqueous, but not vitreous. Only when high doses of MDM (greater than or equal to 2 mg) were given systemically to a donor rabbit was any evidence obtained of a fall in IOP in recipient rabbits at short times after the donor injection (less than 10 min); at greater times after the donor injections whole blood or serum from donor rabbits failed to elicit a fall in IOP in recipient animals. These data indicate that, in vivo, MDM is bound or metabolized rapidly in rabbits when MDM is given systemically.

  2. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  3. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  4. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  5. 21 CFR 21.20 - Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administration Privacy Act Record Systems. 21.20 Section 21.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.20 Procedures for notice of Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act...

  6. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  7. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a rare initial manifestation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Valdano; Pedro, Gertrudes Maria; Cordeiro, Lemuel Bornelli; de Miranda, Sandra Maria da Rocha Neto

    2016-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a very rare gastrointestinal manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus and becomes rarer as an initial manifestation. There are only two cases reported. The authors report a 20-year-old black woman that presented acute acalculous cholecystitis revealed by abdominal computed tomography. During hospitalization, she was diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus. Conservative treatment with antibiotics was performed with complete remission of the symptoms. Corticosteroid was started in ambulatory. Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice in acute acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient responded well to conservative treatment, and surgery was not required. This case is unique in the way that corticosteroid was started in ambulatory care. We should not forget that the acute acalculous cholecystitis can be the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus although its occurrence is very rare. Conservative treatment should be considered. Abdominal computed tomography was a determinant exam for better assessment of acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  8. The role of the immune system in central nervous system plasticity after acute injury.

    PubMed

    Peruzzotti-Jametti, L; Donegá, M; Giusto, E; Mallucci, G; Marchetti, B; Pluchino, S

    2014-12-26

    Acute brain injuries cause rapid cell death that activates bidirectional crosstalk between the injured brain and the immune system. In the acute phase, the damaged CNS activates resident and circulating immune cells via the local and systemic release of soluble mediators. This early immune activation is necessary to confine the injured tissue and foster the clearance of cellular debris, thus bringing the inflammatory reaction to a close. In the chronic phase, a sustained immune activation has been described in many CNS disorders, and the degree of this prolonged response has variable effects on spontaneous brain regenerative processes. The challenge for treating acute CNS damage is to understand how to optimally engage and modify these immune responses, thus providing new strategies that will compensate for tissue lost to injury. Herein we have reviewed the available information regarding the role and function of the innate and adaptive immune responses in influencing CNS plasticity during the acute and chronic phases of after injury. We have examined how CNS damage evolves along the activation of main cellular and molecular pathways that are associated with intrinsic repair, neuronal functional plasticity and facilitation of tissue reorganization.

  9. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Office of Administrative Services Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Administrative Services Information System collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  10. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 8: Data base administrator user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, (5) terminal support, and (6) retrieval subsystem.

  11. Effect of Resveratrol Administration on the Element Metabolism in the Blood and Brain Tissues of Rats Subjected to Acute Swimming Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Arslangil, Dilek; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Patlar, Suleyman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine how resveratrol administration affects the element metabolism in the blood and brain cortex tissues of rats subjected to an acute swimming exercise. The study was carried out on Wistar-Albino-type adult male rats supplied by the Center. Group 1 is the control group. Group 2 is the swimming control group. Group 3 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) + swimming group. Group 4 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) group. Blood and brain cortex tissues were analyzed for some elements. The acute swimming exercise led to increases in the rats' serum iron, selenium, lead, cobalt, and boron levels, while the resveratrol-swimming group has increases in copper, phosphorus, and calcium values. The brain cortex tissue of the resveratrol-swimming group had significantly higher molybdenum levels than others. The results obtained in the study indicate that acute swimming exercise altered the distribution of elements in the serum to a considerable extent; however, resveratrol's affect is limited. Especially, resveratrol supplementation may have a regulatory affect on serum iron and magnesium levels.

  12. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, M; Saegusa, Y; Sadakane, C; Yamada, C; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Ohnishi, S; Hattori, T; Sakamoto, N; Takeda, H

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical or psychological stress causes functional disorders in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aims to elucidate the ameliorating effect of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, a Kampo medicine which acts as a ghrelin enhancer, on gastric dysfunction during acute restraint stress in mice. Methods Fasted and postprandial motor function of the gastric antrum was wirelessly measured using a strain gauge force transducer and solid gastric emptying was detected in mice exposed to restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone and ghrelin levels were also measured. To clarify the role of ghrelin on gastrointestinal dysfunction in mice exposed to stress, exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito was administered, then the mice were subjected to restraint stress. Key Results Mice exposed to restraint stress for 60 min exhibited delayed gastric emptying and increased plasma corticosterone levels. Gastric motility was decreased in mice exposed to restraint stress in both fasting and postprandial states. Restraint stress did not cause any change in plasma acylated ghrelin levels, but it significantly increased the plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels. Administration of acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito improved the restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased antral motility. Ameliorating effects of rikkunshito on stress-induced gastric dysfunction were abolished by simultaneous administration of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Conclusions & Inferences Plasma acylated/des-acyl ghrelin imbalance was observed in acute restraint stress. Supplementation of exogenous acylated ghrelin or enhancement of endogenous ghrelin signaling may be useful in the treatment of decreased gastric function caused by stress. PMID:24684160

  13. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

  14. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis in a dog after halothane anaesthesia and administration of flunixin meglumine and trimethoprim-sulphadiazine.

    PubMed

    McNeil, P E

    1992-08-15

    Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis was diagnosed post mortem when a dog died four days after surgery for a femoral head resection. Possible causative factors associated with halothane anaesthesia, flunixin meglumine analgesia and prophylactic antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulphadiazine are discussed. It is concluded that death was due to renal failure associated with tubulo-interstitial nephritis as a result of a combination of ischaemic and toxic events.

  15. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  16. Loss of phenotype of parvalbumin interneurons in rat prefrontal cortex is involved in antidepressant- and propsychotic-like behaviors following acute and repeated ketamine administration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, ZhiQiang; Zhang, GuangFen; Li, XiaoMin; Liu, XiaoYu; Wang, Nan; Qiu, LiLi; Liu, WenXue; Zuo, ZhiYi; Yang, JianJun

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that single subanesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant-like effects. Nevertheless, repeated subanesthetic doses of ketamine produce psychosis-like effects with dysfunction of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons. We hypothesized that PV interneurons play an important role in the antidepressant-like actions of ketamine, and different changes in PV interneurons occur with the antidepressant-like and propsychotic-like effects of ketamine. To test this hypothesis, ketamine's antidepressant-like effects were evaluated by the forced swimming test. Ketamine-induced stereotyped behaviors and hyperactivity actions and the function of PV interneurons were also assessed. We demonstrated that an acute dose of 10 mg/kg ketamine induced significant antidepressant-like effects and reduced the levels of PV and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing enzyme GAD67 in the rat prefrontal cortex. Moreover, inhibition of ketamine-induced loss of PV by apocynin blocked these antidepressant-like effects. Repeated administration of 30 mg/kg ketamine elicited stereotyped behaviors and hyperactivity actions as well as a longer duration of PV and GAD67 loss, higher brain glutamate levels, and lower brain GABA levels than acute single dose of ketamine. Our results reveal that the loss of phenotype of PV interneurons in the prefrontal cortex contributes to the antidepressant-like actions and is also involved in the propsychotic-like behaviors following acute and repeated ketamine administration, which may be partially mediated by the disinhibition of glutamate signaling. The different degrees and durations of the actions on PV interneurons produced by the two regimens of ketamine may partly underline the behavioral variance between the antidepressant- and propsychotic-like effects.

  17. Apoptotic signaling pathways induced by acute administration of branched-chain amino acids in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Thais C; Scaini, Giselli; Furlanetto, Camila B; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Santos, João Paulo A; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-02-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. The affected patients present severe neurological symptoms, such as coma and seizures, as well as edema and cerebral atrophy. Considering that the mechanisms of the neurological symptoms presented by MSUD patients are still poorly understood, in this study, protein levels of apoptotic factors are measured, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, caspase-3 and -8 in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats submitted to acute administration of branched-chain amino acids during their development. The results in this study demonstrated that BCAA acute exposure during the early postnatal period did not significantly change Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and caspase-8 protein levels. However, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and procaspase-3 protein levels were decreased in hippocampus. On the other hand, acute administration of BCAA in 30-day-old rats increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by an increased caspase-3 activity in cerebral cortex, whereas BCAA induces apoptosis in hippocampus through activation and cleavage of caspase-3 and -8 without changing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, the results suggest that apoptosis could be of pivotal importance in the developmental neurotoxic effects of BCAA. In addition, the current studies also suggest that multiple mechanisms may be involved in BCAA-induced apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

  18. Acute and chronic administration of a low-dose combination of topiramate and ondansetron reduces ethanol's reinforcing effects in male alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Catherine F; Lycas, Matthew D; Bond, Colin W; Johnson, Bankole A; Lynch, Wendy J

    2014-02-01

    Topiramate (a GABA/glutamate modulator) and ondansetron (a serotonin-3 antagonist) have shown promise as treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), although efficacy is modest/variable for both medications. We recently showed in animal models of consumption and relapse that acute treatment with a combination of these medications was more efficacious than either alone. To determine whether the mechanism for its beneficial effects is through modulation of ethanol's reinforcing effects, we measured the effect of this combination in male alcohol preferring (P) rats (N = 22) responding for ethanol under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule. Low doses, which either do not affect (ondansetron; 0.001 mg/kg) or only modestly affect (topiramate; 10 mg/kg) alcohol-related behaviors on their own, were selected in an attempt to maximize their combined efficacy while minimizing potential side effects. In addition to acute treatment (1 day), the effects of chronic administration (10 days) were examined in an attempt to model human treatment approaches. The effects of the combination were compared with the low dose of topiramate alone hypothesizing that the combination would be more efficacious than topiramate alone. Although both topiramate and the combination similarly reduced PR responding for ethanol following acute treatment and during the initial phase of chronic treatment (Days 1-5), after repeated administration (Days 6-10), only the combination produced a sustained reduction in ethanol-maintained responding. These results suggest an advantage of the combination over topiramate alone at producing a sustained reduction in ethanol's reinforcing effects following prolonged treatment, and lend further support for its use as a potential treatment for AUDs.

  19. [The systemic inflammatory response syndrome correction in acute destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Agapov, M A; Khoreva, M V; Gorskiĭ, V A

    2011-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a disease of variable severity. In which some patients experience mild, self-limited attacks while others manifest a severe, highly morbid, and frequently lethal attack. The exact mechanisms by which diverse etiological factors induce an attack are still unclear. Recent studies have established the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. In our research we have estimated influence of not steroid anti-inflammatory preparation on synthesis pro-and anti-inflammatory Cytokines at healthy donors and at patients with Acute pancreatitis.

  20. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats (12 week-old) underwent total bilateral adrenalectomy (ADREX), adrenal demedullation (DEMED) or sham surgery (SHEM). After 4 day recovery, rats were exposed to air or ozone (1ppm), 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Circulating adrenaline levels dropped to nearly zero in DEMED and ADREX rats relative to air-exposed SHAM. Corticosterone levels tended to be low in DEMED rats and dropped to nearly zero in ADREX rats. Adrenalectomy in air-exposed rats caused modest changes in metabolites and lung toxicity parameters. Ozone-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were markedly attenuated in DEMED with nearly complete reversal in ADREX rats. Ozone increased circulating epinephrine and corticosterone in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Free fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids tended to increase after ozone exposure in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Lung minute volume was not affected by surgery or ozone but ozone-induced labored breathing was less pronounced in ADREX rats. Ozone-induced increases in lung protein leakage and neutrophilic inflammation were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats (ADREX>DMED). Ozone-mediated decrease in circulating WBC in SHAM was not

  1. Antinociception induced by acute oral administration of sweet substance in young and adult rodents: the role of endogenous opioid peptides chemical mediators and μ(1)-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Kübler, João Marcus Lopes; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-04-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the effects of acute sucrose treatment on the perception of painful stimuli. Specifically, we sought to determine the involvement of the endogenous opioid peptide-mediated system as well as the role of the μ(1)-opioid receptor in antinociception organisation induced by acute sucrose intake. Nociception was assessed with the tail-flick test in rats (75, 150 and 250 g) of different ages acutely pre-treated with 500 μL of a sucrose solution (25, 50, 150 and 250 g/L) or tap water. Young and Adult rats (250 g) showed antinociception after treatment with 50 g/L (during 5 min) and 150 g/L and 250 g/L (during 20 min) sucrose solutions. Surprisingly, this antinociception was more consistent in mature adult rodents than in pups. To evaluate the role of opioid systems, mature adult rodents were pre-treated with different doses (0.25, 1 or 4 mg/kg) of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, the selective μ(1)-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine or vehicle followed by 250 g/L sucrose solution treatment. Sucrose-induced antinociception was reduced by pre-treatment with both naloxone and naloxonazine. The present findings suggest that sweet substance-induced hypo-analgesia is augmented by increasing sucrose concentrations in young and adult rodents. Acute oral sucrose treatment inhibits pain in laboratory animal by mediating endogenous opioid peptide and μ(1)-opioid receptor actions.

  2. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 215, 234, 242, 244, 245, and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  3. Acute oral administration of the novel, competitive and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34517 reduces the severity of ethanol withdrawal and related hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis activation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Anna R.; Saunders, Meredith A.; Brewton, Honoree’ W.; Winchester, Sydney R.; Elgumati, Ibrahim S.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of ethanol dependence is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and activation of type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR). These effects may contribute to withdrawal-associated anxiety, craving and relapse to drinking. The present studies examined acute and oral administration of the novel, selective and competitive GR antagonist ORG 34517 on the severity of ethanol withdrawal. Methods Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol (4g/kg/i.g.) twice daily for 5 days followed by 2 days of withdrawal for 1, 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Blood ethanol levels (BELs) were determined at 0930 on Day 4 of each week, while blood corticosterone levels (BCLs) were obtained at 1100 hrs on the first day of each ethanol withdrawal. During early withdrawal, subjects received oral administration of ORG 345617 (60 mg/kg/i.g.) or a placebo and withdrawal was monitored. Results Peak BELs of 225.52 mg/dl were observed during the third week. Withdrawal from three cycles of the regimen produced marked behavioral abnormalities (e.g. aggression, rigidity, and hypoactivity) and significant increases in BCLs of ethanol-dependent subjects. Acute, oral administration of ORG 34517 during early withdrawal significantly reduced both the severity of ethanol withdrawal, as reflected in reduced rigidity, aggression, and hypoactivity, and elevations in BCL without producing any sedative-like effects. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal is associated with significant behavioral abnormalities and dysregulation of HPA axis activation. Further these data suggest that selective GR antagonists should be further considered as putative pharmacotherapies for treatment of ethanol dependence. PMID:26143299

  4. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of (14)C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  5. Differential roles of GABAB1 subunit isoforms on locomotor responses to acute and repeated administration of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Laura H; Sweeney, Fabian F; Kaupmann, Klemens; O'Leary, Olivia F; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    GABAB receptors are crucial modulators of the behavioural effects of drug abuse, and agonists and positive allosteric modulators show promise as pharmacological strategies for anti-addiction therapeutics. GABAB receptors are functional heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits. The predominant neuronal GABAB1 subunit isoforms are GABAB1a and GABAB1b. Selective ablation of these isoforms in mice revealed differential behavioural responses in fear, cognition and stress sensitivity. However, the influence of the two GABAB1 isoforms on responses to drugs of abuse is unclear. Therefore we examined the responses of GABAB1 subunit isoform null mice to cocaine in acute locomotor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. During habituation for the acute locomotor activity assay, GABAB1b(-/-) mice showed higher levels of locomotor activity relative to wild-type (WT) and GABAB1a(-/-) mice, in accordance with previous studies. Acute cocaine (10 mg/kg) increased locomotor activity in habituated mice of all three genotypes, with GABAB1a(-/-) mice showing sustained hyperlocomotor responses 30 min after cocaine relative to WT and GABAB1b(-/-) mice. No genotypes demonstrated a cocaine-induced place preference, however, GABAB1a(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced locomotor sensitisation to chronic cocaine in the CPP paradigm in comparison to WT mice, whereas GABAB1b(-/-) mice failed to develop locomotor sensitisation, despite higher levels of basal locomotor activity. These findings indicate that GABAB1a and GABAB1b isoforms differentially regulate behavioural responses to cocaine, with deletion of GABAB1a enhancing cocaine-induced locomotor activity and deletion of GABAB1b protecting from cocaine-induced sensitisation.

  6. Cellular distribution of AMPA receptor subunits and mGlu5 following acute and repeated administration of morphine or methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Herrold, Amy A; Persons, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste

    2013-08-01

    Ionotropic AMPA receptors (AMPAR) and metabotropic glutamate group I subtype 5 receptors (mGlu5) mediate neuronal and behavioral effects of abused drugs. mGlu5 stimulation increases expression of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase isoform 61 (STEP61 ) which internalizes AMPARs. We determined the rat brain profile of these proteins using two different classes of abused drugs, opiates, and stimulants. STEP61 levels, and cellular distribution/expression of AMPAR subunits (GluA1, GluA2) and mGlu5, were evaluated via a protein cross-linking assay in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral pallidum (VP) harvested 1 day after acute, or fourteen days after repeated morphine (8 mg/kg) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) (treatments producing behavioral sensitization). Acute morphine decreased GluA1 and GluA2 surface expression in mPFC and GluA1 in NAc. Fourteen days after repeated morphine or methamphetamine, mGlu5 surface expression increased in VP. In mPFC, mGlu5 were unaltered; however, after methamphetamine, STEP61 levels decreased and GluA2 surface expression increased. Pre-treatment with a mGlu5-selective negative allosteric modulator, blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and changes in mPFC GluA2 and STEP61 . These data reveal (i) region-specific distinctions in glutamate receptor trafficking between acute and repeated treatments of morphine and methamphetamine, and (ii) that mGlu5 is necessary for methamphetamine-induced alterations in mPFC GluA2 and STEP61 .

  7. Repeated administration of a mild acute toxic dose of di-n-butyltin dichloride at intervals of 3 weeks induces severe lesions in pancreas and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Merkord, J; Weber, H; Kröning, G; Hennighausen, G

    2001-08-01

    Di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBTC) induced thymus atrophy, bile duct lesions, pancreatitis, and liver lesions in rats. Depending on dose [6 and 8 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.) DBTC] and time (1-24 weeks), the lesions in pancreas developed to a pancreatic fibrosis and the lesions in liver to liver cirrhosis. A single i.v. administration of 4 mg/kg DBTC induces a mild interstitial pancreatitis after 2-4 days followed by a restitutio ad integrum after 21-28 days. In the present study, the lesions of biliopancreatic duct, pancreas, and liver of rats after repeated administration of 4 mg/kg DBTC i.v. at intervals of 3 weeks have been investigated. The histopathological changes of pancreas and liver were examined by light microscopy 1,4, and 7 days and 2,3,4,6,9, and 12 weeks after administration of DBTC. Furthermore, pathobiochemical parameters of pancreatitis (amylase and lipase activity in serum), liver lesions (alkaline phosphatase activity and bilirubin in serum), and of fibrosis (hyaluronic acid in serum) were studied. Repeated administration of rats with DBTC (4 mg/kg i.v.) at intervals of 3 weeks induced an acute interstitial pancreatitis and after 9-12 weeks, a pancreatic fibrosis and liver lesions (intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia, inflammation in periportal tract, and necrosis). In serum, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and hyaluronic acid were found. This study demonstrates that the organotin compound induces toxic effects on pancreas and liver of rats by repeated administration of lower doses at long intervals. The risk of exposure to organotin at long intervals should be considered.

  8. Acute and repeated intranasal oxytocin administration exerts anti-aggressive and pro-affiliative effects in male rats.

    PubMed

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Kreutzmann, Judith C; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2015-01-01

    Socio-emotional deficits and impulsive/aggressive outbursts are prevalent symptoms of many neuropsychiatric disorders, and intranasal administration of oxytocin (OXT) is emerging as a putative novel therapeutic approach to curb these problems. Recently, we demonstrated potent anti-aggressive and pro-social effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) OXT administration in male rats. The present study tested whether similar behavioral effects are induced when OXT is delivered intranasally. Heart-rate and blood-pressure responses were telemetrically monitored to investigate whether peripheral physiological effects were provoked after intranasal OXT administration. Intranasal OXT administration in resident animals reduced offensive aggression and increased social exploration toward an unfamiliar male intruder. Using a partner-preference test, intranasal OXT also strengthened the bonding between the male resident and its female partner. No changes in cardiovascular (re)activity were found, indicating an absence of direct peripheral physiological effects after intranasal OXT treatment. In conclusion, although the precise route and mechanisms of nose-to-brain transport/communication remain to be elucidated, our data demonstrated intranasal OXT to be an effective application method for suppressing intermale aggression and enhancing social affiliation.

  9. Systemic gene delivery following intravenous administration of AAV9 to fetal and neonatal mice and late-gestation nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Citra N; Wong, Andrew M S; Hoefer, Klemens; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria E; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Howe, Steven J; Cooper, Jonathan D; Waddington, Simon N; Chan, Jerry K Y; Rahim, Ahad A

    2015-09-01

    Several acute monogenic diseases affect multiple body systems, causing death in childhood. The development of novel therapies for such conditions is challenging. However, improvements in gene delivery technology mean that gene therapy has the potential to treat such disorders. We evaluated the ability of the AAV9 vector to mediate systemic gene delivery after intravenous administration to perinatal mice and late-gestation nonhuman primates (NHPs). Titer-matched single-stranded (ss) and self-complementary (sc) AAV9 carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were intravenously administered to fetal and neonatal mice, with noninjected age-matched mice used as the control. Extensive GFP expression was observed in organs throughout the body, with the epithelial and muscle cells being particularly well transduced. ssAAV9 carrying the WPRE sequence mediated significantly more gene expression than its sc counterpart, which lacked the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) sequence. To examine a realistic scale-up to larger models or potentially patients for such an approach, AAV9 was intravenously administered to late-gestation NHPs by using a clinically relevant protocol. Widespread systemic gene expression was measured throughout the body, with cellular tropisms similar to those observed in the mouse studies and no observable adverse events. This study confirms that AAV9 can safely mediate systemic gene delivery in small and large animal models and supports its potential use in clinical systemic gene therapy protocols.

  10. [Effect of intracoronary and intravenous administration of tirofiban loading dose in patients underwent percutaneous coronary interventions because of acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Turkmen, S; Fettser, D V; Kagliian, K É; Serchelik, A; Arystanova, A Zh; Tekin, K; Balli, M; Batyraliev, T A; Samko, A N; Sidorenko, B A

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this multicenter retrospective study was assessment of effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose in troponin positive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We analyzed multicenter data base of patients subjected to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) because of ST-elevation or non-ST elevation ACS from October 2010 to October 2011. Patients who received loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) before PCI and tirofiban (10 mg/kg bolus with subsequent infusion 0.15 mg/kg/min for 24 h) were selected for the study (n=133, 89 with intravenous and 44 - intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose). We assessed hospital mortality, myocardial reinfarctions (reMI), necessity of target vessel revascularization (TVR) and pronounced bleedings. There were no significant differences in mortality, reMI, and TVR between two groups. However major adverse cardiac events was significantly less in patients who received intracoronary tirofiban (6.8 vs. 21.3% in i.v. group; p=0.046). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in intracoronary compared with i.v. group (3.84+/-0.96 vs. 4.55+/-1.11 days; p=0.001). Rates of bleedings did not differ significantly between groups. Thus compared with i.v. intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose allows lower rate of major adverse cardiac events as well as to shorten length of hospital stay of patients with ACS.

  11. Re-engineering land administration systems for sustainable development — from rhetoric to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Ian P.

    Current land administration systems are the product of 19th century economic and land market paradigms and have failed to properly support sustainable development. The need for urgent reform is accepted, but the way forward unclear in many jurisdictions. This paper will discuss current international initiatives and research to develop a new land administration vision to promote sustainable development. Within this context, this paper describes the changing humankind to land relationship, identifies some of the growing environmental pressures facing modern society and the need for sustainable development, explores the evolving role of land administration in society and highlights the need for land administration systems to play a more proactive role in supporting sustainable development objectives. The process to re-engineer land administrations is briefly reviewed. The paper then highlights the development of a national land administration vision and strategy. In proposing strategies the paper draws on international trends and experiences such as highlighted in the recent United Nations — International Federation of Surveyors Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.

  12. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003), fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035) and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02). Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008), fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037) and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024). For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93). Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope of company health

  13. Moderate traumatic brain injury increases the vulnerability to neurotoxicity induced by systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Ben, Juliana; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Rial, Daniel; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2017-03-10

    Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to a moderate TBI using a free weight-drop device and, 5 h later, they were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 6-OHDA (100 mg/kg). Afterwards, during a period of 4 weeks, the mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests, including the neurological severity score (NSS), the open field and the rotarod. Animals from the TBI plus 6-OHDA group displayed significant motor and neurological impairments that were improved by acute L-DOPA administration (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the observation of the motor deficits correlates with (i) a significant decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylase levels mainly in the rostral striatum and (ii) a significant increase in the levels of striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels. On the whole, the present findings demonstrate that a previous moderate TBI event increases the susceptibility to motor, neurological and neurochemical alterations induced by systemic administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA in mice.

  14. Acute D-psicose administration decreases the glycemic responses to an oral maltodextrin tolerance test in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Kishimoto, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tohi, Mikiko; Yagi, Kanako; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Izumori, Ken

    2008-12-01

    An examination was conducted to verify D-psicose suppressed the elevation of blood glucose and insulin concentration in a dose-dependent manner under the concurrent administration of maltodextrin and D-psicose to healthy humans. Twenty subjects aged 20-39 y, 11 males and 9 females were recruited. A load test of oral maltodextrin was conducted as a randomized single blind study. The subjects took one of five test beverages (7.5 g D-psicose alone, 75 g maltodextrin alone, 75 g maltodextrin +2.5, 5 or 7.5 g D-psicose). Blood was collected before an intake and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after an intake. Intervals of administration were at least 1 wk. The load test with 75 g maltodextrin showed significant suppressions of the elevation of blood glucose and insulin concentration under the doses of 5 g or more D-psicose with dose dependency. An independent administration of 7.5 g D-psicose had no influence on blood glucose or insulin concentration. D-Psicose is considered efficacious in the suppression of the elevation of blood glucose concentration after eating in humans.

  15. What Educational Administrators Need To Know about Information and Information Systems: A User's Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Harriett J.

    This paper examines what educational administrators need to know about information systems in order to be effective within a system of higher education, particularly a community college, environment. The first section provides a general overview of the nature and role of information in contemporary organizations. The second section focuses on the…

  16. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  17. Mesotherapy versus Systemic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Cosimo; Marangio, Emilio; Coruzzi, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological therapy of back pain with analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs is frequently associated with adverse effects, particularly in the elderly. Aim of this study was to compare mesotherapic versus conventional systemic administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids in patients with acute low back pain. Eighty-four patients were randomized to receive anti-inflammatory therapy according to the following protocols: (a) mesotherapy group received the 1st and 4th day 2% lidocaine (1 mL) + ketoprofen 160 mg (1 mL) + methylprednisolone 40 mg (1 mL), then on 7th, 10th, and 13th day, 2% lidocaine (1 mL) + ketoprofen 160 mg (1 mL) + methylprednisolone 20 mg (1 mL) (b) conventional therapy group received ketoprofen 80 mg × 2/die and esomeprazole 20 mg/die orally for 12 days, methylprednisolone 40 mg/die intramuscularly for 4 days, followed by methylprednisolone 20 mg/die for 3 days, and thereafter, methylprednisolone 20 mg/die at alternate days. Pain intensity and functional disability were assessed at baseline (T0), at the end of treatment (T1), and 6 months thereafter (T2) by using visual analogic scale (VAS) and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ). In both groups, VAS and RMDQ values were significantly reduced at the end of drug treatment and after 6 months, in comparison with baseline. No significant differences were found between the two groups. This suggests that mesotherapy may be a valid alternative to conventional therapy in the treatment of acute low back pain with corticosteroids and NSAIDs. PMID:20953425

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain metabolic shifts induced by acute administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose and lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Moshkin, Mikhail P; Akulov, Andrey E; Petrovski, Dmitriy V; Saik, Olga V; Petrovskiy, Evgeny D; Savelov, Andrey A; Koptyug, Igor V

    2014-04-01

    In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS) of outbred stock ICR male mice (originating from the Institute of Cancer Research) was used to study the brain (hippocampus) metabolic response to the pro-inflammatory stimulus and to the acute deficiency of the available energy, which was confirmed by measuring the maximum oxygen consumption. Inhibition of glycolysis by means of an injection with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) reduced the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, p < 0.05, in comparison with control, least significant difference (LSD) test), N-acetylaspartate (NAA, p < 0.05, LSD test) and choline compounds, and at the same time increased the levels of glutamate and glutamine. An opposite effect was found after injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - a very common pro-inflammatory inducer. An increase in the amounts of GABA, NAA and choline compounds in the brain occurred in mice treated with LPS. Different metabolic responses to the energy deficiency and the pro-inflammatory stimuli can explain the contradictory results of the brain (1) H MRS studies under neurodegenerative pathology, which is accompanied by both mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. The prevalence of the excitatory metabolites such as glutamate and glutamine in 2DG treated mice is in good agreement with excitation observed during temporary reduction of the available energy under acute hypoxia or starvation. In turn, LPS, as an inducer of the sickness behavior, which was manifested as depression, sleepiness, loss of appetite etc., shifts the brain metabolic pattern toward the prevalence of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

  19. Systemic Administration of Oleoylethanolamide Protects from Neuroinflammation and Anhedonia Induced by LPS in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sayd, Aline; Antón, María; Alén, Francisco; Caso, Javier Rubén; Pavón, Javier; Leza, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acylethanolamides oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide are endogenous lipid mediators with proposed neuroprotectant properties in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. The precise mechanisms remain partly unknown, but growing evidence suggests an antiinflammatory/antioxidant profile. Methods: We tested whether oleoylethanolamide/palmitoylethanolamide (10mg/kg, i.p.) attenuate neuroinflammation and acute phase responses (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis stress axis activation, thermoregulation, and anhedonia) induced by lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Results: Lipopolysaccharide increased mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, nuclear transcription factor-κB activity, and the expression of its inhibitory protein IκBα in cytoplasm, the inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase mRNA, and proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 content in frontal cortex 150 minutes after administration. As a result, the markers of nitrosative/oxidative stress nitrites (NO2 -) and malondialdehyde were increased. Pretreatment with oleoylethanolamide/ palmitoylethanolamide reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor-α levels after lipopolysaccharide, but only oleoylethanolamide significantly reduced brain tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB)/IκBα upregulation in nuclear and cytosolic extracts, respectively, the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and the levels of prostaglandin E2. Additionally, both acylethanolamides reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress. Neither oleoylethanolamide nor palmitoylethanolamide modified plasma corticosterone levels after lipopolysaccharide, but both

  20. Development of tolerance to the inhibitory effects of ethanol in the rat isolated vas deferens: effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    DeTurck, K. H.; Pohorecky, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Contractions of the rat vas deferens elicited by the addition of noradrenaline (NA), K+-depolarizing solutions or by electrical stimulation were recorded before and after incubation with ethanol 181 mM. In tissues from untreated rats, the contractions were inhibited 40-50% by such exposure. Injection of ethanol (2 g kg-1) significantly attenuated ethanol's reduction of peak tension generated by the lowest concentration of NA (10(-4) mM). Chronic administration of ethanol, 18-14 g kg-1 daily for two weeks, resulted in significant tolerance to ethanol. Tissues of treated animals demonstrated ethanol-induced decreases of roughly one-half those of the maltose dextrin (isocaloric) and water (fluid control) groups. This tolerance persisted for at least 48 h after ethanol treatment had been terminated. Overall, the data suggest that ethanol acts both pre- and postsynaptically to produce acute inhibition of smooth muscle contractions or tolerance to these actions upon chronic exposure. PMID:3730699

  1. Acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Monov, Simeon; Hristova, Ruska; Dacheva, Rositza; Toncheva, Reni; Shumnalieva, Russka; Shoumnalieva-Ivanova, Viara; Monova, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and deposition of immune complexes in tissues and organs. SLE can involve any region of the visual system. Although ocular manifestations are not part of the classification criteria for SLE, they can be observed in up to one-third of the patients with SLE. They are rarely reported at the time of disease onset. Retinal vasculitis is usually associated with active generalized disease. Due to its low frequency, we report a case of acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of SLE. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 25-year-old white female was referred to the rheumatology clinic with gradually and rapid deterioration of the vision due to abnormal vessel permeability in the right fundus with edema along the vessels, occlusion of arterial branches in the middle periphery with leakage of the dye in these areas and indentical but less prominent changes with cotton wool spots in the papillomacular area and extensive hemorrhages in the left eye. The onset of malar rash, arthralgias and positive antinuclear, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-ribosomal P and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies with decreased C4 complement levels, as well as the positive lupus-band test confirmed the diagnosis of SLE. Interventions: Aggressive immunomodulating therapy with high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclophosphamide was used for suppression of the disease activity followed by azathioprine as maintaince therapy. Outcomes: Substantial improvement and partial resorption of the vasculitic changes, including central retinal artery and vein, was achieved prominently in the left eye. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary

  2. Attenuation of systemic morphine-induced analgesia by central administration of ghrelin and related peptides in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Chen, Jia-Xiang; Yang, Bei; Zhi, Xing; Guo, Fa-Xian; Sun, Meng-Li; Wang, Jing-Lei; Wei, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino peptide secreted in the gastric endocrine cells, has been demonstrated to stimulate the release of growth hormone, increase food intake, and inhibit pro-inflammatory cascade, etc. Ghrelin mainly combines with its receptor (GHS-R1α) to play the role in physiological and pathological functions. It has been reported that ghrelin plays important roles in the control of pain through interaction with the opioid system in inflammatory pain and acute pain. However, very few studies show the effect of supraspinal ghrelin system on antinociception induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine. In the present study, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of ghrelin (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nmol/L) produced inhibition of systemic morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) analgesia in the tail withdrawal test. Similarly, i.c.v. injection GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 which are the agonists of GHS-R1α, also decreased analgesia effect induced by morphine injected intraperitoneally in mice. Furthermore, these anti-opioid activities of ghrelin and related peptides were not blocked by pretreatment with the GHS-R1α selective antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (100 nmol/L, i.c.v.). These results demonstrated that central ghrelin and related peptides could inhibit the analgesia effect induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine. The anti-opioid effects of ghrelin and related peptides do not interact with GHS-R1a. These findings may pave the way for a new strategy on investigating the interaction between ghrelin system and opioids on pain modulation.

  3. Delayed Administration of Pyroglutamate Helix B Surface Peptide (pHBSP), a Novel Nonerythropoietic Analog of Erythropoietin, Attenuates Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nimesh S A; Kerr-Peterson, Hannah L; Brines, Michael; Collino, Massimo; Rogazzo, Mara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Wood, Elizabeth G; Johnson, Florence L; Yaqoob, Muhammad M; Cerami, Anthony; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In preclinical studies, erythropoietin (EPO) reduces ischemia-reperfusion–associated tissue injury (for example, stroke, myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, hemorrhagic shock and liver ischemia). It has been proposed that the erythropoietic effects of EPO are mediated by the classic EPO receptor homodimer, whereas the tissue-protective effects are mediated by a hetero-complex between the EPO receptor monomer and the β-common receptor (termed “tissue-protective receptor”). Here, we investigate the effects of a novel, selective-ligand of the tissue-protective receptor (pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide [pHBSP]) in a rodent model of acute kidney injury/dysfunction. Administration of pHBSP (10 μg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.] 6 h into reperfusion) or EPO (1,000 IU/kg i.p. 4 h into reperfusion) to rats subjected to 30 min ischemia and 48 h reperfusion resulted in significant attenuation of renal and tubular dysfunction. Both pHBSP and EPO enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt (activation) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (inhibition) in the rat kidney after ischemia-reperfusion, resulting in prevention of the activation of nuclear factor-κB (reduction in nuclear translocation of p65). Interestingly, the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was enhanced by EPO and, to a much lesser extent, by pHBSP, suggesting that the signaling pathways activated by EPO and pHBSP may not be identical. PMID:22415011

  4. Effects of acute administration of omeprazole or ranitidine on basal and vagally stimulated gastric acid secretion and alkalinization of the duodenum in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Fändriks, L; Jönson, C

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were performed on acutely vagotomized cats during chloralose anaesthesia. In order to avoid sympathoadrenergic influences, the adrenal glands were ligated and the splanchnic nerves were cut bilaterally in all animals. The gastric lumen was perfused with saline and the H+ secretion was calculated from pH measurements in the perfusate. HCO3- secretion by the duodenal mucosa was titrated in situ. Omeprazole (4 mg kg-1 i.v., dissolved in PEG400, 40% w/v) did not influence basal or vagally induced HCO3- secretions, but inhibited by about 80% the H+ secretory response induced by electric vagal stimulation. Acute administration of ranitidine (5 mg kg-1 i.v.) transiently lowered arterial pressure, an effect which was followed by a sustained compensatory tachycardia. Ranitidine raised basal duodenal HCO3- secretion by 50% and inhibited vagally induced gastric H+ secretion by about 70%, whereas vagally induced HCO3- secretion was not influenced. The results suggest that vagal nerve stimulation raises the duodenal bicarbonate secretion via a mechanism independent of the level of gastric H+ secretion.

  5. The efficacy of acute administration of pamidronate on the conservation of bone mass following severe burn injury in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gordon L; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Kulkarni, Gayathri; Sherrard, Donald J; Sanford, Arthur P; Herndon, David N

    2005-06-01

    Bone loss is a known complication of severe burn injury. It is, in part, due to increased endogenous glucocorticoids that contribute to the reduction in bone formation and osteoblast differentiation, hypercalciuria secondary to hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency. In this study we attempted to prevent post-burn bone loss by acute intravenous administration of the bisphosphonate pamidronate. We enrolled 43 children, with burns of > 40% total body surface area, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, administering the study drug within 10 days of burn injury and again 1 week later. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed prior to drug therapy, at hospital discharge and at 6 months post-burn. Urine specimens were obtained at baseline and discharge for determination of calcium and free deoxypyridinoline. Blood was obtained along with the urine specimens for measurement of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and ionized calcium (Ca) levels. Following doxycycline labeling, intra-operative iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained, and bone histomorphometry was determined. At time of discharge there were no differences in total body bone mineral content (BMC), but lumbar spine BMC was significantly higher in the pamidronate group (P < 0.005). By 6 months post-burn the differences in lumbar spine BMC persisted, but, now, total body BMC was significantly higher in the pamidronate group (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometry and levels of urine Ca and free deoxypyridinoline failed to show significant increases in bone formation or decreases in bone resorption. Pamidronate did not exacerbate the hypocalcemia in burn patients. In summary, acute intravenous pamidronate administration following burns may help to preserve bone mass, perhaps by inhibiting the glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes.

  6. Prophylactic administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using terbufos sulfone.

    PubMed

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Nurulain, Syed M; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Kuča, Kamil; Petroianu, Georg A

    2014-10-01

    Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) poses a serious threat worldwide. OPC-induced mortality can be significantly reduced by prophylactic administration of reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The only American Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved substance for such pre-treatment (to soman exposure) is presently pyridostigmine, although its efficacy is controversial. In search for more efficacious and broad-spectrum alternatives, we have assessed in vivo the mortality-reducing efficacy of a group of five compounds with known AChE inhibitory activity (pyridostigmine, physostigmine, ranitidine, tacrine and K-27), when given in equitoxic dosage (25% of LD01 ) 30 min before exposure to the OPC terbufos sulfone. Protection was quantified in rats by determining the relative risk of death (RR) using Cox analysis, with RR = 1 for animals given only terbufos sulfone, but no pre-treatment. All tested AChE inhibitors reduced terbufos sulfone-induced mortality significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with the non-treatment group (RR = 1: terbufos sulfone only). Best in vivo protection from terbufos sulfone-induced mortality was achieved, when K-27 was given before terbufos sulfone exposure (RR = 0.06), which was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) superior to the pre-treatment with all other tested compounds, for example tacrine (RR = 0.21), pyridostigmine (RR = 0.28), physostigmine (RR = 0.29) and ranitidine (RR = 0.33). The differences in efficacy between tacrine, pyridostigmine, physostigmine and ranitidine were not statistically significant. Prophylactic administration of an oxime (such as K-27) in case of imminent OPC exposure may be a viable option.

  7. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M

    2017-02-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06-27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with central

  8. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M.; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M.

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro. CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06–27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86–25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with

  9. Dosage Form Developments of Nanosuspension Drug Delivery System for Oral Administration Route.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang; Shi, Ye; Yan, Zhiqiang; Hao, Hongxun; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Jian; Hou, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of new drug candidates are practically insoluble in aqueous solvents and are even simultaneously poorly soluble in organic solvents. Nanosuspension drug delivery system (DDS) was firstly developed in 1994 and has attracted more and more attention as a formation solution for the poorly soluble drugs. By nansizing the poorly soluble drugs, nanosuspensions have several outstanding advantages for drug delivery. Among many administration routes of drug delivery, oral administration is the most preferred route due to its advantages such as ease of ingestion, versatility to accommodate various types of drug candidates, low production cost, high safety, good patient compliance, and pain avoidance. Current marketed pharmaceutical nanosuspension DDS products are mostly for oral administration. This review is to systematically summarize the nanosuspension DDS dosage form developments of poorly soluble drugs for oral administration use.

  10. Short-term effect of prebiotics administration on stool characteristics and serum cytokines dynamics in very young children with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Nachum; Press, Josef; Leibovitz, Eugene; Boehm, Güenther; Barak, Vivian

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9-24 months) with acute diarrhea. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and sIL-2R cytokine levels were determined. The significant decrease in number of stools and increase in stool consistency in the supplemented group was of little clinical relevance. The only significant change in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was decreased TNF-α levels in the supplemented group. Prebiotic supplementation during acute diarrhea episodes did not influence the clinical course.

  11. Behavioral, thermal and neurochemical effects of acute and chronic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") self-administration.

    PubMed

    Reveron, Maria Elena; Maier, Esther Y; Duvauchelle, Christine L

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular methamphetamine derivative associated with young adults and all-night dance parties. However, the enduring effects of MDMA at voluntary intake levels have not been extensively investigated. In this study, MDMA-influenced behaviors and core temperatures were assessed over the course of 20 daily MDMA self-administration sessions in rats. In vivo microdialysis techniques were used in a subsequent MDMA challenge test session to determine extracellular nucleus accumbens dopamine (NAcc DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in MDMA-experienced and naïve animals before and after a self-administered MDMA injection (3.0mg/kg, i.v.). During self-administration sessions, gradual and significant increases in MDMA intake and MDMA-stimulated locomotor activity were observed across sessions. Core temperature significantly decreased during initial MDMA sessions, but was unaltered by the last 10 sessions. In the MDMA challenge test, MDMA-naïve rats showed significantly higher NAcc 5-HT responses compared to MDMA-experienced rats, though MDMA experience did not affect the magnitude of NAcc DA response. The overall findings suggest that changes in MDMA-induced responses over the course of increasing levels of drug exposure may reflect the development of tolerance to a number of MDMA effects.

  12. Differential effects of acute cortisol administration on deep and shallow episodic memory traces: a study on healthy males.

    PubMed

    Cioncoloni, David; Galli, Giulia; Mazzocchio, Riccardo; Feurra, Matteo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-10-01

    We aimed at investigating rapid effects of plasma cortisol elevations on the episodic memory phase of encoding or retrieval, and on the strength of the memory trace. Participants were asked either to select a word containing the letter "e" (shallow encoding task) or to judge if a word referred to a living entity (deep encoding task). We intravenously administered a bolus of 20mg of cortisol either 5 min before encoding or 5 min before retrieval, in a between-subjects design. The study included only male participants tested in the late afternoon, and neutral words as stimuli. When cortisol administration occurred prior to retrieval, a main effect of group emerged. Recognition accuracy was higher for individuals who received cortisol compared to placebo. The higher discrimination accuracy for the cortisol group was significant for words encoded during deep but not shallow task. Cortisol administration before encoding did not affect subsequent retrieval performance (either for deep or shallow stimuli) despite a facilitatory trend. Because genomic mechanisms take some time to develop, such a mechanism cannot apply to our findings where the memory task was performed shortly after the enhancement of glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, glucocorticoids, through non-genomic fast effects, determine an enhancement in episodic memory if administered immediately prior to retrieval. This effect is more evident if the memory trace is laid down through deep encoding operations involving the recruitment of specific neural networks.

  13. Effects of acute administration of phentermine, alone or in combination with dexfenfluramine, on pain reactivity in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Wellman, P J

    2008-09-01

    In the 1990s, phentermine was combined with either fenfluramine or its active enantiomer dexfenfluramine to promote weight loss. Appetite suppressants are known to alter pain reactivity. The current experiment examined the acute impact of phentermine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) on paw-lick/jump latencies recorded just before and at 10, 20, and 30 min after phentermine injection. In addition, separate groups of rats were treated with 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg dexfenfluramine or with selected combinations of phentermine with dexfenfluramine. Phentermine induced significant analgesia in rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, whereas only the 4.0 mg/kg dose of dexfenfluramine induced significant analgesia. Combinations of 1 mg/kg dexfenfluramine or 2 mg/kg dexfenfluramine with phentermine were mostly additive in terms of changes in analgesia scores. The present results characterize the analgesic action of phentermine, further confirm the analgesic action of dexfenfluramine and suggest an additive analgesic effect for the combination of dexfenfluramine with phentermine.

  14. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. Patients and methods We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. Results According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response. PMID:27069450

  15. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-13

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems of cilostazol for oral and parenteral administration.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Dina B; Shukr, Marwa H; Bendas, Ehab R

    2014-12-10

    The current investigation was aimed to improve the solubility of poorly soluble drug, cilostazol (CLZ). Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) composed of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant for both oral and parenteral administration of CLZ was formulated. The components for SNEDDS were identified by solubility studies, and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the efficient self-emulsification regions. The optimum formula, composed of Capryol 90 as an oil phase, Cremophor EL as a surfactant, and Transcutol HP as a co-surfactant in a ratio of 19.8:30.5:49.7 by weight, was able to solubilize CLZ 2000 times higher than its solubility in water. This formula was able to form grade "A" nanoemulsion when diluted with water, resulted in emulsification time of 50±1.1 s, particle size of 14.3 nm, PDI of 0.5 and % transmittance was 97.40%±0.65. It showed excellent in vitro dissolution of 93.1% and 81.5% after 5 min in 0.3% sodium lauryl sulphate solution and phosphate buffer pH 6.4, respectively when compared with the marketed tablet formulation and drug suspension as the tablets showed only 44.3% and 9.9% while CLZ suspension showed 33.9% and 8.8% in 0.3% sodium lauryl sulphate solution and phosphate buffer pH 6.4, respectively. It was found to be robust to dilution, thermodynamically stable with low viscosity values of 14.20±0.35 cP. In vivo study revealed significant increase in bioavailability of CLZ in rabbits to 3.94 fold compared with the marketed tablet formulation after oral administration. This formula could be sterilized by autoclaving and did not cause significant hemolysis to human blood which indicates its safety for intravenous administration with a 1.12 fold increase in bioavailability compared with its oral administration. Our study illustrated the potential use of SNEDDS of poorly soluble CLZ orally, and its successful administration of parenterally when required in acute cases of myocardial and cerebral infarction.

  17. [The dynamics of behavioral and neuroreceptor effects after acute and long-term noopept administration in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Kondrakhin, E A; Salimov, R M; Neznamov, G G

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute, 7-fold and 14-fold noopept (1 mg/kg/day) administration on the dynamics of anxiolitic and nootropic behavioral effects in cross-maze, as well as their correlations with NMDA- and BDZ-receptor density was studied in inbred mice strains, differing in exploratory and emotional status--C57BL/6 and BALB/c. The dipeptide failed to affect the anxiety and exploration activity in C57BL/6 mice at each of 3 steps of experimental session. In this strain the B(max) values of [3H]-MK-801 and [3H]-Flunitrazepam binding changed only after single administration. In respect to BALB/c mice noopept induced both the anxiolitic and nootropic effects reaching their maximum on 7th day. In BALB/c strain the dynamics of hippocampal NMDA-receptor binding corresponds to the dynamics of exploratory efficacy whereas the dynamics of BDZ-receptors in prefrontal cortex was reciprocally to dynamics of anxiety level.

  18. Neurophysiological effects of acute oxytocin administration: systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Wigton, Rebekah; Radua, Jocham; Allen, Paul; Averbeck, Bruno; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) plays a prominent role in social cognition and may have clinical applications for disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety. The neural basis of its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of placebo-controlled imaging studies using OXT as a pharmacological manipulator of brain activity. Results We identified a total of 21 studies for inclusion in our review, and after applying additional selection criteria, 11 of them were included in our fMRI voxel-based meta-analysis. The results demonstrate consistent alterations in activation of brain regions, including the temporal lobes and insula, during the processing of social stimuli, with some variation dependent on sex and task. The meta-analysis revealed significant left insular hyperactivation after OXT administration, suggesting a potential modulation of neural circuits underlying emotional processing. Limitations This quantitative review included only a limited number of studies, thus the conclusions of our analysis should be interpreted cautiously. This limited sample size precluded a more detailed exploration of potential confounding factors, such as sex or other demographic factors, that may have affected our meta-analysis. Conclusion Oxytocin has a wide range of effects over neural activity in response to social and emotional processing, which is further modulated by sex and task specificity. The magnitude of this neural activation is largest in the temporal lobes, and a meta-analysis across all tasks and both sexes showed that the left insula demonstrated the most robust activation to OXT administration. PMID:25520163

  19. Prolonged pretreatment of mice with cholera toxin, but not isoproterenol, alleviates acute lethal systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyang; Guo, Xiangrui; Cao, Junxia; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Jiyan; Sun, Dejun; Wang, Qingyang

    2014-11-01

    Isoproterenol, a synthetic non-selective β-adrenergic agonist, is often used during the immediate postoperative period after open heart surgery for its chronotropic and vasodilatory effects. It has been demonstrated that isoproterenol pretreatment followed by immediate LPS administration leads to reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) response in vivo. However, sepsis never happens immediately after the surgery, but rather severe immune dysfunction occurs at least 24h later. It remains elusive what effects isoproterenol might exert to innate immunity during the period. In this scenario, we investigated the effects of 24-h isoproterenol pretreatment on septic shock induced by experimental endotoxemia and bacterial peritonitis, with cholera toxin as another cAMP elevator. Unexpectedly, we found that isoproterenol and cholera toxin exhibited distinct effects in acute lethal systemic inflammatory response. Isoproterenol worsened liver injury without enhancing NK/NKT activity. Meanwhile, cholera toxin but not isoproterenol showed dramatically reduced TNF-α response in LPS induced septic shock. Our data provide a caution for the clinical use of isoproterenol and suggest that isoproterenol has cAMP-independent functions.

  20. A data base management system for the administration of hospital pharmacy personnel.

    PubMed

    Ingrim, N B; Guernsey, B G; Doutre, W H; Galvan, E; Hokanson, J A; Richard, P L

    1983-09-01

    A data base management system (System 2000) was utilized to develop a pharmacy personnel inventory that would allow the pharmacy and hospital administrators to quickly and easily obtain biographic and demographic information about employees in a large pharmacy department. The inventory provides personal information about each employee and administrative data such as previous employment and salary histories, benefits packages, and special skills. In addition, the personnel inventory provides other administrative functions including: 1) a tally of vacation or sick days accrued; 2) salary and merit increase information for pay evaluations; 3) a personnel telephone directory; 4) the immediate access to employee emergency contact information; 5) a tally of continuing education credits accrued by each pharmacist; 6) a list of languages, other than English, spoken by pharmacy personnel; 7) pharmacist licensure information; and 8) a list of the ethnic groups represented in the department for use in equal opportunity employment. Computer-prompted instructions allow use of the system by individuals with little or no computer background. Implementation of the system required less than 200 hours and maintenance costs have been relatively minimal. Recent advances in computer technology have made data base management systems similar to that described in this report, a realistic investment for the administrative needs of even the smaller hospital pharmacy.

  1. Nurses' perceptions of and satisfaction with the medication administration system in long-term-care homes.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Sharon; Agarwal, Gina; Dolovich, Lisa; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Brazil, Kevin; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of and level of satisfaction with the medication administration system in long-term care (LTC). The cross-sectional survey design included both quantitative and open-ended questions. Data were collected from licensed registered nurses (RNs) and registered practical nurses (RPNs) at 9 LTC residences in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Using independent sample t tests, the researchers found that RNs were significantly less satisfied than RPNs with their medication administration system, particularly with respect to safety issues. RNs identified a number of related barriers, including time constraints, poor packaging, insufficient drug information, prescription changes, lack of staff competency, and unwieldy medication carts. Implications for practice and policy are discussed, including recommendations for improving medication administration practices and for addressing the workload demands of LTC nurses.

  2. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  3. Interoperability and models for exchange of data between information systems in public administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavev, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The types of software applications used by public administrations can be divided in three main groups: document management systems, record management systems and business process systems. Each one of them generates outputs that can be used as input data to the others. This is the main reason that requires exchange of data between these three groups and well defined models that should be followed. There are also many other reasons that will be discussed in the paper. Interoperability is a key aspect when those models are implemented, especially when there are different manufactures of systems in the area of software applications used by public authorities. The report includes examples of implementation of models for exchange of data between software systems deployed in one of the biggest administration in Bulgaria.

  4. Mismatch negativity in tobacco-naïve cannabis users and its alteration with acute nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Impey, Danielle; El-Marj, Nicole; Parks, Andrea; Choueiry, Joelle; Fisher, Derek; Knott, Verner J

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cannabis use may interact with factors, such as age of onset of cannabis use, family history, and genetic factors, to elicit schizophrenia (SZ)-like symptoms, including sensory and cognitive deficits. However, evidence of a relationship between cannabis use and cognitive impairment is confounded by concomitant use of tobacco. The objective of this study was to compare tobacco-naïve cannabis users with individuals without a history of tobacco/cannabis use on the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP), a neural measure of auditory deviance detection which is diminished in SZ. An exploratory arm of the study, conducted within a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design, examined the acute effects of nicotine gum (6mg) on MMN in cannabis users. MMN was recorded in response to 5 deviant stimuli within an optimal MMN paradigm in 44 healthy, non-tobacco smoking volunteers aged 18-26. Cannabis users (n=21) started smoking cannabis prior to age 17, at least 1 joint per month. To examine the effects of chronicity, users were grouped into relatively heavy long-term (HLT; n=11) users and light short-term (LST; n=10) users. Impaired deviance detection was shown in cannabis users vs. nonusers as reflected by a smaller MMN to duration deviants. Chronicity of use was also associated with MMN alterations, as HLTs displayed a reduced duration and gap MMN vs. LSTs. Compared with placebo, nicotine treatment enhanced select MMN deviants in cannabis user subgroups. As deficits associated with early and persistent cannabis use are similar to those seen in SZ, these dose-dependant disturbances in early sensory processing with cannabis use may be one cognitive pathway which mediates an increased risk for SZ in vulnerable youth, and be influenced by concurrent cigarette smoking behavior.

  5. Accidental ten times overdose administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) up to 318,000 units a day in acute myocardial infarction: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae-Hee; Kwon, Young-Il; Choi, Sung-Il; Park, Ui-Soon; Lee, Je; Shin, Jin-Ho; Lee, Jae-Ung; Kim, Soon-Gil; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lim, Heon-Kil; Lee, Bang-Hun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2006-02-01

    The cytokine erythropoietin protects the heart from ischaemic injury, in part by preventing apoptosis. But appropriate dose of erythropoietin for the protection of injured heart has not been studied. While we were researching the cardiac protective effects of erythropoietin in acute myocardial infarction, we experienced two cases of accidental nearly ten times overdose administration of erythropoietin up to 318,000 units instead of 33,000 units on the second day of three scheduled days of treatment. So a total of 384,000 units of erythropoietin were administered during three days. In case 1, the ALT level soared up to 386 U/l on the second day of administration and decreased slowly. It was back to normal state 3 months later. The AST level increased slowly up to 391 U/l and normalized 3 months later. Haemoglobin level was elevated up to 15.7 g/dl (14.7 g/dl at admission) and, 3 months later, normalized to 14.8 g/dl. In case 2, the ALT level was elevated up to 98 U/l on the second day of administration and decreased slowly. Three months later, the ALT level was normalized. The AST level also increased slowly up to 71 U/l and normalized 3 months later. Haemoglobin level was elevated up to 15.6 g/dl (13.8 g/dl at admission) and, 3 months later, normalized to 13.6 g/dl. In these two cases reported, these patients, even after massive overdose, tolerated it relatively well and the only side-effects we found were elevated liver enzyme and haemoglobin levels.

  6. Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS), System Administration Guide FEMIS: Phase 1, Version 1.1u

    SciTech Connect

    Cerna, P.A.; Conner, W.M.; Curtis, L.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that is being developed under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package.

  7. Acute administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces oxidative stress, lipoperoxidation and TNFα-mediated apoptosis in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, D; Bello, S; Cantatore, S; Fiaschi, A I; Montefrancesco, G; Neri, M; Pomara, C; Riezzo, I; Fiore, C; Bonsignore, A; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-11-01

    Liver toxicity is one of the consequences of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) abuse and hepatocellular damage is reported after MDMA consumption. Various factors probably play a role in ecstasy-induced hepatotoxicity, namely its metabolism, the increased efflux of neurotransmitters, the oxidation of biogenic amines, and hyperthermia. MDMA undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism that involves the production of reactive metabolites which form adducts with intracellular nucleophilic sites. MDMA-induced-TNF-α can promote multiple mechanisms to initiate apoptosis in hepatocytes, activation of pro-apoptotic (BID, SMAC/DIABLO) and inhibition of anti-apoptotic (NF-κB, Bcl-2) proteins. The aim of the present study was to obtain evidence for the oxidative stress mechanism and apoptosis involved in ecstasy-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver after a single 20 mg/kg, i.p. MDMA administration. Reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were determined in rat liver after 3 and 6h after MDMA treatment. The effect of a single MDMA treatment included decrease of GR and GPx activities (29% and 25%, respectively) and GSH/GSSG ratio (32%) with an increase of MDA (119%) after 3h from ecstasy administration compared to control rats. Liver cytosolic level of AA was increased (32%) after 6 h MDMA treatment. Our results demonstrate a strong positive reaction for TNFα (p<0.001) in hepatocytes and a diffuse apoptotic process in the liver specimens (p<0.001). There was correlation between immunohistochemical results and Western blotting which were quantitatively measured by densitometry, confirming the strong positivity for TNF-α (p<0.001) and NF-κB (p<0.001); weak and intense positivity reactions was confirmed for Bcl-2, SMAC/DIABLO (p<0.001) and BID reactions (p<0.001). The results obtained in the

  8. Successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S; King, Tony; Cameron, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    This brief communication describes the successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a wild-born but captive infant western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Republic of Congo. The infant demonstrated signs of acute respiratory distress, lingual swelling, and reaction to intradermal tuberculin, given 55 hr earlier. Details of the treatment with steroids, anesthetic induction, and i.v. epinephrine are all reported, and potential antigens that may have initiated the anaphylactic shock are discussed.

  9. Evolution of Medication Administration Workflow in Implementing Electronic Health Record System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yuan-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the clinical workflow evolutions when implementing the health information technology (HIT). The study especially emphasized on administrating medication when the electronic health record (EHR) systems were adopted at rural healthcare facilities. Mixed-mode research methods, such as survey, observation, and focus group, were…

  10. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  11. Security of Data, Stored in Information Systems of Bulgarian Municipal Administrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapralyakov, Petko

    2011-12-01

    Massive influx of information technology in municipal administrations increases their efficiency in delivering public services but increased the risk of theft of confidential information electronically. The report proposed an approach for improving information security for small municipal governments in Bulgaria through enhanced intrusion detection and prevention system.

  12. Some Teaching Reform Ideas on Management Information System of Master of Business Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Chongjun

    2009-01-01

    Management information system (MIS) is one of the core courses of master of business administration (MBA). Based on the educational characteristics of MBA, this paper studies the teaching issues and strategies of MIS course of MBA. The discussion includes three parts: modification of educational content; improvement of educational ability; case…

  13. Searching and Editing Bibliographic Records Using the IBM Administrative Terminal System (ATS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Linda; Turner, James

    IBM's Administrative Terminal System (ATS) is an effective data collection device, but its searching capabilities are severely limited. Searching an ATS document line-by-line is a time consuming process requiring slow printout speeds. A search can operate only upon 9,999 lines of text at any one time. Working storage limitations make it necessary…

  14. Bioreducible polymer-conjugated oncolytic adenovirus for hepatoma-specific therapy via systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Jaesung; Kim, Tae-il; Nam, Hye Yeong; Yockman, James W; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2011-12-01

    Systemic administration of adenovirus (Ad) vectors is complicated by host immune responses and viral accumulation in the liver, resulting in a short circulatory virus half-life, low efficacy, and host side effects. Ad surface modification is thus required to enhance safety and therapeutic efficacy. An arginine-grafted bioreducible polymer (ABP) was chemically conjugated to the Ad surface, generating Ad-ΔE1/GFP-ABP. A hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]-selective oncolytic Ad complex, YKL-1001-ABP, was also generated. Transduction efficiency of Ad-ΔE1/GFP-ABP was enhanced compared to naked Ad-ΔE1/GFP. YKL-1001-ABP elicited an enhanced and specific killing effect in liver cancer cells (Huh7 and HepG2) expressing α-fetoprotein (AFP). Compared with naked Ad, systemic administration of ABP-conjugated Ad resulted in reduced liver toxicity and interleukin (IL)-6 production in vitro and in vivo. Ad-ΔE1/GFP-ABP was more resistant to the neutralizing effects of human serum compared to naked Ad-ΔE1/GFP. ABP conjugation extended blood circulation time 45-fold and reduced anti-Ad Ab neutralization. Moreover, systemic administration of YKL-1001-ABP markedly suppressed growth of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma. These results demonstrate that chemical conjugation of ABP to the Ad surface improves safety and efficacy, indicating that ABP-conjugated Ad is a potentially useful cancer therapeutic agent to target cancer via systemic administration.

  15. The Family Support System: Comparative Analysis of Research Projects Funded by the Administration on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Andrew

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of eight research projects funded by the Administration on Aging during the 1970s which focused on the family as caregivers and support systems for elderly relatives. A brief description is provided for each project analyzed in this report as well as highlights of major findings, including that the family…

  16. The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

    2010-01-01

    Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…

  17. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the United States Munitions List (USML) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... articles the President determines no longer warrant control under United States Munitions List...

  18. Implementing an Enterprise Information System to Reengineer and Streamline Administrative Processes in a Distance Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2009-01-01

    During the past three years, we have developed and implemented an enterprise information system (EIS) to reengineer and facilitate the administrative process for preparing and teaching distance learning courses in a midsized-to-large university (with 23,000 students). The outcome of the implementation has been a streamlined and efficient process…

  19. Application of Systems Analysis to Sheltered Workshops. Organization and Administration of Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, William H.

    This paper discusses a set of concepts which have been developed for the analysis of the organization and administrative problems which confront sheltered workshops. The concept of systems analysis is introduced to examine the activities of the workshop and to indicate the manner in which the conceptual framework developed may be applied to…

  20. Online Treasures: No Rest for the Weary, or, a Systems Administrator's Work is Never Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    It is easy for a library systems administrator to sometimes feel quite overwhelmed by the responsibilities of the job. Keeping a network running smoothly is a challenge in itself, but they must also be concerned with protecting the network from the many threats that exist. Constant vigilance is necessary to guard against electronic attacks…

  1. Usefulness of administration of non-organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors before acute exposure to organophosphates: assessment using paraoxon.

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Georg A; Nurulain, Syed M; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Kuča, Kamil; Lorke, Dietrich E

    2013-09-01

    Reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors can protect against the lethal effects of irreversible organophosphorus AChE inhibitors (OPCs), when administered before OPC exposure. We have assessed in vivo the mortality-reducing efficacy of a group of known AChE inhibitors, when given in equitoxic dosage before exposure to the OPC paraoxon. Protection was quantified in rats by determining the relative risk (RR) of death. Best in vivo protection from paraoxon-induced mortality was observed after prophylactic administration of physostigmine (RR = 0.30) or the oxime K-27 (RR = 0.34); both treatments were significantly superior to the pre-treatment with all other tested compounds, including the established substance pyridostigmine. Tacrine (RR = 0.67), ranitidine (RR = 0.72), pyridostigmine (RR = 0.76), tiapride (RR = 0.80) and 7-MEOTA (RR = 0.86) also significantly reduced the relative risk of paraoxon-induced death, but to a lesser degree. Methylene blue, amiloride and metoclopramide had an unfavorable effect (RR ≥ 1), significantly increasing mortality. When CNS penetration by prophylactic is undesirable K-27 is a promising alternative to pyridostigmine.

  2. Behavioral and antiepileptic effects of acute administration of the extract of the plant Cestrum nocturnum Lin (lady of the night).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Saad, Héctor; Buznego, María T

    2008-04-01

    Cestrum nocturnum is a garden shrub from the family Solanaceae and is used as a remedy for different health disorders. The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential neuropharmacological action profile of decoctions obtained from dry leaves of the plant. Decoctions were tested in different neuropharmacological models-Irwin test, exploratory behavior, tests for analgesia, isoniazid- and picrotoxin-induced convulsions, and maximal electroshock seizures-in mice, as well as in amphetamine-induced stereotypies and penicillin epileptic foci in rats. Decoctions of 1 and 5% (D1 and D5) induced restlessness, and the 30% decoction (D30) induced passivity. D5 and D30 reduced significantly exploratory behavior and amphetamine-induced stereotypies within a 3-hour observation period. The latter effect was apparent during the second 60 minutes. Decoctions reduced the amount of writhes induced by acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner, but were not effective in the hot plate model. The decoctions were not effective against pharmacologically induced convulsions. However, repeated administration of five doses of D5, at 1-hour intervals, reduced the amplitude of penicillin-induced epileptic spikes in both primary and secondary foci, in curarized rats. Taken together, the results suggest that C. nocturnum possesses active substances with analgesic activity provided through a peripheral action mechanism, in parallel with some psychoactive activity that does not fit well the neuropharmacological action profile of known reference neurotropic drugs.

  3. Impact of acute administration of escitalopram on the processing of emotional and neutral images: a randomized crossover fMRI study of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Malhi, Gin S.; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute neural effects of antidepressant medication on emotion processing biases may provide the foundation on which clinical outcomes are based. Along with effects on positive and negative stimuli, acute effects on neutral stimuli may also relate to anti-depressant efficacy, yet these effects are still to be investigated. The present study therefore examined the impact of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20 mg) on positive, negative and neutral stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI. Methods Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, healthy women completed 2 sessions of treatment administration and fMRI scanning separated by a 1-week washout period. Results We enrolled 36 women in our study. When participants were administered escitalopram relative to placebo, left amygdala activity was increased and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity was decreased during presentation of positive pictures (potentiation of positive emotion processing). In contrast, escitalopram was associated with decreased left amygdala and increased right IFG activity during presentation of negative pictures (attenuation of negative emotion processing). In addition, escitalopram decreased right IFG activity during the processing of neutral stimuli, akin to the effects on positive stimuli (decrease in negative appraisal). Limitations Although we used a women-only sample to reduce heterogeneity, our results may not generalize to men. Potential unblinding, which was related to the subjective occurrence of side effects, occurred in the study; however, manipulation check analyses demonstrated that results were not impacted. Conclusion These novel findings demonstrate that a single dose of the commonly prescribed escitalopram facilitates a positive information processing bias. These findings provide an important lead for better understanding effects of antidepressant medication. PMID:24690370

  4. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  5. Promoting patient-centred fundamental care in acute healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Feo, Rebecca; Kitson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    Meeting patients' fundamental care needs is essential for optimal safety and recovery and positive experiences within any healthcare setting. There is growing international evidence, however, that these fundamentals are often poorly executed in acute care settings, resulting in patient safety threats, poorer and costly care outcomes, and dehumanising experiences for patients and families. Whilst care standards and policy initiatives are attempting to address these issues, their impact has been limited. This discussion paper explores, through a series of propositions, why fundamental care can be overlooked in sophisticated, high technology acute care settings. We argue that the central problem lies in the invisibility and subsequent devaluing of fundamental care. Such care is perceived to involve simple tasks that require little skill to execute and have minimal impact on patient outcomes. The propositions explore the potential origins of this prevailing perception, focusing upon the impact of the biomedical model, the consequences of managerial approaches that drive healthcare cultures, and the devaluing of fundamental care by nurses themselves. These multiple sources of invisibility and devaluing surrounding fundamental care have rendered the concept underdeveloped and misunderstood both conceptually and theoretically. Likewise, there remains minimal role clarification around who should be responsible for and deliver such care, and a dearth of empirical evidence and evidence-based metrics. In explicating these propositions, we argue that key to transforming the delivery of acute healthcare is a substantial shift in the conceptualisation of fundamental care. The propositions present a cogent argument that counters the prevailing perception that fundamental care is basic and does not require systematic investigation. We conclude by calling for the explicit valuing and embedding of fundamental care in healthcare education, research, practice and policy. Without this

  6. The Movement of Full-Time Faculty into Full-Time Administrative Positions in the Wisconsin Technical College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Joan H.

    This report provides insight into the administrative succession concerns of two-year colleges through the exploration of the factors that motivated full-time faculty members to move into administrative positions in the Wisconsin Technical College System. Participants shared information about their career paths leading to administrative positions;…

  7. Literature Review and Global Consensus on Management of Acute Radiation Syndrome Affecting Nonhematopoietic Organ Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Gent, Robert Nicolas; Carr, Zhanat; Schneider, Rita; Bader, Judith; Buglova, Elena; Chao, Nelson; Coleman, C. Norman; Ganser, Arnold; Gorin, Claude; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Huff, L. Andrew; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Powles, Ray; Schünemann, Holger; Shapiro, Alla; Stenke, Leif; Valverde, Nelson; Weinstock, David; White, Douglas; Albanese, Joseph; Meineke, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature. Methods English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. Results No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/ orshock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak

  8. Effects of acute and chronic systemic methamphetamine on respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic function, and cardiorespiratory reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sarah F.; Wearne, Travis A.; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is escalating worldwide, with the most common cause of death resulting from cardiovascular failure and hyperthermia; however, the underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood.Systemic administration of METH in anaesthetised rats reduced the effectiveness of some protective cardiorespiratory reflexes, increased central respiratory activity independently of metabolic function, and increased heart rate, metabolism and respiration in a pattern indicating that non‐shivering thermogenesis contributes to the well‐described hyperthermia.In animals that showed METH‐induced behavioural sensitisation following chronic METH treatment, no changes were evident in baseline cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic measures and the METH‐evoked effects in these parameters were similar to those seen in saline‐treated or drug naïve animals.Physiological effects evoked by METH were retained but were neither facilitated nor depressed following chronic treatment with METH.These data highlight and identify potential mechanisms for targeted intervention in patients vulnerable to METH overdose. Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is known to promote cardiovascular failure or life‐threatening hyperthermia; however, there is still limited understanding of the mechanisms responsible for evoking the physiological changes. In this study, we systematically determined the effects on both autonomic and respiratory outflows, as well as reflex function, following acute and repeated administration of METH, which enhances behavioural responses. Arterial pressure, heart rate, phrenic nerve discharge amplitude and frequency, lumbar and splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge, interscapular brown adipose tissue and core temperatures, and expired CO2 were measured in urethane‐anaesthetised male Sprague‐Dawley rats. Novel findings include potent increases in central inspiratory drive and frequency that are not dependent on METH

  9. Intranasal administration of elastin-like polypeptide for therapeutic delivery to the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jeremy WD; Shao, Qingmei; Vig, Parminder JS; Bidwell, Gene L

    2016-01-01

    Bypassing the blood–brain barrier is one of the primary considerations when designing compounds intended to function in the central nervous system (CNS). Intranasal (IN) administration of otherwise blood–brain barrier impermeable molecules can result in high CNS concentrations and low systemic accumulation, indicating that IN administration may be a useful method of delivering therapeutics to the CNS. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) is a large, non-immunogenic, highly manipulable biopolymer with extensive evidence supporting its use as a carrier with the ability to improve drug pharmacokinetics and drug targeting. The ability of ELP to reach the CNS via IN administration has been shown previously. Previous studies have also identified the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to increase the uptake of molecules in some instances, including via the IN route. Here, we compared and contrasted the biodistribution of ELPs with or without addition of the CPPs Tat or SynB1 via both the IN and intravenous routes. Administration of ELP via the IN route led to significant accumulation in the brain, especially in the olfactory bulbs. When injected intravenously, <3% of the ELP signal was present outside the vascular compartment. This contrasted with IN administration, which resulted in 79% of the fluorescence signal localized outside the vascular space. The fusion of Tat or SynB1 significantly altered the biodistribution of ELP, decreasing the total CNS accumulation following IN administration. The addition of CPPs to ELP increased their retention in the nasal epithelium. These results suggest ELP may represent an effective CNS delivery vector without further modification and that the addition of a CPP significantly influences biodistribution. PMID:27660412

  10. Intranasal administration of elastin-like polypeptide for therapeutic delivery to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Jeremy Wd; Shao, Qingmei; Vig, Parminder Js; Bidwell, Gene L

    Bypassing the blood-brain barrier is one of the primary considerations when designing compounds intended to function in the central nervous system (CNS). Intranasal (IN) administration of otherwise blood-brain barrier impermeable molecules can result in high CNS concentrations and low systemic accumulation, indicating that IN administration may be a useful method of delivering therapeutics to the CNS. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) is a large, non-immunogenic, highly manipulable biopolymer with extensive evidence supporting its use as a carrier with the ability to improve drug pharmacokinetics and drug targeting. The ability of ELP to reach the CNS via IN administration has been shown previously. Previous studies have also identified the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to increase the uptake of molecules in some instances, including via the IN route. Here, we compared and contrasted the biodistribution of ELPs with or without addition of the CPPs Tat or SynB1 via both the IN and intravenous routes. Administration of ELP via the IN route led to significant accumulation in the brain, especially in the olfactory bulbs. When injected intravenously, <3% of the ELP signal was present outside the vascular compartment. This contrasted with IN administration, which resulted in 79% of the fluorescence signal localized outside the vascular space. The fusion of Tat or SynB1 significantly altered the biodistribution of ELP, decreasing the total CNS accumulation following IN administration. The addition of CPPs to ELP increased their retention in the nasal epithelium. These results suggest ELP may represent an effective CNS delivery vector without further modification and that the addition of a CPP significantly influences biodistribution.

  11. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  12. How do interruptions impact nurses' visual scanning patterns when using barcode medication administration systems?

    PubMed

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L; Henneman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses' visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of cognitive processing. We used an eye tracker to record nurses' visual scanning patterns while administering a medication using BCMA. Nurses either performed the BCMA process in a controlled setting with no interruptions (n=25) or in a real clinical setting with interruptions (n=21). By comparing the visual scanning patterns between the two groups, we found that nurses in the interruptive environment identified less task-related information in a given period of time, and engaged in more information searching than information processing.

  13. How do Interruptions Impact Nurses’ Visual Scanning Patterns When Using Barcode Medication Administration Systems?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    While barcode medication administration (BCMA) systems have the potential to reduce medication errors, they may introduce errors, side effects, and hazards into the medication administration process. Studies of BCMA systems should therefore consider the interrelated nature of health information technology (IT) use and sociotechnical systems. We aimed to understand how the introduction of interruptions into the BCMA process impacts nurses’ visual scanning patterns, a proxy for one component of cognitive processing. We used an eye tracker to record nurses’ visual scanning patterns while administering a medication using BCMA. Nurses either performed the BCMA process in a controlled setting with no interruptions (n=25) or in a real clinical setting with interruptions (n=21). By comparing the visual scanning patterns between the two groups, we found that nurses in the interruptive environment identified less task-related information in a given period of time, and engaged in more information searching than information processing. PMID:25954449

  14. The acute anti-craving effect of acamprosate in alcohol-preferring rats is associated with modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Michael S; Adams, Cameron; Kraehenbuehl, Tracey; Vengeliene, Valentina; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2005-09-01

    Acamprosate (Campral) is a drug used clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. In order to examine further the time-course and mechanism of action of acamprosate, the effect of acute and repeated acamprosate administration was examined on (i) operant ethanol self-administration and (ii) voluntary home cage ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded, iP and Alko Alcohol (AA) rats. Acutely, acamprosate was shown to cause a significant decrease in operant ethanol self-administration by Fawn-Hooded and alcohol-preferring iP rats in part by decreasing the motivational relevance of a specific ethanol cue; however, repeated injection of acamprosate led to tolerance to this effect. Voluntary alcohol consumption in the home cage in Fawn-Hooded and AA rats was also reduced by an acute acamprosate injection; however, again tolerance developed to repeated injections. In a separate experiment, the effect of acamprosate on markers of the dopaminergic system was examined. Interestingly, acute acamprosate was also shown to cause increased dopamine transporter density and decreased dopamine D2-like receptor density within the nucleus accumbens but not in the caudate-putamen, suggesting a link between the decreased motivational salience of the ethanol cue and altered dopaminergic signalling within the nucleus accumbens. With repeated injections of acamprosate, markers of the dopaminergic system returned to steady state levels with a similar temporal profile to the development of tolerance in the behavioural studies. Along with previous studies, our findings indicate that acamprosate modulates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and may thereby decrease ethanol reinforcement processes; however, these effects undergo tolerance in alcohol-preferring rats and may in part explain the fact why some subjects are non-responders to chronic acamprosate treatment.

  15. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this...

  16. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this...

  17. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this...

  18. 76 FR 51475 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010......

  19. 75 FR 50041 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine......

  20. 77 FR 60315 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific...

  1. 78 FR 15882 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific...

  2. 77 FR 63751 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers and for Ambulatory...

  3. Effects of acute and long-term administration of escitalopram and citalopram on serotonin neurotransmission: an in vivo electrophysiological study in rat brain.

    PubMed

    El Mansari, Mostafa; Sánchez, Connie; Chouvet, Guy; Renaud, Bernard; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2005-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the acute and long-term effects of escitalopram and citalopram on rat brain 5-HT neurotransmission, using electrophysiological techniques. In hippocampus, after 2 weeks of treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or citalopram (20 mg/kg/day, s.c.), the administration of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100,635 (20-100 microg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently induced a similar increase in the firing activity of dorsal hippocampus CA(3) pyramidal neurons, thus revealing direct functional evidence of an enhanced tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. In dorsal raphe nucleus, escitalopram was four times more potent than citalopram in suppressing the firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurons (ED(50)=58 and 254 mug/kg, i.v., respectively). Interestingly, the suppressant effect of escitalopram (100 microg/kg, i.v.) was significantly prevented, but not reversed by R-citalopram (250 microg/kg, i.v.). Sustained administration of escitalopram and citalopram significantly decreased the spontaneous firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurons. This firing activity returned to control rate after 2 weeks in rats treated with escitalopram, but only after 3 weeks using citalopram, and was associated with a desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. These results suggest that the time course of the gradual return of presumed 5-HT neuronal firing activity, which was reported to account for the delayed effect of SSRI on 5-HT transmission, is congruent with the earlier onset of action of escitalopram vs citalopram in validated animal models of depression and anxiety.

  4. Antidepressant-like cognitive and behavioral effects of acute ketamine administration associated with plasticity in the ventral hippocampus to medial prefrontal cortex pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jett, Julianne D.; Boley, Angela M.; Girotti, Milena; Shah, Amiksha; Lodge, Daniel J.; Morilak, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Acute low-dose administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine, produces rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects in humans and rodents. Recently, we found that the long-lasting effect of ketamine on the forced swim test requires ventral hippocampal (vHipp) activity at the time of drug administration. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a target of the vHipp dysregulated in depression, is important for cognitive flexibility and response strategy selection. Deficits in cognitive flexibility, the ability to modify thoughts and behaviors in response to changes in the environment, are associated with depression. We have shown that chronic stress impairs cognitive flexibility on the attentional set-shifting test (AST), and induces a shift from active to passive response strategies on the shock-probe defensive burying test (SPDB). Objective In this study, we tested the effects of ketamine on chronic stress-induced changes in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior on the AST and SPDB, respectively. Subsequently, we investigated vHipp-mPFC plasticity as a potential mechanism of ketamine’s therapeutic action. Results Ketamine reversed deficits in cognitive flexibility and restored active coping behavior in chronically stressed rats. Further, high frequency stimulation in the vHipp replicated ketamine’s antidepressant-like effects on the forced swim test and AST, but not on the SPDB. Conclusion These results show that ketamine restores cognitive flexibility and coping response strategy compromised by stress. Activity in the vHipp-mPFC pathway may represent a neural substrate for some of the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of ketamine, including cognitive flexibility, but other circuits may mediate the effects of ketamine on coping response strategy. PMID:25986748

  5. Acute in vivo administration of a fish oil-containing emulsion improves post-ischemic cardiac function in n-3-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Peltier, S; Malaisse, W J; Portois, L; Demaison, L; Novel-Chate, V; Chardigny, J M; Sebedio, J L; Carpentier, Y A; Leverve, X M

    2006-10-01

    A novel i.v. lipid preparation (MCT:FO) containing 80% medium chain-triacylglycerols and 20% fish oil was recently developed to rapidly replenish cell membrane phospholipids with omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In regard of this property, we investigated the effect of a single i.v. administration of MCT:FO on the recovery of cardiac function after ischemia in control and n-3-depleted rats. Results were compared with those obtained either with a control preparation, where FO was replaced by triolein (MCT:OO), or with saline. Saline (1 ml) or lipid preparation (also 1 ml) was injected as a bolus via the left saphenous vein. After 60 min the heart was removed and perfused for 20 min in normoxic conditions according to Langendorff. Thereafter, the heart was subjected to a 20 min zero-flow normothermic ischemia, followed by 40 min reperfusion. Cardiac mechanical and metabolic functions were monitored. In control rats, the previous administration of a lipid preparation (MCT:FO or MCT:OO) versus saline improved cardiac function during aerobic reperfusion post-ischemia. N-3-depleted rats showed decreased basal cardiac function and impaired recovery following ischemia. However, the bolus injection of MCT:FO opposed the deleterious effect of long-term n-3-deficiency and, in this respect, was superior to MCT:OO over the first 20 min of reperfusion. This novel approach to rapidly correct n-3 PUFA-deficiency might be clinically relevant and offer interesting perspectives in the management of acute ischemic accidents.

  6. Healthcare professionals’ views of the use and administration of two salvage therapy drugs for acute ulcerative colitis: a nested qualitative study within the CONSTRUCT trial

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Clare; Rapport, Frances; Seagrove, Anne; Alrubaiy, Laith; Williams, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Insight into healthcare professionals’ views and experiences of the use of ciclosporin and infliximab as salvage therapies for acute ulcerative colitis (UC) and how this may affect participation in a comparison trial is lacking. The study aimed to capture views and opinions of healthcare professionals about the two drugs within the CONSTRUCT trial. Design An interview-based qualitative study using Framework Analysis embedded within an open-label, pragmatic randomised trial. Setting National Health Service Health Boards and Trusts, including large teaching and district hospitals in England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Principal Investigators (PIs) for trial sites (who were all consultant gastroenterologists) and nurses responsible for administering and monitoring the salvage therapy drugs across trial sites. 15 PIs and 8 nurses recruited from a range of sites stratified by site recruitment rates were interviewed. Results Interviews revealed that professionals made judgements regarding the salvage therapies largely based on experience of giving the two drugs and perceptions of effectiveness and adverse side effects. A clear preference for infliximab among nurses was revealed, largely based on experiences of administration and drug handling, with some doctors strongly favouring infliximab based on experience of prescribing the drug as well as patient views and the existing evidence base. Most doctors were more equivocal, and all were prepared to suspend preferences and wait for evidence of effectiveness and safety from the CONSTRUCT trial. PIs also questioned guidelines around drug use and restrictions placed on personal autonomy in delivering best patient care. Conclusions Findings highlight healthcare professionals’ preference for the salvage treatment, infliximab in treating steroid-resistant UC, largely based on resource intensive nursing requirements of intravenous administration of ciclosporin. Not all doctors expressed this preference, being

  7. Facilitators and Barriers to Safe Medication Administration to Hospital Inpatients: A Mixed Methods Study of Nurses’ Medication Administration Processes and Systems (the MAPS Study)

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Monsey; Barber, Nicholas; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2015-01-01

    Context Research has documented the problem of medication administration errors and their causes. However, little is known about how nurses administer medications safely or how existing systems facilitate or hinder medication administration; this represents a missed opportunity for implementation of practical, effective, and low-cost strategies to increase safety. Aim To identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration focused on three inter-related areas: nurse practices and workarounds, workflow, and interruptions and distractions. Methods We used a mixed-methods ethnographic approach involving observational fieldwork, field notes, participant narratives, photographs, and spaghetti diagrams to identify system factors that facilitate and/or hinder successful medication administration in three inpatient wards, each from a different English NHS trust. We supplemented this with quantitative data on interruptions and distractions among other established medication safety measures. Findings Overall, 43 nurses on 56 drug rounds were observed. We identified a median of 5.5 interruptions and 9.6 distractions per hour. We identified three interlinked themes that facilitated successful medication administration in some situations but which also acted as barriers in others: (1) system configurations and features, (2) behaviour types among nurses, and (3) patient interactions. Some system configurations and features acted as a physical constraint for parts of the drug round, however some system effects were partly dependent on nurses’ inherent behaviour; we grouped these behaviours into ‘task focused’, and ‘patient-interaction focused’. The former contributed to a more streamlined workflow with fewer interruptions while the latter seemed to empower patients to act as a defence barrier against medication errors by being: (1) an active resource of information, (2) a passive information resource, and/or (3) a

  8. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries. PMID:27351915

  9. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries.

  10. Acute phosphate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza

    2014-05-01

    We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate.

  11. Aberrant CpG Methylation Mediates Abnormal Transcription of MAO-A Induced by Acute and Chronic L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Administration in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaofei; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jian; Sun, Min; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-04-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) remains the most effective drug for therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, long-term use of it causes serious side effects. L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) has consistently been related to L-dopa-derived excessive dopamine release, but the mechanisms have not been addressed very clear. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is one of the key enzymes in dopamine metabolism and therefore may be involved in L-dopa-induced side effects. And, epigenetic modification controls MAO-A gene transcription. To investigate the effects of L-dopa on MAO-A transcription and its underlying epigenetic mechanism, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells were treated with L-dopa for 24 h (acute) and for 7-21 days (chronic). Results showed that chronic L-dopa administration resulted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent downregulation of MAO-A, whereas acute L-dopa administration induced upregulation of MAO-A transcription and expression. Meanwhile, chronic L-dopa exposure induced CpG hypermethylation in MAO-A promoter, while acute L-dopa administration caused CpG hypomethylation. And, CpG demethylation resulted in reactivation of MAO-A transcription. These results indicated that aberrant CpG methylation might play a key role in MAO-A transcriptional misregulation in L-dopa administration. In addition, results showed that acute L-dopa administration induced downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a). Transcription of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) were significantly downregulated in chronic L-dopa administration. These data indicated that in chronic L-dopa administration, TET1 downregulation might mediate CpG hypermethylation, which is responsible for the downregulation of MAO-A transcription. In contrast, in acute L-dopa administration, DNMT3a downregulation might mediate hypomethylation, contributing to the MAO-A upregulation. In conclusion, our findings suggested that TET1 and DNMTs might mediate aberrant CpG methylation, associated with the

  12. The administration of the NASA space tracking system and the NASA space tracking system in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollander, N.

    1973-01-01

    The international activities of the NASA space program were studied with emphasis on the development and maintenance of tracking stations in Australia. The history and administration of the tracking organization and the manning policies for the stations are discussed, and factors affecting station operation are appraised. A field study of the Australian tracking network is included.

  13. A case of marked diuresis by combined dopamine and atrial natriuretic peptide administration without renal injury in acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Masataka; Sato, Naoki; Akiya, Mai; Okazaki, Hirotake; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2013-01-01

    Renal injury is an important factor for worsening outcome in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). An 81-year-old woman was admitted due to ADHF with dyspnea and mild peripheral edema. The patient was managed with intravenous administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) at a dose of 0.0125 μg/kg/minute, which did not control volume overload even at an increased dose of 0.025 μg/kg/minute. After a low dose of dopamine (DA) of 1.0 μg/kg/ minute was added, urine output increased markedly to 120 from 30 mL/hour. Furthermore, her heart rate decreased to 80-100 from 120 bpm and the congestion improved with a reduced brain natriuretic peptide level. Interestingly, the combination of ANP and DA therapy reduced serum creatinine as well as the levels of urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein, a novel reno-tubular stress marker, by 98.9%, and an oxidative stress marker, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, by 88.2% from baseline levels. Thus, this ADHF patient, a nonresponder to ANP alone, improved without renal injury when administered combination therapy consisting of low doses of ANP and DA, suggesting that this combined therapy might be useful for better management of ADHF in patients without diuretic responses with ANP alone. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  14. Effects on the central and peripheral nervous activity in rats elicited by acute administration of lead, mercury and manganese, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Papp, András; Pecze, László; Szabó, Andrea; Vezér, Tünde

    2006-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were treated with inorganic lead, mercury and manganese, and their double combinations, in acute application. The aim was to study the effects on spontaneous and stimulus-evoked cortical, and evoked peripheral, nervous activity, to detect any interaction of the metals and any correlation between the changes caused in the spontaneous and stimulus-evoked electrical activity of the primary somatosensory cortical area, and the compound action potential of the tail nerve. In the frequency distribution of the spontaneous cortical activity, a shift to lower frequencies was seen. The cortical responses evoked by whisker or tail stimulation showed an increase of the peak-to-peak amplitude and peak latency on administration of the metals and metal combinations. With the metal combinations, synergism was observed. Correlations found between alterations of the spontaneous and evoked, or between cortical and peripheral, activity were evaluated in terms of mechanism. According to the results, combined exposure to the three heavy metals studied might lead to synergistic action, indicating an increased health risk in settings with exposure to several heavy metals.

  15. Changes in monoamine metabolites concentrations in rat cerebrospinal fluid after acute and long-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, trazodone.

    PubMed

    Egashira, T; Takayama, F; Yamanaka, Y

    1999-12-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of the antidepressive effects of trazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, we investigated the dynamics of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of free-moving conscious rats by acute and long-term treatment with trazodone. When 100 mg kg-1 p.o. of trazodone were administered, a significant increase of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) concentration was soon observed in the light period of the light/dark cycle, and a significant decrease of dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) concentration was observed during the 2 days after administration of trazodone; in contrast, the homovanilic acid (HVA) level was increased. However, we detected no significant changes in the 5-hydroxy indole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration during the 3 days. In the case of long-term treatment with 50 mg kg-1, p.o. of trazodone, the levels of MHPG, DOPAC and HVA exhibited no difference when compared with values obtained during saline treatment in either the light or dark period, whereas the levels of 5-HIAA showed a significant increase during the light period. These findings suggest that a long-term treatment with trazodone enhances the serotonergic neurons.

  16. Acute stroke therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) since it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

    PubMed

    Zivin, Justin A

    2009-07-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute ischemic stroke was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. Since then it has been severely underutilized. At the time when most practitioners were first being exposed to the literature concerning tPA, there were many concerns about safety and the restrictions on use were quite onerous. Since then a good deal of further work has been done to loosen the restrictions and allay concerns about the risks. The true risk to benefit ratio is far better than is generally realized. Now it is mostly economic problems related to the costs of constantly supplying emergency care that is limiting access. Furthermore, in the current litigious environment, failure to treat is likely to be a more hazardous course of action than legal exposure due to poor outcomes. It must be emphasized that the drug is quite safe and highly effective, and current utilization rates are unacceptably low. Ann Neurol 2009;66:6-10.

  17. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-01-06

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants.

  18. Estradiol increases expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor after acute administration of ethanol in the neonatal rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Firozan, Bita; Goudarzi, Iran; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Rezaei, Arezou; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-06-05

    Recently it has been shown that estradiol prevents the toxicity of ethanol in developing cerebellum. The neuroprotective effect of estradiol is not due to a single phenomenon but rather encompasses a spectrum of independent proccesses. According to the specific timing of Purkinje cell vulnerability to ethanol and several protective mechanisms of estradiol, we considered the neurotrophin system, as a regulator of differentiation, maturation and survival of neurons during CNS development. Interactions between estrogen and Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an essential factor in neuronal survival) lead us to investigate involvement of BDNF pathway in neuroprotective effects of estrogen against ethanol toxicity. In this study, 17β-estradiol (300-900μg/kg) was injected subcutaneously in postnatal day (PD) 4, 30min prior to intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (6g/kg) in rat pups. Eight hours after injection of ethanol, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were assayed. Behavioral studies, including rotarod and locomotor activity tests were performed in PD 21-23 and histological study was performed after completion of behavioral tests in PD 23. Our results indicated that estradiol increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the presence of ethanol. We also observed that pretreatment with estradiol significantly attenuated ethanol-induced motoric impairment. Histological analysis also demonstrated that estradiol prevented Purkinje cell loss following ethanol treatment. These results provide evidence on the possible mechanisms of estradiol neuroprotection against ethanol toxicity.

  19. Vascular Access System for Continuous Arterial Infusion of a Protease Inhibitor in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganaha, Fumikiyo; Yamada, Tetsuhisa; Yorozu, Naoya; Ujita, Masuo; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Tada, Shimpei

    1999-09-15

    We used a vascular access system (VAS) for continuous arterial infusion (CAI) of a protease inhibitor in two patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The infusion catheter was placed into the dorsal pancreatic artery in the first patient and into the gastroduodenal artery in the second, via a femoral artery approach. An implantable port was then connected to the catheter and was secured in a subcutaneous pocket prepared in the right lower abdomen. No complications related to the VAS were encountered. This system provided safe and uncontaminated vascular access for successful CAI for acute pancreatitis.

  20. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  1. Effects of luteolin and luteolin-morphine co-administration on acute and chronic pain and sciatic nerve ligated-induced neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Abdollahzadeh, Mina; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Rezaee, Ramin; Tabrizian, Kaveh

    2017-03-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NP) is a common condition accompanied by nerve injury. To date, there is no definite treatment approved for this disorder. In addition, many drugs that are used for NP cause adverse reactions. Luteolin is a naturally occurring flavonoid with diverse pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer. We sought to investigate luteolin effects on chronic, acute and neuropathic pain as well as its potential to increase morphine anti-nociceptive effects in mice. Methods Albino mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 14 groups (n=7) including morphine 1 mg/kg body weight +luteolin (5 mg/kg body weight), morphine (9 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), luteolin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight), imipramine 40 mg/kg body weight and normal saline (NS) (0.9 %) as vehicle and subjected to hot plate test. Formalin test was done in the following groups: NS, diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), morphine (9 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and luteolin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight). Results Administration of luteolin single dose (5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced neuropathic pain ( p<0.05$\\rm{p}<0.05$) in comparison to negative control. Anti-nociceptive effects of luteolin were comparable to imipramine as the standard positive control ( p<0.001$\\rm{p}<0.001$). Co-administration of luteolin and morphine potentiated morphine 1 mg/kg body weight painkilling effects ( p<0.001$\\rm{p}<0.001$). Conclusions Our results showed that luteolin alone reduces neuropathic pain. Furthermore, when co-administered with morphine 1 mg/kg body weight, luteolin potentiates morphine effects. Therefore, luteolin-morphine co-administration might be a valuable alternative for the conventional treatment.

  2. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics reveals neurochemical alterations in the brain of adolescent rats following acute methylphenidate administration.

    PubMed

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Grootveld, Martin; Probert, Fay; Zetterström, Tyra S C

    2017-03-06

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is increasingly used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is little evidence for common brain pathology in ADHD, some studies suggest a right hemisphere dysfunction among people diagnosed with the condition. However, in spite of the high usage of MPH in children and adolescents, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Given that MPH blocks the neuronal transporters for dopamine and noradrenaline, most research into the effects of MPH on the brain has largely focused on these two monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated metabolic changes in the brain of ADHD patients, but the impact of MPH on endogenous brain metabolites remains unclear. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabolomics approach was employed to investigate the effects of MPH on brain biomolecules. Adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with MPH (5.0 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg), and cerebral extracts from the left and right hemispheres were analysed. A total of 22 variables (representing 13 distinct metabolites) were significantly increased in the MPH-treated samples relative to the saline-treated controls. The upregulated metabolites included: amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA, glutamate and aspartate; large neutral amino acids (LNAA), including the aromatic amino acids (AAA) tyrosine and phenylalanine, both of which are involved in the metabolism of dopamine and noradrenaline; and metabolites associated with energy and cell membrane dynamics, such as creatine and myo-inositol. No significant differences in metabolite concentrations were found between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of the anti-ADHD drug MPH.

  3. The effects of salbutamol on epithelial ion channels depend on the etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome but not the route of administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effects of intravenous and intratracheal administration of salbutamol on lung morphology and function, expression of ion channels, aquaporin, and markers of inflammation, apoptosis, and alveolar epithelial/endothelial cell damage in experimental pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods In this prospective randomized controlled experimental study, 56 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to mild ARDS induced by either intratracheal (n = 28, ARDSp) or intraperitoneal (n = 28, ARDSexp) administration of E. coli lipopolysaccharide. Four animals with no lung injury served as controls (NI). After 24 hours, animals were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated in pressure-controlled mode with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg), and randomly assigned to receive salbutamol (SALB) or saline 0.9% (CTRL), intravenously (i.v., 10 μg/kg/h) or intratracheally (bolus, 25 μg). Salbutamol doses were targeted at an increase of ≈ 20% in heart rate. Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, and arterial blood gases were measured before and after (at 30 and 60 min) salbutamol administration. At the end of the experiment, lungs were extracted for analysis of lung histology and molecular biology analysis. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and fold changes relative to NI, CTRL vs. SALB. Results The gene expression of ion channels and aquaporin was increased in mild ARDSp, but not ARDSexp. In ARDSp, intravenous salbutamol resulted in higher gene expression of alveolar epithelial sodium channel (0.20 ± 0.07 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24, p < 0.001), aquaporin-1 (0.44 ± 0.09 vs. 0.96 ± 0.12, p < 0.001) aquaporin-3 (0.31 ± 0.12 vs. 0.93 ± 0.20, p < 0.001), and Na-K-ATPase-α (0.39 ± 0.08 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, p < 0.001), whereas intratracheal salbutamol increased the gene expression of aquaporin-1 (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.92 ± 0.06, p < 0

  4. Emergency Care of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Integrated Health System

    PubMed Central

    Sauser-Zachrison, Kori; Shen, Ernest; Ajani, Zahra; Neil, William P; Sangha, Navdeep; Gould, Michael K; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is underutilized for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Objective: To determine whether the probability of tPA administration for patients with ischemic stroke in an integrated health care system improved from 2009 to 2013, and to identify predictors of tPA administration. Design: Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke presentations to 14 Emergency Departments between 2009 and 2013. A generalized linear mixed-effects model identified patient and hospital predictors of tPA. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was tPA administration; secondary outcomes were door-to-imaging and door-to-needle times and tPA-related bleeding complications. Results: Of the 11,630 patients, 3.9% received tPA. The likelihood of tPA administration increased with presentation in 2012 and 2013 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–2.43; and OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.90–3.51), female sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04–1.54), and ambulance arrival (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.76–2.67), and decreased with prior stroke (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.89) and increased age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97–0.99). Likelihood varied by Medical Center (pseudo-intraclass correlation coefficient 13.5%). Among tPA-treated patients, median door-to-imaging time was 15 minutes (interquartile range, 9–23 minutes), and door-to-needle time was 73 minutes (interquartile range, 55–103 minutes). The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was 4.2% and 0.9% among tPA- and non-tPA treated patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Acute ischemic stroke care improved over time in this integrated health system. Better understanding of differences in hospital performance will have important quality-improvement and policy implications. PMID:27043833

  5. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this subpart... Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this subpart. (b) Based upon an...

  6. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING... information to the State or the Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this subpart... Administrator to issue a small system variance in accordance with this subpart. (b) Based upon an...

  7. Evaluation of the importance of astrocytes when screening for acute toxicity in neuronal cell systems.

    PubMed

    Woehrling, E K; Hill, E J; Coleman, M D

    2010-02-01

    Reliable, high throughput, in vitro preliminary screening batteries have the potential to greatly accelerate the rate at which regulatory neurotoxicity data is generated. This study evaluated the importance of astrocytes when predicting acute toxic potential using a neuronal screening battery of pure neuronal (NT2.N) and astrocytic (NT2.A) and integrated neuronal/astrocytic (NT2.N/A) cell systems derived from the human NT2.D1 cell line, using biochemical endpoints (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarisation and ATP and GSH depletion). Following exposure for 72 h, the known acute human neurotoxicants trimethyltin-chloride, chloroquine and 6-hydroxydopamine were frequently capable of disrupting biochemical processes in all of the cell systems at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Astrocytes provide key metabolic and protective support to neurons during toxic challenge in vivo and generally the astrocyte containing cell systems showed increased tolerance to toxicant insult compared with the NT2.N mono-culture in vitro. Whilst there was no consistent relationship between MMP, ATP and GSH log IC(50) values for the NT2.N/A and NT2.A cell systems, these data did provide preliminary evidence of modulation of the acute neuronal toxic response by astrocytes. In conclusion, the suitability of NT2 neurons and astrocytes as cell systems for acute toxicity screening deserves further investigation.

  8. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats underwent adrenal demedullation (DEMED), total bilateral adrenalectomy (ADREX), or sham surgery (SHAM). After a 4 day recovery, rats were exposed to air or ozone (1ppm), 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Circulating adrenaline levels dropped to nearly zero in DEMED and ADREX rats relative to air-exposed SHAM. Corticosterone levels tended to be low in DEMED rats and dropped to nearly zero in ADREX rats. Adrenalectomy in air-exposed rats caused modest changes in metabolites and lung toxicity parameters. Ozone-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were markedly attenuated in DEMED rats with nearly complete reversal in ADREX rats. Ozone increased circulating epinephrine and corticosterone in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Free fatty acids (p=0.15) and branched-chain amino acids increased after ozone exposure in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Lung minute volume was not affected by surgery or ozone but ozone-induced labored breathing was less pronounced in ADREX rats. Ozone-induced increases in lung protein leakage and neutrophilic inflammation were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats (ADREX>DMED). Ozone-mediated decreases in circulating white blood cells in SHAM were not obser

  9. Workarounds to barcode medication administration systems: their occurrences, causes, and threats to patient safety.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Ross; Wetterneck, Tosha; Telles, Joel Leon; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a typology of clinicians' workarounds when using barcoded medication administration (BCMA) systems. Authors then identify the causes and possible consequences of each workaround. The BCMAs usually consist of handheld devices for scanning machine-readable barcodes on patients and medications. They also interface with electronic medication administration records. Ideally, BCMAs help confirm the five "rights" of medication administration: right patient, drug, dose, route, and time. While BCMAs are reported to reduce medication administration errors--the least likely medication error to be intercepted--these claims have not been clearly demonstrated. The authors studied BCMA use at five hospitals by: (1) observing and shadowing nurses using BCMAs at two hospitals, (2) interviewing staff and hospital leaders at five hospitals, (3) participating in BCMA staff meetings, (4) participating in one hospital's failure-mode-and-effects analyses, (5) analyzing BCMA override log data. The authors identified 15 types of workarounds, including, for example, affixing patient identification barcodes to computer carts, scanners, doorjambs, or nurses' belt rings; carrying several patients' prescanned medications on carts. The authors identified 31 types of causes of workarounds, such as unreadable medication barcodes (crinkled, smudged, torn, missing, covered by another label); malfunctioning scanners; unreadable or missing patient identification wristbands (chewed, soaked, missing); nonbarcoded medications; failing batteries; uncertain wireless connectivity; emergencies. The authors found nurses overrode BCMA alerts for 4.2% of patients charted and for 10.3% of medications charted. Possible consequences of the workarounds include wrong administration of medications, wrong doses, wrong times, and wrong formulations. Shortcomings in BCMAs' design, implementation, and workflow integration encourage workarounds. Integrating BCMAs within real-world clinical workflows

  10. Implementing International Health Regulation (2005) in the Brazilian legal-administrative system.

    PubMed

    Lima, Yara Oyram Ramos; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2015-06-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze how the International Sanitary Regulation (ISR 2005)has been incorporated into the Brazilian legal-administrative system, in relation to sanitary control measures involving freight, means of transportation and travelers and possible alterations to health surveillance activities, competencies and procedures. This case study has been undertaken using a qualitative approach, of a descriptive and exploratory nature, using institutional data sources and interviews with key-informants involved in implementing ISR (2005). Alterations to the Brazilian legal-administrative system resulting from ISR (2005) were identified, in relation to standards, special competencies and procedures relating to sanitary controls for freight, modes of transportation and travelers. In its present form, the International Sanitary Regulation is an instrument that, in addition to introducing new international and national sanitary control concepts and elements, also helps to clarify questions that are helpful on a national level, relating to the specific competencies and procedures which will, to a certain extent, put pressure on administrative structures in the areas of sanitary control and surveillance.

  11. A systemic administration of liposomal curcumin inhibits radiation pneumonitis and sensitizes lung carcinoma to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hua-shan; Gao, Xiang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qiong-wen; Wang, Yong-sheng; Zheng, Yu; Cai, Lu-Lu; Zhong, Ren-ming; Rui, Ao; Li, Zhi-yong; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Xian-cheng; Chen, Li-juan

    2012-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an important dose-limiting toxicity during thoracic radiotherapy. Previous investigations have shown that curcumin is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and cancer, suggesting that curcumin may prevent RP and sensitize cancer cells to irradiation. However, the clinical advancement of curcumin is limited by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration. Here, a water-soluble liposomal curcumin system was developed to investigate its prevention and sensitizing effects by an intravenous administration manner in mice models. The results showed that liposomal curcumin inhibited nuclear factor-κB pathway and downregulated inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and transforming growth factor-β induced by thoracic irradiation. Furthermore, the combined treatment with liposomal curcumin and radiotherapy increased intratumoral apoptosis and microvessel responses to irradiation in vivo. The significantly enhanced inhibition of tumor growth also was observed in a murine lung carcinoma (LL/2) model. There were no obvious toxicities observed in mice. The current results indicate that liposomal curcumin can effectively mitigate RP, reduce the fibrosis of lung, and sensitize LL/2 cells to irradiation. This study also suggests that the systemic administration of liposomal curcumin is safe and deserves to be investigated for further clinical application. PMID:22679371

  12. [The glutathione system in the blood of rats and morphological changes of the pancreas under experimental acute and chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Makarchuk, V A; Ushakova, H O; Krylova, O O

    2013-01-01

    In experiment on laboratory rats the models of acute and chronic pancreatitis were developed to study the changes of lipoperoxidation-antioxidant protection system depending on morphological changes of the pancreas. The acute and chronic pancreatitis is accompanied with intensification of lipoperoxidation and gradual inhibition of antioxidant system due to development of subsequent chronization of the pathological process.

  13. Echocardiographic diagnosis of systemic AA amyloidosis presenting with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sergio; Bonfiglio, Daniele; Galasso, Laura

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old man admitted to our hospital for acute hepatic failure. Antemortem diagnosis of systemic AA amyloidosis was made because of typical electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, in the absence of the classic clinical picture of kidney involvement.

  14. 76 FR 19365 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and Fiscal Year 2011 Final Wage Indices...), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice contains the final fiscal year (FY) 2011 wage indices and... the expiration date for certain geographic reclassifications and special exception wage...

  15. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of DA-125, a new anthracycline, after intravenous administration to uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure rats or protein-calorie malnutrition rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y G; Yoon, E J; Yoon, W H; Shim, H J; Lee, S D; Kim, W B; Yang, J; Lee, M G

    1996-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of DA-125 were compared after intravenous (i.v.) administration of the drug, 10 mg kg-1, to control male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) and uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure (U-ARF, n = 12) rats, or male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a 23% (control, n = 8) or a 5% (protein-calorie malnutrition, PCM, n = 9) protein diet. After i.v. administration of DA-125, almost 'constant' plasma concentrations of M1, M2, and M4 were maintained from 1-2 h to 8-10 h in all rat groups due to the continuous formation of M2 from M1 and M4 from M3. The plasma concentrations of M3 were the lowest among M1-M4 for all rat groups due to the rapid and almost complete conversion of M3 to M4 and other metabolite(s). The AUCt values of M1 (115 against 82.5 micrograms min mL-1), M2 (33.0 against 23.6 micrograms min mL-1), and M4 (26.3 against 15.1 micrograms min mL-1) were significantly higher in the U-ARF rats than in the control rats. The percentages of i.v. dose excreted in 24 h urine as M1 (under the detection limit against 0.316%), M2 (under the detection limit against 5.58%), and M4 (0.0174 against 0.719%)--expressed in terms of DA-125--were significantly lower in the U-ARF rats than in the control rats, and this could be due to the decreased kidney function in the U-ARF rats. However, the percentages of i.v. dose recovered from the GI tract at 24 h as M1 (0.0532% against under the detection limit), M3 (0.0286% against under the detection limit), and M4 (0.702% against 0.305%)--expressed in terms of DA-125--were significantly greater in the U-ARF rats than in the control rats. All U-ARF rats had ascites, but the concentrations of M1 (0.0320 micrograms mL-1), M2 (0.0265 micrograms mL-1), M3 (under the detection limit), and M4 (0.032 micrograms mL-1) in the ascites from one rat were almost negligible. The plasma concentrations and most of the pharmacokinetic parameters of M1, M2, and M4 were not significantly different between the PCM rats and their control rats.

  17. Systemic administration of a proteasome inhibitor does not cause nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Brian N; Neely, M Diana; Dyllick-Brenzinger, Melanie; Tandon, Anurag; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2007-09-07

    Proteasomal dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. A recent study reported that systemic treatment of rats with the proteasome inhibitor Z-lle-Glu(OtBu)-Ala-Leu-al (PSI) causes a slowly progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, the presence of inclusion bodies in dopamine neurons, and motor impairment. We examined in vitro and in vivo the effects of PSI on nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Mass spectrometric analysis was employed to verify the authenticity of the PSI compound. PSI was non-specifically toxic to neurons in ventral mesencephalic organotypic