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Sample records for acute temperature change

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of the Initial Stage of Acute WSSV Infection Caused by Temperature Change

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yumiao; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Shihao; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating virosis threatening the shrimp culture industry worldwide. Variations of environmental factors in shrimp culture ponds usually lead to the outbreak of white spot syndrome (WSS). In order to know the molecular mechanisms of WSS outbreak induced by temperature variation and the biological changes of the host at the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in shrimp with a certain amount of WSSV cultured at 18°C and shrimp whose culture temperature were raised to 25°C. To analyze whether the expression changes of the DEGs were due to temperature rising or WSSV proliferation, the expression of selected DEGs was analyzed by real-time PCR with another shrimp group, namely Group T, as control. Group T didn’t suffer WSSV infection but was subjected to temperature rising in parallel. At the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, DEGs related to energy production were up-regulated, whereas most DEGs related to cell cycle and positive regulation of cell death and were down-regulated. Triose phosphate isomerase, enolase and alcohol dehydrogenase involved in glycosis were up-regulated, while pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase with NAD as the coenzyme involved in TCA pathway were down-regulated. Also genes involved in host DNA replication, including DNA primase, DNA topoisomerase and DNA polymerase showed down-regulated expression. Several interesting genes including crustin genes, acting binding or inhibiting protein genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9) gene and a GRP 78 gene were also analyzed. Understanding the interactions between hosts and WSSV at the initial stage of acute infection will not only help to get a deep insight into the pathogenesis of WSSV but also provide clues for therapies. PMID:24595043

  2. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Domnik, Nicolle J.; Polymeropoulos, Elias T.; Elliott, Nicholas G.; Frappell, Peter B.; Fisher, John T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1–1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C—Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  3. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature.

    PubMed

    Domnik, Nicolle J; Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Elliott, Nicholas G; Frappell, Peter B; Fisher, John T

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1-1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C-Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  4. ACUTE SULFOLANE EXPOSURE PRODUCES TEMPERATURE-INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the consequences of acute exposure to sulfolane upon the visual system, as measured using flash evoked potential (FEPs) and pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs). A single injection of either 1/2 or 1/4, but not 1/8 the i.p. LD50 (1600 mg/kg) produced si...

  5. Feeling the heat: the effect of acute temperature changes on predator–prey interactions in coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Bridie J. M.; Domenici, Paolo; Munday, Phillip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the elevated temperatures predicted to occur by the end of the century can affect the physiological performance and behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes; however, little is known of the effect of these temperatures on ecological processes, such as predator–prey interactions. Here, we show that exposure to elevated temperatures significantly affected the predator–prey interactions of a pair of common reef fish, the planktivorous damselfish (Pomacentrus wardi) and the piscivorous dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). When predators exposed to elevated temperatures interacted with prey exposed in a similar manner, maximal attack speeds increased. This effect coupled with decreasing prey escape speeds and escape distances led to increased predation rates. Prey exposed to elevated temperatures also had decreased reaction distances and increased apparent looming threshold, suggesting that their sensory performance was affected. This occurred despite the increase in maximal attack speeds, which in other species has been shown to increase reaction distances. These results suggest that the escape performance of prey is sensitive to short-term increases in ambient temperature. As marine environments become more thermally variable in the future, our results demonstrate that some predators may become more successful, suggesting that there will be strong selection for the maintenance of maximal escape performance in prey. In the present era of rapid climate change, understanding how changes to individual performance influence the relationships between predators and their prey will be increasingly important in predicting the effects of climate change within ecosystems. PMID:27293696

  6. Influences of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the motility of epithelial wound-healing cells (keratocytes) of tropical, temperate and Antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Ream, Rachael A; Theriot, Julie A; Somero, George N

    2003-12-01

    The ability to heal superficial wounds is an important element in an organism's repertoire of adaptive responses to environmental stress. In fish, motile cells termed keratocytes are thought to play important roles in the wound-healing process. Keratocyte motility, like other physiological rate processes, is likely to be dependent on temperature and to show adaptive variation among differently thermally adapted species. We have quantified the effects of acute temperature change and thermal acclimation on actin-based keratocyte movement in primary cultures of keratocytes from four species of teleost fish adapted to widely different thermal conditions: two eurythermal species, the longjaw mudsucker Gillichthys mirabilis (environmental temperature range of approximately 10-37 degrees C) and a desert pupfish, Cyprinodon salinus (10-40 degrees C), and two species from stable thermal environments, an Antarctic notothenioid, Trematomus bernacchii (-1.86 degrees C), and a tropical clownfish, Amphiprion percula (26-30 degrees C). For all species, keratocyte speed increased with increasing temperature. G. mirabilis and C. salinus keratocytes reached maximal speeds at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C, respectively, temperatures within the species' normal thermal ranges. Keratocytes of the stenothermal species continued to increase in speed as temperature increased above the species' normal temperature ranges. The thermal limits of keratocyte motility appear to exceed those of whole-organism thermal tolerance, notably in the case of T. bernacchii. Keratocytes of T. bernacchii survived supercooling to -6 degrees C and retained motility at temperatures as high as 20 degrees C. Mean keratocyte speed was conserved at physiological temperatures for the three temperate and tropical species, which suggests that a certain rate of motility is advantageous for wound healing. However, there was no temperature compensation in speed of movement for keratocytes of the Antarctic fish, which

  7. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling; Genge, Christine E; Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F; Sarunic, Marinko V; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18°C; warm acclimated WA- 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling. PMID:26730947

  8. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Tibbits, Glen F.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA– 18°C; warm acclimated WA– 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling. PMID:26730947

  9. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  10. Global temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Global surface temperature has increased ≈0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ≈1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  11. Embedded Temperature-Change Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil; Karmon, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Transducers sensitive to rates of change of temperature embedded in integrated circuits and discrete electronic components damaged by overheating, according to proposal. Used to detect onset of rapid heating and to trigger shutoffs of power or other corrective actions before temperatures rise beyond safe limits. Sensors respond fast and reliably to incipient overheating because they are in direct thermal contact with vulnerable circuit elements.

  12. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baris, Tara Z; Crawford, Douglas L; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-15

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range. PMID:26582639

  13. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  14. Environmental temperature and mortality from acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Joseph A.; Washburn, Richard A.

    1989-03-01

    Mortality from acute myocardial infarction (MI) over the 5 year period 1982 1987 in Brown County, Wisconsin, was analyzed to assess the relationship with environmental temperature. Deaths occurrring on the day of and the day following a significant snowfall as well as deaths occuring in health care facilities were eliminated from consideration because the focus was upon temperature, not snowfall or events within a hospital. These criteria resulted in the inclusion of 1,802 days and 926 cases of acute MI. The mean temperature on the day of death was obtained from climatological data and were grouped into six categories covering a range of temperatures from<-17.8°C (0°F) to 16.1°C (61°F). The number of deaths in each category was tabulated. The effect of temperature, sex, and age were analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicated a linear increase in mortality as mean daily temperature decreased over the temperature range. The inverse temperature effect was most pronounced in males over the age of 60. These results indicate that cold temperatures appear to be associated with an increased mortality from myocardial infarction.

  15. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Graves, James L; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2015-12-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  16. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  17. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  18. [Change in pancreatic exocrine function in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu A

    1979-10-01

    In order to study changes in the functional state of the pancreas 1572 investigations of the blood and urine amylase, atoxylresistant lipase of the blood serum before operation were performed in different postoperative periods in 131 patients with acute appendicitis. The enzyme activity was established to increase, especially in destructive forms of appendicitis and in elderly patients. PMID:505800

  19. Undulator Changes Due To Temperature Excursions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    The temperature of the LCLS undulators has not been controlled during storage. The effects of the temperature excursions are documented in this note. After a number of LCLS undulators were tuned, fiducialized, and placed in storage anticipating their use, a test was made to ensure that their properties had not changed. The test revealed, however, that indeed the undulators had changed. Detailed study of this problem followed. We now believe that the gap of the undulators changes permanently when the undulators go through temperature excursions. We have tested the other possible cause, transportation, and do not see gap changes. In this note, we document how the undulators have changed since they were originally tuned. The undulators were tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Afterward, many of them (approximately 18) were taken to building 750 for storage during summer and fall 2007. Building 750 had no temperature control. The undulator temperatures went from 20 C, used for tuning, down to approximately 11 C during the winter. In January 2008, three of the undulators were brought back to the MMF for a check. All three undulators showed similar changes. Trajectories, phases, and most undulator properties stayed the same, but the fiducialization (beam axis position relative to tooling balls on the undulator) had changed. Further investigation showed that the undulator gap was altered in a periodic way along the magnetic axis with a net average gap change causing the fiducialization change. A new storage location in building 33 was found and future undulators were placed there. A failure in the temperature control, however, caused the undulators to get too hot. Again the gap changed, but with a different periodic pattern. This note documents the measured changes in the undulators. In particular, it shows the detailed history of undulator 39 which went through both negative and positive temperature excursions.

  20. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

  1. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

  2. Acute temperature sensitivity in optic nerve axons explained by an electrogenic membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Coates, Tom A; Woolnough, Oscar; Masters, Joseph M; Asadova, Gulsum; Chandrakumar, Charmilie; Baker, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Classical work in squid axon reports resting membrane potential is independent of temperature, but our findings suggest that this is not the case for axons in mammalian optic nerve. Refractory period duration changes over 10 times between 37 °C and room temperature, and afterpotential polarity is also acutely temperature sensitive, inconsistent with changes in temperature impacting nerve function only through altered rates of ion channel gating kinetics. Our evidence suggests that the membrane potential is enhanced by warming, an effect reduced by exposure to ouabain. The temperature dependence can be explained if axonal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase continuously expels Na(+) ions that enter axons largely electroneutrally, thereby adding a substantial electrogenic component to the membrane potential. Block of the Na(+) transporter NKCC1 with bumetanide increases refractoriness, like depolarization, indicating that this is a probable route by which Na(+) enters, raising the expectation that the rate of electroneutral Na(+) influx increases with temperature and suggesting a temperature-dependent transmembrane Na(+) cycle that contributes to membrane potential. PMID:25724933

  3. Ambient temperature and emergency room admissions for acute coronary syndrome in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wen-Miin; Liu, Wen-Pin; Chou, Sze-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2008-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an important public health problem around the world. Since there is a considerable seasonal fluctuation in the incidence of ACS, climatic temperature may have an impact on the onset of this disease. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the average daily temperature, diurnal temperature range and emergency room (ER) admissions for ACS in an ER in Taichung City, Taiwan. A longitudinal study was conducted which assessed the correlation of the average daily temperature and the diurnal temperature range to ACS admissions to the ER of the city’s largest hospital. Daily ER admissions for ACS and ambient temperature were collected from 1 January 2000 to 31 March 2003. The Poisson regression model was used in the analysis after adjusting for the effects of holiday, season, and air pollutant concentrations. The results showed that there was a negative significant association between the average daily temperature and ER admissions for ACS. ACS admissions to the ER increased 30% to 70% when the average daily temperature was lower than 26.2°C. A positive association between the diurnal temperature range and ACS admissions was also noted. ACS admissions increased 15% when the diurnal temperature range was over 8.3°C. The data indicate that patients suffering from cardiovascular disease must be made aware of the increased risk posed by lower temperatures and larger changes in temperature. Hospitals and ERs should take into account the increased demand of specific facilities during colder weather and wider temperature variations.

  4. Changes in Soil Temperature Regimes under Regional Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperatures can provide a smoothed record of regional changes in atmospheric conditions due to soil thermal properties that reduce the annual air and surface temperature amplitude. In areas with seasonal snow cover, however, its insulating effect isolates the soil thermal regime from winter air temperatures. Under changing regional climate patterns, snow cover extent, depth and duration are decreasing. The net effect is thus an expected winter cooling of soil temperature. However, the extent to which this might be mitigated by warmer summer conditions, and changing soil moisture remains to be seen. To examine the relative strength of a cold-season cooling signal versus enhanced summer warming, a network of soil temperature loggers has recorded hourly soil temperatures over the period 2005-2013 within a single watershed experiencing 'lake effect snow'. Elevations range from 168 m to 612 m, on Silurian and Ordovician shale, limestone, and sandstone that have been heavily glaciated. Most of the sites are located on NY Department of Environmental Conservation land in mixed, hardwood and spruce forests. At six sites in varied topographic and land-use setting, two ONSET HOBO Outdoor 4 channel soil temperature loggers are deployed in order to reduce concerns of data reliability and systematic logger drift. Five sites also record air temperature using HOBO Pro Series Temperature loggers at three sites and HOBO Weather Stations at two. Soil temperature data are recorded at hourly intervals at depths of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-cm. Several other sites have been operationalized over the 8 year period, but have been tampered with, damaged, stolen, or have failed. These partial records are included to provide greater geographic representation of changing conditions where possible. Data indicate decreasing winter soil temperatures in specific land-use and topographic settings. Only one site, located in a dense spruce plantation, experiences soil freezing within the top 5 cm

  5. Seasonal Changes in Surface Temperatures on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface brightness temperatures on Titan have been measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini during the period spanning late northern winter through vernal equinox. CIRS observes radiance from the surface through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere has an opacity minimum [I]. CIRS is now seeing a shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures froth a distinctly warmer south to a more symmetrical north -south pattern, similar to that found by Voyager IRIS [2,3] at the time of the previous vernal equinox. Near the equator the temperatures remain close to the 93.7 K value found at the surface by Huygens [4]. From the equator to the poles the temperature gradients are 2-3 K. When compared with predictions froth general circulation models [5] the measured temperatures and their seasonal changes constrain the possible types of surface material. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CiRS will extend its, global coverage to took for correlations between surface temperatures and albedo and to search for diurnal temperature variations

  6. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Lotti, Fiorenza; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization. We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) by measuring resting and active motor threshold (AMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI), to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. AMT differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p = 0.004), not in females (p > 0.200), and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p = 0.033 and p = 0.042). LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery. PMID:26858590

  7. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  8. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  9. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  10. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  11. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  12. Neurovascular changes in acute, sub-acute and chronic mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Mann, Dushyant; Bowyer, John F; Hanig, Joseph P; Schmued, Larry C; Paule, Merle G; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu

    2014-02-01

    Although selective neurodegeneration of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons is widely accepted as a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), the role of vascular components in the brain in PD pathology is not well understood. However, the neurodegeneration seen in PD is known to be associated with neuroinflammatory-like changes that can affect or be associated with brain vascular function. Thus, dysfunction of the capillary endothelial cell component of neurovascular units present in the brain may contribute to the damage to dopaminergic neurons that occurs in PD. An animal model of PD employing acute, sub-acute and chronic exposures of mice to methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to determine the extent to which brain vasculature may be damaged in PD. Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin labeling of microvessels and endothelial cells was used to determine the extent of vascular damage produced by MPTP. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NeuN were employed to detect and quantify dopaminergic neuron damage in the striatum (CPu) and substantia nigra (SNc). Gliosis was evaluated through GFAP immunohistochemistry. MPTP treatment drastically reduced TH immunoreactive neurons in the SNc (20.68 ± 2.83 in acute; 22.98 ± 2.14 in sub-acute; 10.20 ± 2.24 in chronic vs 34.88 ± 2.91 in controls; p<0.001). Similarly, TH immunoreactive terminals were dramatically reduced in the CPu of MPTP treated mice. Additionally, all three MPTP exposures resulted in a decrease in the intensity, length, and number of vessels in both CPu and SNc. Degenerative vascular changes such as endothelial cell 'clusters' were also observed after MPTP suggesting that vasculature damage may be modifying the availability of nutrients and exposing blood cells and/or toxic substances to neurons and glia. In summary, vascular damage and degeneration could be an additional exacerbating factor in the progression of PD, and therapeutics that protect and insure vascular integrity may be novel treatments for

  13. Effects of acute temperature or salinity stress on the immune response in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyu; Yang, Hongsheng; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guangbin

    2008-12-01

    Invertebrates are increasingly raised in mariculture, where it is important to monitor immune function and to minimize stresses that could suppress immunity. The activities of phagocytosis, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lysozyme (LSZ) were measured to evaluate the immune capacities of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, to acute temperature changes (from 12 degrees C to 0 degrees C, 8 degrees C, 16 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 32 degrees C for 72 h) and salinity changes (from 30 per thousand to 20 per thousand, 25 per thousand, and 35 per thousand for 72 h) in the laboratory. Phagocytosis was significantly affected by temperature increases in 3 h, and by salinity (25 per thousand and 35 per thousand) changes in 1 h. SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h to 6 h samples at 24 degrees C. At 32 degrees C, SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h and 1 h exposures, and obviously increased for 12 h exposure. CAT activities decreased significantly at 24 degrees C for 0.5 h exposure, and increased significantly at 32 degrees C in 3 h to 12 h exposures. Activities of MPO increased significantly at 0 degrees C in 0.5 h to 6 h exposures and at 8 degrees C for 1 h. By contrast, activities of MPO decreased significantly in 24 degrees C and 32 degrees C treatments. In elevated-temperature treatments, activities of LSZ increased significantly except at 32 degrees C for 6 h to 12 h exposures. SOD activity was significantly affected by salinity change. CAT activity decreased significantly after only 1 h exposure to salinity of 20 per thousand. Activities of MPO and LSZ showed that A. japonicus tolerates limited salinity stress. High-temperature stress had a much greater effect on the immune capacities of A. japonicus than did low-temperature and salinity stresses. PMID:18640284

  14. An Audit of Changes in Outcomes of Acute Pain Service

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sheng Jia; Wong, Stanley Sau Ching; Qiu, Qiu; Lee, Yvonne; Chan, Timmy Chi Wing; Irwin, Michael G.; Cheung, Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute pain services (APS) have evolved over time. Strategies nowadays emphasize multimodal analgesic regimes using a combination of nonopioid adjuvant analgesic drugs, peripheral nerve blocks, and local anaesthetic wound infiltration where appropriate. APS should be assessed over time to evaluate changes in outcomes which form the basis for future development. In this audit, data of patients under APS care in Queen Mary hospital, Hong Kong, between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed and compared with data from a previous audit between 1992 and 1995. The use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was increased (from 69.3% to 86.5%, P < 0.001), while the use of epidural analgesia reduced (from 25.3% to 8.3%, P < 0.001) significantly. Although postoperative pain scores did not improve, PCA opioid consumption and the incidence of analgesia-related side effects were significantly less (all P < 0.001). More patients graded their postoperative analgesic techniques used as good when the results from these 2 audit periods were compared (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001 for PCA and epidural analgesia, respectively). In conclusion, there has been a change in analgesic management techniques, but there has been no improvement in overall pain relief. While changes over time have led to improvement in important parameters such as the incidence of side effects and patient satisfaction, further and continuous efforts and improvements are warrant to reduce acute pain relief and suffering of the patients after the surgery. PMID:26448012

  15. Lithium-Induced Minimal Change Disease and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Parul; Wong, Natalie; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lithium carbonate is a psychiatric medication commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been implicated in inducing nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, and acute tubular necrosis. We describe a case of lithium-induced minimal change disease (MCD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Case Report: A 32-year-old female with a medical history of bipolar disorder treated with chronic lithium therapy presented with anasarca, fatigue, and tremors. Work-up revealed supra-therapeutic lithium levels, hypoalbuminemia, and significant proteinuria. The patient was treated conservatively with fluids and discontinuation of lithium therapy. Subsequently, she developed significant AKI and persistent proteinuria. She underwent a renal biopsy that demonstrated effacement of podocyte foot processes consistent with lithium-induced MCD. This was treated with corticosteroids, which decreased the proteinuria and resolved all the patient's symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium-induced MCD is a rare disease that affects patients of all ages. It is often associated with therapeutic lithium and is typically resolved with discontinuation of lithium. In some cases, concurrent AKI may result due to vascular obstruction from hyperalbuminuria and associated renal interstitial edema. Corticosteroids may be needed to reduce the proteinuria and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. As such, patients on lithium therapy may benefit from monitoring of glomerular function via urinalysis to prevent the onset of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26258081

  16. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p < 0.05), with the greatest decrease noted 0 minute postexercise for both sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts. PMID:23302756

  17. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Pyrethroid Exposure & Change In Smoking Habit!

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Kevin; Klair, Jagpal Singh; Johnsrud, Andrew; Meena, Nikhil K

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) in a 29-year-old white woman with recent use of a'flea bomb' (containing pyrethroids) at home while remaining indoors, about 48 hours prior to presentation, and recent change in smoking habit (restarted 2 weeks prior after quitting for 10 years). She presented with two days of worsening fever, shortness of breath, productive cough, developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. She required a PEEP of 20 and 100% FiO2 to maintain oxygenation. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed 36% Eosinophils. She was given IV steroids with dramatic clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report associating AEP with pyrethroid exposure. PMID:27434983

  18. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

  19. Stratospheric Temperature Changes: Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Chanin, M.-L.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Gaffen, D.; Gelman, M.; Keckhut, P.; Koshelkov, Y.; Labitzke, K.; Lin, J.-J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews observations of stratospheric temperatures that have been made over a period of several decades. Those observed temperatures have been used to assess variations and trends in stratospheric temperatures. A wide range of observation datasets have been used, comprising measurements by radiosonde (1940s to the present), satellite (1979 - present), lidar (1979 - present) and rocketsonde (periods varying with location, but most terminating by about the mid-1990s). In addition, trends have also been assessed from meteorological analyses, based on radiosonde and/or satellite data, and products based on assimilating observations into a general circulation model. Radiosonde and satellite data indicate a cooling trend of the annual-mean lower stratosphere since about 1980. Over the period 1979-1994, the trend is 0.6K/decade. For the period prior to 1980, the radiosonde data exhibit a substantially weaker long-term cooling trend. In the northern hemisphere, the cooling trend is about 0.75K/decade in the lower stratosphere, with a reduction in the cooling in mid-stratosphere (near 35 km), and increased cooling in the upper stratosphere (approximately 2 K per decade at 50 km). Model simulations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the dominant factor in the observed lower stratospheric cooling. In the middle and upper stratosphere both the well-mixed greenhouse gases (such as CO) and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling.

  20. Acute effects of ozone on heart rate and body temperature in the unanesthetized, unrestrained rat maintained at different ambient temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Watkinson, W.P.; Aileru, A.A.; Dowd, S.M.; Doerfler, D.L.; Tepper, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to investigate the concentration-response characteristics of acute ozone (O3) exposure on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function of the unanesthetized, unrestrained rat, and to examine the modulating effects produced by changes in ambient temperature (T[sub a]) on the induced toxic response. For all studies, groups of male Fischer 344 rats (n=4-6/group) were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and allowed to recover overnight. The transmitters permitted continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) and body core temperature (T[sub co]); heart rate (HR) was derived from the ECG signal. Frequency of breathing (f) was obtained in selected experiments by means of a Fenn box. All animals were monitored according to the following protocol: control (filtered air; 0.25 h); exposure (O3; 2 h); recovery (filtered air; 3-18 h). For the concentration-response experiments, O3 concentration was varied from 0.25-1.0 ppm and all exposures were conducted at an T[sub a] of 18-20 C. Significant decreases in HR and T[sub co] were demonstrated at O3 concentrations as low as 0.37 ppm.

  1. Optical mapping of the electrical activity of isolated adult zebrafish hearts: acute effects of temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Eric; Ribeiro, Amanda; Ding, Weiguang; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an important model for developmental cardiovascular (CV) biology; however, little is known about the cardiac function of the adult zebrafish enabling it to be used as a model of teleost CV biology. Here, we describe electrophysiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR), action potential duration (APD), and atrioventricular (AV) delay, in the zebrafish heart over a range of physiological temperatures (18–28°C). Hearts were isolated and incubated in a potentiometric dye, RH-237, enabling electrical activity assessment in several distinct regions of the heart simultaneously. Integration of a rapid thermoelectric cooling system facilitated the investigation of acute changes in temperature on critical electrophysiological parameters in the zebrafish heart. While intrinsic HR varied considerably between fish, the ex vivo preparation exhibited impressively stable HRs and sinus rhythm for more than 5 h, with a mean HR of 158 ± 9 bpm (means ± SE; n = 20) at 28°C. Atrial and ventricular APDs at 50% repolarization (APD50) were 33 ± 1 ms and 98 ± 2 ms, respectively. Excitation originated in the atrium, and there was an AV delay of 61 ± 3 ms prior to activation of the ventricle at 28°C. APD and AV delay varied between hearts beating at unique HRs; however, APD and AV delay did not appear to be statistically dependent on intrinsic basal HR, likely due to the innate beat-to-beat variability within each heart. As hearts were cooled to 18°C (by 1°C increments), HR decreased by ∼40%, and atrial and ventricular APD50 increased by a factor of ∼3 and 2, respectively. The increase in APD with cooling was disproportionate at different levels of repolarization, indicating unique temperature sensitivities for ion currents at different phases of the action potential. The effect of temperature was more apparent at lower levels of repolarization and, as a whole, the atrial APD was the cardiac parameter most affected by acute

  2. Modulatory effects on Drosophila larva hearts: room temperature, acute and chronic cold stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue Chen; Yocom, Emily; Sifers, Jacob; Uradu, Henry; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-10-01

    Ectothermic animals are susceptible to temperature changes such as cold shock with seasons. To survive through a cold shock or season, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. Our interest is focusing on the modulation of physiological functions during cold shock and prolonged cold exposure in the fruit fly. We use Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to investigate cardiac function in response to modulators (5-HT-serotonin, Ach-acetylcholine, OA-octopamine, DA-dopamine and a cocktail of modulators) in acute cold shock and chronic cold shock conditions. Semi-intact larvae are used to provide direct access to the modulators of known concentration in a defined saline. The results show that 10 µM 5HT is the only modulator which maintains heart rate for larva raised at 21 °C and then exposed to acute cold shock (10 °C). The modulators 1 µM OA, 10 µM 5HT, 1 mM Ach, 10 µM Ach and a cocktail of modulators (at 10 µM) increased the heart rate significantly in larvae which were cold conditioned (10 °C for 10 days). HPLC analysis indicated both OA and 5-HT decreased in chronic cold conditioning. The larvae maintain heart function in the cold which may be contributed by low circulating levels of modulators. The larval heart responds better to 5-HT, OA, and Ach in conditioned cold than for acute cold, suggesting some acclimation to cold. PMID:27209390

  3. Baroreflex Responses to Acute Changes in Blood Volume in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Cynthia A.; Tatro, Dana L.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acute changes in plasma volume affect the stimulus-response relations of high- and low- pressure baroreflexes, eight men (27-44 yr old) underwent measurements for carotid-cardiac and cardiopulmonary baro- reflex responses under the following three volemic conditions: hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic. The stimulus- response relation of the carotid-cardiac response curve was generated using a neck cuff device, which delivered pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg in continuous steps of 15 mmHg. The stimulus-response relationships of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex were studied by measurements of Forearm Vascular Resistance (FVR) and Peripheral Venotis Pressure (PVP) during low levels of lower body negative pressure (O to -20 mmHg). Altered vascular volume had no effect on response relations of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex but did alter the gain of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex (-7.93 q 1.71, -4.36 q 1.38, and -2.56 q 1.59 peripheral resistance units/mmHg for hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic, respectively) independent of shifts in baseline FVR and PVP. These results indicate greater demand for vasoconstriction for equal reductions in venous pressure during progressive hypovolemia; this condition may compromise the capacity to provide adequate peripheral resistance during severe orthostatic stress. Fluid loading before reentry after spaceflight may act to restore vasoconstrictive capacity of the cardiopulnionary baroreflex but may not be an effective countermeasure against potential post- flight impairment of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  4. Baroreflex Responses to Acute Changes in Blood Volume in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Cynthia A.; Tatro, Dana L.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acute changes in plasma volume affect the stimulus-response relations of high- and low- pressure baroreflexes, eight men (27-44 yr old) underwent measurements for carotid-cardiac and cardiopulmonary baro-reflex responses under the following three volemic conditions: hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic. The stimulus- response relation of the carotid-cardiac response curve was generated using a neck cuff device, which delivered pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg in continuous steps of 15 mmHg. The stimulus-response relationship, of the cardio-pulmonary baroreflex were studied by measurements of Forearm Vascular Resistance (FVR) and Peripheral Venous Pressure (PVP) during low levels of lower body negative pressure (O to -20 mmHg). The results indicate greater demand for vasoconstriction for equal reductions in venous pressure during progressive hypovolemia; this condition may compromise the capacity to provide adequate peripheral resistance during severe orthostatic stress. Fluid loading before reentry after spaceflight may act to restore vasoconstrictive capacity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex but may not be an effective countermeasure against potential post- flight impairment of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  5. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. PMID:25479572

  6. Acute anoxic changes in peripheral nerve: anatomic and physiologic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Punsoni, Michael; Drexler, Steven; Palaia, Thomas; Stevenson, Matthew; Stecker, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The response of the peripheral nerve to anoxia is modulated by many factors including glucose and temperature. The purposes of this article are to demonstrate the effects of these factors on the pathological changes induced by anoxia and to compare the electrophysiologic changes and pathological changes in the same nerves. Methods Sciatic nerves were harvested from rats and placed in a perfusion apparatus where neurophysiologic responses could be recorded continuously during a 16 h experiment. After the experiment, light microscopy and electron microscopy were performed. Results Light microscopic images showed mild changes from anoxia at normoglycemia. Hypoglycemic anoxia produced massive axonal swelling while hyperglycemic anoxia produced apparent changes in the myelin. Anoxic changes were not uniform in all axons. Electron microscopy showed only minor disruptions of the cytoskeleton with anoxia during normoglycemia. At the extremes of glucose concentration especially with hyperglycemia, there was a more severe disruption of intermediate filaments and loss of axonal structure with anoxia. Hypothermia protected axons from the effect of anoxia and produced peak axonal swelling in the 17–30°C range. Conclusions The combination of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and anoxia produces extremely severe axonal disruption. Changes in axonal diameter are complex and are influenced by many factors. PMID:26221572

  7. Acute and chronic eggshell temperature manipulations during hatching term influence hatchability, broiler performance, and ascites incidence.

    PubMed

    Sozcu, A; Ipek, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how a control temperature and acute and chronic high eggshell temperatures during the last three days of incubation, can affect hatchability, chick quality, and organ development on day of hatch as well as broiler performance and ascites incidence in later life. The eggshell temperature manipulations were applied during hatching term (days 19 to 21) as follows: control EST (37.3 to 38.0°C), acute high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4- to 39.0°C for three hours daily) and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4 to 39.0°C). The lowest hatchability and the highest cull chick rate were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. Lower chick quality parameters correlated with lower chick weights and heavier residual yolk sac weights that were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group depending on hatch time. The live weights on the 1(st) day of the growing period were higher in the control and acute high eggshell temperature manipulations groups than the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. At 6 wk of age, live weights of broilers were the highest in the control than in the acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups. The total mortality was 2.5, 9.2, and 13.3%, the mortality due to ascites was 2.1, 8.3, and 12.9% in the control, acute ,and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups, respectively. The right ventricular/total ventricular ratios for the control, acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups were 0.22, 0.28, and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, short-term and long-term higher temperatures during the hatching term affect embryo development, incubation results, broiler performance, and ascites incidence. Although the acute high eggshell temperature manipulations did not affect the chick quality parameters at hatch, it negatively affected incubation results and broiler performance

  8. Blood gas stability and hematological changes in experimentally-induced acute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; Mirsky, M L; MacWilliams, P S; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1989-01-01

    Blood gas and hematological responses to acute, mild Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection of growing pigs was studied. Six pigs (average weight 10.1 kg) were experimentally infected intranasally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. Four pigs served as controls. Rectal temperatures and arterial blood for gas analysis and hematology were taken at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection. All infected pigs became febrile showing clinical signs typical of mild to moderate porcine pleuropneumonia; controls remained asymptomatic. Neutrophilia with bands and lymphopenia were observed only in infected pigs. Arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2, and pH did not change in infected pigs. All pigs were killed after 72 h, and lungs were examined and cultured. Gross and microscopic lesions consistent with porcine pleuropneumonia were seen in 3/6 and 5/6 infected lungs, respectively. Control lungs were grossly normal with no histological evidence of pleuropneumonia. We conclude that in mild, acute porcine pleuropneumonia as established experimentally, a leukogram typical of acute inflammation and stress is seen; however, hypoxemia and alveolar hypoventilation are not features of this form of the disease. PMID:2914231

  9. Beyond the Mean: Biological Impacts of Cryptic Temperature Change.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kimberly S; Dillon, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Studies have typically used shifts in mean temperatures to make predictions about the biotic impacts of climate change. Though shifts in mean temperatures correlate with changes in phenology and distributions, other hidden, or cryptic, changes in temperature, such as temperature variation and extreme temperatures, could pose greater risks to species and ecological communities. Yet, these cryptic temperature changes have received relatively little attention because mean temperatures are readily available and the organism-appropriate temperature response is often elusive. An alternative to using mean temperatures is to view organisms as physiological filters of hourly temperature data. We explored three classes of physiological filters: (1) nonlinear thermal responses using performance curves of insect fitness, (2) cumulative thermal effects using degree-day models for corn emergence, and (3) threshold temperature effects using critical thermal maxima and minima for diverse ectotherms. For all three physiological filters, we determined the change in biological impacts of hourly temperature data from a standard reference period (1961-90) to a current period (2005-10). We then examined how well mean temperature changes during the same time period predicted the biotic impacts we determined from hourly temperature data. In all cases, mean temperature alone provided poor predictions of the impacts of climate change. These results suggest that incorporating high frequency temperature data can provide better predictions for how species will respond to temperature change. PMID:27081192

  10. Postoperative Delirium: Acute Change with Long-Term Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, James L.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    Delirium is an acute change in cognition and attention, which may include alterations in consciousness and disorganized thinking. While delirium may affect any age group, it is most common in older patients, especially those with preexisting cognitive impairment. Patients with delirium after surgery recover more slowly than those without delirium and, as a result, have increased length of stay and hospital costs. The measured incidence of postoperative delirium varies with the type of surgery, the urgency of surgery, and the type and sensitivity of the delirium assessment. While generally considered a short-term condition, delirium can persist for months and is associated with poor cognitive and functional outcomes beyond the immediate postoperative period. In this article we will provide a guide to assess delirium risk preoperatively, and to prevent, diagnose, and treat this common and morbid condition. Care improvements such as identifying delirium risk preoperatively; training surgeons, anesthesiologists and nurses to screen for delirium; implementing delirium prevention programs; and developing standardized delirium treatment protocols may reduce the risk of delirium and its associated morbidity. PMID:21474660

  11. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-29

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism. PMID:27517778

  12. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism.

  13. Acute response of airway muscle to extreme temperature includes disruption of actin-myosin interaction.

    PubMed

    Dyrda, Peter; Tazzeo, Tracy; DoHarris, Lindsay; Nilius, Berndt; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Aziz, Tariq; Lukic, Dusan; Janssen, Luke J

    2011-02-01

    Despite the emerging use of bronchial thermoplasty in asthma therapy, the response of airway smooth muscle (ASM) to extreme temperatures is unknown. We investigated the immediate effects of exposing ASM to supraphysiologic temperatures. Isometric contractions were studied in bovine ASM before and after exposure to various thermal loads and/or pharmacologic interventions. Actin-myosin interactions were investigated using a standard in vitro motility assay. We found steep thermal sensitivity for isometric contractions evoked by acetylcholine, with threshold and complete inhibition at less than 50°C and greater than 55°C, respectively. Contractile responses to serotonin or KCl were similarly affected, whereas isometric relaxations evoked by the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosyl-N-acetylpenicillamine or the β-agonist isoproterenol were unaffected. This thermal sensitivity developed within 15 minutes, but did not evolve further over the course of several days (such a rapid time-course rules out heat shock proteins, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). Although heat-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRPV2) channels and the calmodulin-dependent (Cam) kinase-II-induced inactivation of myosin light chain kinase are both acutely thermally sensitive, with a temperature producing half-maximal effect (T(1/2)) of 52.5°C, the phenomenon we describe was not prevented by blockers of TRPV2 channels (e.g., ruthenium red, gadolinium, zero-Ca(2+) or zero-Na(+)/zero-Ca(2+) media, and cromakalim) or of Cam kinase-II (e.g., W7, trifluoperazine, and KN-93). However, direct measurements of actin-myosin interactions showed the same steep thermal profile. The functional changes preceded any histologic evidence of necrosis or apoptosis. We conclude that extreme temperatures (such as those used in bronchial thermoplasty) directly disrupt actin-myosin interactions, likely through a denaturation of the motor protein, leading to an immediate loss of ASM cell function. PMID:20395634

  14. Early post parturient changes in milk acute phase proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Funmilola C; Waterston, Mary; Hastie, Peter; Haining, Hayley; Eckersall, P David

    2016-08-01

    The periparturient period is one of the most critical periods in the productive life of a dairy cow, and is the period when dairy cows are most susceptible to developing new intramammary infections (IMI) leading to mastitis. Acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been detected in milk during mastitis but their presence in colostrum and milk in the immediate postpartum period has had limited investigation. The hypothesis was tested that APP are a constituent of colostrum and milk during this period. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to determine each APP's concentration in colostrum and milk collected daily from the first to tenth day following calving in 22 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Haptoglobin was assessed in individual quarters and composite milk samples while M-SAA3 and CRP concentration were determined in composite milk samples. Change in Hp in relation to the high abundance proteins during the transition from colostrum to milk were evaluated by 1 and 2 dimension electrophoresis and western blot. In 80% of the cows all APPs were detected in colostrum on the first day following parturition at moderately high levels but gradually decreased to minimal values in the milk by the 6th day after calving. The remaining cows (20%) showed different patterns in the daily milk APP concentrations and when an elevated level is detected could reflect the presence of IMI. Demonstration that APP are present in colostrum and milk following parturition but fall to low levels within 4 days means that elevated APP after this time could be biomarkers of post parturient mastitis allowing early intervention to reduce disease on dairy farms. PMID:27600971

  15. Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

  16. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d °C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  17. Assessing stream temperature response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature controls aquatic ecosystem function by directly influencing water quality, ecosystem productivity, and the physiological functioning of aquatic organisms. To date, there are limited studies of the impacts of environmental disturbance on stream temperature, particularly on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This region provides key habitat for native salmonid species such as westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as ‘threatened’ and ‘species of special concern’, respectively. Increases in stream temperature could limit habitat availability, reduce competitive advantage, and potentially increase mortality rates for these native species. This study uses field data collected at high spatiotemporal resolution to develop a spatial stream temperature model that simulates the mass and energy balance of the stream system. Preliminary field results demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability in processes governing stream temperature in three study stream reaches. Groundwater/surface water interactions, topographic setting, and local meteorological conditions all contribute in determining stream thermal regimes. This work discusses how these primary drivers of stream temperature can be incorporated into a physically based spatial model, and demonstrates how depending on the scale of interest, the temperature of a stream can be governed by very different contributing factors.

  18. Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute temperature shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to warm temperature.

    PubMed

    Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how warm acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11°C; control) and warm (20°C) temperature for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I-IV (CI-IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. Warm acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas warm acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute temperature shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by temperature and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma metabolites, with modest additive actions limited to CII and IV state 4. Overall, our results indicate that warm acclimation came at a cost of reduced ETS efficiency and increased sensitivity to added stressors. PMID:26513222

  19. Seasonal Surface Temperature Changes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Coustenis, Athena; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since 2004 (Jennings et al. 2011; Cottini et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2015). Radiation from the surface reaches space through a window of minimum opacity in Titan’s atmosphere near 19 microns wavelength. We mapped surface temperatures in five time periods, each about 2 years, centered on solar longitudes Ls = 313°, 335°, 0°, 28° and 53° degrees. Using zonally-averaged spectra binned in 10-degree latitude intervals, we clearly see the seasonal progression of the pole-to-pole temperature distribution. Whereas peak temperatures in the vicinity of the Equator have been close to 94 K throughout the Cassini mission, early in the mission temperatures at the North Pole were as low as 90 K and at the South Pole were 92 K. Late in the mission the pattern has reversed: 92 K in the north and 90 K in the south. Over 2005 to 2014 the peak temperature moved in latitude from about 15 S to 15 N. We estimate a seasonal lag of 0.2 Titan month. In 2010 the temperature distribution was approximately symmetric north and south, agreeing with Voyager 1 from one Titan year earlier. The surface temperatures follow closely the predictions of Tokano (2005). Our measurements may indicate a lower thermal inertia in the south than in the north.Jennings, D.E. et al., ApJ Lett. 737, L15 (2011)Cottini, V. et al., 2012. Planet. Space Sci. 60, 62 (2012)Tan, S. P. et al., Icarus 250, 64 (2015)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005)

  20. [Sequential changes in acute phase reactant proteins and complement activation in patients with acute head injuries].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Matsuura, H; Nakazawa, S

    1987-12-01

    The role of immunological mechanisms in head injury is not clearly defined. In this study we investigated the immunological function in patients with acute head injuries. Serum acute phase reactant proteins (APRP), complement activation and immunoglobulines as immunological parameters were studied. APRP are produced in the liver and increase in cancer patients as well as those with acute and chronic inflammations, trauma and autoimmune diseases. APRP are known to be one of the immunosuppressive factors in the serum. Forty patients with acute head injuries were studied. Thirty-four patients were male and six patients were female, ages ranged from 12 to 81 years. Serial blood samples were obtained during the first seven days of trauma. The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were recorded at the time of admission for all patients. Clinical outcome was assessed at the time of discharge according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The "good" group consisted of patients with good recovery or moderate disability. The "bad" group consisted of patients with severe disability, persistent vegetative state and death. The concentrations of immunoglobulines (IgG, IgM, IgA) were within normal range and humoral immunity was not affected. Complement activation at the time of admission was closely related to GCS (p less than 0.01), but the levels of C4, C3, and C3 activator except for these of CH50 were within normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2451531

  1. Adjustments of serine proteases of Daphnia pulex in response to temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Dölling, Ramona; Becker, Dörthe; Hawat, Susan; Koch, Marita; Schwarzenberger, Anke; Zeis, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Elevated temperatures considerably challenge aquatic invertebrates, and enhanced energy metabolism and protein turnover require adjustments of digestion. In Daphnia, the serine proteases chymotrypsin and trypsin represent the major proteolytic enzymes. Daphnia pulex acclimated to different temperature conditions or subjected to acute heat stress showed increased expression level of serine proteases with rising temperatures. Transcripts of trypsin isoforms were always present in higher amounts than observed for chymotrypsin. Additionally, trypsin isoform transcripts were induced by elevated temperatures to a larger extent. Correspondingly, trypsin activity dominated in cold-acclimated animals. However, the enzymatic activity of chymotrypsin increased at elevated temperatures, whereas trypsin activity slightly decreased, resulting in a shift to dominating chymotrypsin activity in warm-acclimated animals. Zymograms revealed eight bands with proteolytic activity in the range of 20 to 86kDa. The single bands were assigned to trypsin or chymotrypsin activity applying specific inhibitors or from casein cleavage products identified by mass spectrometric analysis. The total amount of proteolytic activity was elevated with acclimation temperature increase and showed a transient decrease under acute heat stress. The contribution of the different isoforms to protein digestion indicated induction of chymotrypsin with increasing acclimation temperature. For trypsin, the share of one isoform decreased with elevated temperature, while another isoform was enhanced. Thus differential expression of serine proteases was observed in response to chronic and acute temperature changes. The observed phenotypic plasticity adjusts the set of active proteases to the altered needs of protein metabolism optimizing protein digestion for the temperature conditions experienced in the habitat. PMID:26773656

  2. Effect of temperature change on anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal appears as a prerequisite for the implementation of energy autarchic municipal wastewater treatment plants. Whilst the application of anammox-related technologies in the side-stream is at present state of the art, the feasibility of this energy-efficient process in main-stream conditions is still under investigation. Lower operating temperatures and ammonium concentrations, together with a demand for high and stable nitrogen removal efficiency, represent the main challenges to overcome for this appealing new frontier of the wastewater treatment field. In this study, we report the short-term effect of temperature on the maximum biomass specific activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria as evaluated by means of batch tests. The experiments were performed on anammox biomass sampled from two full-scale reactors and two lab-scale reactors, all characterized by different reactor configurations and operating conditions. The results indicate that for the anammox conversion, the temperature dependency cannot be accurately modeled by one single Arrhenius coefficient (i.e., θ) as typically applied for other biological processes. The temperature effect is increasing at lower temperatures. Adaptation of anammox bacteria after long-term cultivation at 20 and 10°C was observed. Implications for modeling and process design are finally discussed. PMID:25042674

  3. Recording Rapidly Changing Cylinder-wall Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Adolph

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with the design and testing of a measuring plug suggested by H. Pfriem for recording quasi-stationary cylinder wall temperatures. The new device is a resistance thermometer, the temperature-susceptible part of which consists of a gold coating applied by evaporation under high vacuum and electrolytically strengthened. After overcoming initial difficulties, calibration of plugs up to and beyond 400 degrees C was possible. The measurements were made on high-speed internal combustion engines. The increasing effect of carbon deposit at the wall surface with increasing operating period is indicated by means of charts.

  4. Heart rate in Palaemon northropi (Rankin) in relation to acute changes in thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, C.J.; Wingard, C.; Kitakis, F. )

    1991-03-15

    The Glass Shrimp (Palaemon northropi), common to shallow water/tide pool environs of Atlantic waters, was examined in a series of experiments whereby the temperature-dependence of steady-state heart rate was assessed after acute, controlled changed in their thermal environment. Collection site, tide pool variations averaged 17.2-31.6C/24 hr. period. Accordingly, steady-state heart rates were determined at 5, 15, 25, and 30C by using both timed, optical recording and impedance methods. Mean values obtained were 88bpm (5C), 181 bpm(15C), 236bpm(25C), and 52bpm(30C). Calculated Q{sub 10} determinations ranged from the limits of 1.3 to 2.1 excluding the highest temperature state used. Specimens used averaged 0.62gm wet body weight, and no significant difference between males and gravid females was found. Additionally, the impedance method employed allowed for more precise rate determinations at high heart rates: at the lower heart rates, there was no difference between optically-timed vs. impedance method. Measurement at 30C characteristically showed a severe depression of heart rate, and high mortality after determinations. It is concluded that in situ field survival of Palaemon northropi may involve a time-dependence and/or other mechanisms whereby upper environmental temperatures may be abated.

  5. Influence of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation during exercise-heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sawka, M.N.; Gonzalez, R.R.; Dennis, R.C.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.; Martin, J.W.; Francesconi, R.P.; Pandolf, K.B.; Valeri, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    We studied the effects of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation responses during exercise in the heat. In a double blind study, 6 subjects (Ss) received a 700-ml solution of autologous red blood cells at a 60% Hct, and 3 Ss (control) received a 700-ml saline solution. All Ss attempted a Heat Stress Test (HST) two weeks prior to and 48-h post-transfusion during summer months. After 30 min of rest in a 20/sup 0/C antechamber, the HST consisted of a 120-min exposure (two repeats of 15-min rest and 45-min treadmill walk) in a 35/sup 0/C, 45% rh environment while euhydrated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO/sub 2/ max) and red cell volume (RCV, /sup 51/Cr) were measured approximately 24 h before each HST. For experimental Ss, an increase in RCV (11%, P < 0.01) and VO/sub 2/ max (11%, P < 0.05) was found following transfusion, whereas, differences were not observed in the control Ss. During the HSTs for experimental Ss, metabolic rate as well as steady state rectal and esophageal temperatures were similar, but heat storage tended (P = 0.13) to be lower post-transfusion. Steady state local arm (R + C) was reduced (P < 0.05) with no change in total body sweating rate or local arm evaporative heat loss post-transfusion. For control Ss, thermoregulatory responses were generally not altered post-transfusion. Erythrocythemia may improve steady state sensible heat exchange by allowing a greater volume of blood to be directed to the cutaneous vasculature.

  6. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  7. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  8. Temperature, global climate change and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accelerated climate change is expected to have a significant, but variable impact on the world’s major cropping zones. Crops will experience increasingly warmer, drier and more variable growing conditions in the temperate to subtropical latitudes towards 2050 and beyond. Short-term (1-5 day) spikes ...

  9. Epigenetic changes: a common theme in acute myelogenous leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Soraya E; Romero-Oliva, Francisco A

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rather common disease, characterized by the presence of a clonal population of hematopoietic progenitor cells with impaired differentiation. Although traditionally AML has been considered the result of genetic alterations, more recently experimental evidence have demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are important in development and maintenance of leukemia cells. In this review we summarize current scientific knowledge of epigenetic alterations involved in leukemogenesis. We also highlight the developing of new technological strategies that are based on epigenetic processes and have been registered as Patents of Inventions in the United Nations dependent World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO) and the main Patent offices worldwide. PMID:23938080

  10. Haemodynamic changes in adrenaline-induced acute massive lung oedema.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C P

    1975-01-01

    During the production of adrenaline-induced acute massive lung oedema in the dog, plumonary arterial, pulmonary venous, systemic arterial, and bronchial arterial blood pressures all increase markedly. Pulmonary arterial and venous blood flows fall steeply after initial transient rises. Systemic arterial blood flow also declines, with or without an initial transient increase. The bronchial arterial blood flow shows an initial fall followed by a rise of late onset. The main determinant for the pathogenesis of adrenaline-induced lung oedema is apparently the enormously increased hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:123482

  11. Epigenetic changes: a common theme in acute myelogenous leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rather common disease, characterized by the presence of a clonal population of hematopoietic progenitor cells with impaired differentiation. Although traditionally AML has been considered the result of genetic alterations, more recently experimental evidence have demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are important in development and maintenance of leukemia cells. In this review we summarize current scientific knowledge of epigenetic alterations involved in leukemogenesis. We also highlight the developing of new technological strategies that are based on epigenetic processes and have been registered as Patents of Inventions in the United Nations dependent World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO) and the main Patent offices worldwide. PMID:23938080

  12. Cesium in mammals: acute toxicity, organ changes and tissue accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsky C.; Bose, R.; Taylor, J.R.; McKee, J.S.C.; Lapointe, C.; Birchall, J.

    1981-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cesium given intraperitoneally (IP) as CsCl in mice is characterized by autonomic upset and by a multiphasic excitant-depressant action on the central nervous system. The predominantly depressant action can progress to respiratory embarrassment, cyanosis, spinal convulsions and death. Light microscopy of mice treated with 2.0 mEq Cs/sup +/ kg/sup -1/ IP for 14 days showed lymphoid hyperplasia in small intestine. Measurement of tissue cesium by the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique is convenient and reproducible. Cesium displays a generalized bioactivity that merits further study.

  13. The Effect of Temperature Changes in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Mario R.; Romano, Vito; Mauro, Alessandro; Angi, Martina; Costagliola, Ciro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on temperature control in biology and medicine have found the temperature as a new instrument in healthcare. In this manuscript, we reviewed the effects of temperature and its potential role in pars plana vitrectomy. We also examined the relationship between intraocular pressure, viscosity, and temperature in order to determine the best balance to manipulate the tamponades during the surgery. Methods A literature review was performed to identify potentially relevant studies on intraocular temperature. Physics equations were applied to explain the described effects of temperature changes on the behavior of the endotamponades commonly used during vitreoretinal surgery. We also generated an operating diagram on the pressure–temperature plane for the values of both vapor–liquid equilibrium and intraocular pressure. Results The rapid circulation of fluid in the vitreous cavity reduces the heat produced by the retinal and choroidal surface, bringing the temperature toward room temperature (22°C, deep hypothermia). Temperature increases with endolaser treatment, air infusion, and the presence of silicone oil. The variations in temperature during vitreoretinal surgery are clinically significant, as the rheology of tamponades can be better manipulated by modulating intraocular pressure and temperature. Conclusions During vitreoretinal surgery, the intraocular temperature showed rapid and significant fluctuations at different steps of the surgical procedure inside the vitreous cavity. Temperature control can modulate the rheology of tamponades. Translational Relevance Intraoperative temperature control can improve neuroprotection during vitreoretinal surgery, induce the vaporization of perfluorcarbon liquid, and change the shear viscosity of silicone oil. PMID:26929884

  14. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  15. Impacts of temperature change on ambulance dispatches and seasonal effect modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Desheng; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Li, Kesheng; Su, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Ambulance dispatch is a proxy of acute health outcomes, and growing epidemiological evidence documented its relation to extreme temperature events. Research, however, on short-term temperature change and ambulance dispatches is scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term temperature change on ambulance dispatches and potential modification by season. Daily data on ambulance dispatch and weather factors were collected in Huainan, a Chinese inland city from December 2011 through December 2013. A Poison generalized linear regression model combined with distributed lag nonlinear model was constructed to examine the association of temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) with ambulance dispatches. The effect modification by season was also examined. There were 48,700 ambulance attendances during the study period. A statistically significant association of TCN with ambulance dispatches was observed. Temperature rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) was associated with elevated adverse risk of ambulance dispatches, and the effects appeared to be acute (lag0, on the current day) and could last for at least a week, while temperature drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect. For a 1 °C increase of TCN at lag0 and lag06 (on the 7-day moving average), the risk of ambulance dispatches increased by 2 % (95 % CI 1-3 %) and 7 (95 % CI 1-13 %), respectively. Extreme TCN increase (95th percentile, 3.3 °C vs. 0 °C) at lag0 and lag05 was accompanied by 6 (95 % CI 3-8 %) and 27 % (95 % CI 12-44 %) increase in ambulance dispatches. Ambulance dispatches were more vulnerable to extremely great temperature rise in summer and autumn. TCN was adopted for the first time to quantify the impact of short-term temperature change on ambulance dispatches. Temperature drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect on ambulance dispatches, while temperature rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) could acutely trigger the increase in

  16. Stratospheric temperature changes during the satellite era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Dian J.; Li, Jian; Mears, Carl; Moradi, Isaac; Nash, John; Randel, William J.; Saunders, Roger; Thompson, David W. J.; Zou, Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-based layer average stratospheric temperature (T) climate data records (CDRs) now span more than three decades and so can elucidate climate variability associated with processes on multiple time scales. We intercompare and analyze available published T CDRs covering at least two decades, with a focus on Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) and Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) CDRs. Recent research has reduced but not eliminated discrepancies between SSU CDRs developed by NOAA and the UK Meteorological Office. The MSU CDRs from NOAA and Remote Sensing Systems are in closer agreement than the CDR from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The latter has a previously unreported inhomogeneity in 2005, revealed by an abrupt increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of T anomaly differences between CDRs. Although time-varying biases remain in both SSU and MSU CDRs, multiple linear regression analyses reveal consistent solar, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), quasi-biennial oscillation, aerosol, and piecewise-linear trend signals. Together, these predictors explain 80 to 90% of the variance in the near-global-average T CDRs. The most important predictor variables (in terms of percent explained variance in near-global-average T) for lower stratospheric T measured by MSU are aerosols, solar variability, and ENSO. Trends explain the largest percentage of variance in observations from all three SSU channels. In MSU and SSU CDRs, piecewise-linear trends, with a 1995 break point, indicate cooling during 1979-1994 but no trend during 1995-2013 for MSU and during 1995-2005 for SSU. These observational findings provide a basis for evaluating climate model simulations of stratospheric temperature during the past 35 years.

  17. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change.

    PubMed

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-08-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate 'realized' thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the 'fundamental' norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing 'thermal safety margins'. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  18. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate ‘realized’ thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the ‘fundamental’ norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing ‘thermal safety margins’. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  19. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  20. Relationships between facial temperature changes, end-exercise affect and during-exercise changes in affect: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Arfaoui, Ahlem

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed as an evaluation of the relationships between changes in facial temperature and self-reported pleasure-displeasure during an acute aerobic exercise bout. Ninety-two students performed a 10-minute long session of cycle ergometry at 80-85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. Using infrared thermography and a single-item measure of pleasure-displeasure (the Feeling Scale, FS), facial temperature and the FS score were sampled at the beginning (Min1:00) and at the end of the exercise session (Min9:00). Statistical analyses revealed that cheek (but not forehead) temperature was higher at the end of the exercise bout compared to Min1:00 (it increased by about 5%). Change in cheek temperature was negatively related to end-exercise affect (β = -0.28, P < 0.001) and to during-exercise affective changes (β = -0.35, P < 0.001). No significant relationship with forehead temperature was found. Some of the possible reasons for this differential effect as well as theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25131146

  1. Modeling Climate Change Effects on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation effects on stream temperatures with climate change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate climate-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures with climate change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores climate change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be

  2. [The significance of morphologic changes in acute occlusive cholecystitis for determining the surgical approach].

    PubMed

    Iukhtin, V I; Khripun, A I; Raksha, A P; Zhukotskiĭ, A V; Sergeeva, N A; Dorofeeva, I M; Belous, G G

    1996-01-01

    Specific morphological and functional changes in the liver in acute obturative cholecystitis have been experimentally studied in 30 dogs and clinically examined in 21 patients. No morphological substrate of liver insufficiency were found in early period of acute obturative cholecystitis. Early changes in the liver are of reactive nature and have the features of active nonspecific hepatitis. The reactions of compensation and decompensation are changing each other periodically. The intensive reactions of compensation take place in the first 2 or 3 days of disease. The reactions of compensation weaken gradually. There is no correlation between changes in the liver and in blood serum. The early surgery and laparoscopic procedures in acute obturative cholecystitis are advocated. PMID:8965448

  3. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    SciTech Connect

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  4. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  5. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages. PMID:22895651

  6. Acute Effects of Normobaric Hypoxia on Hand-Temperature Responses During and After Local Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Eiken, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Keramidas, Michail E, Roger Kölegård, Igor B. Mekjavic, and Ola Eiken. Acute effects of normobaric hypoxia on hand-temperature responses during and after local cold stress. High Alt Med Biol. 15:183–191, 2014.—The purpose was to investigate acute effects of normobaric hypoxia on hand-temperature responses during and after a cold-water hand immersion test. Fifteen males performed two right-hand immersion tests in 8°C water, during which they were inspiring either room air (Fio2: 0.21; AIR), or a hypoxic gas mixture (Fio2: 0.14; HYPO). The tests were conducted in a counterbalanced order and separated by a 1-hour interval. Throughout the 30-min cold-water immersion (CWI) and the 15-min spontaneous rewarming (RW) phases, finger-skin temperatures were measured continuously with thermocouple probes; infrared thermography was also employed during the RW phase to map all segments of the hand. During the CWI phase, the average skin temperature (Tavg) of the fingers did not differ between the conditions (AIR: 10.2±0.5°C, HYPO: 10.0±0.5°C; p=0.67). However, Tavg was lower in the HYPO than the AIR RW phase (AIR: 24.5±3.4°C; HYPO: 22.0±3.8°C; p=0.002); a response that was alike in all regions of the immersed hand. Accordingly, present findings suggest that acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia does not aggravate the cold-induced drop in hand temperature of normothermic males. Still, hypoxia markedly impairs the rewarming responses of the hand. PMID:24666109

  7. Optimizing Mouse Surgery with Online Rectal Temperature Monitoring and Preoperative Heat Supply. Effects on Post-Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Holderied, Alexander; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature affects outcomes of tissue injury. We hypothesized that online body core temperature recording and selective interventions help to standardize peri-interventional temperature control and the reliability of outcomes in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). We recorded core temperature in up to seven mice in parallel using a Thermes USB recorder and ret-3-iso rectal probes with three different protocols. Setup A: Heating pad during ischemia time; Setup B: Heating pad from incision to wound closure; Setup C: A ventilated heating chamber before surgery and during ischemia time with surgeries performed on a heating pad. Temperature profile recording displayed significant declines upon installing anesthesia. The profile of the baseline experimental setup A revealed that <1% of the temperature readings were within the target range of 36.5 to 38.5°C. Setup B and C increased the target range readings to 34.6 ± 28.0% and 99.3 ± 1.5%, respectively. Setup C significantly increased S3 tubular necrosis, neutrophil influx, and mRNA expression of kidney injury markers. In addition, using setup C different ischemia times generated a linear correlation with acute tubular necrosis parameters at a low variability, which further correlated with the degree of kidney atrophy 5 weeks after surgery. Changing temperature control setup A to C was equivalent to 10 minutes more ischemia time. We conclude that body temperature drops quickly in mice upon initiating anesthesia. Immediate heat supply, e.g. in a ventilated heating chamber, and online core temperature monitoring can help to standardize and optimize experimental outcomes. PMID:26890071

  8. Photovoltage response to temperature change at oxide semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichman, B.; Byvik, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out on single crystal electrodes of TiO2, SrTiO3, and alpha-Fe2O3 and polycrystalline WO3 to investigate the effect of cell temperature on the onset potential of n-type oxide semiconductor electrodes. It is found that the change of the onset potential with temperature is due to the potential change across the Helmholtz layer. The amount of this change depends on the point of zero zeta potential (pzzp) of the semiconductor electrode. The possibility of increasing the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of a photochemical cell by increasing the cell temperature is discussed.

  9. Changing Interdigestive Migrating Motor Complex in Rats under Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Su-Jun; Xu, Weihong; Zhang, Jianying; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal motility disorder is a major clinical manifestation of acute liver injury, and interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC) is an important indicator. We investigated the changes and characteristics of MMC in rats with acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was created by d-galactosamine, and we recorded the interdigestive MMC using a multichannel physiological recorder and compared the indexes of interdigestive MMC. Compared with normal controls, antral MMC Phase I duration was significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The duodenal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury. The jejunal MMC cycle and MMC Phases I and IV duration were significantly prolonged and MMC Phase III duration was significantly shortened in the rats with acute liver injury compared with normal controls. Compared with the normal controls, rats with acute liver injury had a significantly prolonged interdigestive MMC cycle, related mainly to longer MMC Phases I and IV, shortened MMC Phase III, and MMC Phase II characterized by increased migrating clustered contractions, which were probably major contributors to the gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:25544942

  10. Haemodynamic changes in ipsilateral and contralateral fingers caused by acute exposures to hand transmitted vibration.

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in digital circulation during and after exposure to hand transmitted vibration. By studying two frequencies and two magnitudes of vibration, to investigate the extent to which haemodynamic changes depend on the vibration frequency, the vibration acceleration, and the vibration velocity. METHODS: Finger skin temperature (FST), finger blood flow (FBF), and finger systolic pressure were measured in the fingers of both hands in eight healthy men. Indices of digital vasomotor tone-such as critical closing pressure and vascular resistance-were estimated by pressure-flow curves obtained with different hand heights. With a static load of 10 N, the right hand was exposed for 30 minutes to each of the following root mean squared (rms) acceleration magnitudes and frequencies of vertical vibration: 22 m.s-2 at 31.5 Hz, 22 m.s-2 at 125 Hz, and 87 m.s-2 at 125 Hz. A control condition consisted of exposure to the static load only. The measures of digital circulation and vasomotor tone were taken before exposure to the vibration and the static load, and at 0, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after the end of each exposure. RESULTS: Exposure to static load caused no significant changes in FST, FBF, or indices of vasomotor tone in either the vibrated right middle finger or the non-vibrated left middle finger. In both fingers, exposure to vibration of 125 Hz and 22 m.s-2 produced a greater reduction in FBF and a greater increase in vasomotor tone than did vibration of 31.5 Hz and 22 m.s-2. In the vibrated right finger, exposure to vibration of 125 Hz and 87 m.s-2 provoked an immediate vasodilation which was followed by vasoconstriction during recovery. The non-vibrated left finger showed a significant increase in vasomotor tone throughout the 60 minute period after the end of vibration exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The digital circulatory response to acute vibration depends upon the magnitude and frequency of the vibration stimulus. Vasomotor mechanisms, mediated

  11. Involvement of GABA in environmental temperature-induced change in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Poddar, M K

    1988-12-01

    Acute exposure of adult male albino rats (110-120 g) to higher environmental temperature (40 +/- 1 degrees C) increased body temperature (BT). This increase of BT was also dependent on the duration of exposure. Treatment with muscimol (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA agonist, produced hypothermia at room temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C) and resistance to increase the body temperature when exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C). Administration of bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA antagonist, on the other hand, enhanced BT more than that observed in control (normal) rat exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C), although at room temperature bicuculline treatment did not show any effect on BT. Pretreatment with ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) (2 g/kg, s.c.), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, to rats exposed to higher temperature increased BT as in control (normal) rat. Inhibition of central GAD activity with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (70 mg/kg, i.p.) produced resistance to increase BT during its period of action when rats were exposed to higher environmental temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C). These results thus suggest that central inhibitory neuron, GABA, plays a regulatory role in thermoregulation. PMID:3236943

  12. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-11-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection.

  13. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  14. The Trends of Soil Temperature Change Associated with Air Temperature Change in Korea from 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Hyun; Park, Byeong-Hak; Koh, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Examining long-term trends of the soil temperature can contribute to assessing subsurface thermal environment. The recent 40-year (1973-2012) meteorological data from 14 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations was analyzed in this study to estimate the temporal variations of air and soil temperatures (at depths 0.5 and 1.0m) in Korea and their relations. The information on regional characteristics of study sites was also collected to investigate the local and regional features influencing the soil temperature. The long-term increasing trends of both air and soil temperatures were estimated by using simple linear regression analysis. The air temperature rise and soil temperature rise were compared for every site to reveal the relation between air and soil temperature changes. In most sites, the proportion of soil temperature rise to air temperature rise was nearly one to one except a few sites. The difference between the air and soil temperature trends at those sites may be attributed to the combined effect of soil properties such as thermal diffusivity and soil moisture content. The impact of urbanization on the air and soil temperature was also investigated in this study. Establishment of the relationship between the air and soil temperatures can help predicting the soil temperature change in a region where no soil temperature data is obtained by using air temperature data. For rigorous establishment of the relationship between soil and air temperatures, more thorough investigation on the soil thermal properties is necessary through additional monitoring and accompanied validation of the proposed relations. Keywords : Soil temperature, Air temperature, Cross-correlation analysis, Soil thermal diffusivity, Urbanization effect Acknowledgement This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)" in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05

  15. Climate change signal analysis for Northeast Asian surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hyeong; Kim, Byungsoo; Sohn, Keon-Tae; Kown, Won-Tae; Min, Seung-Ki

    2005-03-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO{4/2-}) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SO{4/2-} effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959 1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10% 21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO{4/2-} played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2 effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO{4/2-} scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  16. Quantitative neuropeptidomics study of the effects of temperature change in the crab Cancer borealis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruibing; Xiao, Mingming; Buchberger, Amanda; Li, Lingjun

    2014-12-01

    Temperature changes influence the reaction rates of all biological processes, which can pose dramatic challenges to cold-blooded organisms, and the capability to adapt to temperature fluctuations is crucial for the survival of these animals. In order to understand the roles that neuropeptides play in the temperature stress response, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to investigate the neuropeptide changes associated with acute temperature elevation in three neural tissues from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. At high temperature, members from two neuropeptide families, including RFamide and RYamide, were observed to be significantly reduced in one of the neuroendocrine structures, the pericardial organ, while several orcokinin peptides were detected to be decreased in another major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland. These results implicate that the observed neuropeptides may be involved with temperature perturbation response via hormonal regulation. Furthermore, a temperature stress marker peptide with the primary sequence of SFRRMGGKAQ (m/z 1137.7) was detected and de novo sequenced in the circulating fluid (hemolymph) from animals under thermal perturbation. PMID:25214466

  17. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. PMID:23847016

  18. Association of global weather changes with acute coronary syndromes: gaining insights from clinical trials data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Westerhout, Cynthia M.; Boersma, Eric; Armstrong, Paul W.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for the identification of global weather parameters and patient characteristics associated with a type of heart attack in which there is a sudden partial blockage of a coronary artery. This type of heart attack does not demonstrate an elevation of the ST segment on an electrocardiogram and is defined as a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Data from the Global Summary of the Day database was linked with the enrollment and baseline data for a phase III international clinical trial in NSTE-ACS in four 48-h time periods covering the week prior to the clinical event that prompted enrollment in the study. Meteorological events were determined by standardizing the weather data from enrollment dates against an empirical distribution from the month prior. These meteorological events were then linked to the patients' geographic region, demographics and comorbidities to identify potential susceptible populations. After standardization, changes in temperature and humidity demonstrated an association with the enrollment event. Additionally there appeared to be an association with gender, region and a history of stroke. This methodology may provide a useful global insight into assessing the biometeorologic component of diseases from international data.

  19. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance. PMID:26842330

  20. Snow and the ground temperature record of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Marshall G.; Chapman, David S.; Harris, Robert N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain a record of surface ground temperature (SGT) changes with time and complement surface air temperature (SAT) analysis to infer climate change over multiple centuries. Ground temperatures are generally warmer than air temperatures due to solar radiation effects in the summer and the insulating effect of snow cover during the winter. The low thermal diffusivity of snow damps surface temperature variations; snow effectively acts as an insulator of the ground during the coldest part of the year. A numerical model of snow-ground thermal interactions is developed to investigate the effect of seasonal snow cover on annual ground temperatures. The model is parameterized in terms of three snow event parameters: onset time of the annual snow event, duration of the event, and depth of snow during the event. These parameters are commonly available from meteorological and remotely sensed data making the model broadly applicable. The model is validated using SAT, subsurface temperature from a depth of 10 cm, and snow depth data from the 6 years of observations at Emigrant Pass climate observatory in northwestern Utah and 217 station years of National Weather Service data from sites across North America. Measured subsurface temperature-time series are compared to changes predicted by the model. The model consistently predicts ground temperature changes that compare well with those observed. Sensitivity analysis of the model leads to a nonlinear relationship between the three snow event parameters (onset, duration, and depth of the annual snow event) and the influence snow has on mean annual SGT.

  1. Bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute ferrous sulphate tablet aspiration.

    PubMed

    Maw, Matthew; Chiu, Robert; Lim, Albert Yick Hou

    2012-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman accidentally aspirated an iron tablet. She was successfully treated with early endobronchial removal of the iron tablet remnants, oral corticosteroids and antibiotics. We describe the bronchoscopic and histological changes over time following acute iron tablet aspiration and highlight the importance of early intervention to avoid complications. PMID:23257641

  2. Predictors of Change in Dyspnea Level in Acute Exacerbations of COPD.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Susana; Quintana, José M; Unzurrunzaga, Anette; Esteban, Cristóbal; Baré, Marisa; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Pulido, Esther; Rivas, Paco; -Copd Group, Iryss

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors related to changes in dyspnoea level in the acute and short-term periods after acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This was a prospective cohort study of patients with symptoms of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation who attended one of 17 hospitals in Spain between June 2008 and September 2010. Clinical data and patient reported measures (dyspnoea level, health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression levels, capacity to perform physical activity) were collected from arrival to the emergency department up to a week after the visit in discharged patients and to discharge in admitted patients (short term). Main outcomes were time course of dyspnoea over the acute (first 24 hours) and short-term periods, mortality and readmission within 2 months of the index episode. Changes in dyspnoea in both periods were related capacity to perform physical activity as well as clinical variables. Short-term changes in dyspnoea were also related to dyspnoea at 24 hours after the ED visit, and anxiety and depression levels. Dyspnoea worsening or failing to improve over the studied periods was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Patient-reported measures are predictive of changes in dyspnoea level. PMID:26667827

  3. Historical changes in air temperature are evident in temperature fluxes measured in the sub-soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Fiona; McCormick, Benjamin; Hallett, Paul; Wookey, Philip; Hopkins, David

    2013-04-01

    Warming trends in soil temperature have implications for a plethora of soil processes, including exacerbated climate change through the net release of greenhouse gases. Whereas long-term datasets of air temperature changes are abundant, a search of scientific literature reveals a lack of information on soil temperature changes and their specific consequences. We analysed five long-term data series collected in the UK (Dundee and Armagh) and Canada (Charlottetown, Ottawa and Swift Current). They show that the temperatures of soils at 5 - 20 cm depth, and sub-soils at 30 - 150 cm depth, increased in line with air temperature changes over the period 1958 - 2003. Differences were found, however, between soil and air temperatures when data were sub-divided into seasons. In spring, soil temperature warming ranged from 0.19°C at 30 cm in Armagh to 4.30°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. In summer, however, the difference was smaller and ranged from 0.21°C at 10 cm in Ottawa to 3.70°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. Winter temperatures were warmer in soil and ranged from 0.45°C at 5 cm in Charlottetown to 3.76°C at 150 cm in Charlottetown. There were significant trends in changes to soil temperature over time, whereas air temperature trends tended only to be significant in winter (changes range from 1.27°C in Armagh to 3.35°C in Swift Current). Differences in the seasonal warming patterns between air and soil temperatures have potential implications for the parameterization of models of biogeochemical cycling.

  4. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  5. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  6. Geothermics of Climate Change: Linking Ground and Air Temperature Change Through Repeat Temperature Measurements in Boreholes From Northwest Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain important information about the Earth's changing surface temperature and provide a direct method for reconstructing surface temperature variations over the past several centuries. Differences between temperature-depth logs, on annual to decadal timescales, provide an important test of borehole thermometry. Twelve temperature-depth logs at the northwestern Utah Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO) borehole, GC-1, seven at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, were acquired between the years 1978 and 2007. Differences in temperature logs extend to about 100 m. Below 100 m, differences between temperature logs are effectively zero. SAT data from the meteorological station at EPO and nearby Historical Climatology Network stations are used as a forcing function at the Earth's surface and diffused into the subsurface. These transients reproduce observed subsurface temperature variations reasonably well at each borehole. Comparisons between repeated temperature-depth profiles and diffused SAT transients over the same time period offer strong support for using GST histories to complement SAT data and multi-proxy reconstructions in climate change studies.

  7. Change point analysis of mean annual air temperature in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of change point in the mean of air temperature is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual Air Temperature Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.

  8. Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality.

    PubMed

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Forsberg, Bertil; Tobias, Aurelio; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Armstrong, Ben; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985-2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed. PMID:26811244

  9. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems. PMID:26436694

  10. Cryosurgery: ultrastructural changes in pancreas tissue after low temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Korpan, N N

    2007-04-01

    A number of theoretical and experimental studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have been performed to explain the action of low temperatures on tissue. It is now evident that the thermal parameters used in the past for freezing during cryosurgery were not precise; this may have resulted in the failure of treatment. For the first time, this report describes the early ultrastructural features of pancreatic parenchyma after low temperature exposure, i.e., cryosurgery, in vivo. We demonstrate the effect of freeze-thawing processes using temperatures of various intensities. The cryosurgical response of pancreas parenchyma, i.e., ultrastructural cellular changes in pancreas tissue, was investigated. The electronic microscopic analysis showed that, after local cryodestruction at temperatures of -80 degrees C and -180 degrees C, similar processes occurred within the pancreas tissue in the early postcryosurgical phase -- immediately and up to 24 hours after low temperature exposure on tissue. The exocrine pancreatic cells in the center of the cryozone changed upon thawing. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine pancreatic cells, where the first signs of dystrophic processes had been noticed, were increased. These ultrastructural changes in the pancreatic cells provide a platform to better understand the mechanisms of damage and the pathogenesis of frostbite after cryosurgery. The properties of the pancreas parenchyma response after low temperature exposure provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Our new insights prove on the cell level that suddenly and progressively damaged pancreatic cells in the postcryosurgical zone lead to aseptic cryonecrosis and then to aseptic cryoapoptosis of vital normal tissue. The vascular capillary changes and circulatory stagnation demonstrate the anti-angiogenesis mechanism, which, together with cryoaponecrosis and cryoapoptosis, are some of the main mechanisms

  11. Metabolic changes in rat urine after acute paraquat poisoning and discriminated by support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Wen, Congcong; Wang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Meiling; Wang, Shuanghu; Geng, Peiwu; Sun, Fa; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Guanyang; Hu, Lufeng; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is quick-acting and non-selective, killing green plant tissue on contact; it is also toxic to human beings and animals. In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the effect of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both partial least squares discriminate analysis and principal component analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the levels of benzeneacetic acid and hexadecanoic acid of the acute paraquat poisoning group (intragastric administration 36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of butanedioic acid, pentanedioic acid, altronic acid decreased. Based on these urinary metabolomics data, support vector machine was applied to discriminate the metabolomic change of paraquat groups from the control group, which achieved 100% classification accuracy. In conclusion, metabonomic method combined with support vector machine can be used as a useful diagnostic tool in paraquat-poisoned rats. PMID:26419410

  12. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  13. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  14. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  15. Exploring Terrestrial Temperature Changes during the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, K. E.; Clyde, W. C.; Fricke, H. C.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Eocene is marked by a number of rapid global warming events called hyperthermals. These hyperthermals are associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) in both marine and terrestrial records. Multiple theories exist to explain the connection of these hyperthermals with the CIEs and each theory predicts different responses by the climate system. Characterizing the timing, duration and magnitude of temperature change that is associated with these hyperthermals is important for determining whether the hyperthermals are all driven by the same underlying climate dynamics or perhaps differ from one another in cause and climatic consequences. In the simplest case, all share a common underlying mechanism; this predicts that the associated temperature changes scale in a predictable way with the magnitude of the CIE (and perhaps exhibit other similarities, such as the relative amplitudes of marine and terrestrial temperature change). To our knowledge, however, the only hyperthermal with paleotemperature data from land is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we present preliminary carbonate clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for Early Eocene hyperthermal ETM2/H2 from paleosol carbonates from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, USA. We compare the results to existing clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for the PETM in the Bighorn Basin. Temperatures recorded by paleosol carbonates (which likely reflect near-peak summer ground temperatures) prior to each CIE are ~30°C and increase to ~40-43°C during the apex of each CIE. Following both CIEs, temperatures drop back to pre-CIE values. In the case of ETM2/H2, temperatures begin to rise again immediately, possibly in association with a later hyperthermal, though further work needs to be done to establish this with certainty. These preliminary data suggest that both the absolute values and the magnitudes of temperature changes associated with the PETM and ETM2/H2 are similar; the

  16. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  17. Summer hot temperature Return Levels in the climate change context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Sylvie; Thu Huong Hoang, Thi

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and the role of human activities are now attested, and IPCC stated in its last assessment report issued in 2013-2014 that "continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system". In such a context, it is now impossible to consider temperature time series as stationary to estimate extreme values like Return Levels (RL) of hot summer temperature. The first approach, used to estimate near future RLs, consists in identifying and extrapolating trends in the parameters of the classical extreme value distributions. For the design of new installations and a farther time scale, a new methodology has been proposed in order to take climate model results into account. This methodology is based on the link between trends in mean and variance and trends in extremes. Climate model results allow inferring far future mean and variance of temperature, which are more robust outputs than the changes in extreme events, and then future extremes can be estimated through the extremes of the stationary residuals obtained when mean and variance trends have been removed and these future mean and variance. Both approaches will be illustrated using an observed temperature time series and different climate models as in Parey et al. 2010. Parey, S., T. T. H. Hoang, and D. Dacunha-Castelle (2010b), Different ways to compute temperature return levels in the climate change context, Environmetrics, 21, 698-718.

  18. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  19. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  20. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  1. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  2. Thermally chargeable supercapacitor working in a homogeneous, changing temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyuck; Shi, Yang; Qiao, Yu

    2016-04-01

    A thermally chargeable supercapacitor (TCS) system is developed to harvest electrical energy from a uniform temperature field of a changing low-grade heat source. Without any temperature gradient, the TCS absorbs heat when temperature rises and releases electricity during discharging. As temperature decreases, the system configuration returns to the initial condition, so that the thermal-to-electrical energy conversion can be continuously conducted. With a nickel-coated carbon nanotube or nanoporous carbon-based electrode, the thermal sensitivity and the electrode surface area are enhanced simultaneously, leading to a high output voltage around 100-160 mV and a high specific energy of 600-1800 mJ per gram of electrode material in each thermal cycle, with a mild temperature range of ~50 °C.

  3. Ambient Temperature Changes and the Impact to Time Measurement Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Gucevic, J.; Delcev, S.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements in Geodetic Astronomy are mainly outdoors and performed during a night, when the temperature often decreases very quickly. The time-keeping during a measuring session is provided by collecting UTC time ticks from a GPS receiver and transferring them to a laptop computer. An interrupt handler routine processes received UTC impulses in real-time and calculates the clock parameters. The characteristics of the computer quartz clock are influenced by temperature changes of the environment. We exposed the laptop to different environmental temperature conditions, and calculate the clock parameters for each environmental model. The results show that the laptop used for time-keeping in outdoor measurements should be kept in a stable temperature environment, at temperatures near 20° C.

  4. Global Stream Temperatures and Flows under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will affect thermal and hydrologic regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on human water use and freshwater ecosystems. Here we assess the impact of climate change on stream temperature and streamflow globally. We used a physically-based stream temperature river basin model (RBM) linked to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The modelling framework was adapted for global application including impacts of reservoirs and thermal heat discharges, and was validated using observed water temperature and river discharge records in large river basins globally. VIC-RBM was forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected Global Climate Model (GCM) output resulting in global projections of daily streamflow and water temperature for the 21st century. Global mean and high (95th percentile) stream temperatures are projected to increase on average by 0.8-1.6 (1.0-2.2)°C for the SRES B1-A2 scenario for 2071-2100 relative to 1971-2000. The largest water temperature increases are projected for Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and parts of Australia. In these regions, the sensitivities for warming are exacerbated by projected decreases in summer low flows. Large increases in water temperature combined with decreases in low flows are found for the southeastern U.S., Europe and eastern China. These regions could potentially be affected by increased deterioration of water quality and freshwater habitats, and reduced water available for beneficial uses such as thermoelectric power production.

  5. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  6. Temporal changes and variability in temperature series over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin

    2015-02-01

    With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how temperature series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean temperature has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean temperature are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in temperature using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.

  7. Stress responses to rapid temperature changes of the juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunwei, Dong; Tingting, Ji; Shuanglin, Dong

    2007-07-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and Hsp70 level were measured to evaluate the response of the commercially important sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) to rapid temperature changes in laboratory. Animals were subjected to a higher temperature (from 10 to 20°C) (Tinc treatment) or to a lower temperature (from 20 to 10°C) (Tdec treatment) for 72h. At 1, 3, 12, 24, 72h of exposure, animals were removed and prepared for further analysis. Results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on enzyme activities was significant. In Tinc treatment, activities of SOD and CAT increased immediately. The significant enhancement of SOD and CAT activities suggested that oxidative stress increases significantly when ambient temperature increasing from 10 to 20°C. The up-regulation of Hsp70 in Tinc and Tdec treatments indicated that Hsp70 was a bioindicator of thermal stress in the sea cucumber, and the expression pattern depended on the thermal treatment.

  8. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004–2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07–1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas. PMID:26580643

  9. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-11-01

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004-2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07-1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas. PMID:26580643

  10. Climate Change Effects on Soil Water and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Chandler, D. G.; Marks, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Soil serves as the critical interface between physical changes in climate and the biological impacts of those changes. While there is general agreement among Global Climate Models concerning the amount and trend of world air temperature change in the upcoming decades, there is less agreement regarding precipitation trends and much less agreement with respect to trends in the "soil climate" (soil water content and temperature). The difficulties with soil are probably related to variable and poorly tested land surface parameterizations. Working at sites spanning a 1000 m elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in Idaho, we showed that, over a 45 year period, the annual air temperature increased about 2° C. During that time, the amount of precipitation remained constant, but the precipitation phase shifted considerably from snow to rain depending on site elevation. Most predictions for this environment are for drier, warmer soils. We used soil water and temperature data collected at the same sites for the past 30 years in the RCEW to determine if those trends occurred. We found no significant trend in either soil water content or temperature at any site over the 30 year period. The lack of a soil water trend is related to the vegetation dynamics in this semiarid environment, where very low leaf are index values, and very dry soils much of the year, serve to restrict the impact of increased evaporative demand on transpiration. The lack of soil temperature trends is related to interactions with vegetative and snow cover, especially snow cover, which can effectively modulate exceptionally cold air temperatures. In both cases, it is clear that climate change is not directly imprinted on the soil, but affected by interactions with what is growing in, or laying on the soil.

  11. Changing Trends in Treatment of Acute Mania: Experience of a Tertiary Centre Over a Decade.

    PubMed

    Arıkan, Mehmet Kemal; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Baş, Alper; Sağlam, N Gamze Usta; Batun, Gizem Cetiner; Gültekin, Gözde; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı

    2016-06-01

    We investigated trends over a decade in the prescription of lithium, antiepileptics, and antipsychotic agents at discharge for patients hospitalised for acute mania. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 165 inpatients with acute mania who had been hospitalised in Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry during 2001-2002 and 2011-2012. Among 165 patients, prescription of olanzapine at discharge increased from 3 to 46 % (p < 0.001), while prescription of haloperidol decreased from 55 to 21 % (p < 0.001). Use of other atypical antipsychotics did not change significantly (risperidone decreased from 14 to 11 %, p = 0.5; quetiapine increased from 10 to 16 %, p = 0.2). Use of valproate, carbamazepine, and lithium did not change significantly. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in acute mania decreased by half from 27 to 13 % (p = 0.02). Typical antipsychotics alone or in combination with antiepileptics were the most common treatment regimen at discharge at 2001-2002; while 10 years later, they had been largely replaced by lithium or antiepileptics combined with second generation antipsychotics. Antipsychotic agents remained to be an important component of acute treatment of mania in our practice. PMID:26220636

  12. The acute effects of outdoor temperature on blood pressure in a panel of elderly hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Lu, Jianxiong; Yu, Qun; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Cuicui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-12-01

    Higher level of blood pressure (BP) in winter than in summer has been observed, but the association between temperature and BP and its potential modifiers with adjustment of individual confounders and time trends was rarely explored. We aimed to investigate the association between outdoor temperature and BP and its potential modification factors in a longitudinal panel study in Shanghai, China. From January 2011 to December 2012, we scheduled 54 follow-ups for BP measurements per subject via home visit every other week for 50 elderly hypertensive patients. We applied linear mixed-effect models to analyze the association between temperature and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, antihypertensive medication, comorbidities, and time trends. We evaluated the potential effect modifiers by stratification analyses. For a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature on concurrent day and previous day, systolic BP increased by 0.19 mmHg (95 % confidence interval = 0.06, 0.31) and diastolic BP increased by 0.12 mmHg (95 % confidence interval = 0.03, 0.21). The effect of temperature on BP was stronger among those with older age, female sex, low socioeconomic status, and obese physique. The effect was weak and even null for those taking the angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or its combination with calcium antagonists. Further, the effect was almost restricted within those having chronic comorbidities. Our results demonstrated that an acute decrease in outdoor temperature was significantly associated with a rise in BP among elderly hypertensive patients, in Shanghai, China. Individual characteristics, antihypertensive medications, and comorbidities may modify this effect. PMID:25851599

  13. The acute effects of outdoor temperature on blood pressure in a panel of elderly hypertensive patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Lu, Jianxiong; Yu, Qun; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Cuicui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-12-01

    Higher level of blood pressure (BP) in winter than in summer has been observed, but the association between temperature and BP and its potential modifiers with adjustment of individual confounders and time trends was rarely explored. We aimed to investigate the association between outdoor temperature and BP and its potential modification factors in a longitudinal panel study in Shanghai, China. From January 2011 to December 2012, we scheduled 54 follow-ups for BP measurements per subject via home visit every other week for 50 elderly hypertensive patients. We applied linear mixed-effect models to analyze the association between temperature and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, antihypertensive medication, comorbidities, and time trends. We evaluated the potential effect modifiers by stratification analyses. For a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature on concurrent day and previous day, systolic BP increased by 0.19 mmHg (95 % confidence interval = 0.06, 0.31) and diastolic BP increased by 0.12 mmHg (95 % confidence interval = 0.03, 0.21). The effect of temperature on BP was stronger among those with older age, female sex, low socioeconomic status, and obese physique. The effect was weak and even null for those taking the angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or its combination with calcium antagonists. Further, the effect was almost restricted within those having chronic comorbidities. Our results demonstrated that an acute decrease in outdoor temperature was significantly associated with a rise in BP among elderly hypertensive patients, in Shanghai, China. Individual characteristics, antihypertensive medications, and comorbidities may modify this effect.

  14. Spatial and environmental components of evolutionary change: interactive effects of salinity and temperature on Fucus vesiculosus as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, G.

    1987-09-01

    Intertidal algae experience aerial temperatures as well as those of ambient seawater and, during their periods of emergence, are subject to considerable variation in salinity. The eastern Atlantic distribution of Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyta) lies within the 5° and 20° August isotherms. Experiments indicate that this plant can survive temperatures above and below these at normal salinity (34‰). However, at extreme temperatures it is evidently much more susceptible to saline changes than at those of the limiting isotherms. Thus the temperature limits for surviving acute saline change appear to give a better biogeographical fit than temperature alone. Nevertheless, the presence of F. vesiculosus in estuaries at or near both geographical limits is inconsistent with the experimental results obtained from British plants. Some population divergence may therefore have occurred.

  15. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales.

  16. Temperature regulation in adult quail (Colinus virginianus) during acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Adams, T; Ringer, R K

    1983-01-01

    1. Evaporative heat loss, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and internal body temperature were measured in unanesthetized, unrestrained bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) at specific ambient temperatures (Ta). 2. No significant change in body temperature occurred at any Ta tested, but metabolic heat production (H) increased from 42.17 W/m2 at Ta 35 degrees C to 102.89 W/m2 at Ta 10 degrees C. 3. Evaporative heat loss (E) increased approximately two-fold from Ta 10-35 degrees C, with E/H increasing exponentially over the same temperature range. 4. No significant change in thermal insulation occurred from Ta 10-30 degrees C. 5. Combined convective and radiative heat transfer for the bobwhite was 2.96 W/m2 X C from Ta 10-35 degrees C. PMID:6131780

  17. Acute Changes in Striatal Microstructure Predict the Development of Interferon-Alpha Induced Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Nicholas G.; Cooper, Ella A.; Tibble, Jeremy; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D.; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used clinically for hepatitis C treatment. Though effective, IFN-α induces marked behavioral changes that, when severe, can appear indistinguishable from major depression. Curiously, fatigue and motivational impairment evolve rapidly, suggesting acute engagement of immune-brain communicatory pathways, yet mood impairments typically emerge later, after weeks of treatment. Whether this reflects prolonged modulation of motivational processes underpinning fatigue or separate neurobiological mechanisms is currently unclear. Methods Here, we used quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging, an advanced microstructural neuroimaging technique sensitive to effects of inflammation, in a prospective study design to measure acute brain changes to IFN-α and relate these to later development of discrete behavioral changes. Twenty-three patients initiating IFN-α treatment for hepatitis C underwent qMT imaging and blood sampling at baseline and 4 hours after their first IFN-α injection. Comprehensive behavioral and psychological assessments were completed at both scanning sessions and at treatment weeks 4, 8, 12, and 24. Results IFN-α injection stimulated an acute inflammatory cytokine response and evoked fatigue that peaked between 4 and 12 weeks, preceding mood change by 4 weeks. In the brain, IFN-α induced an acute change in striatal microstructure that additionally predicted development of fatigue but not mood symptoms. Conclusions Our findings highlight qMT as an in vivo biomarker of central effects of peripheral inflammation. We demonstrate exquisite sensitivity of the striatum to IFN-α, implicate striatal perturbation in IFN-α-induced fatigue, and dissociate this from mechanisms underlying IFN-α-induced mood symptoms, providing empirical support for distinct neural substrates mediating actions on motivation and mood. PMID:26169252

  18. Intraoperative Targeted Temperature Management in Acute Brain and Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jacqueline; Karpenko, Anna; Rincon, Fred

    2016-02-01

    Acute brain and spinal cord injuries affect hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. Though advances in pre-hospital and emergency and neurocritical care have improved the survival of some to these devastating diseases, very few clinical trials of potential neuro-protective strategies have produced promising results. Medical therapies such as targeted temperature management (TTM) have been trialed in traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), but in no study has a meaningful effect on outcome been demonstrated. To this end, patient selection for potential neuro-protective therapies such as TTM may be the most important factor to effectively demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials. The use of TTM as a strategy to treat and prevent secondary neuronal damage in the intraoperative setting is an area of ongoing investigation. In this review we will discuss recent and ongoing studies that address the role of TTM in combination with surgical approaches for different types of brain injury. PMID:26759319

  19. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  20. Near-term acceleration in the rate of temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenically driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature. The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt. We find that present trends in greenhouse-gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the past 1,000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 (ref. ) archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25 +/- 0.05 °C (1σ) per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous one to two millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  1. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  2. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  3. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  4. Intermittent exposure to social defeat and open-field test in rats: acute and long-term effects on ECG, body temperature and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity. After implantation of a transmitter for the radiotelemetric recording of electrocardiogram (ECG), body temperature and physical activity, adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wild Type Groningen strain) were repeatedly exposed (10 consecutive times, on alternate days) to either a social stressor (defeat by a con-specific, n = 15) or an open-field, control challenge (transfer to a new cage; n = 8). ECGs, body temperature and physical activity were continuously recorded in baseline, test and recovery periods (each lasting 15 min), at the 1st and 10th episodes of both defeat and open-field challenge. The circadian rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and physical activity were monitored before (5 days), during (16 days) and after (21 days) the intermittent stress protocol. This study indicates that there is no clear habituation of either acute cardiac autonomic responsivity (as estimated by means of time-domain indexes of heart rate variability) or arrhythmia occurrence to a brief, intermittent, homotypic challenge, regardless of the nature of the stressor (social or non-social). On the other hand, rats exposed to social challenge also failed to show adaptation of acute temperature and activity stress responsiveness, whereas rats facing open-field challenge developed habituation of activity and sensitization of temperature responses. Repeated social challenge produced remarkable reductions of the heart rate circadian rhythm amplitude (this effect being significantly greater than that produced by intermittent open-field), but only minor changes in the daily rhythms of body temperature and physical activity. PMID:12171764

  5. Enhanced temperature variability in high-altitude climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Atsumu

    2012-12-01

    In the present article, monthly mean temperature at 56 stations assembled in 18 regional groups in 10 major mountain ranges of the world were investigated. The periods of the analysis covered the last 50 to 110 years. The author found that the variability of temperature in climatic time scale tends to increase with altitude in about 65 % of the regional groups. A smaller number of groups, 20 %, showed the fastest change at an intermediate altitude between the peaks (or ridges) and their foot, while the remaining small number of sites, 15 %, showed the largest trends at the foot of mountains. This tendency provides a useful base for considering and planning the climate impact evaluations. The reason for the amplification of temperature variation at high altitudes is traced back to the increasing diabatic processes in the mid- and high troposphere as a result of the cloud condensation. This situation results from the fact that the radiation balance at the earth's surface is transformed more efficiently into latent heat of evaporation rather than sensible heat, the ratio between them being 4 to 1. Variation in the surface evaporation is converted into heat upon condensation into cloud particles and ice crystals in the mid- and high troposphere. Therefore, this is the altitude where the result of the surface radiation change is effectively transferred. Further, the low temperature of the environment amplifies the effect of the energy balance variation on the surface temperature, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law. These processes altogether contribute to enhancing temperature variability at high altitudes. The altitude play s an important role in determining the temperature variability, besides other important factors such as topography, surface characteristics, cryosphere/temperature feedback and the frequency and intensity of an inversion. These processes have a profound effect not only on the ecosystem but also on glaciers and permafrost.

  6. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region

  7. Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

  8. Change in Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy after Treatment during Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, William; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chalermchai, Thep; DeGruttola, Victor; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Pothisri, Mantana; Busovaca, Edgar; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Jagodzinski, Linda; Spudich, Serena; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H.; Valcour, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Objective Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART. Results After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months. Interpretation We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury. PMID:23229129

  9. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2016-03-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  10. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr−1 ± 0.01°C yr−1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  11. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria. PMID:27461878

  12. Differential changes in platelet reactivity induced by acute physical compared to persistent mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Katharina; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Kandler, Christina; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Malik, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Semenitz, Barbara; Humpel, Christian; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also contain adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory compounds, as well as most of the serotonin outside the central nervous system. Dysbalance in the serotonin pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Thus, changes in platelet aggregation and content of bioactive compounds are of interest when investigating physiological stress-related mental processes as well as stress-related psychiatric diseases such as depression. In the present study, a characterization of platelet reactivity in acute physical and persistent mental stress was performed (aggregation, serotonin and serotonin 2A-receptor, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9), platelet/endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). Acute physical stress increased platelet aggregability while leaving platelet content of bioactive compounds unchanged. Persistent mental stress led to changes in platelet content of bioactive compounds and serotonin 2A-receptor only. The values of most bioactive compounds correlated with each other. Acute physical and persistent mental stress influences platelets through distinct pathways, leading to differential changes in aggregability and content of bioactive compounds. PMID:26192713

  13. Bhutan Rivers Runoff Sensitivity to Changes in Precipitation and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonessa, M. Y.; Richey, J. E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan harnesses its water resources mostly for hydropower generation. Hydroelectricity represents 96% of the country's electricity generating capacity and 99.9% of its electricity generation. About 87% of the electricity generated within Bhutan is exported to India. Assessment of this crucial resource is vital for its proper usage and management especially in the light of potential land use and climate changes. A land surface hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), was used to assess the hydrology of the country. The model was forced using data obtained from three sources: NCEP/NCAR, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ERA Interim. The NCEP/NCAR forcing resulted in better flow simulation for most of the stations than WRF and ERA forcings. Thus, NCEP/NCAR forcing data was used to evaluate the runoff sensitivity to temperature and precipitation changes. In both steps, VIC was run at 1/24° latitude-longitude resolution. The modeled mean annual runoff elasticity which measures fractional change in annual runoff divided by fractional change in annual precipitation ranges from 1.08 to 2.16. The elasticity value is lower for higher reference precipitations and vice versa. The runoff sensitivity to temperature change computed as percentage change in annual runoff per 1°C change in temperature are all declines and ranges from -1.38 to -1.54. Spatially, both higher elasticity and sensitivity (big negatives) are towards the northern part the country where elevation is more than 5000 m above sea level.

  14. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  15. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  16. Thermal acclimation of interactions: differential responses to temperature change alter predator–prey relationship

    PubMed Central

    Grigaltchik, Veronica S.; Ward, Ashley J. W.; Seebacher, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Different species respond differently to environmental change so that species interactions cannot be predicted from single-species performance curves. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific difference in the capacity for thermal acclimation modulates predator–prey interactions. Acclimation of locomotor performance in a predator (Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata) was qualitatively different to that of its prey (eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki). Warm (25°C) acclimated bass made more attacks than cold (15°C) acclimated fish regardless of acute test temperatures (10–30°C), and greater frequency of attacks was associated with increased prey capture success. However, the number of attacks declined at the highest test temperature (30°C). Interestingly, escape speeds of mosquitofish during predation trials were greater than burst speeds measured in a swimming arena, whereas attack speeds of bass were lower than burst speeds. As a result, escape speeds of mosquitofish were greater at warm temperatures (25°C and 30°C) than attack speeds of bass. The decline in the number of attacks and the increase in escape speed of prey means that predation pressure decreases at high temperatures. We show that differential thermal responses affect species interactions even at temperatures that are within thermal tolerance ranges. This thermal sensitivity of predator–prey interactions can be a mechanism by which global warming affects ecological communities. PMID:22859598

  17. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (P<0.05). In the knee extensor protocol a non-significant trend for the opposite effect was noted. The augmentation index increased significantly during the arithmetic, short static and fatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  18. Effective change management in a regional Sub-acute Ambulatory Care Services setting.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce W

    2012-02-01

    Government policies and community expectations in Australia continually lead to calls for healthcare change. These changes are often met with resistance from clinicians and managers. Making change happen requires consideration of the way policies, culture, context, shared vision and leadership can drive or impede change. This reflective case study critically investigates one change process; the evolution of a Sub-acute Ambulatory Care Services (SACS) program in an Australian regional hospital over a 3-year period. The new Community Rehabilitation Services (CRS) program evolved from a merger of Centre and Home Based Rehabilitation (CBR and HBR). Hospital amalgamations, closures and privatisation, and the Department of Health policy relating to SACS, ambulatory care and rehabilitation were some of the key elements explored in this paper. PMID:22513018

  19. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease. PMID:12929156

  20. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H

    2011-07-19

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects. PMID:21730180

  1. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L.; Stock, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects. PMID:21730180

  2. Generating a wave from a wall with changing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, A.; Tsukamoto, M.; Takahashi, S.

    2012-11-01

    Under the purpose to provide a foundation for the numerical approach, the problem of wave generation from a wall with changing temperature is considered to analytically solve the linear Boltzmann-BGK equation with diffuse reflection at a wall by successive approximation. Convergence is verified, and approximate solutions used in its proof are utilized to demonstrate its wave-like features observed in the numerical solution.

  3. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  4. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  5. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ankit; Rennhofer, Marcus; Dangel, Angelika; Duman, Bogdan; Schlosser, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 °C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 °C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  6. Molecular Changes in Sub-lesional Muscle Following Acute Phase of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Thakore, Nakul P; Samantaray, Supriti; Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Smith, Joshua A; Cox, April; Krause, James; Banik, Naren L

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the molecular changes of sublesional muscle in the acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI), a moderately severe injury (40 g cm) was induced in the spinal cord (T10 vertebral level) of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (injury) and compared with sham (laminectomy only). Rats were sacrificed at 48 h (acute) post injury, and gastrocnemius muscles were excised. Morphological examination revealed no significant changes in the muscle fiber diameter between the sham and injury rats. Western blot analyses performed on the visibly red, central portion of the gastrocnemius muscle showed significantly higher expression of muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases (muscle ring finger-1 and muscle atrophy f-box) and significantly lower expression of phosphorylated Akt-1/2/3 in the injury group compared to the sham group. Cyclooxygenase 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and caspase-1, also had a significantly higher expression in the injury group; although, the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 did not show any significant difference between the sham and injury groups. These results suggest activation of protein degradation, deactivation of protein synthesis, and development of inflammatory reaction occurring in the sublesional muscles in the acute phase of SCI before overt muscle atrophy is seen. PMID:26290268

  7. ACUTE CHANGES IN PASSIVE GLENOHUMERAL ROTATION FOLLOWING TENNIS PLAY EXPOSURE IN ELITE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, W. Ben; Myers, Natalie L.; Smith, Belinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in glenohumeral (GH) rotation especially internal rotation and total range of motion have been associated with altered GH kinematics and susceptibility to injury. Researchers have evaluated long-term change in baseball and tennis players, and short-term changes in baseball players. However, acute (short-term) changes in GH rotation have not been evaluated in tennis players. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify short-term glenohumeral rotational changes within a group of professional women's tennis players following competitive play. It was hypothesized that there would be acute alterations in passive glenohumeral internal rotation and total range of motion following episodes of tennis play. Study Design Cohort Study Methods Passive glenohumeral external rotation (GER), glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR), and total range of motion (TROM) were evaluated in a cohort of 79 professional adult female tennis players. Measurements were taken at three different time points (TP): baseline before match play (TP1), immediately after match play (TP2), and 24-hours after baseline (TP3). Results There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean GIR from TP1 (43 ± 11 °) to TP2 (39 ± 9 °) (p=0.002) and from TP1 to TP3 (38 ± 10 °) (p=0.001). All measures were at the level of minimal detectable change (MDC) (4 °) indicating clinical significance. There was a decrease in mean TROM from TP1 (146 ± 11 °) to TP2 (142 ± 12 °) (p=0.04), which was not above MDC (7 °). Subgroup analysis showed that 47% of the players demonstrated a decrease in GIR beyond MDC, and 37% demonstrated a decrease in TROM beyond MDC. GER remained unchanged across all time points (p>0.05). Conclusion Both GIR and TROM were reduced after acute exposure to tennis play. In a large subgroup of the cohort, the changes were clinically significant and approached values previously demonstrated to be associated with

  8. What matters most: Are summer stream temperatures more sensitive to changing air temperature, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated stream temperature responses to changes in both air temperature and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of air warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in air temperature will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum Temperature (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream temperature by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM temperatures relative to current temperatures, even under future climates when mean air temperatures have increased from 2 to 4 °C.

  9. A Stochastic Hourly Stream Temperature Model to Forecast Land-Use and Climate Change Effects on Temperature Threshold Exceedance Duration for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraio, J. A.; Bales, J. D.; Pandolfo, T.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in stream temperature can have significant effects on freshwater ecosystems and aquatic organisms. Direct effects of temperature on aquatic organisms are often measured by acute thermal tolerance, or LT%, over some time period (h). For example, LT50 is an average median lethal temperature where 50% of individuals in a population die. Mean daily temperature above a given 24 h LT50 does not necessarily indicate a 24 h exposure, and there is a need for hourly water temperature estimates to obtain exposure durations. We developed a stochastic hourly temperature model that provides forecasts for the probability of exceeding given threshold temperatures for specified durations (24 and 96 h). Daily mean stream temperatures from an existing model of the upper Tar River basin, North Carolina, USA, were used as input to our stochastic hourly temperature model for climate change and land-use change simulations for 2021-2030 and 2051-2060. Time series of hourly temperature data at 20 sites from July 2010 through November 2011, were used to parameterize autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) models. Parameterizations were done using site specific and basin-wide observations. The use of site-fitted parameters for ARMA simulations of hourly temperatures showed no significant differences with simulations using basin-fitted parameters. Stream temperature observations in 2010 revealed only 2 sites with temperatures above 30°C for > 24 h and temperatures were never > 31°C for more than 24 h at any site. Simulations suggest that higher temperature thresholds are likely to be exceeded for longer durations than have occurred in the past century. The probability that temperatures will exceed 32°C for at least 96 h in a given year increased from 0, at present, to 0.05 in 2021-2030 and to ~ 0.14 in 2051-2060. Simulations indicated that climate change had much greater affects on probabilities of temperature threshold exceedance for 24 and 96 h durations than land-use change

  10. Temperature Changes in Brown Adipocytes Detected with a Bimaterial Microcantilever

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaaki K.; Toda, Masaya; Inomata, Naoki; Maruyama, Hisataka; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Arai, Fumihito; Ono, Takahito; Ishijima, Akihiko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells must produce heat to maintain body temperature and support other biological activities. Methods to measure a cell’s thermogenic ability by inserting a thermometer into the cell or measuring the rate of oxygen consumption in a closed vessel can disturb its natural state. Here, we developed a noninvasive system for measuring a cell’s heat production with a bimaterial microcantilever. This method is suitable for investigating the heat-generating properties of cells in their native state, because changes in cell temperature can be measured from the bending of the microcantilever, without damaging the cell and restricting its supply of dissolved oxygen. Thus, we were able to measure increases in cell temperature of <1 K in a small number of murine brown adipocytes (n = 4–7 cells) stimulated with norepinephrine, and observed a slow increase in temperature over several hours. This long-term heat production suggests that, in addition to converting fatty acids into heat energy, brown adipocytes may also adjust protein expression to raise their own temperature, to generate more heat. We expect this bimaterial microcantilever system to prove useful for determining a cell’s state by measuring thermal characteristics. PMID:24896125

  11. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  12. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory ‘easy’ foraging environment and a ‘hard’ semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an ‘easy’ laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species. PMID:26563993

  13. Changing fitness of a necrotrophic plant pathogen under increasing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, Rosalie; Obanor, Friday; Aitken, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Sukumar

    2015-08-01

    Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to have a direct impact on plant pathogens, challenging crops and altering plant disease profiles in the future. In this study, we have investigated the effect of increasing temperature on the pathogenic fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum, an important necrotrophic plant pathogen associated with crown rot disease of wheat in Australia. Eleven wheat lines with different levels of crown rot resistance were artificially inoculated with F. pseudograminearum and maintained at four diurnal temperatures 15/15°C, 20/15°C, 25/15°C and 28/15°C in a controlled glasshouse. To quantify the success of F. pseudograminearum three fitness measures, these being disease severity, pathogen biomass in stem base and flag leaf node, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in stem base and flag leaf node of mature plants were used. F. pseudograminearum showed superior overall fitness at 15/15°C, and this was reduced with increasing temperature. Pathogen fitness was significantly influenced by the level of crown rot resistance of wheat lines, but the influence of line declined with increasing temperature. Lines that exhibited superior crown rot resistance in the field were generally associated with reduced overall pathogen fitness. However, the relative performance of the wheat lines was dependent on the measure of pathogen fitness, and lines that were associated with one reduced measure of pathogen fitness did not always reduce another. There was a strong correlation between DON in stem base tissue and disease severity, but length of browning was not a good predictor of Fusarium biomass in the stem base. We report that a combination of host resistance and rising temperature will reduce pathogen fitness under increasing temperature, but further studies combining the effect of rising CO2 are essential for more realistic assessments. PMID:25767051

  14. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  15. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-07-20

    The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  17. Assessment of acute radiation-induced pulmonary changes using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mah, K; Poon, P Y; Van Dyk, J; Keane, T; Majesky, I F; Rideout, D F

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective study of acute radiation-induced pulmonary changes, CT scans of 54 patients were performed before and at preselected times during the 6 months following fractionated radiation therapy of the thorax. The CT films were evaluated independently by three diagnostic radiologists and 36 patients were scored as having postirradiation pulmonary findings. The average interobserver agreement for this scoring was approximately 85%. The end point was observed as an increase in lung density within the irradiated volume on a follow-up CT examination. All 36 patients demonstrated lung opacities in an irregular, homogeneous, or nonhomogeneous pattern within the radiation beam boundaries. In addition, the following characteristics were observed at various frequencies in these 36 patients: extension of the changes across anatomic tissue boundaries (50%), air bronchograms (25%), loss of lung volume (15%), and pleural thickening (15%). Confinement of the findings within the irradiated volume was the only specific characteristic of postirradiation changes. In two patients the changes appeared as sharply defined, nodular opacities and were considered to be atypical of radiation damage. These were subsequently confirmed to be metastases. Prospective assessment of an adequate number of patients has helped to establish the CT appearance of acute radiation-induced pulmonary effects and, hence, to minimize its confusion with malignancies and other abnormalities. PMID:3745541

  18. Improving the estimation of historical marine surface temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.

    2015-04-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the main indicators of climate change and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) forms its marine component. Historical SST observations extend back more than 150 years and are used for monitoring climate change and variability over the oceans, for validation of climate models and to provide boundary conditions for atmospheric models. SST observations from ships form our longest instrumental record of surface marine temperature change, but over the years different methods of measuring SST have been used, each of which potentially has different biases. Changes in technology and observational practice can be rapid and undocumented: generally, it is assumed that almost all SST data collected before the 1940s were derived from bucket samples although the measurement practice is almost never known in detail. Especially prior to the 1940s where buckets measurements prevailed, SST biases are expected to be large, namely comparable to the climatic increase in the GST over the past two centuries. Currently, SST datasets use bias models representing only large-scale effects, based on 5˚ area average monthly climatological environmental conditions or on large-scale variations in air-sea temperature difference, which is also uncertain. There are major differences between the bias adjustment fields used to date, which limits our confidence in global and regional estimates of historical SST as well as in long term trends, which are expected to be controlled by uncertainty in systematic biases. The main barrier to finer-scale adjustments of SST is that information about measurement methods and ambient environmental conditions is usually insufficient. As a result, many reports cannot be confidently assigned to a particular vessel and hence, cautiously, to the same measurement methodology. Here we present a new approach to the quantification of SST biases that can be applied on a ship-by-ship basis. These ship dependent adjustments are expected to

  19. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  20. Method for Measuring Collimator-Pointing Sensitivity to Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex; Cox, Timothy E.; Hein, Randall C.; MacDonald, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of applications, it is important to measure the sensitivity of the pointing of a beam emerging from a collimator, as a function of temperature changes. A straightforward method for carrying out this measurement is based on using interferometry for monitoring the changes in beam pointing, which presents its own problems. The added temperature dependence and complexity issues relating to using an interferometer are addressed by not using an interferometer in the first place. Instead, the collimator is made part of an arrangement that uses a minimum number of low-cost, off-the-shelf materials and by using a quad diode to measure changes in beam pointing. In order to minimize the influence of the test arrangement on the outcome of the measurement, several steps are taken. The collimator assembly is placed on top of a vertical, 1-m-long, fused silica tube. The quad diode is bonded to a fused silica bar, which, in turn, is bonded to the lower end of the fused silica tube. The lower end of the tube rests on a self-aligning support piece, while the upper end of the tube is kept against two rounded setscrew tips, using a soft rubber string. This ensures that very little stress is applied to the tube as the support structure changes dimensions due to thermal expansion. Light is delivered to the collimator through a bare fiber in order to minimize variable bending torque caused by a randomly relaxing, rigid fiber jacket. In order to separate the effect of temperature on the collimator assembly from the effect temperature has on the rest of the setup, multiple measurements are taken with the collimator assembly rotated from measurement to measurement. Laboratory testing, with 1-m spacing between the collimator and the quad diode, has shown that the sensitivity of the arrangement is better than 100 nm rms, over time spans of at least one hour, if the beam path is protected from atmospheric turbulence by a tube. The equivalent sensitivity to detecting changes in

  1. Temperature changes along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yanez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Salat, J.; Pascual, J.

    2003-04-01

    Temperature and salinity of intermediate and deep waters of the western Mediterranean have rised during the XX century. These changes are well documented in the specialised literature (Bethoux et al., 1998, Rholing and Bryden, 1992, Tsimplis and Baker, 2000). Nevertheless it is not yet clear whether these changes are due to global warming and a change in the deep water formation conditions in the western Mediterranean or if it is imported from the eastern basin. In the second case, an increase of salinity of the eastern basin due to damming of the main rivers would be the main cause. Trend detection in coastal waters where intermediate waters influence is negligible, would help to clarify this problem. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to detect significant trends in coastal waters due to the intense noise and seasonal cycles superimposed to these trends (if existing). The number of degrees of freedom needed for the significant detection is higher and regular sampling programs are needed. Unfortunately, standard stations periodically sampled are scarce. Here we present results from two of these periodic programs conducted by IEO and ICM along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf (RADIALES project and L'startit coastal station). This work is divided into two parts. The first one is devoted to the revision of the main hypothesis involved in the statistic treatment of time series, such as normal distribution, independence of residuals, seasonal cycles removing, etc...., while the second part will focus on the comparison of time series along the Spanish coast, the study of temperature trends and its possible relation with NAO index. The most striking result is the detection of a intense warming trend which is common to the north-western and south-western stations for the last part of the XX century. Bibliography. Bethoux, J.P., B. Gentili, D. Taillez, warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect

  2. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  3. Northwestern Pacific Typhoon Intensity Controlled by Changes in Ocean Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, W.; Xie, S. P.; Primeau, F.; McWilliams, J. C.; Pasquero, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate (i.e., RCP 4.5) climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100.

  4. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  5. Acute ozone-induced change in airway permeability: role of infiltrating leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, S.R.; Hudak, B.B. )

    1992-02-01

    The role of infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in acute lung injury and inflammation is still controversial. In inbred mice, acute ozone (O3) exposure induces airway inflammation that is characterized by a maximal influx of lavageable PMNs 6 h after exposure and a maximal increase in lung permeability 24 h after O3. We tested the hypothesis that O3-induced change in airway epithelial permeability of O3-susceptible C57BL/6J mice is due to infiltrating PMNs. Male mice (6-8 wk) were treated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin), a chemotactic inhibitor (colchicine), or an immunosuppressant (cyclophosphamide) to deplete or inhibit PMNs from infiltrating the airways. After drug or vehicle treatment, mice were exposed for 3 h to 2 ppm O3 or filtered air, and pulmonary inflammation was assessed by inflammatory cell counts and total protein content (a marker of airway permeability) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Filtered air exposure did not affect the parameters of pulmonary inflammation at any time after exposure. Compared with vehicle controls, each of the drug treatments resulted in significant reduction of PMN influx 6 and 24 h after O3. However, total BAL protein content was not attenuated significantly by the three treatments at either 6 or 24 h postexposure. Results of these experiments suggest that the influx of PMNs and the change in total BAL protein are not mutually dependent events in this model and suggest that infiltrating PMNs do not play a major role in acute O3-induced changes in permeability of the murine lung.

  6. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  7. Changes of hepatic lactoferrin gene expression in two mouse models of the acute phase reaction.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ghayyor; Sial, Gull Zareen Khan; Ramadori, Pierluigi; Dudas, Jozsef; Batusic, Danko S; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2011-12-01

    Lactoferrin (Ltf), an iron binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic molecule whose serum concentration increases under acute phase conditions. The physiological roles of this protein have been well elucidated, but the source and serum regulation of Ltf gene expression have not been investigated in detail as part of the acute phase reaction (APR). In the current work, the changes in hepatic Ltf-gene-expression during turpentine oil- (TO-) or LPS-induced APR were investigated. Ltf was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in the liver of TO- and LPS-treated wild type (WT) mice. The pattern of induction however was different in both animal models indicating distinctive signalling patterns resulting in an acute phase reaction. Cytokines are the core regulators of APR. Among the major cytokines, IL-6 is an important signalling molecule, which also regulates iron homeostasis in response to an inflammatory situation. In this study, the administration of IL-6 induced Ltf gene expression in the liver of WT mice, in murine hepatocytes and in hepa 1-6 cells. Ltf-gene-expression was upregulated also in the liver of TO- and LPS-treated IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. The increase in serum Ltf after LPS injection was greater than after TO-injection both in WT and IL-6-KO mice. To evaluate the contribution of other acute phase cytokines in the regulation of Ltf-gene-expression in the liver, both in vitro and in vivo studies with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ were performed. The results demonstrate that TNF-α and IFN-γ also upregulated Ltf-gene-expression, while IL-1β has no role in the regulation of Ltf-gene-expression. PMID:21963450

  8. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress - which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population - are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  9. Acute effects of air pollution changes in schoolchildren: the Gardanne coal basin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpin, D.; Kleisbauer, J. P.; Fondarai, A.; Francheterre, A.; Fondarai, J.; Graland, B.; Viala, A.

    1988-12-01

    In the literature, studies devoted to shortterm effects of air pollution episodes in children have provided controversial results. To evaluate if acute air pollution changes in the Gardanne coal basin (France) could have deleterious effects on children's pulmonary function, we studied 160 children on two different days. Each in-school examination consisted of a short questionnaire and a spirometric assessment. The area included districts of high and low pollution levels. In the former, the two examinations took place at different air pollution levels whereas, in the latter, the air pollution levels were comparable. We obtained higher spirometric values during the second examination, regardless of air pollution changes and suggesting a learning effect, which vanished when we used FEV1/FVC ratio. The difference in FEV1/FVC between days of low and high pollution was significant but merely equal to 2%. There was no change of clinical symptom score.

  10. Change Trajectories: Children's Patterns of Improvement in Acute-Stay Inpatient Care.

    PubMed

    Leon, Scott C; Miller, Steven A; Stoner, Alison M; Fuller, Anne; Rolnik, Ashley

    2016-04-01

    This study estimated classes of children's acute-stay psychiatric acuity trajectories in terms of shape (i.e., linear, quadratic, cubic) and rate of change (slope). A total of 788 children served on three child units (ages 4-12) were studied. The Children's Acuity of Psychiatric Illness (CAPI) was completed each weekday by trained frontline staff on the milieu. Latent class growth analysis was applied to the data, and seven acuity trajectory classes provided the most parsimonious fit. Four classes evidenced a significant quadratic term, one class a significant linear term, and two classes did not evidence a significant change in acuity. The classes varied in survival time to rehospitalization, in pre-treatment community service use and rates of seclusion, restraint, and emergency medications during the episode. Overall, the results suggest that acute-stay patients may have distinct and identifiable psychiatric acuity change patterns during their episodes and that some may experience non-linear (i.e., quadratic) acuity trajectories. PMID:25073517

  11. Morphologic Changes in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Bin; Chung, Hyewon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate morphologic changes of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Methods This retrospective study included 63 eyes of 63 patients with unilateral acute CSC. All patients underwent simultaneous SD-OCT and fluorescein angiography examination using Spectralis HRA+OCT. Results The external limiting membrane could be seen on SD-OCT, although the junction between photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) was not detected in all eyes with retinal detachment (RD). However, IS/OS became visible after resolution of serous RD in 51 eyes (81.0%). SD-OCT images at the leakage sites showed a bump of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in in 47 cases (68.1%) and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in 22 of 69 leakage sites (31.9%). In 14 of 69 leakage sites (20.3%), highly reflective areas suggesting fibrinous exudate were observed in the subretinal space. In nine leakage sites (13.0%), sagging or dipping of the posterior retinal layer was seen. Abnormal RPE changes such as RPE bump and PED were observed in 12 of 22 fellow eyes (54.5%). Conclusions A variety of morphologic changes could be identified on SD-OCT, and those findings may contribute more information to our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSC. PMID:23060721

  12. Changing Paradigms for Acute Dental Pain: Prevention Is Better Than PRN.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Raymond A; Gordon, Sharon M

    2015-11-01

    A B S T R A C T The drugs available for the management of acute orofacial pain have changed very little since the introduction of ibuprofen into practice 40 years ago. Orally effective opioids, acetaminophen, aspirin and NSAIDs remain the mainstay of analgesic therapy. Increased recognition of the societal and personal impact of opioid diversion and abuse requires re-examination of the traditional approach of prescribing an opioid-containing analgesic combination to be administered by the patient "as needed" (PRN) starting postoperatively. PMID:26798882

  13. Brain white matter changes during treatment of a child for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Miho; Hayakawa, Jun; Ueda, Takahiro; Migita, Makoto; Asano, Takeshi; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Amano, Yasuo

    2005-10-01

    A 13-year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had bilateral paresis of the upper extremities and aphasia 1 week after high dose methotrexate and triple intrathecal therapy (methotrexate, cytarabin, hydrocortisone). The stroke-like neurological symptoms disappeared on the third day. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensities of white matter on the second day. Despite resolution of the neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance images were still abnormal 3 years after the attack. Methotrexate has been considered to be responsible for ischemic damage to oligodendroglial cells, resulting in demyelination. The changes are occasionally prolonged without persistent neurologic symptoms. PMID:16247223

  14. Temperature changes in spectral characteristics of electrons in metallic lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.A.

    1995-12-01

    Self-consistent calculations of the electron energy structure in metallic lithium are performed taking into account atomic vibrations in the crystal lattice. A satisfactory agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is achieved. The most significant changes in the electron spectrum of lithium revealed with rising temperature are as follows: (1) shift and broadening of core states of the 1s-asymmetry and (2) transition of outer electrons of the 2s-symmetry to the states of the 2p-symmetry leading to strengthening of the directional bonds. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Repeat temperature measurements in boreholes from northwestern Utah link ground and air temperature changes at the decadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael G.; Harris, Robert N.; Chapman, David S.

    2010-05-01

    Borehole temperature profiles provide a record of ground surface temperature (GST) change at the decadal to centennial time scale. GST histories reconstructed from boreholes are particularly useful in climate reconstruction if changes in GST and surface air temperature (SAT) are effectively coupled at decadal and longer time periods and it can be shown that borehole temperatures respond faithfully to surface temperature changes. We test these assumptions using three boreholes in northwestern Utah that have been repeatedly logged for temperature over a time span of 29 years. We report 13 temperature-depth logs at the Emigrant Pass Observatory borehole GC-1, eight at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, acquired between 1978 and 2007. Systematic subsurface temperature changes of up to 0.6°C are observed over this time span in the upper sections of the boreholes; below approximately 100 m any temperature transients are within observational noise. We difference the temperature logs to highlight subsurface transients and to remove any ambiguity resulting from steady state source of curvature. Synthetic temperature profiles computed from SAT data at nearby meteorological stations reproduce both the amplitude and pattern of the transient temperature observations, fitting the observations to within 0.03°C or better. This observational confirmation of the strong coupling between surface temperature change and borehole temperature transients lends further support to the use of borehole temperatures to complement SAT and multiproxy reconstructions of climate change.

  16. Changes in cochlear function during acute endolymphatic hydrops development in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel J; Chihara, Yasuhiro; Curthoys, Ian S; Wang, Yuan; Bos, Marieke

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have injected artificial endolymph into scala media in anaesthetized guinea pigs as an acute model of endolymphatic hydrops. Here, we have injected artificial endolymph into scala media in guinea pigs at rates of 40-80 nl/min, whilst monitoring Compound Action Potential (CAP) thresholds, the Summating Potential (SP)/CAP ratio, Cochlear Microphonic (CM) distortion, low-frequency modulated Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs), and the Endocochlear Potential (EP). We found that abrupt recovery of CAP thresholds, SP/CAP ratio, and CM and DPOAE asymmetric distortion could occur several times during a single injection of less than 3 μl, suggesting that endolymph pressure could periodically decrease while the injection was ongoing. Larger volumes are thought to produce a rupture of the membranous labyrinth, however, our results suggest that multiple injections, each larger than 3 μl and within 40 min of each other, cause multiple pressure-related changes, which are difficult to be explained on the basis of a simple labyrinth rupture. We have also examined the morphological changes of the temporal bones ex vivo using X-ray micro-tomography. Both the functional changes and the micro-CT images suggest ruptures of the membranous labyrinth may not always be responsible for abrupt changes in inner ear function. Our results provide a new insight into the changes in cochlear function occurring during acute hydrops development, which compares well to the clinical findings observed in Ménière's Disease. We suggest that hydrops development may be a continual process, yet cause discontinuous functional changes due to mechanisms other than a simple rupture of the membranous labyrinth. PMID:23270618

  17. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  18. Sensitivity of Local Temperature CDFs to Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, D.; Chapman, S. C.; Watkins, N. W.

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of climate to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases at the global scale has been much studied [Knutti and Hegerl 2008, and references therein]. Scientific information to support climate change adaptation activities, however, is often sought at regional or local scales; the scales on which most adaptation decisions are made. Information on these scales is most often based on simulations of complex climate models [Murphy et al. 2009, Tebaldi et al. 2005] and have questionable reliability [Stainforth et al., 2007]. Rather than using data derived or obtained from models we focus on observational timeseries to evaluate the sensitivity of different parts of the local climatic distribution. Such an approach has many advantages: it avoids issues relating to model imperfections [Stainforth et al. 2007], it can be focused on decision relevant thresholds [e.g. Porter and Semenov, 2005], and it inherently integrates information relating to local climatic influences. Taking a timeseries of local daily temperatures for various locations across the United Kingdom we extract the changing cumulative distribution functions over time. We present a simple mathematical deconstruction of how two different observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural variability and/or the consequences of climate change. Using this deconstruction we analyse the changing shape of the distributions and thus the sensitivity of different quartiles of the distribution. These sensitivities are found to be both regionally consistent and geographically varying across the United Kingdom; as one would expect given the different influences on local climate between, say, Western Scotland and South East England. We nevertheless find a common pattern of increased sensitivity in the 60th to 80th percentiles; above the mean but below the greatest extremes. The method has the potential to be applied to many other variables in addition to temperature and to

  19. Effects of acute nicotine on prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Minori; Tsuruhara, Aki; Motomura, Eishi; Tanii, Hisashi; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2013-11-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is a measure of inhibitory function in which a weak leading stimulus suppresses the startle response to an intense stimulus. Usually, startle blink reflexes to an intense sound are used for measuring PPI. A recent magnetoencephalographic study showed that a similar phenomenon is observed for auditory change-related cortical response (Change-N1m) to an abrupt change in sound features. It has been well established that nicotine enhances PPI of startle. Therefore, in the present magnetoencephalographic study, the effects of acute nicotine on PPI of the Change-N1m were studied in 12 healthy subjects (two females and 10 males) under a repeated measures and placebo-controlled design. Nicotine (4 mg) was given as nicotine gum. The test Change-N1m response was elicited with an abrupt increase in sound pressure by 6 dB in a continuous background sound of 65 dB. PPI was produced by an insertion of a prepulse with a 3-dB-louder or 6-dB-weaker sound pressure than the background 75 ms before the test stimulus. Results show that nicotine tended to enhance the test Change-N1m response and significantly enhanced PPI for both prepulses. Therefore, nicotine's enhancing effect on PPI of the Change-N1m was similar to that on PPI of the startle. The present results suggest that the two measures share at least some mechanisms. PMID:23933145

  20. A new approach to quantifying soil temperature responses to changing air temperature and snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackiewicz, Michael C.

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal snow cover provides an effective insulating barrier, separating shallow soil (0.25 m) from direct localized meteorological conditions. The effectiveness of this barrier is evident in a lag in the soil temperature response to changing air temperature. The causal relationship between air and soil temperatures is largely because of the presence or absence of snow cover, and is frequently characterized using linear regression analysis. However, the magnitude of the dampening effect of snow cover on the temperature response in shallow soils is obscured in linear regressions. In this study the author used multiple linear regression (MLR) with dummy predictor variables to quantify the degree of dampening between air and shallow soil temperatures in the presence and absence of snow cover at four Greenland sites. The dummy variables defining snow cover conditions were z = 0 for the absence of snow and z = 1 for the presence of snow cover. The MLR was reduced to two simple linear equations that were analyzed relative to z = 0 and z = 1 to enable validation of the selected equations. Compared with ordinary linear regression of the datasets, the MLR analysis yielded stronger coefficients of multiple determination and less variation in the estimated regression variables.

  1. Cholera toxin effects on body temperature changes induced by morphine.

    PubMed

    Basilico, L; Parenti, M; Fumagalli, A; Parolaro, D; Giagnoni, G

    1997-03-01

    The present study evaluates the influence of cholera toxin and its B-subunit on thermic responses to morphine in the rats. The holotoxin (1 microg/rat) and the B-subunit (5 microg) were administered ICV and three days later rats were challenged ICV with morphine and tested for changes of body temperature. Cholera toxin, but not its B-subunit, modified the time course of the hyperthermic response induced by a low dose of morphine (2.5 microg), converted the hypothermia due to a higher dose of morphine (18 microg) to a consistent hyperthermia and only partially reduced the greater hypothermia induced by 36 microg of morphine. Cholera toxin-induced modifications of thermic responses to morphine were paralleled with a decreased Gs(alpha) immunoreactivity and a reduced ability for the toxin to catalyse the "in vitro" ADP-ribosylation of Gs(alpha) in hypothalamic membranes. In contrast, at the same time when morphine-induced effects on body temperature were assessed, no changes in pertussis toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation of Gi(alpha)/Go(alpha), or basal adenylate cyclase activity, or binding of mu-opioid receptor selective ligand [3H]-DAMGO were observed in hypothalamic areas from rats treated with cholera toxin. These findings suggest that adaptative events secondary to prolonged activation of Gs(alpha) play a role in the modifications of thermic responses to morphine induced by CTX. PMID:9077589

  2. Cerebral blood flow changes with acute cocaine intoxication: clinical correlations with SPECT, CT, and MRI.

    PubMed

    Mena, I; Giombetti, R J; Miller, B L; Garrett, K; Villanueva-Meyer, J; Mody, C; Goldberg, M A

    1994-01-01

    In summary, these data suggest that widespread primary or secondary cerebral vasoconstriction is common in patients with neurological complications from cocaine. In most patients, SPECT showed wide-spread hypoperfusion in regions that had no clear clinical significance (e.g., the periventricular area). In many, the SPECT was performed more than 24 hours after the onset of neurological symptomatology. These findings raise several questions. It has been assumed that these SPECT changes in patients with acute neurological symptoms are temporary, although it will be important to determine whether these areas of hypoperfusion persist after symptoms have abated. Recently, Holman and colleagues (1991) found multifocal and deep areas of hypoperfusion with SPECT in 16 of 18 patients with a history of chronic cocaine abuse. Although most of the subjects tested positive for cocaine, several had abstained from cocaine use for weeks prior to the study. All 18 subjects had neuropsychological deficits, 13 mild and 5 moderate. Similarly, Pascual-Leone and colleagues (1991) have shown that CT scan atrophy strongly correlates with the duration of cocaine abuse, suggesting that brain injury may occur with continued use of cocaine. It is the authors' concern that cocaine abuse might produce permanent changes in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, brain SPECT was found to be a useful procedure in the evaluation of acute cocaine intoxication. Brain SPECT revealed focal cortical lesions not seen on head CT or MRI, which corresponded to clinical deficits. In addition, [99mTc]HMPAO brain SPECT had a characteristic scalloped appearance, and this may be a marker for acute intoxication with cocaine. This study further supports the contention that cocaine causes neurological disease by its vasoconstrictive action. PMID:7603541

  3. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes observed in Modena, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccolari, M.; Malmusi, S.

    2013-03-01

    Climate changes has become one of the most analysed subjects from researchers community, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that hit the globe. To have a better view of climate changes and trends, long observations time series are needed. During last decade a lot of Italian time series, concerning several surface meteorological variables, have been analysed and published. No one of them includes one of the longest record in Italy, the time series of the Geophysical Observatory of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Measurements, collected since early 19th century, always in the same position, except for some months during the second world war, embrace daily temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, pressure, cloudiness and other variables. In this work we concentrated on the analysis of yearly and seasonal trends and climate extremes of temperature, both minimum and maximum, and precipitation time series, for the periods 1861-2010 and 1831-2010 respectively, in which continuous measurements are available. In general, our results confirm quite well those reported by IPCC and in many other studies over Mediterranean area. In particular, we found that minimum temperature has a non significant positive trend of + 0.1 °C per decade considering all the period, the value increases to 0.9 °C per decade for 1981-2010. For maximum temperature we observed a non significant + 0.1 °C trend for all the period, while + 0.8 °C for the last thirty years. On the other hand precipitation is decreasing, -6.3 mm per decade, considering all the analysed period, while the last thirty years are characterised by a great increment of 74.8 mm per decade. For both variables several climate indices have been analysed and they confirm what has been found for minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation. In particular, during last 30 years frost days and ice days are decreasing, whereas summer days are increasing. During the last 30-year tropical nights

  4. Acute changes in forearm venous volume and tone using radionuclide plethysmography

    SciTech Connect

    Manyari, D.E.; Malkinson, T.J.; Robinson, V.; Smith, E.R.; Cooper, K.E.

    1988-10-01

    In this investigation blood pool scintigraphy was validated as a method to study acute changes in human forearm veins. Changes in regional forearm vascular volume (capacity) and the occluding pressure-volume (P-V) relationship induced by sublingual nifedipine (NIF) and nitroglycerin (GTN) were recorded in 16 patients with simultaneous data collection by the radionuclide and the mercury-in-rubber strain-gauge techniques. The standard error of estimate (Syx) between successive control measurements using the radionuclide method was 3.1% compared with 3.2% for the strain-gauge method. The venous P-V curves were highly reproducible using both techniques. Strain gauge and radionuclide measurements of acute changes in forearm venous volume correlated well (r = 0.86; Syx = 7%, n = 156). After 20 mg of NIF or 0.6 mg of GTN, mean heart rate increased from 71 +/- 10 to 77 +/- 9 and from 68 +/- 10 to 75 +/- 11 beats/min, respectively, and group systolic blood pressure decreased from 128 +/- 22 to 120 +/- 19 and from 136 +/- 18 to 126 +/- 23 mmHg, respectively (P less than 0.05). At venous occluding pressures of 0 and 30 mmHg, the forearm vascular volume did not change after NIF (2 +/- 4 and -1 +/- 4%; P greater than 0.05), whereas it increased after GTN (8 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 7%; P less than 0.001). The forearm venous P-V relationship did not change after NIF, whereas a significant rightward shift (venodilation, with an increase in unstressed volume) occurred after GTN.

  5. Low temperature induced changes in gene expression in low temperature-sensitive and -tolerant tomatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallejos, C.E.; Camp, S.F. )

    1989-04-01

    The objective of this project is to identify genes that control low temperature (LT) tolerance/acclimation in a high altitude ecotype of the wild tomato L. hirsutum. LT induced changes in gene expression were monitored via 2-D gel electrophoresis and fluorography of radiolabeled in vitro translation products. Two types of changes were detected when both LT-sensitive (L. esculentum, L. hirsutum 100m) and LT-tolerant (L. hirsutum 3100m) genotypes were exposed to 6{degrees}C for 12 h in the dark: (a) specific LT induction or up-regulation or up-regulation of some genes; and (b) changes in the turnover rate of day specific mRNA's. Increased exposure lead to the disappearance of some mRNA's. These comparisons will lead to the identification of mRNA's involved in acclimation, and those involved in stress response.

  6. Cognitive changes in patients with acute phase psychosis--effects of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Helle, Siri; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2014-12-30

    Illicit drug use may influence cognition in non-affective psychosis. Previous studies have shown better cognition in psychosis with illicit drug use as compared to psychosis only. Possibly, illicit drug using patients have more transient drug-related cognitive deficits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine cognitive change the first weeks after admission to a psychiatric emergency ward, expecting more cognitive improvement at follow-up in the illicit drug group as compared to psychosis only. Patients with acute non-affective psychosis with (26%) and without illicit drug use were examined at baseline (n=123) and follow-up (n=67), with alternative forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Latent Growth Curve models, controlling for cognition at baseline and age differences between the groups, were used to analyze cognitive change. The illicit drug using patients showed the largest improvement in cognition, especially among the youngest patients. Younger patients with non-affective psychosis and illicit drug use showed more cognitive improvement the first weeks after acute psychosis as compared to psychosis only. This suggests that the illicit drug users constitute a sub-group with less stable cognitive deficits and less cognitive vulnerability. PMID:25240944

  7. Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726

  8. Acute changes in liver tumour perfusion measured non-invasively with arterial spin labelling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S Peter; Ramasawmy, Rajiv; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Wells, Jack A; Robson, Mathew; Rajkumar, Vineeth; Lythgoe, Mark F; Pedley, R Barbara; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive measures of tumour vascular perfusion are desirable, in order to assess response to vascular targeting (or modifying) therapies. In this study, hepatic arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated to measure acute changes in perfusion of colorectal cancer in the liver, in response to vascular disruption therapy with OXi4503. Methods: SW1222 and LS174T tumours were established in the liver of MF1 nu/nu mice via intrasplenic injection. Perfusion and R2* MRI measurements were acquired with an Agilent 9.4T horizontal bore scanner, before and at 90 min after 40 mg kg−1 OXi4503. Results: A significant decrease in SW1222 tumour perfusion was observed (−43±33%, P<0.005). LS174T tumours had a significantly lower baseline level of perfusion. Intrinsic susceptibility MRI showed a significant increase in R2* in LS174T tumours (28±25%, P<0.05). An association was found between the change in tumour perfusion and the proximity to large vessels, with pre-treatment blood flow predictive of subsequent response. Histological evaluation confirmed the onset of necrosis and evidence of heterogeneous response between tumour deposits. Conclusions: Hepatic ASL-MRI can detect acute response to targeted tumour vascular disruption entirely non-invasively. Hepatic ASL of liver tumours has potential for use in a clinical setting. PMID:27031853

  9. Transient Muscarinic and Glutamatergic Stimulation of Neural Stem Cells Trigger Acute and Persistent Changes in Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Ranmal A.; Kanuparthi, Prasad S.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; DeFranco, Donald B.; Di Maio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    While aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation may contribute to epileptogenesis, the mechanisms linking an initial epileptic insult to subsequent changes in cell fate remain elusive. Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), we found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall neurogenesis but enhanced NPSC differentiation into immature GABAergic cells. If treated NPSCs were further passaged, they retained a nearly identical phenotype upon differentiation. A similar profusion of immature GABAergic cells was seen in rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed abnormal de-synchrony of Ca++ transients and altered gap junction intercellular communication following combined muscarinic/glutamatergic stimulation, which was associated with either acute site-specific dephosphorylation of connexin 43 or a long-term enhancement of its degradation. Therefore, epileptogenic stimuli can trigger acute and persistent changes in cell fate by altering distinct mechanisms that function to maintain appropriate intercellular communication between coupled NPSCs. PMID:25003306

  10. Transient muscarinic and glutamatergic stimulation of neural stem cells triggers acute and persistent changes in differentiation.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Ranmal A; Kanuparthi, Prasad S; Timothy Greenamyre, J; DeFranco, Donald B; Di Maio, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    While aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation may contribute to epileptogenesis, the mechanisms linking an initial epileptic insult to subsequent changes in cell fate remain elusive. Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), we found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall neurogenesis but enhanced NPSC differentiation into immature GABAergic cells. If treated NPSCs were further passaged, they retained a nearly identical phenotype upon differentiation. A similar profusion of immature GABAergic cells was seen in rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed abnormal de-synchrony of Ca(++) transients and altered gap junction intercellular communication following combined muscarinic/glutamatergic stimulation, which was associated with either acute site-specific dephosphorylation of connexin 43 or a long-term enhancement of its degradation. Therefore, epileptogenic stimuli can trigger acute and persistent changes in cell fate by altering distinct mechanisms that function to maintain appropriate intercellular communication between coupled NPSCs. PMID:25003306

  11. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Michelle T.; Gould, James C.; Salyer, Sarah A.; Isaacs, Susan; Wilkey, Daniel W.; Merchant, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG) growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎) conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1) proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2) proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB), supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase), suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis. PMID:26839892

  12. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells.

    PubMed

    Barati, Michelle T; Gould, James C; Salyer, Sarah A; Isaacs, Susan; Wilkey, Daniel W; Merchant, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG) growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG(⁎)) conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1) proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2) proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB), supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase), suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis. PMID:26839892

  13. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  14. Surface roughness change on sandstone induced by temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcko, J.; Kompanikova, Z.; Gomez-Heras, M.; Greif, V.; Durmekova, T.; Brcek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Optical surface profilometer allows capturing the information necessary to provide 3D surface measurements in a single image acquisition with a vertical micrometric resolution. The surface topography can be used for analyses, such as roughness evaluation. In this research, roughness changes of two types of sandstone samples were studied before and after heating to 60, 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. Measurements obtained were converted into 3D 5 mm x 5 mm (25 mm2) topographic maps with a resolution of 2.5 µm. Surface roughness parameter Sq represents quantifies roughness from the maximum deviation along a mean surface and it is calculated as the root mean squared of five peaks and valleys of the specimen using Gaussian filter and 0.80 mm cut-off. The high spatial resolution obtained from visible-light optical surface profilometer is an ideal tool for observing rock surface alterations caused by decay factors. The authors present complete original process of surface roughness determination on rock samples adopting the portable profilometer using free accessible software packages. The different stability of the fabric of sandstones from Králiky and Oravská Jasenica after heating is due to their different mineral composition and different ratio of minerals that are more or less chemically stable at high temperatures, their resistance to thermal stress and other textural factors related to the distribution of grains and matrix. Percentage of minerals chemically stable at higher temperature, such as quartz, calcite, illite and muscovite, in fresh sandstone samples from Králiky is approximately 48%. Conversely, sandstones from Oravská Jasenica have significantly greater percentage of minerals stable at higher temperatures, such as quartz, albite, orthoclase, muscovite, illite and calcite than of other, less stable, minerals such as chlorite, biotite and kaolinite. Hence, percentage of minerals stable at higher temperatures was approximately 81 %. The results show how the

  15. Acute Heat-Evoked Temperature Sensation Is Impaired but Not Abolished in Mice Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  16. Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

    2012-12-01

    are less certain in 1905 and 2005. Interestingly, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index underwent major changes around 1940-1950 and 1974-1984, i.e. the time of the breaks in slope of the T curve, suggesting a good correlation at the multi-decadal scale between the derivatives of T and PDO index. Therefore, one may speculate that the Earth's climate system may have entered a new multi-decadal regime in the last years of the 20th century and we should expect global temperature to remain constant or decrease slightly while the PDO index remains dominantly negative up to about 2030.

  17. Long-term change in thermospheric temperature above Saint Santin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, J. K.; Wellman, T. J.; Oliver, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    The 1966-1987 Saint Santin/Nançay incoherent scatter radar database is analyzed to determine long-term trends beyond those associated with the "natural" variations of solar and magnetic activity, season, and time of day. Trends averaging some -3 K/yr are found in the F region. Positive trends in the E region may be explained by the subsidence of an overlying warmer regime of air. The trend line seems to change slope around the "breakpoint" year 1979, with the cooling changing from -0.8 K/yr before that time to -5.5 K/yr afterward at 350 km altitude. These trends greatly exceed those predicted by model simulations for increases in greenhouse gas concentrations. Further, carbon dioxide shows no such breakpoint year, but ozone does, near the time of the change in thermospheric trend, and a surface climatic regime shift has also been reported near this time. It is not clear that greenhouse gases are driving the long-term trend in thermospheric temperature. Restriction of analysis to a particular time of day results in greatly different trends, from near zero at midnight to -6 K/yr at noon at 350 km altitude. A separate analysis to determine the long-term trend in the amplitude of the 24 h tide at 350 km altitude shows a large change, with the amplitude diminishing from 136 K in 1966 to 89 K in 1988. Our results show the great need to remove all other natural variations from long-term data sets in determining long-term trends to avoid great ambiguity in trend interpretation.

  18. Analyzing Dynamic Changes of Laboratory Indexes in Patients with Acute Heart Failure Based on Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yurong; Fu, Lei; Jia, Qian; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Chunyan; Huang, Xueliang; He, Kunlun; Tian, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Changes of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been studied whether in the long term or the short term in patients of acute heart failure (AHF); however, changes of NT-proBNP in the first five days and their association with other factors have not been investigated. Aims. To describe the dynamic changes of relevant laboratory indexes in the first five days between different outcomes of AHF patients and their associations. Methods and Results. 284 AHF with dynamic values recorded were analyzed. Changes of NT-proBNP, troponin T, and C-reactive protein were different between patients with different outcomes, with higher values in adverse group than in control group at the same time points (p < 0.05). Then, prognostic use and risk stratification of NT-proBNP were assessed by receiver-operating characteristic curve and logistic regression. NT-proBNP levels at day 3 showed the best prognostic power (area under the curve = 0.730, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.657 to 0.794) and was an independent risk factor for adverse outcome (odds ratio, OR: 2.185, 95% CI: 1.584–3.015). Classified changes of NT-proBNP may be predictive for adverse outcomes in AHF patients. Conclusions. Sequential monitoring of laboratory indexes within the first 5 days may be helpful for management of AHF patients. PMID:27144175

  19. Changes in IgG and total plasma protein glycomes in acute systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Novokmet, Mislav; Lukić, Edita; Vučković, Frano; –Durić, Željko; Keser, Toma; Rajšl, Katarina; Remondini, Daniel; Castellani, Gastone; Gašparović, Hrvoje; Gornik, Olga; Lauc, Gordan

    2014-01-01

    Recovery after cardiac surgery is a complex process that has to compensate for both individual variability and extensive tissue damage in the context of systemic inflammation. Protein glycosylation is essential in many steps of the inflammatory cascade, but due to technological limitations the role of individual variation in glycosylation in systemic inflammation has not been addressed until now. We analysed composition of the total plasma and IgG N-glycomes in 107 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In nearly all individuals plasma N-glycome underwent the same pattern of changes in the first 72 h, revealing a general mechanism of glycosylation changes. To the contrary, changes in the IgG glycome were very individualized. Bi-clustering analysis revealed the existence of four distinct patterns of changes. One of them, characterized by a rapid increase in galactosylated glycoforms, was associated with nearly double mortality risk measured by EuroSCORE II. Our results indicate that individual variation in IgG glycosylation changes during acute systemic inflammation associates with increased mortality risk and indicates new avenues for the development of personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:24614541

  20. Analyzing Dynamic Changes of Laboratory Indexes in Patients with Acute Heart Failure Based on Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yurong; Fu, Lei; Jia, Qian; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Chunyan; Huang, Xueliang; He, Kunlun; Tian, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Changes of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been studied whether in the long term or the short term in patients of acute heart failure (AHF); however, changes of NT-proBNP in the first five days and their association with other factors have not been investigated. Aims. To describe the dynamic changes of relevant laboratory indexes in the first five days between different outcomes of AHF patients and their associations. Methods and Results. 284 AHF with dynamic values recorded were analyzed. Changes of NT-proBNP, troponin T, and C-reactive protein were different between patients with different outcomes, with higher values in adverse group than in control group at the same time points (p < 0.05). Then, prognostic use and risk stratification of NT-proBNP were assessed by receiver-operating characteristic curve and logistic regression. NT-proBNP levels at day 3 showed the best prognostic power (area under the curve = 0.730, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.657 to 0.794) and was an independent risk factor for adverse outcome (odds ratio, OR: 2.185, 95% CI: 1.584-3.015). Classified changes of NT-proBNP may be predictive for adverse outcomes in AHF patients. Conclusions. Sequential monitoring of laboratory indexes within the first 5 days may be helpful for management of AHF patients. PMID:27144175

  1. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982–2012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: −0.91°C and −0.68°C lat−1, respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: −0.28, −0.29, −0.32°C lat−1, respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3–10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6–47°S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (−0.3 to −1.7°C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (−10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (42–60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26–35°N, −0.5 to −2.2°C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change

  2. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Petrina; Lye, David C.; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Cheung, Carol Y.; Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua G.; Agrawal, Rupesh; Li, Ling-Jun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Gan, Victor C.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Teoh, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p < 0.001; 227.7 μm vs 212.8 μm, p < 0.001; respectively), higher arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions (1.271 vs 1.249, p = 0.002; 1.268 vs. 1.230, p < 0.001, respectively), higher arteriolar and venular tortuosity (0.730 vs 0.546 [x104], p < 0.001; 0.849 vs 0.658 [x104], p < 0.001; respectively), compared to controls. Resolution of acute dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system. PMID:26603217

  3. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Petrina; Lye, David C; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Cheung, Carol Y; Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua G; Agrawal, Rupesh; Li, Ling-Jun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Gan, Victor C; Leo, Yee-Sin; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p < 0.001; 227.7 μm vs 212.8 μm, p < 0.001; respectively), higher arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions (1.271 vs 1.249, p = 0.002; 1.268 vs. 1.230, p < 0.001, respectively), higher arteriolar and venular tortuosity (0.730 vs 0.546 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; 0.849 vs 0.658 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; respectively), compared to controls. Resolution of acute dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system. PMID:26603217

  4. Ambient temperature and outpatient visits for acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in Shanghai: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Zhao, Ang; Chen, Ren Jie; Kan, Hai Dong; Kuang, Xing Ya

    2015-01-01

    The association between ambient temperature and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) was still unknown. Therefore, we performed an epidemiological study in a large hospital of Shanghai to explore the relationship about temperature and outpatient visit for AECB. We adopted a quasi-Poisson generalized additive models and distributed lag nonlinear models to estimate the accumulative effects of temperature on AECB across multiple days. We found significant non-linear effects of cold temperature on hospital visits for AECB, and the potential effect of cold temperature might last more than 2 weeks. The relative risks of extreme cold (first percentiles of temperature throughout the study period) and cold (10th percentile of temperature) temperature over lags 0-14 d were 2.98 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.77, 5.04] and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.19), compared with the 25th percentile of temperature. However, we found no positive association between hospital visits and hot weather. This study showed that exposure to both extreme cold and cold temperatures were associated with increased outpatient visits for AECB in a large hospital of Shanghai. PMID:25566865

  5. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients’ likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. Results 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. Conclusions On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making. PMID:25628892

  6. Preliminary Study of Acute Changes in Emotion Processing in Trauma Survivors with PTSD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Xie, Hong; Cotton, Andrew S.; Duval, Elizabeth R.; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Brickman, Kristopher R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Ho, S. Shaun; McLean, Samuel A.; Ferguson, Eric J.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests traumatic experience can rapidly alter brain activation associated with emotion processing. However, little is known about acute changes in emotion neurocircuits that underlie PTSD symptom development. To examine acute alterations in emotion circuit activation and structure that may be linked to PTSD symptoms, thirty-eight subjects performed a task of appraisal of emotional faces as their brains were functionally and structurally studied with MRI at both two weeks and three months after motor vehicle collision (MVC). As determined by symptoms reported in the PTSD Checklist at three months, sixteen survivors developed probable PTSD, whereas the remaining 22 did not meet criteria for PTSD diagnosis (non-PTSD). The probable PTSD group had greater activation than the non-PTSD group in dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and vmPFC) while appraising fearful faces within two weeks after MVC and in left insular cortex (IC) three months after MVC. dmPFC activation at two weeks significantly positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity at two weeks (R = 0.462, P = 0.006) and three months (R = 0.418, p = 0.012). Changes over time in dmPFC activation and in PTSD symptom severity were also significantly positively correlated in the probable PTSD group (R = 0.641, P = 0.018). A significant time by group interaction was found for volume changes in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG, F = 6.048, p = 0.019) that partially overlapped dmPFC active region. Between two weeks and three months, left SFG volume decreased in probable PTSD survivors. These findings identify alterations in frontal cortical activity and structure during the early post-trauma period that appear to be associated with development of PTSD symptoms. PMID:27415431

  7. Transcriptional changes of mouse splenocyte organelle components following acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Li, Fa-Cai; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally spread zoonosis. The pathogen Toxoplasma gondii can hijack cellular organelles of host for replication. Although a number of important cellular life events are controlled by cell organelles, very little is known of the transcriptional changes of host cellular organelles after infection with T. gondii. Herein, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatics analyses to study the global organelle component changes. It was found that many transcripts of the mouse spleen cellular organelle components were altered by acute T. gondii infection with the RH strain (Type I). Most differentially expressed transcripts of mitochondrial components were downregulated, especially those involved in biosynthetic and metabolic processes. Moreover, mitochondria based apoptosis process was downregulated. In terms of cytoskeleton, most differentially expressed transcript of cytoskeleton components were also downregulated, including septin cytoskeleton, cytoskeleton organization, centrosome and myosin. For endolysosomal system, ion transporters were downregulated at mRNA level, whereas the cytolytic components were increased, such as granzymes, Rab27a and perforin1 (Prf1). The main transcripts of Golgi apparatus components involved in sialylation or vesicle-mediated transportation were downregulated, while immune related components were upregulated. For endoplasmic reticulum (ER), posttranslational modification, drug metabolism and material transportation related transcripts were downregulated. In addition, T. gondii antigen cross-presentation by MHC-I complex could be downregulated by the downregulation of CD76 and ubiquitination related transcripts. The present study, for the first time, described the transcriptional changes of the mouse spleen cellular organelles following acute T. gondii infection, which provides a foundation to study the interaction between T. gondii and host cells at the sub-cellular level. PMID:27132051

  8. Conduction failure following spinal cord injury: functional and anatomical changes from acute to chronic stages

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D.; Bartus, Katalin; Grist, John; Bennett, David L. H.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) some axonal projections remain intact. We examined the functional status of these surviving axons, since they represent a prime therapeutic target. Using a novel electrophysiological preparation, adapted from techniques used to study primary demyelination, we quantified conduction failure across a SCI and studied conduction changes over time in adult rats with a moderate severity spinal contusion (150 kilodyne, Infinite Horizon impactor). By recording antidromically activated single units from teased dorsal root filaments we demonstrate complete conduction block in ascending dorsal column axons acutely (1-7 days) post-injury, followed by a period of restored conduction over the sub-acute phase (2-4 weeks), with no further improvements in conduction at chronic stages (3-6 months). By cooling the lesion site additional conducting fibres could be recruited, thus revealing a population of axons that are viable but unable to conduct under normal physiological conditions. Importantly, this phenomenon is still apparent at the most chronic (6 month) time point. The time course of conduction changes corresponded with changes in behavioural function, and ultrastructural analysis of dorsal column axons revealed extensive demyelination during the period of conduction block, followed by progressive remyelination. A proportion of dorsal column axons remained chronically demyelinated, suggesting that these are the axons recruited with the cooling paradigm. Thus, using a clinically relevant SCI model we have identified a population of axons present at chronic injury stages which are intact but fail to conduct and are therefore a prime target for therapeutic strategies to restore function. PMID:22171053

  9. Biochemical and hemodynamic changes in normal subjects during acute and rigorous bed rest and ambulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Afonin, Victor B.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

    2002-06-01

    Rigorous bed rest (RBR) induces significant biochemical and circulatory changes. However, little is known about acute rigorous bed rest (ARBR). Measuring biochemical and circulatory variables during ARBR and RBR the aim of this study was to establish the significance of ARBR effect. Studies were done during 3 days of a pre-bed rest (BR) period and during 7 days of ARBR and RBR period. Thirty normal male individuals aged, 24.1±6.3 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided equally into three groups: 10 subjects placed under active control conditions served as unrestricted ambulatory control subjects (UACS), 10 subjects submitted to an acute rigorous bed rest served as acute rigorous bed rested subjects (ARBRS) and 10 subjects submitted to a rigorous bed rest served as rigorous bed rested subjects (RBRS). The UACS were maintained under an average running distance of 9.7 km day -1. For the ARBR effect simulation, ARBRS were submitted abruptly to BR for 7 days. They did not have any prior knowledge of the exact date and time when they would be asked to confine to RBR. For the RBR effect simulation, RBRS were subjected to BR for 7 days on a predetermined date and time known to them right away from the start of the study. Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma cortisol (PC), plasma aldosterone (PA), plasma and urinary sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and arterial blood pressure (ABP) increased significantly, and urinary aldosterone (UA), stroke volume (SV) and plasma volume (PV) decreased significantly ( p<0.05) in ARBRS and RBRS as compared with their pre-BR values and the values in UACS. Electrolyte, hormonal and hemodynamic responses were significantly ( p<0.05) greater and occurred significantly faster ( p<0.05) during ARBR than RBR. Parameters change insignificantly ( p>0.05) in UACS compared with pre-BR control values. It was concluded that, the more abruptly muscular activity is restricted in experimental subjects

  10. Differential responses of the somatotropic and thyroid axes to environmental temperature changes in the green iguana.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Carranza, Martha; Villalobos, Patricia; Olvera, Aurora; Orozco, Aurea; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    5.3±0.58ng/ml, after 2weeks at 18°C) and T3 (from 0.87±0.09 to 0.05±0.01ng/ml, under chronic conditions at 25°C), and Type-2 deiodinase (D2) activity (from 992.5±224 to 213.6±26.4fmolI(125)T4/mgh). The reduction in thyroid activity correlates with the down-regulation of metabolism as suggested by the decrease in the serum glucose and free fatty acid levels. These changes apparently were independent of a possible stress response, at least under acute exposure to both temperatures and in chronic treatment to 25°C, since serum corticosterone had no significant changes in these conditions, while at chronic 18°C exposure, a slight increase (0.38 times above control) was found. Thus, these data suggest that the reptilian somatotropic and thyroid axes have differential responses to cold exposure, and that GH and TRH may play important roles associated to adaptation mechanisms that support temperature acclimation in the green iguana. PMID:27044512

  11. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  12. Development of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome is associated with sequential epigenetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Malinge, Sébastien; Chlon, Tim; Doré, Louis C.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Tallman, Martin S.; Paietta, Elisabeth; Gamis, Alan S.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Chou, Stella T.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is more frequently observed in Down syndrome (DS) patients, in whom it is often preceded by a transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD). The development of DS-TMD and DS-AMKL requires not only the presence of the trisomy 21 but also that of GATA1 mutations. Despite extensive studies into the genetics of DS-AMKL, the importance of epigenetic deregulation in this disease has been unexplored. We performed DNA methylation profiling at different stages of development of DS-AMKL and analyzed the dynamics of the epigenetic program. Early genome-wide DNA methylation changes can be detected in trisomy 21 fetal liver mononuclear cells, prior to the acquisition of GATA1 mutations. These early changes are characterized by marked loss of DNA methylation at genes associated with developmental disorders, including those affecting the cardiovascular, neurological, and endocrine systems. This is followed by a second wave of changes detected in DS-TMD and DS-AMKL, characterized by gains of methylation. This new wave of hypermethylation targets a distinct set of genes involved in hematopoiesis and regulation of cell growth and proliferation. These findings indicate that the final epigenetic landscape of DS-AMKL is the result of sequential and opposing changes in DNA methylation occurring at specific times in the disease development. PMID:23980066

  13. Anomalous equivalent potential temperature: an atmospheric feature predicting days with higher risk for fatal outcome in acute ischemic stroke-a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Al-Muhanna, Nadim; Béres-Molnár, Anna K; Fejős, Ádám; Pintér, Ádám; Bereczki, Dániel; Fischer, Antal; Vadasdi, Károly; Pintér, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Acute stroke is a life-threatening condition. Fatal outcome is related to risk factors, some of these affected by climatic changes. Forecasting potentially harmful atmospheric processes may therefore be of practical importance in the acute care of stroke patients. We analyzed the history of all patients with acute ischemic stroke (N = 184) confirmed by neuroimaging including those who died (N = 35, 15 males) at our hospital department in the winter months of 2009. Patient data were anonymized, and the human meteorologists were only aware of patients' age, gender, and exact time of death. Of the meteorological parameters, equivalent potential temperature (EPT) has been chosen for analysis. EPT is generally used for forecasting thunderstorms, but in the case of synoptic scale airflow (10(6) m), it is suitable for characterizing the air mass inflowing from different regions. The behavior of measured EPT values was compared to the climatic (30 years) averages. We developed meteorological criteria for anomalous periods of EPT and tested if such periods are associated with higher rate of fatal outcome. The duration of anomalous and non-anomalous periods was nearly equal during the studied 3 months. Stroke onset distributed similarly between anomalous and non-anomalous days; however, of the 35 deaths, 27 occurred during anomalous periods: on average, 0.56 deaths occurred on anomalous days and 0.19 on non-anomalous days. Winter periods meeting the criteria of anomalous EPT may have a significant adverse human-meteorological impact on the outcome in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26233665

  14. Global Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Associated Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2016-06-01

    The trends in the sea ice cover in the two hemispheres have been observed to be asymmetric with the rate of change in the Arctic being negative at -3.8 % per decade while that of the Antarctic is positive at 1.7 % per decade. These observations are confirmed in this study through analyses of a more robust data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics. With reports of anthropogenic global warming such phenomenon appears physically counter intuitive but trend studies of surface temperature over the same time period show the occurrence of a similar asymmetry. Satellite surface temperature data show that while global warming is strong and dominant in the Arctic, it is relatively minor in the Antarctic with the trends in sea ice covered areas and surrounding ice free regions observed to be even negative. A strong correlation of ice extent with surface temperature is observed, especially during the growth season, and the observed trends in the sea ice cover are coherent with the trends in surface temperature. The trend of global averages of the ice cover is negative but modest and is consistent and compatible with the positive but modest trend in global surface temperature. A continuation of the trend would mean the disappearance of summer ice by the end of the century but modelling projections indicate that the summer ice could be salvaged if anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are kept constant at the current level.

  15. Oxygen saturation changes in the optic nerve head during acute intraocular pressure elevation in monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Ning, Jinfeng; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Rice, David A.; Khan, Fareeha; Thompson, Hilary W.; Beach, James M.

    2009-02-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the effect of an acute elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on oxygen saturation of structures of the optic nerve head. Study Design/Materials and Methods: In the cynomolgus monkey eye, IOP was set to 10 mm Hg, and then raised to 30, 45, and 55 mm Hg. The ONH and overlying vessels were imaged using a fundus camera attached to a hyperspectral imaging system (HSI) at 10 and 30 minutes after IOP elevation. Results: Raising IOP from 10 to 30 mm Hg did not significantly (P < 0.0001) change saturation in vessels or ONH tissue structures but at 55 mm Hg, all structures showed significant reduction. Conclusions: Quantitative assay of the blood oxygen saturation in structures on the surface and overlying the optic nerve head is possible using hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  16. Acute Changes in Peripheral Vascular Tonus and Systemic Circulation during Static Stretching.

    PubMed

    Inami, Takayuki; Baba, Reizo; Nakagaki, Akemi; Shimizu, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on peripheral vascular tonus and to clarify the effect of SS on systemic circulation. Twenty healthy young male volunteers performed a 1-min SS motion of the right triceps surae muscle, repeated five times. The peripheral vascular tonus (|d/a| ratio) was obtained using second derivatives of the photoplethysmogram readings before, during, and after SS. Heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. The |d/a| ratio and BP were transiently, but significantly, elevated during SS and returned to baseline immediately after SS. Furthermore, we observed a significant correlation between the amount of change in the |d/a| ratio and the ankle range of motion during SS (r = 0.793 to 0.832, P = 0.01). These responses may be caused by mechanical stress during SS. PMID:25833293

  17. A linear regression model for predicting PNW estuarine temperatures in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest coastal regions, estuaries, and associated ecosystems are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change, especially to changes in nearshore water temperature. While predictive climate models simulate future air temperatures, no such projections exist for...

  18. Hostility as a Predictor of Affective Changes During Acute Tobacco Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Austin; Sekimura, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hostility—a personality trait reflective of cynical attitudes and a general mistrust of others—is associated with smoking status and relapse risk. Yet, the mechanisms linking hostility and smoking are not entirely clear. In this lab study, we tested a socioaffective model that purports that high-hostility individuals smoke to cope with maladaptive social mood states (i.e., anger and low friendliness), which become expressed and exacerbated during acute tobacco withdrawal. Methods: Following a baseline visit at which trait hostility was assessed, adult smokers (n = 153, ≥10 cig/day) attended two counterbalanced lab visits: a deprived session following 16hr of deprivation, and a nondeprived session. At both lab visits, affect and withdrawal symptoms were assessed at a single time point. Results: Higher trait hostility predicted larger deprivation-induced increases in several forms of negative affect (anxiety, depression, confusion; βs ≥ .20, ps ≤ .01) and a composite tobacco withdrawal symptom index (β = .16, p = .04) but did not predict changes in positive emotions. These effects persisted after statistically controlling for gender, nicotine dependence, and depression. Other aspects of trait aggression (i.e., verbal aggression, physical aggression, anger) did not predict deprivation-induced changes in affect and withdrawal other than state anger. Discussion: High-hostility individuals appear to experience generalized exacerbations in several negative affective states during acute tobacco withdrawal. Increases in negative affect during tobacco withdrawal may motivate negative reinforcement-mediated smoking and could underlie tobacco addiction in high-hostility smokers. PMID:24113928

  19. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  20. Acute effects of small changes in bicycle saddle height on gross efficiency and lower limb kinematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Bescós, Raúl; Roig, Andreu; Galilea, Piero; Valero, Oliver; García-López, Juan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute effects of small changes in bicycle saddle height on gross efficiency (GE) and lower-limb kinematics. Well-trained cyclists (n = 14) performed a submaximal pedaling test (~70-75% of the v[Combining Dot Above]O2max) at constant cadence (90 rpm). It consisted of 3 randomized sets of 6 minutes with the preferred saddle height, 2% higher and 2% lower. Gross efficiency was significantly lower and oxygen consumption (v[Combining Dot Above]O2) was significantly higher when raising the saddle (GE = 19.9 ± 1.5%; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max = 43.8 ml·kg·min) than when lowering it (GE = 20.4 ± 1.3%; V[Combining Dot Above]O2 = 42.8 ml·kg·min). Additionally, a change of 0.8% in GE (20.6 ± 1.6% to 19.8 ± 1.6%, p < 0.05) was observed when comparing the positions where the best and worst GE was obtained. A significant effect of the small changes in saddle height on lower limb kinematics was also observed (p < 0.05). The differences between lower and higher saddle positions, in hip, knee, and ankle joints were an increase of extension (~4, 7, and 8°, respectively), a decrease of flexion (~3, 4, and 4°, respectively) and, consequently, an increase of the range of movement (~1, 3, and 4°, respectively). The results of the present study indicate that small changes in saddle height affected GE and lower limb kinematics The observed changes in lower limb kinematics could justify, in part, the GE changes. Further research should evaluate long-term effects of these small modifications in the seat height on GE and lower limb kinematics. PMID:23838970

  1. Nomothetic and Idiographic Symptom Change Trajectories in Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested nomothetic and idiographic convergence and change in three symptom measures during acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT) for depression and compared outcomes among patients showing different change patterns. Method Outpatients (N = 362; 69% women; 85% white; age mean = 43 years) with DSM-IV recurrent major depressive disorder completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh 1961), and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush, Gullion, Basco, Jarrett, & Trivedi, 1996) on 14 occasions, and pre-/post-CT measures of social-interpersonal functioning and negative cognitive content. Results The three symptom measures marked the same severity and change constructs, and we offer improved formulas for inter-measure score conversions via their common factor. Pre-post CT symptom reductions were large (ds 1.71-1.92), and nomothetic symptom curves were log-linear (larger improvements earlier and smaller improvements later in CT). Nonetheless, only 30% of individual patients showed clear log-linear changes, whereas other patients showed linear (e.g., steady decreases; 20%), one-step (e.g., a quick drop; 16%), and unclassified (34%) patterns. Log-linear, linear, and one-step patients were generally similar to one another and superior to unclassified patients post-CT in symptom levels, response and stable remission rates, social-interpersonal functioning, and cognitive content (median d = 0.69). Conclusions Reaching a low-symptom “destination” at the end of CT via any coherent “path” is more important in the short-term than which path patients take. We discuss implications for theories of change, clinical monitoring of individuals’ progress in CT, and the need to investigate long-term outcomes of patients with differing symptom change patterns. PMID:23627652

  2. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  3. Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Menon, S.; Aguiar, J.

    2008-05-12

    In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC)--an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols--with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

  4. Atmospheric temperature changes over the 20th century at very high elevations in the European Alps from englacial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Vincent, C.

    2013-05-01

    the paucity of observations, a great deal of uncertainty remains concerning temperature changes at very high altitudes over the last century. Englacial temperature measurements performed in boreholes provide a very good indicator of atmospheric temperatures for very high elevations although they are not directly related to air temperatures. Temperature profiles from seven deep boreholes drilled at three different sites between 4240 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps) have been analyzed using a heat flow model and a Bayesian inverse modeling approach. Atmospheric temperature changes over the last century were estimated by simultaneous inversion of these temperature profiles. A mean warming rate of 0.14°C/decade between 1900 and 2004 was found. This is similar to the observed regional low altitude trend in the northwestern Alps, suggesting that air temperature trends are not altitude dependent.

  5. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  6. Control of breathing during acute change in cardiac preload in a patient with partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Edgar; Bell, Harold J; Haouzi, Annick; El-Banayosy, Aly; Haouzi, Philippe

    2010-01-31

    We recently had the opportunity to investigate the ventilatory effects of changing the rate of venous return to the heart (and thus pulmonary gas exchange) in a patient equipped with a venous-arterial oxygenated shunt (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support). The presence of the ECMO support provided a condition wherein venous return to the right heart could be increased or decreased while maintaining total aortic blood flow and arterial blood pressure (ABP) constant. The patient, who had received a heart transplant 12 years ago, was admitted for acute cardiac failure related to graft rejection. The clinical symptomatology was that of right heart failure. We studied the patient on the 4th day of ECMO support, while she was breathing spontaneously. The blood flow diverted through the ECMO system represented 2/3 of the total aortic flow (4 l min(-1)). With these ECMO settings, the baseline level of ventilation was low (3.89+/-0.99 l min(-1)), but PET(CO2) was not elevated (37+/-2 mmHg). When Pa(CO2) in the blood coming from the ECMO was increased, no stimulatory effect on ventilation was observed. However, when the diversion of the venous return to the ECMO was stopped then restored, minute ventilation respectively increased then decreased by more than twofold with opposite changes in PET(CO2). These maneuvers were associated with large changes in the size of the right atrium and ventricle and of the left atrium. This observation suggests that the change in venous return affects breathing by encoding some of the consequences of the changes in cardiac preload. The possible sites of mediation are discussed. PMID:19837189

  7. Investigation of nanostructural changes following acute injury using atomic force microscopy in rabbit vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Jung; Kim, Kyung Sook; Choi, Samjin; Kim, Sung Wan; Park, Hun-Kuk; Eun, Young Gyu

    2015-07-01

    There continues to be a paucity of data regarding the nanostructural changes of vocal fold (VF) collagen after injury. The aim of this study is to investigate the nanostructural and morphological changes in the rabbit VF lamina propria following acute injury using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unilateral VF injury was performed on 9 New Zealand breeder rabbits. Sacrifice and laryngeal harvest were performed at three time points: 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days after injury. Histology and immunohistochemistry data were collected to confirm extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in rabbit VF. The progressive changes in thickness and D-spacing of VF collagen fibrils were investigated over a 7-day postinjury period using AFM. At post-injury day 1, a fibrin clot and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed at the injured VF. The inflammatory score at postinjury day 1 was highest in injured VF tissue, with a significant decrease at postinjury day 7. The immunoreactivity of inflammatory proteins (COX-2, TNF-α) was observed in VF up to day 7 after injury. AFM investigation showed clustered and disorganized collagen fibrils at the nanoscale resolution at post-injury day 7. Collagen fibrils in injured VF at postinjury day 7 were significantly thicker than control and postinjury days 1 and 3 (P < 0.001). D-spacing of collagen at postinjury day 7 was not studied due to loss of distinct edges resulting from immature collagen deposition. AFM investigation of VF could add valuable information to understanding micromechanical changes in VF scar tissue. PMID:25900427

  8. Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection Induces Consistent Changes in Circulating MicroRNAs That Are Associated with Nonlytic Hepatocyte Release

    PubMed Central

    El-Diwany, Ramy; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Bailey, Justin R.; Page, Kimberly; Ray, Stuart C.; Cox, Andrea L.; Thomas, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) change in abundance in response to disease and have been associated with liver fibrosis severity in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the early dynamics of miRNA release during acute HCV infection are poorly understood. In addition, circulating miRNA signatures have been difficult to reproduce among separate populations. We studied plasma miRNA abundance during acute HCV infection to identify an miRNA signature of early infection. We measured 754 plasma miRNAs by quantitative PCR array in a discovery cohort of 22 individuals before and during acute HCV infection and after spontaneous resolution (n = 11) or persistence (n = 11) to identify a plasma miRNA signature. The discovery cohort derived from the Baltimore Before and After Acute Study of Hepatitis. During acute HCV infection, increases in miR-122 (P < 0.01) and miR-885-5p (Pcorrected < 0.05) and a decrease in miR-494 (Pcorrected < 0.05) were observed at the earliest time points after virus detection. Changes in miR-122 and miR-885-5p were sustained in persistent (P < 0.001) but not resolved HCV infection. The circulating miRNA signature of acute HCV infection was confirmed in a separate validation cohort that was derived from the San Francisco-based You Find Out (UFO) Study (n = 28). As further confirmation, cellular changes of signature miRNAs were examined in a tissue culture model of HCV in hepatoma cells: HCV infection induced extracellular release of miR-122 and miR-885-5p despite unperturbed intracellular levels. In contrast, miR-494 accumulated intracellularly (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data are inconsistent with necrolytic release of hepatocyte miRNAs into the plasma during acute HCV infection of humans. IMPORTANCE MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that emerging research shows can transmit regulatory signals between cells in health and disease. HCV infects 2% of humans worldwide, and chronic HCV infection is a major cause of severe

  9. Kinetics of acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii and histopathological changes in the duodenum of rats.

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Aline Rosa; Vicentino-Vieira, Suellen Laís; da Silva Watanabe, Paulo; Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; de Melo, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira; Garcia, João Luiz; José de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo; Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii crosses the intestinal barrier to spread into the body. We investigate the intestinal wall and epithelial cells of the duodenum of rats infected with T. gondii during different time points of acute infection. Male Wistar rats, 60 days of age, were assigned into groups that were orally inoculated with 5000 sporulated oocysts T. gondii for 6 h (G6), 12 h (G12), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48), 72 h (G72), 7 days (G7d), and 10 days (G10d). The control group (CG) received saline. The rats were killed and the duodenum was processed to obtain histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff, and Alcian blue (pH 2.5 and 1.0). Morphometry was performed on the layers of the intestinal wall and enterocytes, and the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes was counted. The data were compared by ANOVA considering 5% as level of significance. The infection provoked an increase in the width of villi and crypts; decrease in enterocyte height; increase in the smaller-diameter and reduction in the larger-diameter of the enterocytes nuclei, increased number of goblet cells secreting neutral (G6, G12 and G7d) and acidic (G7d and G10d) mucus, and increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (G48). The infected groups showed atrophy of the submucosa and muscular layers and the total wall. Acute infection with T. gondii caused morphological changes in the intestinal wall and epithelial cells of the duodenum in rats. PMID:26993084

  10. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  11. Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface Temperature changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika

    2015-04-01

    A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal temperature over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface temperature is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (pre monsoon); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly temperature datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly

  12. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  13. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The

  14. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  15. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S.; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John

    2015-01-01

    The impact of temperature (0–80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple ‘windows’ within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, ‘Bathyarchaeota’) changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  16. Modeling the adaptive permeability response of porcine iliac arteries to acute changes in mural shear.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A L; Grzybowski, D M; Friedman, M H

    2003-04-01

    The hypothesis that much of the uptake of macromolecules by the vascular wall takes place while the endothelial lining is adapting to changes in its hemodynamic environment is being tested by a series of in vivo measurements of the uptake of Evans-blue-dye-labeled albumin by porcine iliac arteries subjected to acute changes in blood flow. The uptake data are interpreted through an ad hoc model of the dynamic permeability response that is proposed to accompany alterations in mural shear. The model is able to correlate, with a single set of parameters, the vascular response to a variety of experimental protocols, including sustained step increases and decreases in shear, and alternations in shear of various periods. The best-fit parameters of the model suggest that the adaptive response to an increase in shear proceeds with a latency of approximately 1.5 min and a time constant of approximately 90 min that is substantially shorter than the response to a decrease in shear. PMID:12723682

  17. Heterogeneity of epigenetic changes at ischemia/reperfusion- and endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury genes

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Daniel; Gharib, Sina A.; Zager, Richard A.; Johnson, Ali; Denisenko, Oleg; Bomsztyk, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant gene expression is a molecular hallmark of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since epigenetic processes control gene expression in a cell- and environment-defined manner, understanding the epigenetic pathways that regulate genes altered by AKI may open vital new insights into the complexities of disease pathogenesis and identify possible therapeutic targets. Here we used matrix chromatin immunoprecipitation and integrative analysis to study twenty key permissive and repressive epigenetic histone marks at transcriptionally induced Tnf, Ngal, Kim-1 and Icam-1 genes in mouse models of AKI; unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their synergistically injurious combination. Results revealed unexpected heterogeneity of transcriptional and epigenetic responses. Tnf and Ngal were transcriptionally upregulated in response to both treatments individually, and to combination treatment. Kim-1 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion and Icam-1 by LPS only. Epigenetic alterations at these genes exhibited distinct time-dependent changes that shared some similarities, such as reduction in repressive histone modifications, but also had major ischemia/reperfusion vs. endotoxin differences. Thus, diversity of changes at AKI genes in response to different insults indicates involvement of several epigenetic pathways. This could be exploited pharmacologically through rational-drug design to alter the course and improve clinical outcomes of this syndrome. PMID:26061546

  18. Heterogeneity of epigenetic changes at ischemia/reperfusion- and endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury genes.

    PubMed

    Mar, Daniel; Gharib, Sina A; Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali; Denisenko, Oleg; Bomsztyk, Karol

    2015-10-01

    Aberrant gene expression is a molecular hallmark of acute kidney injury (AKI). As epigenetic processes control gene expression in a cell- and environment-defined manner, understanding the epigenetic pathways that regulate genes altered by AKI may open vital new insights into the complexities of disease pathogenesis and identify possible therapeutic targets. Here we used matrix chromatin immunoprecipitation and integrative analysis to study 20 key permissive and repressive epigenetic histone marks at transcriptionally induced Tnf, Ngal, Kim-1, and Icam-1 genes in mouse models of AKI; unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and their synergistically injurious combination. Results revealed unexpected heterogeneity of transcriptional and epigenetic responses. Tnf and Ngal were transcriptionally upregulated in response to both treatments individually, and to combination treatment. Kim-1 was induced by ischemia/reperfusion and Icam-1 by LPS only. Epigenetic alterations at these genes exhibited distinct time-dependent changes that shared some similarities, such as reduction in repressive histone modifications, and also had major ischemia/reperfusion versus endotoxin differences. Thus, diversity of changes at AKI genes in response to different insults indicates involvement of several epigenetic pathways. This could be exploited pharmacologically through rational-drug design to alter the course and improve clinical outcomes of this syndrome. PMID:26061546

  19. Long-lasting changes in the cochlear K+ recycling structures after acute energy failure.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Yoichiro; Sun, Guang-wei; Ogawa, Kaoru; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Fibrocytes in the cochlear lateral wall and spiral limbus play an important role in transporting K(+) and have the capacity of self-renewal. We showed that acute energy failure in the rat cochlea induced by local administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) caused hearing loss in a concentration-dependent manner, mainly due to degeneration of cochlear fibrocytes. We produced long-lasting profound cochlear damage in this model by modifying the 3NP administration protocol and observed morphological changes at 16 weeks after the administration. In the spiral ligament, severe degeneration of fibrocytes was observed in the basal turn, and the levels of the Na,K-ATPase alpha and beta1 subunits and of NKCC1 were decreased in these cells, whereas connexin 26 (Cx26) level increased in the type 1 fibrocytes adjacent to the stria vascularis. In the stria vascularis, levels of Kir4.1 and L-PGDS decreased. In the spiral limbus, severe degeneration of fibrocytes was observed in the middle and basal turns, but NKCC1 and Cx26 were still found in the center of the limbus in the middle turn. These results indicate long-lasting changes in the cochlear lateral wall and spiral limbus, which may compensate for damaged K(+) recycling and protect cells from ATP shortage. PMID:23827367

  20. Load dependence of changes in forearm and peripheral vascular resistance after acute leg exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Piepoli, M; Isea, J E; Pannarale, G; Adamopoulos, S; Sleight, P; Coats, A J

    1994-07-15

    1. It is known that acute exercise is often followed by a reduction in arterial blood pressure. Little is known about the time course of the recovery of the blood pressure or the influence of the intensity of the exercise on this response. Controversy exists, in particular, concerning the changes in peripheral resistance that occur during this period. 2. Eight normal volunteers performed, in random order on separate days, voluntary upright bicycle exercise of three different intensities (maximal, moderate and minimal load) and, on another day, a control period of sitting on a bicycle. They were monitored for 60 min after each test. 3. Diastolic pressure fell after maximal exercise at 5 min (-15.45 mmHg) and 60 min (-9.45 mmHg), compared with the control day. Systolic and mean pressure also fell (non-significantly) after 45 min; heart rate was significantly elevated for the whole hour of recovery (at 60 min, +7.23 beats min-1). No changes in post-exercise blood pressure and heart rate were observed on the days of moderate and minimal exercises. 4. An increase in cardiac index was observed after maximal exercise compared with control (at 60 min, 2.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2 l min-1 m-2). This was entirely accounted for by the persistent increase in heart rate, with no significant alteration in stroke volume after exercise on any day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7965851

  1. Temporal Changes in the Quality of Acute Stroke Care in Five National Audits across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hillmann, Steffi; Wiedmann, Silke; Fraser, Alec; Baeza, Juan; Rudd, Anthony; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell; Niewada, Maciej; Dennis, Martin; Hermanek, Peter; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Heuschmann, Peter U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Data on potential variations in delivery of appropriate stroke care over time are scarce. We investigated temporal changes in the quality of acute hospital stroke care across five national audits in Europe over a period of six years. Methods. Data were derived from national stroke audits in Germany, Poland, Scotland, Sweden, and England/Wales/Northern Ireland participating within the European Implementation Score (EIS) collaboration. Temporal changes in predefined quality indicators with comparable information between the audits were investigated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate adherence to quality indicators over time. Results. Between 2004 and 2009, individual data from 542,112 patients treated in 538 centers participating continuously over the study period were included. In most audits, the proportions of patients who were treated on a SU, were screened for dysphagia, and received thrombolytic treatment increased over time and ranged from 2-fold to almost 4-fold increase in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy in 2009 compared to 2004. Conclusions. A general trend towards a better quality of stroke care defined by standardized quality indicators was observed over time. The association between introducing a specific measure and higher adherence over time might indicate that monitoring of stroke care performance contributes to improving quality of care. PMID:26783519

  2. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P < 0.05) but not in Sup, and at the forearm was lower during HT than NT in the Sup and further in Sit (both, P < 0.05), with interactive effects of temperature (NT vs. HT) × posture (Sup vs. Sit) (chest, P = 0.08; forearm, P < 0.05). The threshold for warm sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P < 0.05). Thus, thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  3. The uncertainties of the net primary production due to regional and seasonal temperature changes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A kind of temperature change scenario is supplied by the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to parameter (CNOP-P) to estimate the variation of the net primary production (NPP)in North-South transect of eastern China within a state-of-the-art Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamical global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM). There are two traits for the kind of temperature change scenario. Firstly, the kind of temperature change scenario considers the regional and seasonal differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The character of the temperature change is similar to the observation data due to the observational constraint. Secondly, the kind of temperature change scenario causes the maximal possible impact on the simulated NPP to discuss the maximal uncertainty in the simulated NPP to the temperature change in North-South transect of eastern China. Other two kinds of temperature change scenarios are also applied to explain the above two traits and to analyze variations due to different kinds of temperature change scenarios. It is shown that the kind of temperature change scenario resulted of the CNOP-P approach, which is called as the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, exhibits the regional and seasonal temperature differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The NPP decreases by 1.84% in northern China, and respectively increases by 4.09% and 18.99% in northeastern and southern China as the results of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, though the NPP increases in small part of northern China and decreases in part of northeastern China. The variations in the NPP caused by the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario are different to those by the other two types of temperature change scenarios in northern, northeastern China and southern China. The impact of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario on the NPP is intenser than that of the other two types of temperature change scenarios. The seasonal analyses demonstrate

  4. Microarray characterization of gene expression changes in blood during acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    and hepatic function. Five of the seven clusters showed links to the p38 MAPK pathway. Conclusions The results of this study provide a first look at changing gene expression patterns in human blood during an acute rise in blood ethanol concentration and its depletion because of metabolism and excretion, and demonstrate that it is possible to detect changes in gene expression using total RNA isolated from whole blood. The analysis approach for this study serves as a workflow to investigate the biology linked to expression changes across a time course and from these changes, to identify target genes that could serve as biomarkers linked to pilot performance. PMID:23883607

  5. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    . Braganza, D.J. Karoly, and J.M. Arblaster. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, 31:1-4, 2004. [2] A. Dai, A.D. Del Genio, and I.Y. Fung. Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386:665-666, 1997.

  6. Effects of water hardness and temperature on the acute toxicity of mercuric chloride on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ertugrul; Verep, Bulent

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the toxicity of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)), an important pollutant threatening water resources for many years, and the effects of water temperature and hardness on the toxicity in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (4.79 ± 0.16 g; 7.38 ± 0.24 cm; mean ± SD) were investigated at different temperatures (12 and 17°C) and hardness concentrations (35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) as calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)). For this purpose, the acute toxicity tests were performed by 96-h static tests in different water temperatures and water hardness concentrations. For acute toxicity tests, solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg l(-1) were used at 12°C and solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 mg l(-1) at 17°C. The LC(50) values of HgCl(2) that killed 50% of rainbow trout within 96 h in the hardness concentrations of 35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) CaCO(3) were calculated using probit analysis, and were found to be 0.725, 0.788, 0.855 mg l(-1) at 12°C and 0.670, 0.741, 0.787 mg l(-1) at 17°C, respectively. Consequently, the toxicity of HgCl(2) on rainbow trout decreased when the temperature decreased from 17 to 12°C. Toxicity increased when the hardness decreased from 120 to 35 mg l(-1) CaCO(3). In contrast to temperature, water hardness presents a negative effect on the toxicity of HgCl(2). PMID:22033427

  7. Changes of anterior chamber architecture induced by laser peripheral iridotomy in acute angle closure crisis.

    PubMed

    Unterlauft, J D; Yafai, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2015-08-01

    In acute angle closure crisis (AAC), a laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is performed to balance the pressure gradient between anterior and posterior chamber. The hereby induced changes in anterior chamber architecture were analyzed using Scheimpflug photography (SP). SP was performed in eyes with AAC and in fellow eyes (FE) before and after LPI. Intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle width (ACA), and central corneal thickness (CCT) were analyzed. The group consisted of 18 patients (14♀, 4♂; 69 ± 11 years) with unilateral AAC. Mean IOP in AAC eyes decreased from 49.3 ± 2.8 mmHg at presentation to 13.7 ± 1.6 mmHg after LPI (p = 0.001). Mean ACV increased from 48.2 ± 3.6 to 60.6 ± 2.4 mm(3) in AAC eyes (p < 0.001) and from 60.4 ± 4.6 to 74.1 ± 3.7 mm(3) in the FE (p < 0.001). Mean ACD increased from 1.27 ± 0.08 to 1.44 ± 0.06 mm (p = 0.01) in AAC eyes and decreased in FE from 1.72 ± 0.08 to 1.59 ± 0.04 mm (p = 0.5). Mean ACA increased from 16.8 ± 1.6 to 20.5 ± 1.5° in AAC eyes (p = 0.01) and from 18.5 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 1.5° in the FE (p = 0.01). Mean CCT did not change significantly in both groups after LPI (AAC p = 0.09; FE p = 0.9) but a statistically significant difference between the two groups was detectable before LPI (p = 0.04) which disappeared thereafter (p = 0.14). Using Scheimpflug photography, a significant difference of ACV, ACD, and ACA can be detected after LPI in eyes suffering from acute angle closure crisis which demonstrates the effectiveness of LPI. PMID:25084747

  8. Prescribing Opioid Analgesics for Acute Dental Pain: Time to Change Clinical Practices in Response to Evidence and Misperceptions.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Raymond A; Gordon, Sharon M; Moore, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    As the nation comes to terms with a prescription opioid epidemic, dentistry is beginning to understand its own unintentional contribution and seek ways to address it. The article urges dental providers to reexamine entrenched prescribing habits and thought patterns regarding treatment of acute dental pain. It points to evidence suggesting that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are nonaddictive and usually more effective for managing many cases of acute dental pain. The authors provide therapeutic recommendations to help dental providers change prescribing patterns. PMID:27517474

  9. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  10. Changes in whole-blood PUFA and their predictors during recovery from severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Mortensen, Charlotte G; Mupere, Ezekiel; Rytter, Maren J H; Namusoke, Hanifa; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Stark, Ken D; Friis, Henrik; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-05-01

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with complications require in-patient management including therapeutic feeding. Little attention has been given to the effects of these feeds on the essential fatty acid status of children with SAM. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the PUFA composition in whole blood in children with SAM during treatment and to determine predictors of change. This prospective study took place in a paediatric nutrition rehabilitation unit in Kampala, Uganda, and assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition of children with SAM at admission, transition, discharge and follow-up (8 and 16 weeks). ANCOVA was used to identify predictors of change in whole-blood PUFA. The study included 120 children with SAM and twenty-nine healthy control children of similar age and sex. Among the SAM children, 38 % were female and 64 % had oedema. Whole-blood n-6 PUFA proportions increased from admission to follow-up, except for arachidonic acid, which decreased by 0·79 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·12) fatty acid percentage (FA%) from admission to transition and 0·10 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·44) FA% at discharge. n-3 Long-chain (LC) PUFA decreased by 0·21 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·40) FA% at discharge and 0·22 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·42) FA% at 8 weeks of follow-up. This decrease was greater in children from families with recent fish intake and those with nasogastric tube feeding. Current therapeutic feeds do not correct whole-blood levels of LCPUFA, particularly n-3 LCPUFA, in children with SAM. Increased attention is needed to the contents of n-3 LCPUFA in therapeutic feeds. PMID:26996197

  11. Early lipid changes in acute kidney injury using SWATH lipidomics coupled with MALDI tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeetha; Walters, Kelly B; Wilson, Landon; Chen, Bo; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Graves, David; Barnes, Stephen; Agarwal, Anupam; Kabarowski, Janusz H

    2016-05-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the leading causes of in-hospital morbidity and mortality, particularly in critically ill patients. Although our understanding of AKI at the molecular level remains limited due to its complex pathophysiology, recent advances in both quantitative and spatial mass spectrometric approaches offer new opportunities to assess the significance of renal metabolomic changes in AKI models. In this study, we evaluated lipid changes in early ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-related AKI in mice by using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH)-mass spectrometry (MS) lipidomics. We found a significant increase in two abundant ether-linked phospholipids following IR at 6 h postinjury, a plasmanyl choline, phosphatidylcholine (PC) O-38:1 (O-18:0, 20:1), and a plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) O-42:3 (O-20:1, 22:2). Both of these lipids correlated with the severity of AKI as measured by plasma creatinine. In addition to many more renal lipid changes associated with more severe AKI, PC O-38:1 elevations were maintained at 24 h post-IR, while renal PE O-42:3 levels decreased, as were all ether PEs detected by SWATH-MS at this later time point. To further assess the significance of this early increase in PC O-38:1, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to determine that it occurred in proximal tubules, a region of the kidney that is most prone to IR injury and also rich in the rate-limiting enzymes involved in ether-linked phospholipid biosynthesis. Use of SWATH-MS lipidomics in conjunction with MALDI-IMS for lipid localization will help in elucidating the role of lipids in the pathobiology of AKI. PMID:26911846

  12. Optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head detects acute changes in intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aashish; Pass, Anastas; Urfy, Mian Z; Tang, Rosa; Cajavilca, Christian; Calvillo, Eusebia; Suarez, Jose I; Venkatasubba Rao, Chethan P; Bershad, Eric M

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to determine if there are measurable objective changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) immediately after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in a prospective case-series of five patients undergoing a clinically indicated lumbar puncture (LP) for diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography machine (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) was used to acquire images in the lateral decubitus position. Optic disc cube and high-definition line raster scans centered on the ONH were obtained immediately before and after draining CSF, while the patient maintained the lateral decubitus position. Measured parameters included retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane (RPE/BM) angulation, transverse neural canal diameter (NCD) and the highest vertical point of the internal limiting membrane from the transverse diameter (papillary height). The mean (±standard deviation) opening and closing CSF pressures were 34.3±11.8 and 11.6±3.3cmH2O, respectively. Mean RNFL thickness (pre LP: 196±105μm; post LP: 164±77μm, p=0.1) and transverse NCD (pre LP: 1985±559μm; post LP: 1590±228μm, p=2.0) decreased in all subjects, but with non-significant trends. The RPE/BM angle (mean change: 5.8±2.0degrees, p=0.003) decreased in all subjects. A decrease in papillary height was seen in three of five subjects (mean: pre LP: 976±275μm; post LP: 938±300μm, p=0.9). Our results show a measurable, objective change in the ONH after acute lowering of the lumbar CSF pressure, suggesting a direct link between the lumbar subarachnoid space and ONH regions, and its potential as a non-invasive method for monitoring intracranial pressures. PMID:26898579

  13. Effects of acute low temperature events on development of Erysiphe necator and susceptibility of Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth and development of Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator) has been extensively studied under controlled conditions, primarily with a focus on development within the optimal temperature range and the lethal effects of high temperatures. Little is known of the effect of cold temperatures on ...

  14. Corrosion fatigue behavior and life prediction method under changing temperature condition

    SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Akihiko; Iida, Kunihiro; Asada, Yasuhide

    1997-12-01

    Axially strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests of a carbon steel in oxygenated high temperature water were carried out under changing temperature conditions. Two patterns of triangular wave were selected for temperature cycling. One was in-phase pattern synchronizing with strain cycling and the other was an out-of-phase pattern in which temperature was changed in anti-phase to the strain cycling. The fatigue life under changing temperature condition was in the range of the fatigue life under various constant temperature within the range of the changing temperature. The fatigue life of in-phase pattern was equivalent to that of out-of-phase pattern. The corrosion fatigue life prediction method was proposed for changing temperature condition, and was based on the assumption that the fatigue damage increased in linear proportion to increment of strain during cycling. The fatigue life predicted by this method was in good agreement with the test results.

  15. Distributional changes in gene-specific methylation associated with temperature.

    PubMed

    Bind, Marie-Abele C; Coull, Brent A; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-10-01

    Temperature has been related to mean differences in DNA methylation. However, heterogeneity in these associations may exist across the distribution of methylation outcomes. This study examined whether the association between three-week averaged of temperature and methylation differs across quantiles of the methylation distributions in nine candidate genes. We measured gene-specific blood methylation repeatedly in 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2010). We fit quantile regressions for longitudinal data to investigate whether the associations of temperature on methylation (expressed as %5mC) varied across the distribution of the methylation outcomes. We observed heterogeneity in the associations of temperature across percentiles of methylation in F3, TLR-2, CRAT, iNOS, and ICAM-1 genes. For instance, an increase in three-week temperature exposure was associated with a longer left-tail of the F3 methylation distribution. A 5°C increase in temperature was associated with a 0.15%5mC (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.27,-0.04) decrease on the 20th quantile of F3 methylation, but was not significantly related to the 80th quantile of this distribution (Estimate:0.06%5mC, 95%CI: -0.22, 0.35). Individuals with low values of F3, TLR-2, CRAT, and iNOS methylation, as well as a high value of ICAM-1 methylation, may be more susceptible to temperature effects on systemic inflammation. PMID:27236570

  16. Effects of Moxibustion Temperature on Blood Cholesterol Level in a Mice Model of Acute Hyperlipidemia: Role of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Ying; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jiang, Jin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effects of moxibustion at two different temperatures (38°C and 46°C) on the blood cholesterol level in a mice model of acute hyperlipidemia, to detect the different expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the dorsal root ganglions of the wild mice, and to explore the correlation between TRPV1 and moxibustion's cholesterol-lowering effects. Method. Two different mice models were used: C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and TRPV1 gene knockout (TRPV1−/−). Each model was randomly divided into control group and model group with three subgroups after acute hyperlipidemia was established: model control group, 38°C moxibustion group, and 46°C moxibustion group. The mice in 38°C group and 46°C group were subject to moxibustion. After the therapy, the cholesterol concentration in serum was measured, and the expression of TRPV1 was quantified. Results. In WT mice, moxibustion caused a decrease in blood cholesterol level and upregulation of TRPV1 at the mRNA level, which was significantly greater in the 46°C group. In contrast, in TRPV1−/− mice, the differences of cholesterol-lowering effects of moxibustion were lost. Conclusions. Temperature is one of the important factors affecting the effects of moxibustion, and the cholesterol -lowering effect of moxibustion is related to the activation of TRPV1. PMID:23935685

  17. Global surface temperature changes since the 1850s

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature data from land and marine areas form the basis for many studies of climatic variations on local, regional and hemispheric scales, and the global mean temperature is a fundamental measure of the state of the climate system. In this paper it is shown that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by about 0.5{degrees}C since the mid-nineteenth century. This is an important part of the evidence in the {open_quote}global warming{close_quote} debate. How certain are we about the magnitude of the warming? Where has it been greatest? In this paper, these and related issues will be addressed.

  18. Conformational Change in Transfer RNA Is an Early Indicator of Acute Cellular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Eikan; Inoue, Chisako; Saigusa, Daisuke; Inoue, Ryusuke; Ito, Koki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Jinno, Daisuke; Tsukui, Yuri; Akamatsu, Yosuke; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Shinke, Haruka; Suzuki, Takehiro; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Shima, Hisato; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Chitose; Saiki, Yoshikatu; Tominaga, Teiji; Miyagi, Shigehito; Kawagisihi, Naoki; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamura, Kenichi; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Satohiro; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Ichimura, Takaharu; Mount, David B.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Tissue damage by oxidative stress is a key pathogenic mechanism in various diseases, including AKI and CKD. Thus, early detection of oxidative tissue damage is important. Using a tRNA-specific modified nucleoside 1-methyladenosine (m1A) antibody, we show that oxidative stress induces a direct conformational change in tRNA structure that promotes subsequent tRNA fragmentation and occurs much earlier than DNA damage. In various models of tissue damage (ischemic reperfusion, toxic injury, and irradiation), the levels of circulating tRNA derivatives increased rapidly. In humans, the levels of circulating tRNA derivatives also increased under conditions of acute renal ischemia, even before levels of other known tissue damage markers increased. Notably, the level of circulating free m1A correlated with mortality in the general population (n=1033) over a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Compared with healthy controls, patients with CKD had higher levels of circulating free m1A, which were reduced by treatment with pitavastatin (2 mg/d; n=29). Therefore, tRNA damage reflects early oxidative stress damage, and detection of tRNA damage may be a useful tool for identifying organ damage and forming a clinical prognosis. PMID:24833129

  19. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of p

  20. Hereditary angioneurotic edema and thromboembolic diseases: I: How symptoms of acute attacks change with aging.

    PubMed

    Kodama, J; Uchida, K; Kushiro, H; Murakami, N; Yutani, C

    1998-05-01

    Localized edema of the larynx and pharynx leading to death from asphyxia has long been recognized as a characteristic symptom of hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE). Long-term follow-up of younger HANE patients has revealed that transient localized acute attacks of edema affect tissues where the microcirculation maintains the blood supply. However, with aging, HANE attacks precipitate disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or multiple organ failure (MOF). Substitution with a C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) has resulted in a fulminant lethal end with a rapid and profound decrease in antithrombin-III (AT-III) activity. A possible mechanism is as follows: Exogenous stimuli activate plasma proteinase systems with the generation of plasma kallikrein that activates the tissue factor pathway (TF) and liberates bradykinin (BK). In younger patients, BK enhances vascular permeability. In the elderly, activated TF is controlled by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and generates thrombin, which is the target enzyme of AT-III and precipitates DIC or MOF. In elderly patients, the characteristic symptom of HANE is hypercoagulation by age-related changes in the biosynthesis of AT-III or TFPI. PMID:9652897

  1. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN FEMALE ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) BRAIN IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE EXPOSURE TO METHYLMERCURY

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 hr) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5 μg MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000 feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of p<0.01, 79 genes were up-regulated and 76 genes were down-regulated in response to MeHg exposure. Individual genes exhibiting altered expression in response to MeHg exposure implicate effects on glutathione metabolism in the mechanism of MeHg neurotoxicity. Gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched among altered genes included protein folding, cell redox homeostasis, and steroid biosynthetic process. The most affected biological functions were related to the nervous system development and function, as well as lipid metabolism and molecular transport. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress and effects on protein structure in the mechanism of action of MeHg in the female brain. Future studies will compare the gene expression profile induced in response to MeHg with that induced by other toxicants and investigate responsive genes as potential biomarkers of MeHg exposure. PMID:21082716

  2. Impact of integrated health system changes, accelerated due to an earthquake, on emergency department attendances and acute admissions: a Bayesian change-point analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Philip J; Hamilton, Greg J; Deely, Joanne M; Ardagh, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To chart emergency department (ED) attendance and acute admission following a devastating earthquake in 2011 which lead to Canterbury's rapidly accelerated integrated health system transformations. Design Interrupted time series analysis, modelling using Bayesian change-point methods, of ED attendance and acute admission rates over the 2008–2014 period. Setting ED department within the Canterbury District Health Board; with comparison to two other district health boards unaffected by the earthquake within New Zealand. Participants Canterbury's health system services ∼500 000 people, with around 85 000 ED attendances and 37 000 acute admissions per annum. Main outcome measures De-seasoned standardised population ED attendance and acute admission rates overall, and stratified by age and sex, compared before and after the earthquake. Results Analyses revealed five global patterns: (1) postearthquake, there was a sudden and persisting decrease in the proportion of the population attending the ED; (2) the growth rate of ED attendances per head of population did not change between the pre-earthquake and postearthquake periods; (3) postearthquake, there was a sudden and persisting decrease in the proportion of the population admitted to hospital; (4) the growth rate of hospital admissions per head of the population declined between pre-earthquake and postearthquake periods and (5) the most dramatic reduction in hospital admissions growth after the earthquake occurred among those aged 65+ years. Extrapolating from the projected and fitted deseasoned rates for December 2014, ∼676 (16.8%) of 4035 projected hospital admissions were avoided. Conclusions While both necessarily and opportunistically accelerated, Canterbury's integrated health systems transformations have resulted in a dramatic and sustained reduction in ED attendances and acute hospital admissions. This natural intervention experiment, triggered by an earthquake, demonstrated that

  3. Seasonality, ambient temperatures and hospitalizations for acute exacerbation of COPD: a population-based study in a metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Pere; Hernandez, Carme; Martinez-Cambor, Pable; Tresserras, Ricard; Escarrabill, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background Excluding the tropics, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are more frequent in winter. However, studies that directly relate hospitalizations for exacerbation of COPD to ambient temperature are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature on the number of hospitalizations for COPD. Methods This was a population-based study in a metropolitan area. All hospital discharges for acute exacerbation of COPD during 2009 in Barcelona and its metropolitan area were analyzed. The relationship between the number of hospitalizations for COPD and the mean, minimum, and maximum temperatures alongside comorbidity, humidity, influenza rate, and environmental pollution were studied. Results A total of 9,804 hospitalization discharges coded with COPD exacerbation as a primary diagnosis were included; 75.4% of cases were male with a mean age of 74.9±10.5 years and an average length of stay of 6.5±6.1 days. The highest number of admissions (3,644 [37.2%]) occurred during winter, followed by autumn with 2,367 (24.1%), spring with 2,347 (23.9%), and summer with 1,446 (14.7%; P<0.001). The maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were associated similarly with the number of hospitalizations. On average, we found that for each degree Celsius decrease in mean weekly temperature, hospital admissions increased by 5.04% (r2=0.591; P<0.001). After adjustment for humidity, comorbidity, air pollution, and influenza-like illness, only mean temperatures retained statistical significance, with a mean increase of 4.7% in weekly admissions for each degree Celsius of temperature (r2=0.599, P<0.001). Conclusion Mean temperatures are closely and independently related to the number of hospitalizations for COPD. PMID:26056439

  4. Effect of acute low body temperature on predatory behavior and prey-capture efficiency in a plethodontid salamander.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Glenn A; Davis, Kayla; Dawson, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The low-temperature limit for feeding in some salamander species (Desmognathus, Plethodontidae) has been inferred from field studies of seasonal variation in salamander activity and gut contents, which could not determine whether feeding is more dependent on environmental conditions influencing salamander foraging behavior or prey availability and movement. We performed two controlled laboratory experiments to examine the effect of short-term (acute) low body temperature on predatory behavior and prey-capture efficiency in a semiaquatic plethodontid salamander (Desmognathus conanti). In the first experiment, we quantified variation in the feeding responses of cold salamanders (at 1, 3, 5 and 7°C) to a video recording of a walking, warm (15°C) cricket to determine the lower thermal limit for predatory behavior, independent of any temperature effect on movement of prey. Experimental-group salamanders exhibited vigorous feeding responses at 5 and 7°C, large variation in feeding responses both among and within individuals (over time) at 3°C, and little to no feeding response at 1°C. Feeding responses at both 1 and 3°C were significantly less than at each higher temperature, whereas responses of control-group individuals at 15°C did not vary over time. In the second experiment, we quantified feeding by cold salamanders (at 3, 5, 7 and 11°C) on live, warm crickets to examine thermal effects on prey-capture ability. The mean feeding response to live crickets was significantly less at 3°C than at higher temperatures; however, 50% of salamanders captured and ingested prey with high efficiency at this temperature. We conclude that many individuals stalk and capture prey at very low temperatures (down to 3°C). Our results support a growing body of data that indicate many plethodontid salamanders feed at temperatures only a few degrees above freezing. PMID:26939728

  5. Temperature changes across porcelain during multiple exposure CO2 lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Peacocke, Larry

    1990-06-01

    Research indicates that laser energy may provide a useful method for glazing and fusing porcelain for intraoral prosthetic purposes. However, it is not known whether such lasing will result in the production of heat levels that may be damaging to adjacent vital tissues such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. This research is designed to measure the magnitude of temperature rise across porcelain observed during multiple exposure C02 lasing. Fifteen porcelain examples of 1000 jim (5), 1500 pm (5) and 2000 tm (5) x each received five C02 laser exposures on the same exposure site at 1.0 sec. intervals at 8.0 watts (0.2 sec. per exposure with a 1 mm focal spot). A YSI 144201 thermilinear precision thermistor was placed on the porcelain surface opposite each laser exposure site. Temperature rise above ambient was recorded by an HP3421A data acquisition unit and HP9816 technical microcomputer. Recording continued for sufficient time to allow temperatures to return to ambient. The mean temperature elevations ranged from a low of 2.97 0C (2000 pm) to a high of 7.77 °C (1000 μm). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences in temperature rise by porcelain thickness. It would appear from the results of this research that temperature elevations adjacent to lased porcelain may be sufficiently controllable that safe intraoral porcelain lasing will be possible.

  6. Changes in clinical and instrumental vestibular parameters following acute exposition to auditory stress.

    PubMed

    Cassandro, E; Chiarella, G; Catalano, M; Gallo, L V; Marcelli, V; Nicastri, M; Petrolo, C

    2003-08-01

    Besides Tullio's phenomenon, resulting from anatomic changes in the labyrinth, a hypersensitivity to acoustic stimuli of the saccular structures appears to be the underlying cause of the vestibular responses detected in some patients. In order to evaluate the incidence of vestibular symptoms triggered by acute exposure to auditory stress (disco music), 40 subjects aged between 18 and 26 years, with no audiological and vestibular disorders, were submitted to otoneurologic tests. Subjects were exposed to disco music [intensity 128 dB (C)], for 3 hours. Tests have been carried out before and immediately after exposure. Canalar and macular functions have been evaluated using vestibular investigation techniques and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. When compared to baseline data, post-exposure test results did not reveal any canalar damage. Pre- and post-exposure recordings of the vestibular-oculomotor reflex threshold have shown no significant changes. Conversely, post-stimulus recordings have shown a significant increase in the amplitude of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential response, thus indicating a possible irritative involvement of the macular receptor. This result suggests a direct action upon the receptor by acoustic stimulation which could, therefore, be the underlying cause of vestibular symptoms reported by patients following exposure to sufficiently intense acoustic stimuli. Prior to this study. a questionnaire concerning the relationship between habitual disco visiting and audio-vestibular symptoms has been completed by 310 students at the University of Catanzaro. This survey revealed a significant incidence of vestibular symptoms due to acoustic stress (Tullio's phenomenon) which led us to hypothesise that balance disorders due to auditory stress are much more frequent than commonly held, particularly since, in many cases, diagnoses is unknown or not easy due to the difficult procedures by which these conditions are diagnosed. PMID:15046413

  7. Changes of deceleration and acceleration capacity of heart rate in patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xing-De; Yang, Jia-Jun; Zhou, Li; Pan, Yong-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Autonomic dysfunction is common after stroke, which is correlated with unfavorable outcome. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a newly developed technique for assessing cardiac autonomic function, by detecting sympathetic and vagal nerve activity separately through calculating acceleration capacity (AC) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. In this study, we used this technique for the first time to investigate the cardiac autonomic function of patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke. Methods A 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed in 63 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke in hemisphere and sinus rhythm, as well as in 50 controls with high risk of stroke. DC, AC, heart rate variability parameters, standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD) were calculated. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. We analyzed the changes of DC, AC, SDNN, and RMSSD and also studied the correlations between these parameters and NIHSS scores. Results The R–R (R wave to R wave on electrocardiogram) intervals, DC, AC, and SDNN in the cerebral infarction group were lower than those in controls (P=0.003, P=0.002, P=0.006, and P=0.043), but the difference of RMSSD and the D-value and ratio between absolute value of AC (|AC|) and DC were not statistically significant compared with those in controls. The DC of the infarction group was significantly correlated with |AC|, SDNN, and RMSSD (r=0.857, r=0.619, and r=0.358; P=0.000, P=0.000, and P=0.004). Correlation analysis also showed that DC, |AC|, and SDNN were negatively correlated with NIHSS scores (r=−0.279, r=−0.266, and r=−0.319; P=0.027, P=0.035, and P=0.011). Conclusion Both DC and AC of heart rate decreased in patients with hemispheric infarction, reflecting a decrease in both vagal

  8. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  9. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  10. Characterization of Microbial Dysbiosis and Metabolomic Changes in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Guard, Blake C.; Barr, James W.; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M.; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states. PMID:26000959

  11. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guard, Blake C; Barr, James W; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states. PMID:26000959

  12. Trends and Patterns of Change in Temperature and Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragno, E.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global mean monthly temperature has increased substantially in the past decades. On the other hand, there are contradictory reports on the response of the potential evaporation to a warming climate. In this study, ground based observations of temperature, and direct measurements of pan potential evaporation are evaluated across the United States. Furthermore, empirical simulations of the potential evaporation have been evaluated against observations. The results show that empirical (e.g., Thornthwaite method) estimates of the potential evapotranspiration show trends inconsistent with the ground-based observations. In fact, while temperature data show a significant upward trend across most of the United States, ground-based evaporation data in most locations do not exhibit a statistically significant trend. Empirical methods of potential evaporation estimation, including the Thornthwaite method, show trends similar to temperature. The primary reason is that many of the empirical approaches are dominated by temperature. Currently, empirical estimates of potential evaporation are widely used for numerous applications including water stress analysis. This indicates that using empirical estimates of potential estimation for irrigation water demand estimation and also drought assessment could lead to unrealistic results.

  13. [The temperature and temperature gradient distribution in the thermophysical model of the rabbit body subjected internal and external changes of temperature].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2002-03-01

    In a laboratory heat-physical model of the rabbit reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of animal body (weight, heat absorption and heat production, size of a relative surface, capacity heat-production etc.), the changes of radial distribution of temperature and size of a cross superficial temperature gradient of the body were investigated with various parities (ratio) of environmental temperature and size of capacity heat production imitated by an electrical heater. Superficial layer of the body dependent from capacity heat production and environmental temperature can serve for definition of general heat content changes in the body for maintaining its thermal balance within the environment. PMID:12013736

  14. Dynamics of cell membrane permeability changes at supraphysiological temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, J C; Padanilam, J; Holmes, W H; Ezzell, R M; Lee, R C; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative fluorescent microscopy system was developed to characterize, in real time, the effects of supraphysiological temperatures between 37 degrees and 70 degrees C on the plasma membrane of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and isolated rat skeletal muscle cells. Membrane permeability was assessed by monitoring the leakage as a function of time of the fluorescent membrane integrity probe calcein. The kinetics of dye leakage increased with increasing temperature in both the 3T3 fibroblasts and the skeletal muscle cells. Analytical solutions derived from a two-compartment transport model showed that, for both cell types, a time-dependent permeability assumption provided a statistically better fit of the model predictions to the data than a constant permeability assumption. This finding suggests that the plasma membrane integrity is continuously being compromised while cells are subjected to supraphysiological temperatures. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7647264

  15. Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. Results We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. Conclusions The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after

  16. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial

  17. Potential climate change effects on rice: Carbon dioxide and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.T.; Boote, K.J.; Allen, L.H. Jr. |

    1995-12-31

    The projected doubling of current levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration [CO{sub 2}] during the next century, along with increases in other radiatively active gases, has led to predictions of increases in global air temperature and shifts in precipitation patterns. Since 1987, several [CO{sub 2}] and temperature experiments have been conducted on rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. IR-30) in outdoor, naturally-sunlit, environmentally-controlled, plant growth chambers. The objectives of this chapter are to summarize some of the major findings of these experiments. In these experiments, season-long [CO{sub 2}] treatments ranged from 160 to 900 {micro}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1} air, while temperature treatments ranged from 25/18/21 to 40/33/37 C (daytime dry bulb air temperature/nighttime dry bulb air temperature/constant paddy water temperature). Total growth duration was shortened by 10 to 12 d as [CO{sub 2}] increased across a [CO{sub 2}] range from 160 to 500 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, due mainly to a shortened vegetative phase of development and a reduction in the number of mainstem leaves formed prior to panicle initiation. Photosynthesis, growth, and final grain yield increased with [CO{sub 2}] from 160 to 500 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, but were very similar from 500 to 900 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. Carbon dioxide enrichment from 330 to 660 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} increased grain yield mainly by increasing the number of panicles per plant, and increasing temperature treatment above 28/21/25 C resulted in decreased grain yield, due largely to a decline in the number of filled grain per panicle. Evapotranspiration decreased and water-use efficiency increased with increasing [CO{sub 2}] treatment, while the reverse trends were found with increasing temperature treatment. 60 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Assessing Climate Change: Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Marvin

    2008-08-01

    The science of climate change is being investigated by thousands of scientists, is constantly in the news, and is discussed in the political arena worldwide. My Internet search on the words ``climate change'' produced about 40,600,000 hits. The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to former U.S. vice president Al Gore and the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Of course, the subject goes beyond the science. The debate on what, if anything, should be done about humankind's influence on climate is the subject of U.S. and international political debate.

  19. Volcanic Contribution to Decadal Changes in Tropospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Bonfils, Celine; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Mears, Carl; Solomon, Susan; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Fyfe, John C.; Cole, Jason N.S.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Taylor, Karl E.; Wentz, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued growth in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, global mean surface and tropospheric temperatures have shown slower warming since 1998 than previously. Possible explanations for the slow-down include internal climate variability, external cooling influences and observational errors. Several recent modelling studies have examined the contribution of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions to the muted surface warming. Here we present a detailed analysis of the impact of recent volcanic forcing on tropospheric temperature, based on observations as well as climate model simulations. We identify statistically significant correlations between observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and satellite-based estimates of both tropospheric temperature and short-wave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998. In two simulations with more realistic volcanic influences following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, differences between simulated and observed tropospheric temperature trends over the period 1998 to 2012 are up to 15% smaller, with large uncertainties in the magnitude of the effect. To reduce these uncertainties, better observations of eruption-specific properties of volcanic aerosols are needed, as well as improved representation of these eruption-specific properties in climate model simulations.

  20. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  1. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  2. Changes in Population Occupancy of Bradyrhizobia under Diffrent Temperature Regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (USDA 6T, 38, and 123) and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strain (USDA 76T) were conducted to compare their respective proliferation traits under different cultivation temperature conditions with yeast-extract mannitol broth medium and to estimate the strain p...

  3. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April–May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  4. A closer look at temperature changes with remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Temperature is a main driver for important ecological processes. Time series temperature data provide key environmental indicators for various applications and research fields. High spatial and temporal resolution is crucial in order to perform detailed analyses in various fields of research. While meteorological station data are commonly used, they often lack completeness or are not distributed in a representative way. Remotely sensed thermal images from polar orbiting satellites are considered to be a good alternative to the scarce meteorological data as they offer almost continuous coverage of the Earth with very high temporal resolution. A drawback of temperature data obtained by satellites is the occurrence of gaps (due to clouds, aerosols) that must be filled. We have reconstructed a seamless and gap-free time series for land surface temperature (LST) at continental scale for Europe from MODIS LST products (Moderate Resolution Imaging Sensor instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites), keeping the temporal resolution of four records per day and enhancing the spatial resolution from 1 km to 250 m. Here we present a new procedure to reconstruct MODIS LST time series with unprecedented detail in space and time, at the same time providing continental coverage. Our method constitutes a unique new combination of weighted temporal averaging with statistical modeling and spatial interpolation. We selected as auxiliary variables datasets which are globally available in order to propose a worldwide reproducible method. Compared to existing similar datasets, the substantial quantitative difference translates to a qualitative difference in applications and results. We consider both our dataset and the new procedure for its creation to be of utmost interest to a broad interdisciplinary audience. Moreover, we provide examples for its implications and applications, such as disease risk assessment, epidemiology, environmental monitoring, and temperature anomalies. In

  5. Can air temperatures be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M.; Dunham, J.; Johnson, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of available in situ stream temperature records at broad spatiotemporal scales have been recognized as a major limiting factor in the understanding of thermal behavior of stream and river systems. This has motivated the promotion of a wide variety of models that use surrogates for stream temperatures including a regression approach that uses air temperature as the predictor variable. We investigate the long-term performance of widely used linear and non-linear regression models between air and stream temperatures to project the latter in future climate scenarios. Specifically, we examine the temporal variability of the parameters that define each of these models in long-term stream and air temperature datasets representing relatively natural and highly human-influenced streams. We selected 25 sites with long-term records that monitored year-round daily measurements of stream temperature (daily mean) in the western United States (California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and Alaska). Surface air temperature data from each site was not available. Therefore, we calculated daily mean surface air temperature for each site in contiguous US from a 1/16-degree resolution gridded surface temperature data. Our findings highlight several limitations that are endemic to linear or nonlinear regressions that have been applied in many recent attempts to project future stream temperatures based on air temperature. Our results also show that applications over longer time periods, as well as extrapolation of model predictions to project future stream temperatures are unlikely to be reliable. Although we did not analyze a broad range of stream types at a continental or global extent, our analysis of stream temperatures within the set of streams considered herein was more than sufficient to illustrate a number of specific limitations associated with statistical projections of stream temperature based on air temperature. Radar plots of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values for

  6. Time-dependent changes of autophagy and apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced rat acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Liangzhu; Han, Lu; Ji, Wanli; Shen, Hui; Hu, Zhenwu

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Abnormal lung cell death including autophagy and apoptosis is the central feature in acute lung injury (ALI). To identify the cellular mechanisms and the chronology by which different types of lung cell death are activated during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI, we decided to evaluate autophagy (by LC3-II and autophagosome) and apoptosis (by caspase-3) at different time points after LPS treatment in a rat model of LPS-induced ALI. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and LPS group. ALI was induced by LPS intraperitoneal injection (3 mg/kg). The lung tissues were collected to measure lung injury score by histopathological evaluation, the protein expression of LC3-II and caspase-3 by Western blot, and microstructural changes by electron microscopy analysis. Results: During ALI, lung cell death exhibited modifications in the death process at different stages of ALI. At early stages (1 hr and 2 hr) of ALI, the mode of lung cell death started with autophagy in LPS group and reached a peak at 2 hr. As ALI process progressed, apoptosis was gradually increased in the lung tissues and reached its maximal level at later stages (6 hr), while autophagy was time-dependently decreased. Conclusion: These findings suggest that activated autophagy and apoptosis might play distinct roles at different stages of LPS-induced ALI. This information may enhance the understanding of lung pathophysiology at the cellular level during ALI and pulmonary infection, and thus help optimize the timing of innovating therapeutic approaches in future experiments with this model. PMID:27482344

  7. Bacteremia complicating acute leukemia with special reference to its incidence and changing etiological patterns.

    PubMed

    Funada, H; Machi, T; Matsuda, T

    1988-09-01

    Over the 15-yr period, 1972-1986, 194 episodes of bacteremia occurred in 132 patients with acute leukemia at the Third Department of Medicine, Kanazawa University Hospital, giving an incidence of 478 episodes per 1,000 hospital admissions. This incidence was at least twice as high as that in patients with chronic leukemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma or aplastic anemia, and about 40-fold higher than that in patients with all other internal diseases. The rate of occurrence of bacteremia, whether unimicrobial or polymicrobial, remained almost unchanged throughout the study period. The frequency of gram-negative bacilli decreased significantly, however, from 81% of the total isolates for the first 10-yr period to 50% for the second 5-yr period. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated in markedly decreasing frequency, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae in relatively constant frequency. The majority of P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to a limited number of O-antigen groups, suggesting the possibility of nosocomial infection. On the other hand, the frequency of gram-positive cocci increased from 9 to 36%. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus species, and Staphylococcus aureus emerged as important pathogens. Such a change in the spectrum of organisms was considered to coincide with the common use of the so-called second- and third-generation cephalosporins and central venous catheters. It is thus suggested that vancomycin be added to empiric antibiotic therapy, especially when gram-positive infections are clinically or microbiologically suspected, and that reducing the acquisition of P. aeruginosa from the hospital environment remains a priority in infection prevention. PMID:3411788

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  9. Changing Patterns of Acute Phase Proteins and Inflammatory Mediators in Experimental Caprine Coccidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the changing patterns and relative values of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in experimental caprine coccidiosis. Eighteen newborn kids were allocated to 3 equal groups. Two groups, A and B, were inoculated with a single dose of 1×103 and1×105 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arloingi, respectively. The third group, C, received distilled water as the control. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each kid in both groups before inoculation and at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-inoculation (PI), and the levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α, and IFN-γ were measured. For histopathological examinations, 2 kids were selected from each group, euthanized, and necropsied on day 42 PI. Mean Hp concentrations in groups A and B (0.34 and 0.68 g/L) at day 7 PI were 3.2 and 6.3 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The mean SAA concentrations in groups A and B (25.6 and 83.5 µg/ml) at day 7 PI were 4.2 and 13.7 times higher than the levels before inoculation. The magnitude and duration of the Hp and SAA responses correlated well with the inoculation doses and the severity of the clinical signs and diarrhea in kids. These results were consistent with the histopathological features, which showed advanced widespread lesions in group B. In both groups, significant correlations were observed for TNF-α and IFN-γ with SAA and Hp, respectively. In conclusion, Hp and SAA can be useful non-specific diagnostic indicators in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:22072820

  10. Cognitive functions and cerebral oxygenation changes during acute and prolonged hypoxic exposure.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Casini, Laurence; Arnal, Pierrick J; Rupp, Thomas; Perrey, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess specific cognitive processes (cognitive control and time perception) and hemodynamic correlates using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during acute and prolonged high-altitude exposure. Eleven male subjects were transported via helicopter and dropped at 14 272 ft (4 350 meters) of altitude where they stayed for 4 days. Cognitive tasks, involving a conflict task and temporal bisection task, were performed at sea level the week before ascending to high altitude, the day of arrival (D0), the second (D2) and fourth (D4) day at high altitude. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) area were monitored with fNIRS at rest and during the conflict task. Results showed that high altitude impacts information processing in terms of speed and accuracy. In the early hours of exposure (D0), participants displayed slower reaction times (RT) and decision errors were twice as high. While error rate for simple spontaneous responses remained twice that at sea level, the slow-down of RT was not detectable after 2 days at high-altitude. The larger fNIRS responses from D0 to D2 suggest that higher prefrontal activity partially counteracted cognitive performance decrements. Cognitive control, assessed through the build-up of a top-down response suppression mechanism, the early automatic response activation and the post-error adjustment were not impacted by hypoxia. However, during prolonged hypoxic exposure the temporal judgments were underestimated suggesting a slowdown of the internal clock. A decrease in cortical arousal level induced by hypoxia could consistently explain both the slowdown of the internal clock and the persistence of a higher number of errors after several days of exposure. PMID:27262217

  11. Changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by inhibitory avoidance learning and acute administration of amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    González-Pardo, Héctor; Conejo, Nélida M; Arias, Jorge L; Monleón, Santiago; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Parra, Andrés

    2008-05-01

    The effects of antidepressant drugs on memory have been somewhat ignored, having been considered a mere side effect of these compounds. However, the memory impairment caused by several antidepressants could be considered to form part of their therapeutic effects. Amitriptyline is currently one of the most prescribed tricyclic antidepressants, and exerts marked anticholinergic and antihistaminergic effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning and acute administration of amitriptyline on brain oxidative metabolism. Brain oxidative metabolism was measured in several limbic regions using cytochrome oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. Amitriptyline produced a clear impairment in the IA task. In animals exposed only to the apparatus, amitriptyline decreased CO activity in nine brain regions, without affecting the remaining regions. In animals that underwent the IA training phase, amitriptyline reduced CO activity in only three of these nine regions. In animals treated with saline, IA acquisition increased CO activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, the prelimbic cortex, and the medial mammillary body, and diminished it in the medial septum and the nucleus basalis of Meynert with respect to animals exposed only to the IA apparatus. In animals treated with amitriptyline, IA acquisition did not modify CO activity in any of these regions, but increased it in the anteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, the diagonal band of Broca, and the dentate gyrus. The results reveal a pattern of changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by IA training in saline-treated animals that was clearly absent in animals submitted to the same behavioural training but treated with amitriptyline. PMID:18313125

  12. [Quality of results of therapy of acute respiratory failure : changes over a period of two decades].

    PubMed

    Briegel, I; Dolch, M; Irlbeck, M; Hauer, D; Kaufmann, I; Schelling, G

    2013-04-01

    Progress in intensive care (ICU) treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over the last 20 years includes the introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for CO2 removal and the widespread use of evidence-based lung-protective ventilatory strategies. Little is known, however, about whether these changes have resulted in improvements in short-term and long-term outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) within the two decades after introduction. In a retrospective study 167 long-term survivors of severe ARDS who were transferred to the clinic for anesthesiology of the University of Munich, Campus Großhadern by means of specialized intensive care unit (ICU) transport teams and treated over a period of 20 years (1985-2005) were evaluated to investigate whether significant improvements in outcome as a consequence of the above mentioned progress in ARDS therapy have occurred. The ARDS patient cohort studied was characterized with regard to demographic variables, initial acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, duration of ICU treatment, the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Data on long-term outcome were collected in a subcohort (n = 125) of patients who responded to mailed questionnaires and included health-related quality of life (HRQL, SF-36 questionnaire), symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic memories from ICU treatment (PTSS-10 instrument) and current state of employment. During the observation period no significant changes regarding patient age (39 ± 16 years, mean ± SD), disease severity on admission to the ICU (APACHE II scores 22 ± 5), duration of ICU treatment (47 ± 39 days) or duration of mechanical ventilation (39 ± 38 days) were found. Overall ICU mortality during the two decades was 37.3 % (range 25.0 %-38.1 %) between 1995 and 2001 and a non-significant increase in values between 36.8 % and 58.3 % during the time interval from 2002 und 2005. The

  13. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  14. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  15. Early detection of acute transmural myocardial ischemia by the phasic systolic-diastolic changes of local tissue electrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Esther; Amorós-Figueras, Gerard; García-Sánchez, Tomás; Bragós, Ramón; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Cinca, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Myocardial electrical impedance is influenced by the mechanical activity of the heart. Therefore, the ischemia-induced mechanical dysfunction may cause specific changes in the systolic-diastolic pattern of myocardial impedance, but this is not known. This study aimed to analyze the phasic changes of myocardial resistivity in normal and ischemic conditions. Myocardial resistivity was measured continuously during the cardiac cycle using 26 different simultaneous excitation frequencies (1 kHz-1 MHz) in 7 anesthetized open-chest pigs. Animals were submitted to 30 min regional ischemia by acute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. The electrocardiogram, left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV dP/dt, and aortic blood flow were recorded simultaneously. Baseline myocardial resistivity depicted a phasic pattern during the cardiac cycle with higher values at the preejection period (4.19 ± 1.09% increase above the mean, P < 0.001) and lower values during relaxation phase (5.01 ± 0.85% below the mean, P < 0.001). Acute coronary occlusion induced two effects on the phasic resistivity curve: 1) a prompt (5 min ischemia) holosystolic resistivity rise leading to a bell-shaped waveform and to a reduction of the area under the LV pressure-impedance curve (1,427 ± 335 vs. 757 ± 266 Ω·cm·mmHg, P < 0.01, 41 kHz) and 2) a subsequent (5-10 min ischemia) progressive mean resistivity rise (325 ± 23 vs. 438 ± 37 Ω·cm at 30 min, P < 0.01, 1 kHz). The structural and mechanical myocardial dysfunction induced by acute coronary occlusion can be recognized by specific changes in the systolic-diastolic myocardial resistivity curve. Therefore these changes may become a new indicator (surrogate) of evolving acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:26608340

  16. Optical glass: refractive index change with wavelength and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Marion; Hartmann, Peter; Reichel, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    With the catalog of 1992 SCHOTT introduced two formulae each with six parameters for a better representation of the refractive index of optical glasses. The Sellmeier-equation improved the characterization of dispersion at room temperature and the Hoffmann equation that of its temperature dependence. Better representation had been expected because both formulae were derived from general dispersion theory. The original publication of Hoffmann et al. from 1992 contains first results on the accuracy of the fits. The extended use of the formulae has led to a collection of data allowing reviewing the adequacy of the Sellmeier-equation approach on a much broader basis. We compare fitted refractive index values with measured values for all wavelengths used at our precision refractive index goniometer. Data sets are available for specific melts of the four representative glass types N-BK7, N-FK5, LF5 and IRG2. For some materials, the optical glass N-LAF21, the IR glass IRG2 and the crystal CaF2, several sets of data for the temperature dependence of the refractive index are available thus giving evidence for the variation of these properties among melts of the same material.

  17. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M

    2012-06-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T(pill)) was compared with the rectal temperature (T(re)) and esophageal temperature (T(es)). T(pill) corresponded well to T(re) during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T(es) during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT(pill)-T(re) and ΔT(pill)-T(es) were 0.13 ± 0.26 and -0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T(pill) and T(re.) T(es) responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T(pill). In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T(pill) is still a representative of T(re). The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T(pill) and T(es) (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T(pill) is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. PMID:22551669

  18. Suppressed proliferation and apoptotic changes in the rat dentate gyrus after acute and chronic stress are reversible.

    PubMed

    Heine, Vivi M; Maslam, Suharti; Zareno, Jessica; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Acute stress suppresses new cell birth in the hippocampus in several species. Relatively little is known, however, on how chronic stress affects the turnover, i.e. proliferation and apoptosis, of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) cells, and whether the stress effects are lasting. We investigated how 3 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress would influence the structural dynamic plasticity of the rat DG, and studied newborn cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, volume and cell number in 10-week-old animals. To study lasting effects, another group of animals was allowed to recover for 3 weeks. Based on two independent parameters, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki-67 immunocytochemistry, our results show that both chronic and acute stress decrease new cell proliferation rate. The reduced proliferation after acute stress normalized within 24 h. Interestingly, chronically stressed animals showed recovery after 3 weeks, albeit with still fewer proliferating cells than controls. Apoptosis, by contrast, increased after acute but decreased after chronic stress. These results demonstrate that, although chronic stress suppresses proliferation and apoptosis, 3 weeks of recovery again normalized most of these alterations. This may have important implications for our understanding of the reversibility of stress-related hippocampal volume changes, such as occur, for example, in depression. PMID:14750971

  19. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future. PMID:25743934

  20. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future. PMID:25743934

  1. Changes in food (Chlorella) levels and the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia carinata and Eschinisca triserialis

    SciTech Connect

    Chandini, T.

    1988-09-01

    Inasmuch as cadmium is known to be toxic to both fish and aquatic invertebrates due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential, the present study was initiated to determine the acute effects of cadmium on two cladoceran species - Daphnia carinata and Echinisca triserialis commonly found in fresh waters of Delhi. The two species in the extreme ends of the size continuum and were chosen to determine the magnitude of toxicity in relation to body size. As extraneous abiotic and biotic factors such as temperature, pH, food have been shown to greatly modify a pollutant stress, the present study was conducted with the objective of determining if differences in food levels could modify the acute toxicity effects of cadmium on these cladocerans. An attempt has also been made to compare these results with previous studies on cadmium toxicity.

  2. Intruder-induced change in condensation temperature of granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ching; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hao

    2011-02-01

    The process from a gaseous state to a clustering state for a compartmentalized monodisperse granular gas is accompanied by a drop in the granular temperature to a condensation point. We show experimentally that adding an intruder generally results in a decrease in the condensation point, and a heavier intruder makes this decrease more pronounced. However, once the Brazil nut effect (the intruder on the top of clustering grains) occurs, the condensation point will rise. Through the balance of particle fluxes and the hydrodynamic balance of driving forces, we analytically calculated the condensation point for the monodisperse gases and the intruder-fluid mixtures. The analytical results match the experimental data.

  3. The Effect of Paracetamol on Core Body Temperature in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Manoj K.; Taylor, Colman; Billot, Laurent; Bompoint, Severine; Gowardman, John; Roberts, Jason A.; Lipman, Jeffery; Myburgh, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Strategies to prevent pyrexia in patients with acute neurological injury may reduce secondary neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the routine administration of 6 grams/day of intravenous paracetamol in reducing body temperature following severe traumatic brain injury, compared to placebo. Methods A multicentre, randomised, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients were randomised to receive an intravenous infusion of either 1g of paracetamol or 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) every 4 hours for 72 hours. The primary outcome was the mean difference in core temperature during the study intervention period. Results Forty-one patients were included in this study: 21 were allocated to paracetamol and 20 to saline. The median (interquartile range) number of doses of study drug was 18 (17–18) in the paracetamol group and 18 (16–18) in the saline group (P = 0.85). From randomisation until 4 hours after the last dose of study treatment, there were 2798 temperature measurements (median 73 [67–76] per patient). The mean ± standard deviation temperature was 37.4±0.5°C in the paracetamol group and 37.7±0.4°C in the saline group (absolute difference -0.3°C; 95% confidence interval -0.6 to 0.0; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences in the use of physical cooling, or episodes of hypotension or hepatic abnormalities, between the two groups. Conclusion The routine administration of 6g/day of intravenous paracetamol did not significantly reduce core body temperature in patients with TBI. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000444280 PMID:26678710

  4. Change in Psychosocial Functioning and Depressive Symptoms during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Todd W.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Carmody, Thomas; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent, is recurrent, and impairs people’s work, relationships, and leisure. Acute-phase treatments improve psychosocial impairment associated with MDD, but how these improvements occur is unclear. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that reductions in depressive symptoms exceed, precede, and predict improvements in psychosocial functioning. Method Patients with recurrent MDD (N = 523; 68% women, 81% Caucasian; M = 42 years old) received acute-phase Cognitive Therapy (CT; Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery, 1979). We measured functioning and symptom severity with the Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (Weissman & Bothwell, 1976), Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (Leon et al., 1999), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960) and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush et al., 1996). We tested cross-lagged correlations between functioning and symptoms measured at baseline and the beginning, middle and end of acute phase CT. Results Pre- to post- treatment improvement in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms was large and inter-correlated. Depressive symptoms improved more and sooner than did psychosocial functioning. But among four assessments across the course of treatment, improvements in functioning more strongly predicted later improvement in symptoms than vice versa. Conclusions Improvements in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms correlate substantially during acute-phase CT, and improvements in functioning may play a role in subsequent symptom reduction during acute-phase CT. PMID:21781377

  5. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  6. Evidence for changes in the microwave brightness temperature and spectrum of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    A new measurement of the microwave brightness temperature of Uranus at 13.1 cm wavelength yields an effective disk temperature of 255 + or - 18 K. Comparison with earlier measurements at nearby wavelengths reveals a doubling in brightness temperature in 14 yr. Observations at shorter wavelengths show significant changes in the shape of the microwave spectrum of the planet over the last decade.

  7. REVIEW OF TERMS FOR REGULATED VERSUS FORCED, NEUROCHEMICAL-INDUCED CHANGES IN BODY TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous...

  8. Substrate temperature changes during molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaMnAs

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, V.; Olejnik, K.; Cukr, M.; Smrcka, L.; Remes, Z.; Oswald, J.

    2007-10-15

    Our band gap spectroscopy measurements reveal a remarkably big increase of the substrate temperature during the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaMnAs layers. With the help of numerical simulations we explain the effect as a consequence of changing absorption/emission characteristics of the growing epilayer. We discuss possibilities for reducing the substrate temperature variations during the growth.

  9. Climate change implications of soil temperature in the Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yanying; Scott, Thomas A.; Min, Qingwen

    2014-06-01

    Soil temperature plays an important role in physical, biological, and microbiological processes occurring in the soil, but it is rarely reported as an indicator of climate change. A long-term soil temperature database, collected in the Mojave Desert region from 1982-2000, was used to examine the relationship between regional climate change and soil temperature. During this 19-year study period, there was a warming trend in the Mojave Desert region. The soil temperature in this region, measured at 50-cm deep, increased at an average rate of 0.79°C per decade. The temporal changes of soil temperature and those of air temperature were highly correlated. Elevation was the dominating factor that affected the spatiotemporal variations of soil and air temperature.

  10. Effects of acute low temperature events on development of Erysiphe necator and susceptibility of Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In both warmer (e.g., South Australia) and cooler (e.g., Fingerlakes, New York) viticultural regions, the pre-bloom increase of foliar powdery mildew incidence is unusually slow. Because both experience relatively cold nighttime temperatures (e.g., > 4 deg C) in the period before bloom, we hypothesi...

  11. The changing face of liver transplantation for acute liver failure: Assessment of current status and implications for future practice.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Mhairi C; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    The etiology and outcomes of acute liver failure (ALF) have changed since the definition of this disease entity in the 1970s. In particular, the role of emergency liver transplantation has evolved over time, with the development of prognostic scoring systems to facilitate listing of appropriate patients, and a better understanding of transplant benefit in patients with ALF. This review examines the changing etiology of ALF, transplant benefit, outcomes following transplantation, and future alternatives to emergency liver transplantation in this devastating condition. Liver Transplantation 22 527-535 2016 AASLD. PMID:26823231

  12. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  13. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  14. Is there really an upper limit to river water temperatures in a changing climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    In recent efforts to model river temperatures in a changing climate, investigators have frequently applied an s-shaped logistic equation to relate water temperatures to air temperatures. This s-shaped model has been justified by the presence of the freezing point at low temperatures and supposed enhanced evapotranspiration (ET) at high temperatures. Looking at large river systems (> 5000 km2) where mean air and water temperatures are in relative equilibrium, we analyze the 5-day mean air/water temperature relationship of 12 river systems located in different climatological regions of the US to reassess whether there is actually an upper limit to maximum river temperatures. For all 12 systems, a logistic regression model performs better than a linear regression model in relating river water temperatures to air temperature. However, direct examination of the air/water relationship indicates that the improvement in fit often originates only at low temperatures. Of the five systems where an improvement occurs at high temperatures, they are either located in arid regions, have mountain snowmelt extending into the early summer, or exhibit strong hysteresis. An assessment of hourly energy balance data for varying geographic regions suggests that arid regions are the only locales where energy losses at high temperatures due to ET may exceed energy inputs, thus leading to a plateau in water temperatures. This research suggests that logistic regression equations should be applied only after carefully considering the processes that may control temperature in a changing climate on the river of interest.

  15. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H; Birks, H John B; Mortensen, Morten F; Hoek, Wim Z; Magyari, Enikö; Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized palaeoclimate data sets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based palaeotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our palaeotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  16. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J.; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S.; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E.; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.; Mortensen, Morten F.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Magyari, Enikö; Sobrino, Castor Muñoz; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized paleoclimate datasets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based paleotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our paleotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  17. The Temperature Changes of Refractive Indices and Thickness of Doped Triglycine Sulfate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyak, V. Yu.; Stadnyk, V. Y.; Gaba, V. M.; Kohut, Z. O.; Matviishyn, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    The temperature dependences of the optical path difference δΔi and the relative changes in the thickness δli/l of TGS crystals doped with L-threonine are studied. The temperature dependences of the relative changes in the refractive indices δni/(n - 1), coefficients of anisotropy for refractive indices, and linear expansion have been calculated. Characteristic minimum has been detected on these curves near the phase transition temperature.

  18. AO/NAO response to climate change: 2. Relative importance of low- and high-latitude temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-06-01

    We address the issue of why different models may be getting different responses of the AO/NAO in climate change experiments. The results from part 1 (Rind et al., 2005) suggest that for substantive climate changes, the differences are likely to be found in the patterns of tropospheric climate change, rather than from the stratosphere. We assess the various tropospheric forcings through a variety of experiments. We first use extreme paleoclimate experiments (Ice Age, Paleocene) which feature large variations in the low level latitudinal temperature gradient; the results show that under these circumstances, changes in the eddy transport of sensible heat, and in situ high latitude forcing, dominate the AO response. We next test the effect of more modest SST temperature gradient changes in the current climate, and find a similar result with a model configuration that does not easily transport the low level temperature changes into the upper troposphere. We then reanalyze the results from different 2 × CO2 experiments with the GISS model and find that they can be understood by assessing: (1) the magnitude of tropical SST warming; (2) the translations of that warming into the upper troposphere; (3) the change in the extratropical low altitude temperature gradient; and (4) the change in the high latitude SST/sea ice response. We suggest that these features might explain the varying results among modeling groups, and that forecasts will not converge until these features do.

  19. Quality of acute stroke care improvement framework for the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry: facilitating policy and system change at the hospital level.

    PubMed

    LaBresh, Kenneth A

    2006-12-01

    The Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry prototypes baseline data collection demonstrated a significant gap in the use of evidenced-based interventions. Barriers to the use of these interventions can be characterized as relating to lack of knowledge, attitudes, and ineffective behaviors and systems. Quality improvement programs can address these issues by providing didactic presentations to disseminate the science and peer interactions to address the lack of belief in the evidence, guidelines, and likelihood of improved patient outcomes. Even with knowledge and intention to provide evidenced-based care, the absence of effective systems is a significant behavioral barrier. A program for quality improvement that includes multidisciplinary teams of clinical and quality improvement professionals has been successfully used to carry out redesign of stroke care delivery systems. Teams are given a methodology to set goals, test ideas for system redesign, and implement those changes that can be successfully adapted to the hospital's environment. Bringing teams from several hospitals together substantially accelerates the process by sharing examples of successful change and by providing strategies to support the behavior change necessary for the adoption of new systems. The participation of many hospitals also creates momentum for the adoption of change by demonstrating observable and successful improvement. Data collection and feedback are useful to demonstrate the need for change and evaluate the impact of system change, but improvement occurs very slowly without a quality improvement program. This quality improvement framework provides hospitals with the capacity and support to redesign systems, and has been shown to improve stroke care considerably, when coupled with an Internet-based decision support registry, and at a much more rapid pace than when hospitals use only the support registry. PMID:17178313

  20. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  1. Impacts of Low-Flow and Stream-Temperature Changes on Endangered Atlantic Salmon - Current Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent climate studies in New England and the northeastern United States have shown evidence of physical changes over time, including trends toward earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing river ice, and increasing spring water temperatures. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study funded by the National Global Warming and Wildlife Science Center will be investigating changes in summer low streamflows and stream temperatures and the potential effects of those changes on endangered Atlantic salmon populations. The study also will evaluate management options that would be most likely to mitigate the effects of any changes in streamflow and temperature.

  2. Contrasting effects of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance and performance.

    PubMed

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Maiorano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is determining a generalized phenological advancement, and amphibians are among the taxa showing the strongest phenological responsiveness to warming temperatures. Amphibians are strongly influenced by climate change, but we do not have a clear picture of how climate influences important parameters of amphibian populations, such as abundance, survival, breeding success and morphology. Furthermore, the relative impact of temperature and precipitation change remains underappreciated. We used Bayesian meta-analysis and meta-regression to quantify the impact of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance, individual features and performance. We obtained effect sizes from studies performed in five continents. Temperature increase was the major driver of phenological advancement, while the impact of precipitation on phenology was weak. Conversely, population dynamics was mostly determined by precipitation: negative trends were associated with drying regimes. The impact of precipitation on abundance was particularly strong in tropical areas, while the importance of temperature was feeble. Both temperature and precipitation influenced parameters representing breeding performance, morphology, developmental rate and survival, but the response was highly heterogeneous among species. For instance, warming temperature increased body size in some species, and decreased size in others. Similarly, rainy periods increased survival of some species and reduced the survival of others. Our study showed contrasting impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on amphibian populations. Both climatic parameters strongly influenced amphibian performance, but temperature was the major determinant of the phenological changes, while precipitation had the major role on population dynamics, with alarming declines associated with drying trends. PMID:27008454

  3. Effect of Climate Change on Soil Temperature in Swedish Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions. PMID:24747938

  4. Temperature regulation and metabolism in rats exposed perinatally to dioxin: permanent change in regulated body temperature?

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Gray, L E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Miller, D B

    1995-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been shown to lower thyroxine levels and cause hypothermia in the adult rat; however, there is little known regarding the perinatal effects of TCDD on metabolism and temperature regulation of the offspring. To address this issue, thermoregulatory responses were assessed in adult male rat offspring exposed perinatally to 1.0 micrograms TCDD/kg body wt by gavage on Gestational Day 15. Individual castrated offspring were placed in a gradient-layer calorimeter for 5 hr during their nocturnal period while ambient temperature (Ta) was maintained at 10, 16, 24, or 28 degrees C. Metabolic rate (M), as measured from the total heat loss in the calorimeter, was determined along with evaporative heat loss (EHL), dry thermal conductance, and body core temperature (Tc). Animals exposed to TCDD had a significantly lower body temperature at TaS of 10, 16, and 24 degrees C and a higher thermal conductance. M was unaffected by TCDD, indicating that TCDD did not impair the effector to regulate Tc during cold exposure. EHL was also unaffected by TCDD. Skin blood flow of the interscapular area was measured in anesthetized rats with laser Doppler velocimetry and found to be the same in control and TCDD groups. The reduction in body temperature over a wide range of TaS concomitant with normal thermoregulatory effector function suggests that perinatal exposure to TCDD results in a reduction in the regulated body temperature (i.e., decrease in set-point). PMID:7597705

  5. Neurochemical changes in the rat prefrontal cortex following acute phencyclidine treatment: an in vivo localized (1)H MRS study.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Isabelle; Koski, Dee M; Eberly, Lynn E; Nelson, Christopher D; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Valette, Julien; Ugurbil, Kamil; Lim, Kelvin O; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2009-08-01

    Acute phencyclidine (PCP) administration mimics some aspects of schizophrenia in rats, such as behavioral alterations, increased dopaminergic activity and prefrontal cortex dysfunction. In this study, we used single-voxel (1)H-MRS to investigate neurochemical changes in rat prefrontal cortex in vivo before and after an acute injection of PCP. A short-echo time sequence (STEAM) was used to acquire spectra in a 32-microL voxel positioned in the prefrontal cortex area of 12 rats anesthetized with isoflurane. Data were acquired for 30 min before and for 140 min after a bolus of PCP (10 mg/kg, n = 6) or saline (n = 6). Metabolites were quantified with the LCModel. Time courses for 14 metabolites were obtained with a temporal resolution of 10 min. The glutamine/glutamate ratio was significantly increased after PCP injection (p < 0.0001, pre- vs. post-injection), while the total concentration of these two metabolites remained constant. Glucose was transiently increased (+70%) while lactate decreased after the injection (both p < 0.0001). Lactate, but not glucose and glutamine, returned to baseline levels after 140 min. These results show that an acute injection of PCP leads to changes in glutamate and glutamine concentrations, similar to what has been observed in schizophrenic patients, and after ketamine administration in humans. MRS studies of this pharmacological rat model may be useful for assessing the effects of potential anti-psychotic drugs in vivo. PMID:19338025

  6. Impaired Respiratory and Body Temperature Control Upon Acute Serotonergic Neuron Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Russell; Corcoran, Andrea; Brust, Rachael; Kim, Jun Chul; Richerson, George B.; Nattie, Eugene; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological homeostasis is essential for organism survival. Highly responsive neuronal networks are involved but constituent neurons are just beginning to be resolved. To query brain serotonergic neurons in homeostasis, we used a synthetic GPCR (Di)-based neuronal silencing tool, mouse RC∷FPDi, designed for cell type-specific, ligand (clozapine-N-oxide, CNO)-inducible and reversible suppression of action potential firing. In mice harboring Di-expressing serotonergic neurons, CNO administration by systemic injection attenuated the chemoreflex that normally increases respiration in response to tissue CO2 elevation and acidosis. At the cellular level, CNO suppressed firing rate increases evoked by CO2/acidosis. Body thermoregulation at room temperature was also disrupted following CNO triggering of Di; core temperatures plummeted, then recovered. This work establishes that serotonergic neurons regulate life-sustaining respiratory and thermoregulatory networks, and demonstrates a noninvasive tool for mapping neuron function. PMID:21798952

  7. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  8. On the electrical intestine turbulence induced by temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Migliori, S.; Alloni, R.; Portuesi, R.; Filippi, S.

    2010-03-01

    Paralytic ileus is a temporary syndrome with impairment of peristalsis and no passage of food through the intestine. Although improvements in supportive measures have been achieved, no therapy useful to specifically reduce or eliminate the motility disorder underlying postoperative ileus has been developed yet. In this paper, we draw a plausible, physiologically fine-tuned scenario, which explains a possible cause of paralytic ileus. To this aim we extend the existing 1D intestinal electrophysiological Aliev-Richards-Wikswo ionic model based on a double-layered structure in two and three dimensions. Thermal coupling is introduced here to study the influence of temperature gradients on intestine tissue which is an important external factor during surgery. Numerical simulations present electrical spiral waves similar to those experimentally observed already in the heart, brain and many other excitable tissues. This fact seems to suggest that such peculiar patterns, here electrically and thermally induced, may play an important role in clinically experienced disorders of the intestine, then requiring future experimental analyses in the search for possible implications for medical and physiological practice and bioengineering.

  9. INHALATION OF OZONE AND DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) INDUCES ACUTE AND REVERSIBLE CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that episodic but not acute exposure to ozone or DEP induces vascular effects that are associated with the loss of cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acids (DEP 2.0 mg/m3 > ozone, 0.4 ppm). In this study we determined ozone and DEP-induced cardiac gen...

  10. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Epidemic and Change of People's Health Behavior in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xiaodong; Li, Shiyue; Wang, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has become a new worldwide epidemic whose origin was until recently unknown. It is the unpredictable nature of this epidemic that makes people want answers to some important questions about what they can do to protect themselves. This study presents an inquiry into peoples knowledge and self-reported…

  11. Management of acute cholecystitis in UK hospitals: time for a change.

    PubMed

    Cameron, I C; Chadwick, C; Phillips, J; Johnson, A G

    2004-05-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis is safe, cost effective, and leads to less time off work compared with delayed surgery. This study was designed to assess current practice in the management of acute cholecystitis in the UK. A postal questionnaire was sent to 440 consultant general surgeons to ascertain their current management of patients with acute cholecystitis. Replies were received from 308 consultants who were involved in treating patients with acute cholecystitis of whom 18 transferred these patients on to another team for further management the day after admission. Thirty two consultants (11%) routinely treated patients by early cholecystectomy, with limiting factors stated to be the availability of surgical staff, theatre space, and radiological investigations. The remaining consultants (n = 258) routinely manage their patients conservatively with intravenous antibiotics and allow the inflammation to resolve before undertaking cholecystectomy at a later date. Indications for undertaking early cholecystectomy during the first admission by this latter group included the presence of spreading peritonitis due to bile leak, empyema, and unexpected space on theatre list. The commonest method for both elective and early cholecystectomy is laparoscopic, but the percentage of consultants using an open method rises from 8% in the elective situation to 47% for urgent early cholecystectomy. Despite evidence which strongly advocates early cholecystectomy, this practice is routinely carried out by only 11% of consultants in the UK at present. PMID:15138321

  12. Changes in the Neuropsychological Correlates of Clinical Dimensions between the Acute and Stable Phase of Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Ganeva, E.; Pampoulova, T.; Stip, E.; Lalonde, P.; Sasseville, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the neuropsychological correlates of the symptom dimensions of schizophrenia vary with the clinical state in patients followed from the acute to stable the phase of the illness. Fifteen patients were assessed for symptoms (SAPS-SANS) and undergone a complete neuropsychological assessment at two…

  13. [Changes in the management of acute pancreatitis as related to its pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Bodnár, Zoltán

    2005-03-13

    Although acute pancreatitis runs a benign self limiting course in 80% of cases, acute necrotizing form of it still remained a severe disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severity assessment thus plays an important role in identifying patients with high risk of local and/or systemic complications. Locally, development of necrosis especially if it becomes infected accounts for high mortality, but systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) following necrosis further increases the risk of fatal outcome. Several scoring systems, contrast-enhanced CT scan can help to recognize patients requiring early intensive management. Prophylactic systemic antibiotic treatment and nasojejunal feeding improves prognosis by decreasing the gut derived infection of necrosis. CT guided fine needle aspiration sample must be cultured to detect infection. Conservative therapy should be continued while necrosis remains sterile, but surgical and/or CT guided percutaneous catheter drainage is mandatory when infected necrosis developed. Results of therapeutic influence on the proinflammatory cytokine cascade in acute pancreatitis are still controversial. Enteral feeding seems to be the only proven tool in attenuating acute phase response and improving disease severity. PMID:15813188

  14. Acute triadimefon-induced changes in the EEG of Long-Evans Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that the non-stimulus driven EEG is altered differently by acute treatment with deltamethrin, permethrin, fipronil, or imidacloprid (Lyke and Herr, Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 2010, 2011, 2012) in non-restrained animals. In the current study, we examined the abili...

  15. Oak Forest Responses to Episodic-Seasonal-Drought, Chronic Multi-year Precipitation Change and Acute Drought Manipulations in a Region With Deep Soils and High Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Todd, Donald E.; Auge, Robert M.; Froberg, Mats; Johnson, Dale W.

    2010-05-01

    Implications of episodic-seasonal drought (extremely dry late summers), chronic multi-year precipitation manipulations (±33 percent over 12 years) and acute drought (-100 percent over 3 years) were evaluated for the response of vegetation and biogeochemical cycles for an upland-oak forest. The Quercus-Acer forest is located in eastern Tennessee on deep acidic soils with mean annual temperatures of 14.2 °C and abundant precipitation (1352 mm y-1). The multi-year observations and chronic manipulations were conducted from 1993 through 2005 using understory throughfall collection troughs and redistribution gutters and pipes. Acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were conducted from 2003 through 2005 using full understory tents. Regional and severe late-summer droughts were produced reduced stand water use and photosynthetic carbon gain as expected. Likewise, seedlings and saplings exhibited reduced survival and cumulative growth reductions. Conversely, multi-year chronic increases or decreases in precipitation and associated soil water deficits did not reduce large tree basal area growth for the tree species present. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between carbon allocation to tree growth (an early-season phenomenon) and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited physiological responses and minimal cumulative growth reductions. Lateral root water sources were removed through trenching and could not explain the lack of response to extreme soil drying. Therefore, deep rooting the primary mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought. Extensive trench-based assessments of rooting depth suggested that ‘deep' water supplies were being obtained from limited numbers of deep fine roots. Observations of carbon stocks in organic horizons demonstrated accumulation with precipitation reductions and

  16. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response.

    PubMed

    Haebisch, E M

    1995-01-01

    In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL) placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided) and systemic (right sided) reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema) was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (delta mAP = -2.9%), increased heart rate (delta HR = +7.4%) and QTc prolongation (delta QTc = +4.9%) in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (delta mAP = +12%) and increased heart rate (delta HR = +10.4%) mainly in supine position was observed in 11% of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with its active component nitric oxide (NO) depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO) and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System. PMID

  17. Association between temperature change and outpatient visits for respiratory tract infections among children in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children's Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (-8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0-2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  18. Association between Temperature Change and Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Tract Infections among Children in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children’s Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (−8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0–2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  19. Body size change in various nematodes depending on bacterial food, sex and growth temperature.

    PubMed

    So, Shuhei; Garan, Yohei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported significant body size change in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, depending on the food strain of E. coli. Here, we examined this body size change in 11 other nematode species as well, and found that it is common to most of these nematodes. Furthermore, this food-dependent body size change is influenced by sex and growth temperature. PMID:24058830

  20. Body size change in various nematodes depending on bacterial food, sex and growth temperature

    PubMed Central

    So, Shuhei; Garan, Yohei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported significant body size change in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, depending on the food strain of E. coli. Here, we examined this body size change in 11 other nematode species as well, and found that it is common to most of these nematodes. Furthermore, this food-dependent body size change is influenced by sex and growth temperature. PMID:24058830

  1. Large ground surface temperature changes of the last three centuries inferred from borehole temperatures in the Southern Canadian Prairies, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Safanda, Jan; Harris, Robert N.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1999-05-01

    New temperature logs in wells located in the grassland ecozone in the Southern Canadian Prairies in Saskatchewan, where surface disturbance is considered minor, show a large curvature in the upper 100 m. The character of this curvature is consistent with ground surface temperature (GST) warming in the 20th century. Repetition of precise temperature logs in southern Saskatchewan (years 1986 and 1997) shows the conductive nature of warming of the subsurface sediments. The magnitude of surface temperature change during that time (11 years) is high (0.3-0.4°C). To assess the conductive nature of temperature variations at the grassland surface interface, several precise air and soil temperature time series in the southern Canadian Prairies (1965-1995) were analyzed. The combined anomalies correlated at 0.85. Application of the functional space inversion (FSI) technique with the borehole temperature logs and site-specific lithology indicates a warming to date of approximately 2.5°C since a minimum in the late 18th century to mid 19th century. This warming represents an approximate increase from 4°C around 1850 to 6.5°C today. The significance of this record is that it suggests almost half of the warming occurred prior to 1900, before dramatic build up of atmospheric green house gases. This result correlates well with the proxy record of climatic change further to the north, beyond the Arctic Circle [Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamourex, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., Zielinski, G., 1997. Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries, Science 278, 1251-1256.].

  2. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis. PMID:27068136

  3. A review of terms for regulated vs. forced, neurochemical-induced changes in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1983-03-21

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous heat load, or heat sink, exceeds the body's capacity to thermoregulate but does not affect set-point. A fever is the paradigm of a regulated increase in body temperature, but the term fever has acquired a strict pathological definition over the past two decades. Consequently, other forms of nonpathological, regulated elevations in body temperature have generally been classified as hyperthermia; and decreases in core temperature--either forced or regulated--have generally been classified as hypothermia. Since the terms hyperthermia and hypothermia fail to distinguish a regulated vs. a forced temperature change, a confusion of terms has been created in the literature. It would appear that "resisted or unregulated hyperthermia" and "hypothermia," respectively, are appropriate terms for describing a forced increase and decrease in core temperature. A nonpathological but regulated elevation in temperature may be defined as unresisted or regulated hyperthermia, whereas a regulated decrease in temperature may be termed unresisted or regulated hypothermia. This simple scheme appears to be the most practical means for distinguishing between forced and regulated changes in core temperature. PMID:6339853

  4. Determination of enthalpy-temperature curves of phase change materials with the temperature-history method: improvement to temperature dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, José M.; Zalba, Belén; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Mehling, Harald

    2003-02-01

    The temperature-history method, proposed by Yinping et al, is a simple and economic way to determine the main thermophysical properties of materials used in thermal energy storage based on solid-liquid phase change. It is based on comparing the temperature history of a phase-change material sample and a sample of a well known material upon cooling down. In this paper we describe a further developed evaluation procedure to determine cp and h as temperature dependent values which was not the case in Yinping's method, based on the same experimental procedure. Given the suitability of these properties to calculate thermal energy storage using these materials, the method is proposed to present the results obtained in the form of enthalpy-temperature curves. A discussion about the errors produced by this method and an experimental improvement are proposed too.

  5. Effect of changes in viewing window transmission on high-temperature Thomson scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Unmonitored changes in the transmission of viewing windows owing to deposited films can produce errors in Thomson scattering temperature measurements. This effect is illustrated by a recent run on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where apparent errors of over 25% in peak temperatures of 9 keV owing to carbon films were noted. Since coatings can also be removed by hydrogen discharges, the transmission of a window may change with time, resulting in variable errors in the temperature. It is proposed that these changes be monitored by calibration {ital in} {ital situ} with the aid of a low-pressure hydrogen glow discharge.

  6. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  7. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  8. Projected changes in extreme temperature events based on the NARCCAP model suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.; Coffel, Ethan D.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Bader, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Once-per-year (annual) maximum temperature extremes in North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) models are projected to increase more (less) than mean daily maximum summer temperatures over much of the eastern (western) United States. In contrast, the models almost everywhere project greater warming of once-per-year minimum temperatures as compared to mean daily minimum winter temperatures. Under projected changes associated with extremes of the temperature distribution, Baltimore's maximum temperature that was met or exceeded once per year historically is projected to occur 17 times per season by midcentury, a 28% increase relative to projections based on summer mean daily maximum temperature change. Under the same approach, historical once-per-year cold events in Baltimore are projected to occur once per decade. The models are generally able to capture observed geopotential height anomalies associated with temperature extremes in two subregions. Projected changes in extreme temperature events cannot be explained by geopotential height anomalies or lower boundary conditions as reflected by soil moisture anomalies or snow water equivalent.

  9. Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day temperature changes, and especially those of minimum temperature in winter and maximum temperature in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong temperature changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large temperature changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large temperature changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small temperature changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small temperature changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes on the other side.

  10. Time-Course Changes of Steroidogenic Gene Expression and Steroidogenesis of Rat Leydig Cells after Acute Immobilization Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Han; Yuan, Kai-ming; Zhou, Hong-yu; Bu, Tiao; Su, Huina; Liu, Shiwen; Zhu, Qiqi; Wang, Yiyan; Hu, Yuanyuan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Lian, Qing-quan; Wu, Xiao-yun; Ge, Ren-shan

    2014-01-01

    Leydig cells secrete testosterone, which is essential for male fertility and reproductive health. Stress increases the secretion of glucocorticoid (corticosterone, CORT; in rats), which decreases circulating testosterone levels in part through a direct action by binding to the glucocorticoid receptors (NR3C1) in Leydig cells. The intratesticular CORT level is dependent on oxidative inactivation of glucocorticoid by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) in Leydig cells. In the present study, we investigated the time-course changes of steroidogenic gene expression levels after acute immobilization stress in rats. The plasma CORT levels were significantly increased 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 h after immobilization stress, while plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced 3 and 6 h, after stress and luteinizing hormone (LH) did not change. Immobilization stress caused the down-regulation of Scarb1, Star and Cyp17a1 expression levels in the rat testis starting at the first hour of stress, ahead of the significant decreases of plasma testosterone levels. Other mRNA levels, including Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1 and Hsd17b3, began to decline after 3 h. Hsd11b1 and Nos2 mRNA levels did not change during the course of stress. Administration of glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 significantly restored plasma testosterone levels. In conclusion, Scarb1, Star and Cyp17a1 expression levels are more sensitive to acute stress, and acute immobilization stress causes the decline of the steroidogenic pathway via elevating the levels of glucocorticoid, which binds to NR3C1 in Leydig cells to inhibit steroidogenic gene expression. PMID:25405735

  11. The Effect of Land Use Change on Land Surface Temperature in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youneszadeh, S.; Amiri, N.; Pilesjo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2) Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST) could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST) for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST). Furthermore, the Zued (South)-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  12. Lithium clearance in man: effects of dietary salt intake, acute changes in extracellular fluid volume, amiloride and frusemide.

    PubMed

    Atherton, J C; Green, R; Hughes, S; McFall, V; Sharples, J A; Solomon, L R; Wilson, L

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of amiloride and frusemide on lithium clearance were studied during changes in dietary sodium chloride intake and during infusion of 0.9% NaCl in normal human volunteers. 2. Lithium and fractional lithium clearances were less on the low than on the high salt diet. Values for the medium salt diet were intermediate. Acute extracellular fluid volume expansion with 0.9% NaCl infusion and extracellular fluid volume contraction 3-4 h after intravenous frusemide caused lithium and fractional lithium clearances to increase and decrease respectively. 3. Amiloride caused small changes in lithium and fractional lithium clearances on a low salt diet, but was without effect when salt intake was medium or high. 4. Increases in lithium clearance occurred immediately after frusemide irrespective of dietary salt intake and in subjects infused with 0.9% NaCl. Only in salt-depleted subjects did frusemide cause a substantial increase in fractional lithium clearance. Changes induced under other circumstances were small. 5. It is concluded that the lithium clearance method for assessment of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption can be used with some degree of confidence in certain circumstances (medium and high salt intake as well as in acute volume expansion) but may not be reliable when dietary salt intake is low. PMID:3690979

  13. Tracking changes in Isoëtes reproductive ecology responding to changes in lake water temperature and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čtvrtlíková, Martina; Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2013-04-01

    Biological response of aquatic macrophytes to changes in water chemistry and temperature has been studied on a background of the long-term research of Bohemian Forest lakes recovery from acid stress. Isoëtes lacustris and I. echinospora are common aquatic macrophytes adapted for living in soft-water lakes widely distributed in European lake districts; however, in central Europe they are rare glacial relicts. In Černé and Plešné lakes, two populations survived a thirty-year period of severe acidification but failed to reproduce. In our experimental and field studies on Isoëtes reproduction we identified early ontogenetic stages to be most vulnerable to changes in lake water pH, temperature, and aluminium (Al) toxicity .We described specific symptoms on plantlets reflecting various lake water acidity and Al-toxicity and defined critical limits of the stressors for plant survival. Using a mathematical model we also described temperature-related changes in species reproductive phenology and revealed their narrow temperature tolerance. The knowledge of critical environmental factors and their limits for species survival allows us to infer changes in species reproduction in response to both historical and ongoing changes in climate and lake water chemistry. Due to species-specific ecological traits, we can now explain the recent population recovery of I. echinospora contrasting with the poor reproduction of I. lacustris that will be constrained by environmental stressors for at least during the next 20 years.

  14. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  15. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change scenarios in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Greb, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter temperature and flow regimes for streams in Wisconsin over the coming decades. Stream temperature will be influenced not only by the predicted increases in average air temperature, but also by changes in baseflow due to changes in precipitation patterns and amounts. In order to evaluate future stream temperature and flow regimes in Wisconsin, we have integrated two existing models in order to generate a water temperature time series at a regional scale for thousands of stream reaches where site-specific temperature observations do not exist. The approach uses the US Geological Survey (USGS) Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model, along with a recalibrated version of an existing artificial neural network (ANN) stream temperature model. The ANN model simulates stream temperatures on the basis of landscape variables such as land use and soil type, and also includes climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation amounts. The existing ANN model includes a landscape variable called DARCY designed to reflect the potential for groundwater recharge in the contributing area for a stream segment. SWB tracks soil-moisture and potential recharge at a daily time step, providing a way to link changing climate patterns and precipitation amounts over time to baseflow volumes, and presumably to stream temperatures. The recalibrated ANN incorporates SWB-derived estimates of potential recharge to supplement the static estimates of groundwater flow potential derived from a topographically based model (DARCY). SWB and the recalibrated ANN will be supplied with climate drivers from a suite of general circulation models and emissions scenarios, enabling resource managers to evaluate possible changes in stream temperature regimes for Wisconsin.

  16. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70 °C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160 °C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90 °C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80 °C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey - a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite.

  17. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite.

    PubMed

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70°C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160°C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90°C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80°C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey--a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite. PMID:25589392

  18. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  19. Further studies of the atmospheric temperature change produced by the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption in 1963

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R. E.

    1980-03-26

    The eruption of Mt. Agung in March 1963 introduced an aerosol layer into the stratosphere that was associated with stratospheric temperature increases of several degrees Kelvin. The mechanics of this temperature change in the tropical troposphere are examined by observations of its distribution in altitutde and time. (ACR)

  20. Effects of Climate Change on Temperature and Salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate change (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric temperatures on water properties (temperature and salinity) in the Yaquina Estuar...

  1. Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.…

  2. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  3. Temperature and pH Changes Associated with the Hydration of Amorphous Silicate Smokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Lebrón-Rivera, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    The hydration of Fe-Si smokes results in acidic pH levels and negligible change in temperature. When mixed with Mg-Si smokes, pH becomes alkaline and temperature increases slightly. Water-rock ratio is a minor variable relative to composition.

  4. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for Australia to assess <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes from 1910 to 2010. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of extreme low minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of extreme high maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but it is weaker than that for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are broadly consistent with observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the frequency of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., extreme indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of extremes with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while extreme indices represent moderately extreme events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145698"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of stem <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>While natural spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stem <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stem <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> based on the measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities. PMID:25145698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..536..208T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..536..208T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the major Chinese river basins during 1957-2013 and links to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Qing; Prange, Matthias; Merkel, Ute</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The variation characteristics of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the three major Chinese river basins (Yellow River, Yangtze River and Pearl River) in the period of 1957-2013 were analyzed on an annual and seasonal basis, as well as their links to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean on both interannual and decadal time scales. Annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the three river basins increased significantly overall since 1957, with an average warming rate of about 0.19 °C/10a, but the warming was characterized by a staircase form with steps around 1987 and 1998. The significant increase of annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could mostly be attributed to the remarkable warming trend in spring, autumn and winter. Warming rates in the northern basins were generally much higher than in the southern basins. However, both the annual precipitation and seasonal mean precipitation of the three river basins showed little <span class="hlt">change</span> in the study area average, but distinct interannual variations since 1957 and clear regional differences. An overall warming-wetting tendency was found in the northwestern and southeastern river basins in 1957-2013, while the central regions tended to become warmer and drier. Results from a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) showed that the interannual variations of seasonal mean precipitation and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the three river basins were both associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) since 1957. ENSO SST patterns affected precipitation and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability throughout the year, but with very different response patterns in the different seasons. For instance, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in most of the river basins was positively correlated with central-eastern equatorial Pacific SST in winter and spring, but negatively correlated in summer and autumn. On the decadal time scale, the seasonal mean precipitation and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations were strongly associated with the Pacific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..321R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..321R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in CMIP5 models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Räisänen, Jouni</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>An energy balance decomposition of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the <span class="hlt">change</span>. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, being especially crucial for the muted warming over the northern North Atlantic and for the seasonal cycle of warming over the Arctic Ocean. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in atmospheric energy flux convergence tend to smooth the gradients of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and reduce its land-sea contrast, but they also amplify the seasonal cycle of warming in northern North America and Eurasia. The three most important terms for intermodel differences in warming are the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the clear-sky greenhouse effect, clouds, and the net surface energy flux, making the largest contribution to the standard deviation of annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in 34, 29 and 20 % of the world, respectively. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in atmospheric energy flux convergence mostly damp intermodel variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> especially over the oceans. However, the opposite is true for example in Greenland and Antarctica, where the warming appears to be substantially controlled by heat transport from the surrounding sea areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PCE....47..128X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PCE....47..128X"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality parameters response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in small shallow lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Lei; Li, Hua; Liang, Xinqiang; Yao, Yuxin; Zhou, Li; Cui, Xinyi</p> <p></p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) on water quality of three small shallow lakes in Taihu Lake region of China were investigated. The annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was classified into three levels: low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LT, 4 °C < T ⩽ 10 °C), middle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT, 10 °C < T ⩽ 20 °C), and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (HT, 20 °C < T ⩽ 30 °C). Results showed that total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations might go to a fixed value (or range) in small shallow lakes receiving domestic sewage and farm drainage water. Nitrogen concentrations in the lakes were mainly in the form of nitrate (NO3-) at above concerned three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels, and nitrogen concentrations in the forms of TN, TIN, and NO3- were increased with the increase of nutrient input. At the LT and MT levels, there was a series of good cubic curve relationships between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and three N forms (TN, NO3- and NH4+). The <span class="hlt">temperatural</span> inflexion <span class="hlt">change</span> points in the curves were nearly at 7 °C and 14 °C, respectively. However, no significant relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and any water quality parameter was observed at the HT level. The significant relationship of TIN to TN, NO3- to TN and NH4+ to dissolve oxygen (DO) was exist in three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> portions, and TP to Chemical oxygen demand (COD, determined by potassium permanganate oxidation methods) in LT and MT, TP to pH or DO in HT also exist. COD were less than 6 mg L-1 at each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> level, and pH values were the largest in HT than it in LT or MT. Thus, <span class="hlt">changes</span> between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water quality parameters (TN, NO3-, NH4+ and TP) obviously nearly in 7 °C or 14 °C in lakes show that water self-purification of natural small shallow lakes were obviously with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changed</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biofeedback+AND+anxiety&pg=2&id=EJ1072455','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biofeedback+AND+anxiety&pg=2&id=EJ1072455"><span id="translatedtitle">Do <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Predict <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997672"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> stress-related <span class="hlt">changes</span> in eating in the absence of hunger.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">acute</span> and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of <span class="hlt">acute</span> stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that <span class="hlt">acute</span> psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress. PMID:18997672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4252174','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4252174"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Change</span> in Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins in Response to <span class="hlt">Acute</span> Activity-Based Therapy in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Astorino, Todd A.; Knoblach, Susan M.; Feather, Jillenne</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Activity-based therapy (ABT) focuses on regaining motor and sensory function below the level of the lesion in persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). This is accomplished through repetitive training of specific motor tasks. Research has shown that ABT may increase neuroplasticity in the rat and human spinal cord. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to examine <span class="hlt">acute</span> alterations in neuroplasticity-related proteins during ABT in persons with SCI. Methods: Volunteers were current participants in an ABT program and consisted of 12 men and 3 women (age, 31.8 ± 10.9 years) with chronic SCI (injury duration, 63.9 ± 54.4 months). A single 2-hour bout of ABT consisted of standing load bearing, body weight-supported treadmill training, whole body vibration, and functional electrical stimulation. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and immediately after completion of each modality to determine serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prolactin, and cortisol. Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to examine differences in proteins over time. Results revealed baseline levels of BDNF (2.37 ± 1.41 ng/mL) that were lower than previous research has demonstrated in persons with SCI. No <span class="hlt">change</span> in BDNF or cortisol was found, although prolactin was significantly reduced in response to ABT. Conclusion: Despite the length of the bout, <span class="hlt">acute</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in BDNF were not observed. Whether different intensities or modalities of ABT may promote <span class="hlt">acute</span> increases in serum BDNF in individuals with SCI remains to be determined and further study is merited. PMID:25477737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311186"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting plasticity: <span class="hlt">acute</span> context-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span> to vocal performance predict long-term age-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>James, Logan S; Sakata, Jon T</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Understanding the factors that predict and guide variation in behavioral <span class="hlt">change</span> can lend insight into mechanisms of motor plasticity and individual differences in behavior. The performance of adult birdsong <span class="hlt">changes</span> with age in a manner that is similar to rapid context-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span> to song. To reveal mechanisms of vocal plasticity, we analyzed the degree to which variation in the direction and magnitude of age-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span> to Bengalese finch song could be predicted by variation in context-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Using a repeated-measures design, we found that variation in age-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the timing, sequencing, and structure of vocal elements ("syllables") was significantly predicted by variation in context-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In particular, the degree to which the duration of intersyllable gaps, syllable sequencing at branch points, and fundamental frequency of syllables within spontaneous [undirected (UD)] songs <span class="hlt">changed</span> over time was correlated with the degree to which these features <span class="hlt">changed</span> from UD song to female-directed (FD) song in young-adult finches (FDyoung). As such, the structure of some temporal features of UD songs converged over time onto the structure of FDyoung songs. This convergence suggested that the FDyoung song could serve as a stable target for vocal motor plasticity. Consequently, we analyzed the stability of FD song and found that the temporal structure of FD song <span class="hlt">changed</span> significantly over time in a manner similar to UD song. Because FD song is considered a state of heightened performance, these data suggest that age-dependent <span class="hlt">changes</span> could reflect practice-related improvements in vocal motor performance. PMID:26311186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7034E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7034E"><span id="translatedtitle">Can an influence of <span class="hlt">changing</span> aerosol emissions be detected in the pattern of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> between 1970 and 2000?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ekman, Annica; Anna, Lewinschal; Hamish, Struthers</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Since the 1970's, there has been a rapid <span class="hlt">change</span> in the magnitude and spatial distribution of anthropogenic aerosol particle and precursor emissions in the world with a significant decrease over e.g. Europe and North America and a substantial increase over large parts of Asia. During the same time period, there has been a significant increase in global greenhouse gas concentrations. In the present study, the global climate model CAM-Oslo is used to examine if the shift in aerosol emissions between 1970 and present day results in a clear fingerprint in the modeled atmospheric circulation, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> patterns. CAM-Oslo includes a comprehensive module of the atmospheric aerosol cycle as well as descriptions of the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on radiation, cloud reflectivity and precipitation. We also examine if the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response pattern differs when aerosol effects are considered separately or simultaneously with a <span class="hlt">change</span> in greenhouse gas concentration. To evaluate the simulations, we make use of observations and re-analysis data of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation and 300 hPa geopotential. We investigate if the modeled results correspond better or worse with the observations when aerosol and greenhouse effects are included or excluded. For a few selected regions, we also examine more closely the underlying processes that determine the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly pattern and if the importance of different processes <span class="hlt">change</span> when greenhouse effects and aerosol effects are considered separately or simultaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4247283','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4247283"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after <span class="hlt">acute</span> exposure to high altitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical <span class="hlt">changes</span>, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe <span class="hlt">changes</span> in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following <span class="hlt">acute</span> exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were <span class="hlt">acutely</span> exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were <span class="hlt">acutely</span> exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl−) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl− concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301517"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> Megakaryoblastic Leukemia with Myelodysplasia-related <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Associated with ATM Gene Deletion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ureshino, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Momoka; Kurogi, Kazuya; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kimura, Shinya</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a tumor suppressor gene, and its somatic inactivation plays a role in the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies. However, the role of ATM in patients with myeloid malignancies is still unknown. We herein report a case of <span class="hlt">acute</span> megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) with ATM gene deletion. An 84-year-old Japanese woman presenting with a pale face and pancytopenia was admitted to our institution and diagnosed to have AMKL with ATM gene deletion. She was treated with intravenous azacitidine. The azacitidine treatment was effective for approximately 1 year. Somatic inactivation of the ATM gene may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of AMKL. PMID:27301517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1038062','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1038062"><span id="translatedtitle">The Assessment of Electroencephalographic <span class="hlt">Changes</span> and Memory Disturbances in <span class="hlt">Acute</span> Intoxications with Industrial Poisons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chalupa, B.; Synková, J.; Ševčík, M.</p> <p>1960-01-01</p> <p>A report is given of the results of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and of an experimental memory examination in a group of 22 cases of <span class="hlt">acute</span> carbon monoxide and solvents poisoning of varying severity. An abnormal EEG recording, most often in the form of theta activity 5-6 sec., was found in 12 patients; memory disturbances were found in 13 cases. There was correlation between the results of the two examinations as well as with the clinical classification of the degree of intoxication. The methods are suitable for the solving of various theoretical and practical questions in industrial toxicology. PMID:13692202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24612698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24612698"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> management of skin tears: a <span class="hlt">change</span> in practice pilot study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vandervord, John G; Tolerton, Sarah K; Campbell, Peter A; Darke, Jan M; Loch-Wilkinson, Anna-Marie V</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Skin tears are an increasingly common injury occurring in the elderly population and have significant associated morbidity secondary to poor wound healing, prolonged hospital stays and reduced mobility. There has been a shift in practice for the <span class="hlt">acute</span> management of skin tears within our institution, which has resulted in improved outcomes and reduced morbidity for this common and debilitating injury. Review of past and current practices including cost analyses has led to the establishment of a management protocol for the hospital and wider area health service with the aim to reduce the burden of disease amongst our ever-expanding elderly population. PMID:24612698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC21A0152B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC21A0152B"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and Attribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the mountainous western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Pierce, D. W.; Bala, G.; Barnett, T. P.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Wood, A. W.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D. R.; Mirin, A.; Das, T.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, one of the major challenges that water managers face in the western United States is adequately meeting the water demand while minimizing the flood risk. It has been shown that, in the second half of the 20th century, winters and springs have warmed, the partition of precipitations has <span class="hlt">changed</span>, the snow pack melts earlier and that the timing of streamflows has shifted towards the winter. A better understanding of the primary causes of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are crucial to reliably project future water availability. Hydrological <span class="hlt">changes</span> can be driven by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or by precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span>, or a combination of the two. In this study, which is part of a more integrated analysis focusing on the detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the hydrological cycle, we raise the following questions: What are the causes of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the mountainous regions in the second half of the 20th century? Can we verify whether the observed earlier melting of snow is driven by human-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, rather than by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation or natural internal climate variability? To address these questions, we conduct a detection and attribution analysis based on daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables that are more relevant to a potential shift in snowmelt (number of frost days and number of degree-days below 0C). We find that natural internal climate variability alone cannot explain the increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the reduction of frost days and the decline in degree-days below 0C. External forcings agents such as the solar variability and volcanic eruptions cannot explain those <span class="hlt">changes</span> either. Instead, we find a positive detection when the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols effects are included in the climate forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4127258','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4127258"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of Wind Velocity and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Near an Escarpment-Shaped Road Embankment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological <span class="hlt">changes</span> (wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before and after the construction of embankments around roads. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In <span class="hlt">changes</span> in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The degree of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity <span class="hlt">changes</span> were small. PMID:25136681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136681"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> near an escarpment-shaped road embankment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological <span class="hlt">changes</span> (wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before and after the construction of embankments around roads. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In <span class="hlt">changes</span> in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The degree of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity <span class="hlt">changes</span> were small. PMID:25136681</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710637G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710637G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response turned boreal forest from carbon sink into carbon source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grelle, Achim; Hadden, David</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>19 years of flux measurements reveal that a boreal forest in northern Sweden has turned from a carbon sink into a carbon source. A consistent annual uptake of about 4 tonnes CO2 per hectare turned into annual emissions of the same magnitude within a few years. While biomass increment and gross CO2 uptake remained unchanged, gross respiration has increased, mainly during the autumn periods. This increasingly reduced the annual number of days with net CO2 uptake. No significant trend towards higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could be observed during the measurement period. However, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of ecosystem respiration have <span class="hlt">changed</span> with time, leading to higher respiration rates in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between 0 °C and 5 °C, which is the most common range during spring and autumn. Consequently, respiration fluxes under those <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions have increased, both in spring and - even more - in autumn. Thus the <span class="hlt">change</span> of the carbon balance is not directly caused by climate warming, as stated in other studies, but by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ecosystem functioning. The reasons for the rapid <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response are still unknown and may be sought in <span class="hlt">changes</span> of litterfall and dead wood distribution, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fungi- and microbial communities, or hydrological <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012Icar..218..807G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012Icar..218..807G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal physical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Sinus Iridum area retrieved from observations of Chinese <span class="hlt">Chang'E</span>-1 microwave radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiaohui; Jin, Ya-Qiu</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>According to the incidence and azimuth angles of the Sun during observations of Chinese <span class="hlt">Chang'E</span>-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite, brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tb) at different lunar local time observed by the CE-1 multi-channel radiometers, especially at the Sinus Iridum (i.e. Bay of Rainbow) area, are collected from the transformation between the principal and local coordinates at the observed site, which demonstrates the Tb distribution and its diurnal variation. Based on a three-layer radiative transfer model of the lunar media, the CE-1 Tb data at 19.35 and 37.0 GHz channels are applied to invert the physical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of both the dust and the regolith layer at Sinus Iridum area, where might be the CE-3 landing site, at different lunar local times. The physical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations with the lunar local time and other geophysical parameters of lunar layered media are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567776"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> driven <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the diet preference of omnivorous copepods: no more meat when it's hot?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boersma, Maarten; Mathew, K Avarachen; Niehoff, Barbara; Schoo, Katherina L; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Meunier, Cédric L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herbivory is more prevalent in the tropics than at higher latitudes. If differences in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are the direct cause for this phenomenon, then the same pattern should be visible in a seasonal gradient, as well as in experiments manipulating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Using (15)N stable isotope analyses of natural populations of the copepod Temora longicornis we indeed observed seasonal differences in the trophic level of the copepod and a decrease in trophic level with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In a grazing experiment, with a mixed diet of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, T. longicornis preferred the cryptophyte at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, whereas at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> it preferred the non-autotrophic prey. We explain these results by the higher relative carbon content of primary producers compared to consumers, in combination with the higher demand for metabolic carbon at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Thus, currently increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may cause <span class="hlt">changes</span> in dietary preferences of many consumers. PMID:26567776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..170L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..170L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">First approach to the relationship between recent landscape <span class="hlt">changes</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in Spanish mainland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopez Escolano, Carlos; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Salinas-Solé, Celia; Pueyo Campos, Angel; Brunetti, Miquele; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The recent analyses of monthly and seasonal Spanish mainland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1951-2010) at high spatial resolution using the MOTEDAS dataset shown that the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values of maximum (Tmax) have risen mostly in late winter/early spring and the summer months, while the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of minimum (Tmin) values have increased in summer, spring and autumn in southern areas. Consequently, a north-south gradient in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) has been detected in summer months, with positive trends in the north and negative trends in the south, and negative pattern was found in the southeast in spring and autumn. During the same period, the Spanish mainland has suffered dramatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the landscape related to urban and industrial sprawl, transportation infrastructures development, or the extension of irrigated areas for intensive agriculture. Those <span class="hlt">changes</span> would be consistent with factors that affect Tmin, which are conditioned by the nature of the surfaces. In this research, we present the first approach to the relationship of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and landscapes <span class="hlt">changes</span> at high spatial resolution in the Spanish mainland. Thus, we have compared the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in accessibility index and population potential simultaneously, and its spatial redistribution as indicator of landscape <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The significance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends was evaluated by Mann-Kendal test, and its intensity by Seńs estimator. A mix model of population potential and accessibility index weighted by route factor has been used to assess landscape <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Crosstab analysis was applied to identify the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and accessibility <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4654076','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4654076"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury by Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Yun-Gyu; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Ko, Myoung-Hwan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To investigate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI). In incomplete SCI, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is difficult to see compared with complete spinal cord injuries. The goal of this study was to better understand thermal regulation in patients with incomplete SCI. Methods Fifty-six SCI patients were enrolled, and the control group consisted of 20 healthy persons. The spinal cord injuries were classified according to International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. The patients were classified into two groups: upper (neurological injury level T6 or above) and lower (neurological injury level T7 or below) SCIs. Body core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using an oral thermometer, and body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. Results Twenty-nine patients had upper spinal cord injuries, 27 patients had lower SCIs, and 20 persons served as the normal healthy persons. Comparing the skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the three groups, the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the lower abdomen, anterior thigh and anterior tibia in the patients with upper SCIs were lower than those of the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. No significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences were observed between the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. Conclusion In our study, we found thermal dysregulation in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation was worse in upper SCIs than in lower injuries. Moreover, cord injury severity affected body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation in SCI patients. PMID:26605167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27297855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27297855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> chest pain in the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin era: A <span class="hlt">changing</span> role for noninvasive imaging?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smulders, Martijn W; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Schalla, Simon; Bucerius, Jan; Jaarsma, Caroline; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Mingels, Alma M A; Rocca, Hans-Peter Brunner-La; Post, Mark; Das, Marco; Crijns, Harry J G M; Wildberger, Joachim E; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Management of patients with <span class="hlt">acute</span> chest pain remains challenging. Cardiac biomarker testing reduces the likelihood of erroneously discharging patients with <span class="hlt">acute</span> myocardial infarction (AMI). Despite normal contemporary troponins, physicians have still been reluctant to discharge patients without additional testing. Nowadays, the extremely high negative predictive value of current high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays challenges this need. However, the decreased specificity of hs-cTn assays to diagnose AMI poses a new problem as noncoronary diseases (eg, pulmonary embolism, myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, hypertension, renal failure, etc) may also cause elevated hs-cTn levels. Subjecting patients with noncoronary diseases to unnecessary pharmacological therapy or invasive procedures must be prevented. Attempts to improve the positive predictive value to diagnose AMI by defining higher initial cutoff values or dynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span> over time inherently lower the sensitivity of troponin assays. In this review, we anticipate a potential <span class="hlt">changing</span> role of noninvasive imaging from ruling out myocardial disease when troponin values are normal toward characterizing myocardial disease when hs-cTn values are (mildly) abnormal. PMID:27297855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JBO....17l5001W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JBO....17l5001W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">change</span> of collateral flow varying with distribution of regional blood flow in <span class="hlt">acute</span> ischemic rat cortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhen; Luo, Weihua; Zhou, Fangyuan; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span> of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span> of CCs during <span class="hlt">acute</span> stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, there was no obvious significance about the onset time and duration of CCs between rats with and without PID. These results suggest that the initial arising of CCs does not ensure their persistence, and that collateral flow could be varied with distribution of regional blood flow in <span class="hlt">acute</span> ischemic stroke, which may facilitate the understanding of collateral recruitment and promote the development of collateral therapeutics in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6000408','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6000408"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrocardiographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">acute</span> lateral wall myocardial infarction: a reappraisal based on scintigraphic localization of the infarct</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Movahed, A.; Becker, L.C.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>To determine how often <span class="hlt">acute</span> lateral myocardial infarcts may be electrocardiographically silent, a new approach was utilized in which subjects were selected by admission thallium scintigraphy. Thirty-one patients with their first infarction were identified with moderate to severe perfusion defects of the lateral and posterolateral walls, persistent over 7 days and associated with severe wall motion abnormalities. Patients with involvement of the anterior, septal or inferior regions were not included. In nine patients, the perfusion defect extended to the anterolateral wall: all developed ST elevation and Q waves in at least one of the lateral leads (I, aVL or V6) but none showed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the inferior leads (II, III or aVF). In the other 22 patients, the perfusion defect was limited to the lateral and posterolateral walls: only 12 showed ST elevations (inferior leads only in 7, lateral leads only in 2, both leads in 3) and only 9 developed Q waves (inferior in all). In 8 of these 22 patients, the infarct was silent in the sense that no ST segment elevation or Q waves were seen, although ST depressions or T wave inversions, or both, in all but one patient were compatible with subendocardial infarction. The results indicate that the standard electrocardiogram is insensitive to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the lateral and posterolateral regions. Additional diagnostic studies are needed for proper localization and sizing of <span class="hlt">acute</span> myocardial infarcts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20950201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20950201"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> model of nursing care from individual patient allocation to team nursing in the <span class="hlt">acute</span> inpatient environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fairbrother, Greg; Jones, Aaron; Rivas, Ketty</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Agreement was reached with 12 <span class="hlt">acute</span> medical and surgical wards/units at Sydney's Prince of Wales Hospital to participate in a trial of team nursing (TN). Six units employed action research principles to undertake a <span class="hlt">change</span> to a team nursing model and six remained with the pre-existing individual patient allocation (IPA) model. Task-based teaming was widely discarded by the team nursing units in favour of allocating patients within the team and introducing more supportive and communicative processes aimed at fostering responsibility sharing. Localised team-based models of care arose in the <span class="hlt">change</span> wards and were outlined, implemented and refined using social action research principles. A 12-month prospective experimental comparison of job satisfaction and staff retention between the TN and IPA groups indicated statistically significant job satisfaction benefits and practically important staff retention benefits associated with moving away from an IPA model of nursing care delivery towards a team-based model of care delivery. Perhaps not surprisingly, job satisfaction gains were most marked among new graduate nurses, who reported real benefits from a teaming inspired shift in model of care in the <span class="hlt">acute</span> inpatient environment. PMID:20950201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900054417&hterms=atmospheric+carbon+dioxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Datmospheric%2Bcarbon%2Bdioxide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900054417&hterms=atmospheric+carbon+dioxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Datmospheric%2Bcarbon%2Bdioxide"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of the equilibrium surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of a GCM to systematic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric carbon dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oglesby, Robert J.; Saltzman, Barry</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The equilibrium response of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to atmospheric CO2 concentration, for six values between 100 and 1000 ppm, is calculated from a series of GCM experiments. This response is nonlinear, showing greater sensitivity for lower values of CO2 than for the higher values. It is suggested that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in CO2 concentration of a given magnitude (e.g., 100 ppm) played a larger role in the Pleistocene ice-age-type <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations than in causing global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to anthropogenic increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012916','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012916"><span id="translatedtitle">PERMEABILITY <span class="hlt">CHANGES</span> IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span>: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">change</span> in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4149092','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4149092"><span id="translatedtitle">Recognizing <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Cognition in Sub Types of <span class="hlt">Acute</span> Confusional State</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Delirium or <span class="hlt">acute</span> confusional state is an <span class="hlt">acute</span> neuropsychiatric syndrome, with varied cognitive dysfunctions. However, no comprehensive studies about this common condition have been carried out in India. Objectives: To assess cognitive dysfunctions in hypoactive and hyperactive delirium. Materials and Methods:Forty cases of delirium including hypoactive and hyperactive delirium and 40 other patients (neuropsychiatric patients) were studied as controls. Cognitive status estimation test, mini mental state examination and memorial delirium assessment scale were administered to each patient. All assessments were carried out three times in 24 hour cycle of day and night. The data was analysed using two sample independent t-test. Results: The mean age (standard deviation) of study and control group was 27.85 (13.73) and 33.10 (11.26) years respectively. 70% patients had hyperactive delirium while 30% were having hypoactive delirium. Hypoactive delirium had more cognitive impairment compared to hyperactive delirium (p=0.001). The difference between highest and lowest score of MMSE in both types of delirium (day to night) was found to be statically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: The fluctuation in intensity of cognitive symptoms varies from day to night in both types of delirium, but more in hypoactive delirium and wider fluctuation in cognitive dysfunctions was noted in delirium cases with psychosis. PMID:25177586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3168453','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3168453"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding in Morocco: What Have <span class="hlt">Changed</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Timraz, A.; Khannoussi, W.; Ajana, F. Z.; Essamri, W.; Benelbarhdadi, I.; Afifi, R.; Benazzouz, M.; Essaid, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective. In the present study, we aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of <span class="hlt">acute</span> upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2008. It concerned all cases of <span class="hlt">acute</span> upper gastroduodenal bleeding benefited from an urgent gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our department in Morocco. Characteristics of patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, medical history, presenting symptoms, results of rectal and clinical examinations, and endoscopy findings. Results. 1389 cases were registered. As 66% of the patients were male, 34% were female. Mean age was 49. 12% of patients had a history of previous hemorrhage, and 26% had a history of NSAID and aspirin use. Endoscopy was performed in 96%. The gastroduodenal ulcer was the main etiology in 38%, followed by gastritis and duodenitis in 32.5%. Conclusion. AUGIB is still a frequent pathology, threatening patients' life. NSAID and aspirin are still the major risk factors. Their impact due to peptic ulcer remains stable in our country. PMID:21991509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744897','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744897"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal <span class="hlt">change</span> remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative <span class="hlt">change</span> of functional traits in the unit of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal <span class="hlt">changes</span> than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817475L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817475L"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of land-sea shifts in tropical precipitation using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lambert, Hugo; Ferraro, Angus; Chadwick, Robin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in tropical precipitation under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> are dominated by shifts in precipitating features. Previous work has shown that meridional <span class="hlt">change</span> is driven primiarily by the hemispheric contrast of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and radiative forcing. What drives zonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> is less clear, but important to understand because large shifts of precipitation onto and away from land have the potential to cause large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water availability. We present a simple compositing scheme based on earlier mean field theory that places climatological precipitation amounts into bins determined by surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. When <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity <span class="hlt">change</span> under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, shifts in precipitation are predicted as the location of the warmest and moistest regions <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The prediction is successful in representing <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the CMIP5 model mean and large aspects of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in most of the individual CMIP5 models. Once the shifts are accounted for, we can more easily see how the result of well-known "thermodynamic" and "dynamic" <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the atmosphere lead to the "rich-get-richer" paradigm wherein the most heavily precipitating bins increase their precipitation the most in a warmer climate. We emphasise that our method is a classification and not a prognostic theory: it shows us the extent to which <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> are linked. However, it is important not only because it demonstrates that these variables may represent a coupled problem, but also intriguingly, because there is a small group of models for which the method has no skill at all. This suggests that very different processes dominate shifts in precipitation there, giving a focus for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=298247','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=298247"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and carbon dioxide on life history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is relevant to life around the globe. A rise in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and CO2 may have various impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, modified reproductive patterns, and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in distribution. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global agricultural...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9360K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9360K"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological sensitivity and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to greenhouse gases and aerosols in CESM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kvalevag, M. M.; Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present a set of climate model experiments using the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM1.03) to investigate the relationship between precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> for several forcing mechanisms. The model simulations include forcing mechanisms since preindustrial times causing either warming or cooling, in order to study the energy budget at different levels (surface, atmosphere and top of atmosphere), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span>. On a short timescale the precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are due to atmospheric instability and reduced convection caused by the presence of a forcing mechanism in the atmosphere. On longer timescale it is the adjusted surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that drive the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In particular we look at the precipitation response from black carbon and study the model sensitivity to absorbing aerosols by introducing black carbon at different altitudes in the model. Our results are similar to earlier studies regarding greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, but extend previous results on black carbon aerosols. We introduce BC aerosols in different altitudes and look at how sensitive the precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are due to the placement of a warming forcing agent in the atmosphere. We find that while the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response of a column of BC is positive, it is composed of a warming component at low altitudes and a cooling component at higher altitudes. The precipitation response of a <span class="hlt">change</span> in BC concentration is however always negative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3720H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3720H"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the interaction between land use <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and land-atmosphere interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Annette L.; Pitman, Andy J.; Kala, Jatin; Lorenz, Ruth; Donat, Markus G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Using the Weather and Research Forecasting Model, we examine the combined impact of land-atmosphere coupling and land use <span class="hlt">change</span> (LUC) on simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes. The sensitivity of the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes to the choice of planetary boundary layer (PBL) and cumulus parameterization schemes are also evaluated to examine whether the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes is dependent on the atmospheric model physics and if this impact is modulated by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land-atmosphere coupling. A decomposition of the surface energy balance is used to examine the different responses to LUC. Results show a consistent weakening in the soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling strength with LUC irrespective of the atmospheric model physics tested here. In contrast, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes show an asymmetric response to LUC dependent on the choice of PBL scheme, which is linked to differences in the parameterization of vertical transport. This influences convective precipitation, contributing a positive feedback on soil moisture and consequently on the partitioning of the surface turbulent fluxes. The results suggest that the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes depends on the land-atmosphere coupling that in turn depends on the choice of PBL. Indeed, the sign of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes due to LUC can be <span class="hlt">changed</span> simply by altering the choice of PBL schemes examined here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121523&hterms=distribution+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddistribution%2Bplant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121523&hterms=distribution+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddistribution%2Bplant"><span id="translatedtitle">A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wann, M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> experiments, is validated under conditions of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for <span class="hlt">changes</span> at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed <span class="hlt">changes</span> for experimental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent functional forms derived from constant-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with switching intervals as short as 1 day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27585511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27585511"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> Pathology of the Thoracic Aorta From <span class="hlt">Acute</span> to Chronic Dissection: Literature Review and Insights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peterss, Sven; Mansour, Ahmed M; Ross, Julia A; Vaitkeviciute, Irena; Charilaou, Paris; Dumfarth, Julia; Fang, Hai; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Rizzo, John A; Adeniran, Adebowale J; Elefteriades, John A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We review current knowledge regarding the natural transition of aortic dissection from <span class="hlt">acute</span> to chronic stages. As this is not well understood, we also bring to bear new data from our institution. Type A dissection rarely transitions naturally into the chronic state; consequently, information is limited. Type B dissections are routinely treated medically and indeed undergo substantial <span class="hlt">changes</span> during their temporal course. General patterns include: 1) the aorta dilates and, absent surgical intervention, aortic enlargement may cause mortality; 2) continued false lumen patency, particularly with an only partially thrombosed false lumen, increases aortic growth, whereas calcium-channel blockers affect aortic dilation favorably; 3) aortic dilation manifests a temporal dynamic, with early rapid growth and deceleration during transition; 4) the intimal flap dynamically <span class="hlt">changes</span> over time via thickening, straightening, and loss of mobility; and 5) temporal remodeling, on the cellular level, initially shows a high grade of wall destruction; subsequently, significant fibrosis ensues. PMID:27585511</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022348','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022348"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. [evoked neuron response in thermoregulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A possible role for the hippocampus in alerting an animal to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was examined. Following local warming or cooling of the ears of unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits, theta waves (4-7 Hz EEG waves) were recorded from electrodes straddling the hippocampus. The onset of the hippocampal theta rhythm was correlated with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an observation consistent with studies indicating that the theta rhythm is a nonspecific response evoked by stimulation of several sensory modalities. Additional data from cats and rabbits were correlated with specific neurons within the hippocampus, namely pyramidal cells. Post stimulus time histograms obtained by excitation of the dorsal fornix were interpreted in terms of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells. Thus, the theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, can be related to a specific type of hippocampal neuron which is in turn connected with other areas of the brain involved in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.122..619A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.122..619A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the North-Western Italian Alps from 1961 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Garzena, Diego</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify any possible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> within the last 50 years in the North-Western Italian Alps by examining data from 16 high-altitude weather stations in the period 1961-2010. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series were collected, digitized and subjected to a historical research to individuate discontinuities and retrieve metadata. We also carried out the data quality control and the homogenization which allowed the climatic indices trend detection. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values showed an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, particularly at high-altitudes sites. In fact, the stations located above 1600 m asl revealed a rise in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a decrease in the number of cold periods. For the maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, greater increases in spring and winter have been observed, for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the summer. These trends confirm that climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring in an environment particularly sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, especially during the season of snow accumulation and vegetative growth. These results may be important for policy makers to define the best adaptation strategies in order to protect one of the most sensitive environments such as mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449589"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous <span class="hlt">change</span> of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last deglacial warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at four times when their trends <span class="hlt">change</span> abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies. PMID:23449589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1440...72A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1440...72A"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal stresses in the wall of pipes caused by periodic <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of medium fluid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atefi, Gholamali; Mahmoudi, Hamid</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The problem of thermal stresses induced in pipes due to periodic <span class="hlt">change</span> of medium fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has never been considered completely. In this paper an analytical solution for obtaining thermal stresses in a pipe caused by periodic time varying of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of medium fluid is offered. Transient heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates for a long hollow cylinder under periodic <span class="hlt">change</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> condition is solved analytically using Fourier series and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> distribution in the wall of pipe as a function of time and radial direction is specified. Then resulting thermal stresses are obtained using thermoelasticity relations. Because of the use of Fourier series expansion in obtaining the transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field the proposed method is very comprehensive and covers many theoretical and practical problems. The results for thermal stresses have been compared with former works and show excellent agreement for the same conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......414K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......414K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extremes in Europe's Climate of the 20th Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein Tank, Albertus Maria Gerardus</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>This thesis aims at increasing the knowledge on past <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extremes through the analysis of historical records of observations at meteorological stations. The key question addressed is: How did the extremes of daily surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> in Europe's climate of the 20th century, and what can we learn from this? The contents is structured along the lines of four follow-up questions: Are the available observational datasets adequate to analyse extremes? Which trends are observed for the daily extremes of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation? Can the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in recent decades be regarded as a fingerprint of anthropogenic climate <span class="hlt">change</span>? Do the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> guide the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios for our future climate? Europe is one of the regions of the world that lacked a readily available and accessible dataset of high-resolution observational series with sufficient density and quality to study extremes. Such a dataset was developed for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation and used to detect statistically significant and non-trivial <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extremes. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends indicate a coarsening of our climate and the precipitation trends indicate an increase of wet extremes. The calculated trends represent <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be due to natural internal processes within the climate system and/or external forcing, which can either be natural (solar irradiance, volcanic aerosols, ozone, etc.) or anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, etc.). Comparisons between the trend patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the station records, the patterns associated with natural variability in the observations, and the patterns of future warming and natural variability as simulated by a climate model reveal fingerprints of anthropogenic warming over Europe. The last part of this thesis goes beyond the observations of the climate of the past and speculates on future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extremes. It presents a 'what- if scenario</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10704767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10704767"><span id="translatedtitle">Menstrual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sleep, rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and melatonin rhythms in a subject with premenstrual syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shinohara, K; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Saito, K; Kawaguchi, M; Funabashi, T; Kimura, F</p> <p>2000-03-10</p> <p>We studied a sighted woman with premenstrual syndrome who showed menstrual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circadian rhythms. She showed alternative phase shifts in the sleep rhythm in the menstrual cycle: progressive phase advances in the follicular phase and phase delays in the luteal phase. Rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm also showed similar menstrual <span class="hlt">changes</span>, but the phase advance and delay started a few days earlier than <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sleep-wake rhythm so that the two rhythms were dissociated around ovulation and menstruation. These results suggest that her circadian rhythms in sleep and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are under the control of ovarian steroid hormones and that these two rhythms have different sensitivity to the hormones. PMID:10704767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K"><span id="translatedtitle">People as sensors: mass media and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discussion on Twitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We examined whether people living under significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate <span class="hlt">change</span>" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, absolute standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, and extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> was regressed on the time variables, number of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> publications in the mass media, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables were significant at the p<0.001 level. Additionally, we did not find convincing evidence that the media acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discourse intensity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014QSRv..106..262B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014QSRv..106..262B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">To what extent did <span class="hlt">changes</span> in July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>What was the impact of July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to <span class="hlt">change</span>. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521107W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521107W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the relationship between Northeast China summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ENSO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Northeast China (NEC) summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tends to be lower (higher) than normal in El Niño (La Niña) developing years during 1950s through mid-1970s. The relationship between the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is weakened or even becomes opposite in 1980s and 1990s. The present study documents this interdecadal <span class="hlt">change</span> and investigates plausible reasons for this <span class="hlt">change</span>. Before the late 1970s, ENSO affects the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through modulating the South Asian heating and consequently the midlatitude Asian circulation. After the late 1970s, the connection between ENSO and the Indian summer monsoon and that between the South Asian heating and the midlatitude Asian circulation have been weakened. This leads to a weakening of ENSO impacts on the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It is found that the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations are closely related to the North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in 1980s and 1990s. In particular, a tripole North Atlantic SST anomaly pattern in boreal spring is a good precursory for the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> displays a negative correlation with the summer SST surrounding the Maritime Continent in 1980s and 1990s. In many years, the tropical North Pacific and the North Atlantic SST anomalies can contribute in concert to the midlatitude Asian circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. These effects overcome those of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies, leading to a same-sign relationship between the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H31H0741D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H31H0741D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under extreme climates and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets, performed best overall in meeting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21P..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21P..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of recharge water in a temporate climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murdock, E. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Groundwater outflows into headwater streams play an important role in controlling local stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and maintaining habitat for cool and cold water fisheries. Because of the ecological and economic importance of these fisheries, there is significant concern about the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on these habitats. Many studies of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> assume that groundwater outflows will vary with long-term mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, perhaps with a temporal lag to account for the relatively slow rate of heat diffusion through soils. This assumption, however, ignores the fact that climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will also impact the temporal patterns of recharge in some regions. In Southern Wisconsin, much of the annual recharge comes from the spring snowmelt event, as a large amount of meltwater is released onto saturated soils with little to no active transpiration. Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model populated with climate date from the North American Regional Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Assessment Program (NARCCAP), we show that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water passing below the rooting zone in a simulated corn planting in Southern Wisconsin will <span class="hlt">change</span> significantly less than the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by midcentury. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the variability of heat flow mechanisms in the subsurface while assessing climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on surface water resources. In landscapes such as Wisconsin's driftless area, where deep aquifers feed numerous localized headwater streams, meltwater-driven recharge may provide a buffer against rising air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for some time into the future. Fully understanding this dynamic will allow for targeted conservation efforts in those streams that are likely to show higher than average resilience to rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but which remain vulnerable to development, stormwater runoff, agricultural pollution and other ecological threats. In a world with dwindling coldwater resources, identifying and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460223"><span id="translatedtitle">Dose-related gene expression <span class="hlt">changes</span> in forebrain following <span class="hlt">acute</span>, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ray, Anamika; Liu Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The <span class="hlt">acute</span> toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cell signaling pathways 24 h following <span class="hlt">acute</span> CPF exposure in 7-day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following either one of the four CPF dosages studied (546, 505, 522, and 3,066 genes with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg CPF). Genes were grouped according to dose-related expression patterns using K-means clustering while gene networks and canonical pathways were evaluated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (registered) . Twenty clusters were identified and differential expression of selected genes was verified by RT-PCR. The four largest clusters (each containing from 276 to 905 genes) constituted over 50% of all differentially expressed genes and exhibited up-regulation following exposure to the highest dosage (2 mg/kg CPF). The total number of gene networks affected by CPF also rose sharply with the highest dosage of CPF (18, 16, 18 and 50 with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg CPF). Forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly reduced (26%) only in the highest dosage group. Based on magnitude of dose-related <span class="hlt">changes</span> in differentially expressed genes, relative numbers of gene clusters and signaling networks affected, and forebrain ChE inhibition only at 2 mg/kg CPF, we focused subsequent analyses on this treatment group. Six canonical pathways were identified that were significantly affected by 2 mg/kg CPF (MAPK, oxidative stress, NF{Kappa}B, mitochondrial dysfunction, arylhydrocarbon receptor and adrenergic receptor signaling). Evaluation of different cellular functions of the differentially expressed genes suggested <span class="hlt">changes</span> related to olfactory receptors, cell adhesion/migration, synapse</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JEMat..45.1309M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JEMat..45.1309M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity in the continental northern Neotropics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Velocity in the Continental Northern Neotropics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24958371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24958371"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in physiological parameters of mice with different radiosensitivity after <span class="hlt">acute</span> γ-irradiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alchinova, I B; Arkhipova, E N; Medvedeva, Yu S; Cherepov, A B; Karganov, M Yu</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We studied radiosensitivity of 101/Hf, C3H/Sn, and C57Bl mice exposed to sublethal doses of γ-radiation. C57Bl mice responded to radiation much later than 101/Hf and C3H/Sn mice, while their adaptability was high enough. 101/Hf and C3H/Sn mice developed <span class="hlt">acute</span> radiation sickness in a similar way. However, C3H/Sn mice showed better physiological indicators after radiation crisis. There was no noticeable improvement after the development of radiation sickness in 101/Hf mice. To assess individual radiosensitivity, integrated approach should be applied using the data obtained by different methods on several physiological levels. PMID:24958371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22157089','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22157089"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the <span class="hlt">acute</span> effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with <span class="hlt">acute</span> increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4504627','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4504627"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Change</span> of Both Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiencies After <span class="hlt">Acute</span> Pancreatitis in Non-Diabetic Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ho, Te-Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Hsieh, Su-Hua; Lai, Feipei; Tien, Yu-Wen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract <span class="hlt">Acute</span> pancreatitis (AP) is the most common pancreatic disease and consists of an <span class="hlt">acute</span> inflammation of the pancreas. AP can contribute to endocrine and exocrine insufficiencies in survivors as a result of the key role of the pancreas in both glucose metabolism and nutritional digestion. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the endocrine or exocrine insufficiencies in patients after initial AP with biliary or alcohol-associated causes. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database collected between 2001 and 2010. A total of 12,284 patients with AP were identified. Alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.894; 95% CI, 1.520–2.268; P < 0.001) and ≥2 admissions for AP (odds ratio, 1.937; 95% CI, 1.483–2.391; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus after AP. Further, only alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.215; 95% CI, 1.133–1.297; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after AP. Additionally, alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.804; 95% CI, 1.345–2.263; P < 0.001) and ≥2 readmissions for AP (odds ratio, 3.190; 95% CI, 2.317–4.063; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with both exocrine and endocrine insufficiencies after AP. Our data showed that alcohol-associated AP, rather than a biliary cause, contributed to a higher extent to exocrine or endocrine insufficiencies. Furthermore, recurrent AP also led to endocrine insufficiency. PMID:26166112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150016959','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150016959"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">Acute</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Choroid Thickness in Healthy Eyes During Posture <span class="hlt">Change</span> Using Optical Coherence Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome affects 60% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions and is characterized by structural and functional <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the eye (3). Upon entry into weightlessness, approximately two liters of fluid translocates from the lower body to the thorax and cephalad regions, potentially contributing to elevated intracranial and intraocular pressures. The choroid is the vasculature that supplies blood flow to the posterior part of the retina and has limited autoregulation. As a consequence these vessels may engorge during a cephalad fluid shift, contributing to structural <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the retina. The purpose of this experiment was to quantify <span class="hlt">changes</span> in choroid thickness during a fluid shift. In order to fulfill this objective, it was also necessary to improve the measurement technique for assessing choroid thickness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sierra, Carlos; Trumbore, Susan; Davidson, Eric; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. For this reason it is important to study the overall sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. Here we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors <span class="hlt">change</span> simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: 1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; 2) to different mathematical functions used to represent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different datasets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: 3) observations of soil respiration at the ecosystem level; 4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and 5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content simultaneously. The combined theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed suggests: first, large uncertainties still remain regarding the combined controls of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition rates, particularly at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the extremes of the soil moisture range; second, the highest sensitivities of decomposition rates are likely in systems where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture are high such as tropical peatlands, and at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near the freezing point</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> in the western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kueppers, L.M.; Snyder, M.A.; Sloan, L.C.; Cayan, D.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, Mary; Du, H.; Weare, B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, more than 79 000??km2 has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> have the potential to alter surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by modifying the energy budget at the land-atmosphere interface. This study reports the seasonally varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) - RSM, RegCM3, MM5-CLM3, and DRCM - to conversion of potential natural vegetation to modern land-cover and land-use over a 1-year period. Three of the RCMs supplemented soil moisture, producing large decreases in the August mean (- 1.4 to - 3.1????C) and maximum (- 2.9 to - 6.1????C) 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9% to 36% absolute <span class="hlt">change</span>). Modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the August minimum 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were not as pronounced or consistent across the models. Converting natural vegetation to urban land-cover produced less pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effect dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type and urban parameterizations. Overall, the RCM results indicate that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts of land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface soil moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679977"><span id="translatedtitle">Fitness costs associated with different frequencies and magnitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franke, Kristin; Heitmann, Nadja; Tobner, Anne; Fischer, Klaus</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Plastic responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in environmental conditions are ubiquitous and typically highly effective, but are predicted to incur costs. We here investigate the effects of different frequencies and magnitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, considering developmental (Experiment 1) and adult stage plasticity (Experiment 2). We predicted negative effects of more frequent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on development, immune function and/or reproduction. Results from Experiment 1 showed that repeated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during development, if involving large amplitudes, negatively affect larval time, larval growth rate and pupal mass, while adult traits remained unaffected. However, results from treatment groups with smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitudes yielded no clear patterns. In Experiment 2 prolonged but not repeated exposure to 39°C increased heat tolerance, potentially reflecting costs of repeatedly activating emergency responses. At the same time fecundity was more strongly reduced in the group with prolonged heat stress, suggesting a trade-off between heat tolerance and reproduction. Clear effects were restricted to conditions involving large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitudes or high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:24679977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of pulp chamber during in vitro laser welding of orthodontic attachments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Işman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3±1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357"><span id="translatedtitle">A century of climate and ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> in Western Montana: What do <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends portend?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to hemispheric and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902772','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902772"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in hypothalamic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accompany microwave-induced alteration of thermoregulatory behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.; Akel, G.M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This study probed the mechanisms underlying microwave-induced alterations of thermoregulatory behavior. Adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), trained to regulate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of their immediate environment (Ta) behaviorally, were chronically implanted with Teflon reentrant tubes in the medical preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (PO/AH), the brainstem region considered to control normal thermoregulatory processes. A Vitek <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probe inserted into the tube measured PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continuously while <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermoregulatory behavior were induced by either brief (10-min) or prolonged (2.5-h) unilateral exposures to planewave 2,450-MHz continuous wave (CW) microwaves (E polarization). Power densities explored ranged from 4 to 20 mW/cm2 (rate of energy absorption (SAR) . 0.05 (W/kg)/cm2)). Rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and four representative skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were also monitored, as was the Ta selected by the animal. When the power density was high enough to induce a monkey to select a cooler Ta (8 mW/cm2 and above), PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose approximately 0.3 degrees C but seldom more. Lower power densities usually produced smaller increases in PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and no reliable <span class="hlt">change</span> in thermoregulatory behavior. Rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remained constant while PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose only 0.2-0.3 degrees C during 2.5-h exposures at 20 mW/cm2 because the Ta selected was 2-3 degrees C cooler than normally preferred. Sometimes PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increments greater than 0.3 degrees C were recorded, but they always accompanied inadequate thermoregulatory behavior. Thus, a PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of 0.2-0.3 degrees C, accompanying microwave exposure, appears to be necessary and sufficient to alter thermoregulatory behavior, which ensures in turn that no greater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excursions occur in this hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25515596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25515596"><span id="translatedtitle">Intrinsic excitability <span class="hlt">changes</span> induced by <span class="hlt">acute</span> treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamagnini, Francesco; Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T; Randall, Andrew D</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what <span class="hlt">changes</span> in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2-5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1-42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ-(500 nM) and vehicle-(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub-threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated "sag". Similarly, no <span class="hlt">changes</span> were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra-threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after-hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that <span class="hlt">acute</span> exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and <span class="hlt">acute</span> models, the IE <span class="hlt">changes</span> are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. PMID:25515596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4791149','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4791149"><span id="translatedtitle">Intrinsic excitability <span class="hlt">changes</span> induced by <span class="hlt">acute</span> treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T.; Randall, Andrew D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Accumulation of beta‐amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ‐overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what <span class="hlt">changes</span> in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2–5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1–42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ‐(500 nM) and vehicle‐(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub‐threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated “sag”. Similarly, no <span class="hlt">changes</span> were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra‐threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after‐hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that <span class="hlt">acute</span> exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and <span class="hlt">acute</span> models, the IE <span class="hlt">changes</span> are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25515596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641220"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acute</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cardiovascular function during the onset period of daytime sleep: comparison to lying awake and standing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaregarizi, Mohammad; Edwards, Ben; George, Keith; Harrison, Yvonne; Jones, Helen; Atkinson, Greg</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The siesta habit is associated with a 37% reduction in coronary mortality, possibly because of reduced cardiovascular stress associated with daytime sleep. Whether the most important behavior is the daytime nap itself, a supine posture, or the expectancy of a nap is unknown. We present the first detailed description on healthy individuals of the <span class="hlt">acute</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cardiovascular function during defined phases of the daytime sleep-onset period. These responses were compared with lying awake and standing. Following a night of restricted (4 h) sleep, nine healthy participants (aged 34 +/- 5 yr) were allowed to sleep at 1400 for up to 1 h. Polysomnography was used to calculate three phases of daytime sleep onset: phase 1, a baseline period of relaxed wakefulness before lights out; phase 2, the period between lights out and onset of stage 1 sleep; and phase 3, the period between onsets of stages 1 and 2 sleep. Differences (means +/- SD) in blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) between phases were analyzed. During the 9.7 +/- 13.8 min of phase 2, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 4.7 +/- 4.5 and 3.6 +/- 2.8 mmHg lower than baseline, whereas CVC was 9.5 +/- 4.3% higher than baseline (P < 0.05). Subsequent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cardiovascular function during the sleep itself were trivial (P > 0.05). The above <span class="hlt">changes</span> were not observed when subjects stood or laid supine in relaxed wakefulness for 1 h (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the period between lights out and sleep onset is associated with the largest <span class="hlt">acute</span> reduction in blood pressure during one afternoon siesta. PMID:17641220</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4575105','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4575105"><span id="translatedtitle">The Prognostic Importance of <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Renal Function during Treatment for <span class="hlt">Acute</span> Heart Failure Depends on Admission Renal Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reid, Ryan; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Brown, Paul M.; McAlister, Finlay A.; Rowe, Brian H.; Braam, Branko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Worsening and improving renal function during <span class="hlt">acute</span> heart failure have been associated with adverse outcomes but few studies have considered the admission level of renal function upon which these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are superimposed. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate definitions that incorporate both admission renal function and <span class="hlt">change</span> in renal function. Methods 696 patients with <span class="hlt">acute</span> heart failure with calculable eGFR were classified by admission renal function (Reduced [R, eGFR<45 ml/min] or Preserved [P, eGFR≥45 ml/min]) and <span class="hlt">change</span> over hospital admission (worsening [WRF]: eGFR ≥20% decline; stable [SRF]; and improving [IRF]: eGFR ≥20% increase). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The prevalence of Pres and Red renal function was 47.8% and 52.2%. The frequency of R-WRF, R-SRF, and R-IRF was 11.4%, 28.7%, and 12.1%, respectively; the incidence of P-WRF, P-SRF, and P-IRF was 5.7%, 35.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. Survival was shorter for patients with R-WRF compared to R-IRF (median survival times 13.9 months (95%CI 7.7–24.9) and 32.5 months (95%CI 18.8–56.1), respectively), resulting in an acceleration factor of 2.3 (p = 0.016). Thus, an increase compared with a decrease in renal function was associated with greater than two times longer survival among patients with Reduced renal function. PMID:26380982</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18.1419S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18.1419S"><span id="translatedtitle">Downscaling local extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in south-eastern Australia from the CSIRO Mark2 GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Sascha</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Climate impact studies crucially rely on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> information at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the most developed tools for estimating future climate <span class="hlt">change</span> - the general circulation models (GCMs) - still operate on rather coarse spatial scales, their output has to be downscaled in order to provide the needed high resolution input for climate impact models.In this study, a perfect prognosis approach is employed to downscale daily local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes at several stations in south-eastern Australia from synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields. The statistical model combines principal component analysis and linear multiple regression and is suitable to explain a considerable part of both short and long frequency variations of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes. Using simulated and observed daily data the regional to local performance of the Mark2 GCM, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was validated over the Australian region. While the regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes simulated under present-day climate conditions are in general agreement with the observed climate, there are highly significant differences on the local scale. The observed daily synoptic scale atmospheric circulation, however, is well reproduced by the GCM. This supports the idea of using these reliably simulated climatic parameters to estimate the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes under altered global climate conditions.The downscaling model was applied to synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields generated by the CSIRO Mark2 GCM under 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 conditions. Compared to the extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> simulated by the GCM directly, the downscaled variations are much weaker. Several sources of uncertainty might be causing these differences. Firstly, the statistical model is stationary. Therefore, it is not capable of including <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the relationships between circulation and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which are likely</p> </li>