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Sample records for acute total sleep

  1. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  2. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  3. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data. PMID:27310475

  4. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data. PMID:27310475

  5. Acute Total and Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions, Waking EEG and Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1999-01-01

    protocol of the Quantitative EEG and Waking Neurobehavioral Function project. This will allow us to investigate two additional specific aims: 1) Test the hypothesis that chronic partial sleep deprivation during a 17 day bed rest experiment results in deterioration of neurobehavioral function during waking and increases in EEG power density in the theta frequencies, especially in frontal areas of the brain, as well as the nonREM- REM cycle dependent modulation of heart-rate variability. 2) Test the hypothesis that acute total sleep deprivation modifies the circadian rhythm of the renin-angiotensin system, changes the acute responsiveness of this system to posture beyond what a microgravity environment alone does and affects the nonREM-REM cycle dependent modulation of heart-rate variability.

  6. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  7. Sleep Modifications in Acute Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events (“minor stroke” or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically “similar” to the TGA. Methods: TGA group: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. Results: In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Conclusions: Microstructural modification associated with TGA could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress. Citation: Della Marca G; Mazza M; Losurdo A; Testani E; Broccolini A; Frisullo G; Marano G; Morosetti R; Pilato F; Profice P; Vollono C; Di Lazzaro V. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):921-927. PMID:23997704

  8. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  9. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  10. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Design: Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Setting: Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). Participants: 14 healthy men (age range: 26–37 years). Interventions: EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Conclusion: Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. Citation: Arnal PJ, Sauvet F, Leger D, van Beers P, Bayon V, Bougard C, Rabat A, Millet GY, Chennaoui M. Benefits of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and recovery. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1935–1943. PMID:26194565

  11. Long-term subjective and objective sleep analysis of total sleep time and sleep quality in real life settings.

    PubMed

    Merilahti, Juho; Saarinen, Ari; Parkka, Juha; Antila, Kari; Mattila, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Sleep quality is one of the key elements of the human health status. By observing sleep patterns we can gain information about personal wellbeing. Consumer electronic sleep analysis solutions are now available for use in long-term conditions. In this study we compare different measures for total sleep time and sleep quality. We analyzed visually long- term sleep data collected with actigraphy, sleep logs and ambient sensors to gain more reliable results and compared these results to each single method's output. Correlations of visually analyzed total sleep time between actigraphy total sleep time (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.662, p <0.01) and sleep log total sleep time (r = 0.787, p <0.01) were high. Also comparison between subjective and objective sleep quality was analyzed and small, but significant correlation was found (r = 0.270, p < 0.01).

  12. The spectrum of the non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram following total sleep deprivation is trait-like.

    PubMed

    Tarokh, Leila; Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-08-01

    The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectrum is unique to an individual and stable across multiple baseline recordings. The aim of this study was to examine whether the sleep EEG spectrum exhibits the same stable characteristics after acute total sleep deprivation. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded in 20 healthy adults across consecutive sleep periods. Three nights of baseline sleep [12 h time in bed (TIB)] following 12 h of wakefulness were interleaved with three nights of recovery sleep (12 h TIB) following 36 h of sustained wakefulness. Spectral analysis of the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEG (C3LM derivation) was used to calculate power in 0.25 Hz frequency bins between 0.75 and 16.0 Hz. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess stable individual differences for baseline and recovery night spectra separately and combined. ICCs were high across all frequencies for baseline and recovery and for baseline and recovery combined. These results show that the spectrum of the NREM sleep EEG is substantially different among individuals, highly stable within individuals and robust to an experimental challenge (i.e. sleep deprivation) known to have considerable impact on the NREM sleep EEG. These findings indicate that the NREM sleep EEG represents a trait.

  13. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Acutely Ill Patients with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Tanner, J Mark; Dumont, Natalie A

    2016-06-01

    Intensive care units may place acutely ill patients with cancer at additional risk for sleep loss and associated negative effects. Research suggests that communication about sleep in patients with cancer is suboptimal and sleep problems are not regularly assessed or adequately treated throughout the cancer trajectory. However, many sleep problems and fatigue can be managed effectively. This article synthesizes the current literature regarding the prevalence, cause, and risk factors that contribute to sleep disturbance in the context of acute cancer care. It describes the consequences of poor sleep and discusses appropriate assessment and treatment options. PMID:27215362

  15. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory.

  16. Exercise‐Induced growth hormone during acute sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Ritsche, Kevin; Nindl, Bradly C.; Wideman, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of acute (24‐h) sleep deprivation on exercise‐induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) was examined. Ten men (20.6 ± 1.4 years) completed two randomized 24‐h sessions including a brief, high‐intensity exercise bout following either a night of sleep (SLEEP) or (24‐h) sleep deprivation (SLD). Anaerobic performance (mean power [MP], peak power [PP], minimum power [MinP], time to peak power [TTPP], fatigue index, [FI]) and total work per sprint [TWPS]) was determined from four maximal 30‐sec Wingate sprints on a cycle ergometer. Self‐reported sleep 7 days prior to each session was similar between SLEEP and SLD sessions (7.92 ± 0.33 vs. 7.98 ± 0.39 h, P =0.656, respectively) and during the actual SLEEP session in the lab, the total amount of sleep was similar to the 7 days leading up to the lab session (7.72 ± 0.14 h vs. 7.92 ± 0.33 h, respectively) (P =0.166). No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF‐1 between sessions. GH area under the curve (AUC) (825.0 ± 199.8 vs. 2212.9 ± 441.9 μg/L*min, P <0.01), exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (17.8 ± 3.7 vs. 39.6 ± 7.1 μg/L, P <0.01) and ΔGH (peak GH – resting GH) (17.2 ± 3.7 vs. 38.2 ± 7.3 μg/L, P <0.01) were significantly lower during the SLEEP versus SLD session. Our results indicate that the exercise‐induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep‐deprived individuals. PMID:25281616

  17. Effects of acute administration of brotizolam in subjects with disturbed sleep

    PubMed Central

    Roehrs, T.; Zorick, F.; Koshorek, G. L.; Wittig, R.; Roth, T.

    1983-01-01

    1 Effects of ingestion of brotizolam (0.25 and 0.50 mg) over 1-3 days on polysomnographic measures of sleep were assessed in patients complaining of insomnia. 2 Brotizolam reduced latency to sleep, number of awakenings and wake during sleep, and increased total sleep time. It also increased stage 2 sleep and decreased slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep. 3 Increasing the dose from 0.25 to 0.50 mg increased hypnotic efficacy, and there was a more consistent and reliable effect. 4 Discontinuation of brotizolam had minimal effects on sleep compared with placebo over the 3 nights after acute administration. 5 No side-effects or disruption of daytime function was found using questionnaires and objective tests of performance. PMID:6661383

  18. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h sleep deprivation in the early rest period, leading to prolonged (16 h) wakefulness. Another group of rats was allowed to sleep during the first 4 h of the light period and sleep deprived in the next 4 h. During treatment, food was withdrawn to avoid a postmeal rise in plasma glucose. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed immediately after the sleep deprivation period. Sleep deprivation at both times of the day similarly impaired glucose tolerance and reduced the early-phase insulin responses to a glucose challenge. Basal concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone remained unchanged after sleep deprivation. Throughout IVGTTs, plasma corticosterone concentrations were not different between the control and sleep-deprived group. Together, these results demonstrate that independent of time of day and sleep pressure, short sleep deprivation during the resting phase favors glucose intolerance in rats by attenuating the first-phase insulin response to a glucose load. In conclusion, this study highlights the acute adverse effects of only a short sleep restriction on glucose homeostasis. PMID:27354542

  19. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R.; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Design: Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Participants: Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21–28 y (n = 20). Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Measurements and Results: Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Conclusions: The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. Citation: Chua EC, Shui G, Cazenave-Gassiot A, Wenk MR, Gooley JJ. Changes in plasma lipids during exposure to total sleep

  20. Quantity and quality of nocturnal sleep affect morning glucose measurement in acutely burned children.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Theresa; Gottschlich, Michele M; Khoury, Jane; Simakajornboon, Narong; Kagan, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia after severe burn injury has long been recognized, whereas sleep deprivation after burns is a more recent finding. The postburn metabolic effects of poor sleep are not clear despite reports in other populations demonstrating the association between sleep insufficiency and deleterious endocrine consequences. The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship between sleep and glucose dynamics exists in acutely burned children. Two overnight polysomnography runs (2200 to 0600) per subject were conducted in 40 patients with a mean (± SEM) age of 9.4 ± 0.7 years, 50.1 ± 2.9% TBSA burn, and 43.2 ± 3.6% full-thickness injury. Serum glucose was drawn in the morning (0600) immediately after the sleep test. Insulin requirements during the 24-hour period preceding the 0600 glucose measurement were recorded. Generalized linear models were used by the authors to evaluate percent time in each stage of sleep, percent wake time, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and morning serum glucose, accounting for insulin use. Increased time awake (P = .04, linear; P = .02, quadratic) and reduced time spent in stage 1 sleep (P = .03, linear) were associated with higher glucose levels. Sleep efficiency (P = .01, linear; P = .02, quadratic) and total sleep time (P = .01 linear; P = .02, quadratic) were inversely associated with glucose level. Morning glucose levels appear to be affected by the quality and quantity of overnight sleep in children who have sustained extensive burn injuries. Future research is needed to elucidate the metabolic and neuroendocrine consequences of sleep deprivation on metabolism after burns.

  1. Sleep and Cognitive Abnormalities in Acute Minor Thalamic Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Cui, Linyang; Fu, Ying; Tian, Qianqian; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Du, Ning; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Zhijun; Song, Yijun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Xue, Rong

    2016-08-01

    In order to characterize sleep and the cognitive patterns in patients with acute minor thalamic infarction (AMTI), we enrolled 27 patients with AMTI and 12 matched healthy individuals. Questionnaires about sleep and cognition as well as polysomnography (PSG) were performed on days 14 and 90 post-stroke. Compared to healthy controls, in patients with AMTI, hyposomnia was more prevalent; sleep architecture was disrupted as indicated by decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency, and decreased non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 2 and 3; more sleep-related breathing disorders occurred; and cognitive functions were worse, especially memory. While sleep apnea and long-delay memory recovered to a large extent in the patients, other sleep and cognitive function deficit often persisted. Patients with AMTI are at an increased risk for hyposomnia, sleep structure disturbance, sleep apnea, and memory deficits. Although these abnormalities improved over time, the slow and incomplete improvement suggest that early management should be considered in these patients. PMID:27237578

  2. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms. Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values). Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006) and second (p = 0.014) nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016), compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue. Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation. PMID:26290799

  3. Baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep in severe obstructive sleep apnoea: effects of acute CPAP.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M R; Parati, G; Insalaco, G; Castiglioni, P; Marrone, O; Romano, S; Salvaggio, A; Mancia, G; Bonsignore, G; Di Rienzo, M

    2006-01-01

    Baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep (baroreflex sensitivity; BRS) has been shown to be depressed in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and improved after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Whether CPAP also acutely affects BRS during sleep in uncomplicated severe OSA is still debatable. Blood pressure was monitored during nocturnal polysomnography in 18 patients at baseline and during first-time CPAP application. Spontaneous BRS was analysed by the sequence method, and estimated as the mean sequence slope. CPAP did not acutely affect mean blood pressure or heart rate but decreased cardiovascular variability during sleep. Mean BRS increased slightly during CPAP application (from 6.5+/-2.4 to 7.5+/-2.9 ms x mmHg(-1)), mostly in response to decreasing blood pressure. The change in BRS did not correlate with changes in arterial oxygen saturation or apnoea/hypopnoea index. The small change in baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep at first application of continuous positive airway pressure in severe obstructive sleep apnoea was unrelated to the acute resolution of nocturnal hypoxaemia, and might reflect autonomic adjustments to positive intrathoracic pressure, and/or improved sleep architecture. The small increase in baroreflex control of heart rate during sleep may be of clinical relevance as it was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular variability, which is acknowledged as an independent cardiovascular risk factor.

  4. Trait-Like Vulnerability to Total and Partial Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Tracy L.; Wesensten, Nancy J.; Balkin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. Design: Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous wakefulness); (b) sleep restriction (SR) of 7 nights of 3 h nightly time in bed (TIB). Both conditions were preceded by 7 in-laboratory nights with 10 h nightly TIB; and followed by 3 recovery nights with 8 h nightly TIB. Measures of cognitive performance (psychomotor vigilance, working memory [1-Back], and mathematical processing), objective alertness, subjective sleepiness, and mood were obtained at regular intervals under both conditions. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using outcome metrics averaged over the last day (08:00-20:00) of TSD and SR. Setting: Residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants: Nineteen healthy adults (ages 18-39; 11 males, 8 females). Interventions: 2 nights of TSD and 7 nights SR (3 h nightly TIB). Results: Volunteers who displayed greater vulnerability to TSD displayed greater vulnerability to SR on cognitive performance tasks (ICC: PVT lapses = 0.89; PVT speed = 0.86; 1-Back = 0.88; mathematical processing = 0.68, Ps < 0.05). In addition, trait-like responsivity to TSD/SR was found for mood variables vigor (ICC = 0.91), fatigue (ICC = 0.73), and happiness (ICC = 0.85) (all Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: Resilience to sleep loss is a trait-like characteristic that reflects an individual's ability to maintain performance during both types of sleep loss (SR and TSD). Whether the findings extend to sleep schedules other than those investigated here (63 h of TSD and 7 nights of 3 h nightly TIB) will be the focus of future studies. Citation: Rupp TL; Wesensten NJ; Balkin TJ. Trait-like vulnerability to total and partial sleep loss. SLEEP 2012

  5. Acute placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies and clinical follow-up with pramipexole in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saletu, M; Anderer, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Hauer, C; Saletu, B

    2002-08-01

    In a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, the acute efficacy of the dopamine agonist pramipexole was investigated in 11 restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients by sleep laboratory methods, with a clinical follow-up for 4 weeks. In 3 nights (pre-treatment, placebo and drug night), objective sleep quality was determined by polysomnography (PSG), subjective sleep and awakening quality by rating scales, objective awakening quality by psychometry. Clinical follow-up consisted of completion of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) Scale, Zung Depression (SDS) and Anxiety (SAS) Scale, Quality of Life Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Concerning acute effects, an omnibus significance test for PSG variables demonstrated a global difference between placebo and pramipexole, but none between pre-treatment and placebo. Pramipexole 0.27 mg significantly decreased the target variable periodic leg movements (PLM)/h of sleep as well as all other RLS/PLM variables and improved objective sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality as compared with placebo. In sleep architecture, sleep stages S1 and S2 and stage shifts increased, while slow-wave sleep and SREM decreased. After 4 weeks of therapy, the total scores of the IRLSSG questionnaire, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, depression and quality of life also improved. Thus, acute pramipexole markedly reduced PLM measures and slightly improved objective and subjective sleep quality. Follow-up ratings showed a moderate improvement of RLS and sleep quality, and to a lesser extent of daytime sleepiness, depression and quality of life. The psychopathological findings as well as acute sleep architecture changes are reminiscent of those seen after activating antidepressants.

  6. Effects of Positive Airway Pressure on Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Acute Ascent to Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Katsufumi; Cloward, Tom V.; Weaver, Lindell K.; Brown, Samuel M.; Bell, James E.; Grissom, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In acute ascent to altitude, untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often replaced with central sleep apnea (CSA). In patients with obstructive sleep apnea who travel to altitude, it is unknown whether their home positive airway pressure (PAP) settings are sufficient to treat their obstructive sleep apnea, or altitude-associated central sleep apnea. Methods: Ten participants with positive airway pressure–treated obstructive sleep apnea, who reside at 1,320 m altitude, underwent polysomnography on their home positive airway pressure settings at 1,320 m and at a simulated altitude of 2,750 m in a hypobaric chamber. Six of the participants were subsequently studied without positive airway pressure at 2,750 m. Measurements and Main Results: At 1,320 m, all participants’ sleep apnea was controlled with positive airway pressure on home settings; at 2,750, no participants’ sleep apnea was controlled. At higher altitude, the apnea–hypopnea index was higher (11 vs. 2 events/h; P < 0.01), mostly due to hypopneas (10.5 vs. 2 events/h; P < 0.01). Mean oxygen saturations were lower (88 vs. 93%; P < 0.01) and total sleep time was diminished (349 vs. 393 min; P = 0.03). Four of six participants without positive airway pressure at 2,750 m required supplemental oxygen to prevent sustained oxygen saturation (as determined by pulse oximetry) less than 80%. Positive airway pressure also was associated with reduced central sleep apnea (0 vs. 1; P = 0.03), improved sleep time (358 vs. 292 min; P = 0.06), and improved sleep efficiency (78 vs. 63%; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Acute altitude exposure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with positive airway pressure is associated with hypoxemia, decreased sleep time, and increased frequency of hypopneas compared with baseline altitude. Application of positive airway pressure at altitude is associated with decreased central sleep apnea and increased sleep efficiency. PMID:25884271

  7. Chronotype, bed timing and total sleep time in seniors.

    PubMed

    Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Many older adults (seniors) experience problems with getting enough sleep. Because of the link between sleep and circadian rhythms, changes in bedtime lead to changes in the amount of sleep obtained. Although primarily determined genetically, chronotype changes with advancing age towards a more morning-type (M-type) orientation. In a 2006 study, we have found a linear relationship, by which the earlier a senior's bedtime, the more sleep she/he will obtain. The aim of this study was to see whether this relationship differs for M-type seniors, as compared to seniors outside the M-type category. Retired seniors (n = 954, 535 M, 410F, 65 years+, mean age 74.4 years) taking part in a telephone interview were divided into M-types and Other types (O-types) using the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM). The relationship between bedtime and Total Sleep Time (TST), and between rise-time and TST, was tested using linear regression separately for M-types and O-types. For each participant, habitual bedtime, rise-time and total Sleep Time (TST) [after removing time spent in unwanted wakefulness] were obtained using a telephone version of the Sleep Timing Questionnaire (STQ). Both chronotype groups showed a significant linear relationship between bedtime and TST (p < 0.001); with earlier bedtimes leading to more TST (M-type 5.6 min; O-type 4.4 min per 10 min change [slope difference p = 0.05]); and an opposite relationship between rise-time and TST with earlier rise-times leading to less TST (M-type 6.7 min; O-type 4.2 min per 10 min change [slope difference p = 0.001]). M-types retired to bed 56 min earlier (p < 0.001), awoke 93 min earlier (p < 0.001) and obtained 23 min less TST (p < 0.001) than O-types. In conclusion, both chronotypes showed TST to be related in a linear way to bedtime and rise-time; the overall shorter TST in M-types was due to them rising 93 min earlier, but only retiring to bed 56 min earlier than O

  8. Sleep continuity and total sleep time are associated with task-switching and preparation in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Woo, Sarah G; Erickson, Kirk I; Wheeler, Mark E

    2014-10-01

    Ageing is associated with changes in sleep and decline executive functions, such as task-switching and task preparation. Given that sleep affects executive function, age-related changes in executive function may be attributable to changes in sleep. The present study used a sleep detection device to examine whether or not wake time after sleep onset and total sleep time moderated age differences in task-switching performance and participants' ability to reduce switch costs when given time to prepare. Participants were cognitively healthy [Mini Mental State Examination > 26] younger (n = 54; mean age = 22.9; 67.8% female) and older (n = 45; mean age 62.8; 71.1% female) adults. Using a task-switching paradigm, which manipulated preparation time, we found that smaller global switch costs were associated with lower wake time after sleep onset and longer total sleep time. Greater preparation effects on local switch costs and adoption of a task-set were associated with lower wake time after sleep onset, although this effect was significant only in older adults when stratified by age group. This association was independent of inhibition and working memory abilities. The lack of interactions between sleep and age group indicated that age differences in switch costs were not moderated by better sleep. Our results suggest that young and older adults may benefit similarly from lower wake time after sleep onset and longer total sleep time in overall performance, and individuals with less wake time after sleep onset are more likely to engage preparatory strategies to reduce switch costs and boost task-switching performance.

  9. Adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy (Combined Total Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Phase Advance, and Bright Light Therapy) Rapidly Improves Mood and Suicidality in Suicidal Depressed Inpatients: An Open Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B.; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Zuschlag, Zachary D.; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S.; Uhde, Thomas W.; George, Mark S.; Short, E.Baron

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N=10, Mean age=44±16.4SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33–36 hours), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-minute sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7±4.2SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4±7.3SD on day five (p=.002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5±8.5SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2±5.5SD on day five (p=.01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed. PMID:25231629

  10. Adjunctive triple chronotherapy (combined total sleep deprivation, sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy) rapidly improves mood and suicidality in suicidal depressed inpatients: an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Kalivas, Benjamin; Fox, James B; Lamb, Kayla; Roper, Amanda; Williams, Emily N; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Zuschlag, Zachary D; El Sabbagh, Salim; Guille, Constance; Barth, Kelly S; Uhde, Thomas W; George, Mark S; Short, E Baron

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that combined total sleep deprivation (Wake therapy), sleep phase advance, and bright light therapy (Triple Chronotherapy) produce a rapid and sustained antidepressant effect in acutely depressed individuals. To date no studies have explored the impact of the intervention on unipolar depressed individuals with acute concurrent suicidality. Participants were suicidal inpatients (N = 10, Mean age = 44 ± 16.4 SD, 6F) with unipolar depression. In addition to standard of care, they received open label Triple Chronotherapy. Participants underwent one night of total sleep deprivation (33-36 h), followed by a three-night sleep phase advance along with four 30-min sessions of bright light therapy (10,000 lux) each morning. Primary outcome measures included the 17 item Hamilton depression scale (HAM17), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (CSSRS), which were recorded at baseline prior to total sleep deprivation, and at protocol completion on day five. Both HAM17, and CSSRS scores were greatly reduced at the conclusion of the protocol. HAM17 scores dropped from a mean of 24.7 ± 4.2 SD at baseline to a mean of 9.4 ± 7.3 SD on day five (p = .002) with six of the ten individuals meeting criteria for remission. CSSRS scores dropped from a mean of 19.5 ± 8.5 SD at baseline to a mean of 7.2 ± 5.5 SD on day five (p = .01). The results of this small pilot trial demonstrate that adjunctive Triple Chronotherapy is feasible and tolerable in acutely suicidal and depressed inpatients. Limitations include a small number of participants, an open label design, and the lack of a comparison group. Randomized controlled studies are needed.

  11. Total parenteral nutrition in acute illness.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G D

    1985-08-01

    Successful total parenteral nutrition in acute illness requires an appreciation of the pathophysiology of the illness and an understanding of the nutritional state of the patient, as well as a knowledge of the principles of total parenteral nutrition. Management of the acutely ill patient's general condition is essential prior to the introduction of nutritional support. A basic regimen which includes administration of 1-2g/kg/day of protein, and 8,400 kJ (2,000 kcal)/day of energy, part glucose and part lipid, together with all minerals, vitamins and zinc, in an appropriate amount of water, should be provided. Modifications to this regimen may be indicated to accommodate cardiac, respiratory, liver or renal failure. The questions of the optimum mix of carbohydrate and lipid, the ideal amount of protein and the correct mix of amino acids for a particular period in an individual patient's illness, are still debated. The fact that recent research supports many of the postulates of the Scandinavian pioneers of total parenteral nutrition suggests we may be returning to a correct approach.

  12. Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation during Sleep at 3800m: relationship to Acute Mountain Sickness and sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, PL; Popa, DA; Prisk, GK; Sullivan, CE; Edwards, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop Acute Mountain Sickness, which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake, results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhemoglobin saturation. We aimed to test whether pressure ventilation during sleep would prevent AMS by keeping oxyhaemoglobin higher during sleep. Methods We compared sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness was assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. Results We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation. PMID:20051046

  13. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  14. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise.

  15. Sleep Deprived and Sweating It Out: The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Skin Conductance Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jean C.J.; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A.A.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Design: Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. Setting: The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants: Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Interventions: Sleep deprivation and feedback. Measurements and Results: Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. Citation: Liu JC, Verhulst S, Massar SA, Chee MW. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress. SLEEP 2015;38(1):155–159. PMID:25325448

  16. Sleep-related breathing disorders in acute lacunar stroke.

    PubMed

    Bonnin-Vilaplana, Marc; Arboix, Adrià; Parra, Olga; García-Eroles, Luis; Montserrat, Josep M; Massons, Joan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose was to examine the occurrence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) and variables related to SRBD in patients with acute lacunar stroke. In 68 consecutive patients with radiologically proven lacunes, respiratory polygraphy within the first 48 h of stroke onset was performed. SRBDs were classified according to mutually exclusive cutoff values of the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) as mild (AHI ≥ 10), moderate (AHI ≥ 20), and severe (AHI ≥ 30). Variables independently associated with SRBDs were assessed by logistic regression analysis. The mean (standard deviation) AHI was 21.9 (17.4). A total of 69.1% of patients showed AHI ≥ 10, 44.1% AHI ≥ 20, and 25% AHI ≥ 30. Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) was present in 20.6% of patients. Smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) or location of lacunes in the internal capsule or the pons was significantly more frequent in the AHI ≥ 10 group than in the remaining AHI groups (80.9% vs. 57.1%, P = 0.041). AHI ≥ 20 and AHI ≥ 30 occurred more frequently in smokers or in capsular or pontine lacunes than in the remaining patients (20% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.053; 29.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.01, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, smoking or capsular or pontine topographies were associated with AHI ≥ 10 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–9.79; P = 0.045]. Lacunes in the internal capsule or the pons in smokers were associated with AHI ≥ 20 (OR = 9.25, 95% CI 1.05–81.70; P = 0.045). Smoking (OR = 19.64, 95% CI 1.68–229.85; P = 0.010) and body mass index (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.13–2.50; P = 0.010) were associated with AHI ≥ 30. Smoker patients with capsular or pontine acute lacunar stroke should be screened for SRDB.

  17. Gray Matter-Specific Changes in Brain Bioenergetics after Acute Sleep Deprivation: A 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study at 4 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Plante, David T.; Trksak, George H.; Jensen, J. Eric; Penetar, David M.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Riedner, Brady A.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.; Harper, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A principal function of sleep may be restoration of brain energy metabolism caused by the energetic demands of wakefulness. Because energetic demands in the brain are greater in gray than white matter, this study used linear mixed-effects models to examine tissue-type specific changes in high-energy phosphates derived using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. Participants: A total of 32 MRS scans performed in eight healthy individuals (mean age 35 y; range 23-51 y). Interventions: Phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) were measured using 31P MRS three dimensional-chemical shift imaging at high field (4 Tesla) after a baseline night of sleep, acute sleep deprivation, and 2 nights of recovery sleep. Novel linear mixed-effects models were constructed using spectral and tissue segmentation data to examine changes in bioenergetics in gray and white matter. Measurements and Results: PCr increased in gray matter after 2 nights of recovery sleep relative to sleep deprivation with no significant changes in white matter. Exploratory analyses also demonstrated that increases in PCr were associated with increases in electroencephalographic slow wave activity during recovery sleep. No significant changes in β-NTP were observed. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery-induced changes in high-energy phosphates primarily occur in gray matter, and increases in phosphocreatine after recovery sleep may be related to sleep homeostasis. Citation: Plante DT, Trksak GH, Jensen JE, Penetar DM, Ravichandran C, Riedner BA, Tartarini WL, Dorsey CM, Renshaw PF, Lukas SE, Harper DG. Gray matter-specific changes in brain bioenergetics after acute sleep deprivation: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 4 Tesla. SLEEP 2014

  18. Diurnal rhythms in the human urine metabolome during sleep and total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Giskeødegård, Guro F.; Davies, Sarah K.; Revell, Victoria L.; Keun, Hector; Skene, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions. Urine samples were collected over set 2–8 h intervals and analysed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed with respect to both time of day and sleep deprivation. Of 32 identified metabolites, 7 (22%) exhibited cosine rhythmicity over at least one 24 h period; 5 exhibiting a cosine rhythm on both days. Eight metabolites significantly increased during sleep deprivation compared with sleep (taurine, formate, citrate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, carnitine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, TMAO and acetate) and 8 significantly decreased (dimethylamine, 4-DTA, creatinine, ascorbate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, allantoin, 4-DEA, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate). These data indicate that sampling time, the presence or absence of sleep and the response to sleep deprivation are highly relevant when identifying biomarkers in urinary metabolic profiling studies. PMID:26450397

  19. Diurnal rhythms in the human urine metabolome during sleep and total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Giskeødegård, Guro F; Davies, Sarah K; Revell, Victoria L; Keun, Hector; Skene, Debra J

    2015-10-09

    Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions. Urine samples were collected over set 2-8 h intervals and analysed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed with respect to both time of day and sleep deprivation. Of 32 identified metabolites, 7 (22%) exhibited cosine rhythmicity over at least one 24 h period; 5 exhibiting a cosine rhythm on both days. Eight metabolites significantly increased during sleep deprivation compared with sleep (taurine, formate, citrate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, carnitine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, TMAO and acetate) and 8 significantly decreased (dimethylamine, 4-DTA, creatinine, ascorbate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, allantoin, 4-DEA, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate). These data indicate that sampling time, the presence or absence of sleep and the response to sleep deprivation are highly relevant when identifying biomarkers in urinary metabolic profiling studies.

  20. Circadian-Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Persons Who Are Totally Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, R. L.; Blood, M. L.; Hughes, R. J.; Lewy, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the diagnosis and management of "non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome," a form of cyclic insomnia to which people who are totally blind are prone. Covered are incidence and clinical features, formal diagnostic criteria, the biological basis of circadian sleep disorders, circadian rhythms in blind people, pharmacological entrainment, and the…

  1. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  2. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  3. Sleep laboratory studies in periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole.

    PubMed

    Saletu, M.; Anderer, P.; Saletu, B.; Hauer, C.; Mandl, M.; Semler, B.; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G.

    2001-03-01

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) occurs in a variety of sleep disorders and can cause insomnia as well as hypersomnia with daytime somnolence. The aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated PLMD patients as compared with 12 normal controls and to measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a non-ergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In three nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality were evaluated. In the target variable 'periodic leg movements per hour of sleep' (PLM/(hTST)) PLMD patients showed an increased value of 42/h (normal 0-5/h) with a greater number of arousals due to periodic leg movements (PLM) in sleep. They further demonstrated an increased number of awakenings, sleep stage S1, S4, stage shifts and decreased S2, but there were no significant differences concerning total sleep time, sleep efficiency (SE), subjective sleep quality and morning measures of mood, drive and drowsiness. However, measures of attention variability, numerical memory, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were impaired. Ropinirole 0.5 mg was shown to significantly improve the index PLM/(hTST) by 64% and arousals due to PLM, increase spontaneous arousals, REM-latency, stage 2 and stage shifts and decrease SREM. In the morning attention variability was attenuated and numerical memory augmented. Thus, ropinirole improved some sleep architecture and early morning measures of performance but specifically all PLM variables, which suggests a dopaminergic pathogenesis in PLMD. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sleeping under the Ocean: Despite Total Isolation, Nuclear Submariners Maintain Their Sleep and Wake Patterns throughout Their Under Sea Mission

    PubMed Central

    Trousselard, Marion; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Coste, Olivier; Vicard, Arnaud; Pontis, Julien; Crosnier, Sylvain-Nicolas; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the effects of isolation, inadequate exposure to light and specific shift work on the subjective and objective measurements of sleep and alertness of submariners. Purpose A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with the polysomnography recorded twice during the mission. Methods Setting: Shift and night work with prolonged (70 days) social isolation from the real world (with no phone or Internet contact with families or friends during a routine mission aboard the “Téméraire” French Strategic Submarine with Ballistic Nuclear missiles (SSBN). Participants: 19 submariners working on a 24-hour shift for three days in a row schedule. Interventions: The participants attended two polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of night sleep on Day 21 (D21) and Day 51 (D51) of the 70-day patrol; urine cortisol levels were also taken after sleep, and subjective assessments of sleep, sleepiness, mood and anxiety on D21 and D51. The light and temperature on board were also recorded. Results PSG analyses showed that sleep did not significantly vary in length (total sleep time) or in quality between D21 and D51. The mariners reported the same subjective sleep, sleepiness, anxiety or mood (except for a slightly worse score for confusion on D51). Blood cortisol levels did not vary significantly. Conclusions These results show that humans living in an isolated environment for more than two months with this specific shift schedule do not suffer from any significant effects on sleep, sleepiness and confusion between D21 and D51, when they follow an organized regular shift pattern with controlled light and temperature. PMID:26016656

  5. Feedback Blunting: Total Sleep Deprivation Impairs Decision Making that Requires Updating Based on Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Jackson, Melinda L.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To better understand the sometimes catastrophic effects of sleep loss on naturalistic decision making, we investigated effects of sleep deprivation on decision making in a reversal learning paradigm requiring acquisition and updating of information based on outcome feedback. Design: Subjects were randomized to a sleep deprivation or control condition, with performance testing at baseline, after 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (or rested control), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep. Subjects performed a decision task involving initial learning of go and no go response sets followed by unannounced reversal of contingencies, requiring use of outcome feedback for decisions. A working memory scanning task and psychomotor vigilance test were also administered. Setting: Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Subjects: Twenty-six subjects (22–40 y of age; 10 women). Interventions: Thirteen subjects were randomized to a 62-h total sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Results: Unlike controls, sleep deprived subjects had difficulty with initial learning of go and no go stimuli sets and had profound impairment adapting to reversal. Skin conductance responses to outcome feedback were diminished, indicating blunted affective reactions to feedback accompanying sleep deprivation. Working memory scanning performance was not significantly affected by sleep deprivation. And although sleep deprived subjects showed expected attentional lapses, these could not account for impairments in reversal learning decision making. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation is particularly problematic for decision making involving uncertainty and unexpected change. Blunted reactions to feedback while sleep deprived underlie failures to adapt to uncertainty and changing contingencies. Thus, an error may register, but with diminished effect because of reduced affective valence of the feedback

  6. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-08-11

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

  7. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene variants influence antidepressant response to repeated total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Colombo, Cristina; Dallaspezia, Sara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Marino, Elena; Pirovano, Adele; Radaelli, Daniele; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2008-12-12

    5-HT2A receptor density in prefrontal cortex was associated with depression and suicide. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism rs6313 was associated with 5-HT2A receptor binding potential, with the ability of individuals to use environmental support in order to prevent depression, and with sleep improvement after antidepressant treatment with mirtazapine. Studies on response to antidepressant drugs gave inconsistent results. Here we studied the effect of rs6313 on response to repeated total sleep deprivation (TSD) in 80 bipolar depressed inpatients treated with three consecutive TSD cycles (each one made of 36 h awake followed by a night of undisturbed sleep). All genotype groups showed comparable acute effects of the first TSD, but patients homozygotes for the T variant had better perceived and observed benefits from treatment than carriers of the C allele. These effects became significant after the first recovery night and during the following days, leading to a 36% higher final response rate (Hamilton depression rating<8). The higher density of postsynaptic excitatory 5-HT2A receptors in T/T homozygotes could have led to higher behavioural effects of increased 5-HT neurotransmission due to repeated TSD. Other possible mechanisms involve allostatic/homeostatic adaptation to sleep loss, and a different effect of the allele variants on epigenetic influences. Results confirm the interest for individual gene variants of the serotonin pathway in shaping clinical characteristics of depression and antidepressant response.

  8. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    PubMed

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  9. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant’s and the addressee’s perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant’s but not from the addressee’s perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant’s and from the addressee’s perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  10. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  11. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  12. The Acute Effects of Alcohol on Sleep Architecture in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Julia K. M.; Trinder, John; Andrewes, Holly E.; Colrain, Ian M.; Nicholas, Christian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is prevalent in late adolescence, however little is known about its effect on sleep in this group. In mature adults, alcohol decreases sleep onset latency (SOL) and sleep efficiency (SE) and increases wake after sleep onset (WASO). It also increases slow wave sleep (SWS) and decreases REM sleep in the first half of the night, with the inverse occurring in the second half. Alcohol’s effect on sleep during late adolescence is of interest given that this age group shows both dramatic increases in alcohol consumption, and significant developmental changes in the central nervous system. This study examined the effect of alcohol on sleep architecture in women and men aged 18–21 years and whether previously reported sleep architecture effects may have been as an artificial result of changes to sleep cycle length. Methods 24 (12 female) healthy 18–21 year old light social drinkers (19.1±1.0yrs) underwent two conditions: pre-sleep alcohol (Target BAC 0.10%) and placebo administered under controlled conditions, followed by standard polysomnography. Results In the alcohol condition, mean breath alcohol concentration (BAC) at lights out was 0.084 ±0.016%. Time in bed, total sleep time and sleep onset latency (all p>.05) did not differ between conditions. However, there was less REM (p=.011) and more stage 2 sleep (p=.035) in the alcohol condition. Further, alcohol increased SWS (p=.02) and decreased REM sleep (p<.001) in the first half of the night and disrupted sleep in the second half, with increased WASO (interaction: p=.034), and decreased SE (p=.04) and SWS (p=.01) and no REM sleep rebound in the second half of the night (p=.262). Additionally, alcohol had no effect on sleep cycle length (p=.598). Conclusions The results were broadly consistent with the adult literature with the novel extension that half night sleep architecture effects could not be attributed to changes in sleep cycle length. However, alcohol did not reduce SOL, or

  13. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  14. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  15. Post-learning REM sleep deprivation impairs long-term memory: reversal by acute nicotine treatment.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, A M; Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-07-15

    Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) is associated with spatial learning and memory impairment. During REM-SD, an increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by non-smokers have been reported. We have shown recently that nicotine treatment prevented learning and memory impairments associated with REM-SD. We now report the interactive effects of post-learning REM-SD and/or nicotine. The animals were first trained on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, then they were REM-sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform paradigm for 24h. During REM-SD period, the rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1mg/kg s.c. every 12h: a total of 3 injections). The animals were tested for long-term memory in the RAWM at the end of the REM-SD period. The 24h post-learning REM-SD significantly impaired long-term memory. However, nicotine treatment reversed the post-learning REM-SD-induced impairment of long-term memory. On the other hand, post-learning treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24h enhanced long-term memory. These results indicate that post-learning acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of REM-SD on cognitive abilities.

  16. Cognitive deterioration and changes of P300 during total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kim, Leen; Suh, Kwang-Yoon

    2003-10-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the cognitive deteriorations induced by sleep deprivation with the computerized neurocognitive tests and the P300 event-related potential. Thirty healthy college students (22 men, eight women) participated in the present study. Subjects remained awake for 38 h under continuous surveillance. In the morning and the evening of the two study days, the computerized neurocognitive tests and the P300 were performed. In vigilance test and reaction unit test, there were significant cognitive impairments during sleep deprivation. However, in the cognitrone test there was significant functional improvement, which might be due to the practice effect. The P300 latency was significantly prolonged and the amplitudes decreased during sleep deprivation. The cognitive impairment during 38 h of sleep deprivation was mainly in terms of vigilance and reaction time. In contrast, higher complex cognitive function such as fine perceptual analyses, visual discrimination and working memory might be not affected by 38 h of total sleep deprivation. The changes of P300 were significantly correlated with the results of vigilance and reaction unit tests but not with the cognitrone test. Taken together, these results suggest that the P300 changes that occur during sleep deprivation are a reflection of the decrement in vigilance, which prolongs reaction time. PMID:12950703

  17. Functional brain imaging of a complex navigation task following one night of total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Thompson, John H.; Strauss, Monica M.; Marshburn, Thomas H.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the cerebral effects associated with sleep deprivation in a simulation of a complex, real-world, high-risk task. Design and Interventions: A two-week, repeated measures, cross-over experimental protocol, with counterbalanced orders of normal sleep (NS) and total sleep deprivation (TSD). Setting: Each subject underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a dual-joystick, 3D sensorimotor navigation task (simulated orbital docking). Scanning was performed twice per subject, once following a night of normal sleep (NS), and once following a single night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Five runs (eight 24s docking trials each) were performed during each scanning session. Participants: Six healthy, young, right-handed volunteers (2 women; mean age 20) participated. Measurements and Results: Behavioral performance on multiple measures was comparable in the two sleep conditions. Neuroimaging results within sleep conditions revealed similar locations of peak activity for NS and TSD, including left sensorimotor cortex, left precuneus (BA 7), and right visual areas (BA 18/19). However, cerebral activation following TSD was substantially larger and exhibited higher amplitude modulations from baseline. When directly comparing NS and TSD, most regions exhibited TSD>NS activity, including multiple prefrontal cortical areas (BA 8/9,44/45,47), lateral parieto-occipital areas (BA 19/39, 40), superior temporal cortex (BA 22), and bilateral thalamus and amygdala. Only left parietal cortex (BA 7) demonstrated NS>TSD activity. Conclusions: The large network of cerebral differences between the two conditions, even with comparable behavioral performance, suggests the possibility of detecting TSD-induced stress via functional brain imaging techniques on complex tasks before stress-induced failures.

  18. Acute hypotension after total knee arthroplasty and its nursing strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Mei; He, Jie; Zhou, Chang; Li, Yu; Yi, De-Kun; Zhang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors affecting postoperative acute hypotension after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and provide a basis for guiding the clinical prevention. Methods: Between May 2001 and May 2013, a total of 495 patients undergoing routine TKA were analyzed retrospectively. Independent risk factors related to postoperative acute hypotension after TKA were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Of the 495 patients undergoing TKA, 61 (12.32%) developed postoperative acute hypotension after surgery. Univariate analysis showed that preoperative Neu, time of surgery, time of anesthesia, pressure of tourniquet, time of using tourniquet, preoperative hypertension, age and type of surgery were significant influencing factors, whereas by multivariate analysis, only age, pressure of tourniquet and type of surgery were significant influencing factors. Conclusion: Factors those were associated with a significantly increased postoperative acute hypotension after TKA included age, pressure of tourniquet and type of surgery. Achieving a good preoperative and postoperative evaluation and monitoring vital signs and disease change contribute to the detection, intervention and salvage for the acute hypotension. PMID:26550351

  19. Impact of total sleep deprivation on behavioural neural processing of emotionally expressive faces.

    PubMed

    Cote, K A; Mondloch, C J; Sergeeva, V; Taylor, M; Semplonius, T

    2014-05-01

    Sleep deprivation impacts subjective mood states, but very little research has examined the impact on processing emotional information. In the current study, we investigated the impact of total sleep deprivation on neural responses to emotional facial expressions as well as the accuracy and speed with which these faces were categorized. Forty-nine participants completed two tasks in which they were asked to categorize emotional facial expressions as Happy, Sad, Angry, or Fearful. They were shown the 'full' expression of the emotions in one task and more subtle expressions in a second task in which expressions were 'morphed' with neutral faces so that the intensity of emotion varied. It was expected that sleep deprivation would lead to greater reactivity (indexed by larger amplitude N170 event-related potentials), particularly for negative and more subtle facial expressions. In the full face task, sleep-deprived (SD) participants were significantly less accurate than controls (C) at identifying Sad faces and slower to identify all emotional expressions. P1 was smaller and N170 was larger for the SD compared to C group, but for all emotions, indicating generalized impairment in low-level visual processing. In the more difficult morphed face task, SD participants were less accurate than C participants for Sad faces; as well, the group difference in reaction time was greatest for Sad faces. For the SD group, N170 increased in amplitude with increasing perceptual difficulty for the Fearful and Angry faces, but decreased in amplitude with increasing difficulty for Sad faces. These data illustrate that sleep deprivation led to greater neural reactivity for the threat-related negative emotions as they became more subtle; however, there was a failure to engage these perceptual resources for the processing of Sad faces. Sleep loss preferentially impacted the processing of Sad faces; this has widespread implications for sleep-deprived groups.

  20. Performance monitoring following total sleep deprivation: effects of task type and error rate.

    PubMed

    Renn, Ryan P; Cote, Kimberly A

    2013-04-01

    There is a need to understand the neural basis of performance deficits that result from sleep deprivation. Performance monitoring tasks generate response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), generated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) located in the medial surface of the frontal lobe that reflect error processing. The outcome of previous research on performance monitoring during sleepiness has been mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance monitoring in a controlled study of experimental sleep deprivation using a traditional Flanker task, and to broaden this examination using a response inhibition task. Forty-nine young adults (24 male) were randomly assigned to a total sleep deprivation or rested control group. The sleep deprivation group was slower on the Flanker task and less accurate on a Go/NoGo task compared to controls. General attentional impairments were evident in stimulus-locked ERPs for the sleep deprived group: P300 was delayed on Flanker trials and smaller to Go-stimuli. Further, N2 was smaller to NoGo stimuli, and the response-locked ERN was smaller on both tasks, reflecting neurocognitive impairment during performance monitoring. In the Flanker task, higher error rate was associated with smaller ERN amplitudes for both groups. Examination of ERN amplitude over time showed that it attenuated in the rested control group as error rate increased, but such habituation was not apparent in the sleep deprived group. Poor performing sleep deprived individuals had a larger Pe response than controls, possibly indicating perseveration of errors. These data provide insight into the neural underpinnings of performance failure during sleepiness and have implications for workplace and driving safety.

  1. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lubin; Zhai, Tianye; Zou, Feng; Ye, Enmao; Jin, Xiao; Li, Wuju; Qi, Jianlin; Yang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI). Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM) task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN). Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation. PMID:26218521

  2. Acute Sleep Restriction Effects on Emotion Responses in 30- to 36-Month-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebecca H.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers’ emotion expression. Ten healthy children (7 females; 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 hrs time in bed/24 hrs) for 5 days before each of two randomly-assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (5 positive, 3 neutral, 3 negative) and completed puzzles (1 solvable, 1 unsolvable). Children’s faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently “taxes” young children’s emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  3. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems.

  4. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  5. Total Sleep Deprivation Alters Endothelial Function in Rats: A Nonsympathetic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sauvet, Fabien; Florence, Geneviève; Van Beers, Pascal; Drogou, Catherine; Lagrume, Christophe; Chaumes, Cyrielle; Ciret, Sylvain; Leftheriotis, Georges; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep loss is suspected to induce endothelial dysfunction, a key factor in cardiovascular risk. We examined whether sympathetic activity is involved in the endothelial dysfunction caused by total sleep deprivation (TSD). Design: Two groups: TSD (24-h wakefulness), using slowly rotating wheels, and wheel control (WC). Participants: Seven-month-old male Wistar rats. Interventions: Pharmacological sympathectomy (reserpine, 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition (NG-nitro-L-arginine, 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 30 min before experiment) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition (indomethacin, 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 30 min before experiment). Measurements and Results: In protocol 1, changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were continuously recorded in the sympathectomized and non-sympathectomized rats. Blood pressure and HR increased during TSD in non-sympathectomized rats. In protocol 2, changes in skin blood flow (vasodilation) were assessed in the sympathectomized and non-sympathectomized rats using laser-Doppler flowmetry coupled with iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and anodal and cathodal currents. ACh- and cathodal current-induced vasodilations were significantly attenuated after TSD in non-sympathectomized and sympathectomized rats (51% and 60%, respectively). In protocol 3, ACh-induced vasodilation was attenuated after NOS and COX inhibition (66% and 49%, respectively). Cathodal current-induced vasodilation decreased by 40% after COX inhibition. In TSD compared to WC a decrease in ACh-induced vasodilation was still observed after COX inhibition. No changes in SNP- and anodal current-induced vasodilation were detected. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that total sleep deprivation induces a reduction in endothelial-dependent vasodilation. This endothelial dysfunction is independent of blood pressure and sympathetic activity but associated with nitric oxide synthase and

  6. Effect of Acute Intermittent CPAP Depressurization during Sleep in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jonathan C.; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) describes intermittent collapse of the airway during sleep, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often prescribed for treatment. Prior studies suggest that discontinuation of CPAP leads to a gradual, rather than immediate return of baseline severity of OSA. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of OSA recurrence during short intervals of CPAP depressurization during sleep. Methods Nine obese (BMI = 40.4 ± 3.5) subjects with severe OSA (AHI = 88.9 ± 6.8) adherent to CPAP were studied during one night in the sleep laboratory. Nasal CPAP was delivered at therapeutic (11.1 ± 0.6 cm H20) or atmospheric pressure, in alternating fashion for 1-hour periods during the night. We compared sleep architecture and metrics of OSA during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods. Results 8/9 subjects tolerated CPAP withdrawal. The average AHI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods was 3.6 ± 0.6 and 15.8 ± 3.6 respectively (p<0.05). The average 3% ODI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off was 4.7 ± 2 and 20.4 ± 4.7 respectively (p<0.05). CPAP depressurization also induced more awake (p<0.05) and stage N1 (p<0.01) sleep, and less stage REM (p<0.05) with a trend towards decreased stage N3 (p = 0.064). Conclusion Acute intermittent depressurization of CPAP during sleep led to deterioration of sleep architecture but only partial re-emergence of OSA. These observations suggest carryover effects of CPAP. PMID:26731735

  7. The acute effects of twenty-four hours of sleep loss on the performance of national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Blumert, Peter A; Crum, Aaron J; Ernsting, Mark; Volek, Jeff S; Hollander, Daniel B; Haff, Erin E; Haff, G Gregory

    2007-11-01

    Currently, the degree to which sleep loss influences weightlifting performance is unknown. This study compared the effects of 24 hours of sleep loss on weightlifting performance and subjective ratings of psychological states pre-exercise and postexercise in national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters. Nine males performed a maximal weightlifting protocol following 24 hours of sleep loss and a night of normal sleep. The subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced design with each sleep condition separated by 7 days. Testosterone and cortisol levels were quantified prior to, immediately after, and 1 hour after the resistance training session. Additionally, profile of mood states and subjective sleepiness were evaluated at the same time points. The resistance training protocol consisted of several sets of snatches, clean and jerks, and front squats. Performance was evaluated as individual exercise volume load, training intensity and overall workout volume load, and training intensity. During each training session the maximum weight lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and front squat were noted. No significant differences were found for any of the performance variables. A significant decrease following the sleep condition was noted for cortisol concentration immediately after and 1 hour postexercise. Vigor, fatigue, confusion, total mood disturbance, and sleepiness were all significantly altered by sleep loss. These data suggest that 24 hours of sleep loss has no adverse effects on weightlifting performance. If an athlete is in an acute period of sleep loss, as noticed by negative mood disturbances, it may be more beneficial to focus on the psychological (motivation) rather than the physiological aspect of the sport.

  8. Acute and subchronic administration of anandamide or oleamide increases REM sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Vásquez, Khalil Guzmán; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-03-01

    Anandamide and oleamide, induce sleep when administered acutely, via the CB1 receptor. Their subchronic administration must be tested to demonstrate the absence of tolerance to this effect, and that the sudden withdrawal of these endocannabinoids (eCBs) does not affect sleep negatively. The sleep-waking cycle of rats was evaluated for 24h, under the effect of an acute or subchronic administration of eCBs, and during sudden eCBs withdrawal. AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist (CB1Ra) was utilized to block eCBs effects. Our results indicated that both acute and subchronic administration of eCBs increase REMS. During eCBs withdrawal, rats lack the expression of an abstinence-like syndrome. AM251 was efficacious to prevent REMS increase caused by both acute and subchronic administration of these eCBs, suggesting that this effect is mediated by the CB1 receptor. Our data further support a role of the eCBs in REMS regulation.

  9. Failure to find executive function deficits following one night's total sleep deprivation in university students under naturalistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Hutcherson, Cendri A; Bemporad, Brenda; Morgan, Alexandra; Kumar, Arjun; Hobson, J Allan; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Young adult male students participated in a naturalistic, group-design experiment to ascertain the effects of one night's total sleep deprivation (TSD) on performance of diverse executive function tasks presented as an extended, multitask battery. On the majority of component tasks in this battery, performance has been reported to be impaired following one night's TSD when tasks are administered in isolation. However, participants sleep deprived 35 to 39 hr showed few performance deficits among tests in this battery when compared with non-sleep-deprived controls. Sleep-deprived participants showed only poorer recognition memory and overconfidence in incorrect temporal judgments. Behavioral and physiological adaptation to chronically sleep-restricting lifestyles may confer resistance to the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation in high-functioning young adults. PMID:19568965

  10. Morning pentraxin3 levels reflect obstructive sleep apnea–related acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kobukai, Yusuke; Koyama, Takashi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated morning levels of pentraxin3 (PTX3) as a sensitive biomarker for acute inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with OSA were divided into two groups: non-to-mild (n = 20) and moderate-to-severe (n = 41) OSA based on their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score. Those patients with moderate-to-severe OSA were further divided into continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treated (n = 21) and non-CPAP-treated (n = 20) groups. Morning and evening serum PTX3 and high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP therapy. The baseline hs-CRP and PTX3 levels were higher in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with non-to-mild OSA. Moreover, the serum PTX3 levels, but not the hs-CRP levels, were significantly higher after than before sleep in the moderate-to-severe OSA group (morning PTX3, 1.96 ± 0.52; evening PTX3, 1.71 ± 0.44 ng/ml). OSA severity as judged using the AHI was significantly correlated with serum PTX3 levels but not hs-CRP levels. The highest level of correlation was found between the AHI and morning PTX3 levels (r = 0.563, P < 0.001). CPAP therapy reduced evening and morning serum hs-CRP and PTX3 levels in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA; however, the reduction in PTX3 levels in the morning was greater than that in the evening (morning −29.8 ± 16.7% vs. evening −12.6 ± 26.8%, P = 0.029). Improvement in the AHI score following CPAP therapy was strongly correlated with reduced morning PTX3 levels(r = 0.727, P < 0.001). Based on these results, morning PTX3 levels reflect OSA-related acute inflammation and are a useful marker for improvement in OSA following CPAP therapy. PMID:25237185

  11. The effect of acute discontinuation of total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Wagman, L D; Newsome, H H; Miller, K B; Thomas, R B; Weir, G C

    1986-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of acute discontinuation (AD) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels and on the generation of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Fifty studies were performed in 48 patients. In none of the 30 studies of 1 hour duration nor in the 20 studies of 8 hours duration was there a single episode of symptomatic hypoglycemia. One patient had a glucose below normal (60 mg/dl) during the first hour after AD. Glucose and insulin concentrations were elevated at the start of TPN discontinuation but returned to normal values within 60 minutes and remained there during the successive 7 hours of study. Although glucagon levels were slightly elevated at zero time, no significant decrease occurred. There was no evidence for counter-regulation based on the patterns of glucose and hormone levels. With some restrictions, acute discontinuation is a safe, rapid method of ending a prolonged TPN infusion. PMID:3094465

  12. Excess diuresis and natriuresis during acute sleep deprivation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstroem, Soren; Radvanska, Eva; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2010-08-01

    The transition from wakefulness to sleep is associated with a pronounced decline in diuresis, a necessary physiological process that allows uninterrupted sleep. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of acute sleep deprivation (SD) on urine output and renal water, sodium, and solute handling in healthy young volunteers. Twenty young adults (10 male) were recruited for two 24-h studies under standardized dietary conditions. During one of the two admissions, subjects were deprived of sleep. Urine output, electrolyte excretions, and osmolar excretions were calculated. Activated renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in plasma, whereas prostaglandin E(2) and melatonin were measured in urine. SD markedly increased the diuresis and led to excess renal sodium excretion. The effect was more pronounced in men who shared significantly higher diuresis levels during SD compared with women. Renal water handling and arginine vasopressin levels remained unaltered during SD, but the circadian rhythm of the hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was significantly affected. Urinary melatonin and prostaglandin E(2) excretion levels were comparable between SD and baseline night. Hemodynamic changes were characterized by the attenuation of nocturnal blood pressure dipping and an increase in creatinine clearance. Acute deprivation of sleep induces natriuresis and osmotic diuresis, leading to excess nocturnal urine production, especially in men. Hemodynamic changes during SD may, through renal and hormonal processes, be responsible for these observations. Sleep architecture disturbances should be considered in clinical settings with nocturnal polyuria such as enuresis in children and nocturia in adults.

  13. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  14. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic cardiovascular modulation in normal humans with acute sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xu; Hilton, H John; Gates, Gregory J; Jelic, Sanja; Stern, Yaakov; Bartels, Matthew N; Demeersman, Ronald E; Basner, Robert C

    2005-06-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic modulation during 36 h of total sleep deprivation (SD) was assessed in 18 normal subjects (16 men, 2 women, 26.0 +/- 4.6 yr old). ECG and continuous blood pressure (BP) from radial artery tonometry were obtained at 2100 on the first study night (baseline) and every subsequent 12 h of SD. Each measurement period included resting supine, seated, and seated performing computerized tasks and measured vigilance and executive function. Subjects were not supine in the periods between measurements. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and BP variability (BPV) was computed for cardiac parasympathetic modulation [high-frequency power (HF)], sympathetic modulation [low-frequency power (LF)], sympathovagal balance (LF/HF power of R-R variability), and BPV sympathetic modulation (at LF). All spectral data were expressed in normalized units [(total power of the components/total power-very LF) x 100]. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), based on systolic BP and pulse interval powers, was also measured. Supine and sitting, BPV LF was significantly increased from baseline at 12, 24, and 36 h of SD. Sitting, HRV LF was increased at 12 and 24 h of SD, HRV HF was decreased at 12 h SD, and HRV LF/HF power of R-R variability was increased at 12 h of SD. BRS was decreased at 24 h of SD supine and seated. During the simple reaction time task (vigilance testing), the significantly increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic cardiac modulation and BRS extended through 36 h of SD. In summary, acute SD was associated with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic cardiovascular modulation and decreased BRS, most consistently in the seated position and during simple reaction-time testing.

  15. The acute effects of light on murine sleep during the dark phase: importance of melanopsin for maintenance of light-induced sleep

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Fanuel; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Colas, Damien; Heller, H. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Light exerts a direct effect on sleep and wakefulness in nocturnal and diurnal animals, with a light pulse during the dark phase suppressing locomotor activity and promoting sleep in the former. In the present study, we investigated this direct effect of light on various sleep parameters by exposing mice to a broad range of illuminances (0.2–200 μW/cm2; equivalent to 1–1000 lux) for 1 h during the dark phase (zeitgeber time 13–14). Fitting the data with a three-parameter log model indicated that ~0.1 μW/cm2 can generate half the sleep response observed at 200 μW/cm2. We observed decreases in total sleep time during the 1 h following the end of the light pulse. Light reduced the latency to sleep from ~30 min in darkness (baseline) to ~10 min at the highest intensity, although this effect was invariant across the light intensities used. We then assessed the role of melanopsin during the rapid transition from wakefulness to sleep at the onset of a light pulse and the maintenance of sleep with a 6-h 20 μW/cm2 light pulse. Even though the melanopsin knockout mice had robust induction of sleep (~35 min) during the first hour of the pulse, it was not maintained. Total sleep decreased by almost 65% by the third hour in comparison with the first hour of the pulse in mice lacking melanopsin, whereas only an 8% decrease was observed in wild-type mice. Collectively, our findings highlight the selective effects of light on murine sleep, and suggest that melanopsin-based photoreception is primarily involved in sustaining light-induced sleep. PMID:23510299

  16. The effects of total sleep deprivation on semantic priming: event-related potential evidence for automatic and controlled processing strategies.

    PubMed

    López Zunini, Rocío; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    There is general consensus that performance on a number of cognitive tasks deteriorates following total sleep deprivation. At times, however, subjects manage to maintain performance. This may be because of an ability to switch cognitive strategies including the exertion of compensatory effort. The present study examines the effects of total sleep deprivation on a semantic word priming task. Word priming is unique because it can be carried out using different strategies involving either automatic, effortless or controlled, effortful processing. Twelve subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target, that were either highly semantically associated (cat…dog), weakly associated (cow…barn) or unassociated (apple…road). In order to increase the probability of the use of controlled processing following normal sleep, the subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically related to the prime. Furthermore, the time between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target was relatively long, permitting the use of an effortful, expectancy-predictive strategy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 64 electrode sites. After normal sleep, RTs were faster and accuracy higher to highly associated targets; this performance advantage was also maintained following sleep deprivation. A large negative deflection, the N400, was larger to weakly associated and unassociated targets in both sleep-deprived and normal conditions. The overall N400 was however larger in the normal sleep condition. Moreover, a long-lasting negative slow wave developed between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target. These physiological measures are consistent with the use of an effortful, predictive strategy following normal sleep but an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. A picture priming task was also run. This task benefits less from the use of a predictive strategy. Accordingly, in this task, ERPs following the

  17. Total sleep time in Muslim football players is reduced during Ramadan: a pilot study on the standardized assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan is a period in which Muslims fast during daylight hours and is associated with disturbances in sleep-wake behaviour and adverse effects on physical and mental health in normal volunteers. Studies using athletes are rare and remain equivocal as to whether Ramadan influences sleep-wake patterns. Notably, the standardized assessment of subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in athletes has not been established. This study employed the Arabic version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale in nine football players aged 20-35 years (mean ± s: 26 ± 4) one week before and during the last week of Ramadan. Compliance rates with self-administration were high (71%) and the results demonstrated a robust decline in total sleep time (before Ramadan: 6.6 ± 2 h; at the end of Ramadan: 5.3 ± 1 h; P < 0.05, effect size 0.81). Compared with previous research, the study questionnaires offer improved methodology, including less time constraints plus standardization in scoring. Thus, this study demonstrates a framework for greater reproducibility and reliability in the assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes before and during Ramadan.

  18. Acute psychosis associated with dissociated sleep-wakefulness state after mirtazapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R; Wenger, Philip J; Hoevet, Rod

    2010-04-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants decrease rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and may suppress sleep atonia. Reports indicate that these agents can induce visual hallucinations, sometimes characterized as hypnopompic or associated with a dissociated sleep-wakefulness state. In addition, disturbing dreams and confusional states were reported during clinical trials and in subsequent studies. To our knowledge, only two cases of nightmares associated with mirtazapine, a tetracyclic antidepressant, have been previously reported. We describe a 43-year-old Caucasian man with major depressive disorder who started mirtazapine 15 mg at bedtime because he had poor symptom control with other antidepressant drugs. Three days later, vivid dream activity was noted, evolving into realistic nightmares that the patient was not able to distinguish from reality on awakening. Acute paranoia was suspected, and haloperidol was started. The dream activity then ended, and within 3 days the patient was able to identify the dreams as unreality. Haloperidol was discontinued, but mirtazapine was continued, and the vivid dream activity persisted; however, reality testing when awake was intact. A short course of haloperidol restored the patient's reality testing, and mirtazapine was eventually replaced with bupropion. The unusual nocturnal activity resolved as a result. Clinicians should be aware of the possible transition from exceptionally vivid dreams to REM sleep behavior disorder and psychosis based on dream content as an adverse effect of mirtazapine.

  19. Acute changes in sleep duration on eating behaviors and appetite-regulating hormones in overweight/obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Chantelle N.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Demos, Kathryn E.; Van Reen, Eliza; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Considine, Robert V.; Jones, Richard N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the role of sleep in weight regulation, yet few studies have examined this relationship in overweight/obese (OW/OB) adults. Using a within-subject, counterbalanced design, 12 OW/OB women were studied in lab with two nights of short (5 hours time in bed [TIB]) and two nights of long (9 hours TIB) sleep. Hunger, consumption at a buffet, and fasting hormone levels were obtained. Significant polysomnographic differences occurred between conditions in total sleep time and sleep architecture (p's < .001). Percent energy from protein at the buffet increased following short sleep. No differences were observed for total energy intake or measured hormones. Further research is needed to determine how lengthening sleep impacts weight regulation in OW/OB adults. PMID:25105727

  20. Prevention by Regular Exercise of Acute Sleep Deprivation-Induced Impairment of Late Phase LTP and Related Signaling Molecules in the Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Zagaar, Munder A; Dao, An T; Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2016-07-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 regions of the hippocampus are intimately related physically and functionally, yet they react differently to insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of regular treadmill exercise on late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the DG region of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats ran on treadmills for 4 weeks then were acutely sleep deprived for 24 h using the modified multiple platform method. After sleep deprivation, the rats were anesthetized and L-LTP was induced in the DG region. Extracellular field potentials from the DG were recorded in vivo, and levels of L-LTP-related signaling proteins were assessed both before and after L-LTP expression using immunoblot analysis. Sleep deprivation reduced the basal levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) as well as other upstream modulators including calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the DG of the hippocampus. Regular exercise prevented impairment of the basal levels of P-CREB and total CREB as well as those of CaMKIV in sleep-deprived animals. Furthermore, regular exercise prevented sleep deprivation-induced inhibition of L-LTP and post-L-LTP downregulation of P-CREB and BDNF levels in the DG. The current findings show that our exercise regimen prevents sleep deprivation-induced deficits in L-LTP as well as the basal and poststimulation levels of key signaling molecules. PMID:25902862

  1. Acute Optogenetic Silencing of Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons Induces Slow-Wave Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Kilduff, Thomas S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Takahashi, Satoru; Tominaga, Makoto; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Orexin/hypocretin neurons have a crucial role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. To help determine how these neurons promote wakefulness, we generated transgenic mice in which orexin neurons expressed halorhodopsin (orexin/Halo mice), an orange light-activated neuronal silencer. Slice patch-clamp recordings of orexin neurons that expressed halorhodopsin demonstrated that orange light photic illumination immediately hyperpolarized membrane potential and inhibited orexin neuron discharge in proportion to illumination intensity. Acute silencing of orexin neurons in vivo during the day (the inactive period) induced synchronization of the electroencephalogram and a reduction in amplitude of the electromyogram that is characteristic of slow-wave sleep (SWS). In contrast, orexin neuron photoinhibition was ineffective during the night (active period). Acute photoinhibition of orexin neurons during the day in orexin/Halo mice also reduced discharge of neurons in an orexin terminal field, the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus. However, serotonergic DR neurons exhibited normal discharge rates in mice lacking orexin neurons. Thus, although usually highly dependent on orexin neuronal activity, serotonergic DR neuronal activity can be regulated appropriately in the chronic absence of orexin input. Together, these results demonstrate that acute inhibition of orexin neurons results in time-of-day-dependent induction of SWS and in reduced firing rate of neurons in an efferent projection site thought to be involved in arousal state regulation. The results presented here advance our understanding of the role of orexin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and may be relevant to the mechanisms that underlie symptom progression in narcolepsy. PMID:21775598

  2. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A.; Vincent, Grace E.; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters’ acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Methods Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. Results The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Conclusion Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters’ IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters’ IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons. PMID:26378783

  3. Benefits of napping and an extended duration of recovery sleep on alertness and immune cells after acute sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Faraut, Brice; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Dyzma, Michal; Rousseau, Alexandre; David, Elodie; Stenuit, Patricia; Franck, Thierry; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Kerkhofs, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between sleep and the immune system may offer insight into why short sleep duration has been linked to negative health outcomes. We, therefore, investigated the effects of napping and extended recovery sleep after sleep restriction on the immune and inflammatory systems and sleepiness. After a baseline night, healthy young men slept for a 2-h night followed by either a standard 8-h recovery night (n=12), a 30-min nap (at 1 p.m.) in addition to an 8-h recovery night (n=10), or a 10-h extended recovery night (n=9). A control group slept 3 consecutive 8-h nights (n=9). Subjects underwent continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography and blood was sampled every day at 7 a.m. Leukocytes, inflammatory and atherogenesis biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, fibrinogen and apolipoproteins ApoB/ApoA), sleep patterns and sleepiness were investigated. All parameters remained unchanged in the control group. After sleep restriction, leukocyte and - among leukocyte subsets - neutrophil counts were increased, an effect that persisted after the 8-h recovery sleep, but, in subjects who had a nap or a 10-h recovery sleep, these values returned nearly to baseline. Inflammatory and atherogenesis biomarkers were unchanged except for higher myeloperoxidase levels after sleep restriction. The increased sleepiness after sleep restriction was reversed better in the nap and extended sleep recovery conditions. Saliva cortisol decreased immediately after the nap. Our results indicate that additional recovery sleep after sleep restriction provided by a midday nap prior to recovery sleep or a sleep extended night can improve alertness and return leukocyte counts to baseline values.

  4. [Acute forearm compartment syndrome after total arch replacement].

    PubMed

    Kigawa, Ikutaro; Miyairi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Satona; Unai, Shinya; Miura, Sumio; Ohno, Takayuki; Fukuda, Sachito; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2011-06-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with shortness of breath and was found to have moderate aortic regurgitation with annulo-aortic ectasia and an aneurysm involving the aortic arch. She underwent Bentall operation and total arch replacement with a branched prosthesis. The patient developed hypesthesia and paresis of the left forearm one day after the surgery. Computed tomography revealed complete occlusion of the left subclavian artery (LSA). An emergency operation was performed 15 hours after the initial operation. A new bypass graft to the axillary artery was placed since the LSA was occluded by the wide arterial dissection. However, her left forearm showed rapid swelling within a few hours. Under the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the forearm, emergency decompression fasciotomy was performed. She was discharged with a mild dysfunction of her forearm and hand 40 days after the operation. The rapid progression of ACS was thought to have been associated with not only the severe and prolonged ischemia but also the venous obstruction caused by the ligation of left brachiocephalic vein during the initial operation. Immediate and complete decompression, including the deep compartment of the forearm, was essential to achieve a full functional recovery from ACS.

  5. Sleep disordered breathing and post-discharge mortality in patients with acute heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Rami; Jarjoura, David; Porter, Kyle; Sow, Angela; Wannemacher, Jacob; Dohar, Robert; Pleister, Adam; Abraham, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospitalizations for heart failure are associated with a high post-discharge risk for mortality. Identification of modifiable predictors of post-discharge mortality during hospitalization may improve outcome. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is the most common co-morbidity in heart failure patients. Design, setting, and participants Prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (AHF) in a single academic heart hospital. Between January 2007 and December 2010, all patients hospitalized with AHF who have left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 45% and were not already diagnosed with SDB were the target population. Main outcomes and measures Patients underwent in-hospital attended polygraphy testing for SDB and were followed for a median of 3 years post-discharge. Mortality was recorded using national and state vital statistics databases. Results During the study period, 1117 hospitalized AHF patients underwent successful sleep testing. Three hundred and forty-four patients (31%) had central sleep apnoea (CSA), 525(47%) patients had obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and 248 had no or minimal SDB (nmSDB). Of those, 1096 patients survived to discharge and were included in the mortality analysis. Central sleep apnoea was independently associated with mortality. The multivariable hazard ratio (HR) for time to death for CSA vs. nmSDB was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4, P = 0.02). Obstructive sleep apnoea was also independently associated with mortality with a multivariable HR vs. nmSDB of 1.53 (CI: 1.1, 2.2, P = 0.02). The Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for the following covariates: LVEF, age, BMI, sex, race, creatinine, diabetes, type of cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, discharge systolic blood pressure <110, hypertension, discharge medications, initial length of stay, admission sodium, haemoglobin, and BUN. Conclusions This is the largest study to date to evaluate the effect of SDB on post

  6. Acute nicotine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rat.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity.

  7. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD) due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM), a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not) to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks’ placebo run-in, 6 weeks’ randomized (1:1) PRM (Circadin®) or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks’ placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5), and safety. Results Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: −14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82) meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92) and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and latency tended to decrease during PRM but not placebo treatment. The potentially beneficial effects of PRM persisted during the 2 weeks of discontinuation period, consistent with clock stabilizing effects. PRM was well-tolerated, adverse

  8. Exploring Sleep-Wake Experiences of Mothers during Maintenance Therapy for Their Child’s Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Madalynn; Matthews, Ellyn; King, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was designed to explore sleep-wake experience of mothers of children in maintenance treatment for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. Interviews were conducted with 20 participants using open-ended, semi-structured questions and were transcribed verbatim. Two main themes emerged: “It’s a whole new cancer world” and “I don’t remember what it’s like to have sleep.” Mothers experience difficulty sleeping during their children’s treatment, and expressed several serious issues. Although the mothers were able to employ various mechanisms to address sleep deprivation and disruption, interventions such as social support, journaling, spiritual guidance, and/or self-talk may be most beneficial. PMID:24486174

  9. Total ginsenosides synergize with ulinastatin against septic acute lung injury and acute respir atory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongju; Li, Yana; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Li, Tanshi

    2015-01-01

    Total ginsenosides synergize with ulinastatin (UTI) against septic acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We randomly divided 80 cases of severe sepsis-induced ALI and ARDS into a UTI group and a ginsenosides (GS)+UTI group. Continuous electrocardiac monitoring of pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and heart rate; invasive hemodynamic monitoring; ventilator-assisted breathing and circulation support; and anti-infection as well as UTI treatment were given in the UTI group with GS treatment added for 7 consecutive days in the GS+UTI group. The indicators of pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary circulation, blood gases, and hemodynamics as well as APACHE II and ALI scores were detected on days 1, 3, and 7. The ALI score in the GS+UTI group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with that of the UTI group, and the indicators of pulmonary capillary permeability such as pulmonary vascular permeability index, extravascular lung water index, and oxygenation index, in the GS+UTI group improved significantly more than that of the UTI group. The indicators of hemodynamics and pulmonary circulation such as cardiac index, intrathoracic blood volume index, and central venous pressure improved significantly (P < 0.05), and the APACHE II score in the GS+UTI group was lower than that of the UTI group. GS can effectively collaborate with UTI against ALI and/or ARDS. PMID:26261640

  10. Total ginsenosides synergize with ulinastatin against septic acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongju; Li, Yana; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Li, Tanshi

    2015-01-01

    Total ginsenosides synergize with ulinastatin (UTI) against septic acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We randomly divided 80 cases of severe sepsis-induced ALI and ARDS into a UTI group and a ginsenosides (GS)+UTI group. Continuous electrocardiac monitoring of pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and heart rate; invasive hemodynamic monitoring; ventilator-assisted breathing and circulation support; and anti-infection as well as UTI treatment were given in the UTI group with GS treatment added for 7 consecutive days in the GS+UTI group. The indicators of pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary circulation, blood gases, and hemodynamics as well as APACHE II and ALI scores were detected on days 1, 3, and 7. The ALI score in the GS+UTI group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with that of the UTI group, and the indicators of pulmonary capillary permeability such as pulmonary vascular permeability index, extravascular lung water index, and oxygenation index, in the GS+UTI group improved significantly more than that of the UTI group. The indicators of hemodynamics and pulmonary circulation such as cardiac index, intrathoracic blood volume index, and central venous pressure improved significantly (P < 0.05), and the APACHE II score in the GS+UTI group was lower than that of the UTI group. GS can effectively collaborate with UTI against ALI and/or ARDS.

  11. Short-term total sleep deprivation alters delay-conditioned memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shweta; Jha, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    Short-term sleep deprivation soon after training may impair memory consolidation. Also, a particular sleep stage or its components increase after learning some tasks, such as negative and positive reinforcement tasks, avoidance tasks, and spatial learning tasks, and so forth. It suggests that discrete memory types may require specific sleep stage or its components for their optimal processing. The classical conditioning paradigms are widely used to study learning and memory but the role of sleep in a complex conditioned learning is unclear. Here, we have investigated the effects of short-term sleep deprivation on the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory and the changes in sleep architecture after conditioning. Rats were trained for the delay-conditioned task (for conditioning, house-light [conditioned stimulus] was paired with fruit juice [unconditioned stimulus]). Animals were divided into 3 groups: (a) sleep deprived (SD); (b) nonsleep deprived (NSD); and (c) stress control (SC) groups. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between groups and days (training and testing) during the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus presentation. Further, Tukey post hoc comparison revealed that the NSD and SC animals exhibited significant increase in performances during testing. The SD animals, however, performed significantly less during testing. Further, we observed that wakefulness and NREM sleep did not change after training and testing. Interestingly, REM sleep increased significantly on both days compared to baseline more specifically during the initial 4-hr time window after conditioning. Our results suggest that the consolidation of delay-conditioned memory is sleep-dependent and requires augmented REM sleep during an explicit time window soon after training. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26890247

  12. The effects of total and REM sleep deprivation on laser-evoked potential threshold and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Eduardo; Manzano, Gilberto M; Silva, Andressa; Martins, Raquel; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the effects of total and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on the thermal nociceptive threshold and pain perception using the objective laser-evoked potential (LEP) and the subjective visual analogue scale (VAS). Twenty-eight male adult volunteers were assigned into Control (CTRL), Total (T-SD), and REM (REM-SD) Sleep Deprivation groups. The T-SD and REM-SD volunteers were totally or selectively deprived of sleep for 2 and 4 consecutive nights, respectively. Pain parameters were measured daily during the experimental period. Volunteers were stimulated on the back of the hand by blocks of 50 diode laser pulses. Intensities increased between successive blocks, ranging from nonnoxious to noxious levels, and the LEP threshold was identified based on the evoked-response onset. Both the LEP threshold and VAS ratings were significantly increased after the second night of T-SD. No significant variations were observed in the REM-SD group, suggesting a predominant role for slow wave sleep rather than selective REM-SD in pain perception. Also, for both sleep-deprived groups, the mean values of the LEP threshold and VAS ratings showed a gradual increase that was proportional to the SD deprivation time, followed by a decrease after 1 night of sleep restoration. These findings demonstrate a hyperalgesic modification to pain perception (as reflected by the augmented VAS) and a concomitant increase in the LEP threshold following T-SD, an apparently contradictory effect that can be explained by differences in the ways that attention affects these pain measurements.

  13. Effect of acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Rezaie, Somayeh; Pouresmail, Zahra; Cherati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this three-group double-blind clinical trial study was to investigate the effect of acupressure ( zhǐ yā) with valerian ( xié cǎo) oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a coronary intensive care unit (CCU). This study was conducted on 90 patients with ACS in Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) during 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% group (i.e., valerian acupressure group) received bilateral acupoint ( xué wèi) massage with two drops of valerian oil for 2 minutes for three nights; including every point this treatment lasted in total 18 minutes. Patients in the acupressure group received massage at the same points with the same technique but without valerian oil. Patients in the control group received massage at points that were 1-1.5 cm from the main points using the same technique and for the same length of time. The quality and quantity of the patients' sleep was measured by the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire (SMHSQ). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between sleep quality and sleep quantity in the patients in the valerian acupressure group and the acupressure group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Patients that received acupressure with valerian oil experienced improved sleep quality; however, this difference was not statistically significant in comparison to the acupressure only group. Acupressure at the ear spirit gate ( shén mén), hand Shenmen, glabella ( yìn táng), Wind Pool ( fēng chí), and Gushing Spring ( yǒng quán) acupoints can have therapeutic effects and may improve the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with ACS. Using these techniques in combination with herbal medicines such valerian oil can have a greater impact on improving sleep and reducing waking during the night. PMID:26587395

  14. Effect of acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Rezaie, Somayeh; Pouresmail, Zahra; Cherati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this three-group double-blind clinical trial study was to investigate the effect of acupressure (指壓 zhǐ yā) with valerian (纈草 xié cǎo) oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a coronary intensive care unit (CCU). This study was conducted on 90 patients with ACS in Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) during 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% group (i.e., valerian acupressure group) received bilateral acupoint (穴位 xué wèi) massage with two drops of valerian oil for 2 minutes for three nights; including every point this treatment lasted in total 18 minutes. Patients in the acupressure group received massage at the same points with the same technique but without valerian oil. Patients in the control group received massage at points that were 1–1.5 cm from the main points using the same technique and for the same length of time. The quality and quantity of the patients' sleep was measured by the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire (SMHSQ). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between sleep quality and sleep quantity in the patients in the valerian acupressure group and the acupressure group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Patients that received acupressure with valerian oil experienced improved sleep quality; however, this difference was not statistically significant in comparison to the acupressure only group. Acupressure at the ear spirit gate (神門 shén mén), hand Shenmen, glabella (印堂 yìn táng), Wind Pool (風池 fēng chí), and Gushing Spring (湧泉 yǒng quán) acupoints can have therapeutic effects and may improve the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with ACS. Using these techniques in combination with herbal medicines such valerian oil can have a greater impact on improving sleep and reducing waking during the night. PMID:26587395

  15. Effect of acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Gorji, Mohammad Ali Heidari; Rezaie, Somayeh; Pouresmail, Zahra; Cherati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this three-group double-blind clinical trial study was to investigate the effect of acupressure ( zhǐ yā) with valerian ( xié cǎo) oil 2.5% on the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a coronary intensive care unit (CCU). This study was conducted on 90 patients with ACS in Mazandaran Heart Center (Sari, Iran) during 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Patients in the acupressure with valerian oil 2.5% group (i.e., valerian acupressure group) received bilateral acupoint ( xué wèi) massage with two drops of valerian oil for 2 minutes for three nights; including every point this treatment lasted in total 18 minutes. Patients in the acupressure group received massage at the same points with the same technique but without valerian oil. Patients in the control group received massage at points that were 1-1.5 cm from the main points using the same technique and for the same length of time. The quality and quantity of the patients' sleep was measured by the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire (SMHSQ). After the intervention, there was a significant difference between sleep quality and sleep quantity in the patients in the valerian acupressure group and the acupressure group, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Patients that received acupressure with valerian oil experienced improved sleep quality; however, this difference was not statistically significant in comparison to the acupressure only group. Acupressure at the ear spirit gate ( shén mén), hand Shenmen, glabella ( yìn táng), Wind Pool ( fēng chí), and Gushing Spring ( yǒng quán) acupoints can have therapeutic effects and may improve the quality and quantity of sleep in patients with ACS. Using these techniques in combination with herbal medicines such valerian oil can have a greater impact on improving sleep and reducing waking during the night.

  16. Sleep allostasis in chronic sleep restriction: the role of the norepinephrine system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngsoo; Chen, Lichao; McCarley, Robert W.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction may be very different from those observed after acute total sleep deprivation. Specifically, when sleep restriction is repeated for several consecutive days, animals express attenuated compensatory increases in sleep time and intensity during daily sleep opportunities. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these adaptive, or more specifically, allostatic, changes in sleep homeostasis are unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that norepinephrine may play a key role in modulating arousal states and NREM EEG delta power, which is widely recognized as a marker for sleep intensity. Therefore, we investigated time course changes in brain adrenergic receptor mRNA levels in response to chronic sleep restriction using a rat model. Here, we observed that significantly altered mRNA levels of the α1- adrenergic receptor in the basal forebrain as well as α2- and β1-adrenergic receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex only on the first sleep restriction day. On the other hand, the frontal cortex α1-, α2-, and β1- adrenergic receptor mRNA levels were reduced throughout the period of sleep restriction. Combined with our earlier findings on EEG that sleep time and intensity significantly increased only on the first sleep restriction days, these results suggest that alterations in the brain norepinephrine system in the basal forebrain and cingulate cortex may mediate allostatic changes in sleep time and intensity observed during chronic sleep restriction. PMID:23916734

  17. Effects of mirtazapine on sleep polygraphic variables in major depression.

    PubMed

    Schittecatte, Michel; Dumont, Françoise; Machowski, Robert; Cornil, Catherine; Lavergne, Francis; Wilmotte, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Mirtazapine, a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant(NaSSA), was administered on a flexible schedule in a sample of 17 drug-free patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode. Sleep polygraphic recordings were performed before and during acute and chronic treatment. Severity of depression and subjective assessment of changes within different aspects of sleep were also evaluated. During the acute administration (first 2 days), mirtazapine significantly increased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, stage II, stage rapid eye movement and slow-wave sleep percentages, and decreased sleep latency and stage awake percentage. These effects persisted after 5 weeks of treatment. Subjectively, mirtazapine induced an improvement of sleep. This open, noncontrolled study suggests that mirtazapine ameliorates the sleep disturbances encountered in depressed patients both objectively and subjectively. PMID:12566938

  18. Socially Isolated Mice Exhibit a Blunted Homeostatic Sleep Response to Acute Sleep Deprivation Compared to Socially Paired Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Navita; Nair, Deepti; Gozal, David; Ramesh, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is an important physiological process underlying maintenance of physical, mental and emotional health. Consequently, sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with adverse consequences and increases the risk for anxiety, immune, and cognitive disorders. SD is characterized by increased energy expenditure responses and sleep rebound upon recovery that are regulated by homeostatic processes, which in turn are influenced by stress. Since all previous studies on SD were conducted in a setting of social isolation, the impact of the social contextual setting is unknown. Therefore, we used a relatively stress-free SD paradigm in mice to assess the impact of social isolation on sleep, wakefulness and delta electroencephalogram (EEG) power during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Paired or isolated C57BL/6J adult chronically-implanted male mice were exposed to SD for 6 hours and telemetric polygraphic recordings were conducted, including 18 hours recovery. Recovery from SD in the paired group showed a significant decrease in wake and significant increase in NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM), and a similar, albeit less robust response occurred in the isolated mice. Delta power during NREM sleep was increased in both groups immediately following SD, but paired mice exhibited significantly higher delta power throughout the dark period. The increase in body temperature and gross motor activity observed during the SD procedure was decreased during the dark period. In both open field and elevated plus maze tests, socially isolated mice showed significantly higher anxiety than paired mice. The homeostatic processes altered by SD are differentially affected in paired and isolated mice, suggesting that the social context of isolation stress may adversely affect the quantity and quality of sleep in mice. PMID:22498175

  19. University students and "the all nighter": correlates and patterns of students' engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Pamela V

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the self-reported patterns, motivations, and correlates of engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation (SN-TSD) in a sample of 120 university students at a 4-year liberal arts college. Participants' mean age . was 20.1 years; the sample was 63% female. Measures included the Owl-Lark Scale of circadian preference; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); as well as self-reported usual bedtime, rise time, and total sleep time. Students' cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) were also obtained; these were reported from the university registrar. Sixty percent of students surveyed reported engaging in SN-TSD once or more since coming to college. No differences between genders or among class standing with respect to use of SN-TSD were detected. Engagement in SN-TSD was associated with later self-reported bedtimes, evening preference, and poorer academic achievement as measured by GPA. A trend for increased symptoms of depression was detected; sleep quality as measured by the PSQI was not related to engagement in SN-TSD. PMID:18412035

  20. University students and "the all nighter": correlates and patterns of students' engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Thacher, Pamela V

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the self-reported patterns, motivations, and correlates of engagement in a single night of total sleep deprivation (SN-TSD) in a sample of 120 university students at a 4-year liberal arts college. Participants' mean age . was 20.1 years; the sample was 63% female. Measures included the Owl-Lark Scale of circadian preference; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); as well as self-reported usual bedtime, rise time, and total sleep time. Students' cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) were also obtained; these were reported from the university registrar. Sixty percent of students surveyed reported engaging in SN-TSD once or more since coming to college. No differences between genders or among class standing with respect to use of SN-TSD were detected. Engagement in SN-TSD was associated with later self-reported bedtimes, evening preference, and poorer academic achievement as measured by GPA. A trend for increased symptoms of depression was detected; sleep quality as measured by the PSQI was not related to engagement in SN-TSD.

  1. Acute sleep fragmentation induces tissue-specific changes in cytokine gene expression and increases serum corticosterone concentration.

    PubMed

    Dumaine, Jennifer E; Ashley, Noah T

    2015-06-15

    Sleep deprivation induces acute inflammation and increased glucocorticosteroids in vertebrates, but effects from fragmented, or intermittent, sleep are poorly understood. Considering the latter is more representative of sleep apnea in humans, we investigated changes in proinflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β1) cytokine gene expression in the periphery (liver, spleen, fat, and heart) and brain (hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) of a murine model exposed to varying intensities of sleep fragmentation (SF). Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed. Sleep was disrupted in male C57BL/6J mice using an automated sleep fragmentation chamber that moves a sweeping bar at specified intervals (Lafayette Industries). Mice were exposed to bar sweeps every 20 s (high sleep fragmentation, HSF), 120 s (low sleep fragmentation, LSF), or the bar remained stationary (control). Trunk blood and tissue samples were collected after 24 h of SF. We predicted that HSF mice would exhibit increased proinflammatory expression, decreased anti-inflammatory expression, and elevated stress hormones in relation to LSF and controls. SF significantly elevated IL-1β gene expression in adipose tissue, heart (HSF only), and hypothalamus (LSF only) relative to controls. SF did not increase TNF-α expression in any of the tissues measured. HSF increased TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus and hippocampus relative to other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was significantly different among groups, with HSF mice exhibiting the highest, LSF intermediate, and controls with the lowest concentration. This indicates that 24 h of SF is a potent inducer of inflammation and stress hormones in the periphery, but leads to upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  2. Acute enhancement of non-rapid eye movement sleep in rats after drinking water contaminated with cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Unno, Katsuya; Yamoto, Kurumi; Takeuchi, Kouhei; Kataoka, Aya; Ozaki, Tomoya; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Honda, Kazuki; Miura, Nobuhiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal widely used or effused by industries. Serious environmental Cd pollution has been reported over the past two centuries, whereas the mechanisms underlying Cd-mediated diseases are not fully understood. Interestingly, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after Cd exposure has been shown. Our group has demonstrated that sleep is triggered via accumulation of ROS during neuronal activities, and we thus hypothesize the involvement of Cd poisoning in sleep-wake irregularities. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of Cd intake (1-100 ppm CdCl₂ in drinking water) on rats by monitoring sleep encephalograms and locomotor activities. The results demonstrated that 100 ppm CdCl₂ administration for 28 h was sufficient to increase non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and reduce locomotor activities during the night (the rat active phase). In contrast, free-running locomotor rhythms under constant dim red light and their re-entrainment to 12:12-h light/dark cycles were intact under chronic (1 month) 100 ppm CdCl₂ administrations, suggesting a limited influence on circadian clock movements at this dosage. The relative amount of oxidized glutathione increased in the brain after the 28-h 100 ppm CdCl₂ administrations similar to the levels in cultured astrocytes receiving H₂O₂ or CdCl₂ in culture medium. Therefore, we propose Cd-induced sleep as a consequence of oxidative stress. As oxidized glutathione is an endogenous sleep substance, we suggest that Cd rapidly induces sleepiness and influences activity performance by occupying intrinsic sleep-inducing mechanisms. In conclusion, we propose increased non-REM sleep during the active phase as an index of acute Cd exposure. PMID:23349044

  3. Acute Metallosis Following Total Knee Replacement – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Klontz, Karl C.; Smith, William I; Jonathan C., Klontz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Metallosis involving the knee joint most often results from metal-on-metal contact late in the life of a failing implant following polyethylene wear. We report a case of acute metallosis following knee arthroplasty in a previously healthy 59-year old male. Case Report: In June 2011, the patient underwent left knee arthroplasty for severe osteoarthritis with necrosis and bone edema in the medial femoral condyle and tibial plateau. Nine months later, because of persistent pain and swelling in the joint, revision arthroplasty was undertaken along with partial synovectomy. Examination revealed pristine prosthetic implants in the absence of loose fragments of bone or glue. Synovial pathology exhibited marked chronic inflammation and hyperplasia with extensive finely granular foreign material resembling metallic debris. Laboratory analysis of synovium revealed a predominance of iron, the principal component of the saw blades. Conclusion: We hypothesize the patient experienced acute metallosis resulting from deposition of metallic fragments from three saw blades used during arthroplasty. We believe the increased density of the patient’s bone that required use of multiple blades may have resulted, in part, from heavy lifting the patient partook in during the two years preceding arthroplasty. PMID:27298939

  4. Acute sleep deprivation: the effects of the AMPAKINE compound CX717 on human cognitive performance, alertness and recovery sleep.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Julia; Stanley, Neil; James, Lynette M; Wright, Nicola; Johnsen, Sigurd; Arbon, Emma L; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-08-01

    AMPA receptor modulation is a potential novel approach to enhance cognitive performance. CX717 is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has shown efficacy in rodent and primate cognition models. CX717 (100 mg, 300 mg and 1000 mg) and placebo were studied in 16 healthy male volunteers (18-45 years) in a randomized, crossover study. Cognitive function, arousal and recovery sleep (by polysomnography) were assessed during the extended wakefulness protocol. Placebo condition was associated with significant decrements in cognition, particularly at the circadian nadir (between 03:00 and 05:00). Pre-specified primary and secondary analyses (general linear mixed modelling, GLMM) at each separate time point did not reveal consistent improvements in performance or objective alertness with any dose of CX717. Exploratory repeated measures analysis, a method used to take into account the influence of individual differences, demonstrated an improvement in attention-based task performance following the 1000 mg dose. Analysis of the recovery sleep showed that CX717 1000 mg significantly reduced stage 4 and slow-wave sleep (p ≤ 0.05) with evidence of reduced electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave and spindle activity. The study suggests that CX717 only at the 1000 mg dose may counteract effects of sleep deprivation on attention-based tasks and that it may interfere with subsequent recovery sleep.

  5. Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern‐Pin; Yeo, Sing‐Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian‐Guang; Tan, Luuan‐Chin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S.; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait‐like, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic‐Chinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22–30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10‐min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between‐subject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67–0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait‐like. PMID:25263200

  6. Altered Resting-State Amygdala Functional Connectivity after 36 Hours of Total Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongcong; Lei, Yu; Wang, Lubin; Zhai, Tianye; Jin, Xiao; Ni, Wei; Yang, Yue; Tan, Shuwen; Wen, Bo; Ye, Enmao; Yang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a potentially critical role of the amygdala in disrupted emotion neurocircuitry in individuals after total sleep deprivation (TSD). However, connectivity between the amygdala and cerebral cortex due to TSD remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity changes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) in the brain after 36 h of TSD. Materials and Methods Fourteen healthy adult men aged 25.9±2.3 years (range, 18–28 years) were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Using the BLA and CMA as separate seed regions, we examined resting-state functional connectivity with fMRI during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of TSD. Results TSD resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the BLA and several executive control regions (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC], right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], right inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]). Increased functional connectivity was found between the BLA and areas including the left posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PrCu) and right parahippocampal gyrus. With regard to CMA, increased functional connectivity was observed with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and right precentral gyrus. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that disturbance in amygdala related circuits may contribute to TSD psychophysiology and suggest that functional connectivity studies of the amygdala during the resting state may be used to discern aberrant patterns of coupling within these circuits after TSD. PMID:25372882

  7. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, sleep, and cognitive performance in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Trksak, George H; Bracken, Bethany K; Jensen, J Eric; Plante, David T; Penetar, David M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Maywalt, Melissa A; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent ³¹P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, ³¹P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  9. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, R H; Haverkamp, D; Campo, M M; van der Vis, H M

    2012-03-01

    A 62year old man developed a compartment syndrome of the thigh after total knee arthroplasty. Twelve years previously he had a HTO of the same knee complicated by a compartment syndrome of the calf. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed with intracompartmental pressure measurement. Following fasciotomy pressures were normalized and further course was uncomplicated. Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare, but potentially devastating, complication following total knee arthroplasty. A previous compartment syndrome of the calf is identified as a risk factor.

  10. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh 10 days following an elective primary total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Elsorafy, Kareem R; Jm Stone, Andrew; Nicol, Stephen G

    2013-06-28

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh is an uncommon condition usually treated surgically by emergency dermofasciotomy. We report a rare case of acute delayed compartment syndrome of the anterior compartment of the thigh following an uncemented Total Hip Replacement (THR). Surgical decompression was performed and patient had full recovery.

  11. Dose-dependent model of caffeine effects on human vigilance during total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant to counter sleep-loss effects. While the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in the body is well-understood, its alertness-restoring effects are still not well characterized. In fact, mathematical models capable of predicting the effects of varying doses of caffeine on objective measures of vigilance are not available. In this paper, we describe a phenomenological model of the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance of sleep-deprived subjects. We used the two-process model of sleep regulation to quantify performance during sleep loss in the absence of caffeine and a dose-dependent multiplier factor derived from the Hill equation to model the effects of single and repeated caffeine doses. We developed and validated the model fits and predictions on PVT lapse (number of reaction times exceeding 500 ms) data from two separate laboratory studies. At the population-average level, the model captured the effects of a range of caffeine doses (50-300 mg), yielding up to a 90% improvement over the two-process model. Individual-specific caffeine models, on average, predicted the effects up to 23% better than population-average caffeine models. The proposed model serves as a useful tool for predicting the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on the PVT performance of sleep-deprived subjects and, therefore, can be used for determining caffeine doses that optimize the timing and duration of peak performance.

  12. Dose-dependent model of caffeine effects on human vigilance during total sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant to counter sleep-loss effects. While the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in the body is well-understood, its alertness-restoring effects are still not well characterized. In fact, mathematical models capable of predicting the effects of varying doses of caffeine on objective measures of vigilance are not available. In this paper, we describe a phenomenological model of the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance of sleep-deprived subjects. We used the two-process model of sleep regulation to quantify performance during sleep loss in the absence of caffeine and a dose-dependent multiplier factor derived from the Hill equation to model the effects of single and repeated caffeine doses. We developed and validated the model fits and predictions on PVT lapse (number of reaction times exceeding 500 ms) data from two separate laboratory studies. At the population-average level, the model captured the effects of a range of caffeine doses (50-300 mg), yielding up to a 90% improvement over the two-process model. Individual-specific caffeine models, on average, predicted the effects up to 23% better than population-average caffeine models. The proposed model serves as a useful tool for predicting the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on the PVT performance of sleep-deprived subjects and, therefore, can be used for determining caffeine doses that optimize the timing and duration of peak performance. PMID:24859426

  13. Linkage of sleep-disordered breathing and acute aortic dissection with patent false lumen.

    PubMed

    Inami, Toru; Seino, Yoshihiko; Shimura, Tetsuro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kimata, Nakahisa; Murakami, Daisuke; Munakata, Ryo; Takano, Masamichi; Ohba, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is known as a cardiovascular risk factor and has high prevalence in hypertension, which is a major risk factor of aortic dissection (AD). However, the impact of SDB on AD has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study is to elucidate the impact of SDB on AD, especially on the type of false lumen in AD. We enrolled twenty-three consecutive patients with acute AD (mean age: 66 ± 13 years). All subjects were evaluated by an ambulatory polygraphic sleep monitoring within 1 month from the onset. AD was evaluated by axial images of computed tomography. We comparatively analyzed SDB and AD. 35 % of the subjects presented severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: AHI ≥30). The patent false lumen group showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) on arrival and AHI, and lower percutaneous oxygen saturation (SaO2) compared with those in the thrombosed false lumen group. The prevalence of severe SDB was higher in the patent false lumen group (60 vs 15 %, p = 0.039). Systolic BP on arrival was significantly correlated with AHI (r = 0.457, p = 0.033) and the minimum SaO2 (r = -0.537, p = 0.010). The present study revealed close linkage between SDB and AD, and a high prevalence of SDB among AD patients. Severe SDB was related to the development of AD, especially for the patent false lumen type through highly elevated BP which might be easily evoked in the presence of severe SDB. Repetitive occurrence of intrathoracic negative pressure also might influence the repair or closure of false lumen of AD, although the present analysis did not reach statistical significance.

  14. Nonapnea Sleep Disorders and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hugo You-Hsien; Chang, Kai-Ting; Chang, Yu-Han; Lu, Tzongshi; Liang, Chan-Jung; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hung, Chi-Chih; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Chang-Shen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh

    2016-03-01

    Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASDs) and associated problems, which are highly prevalent in patients with kidney diseases, are associated with unfavorable medical sequelae. Nonetheless, whether NASDs are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) development has not been thoroughly analyzed. We examined the association between NASD and AKI. We conducted a population-based study by using 1,000,000 representative data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. We studied the incidence and risk of AKI in 9178 newly diagnosed NASD patients compared with 27,534 people without NASD matched according to age, sex, index year, urbanization level, region of residence, and monthly income at a 1:3 ratio. The NASD cohort had an adjusted hazard ratio (hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-2.63) of subsequent AKI 1.74-fold higher than that of the control cohort. Older age and type 2 diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with an increased risk of AKI (P < 0.05). Among different types of NASDs, patients with insomnia had a 120% increased risk of developing AKI (95% CI = 1.38-3.51; P = 0.001), whereas patients with other sleep disorders had a 127% increased risk of subsequent AKI (95% CI = 1.07-4.80; P = 0.033). Men with NASDs were at a high risk of AKI (P < 0.05). This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that patients with NASDs are at higher risk of developing AKI than people without NASDs. PMID:26986132

  15. Inter-individual differences in the effects of acute stress on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, J J; Deminière, J M; Mayo, W; Le Moal, M

    1997-04-11

    It has been described that an acute immobilization stress (IS) modifies subsequent paradoxical sleep (PS). However, its effects are complex because some subjects remain unaffected. This discrepancy might result from constitutive inter-individual psychobiological differences. In order to test this hypothesis, an inter-individual analysis of sleep patterns and their modifications after 60 min IS has been performed. Even though global analysis showed a PS increase after IS, inter-individual analysis evidenced different PS reactivity; subjects which had the least PS during control recordings were those with the largest PS increase. Unlike global analysis, an inter-individual study evidenced different modifications of wakefulness and slow wave sleep according to individuals. Subjects presenting the highest amount of wakefulness in control conditions (the lowest amount of slow wave sleep) decreased their wakefulness amount, while subjects with the lowest amount of wakefulness increased it. Thus, individual characteristics of the sleep-wakefulness cycle should be considered while studying its modifications induced by different treatments. PMID:9147403

  16. Sleep EEG and nocturnal secretion of testosterone and cortisol in patients with major endogenous depression during acute phase and after remission.

    PubMed

    Steiger, A; von Bardeleben, U; Wiedemann, K; Holsboer, F

    1991-01-01

    Sleep EEG and the nocturnal secretion of cortisol and testosterone in 12 male patients (mean age 46.4 +/- 11.26 years) with major endogenous depression were investigated concomitantly during acute depression, before treatment and after recovery and drug cessation. Testosterone concentration increased after remission, while cortisol secretion decreased. Sleep EEG disturbances remained unchanged in remitted patients. The data suggest that a blunted testosterone and an elevated cortisol secretion are state markers of acute depression, which normalize independently from sleep structure. An interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis appears likely.

  17. The effect of an acute sleep hygiene strategy following a late-night soccer match on recovery of players.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Elite soccer players are at risk of reduced recovery following periods of sleep disruption, particularly following late-night matches. It remains unknown whether improving sleep quality or quantity in such scenarios can improve post-match recovery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute sleep hygiene strategy (SHS) on physical and perceptual recovery of players following a late-night soccer match. In a randomised cross-over design, two highly-trained amateur teams (20 players) played two late-night (20:45) friendly matches against each other seven days apart. Players completed an SHS after the match or proceeded with their normal post-game routine (NSHS). Over the ensuing 48 h, objective sleep parameters (sleep duration, onset latency, efficiency, wake episodes), countermovement jump (CMJ; height, force production), YoYo Intermittent Recovery test (YYIR2; distance, maximum heart rate, lactate), venous blood (creatine kinase, urea and c-reactive protein) and perceived recovery and stress markers were collected. Sleep duration was significantly greater in SHS compared to NSHS on match night (P = 0.002, d = 1.50), with NSHS significantly less than baseline (P < 0.001, d = 1.95). Significant greater wake episodes occurred on match night for SHS (P = 0.04, d = 1.01), without significant differences between- or within-conditions for sleep onset latency (P = 0.12), efficiency (P = 0.39) or wake episode duration (P = 0.07). No significant differences were observed between conditions for any physical performance or venous blood marker (all P > 0.05); although maximum heart rate during the YYIR2 was significantly higher in NSHS than SHS at 36 h post-match (P = 0.01; d = 0.81). There were no significant differences between conditions for perceptual "overall recovery" (P = 0.47) or "overall stress" (P = 0.17). Overall, an acute SHS improved sleep quantity following a late-night soccer match; albeit without any improvement in physical

  18. Acute periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Potty, Anish G; Corona, Jacqueline; Manning, Blaine T; Le, Amanda; Saleh, Khaled J

    2014-01-01

    Although periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are relatively uncommon after total hip arthroplasty, a variety of patient-, surgeon-, and implant-related risk factors can contribute to the occurrence of this serious complication. These risk factors, combined with the increased use of cementless acetabular cups, will likely result in an increased prevalence of these fractures in the future. By better understanding the risk factors, classification schemes, and treatment options for periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum, orthopaedic surgeons can achieve better outcomes for their patients.

  19. A glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta promoter gene single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with age at onset and response to total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Serretti, Alessandro; Colombo, Cristina; Lorenzi, Cristina; Tubazio, Viviana; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2004-09-23

    The molecular mechanisms driving the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus may play a role in mood disorders. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-50T/C) falling into the effective promoter region (nt -171 to +29) of the gene coding for glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) has been linked with different age at onset of bipolar illness. GSK3-beta codes for an enzyme which is a target for the action of lithium and valproic acid, and the inhibition of which causes antidepressant-like behaviors in a preclinical model. We studied the effect of this polymorphism on the acute response to total sleep deprivation of 60 depressed bipolar type I inpatients. Homozygotes for the mutant allele of GSK3-beta promoter (-50T/C) SNP showed a later onset of bipolar illness, and better acute effects of TSD treatment on perceived mood (as rated on VAS). Overall, these observations suggest a protective role for this genotype in respect to bipolar illness. Results warrant interest for the variants of genes pertaining to the molecular clock as possible endophenotypes of bipolar disorder, and for GSK3-beta as a target of a new class of antidepressant drugs, but caution ought to be taken in interpreting these preliminary results and future replication studies must be awaited because of the low frequency of the GSK3-beta*C/C genotype in the studied populations.

  20. Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2007-08-15

    Adequate sleep is essential for general healthy functioning. This paper reviews recent research on the effects of chronic sleep restriction on neurobehavioral and physiological functioning and discusses implications for health and lifestyle. Restricting sleep below an individual's optimal time in bed (TIB) can cause a range of neurobehavioral deficits, including lapses of attention, slowed working memory, reduced cognitive throughput, depressed mood, and perseveration of thought. Neurobehavioral deficits accumulate across days of partial sleep loss to levels equivalent to those found after 1 to 3 nights of total sleep loss. Recent experiments reveal that following days of chronic restriction of sleep duration below 7 hours per night, significant daytime cognitive dysfunction accumulates to levels comparable to that found after severe acute total sleep deprivation. Additionally, individual variability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction appears to be stable, suggesting a trait-like (possibly genetic) differential vulnerability or compensatory changes in the neurobiological systems involved in cognition. A causal role for reduced sleep duration in adverse health outcomes remains unclear, but laboratory studies of healthy adults subjected to sleep restriction have found adverse effects on endocrine functions, metabolic and inflammatory responses, suggesting that sleep restriction produces physiological consequences that may be unhealthy.

  1. Caffeine and modafinil promote adult neuronal cell proliferation during 48 h of total sleep deprivation in rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Surajit; Kauser, Hina; Ray, Koushik; Kishore, Krishna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panjwani, Usha

    2013-10-01

    It has been established that sleep deprivation (SD) reduces the proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult hippocampus. It has also been reported that psychostimulant drugs modulate adult neurogenesis. We examined the modulatory role of two psychostimulant drugs modafinil and caffeine on adult neuronal cell proliferation (NCP) during 48 h of total SD. A novel automated cage shaking stimulus was used to induce SD based on animal activity. 5-Bromo-2″-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50mg/kg/day i.p.) was injected at the onset of the light phase for two days. Rats were successfully sleep deprived for 85-94% of total time. Stereological analysis showed that both caffeine and modafinil treatments during SD improved the number of BrdU positive cells as compared to the SD group. Caffeine treatment during SD, significantly increased early proliferative and post-mitotic stages of doublecortin (DCX) positive cells while modafinil treatment during SD, increased intermediate and post-mitotic stages of DCX positive cells compared to SD+Vehicle group. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) expression on BrdU positive cells as well as in the dentate gyrus (DG) region was decreased significantly after sleep deprivation. Both caffeine and modafinil significantly improved BDNF expression in the DG region. Modafinil, but not caffeine, significantly decreased hippocampal adenosine level during SD in comparison to the SD+Vehicle group. It may be concluded that caffeine or modafinil treatment during 48 h of SD prevents the SD induced decline in neuronal proliferation and differentiation. Caffeine and modafinil induced alterations of NCP during SD may involve modulation of BDNF and adenosine levels.

  2. Impact of acute sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Omisade, Antonina; Buxton, Orfeu M; Rusak, Benjamin

    2010-04-19

    Sleep restriction alters hormone patterns and appetite in men, but less is known about effects on women. We assessed effects of overnight sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels and on appetite in young women. Participants' baseline sleep duration and eating habits were monitored for a week before the study. Salivary cortisol and leptin were sampled from fifteen healthy women (aged 18-25) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline day) and then after a night including only 3h sleep (Post sleep-restriction day). Participants also completed appetite questionnaires on both days. Sleep restriction significantly reduced morning cortisol levels (p=0.02), elevated morning leptin levels (p=0.04), elevated afternoon/evening cortisol area under the curve values (p=0.008), and slowed the decline in cortisol concentration during the day (p=0.04). Hunger and craving scores did not differ significantly between days. A single night of restricted sleep affected cortisol rhythms and morning leptin levels in young women.

  3. The Effects of Total Colectomy on Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Şenocak, Rahman; Yigit, Taner; Kılbaş, Zafer; Coşkun, Ali Kağan; Harlak, Ali; Menteş, Mustafa Öner; Kılıç, Abdullah; Günal, Armağan; Kozak, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of secondary infection is currently the main goal of treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Colon was considered as the main origin of secondary infection. Our aim was to investigate whether prophylactic total colectomy would reduce the rate of bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Pancreatitis was created by ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Rats were divided into four groups: group-1, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; group-2, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate; group-3, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; and group-4, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Forty-eight hours later, tissue and blood samples were collected for microbiological and histopathological analysis. Total colectomy caused small bowel bacterial overgrowth with gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Bacterial count of gram-negative rods in the small intestine and pancreatic tissue in rats with colectomy and acute pancreatitis were significantly higher than in rats with acute pancreatitis only (group-2 versus group-4; small bowel, p = <0.001; pancreas, p = 0.002). Significant correlation was found between proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic infection (r = 0,836, p = 0.001). In acute pancreatitis, prophylactic total colectomy (which can mimic colonic cleansing and reduction of colonic flora) induces small bowel bacterial overgrowth, which is associated with increased bacterial translocation to the pancreas. PMID:26730036

  4. REM sleep deprivation of rats induces acute phase response in liver.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Atul Kumar; Kar, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    REM sleep is essential for maintenance of body physiology and its deprivation is fatal. We observed that the levels of ALT and AST enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-12 circulating in the blood of REM sleep deprived rats increased in proportion to the extent of sleep loss. But in contrast the levels of IFN-γ and a ∼200 kDa protein, identified by N-terminal sequencing to be alpha-1-inhibitor-3(A1I3), decreased significantly. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that REM sleep deprivation down regulates AII3 gene and up regulates IL1 β, IL6 and their respective receptors gene expression in the liver initiating its inflammation.

  5. Validity and sensitivity of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) to total and partial sleep deprivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basner, Mathias; Mollicone, Daniel; Dinges, David F.

    2011-12-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22-45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 h awake ( N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed ( N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all p<0.01). After reducing the lapse threshold from 500 to 355 ms for PVT-B, mixed model ANOVAs indicated no differential sensitivity to sleep loss between PVT-B and PVT for all outcome variables (all P>0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD ( P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10

  6. Molecular imaging of enhanced Na + expression in the liver of total sleep deprived rats by TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Mai, Fu-Der

    2008-12-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with metabolic disturbances, which was related to oxidative stress and subsequently sodium overload. Since liver plays important roles in metabolic regulation, present study is aimed to determine whether hepatic sodium, together with oxidative stress, would significantly alter after total sleep deprivation (TSD). Sodium ion was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Parameter for oxidative stress was examined by heat shock protein-25 (HSP-25) immunohistochemistry. TOF-SIMS spectrum indicated that hepatic Na +/K + ratio counting as 82.41 ± 9.5 was obtained in normal rats. Sodium ions were distributed in hepatocytes with several aggregations. However, following TSD, the intensity for Na +/K + ratio was relatively increased (101.94 ± 6.9) and signals for sodium image were strongly expressed throughout hepatocytes without spatial localization. Quantitative analysis revealed that HSP-25 staining intensity is 1.78 ± 0.27 in TSD rats, which was significantly higher than that of normal ones (0.68 ± 0.15). HSP-25 augmentation suggests that hepatocytes suffer from oxidative stress following TSD. Concerning oxidative stress induced sodium overload would impair metabolic function; enhanced hepatic sodium expression after TSD may be a major cause of TSD relevant metabolic diseases.

  7. Up-regulation of Na + expression in the area postrema of total sleep deprived rats by TOF-SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Ling, Yong-Chien; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2008-12-01

    Area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Since sleep deficiency will cause cardiovascular dysfunction, the present study aims to determine whether sodium level would significantly alter in AP following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Sodium level was investigated in vivo by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Clinical manifestation of cardiovascular function was demonstrated by mean arterial pressure (MAP) values. Results indicated that in normal rats, TOF-SIMS spectrum revealed a major peak of sodium ion counting as 5.61 × 10 5 at m/ z 23. The sodium ions were homogeneous distributed in AP without specific localization. However, following TSD, the sodium intensity was relatively increased (6.73 × 10 5) and the signal for sodium image was strongly expressed throughout AP with definite spatial distribution. MAP of TSD rats is 138 ± 5 mmHg, which is significantly higher than that of normal ones (121 ± 3 mmHg). Regarding AP is an important area for sodium sensation and development of hypernatremic related sympatho-excitation; up-regulation of sodium expression following TSD suggests that high sodium level might over-activate AP, through complex neuronal networks involving in sympathetic regulation, which could lead to the formation of TSD relevant cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  9. Total hip arthroplasty for acute acetabular fractures: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Julio J; Clayton, Adrian; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Issa, Kimona; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    There have been many advances in the treatment of acetabular fractures; however, the role of total hip arthroplasty (THA) as part of acute fracture management is not well-defined. The indications to acutely manage an acetabular fracture with THA include patients who were older than 65 years of age, who had extensive intra-articular comminution, impaction of the acetabular dome, a displaced-impacted femoral neck fracture, presented with severe osteopenia or osteoporosis, or preexisting osteoarthritis. Implant survivorship and clinical outcomes were favorable with low complications when managing an acetabular fracture with THA. THA may be an effective option for treating acetabular fractures in appropriately selected patients.

  10. The effects of physical activity on sleep: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Kredlow, M Alexandra; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Hearon, Bridget A; Calkins, Amanda W; Otto, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    A significant body of research has investigated the effects of physical activity on sleep, yet this research has not been systematically aggregated in over a decade. As a result, the magnitude and moderators of these effects are unclear. This meta-analytical review examines the effects of acute and regular exercise on sleep, incorporating a range of outcome and moderator variables. PubMed and PsycINFO were used to identify 66 studies for inclusion in the analysis that were published through May 2013. Analyses reveal that acute exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, stage 1 sleep, and slow wave sleep, a moderate beneficial effect on wake time after sleep onset, and a small effect on rapid eye movement sleep. Regular exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time and sleep efficiency, small-to-medium beneficial effects on sleep onset latency, and moderate beneficial effects on sleep quality. Effects were moderated by sex, age, baseline physical activity level of participants, as well as exercise type, time of day, duration, and adherence. Significant moderation was not found for exercise intensity, aerobic/anaerobic classification, or publication date. Results were discussed with regards to future avenues of research and clinical application to the treatment of insomnia.

  11. [TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN A PREGNANT PATIENT WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS AND LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Bolívar, Victoria; González-Molero, Inmaculada; Valdivieso, Pedro; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia secondary to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a pregnant patient with gestational diabetes, initially maneged with diet but it was later necessary to carry out artificial nutricional support measures: total parenteral nutrition. LPL deficiency might cause severe hypertriglyceridemia, repetition acute pancreatitis which is an unwieldy and severe situation during pregnancy. Acute familial hypertriglyceridemia pancreatitis accounts for 5% of cases, including LPL deficiency. The goal of treatment is to reach triglycerides levels below 500 mg/dl, being very low fat diet the treatment of choice, drugs or plasmapheresis techniques can also be associated. TPN enriched in ω3 fatty acids and glutamine was safe and effective in our patient with significant decrease in triglyceride levels.

  12. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  13. A pilot study: portable out-of-center sleep testing as an early sleep apnea screening tool in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chernyshev, Oleg Y; McCarty, David E; Moul, Douglas E; Liendo, Cesar; Caldito, Gloria C; Munjampalli, Sai K; Kelley, Roger E; Chesson, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prompt diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is critical for optimal clinical outcomes, but in-laboratory conventional polysomnograms (PSG) are not routinely practical. Though portable out-of-center type III cardiopulmonary sleep studies (out-of-center cardiopulmonary sleep testing [OCST]) are widely available, these studies have not been validated in patients who have recently suffered from AIS. We hypothesized that OCST in patients with AIS would yield similar results when compared to conventional PSG. Methods Patients with AIS had simultaneous type III OCST and PSG studies performed within 72 hours from symptom onset. The accuracy of OCST was compared to PSG using: chi-square tests, receiver operatory characteristic curves, Bland–Altman plot, paired Student’s t-test/Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results Twenty-one out of 23 subjects with AIS (age 61±9.4 years; 52% male; 58% African-American) successfully completed both studies (9% technical failure). Nearly all (95%) had Mallampati IV posterior oropharynx; the mean neck circumference was 16.8±1.6 in. and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 30±7 kg/m2. The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) provided by OCST was similar to that provided by PSG (19.8±18.0 vs 22.0±22.7, respectively; P=0.49). On identifying subjects by OCST with an AHI ≥5 on PSG, OCST had the following parameters: sensitivity 100%, specificity 85.7%, PPV 93%, and NPV 100%. On identifying subjects with an AHI ≥15 on PSG, OCST parameters were as follows: sensitivity 100%, specificity 83.3%, PPV 81.8%, and NPV 100%. Bland–Altman plotting showed an overall diagnostic agreement between OCST and PSG modalities for an AHI cutoff >5, despite fine-grained differences in estimated AHIs. Conclusion Compared with PSG, OCST provides similar diagnostic information when run simultaneously in AIS

  14. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rachana; Manchanda, Shaffi; Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Taranjeet; Saini, Vedangana; Sharma, Anuradha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD) and (3) TCE treated-sleep deprived (TSD) animals were tested behaviorally for cognitive functions, anxiety and motor coordination. TSD animals showed improved behavioral response in EPM and NOR tests for anxiety and cognitive functions, respectively as compared to VSD animals. TCE pretreatment modulated the stress induced-expression of plasticity markers PSA-NCAM, NCAM and GAP-43 along with proteins involved in the maintenance of LTP i.e., CamKII-α and calcineurin (CaN) in hippocampus and PC regions of the brain. Interestingly, contrary to VSD animals, TSD animals showed downregulated expression of inflammatory markers such as CD11b/c, MHC-1 and cytokines along with inhibition of apoptotic markers. This data suggests that TCE alone or in combination with other memory enhancing agents may help in managing sleep deprivation associated stress and improving cognitive functions. PMID:27146164

  15. Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rachana; Manchanda, Shaffi; Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Taranjeet; Saini, Vedangana; Sharma, Anuradha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD) and (3) TCE treated-sleep deprived (TSD) animals were tested behaviorally for cognitive functions, anxiety and motor coordination. TSD animals showed improved behavioral response in EPM and NOR tests for anxiety and cognitive functions, respectively as compared to VSD animals. TCE pretreatment modulated the stress induced-expression of plasticity markers PSA-NCAM, NCAM and GAP-43 along with proteins involved in the maintenance of LTP i.e., CamKII-α and calcineurin (CaN) in hippocampus and PC regions of the brain. Interestingly, contrary to VSD animals, TSD animals showed downregulated expression of inflammatory markers such as CD11b/c, MHC-1 and cytokines along with inhibition of apoptotic markers. This data suggests that TCE alone or in combination with other memory enhancing agents may help in managing sleep deprivation associated stress and improving cognitive functions. PMID:27146164

  16. Acute Cholecystitis Following Total Knee Replacement: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghalimah, Bayan; Hamdi, Amre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infection poses a substantial challenge after joint replacement. Case Presentation: We report a 53-year-old female with multiple co-morbidities, who underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Her postoperative course was complicated by acute cholecystitis necessitating cholecystectomy. Conclusion: In patients who require joint replacement surgery, careful and detailed preoperative assessment is important to identify those at risk for this complication in order to provide timely treatment. PMID:27703950

  17. Salvage of a Failed Agility Total Ankle Replacement System Associated with Acute Traumatic Periprosthetic Midfoot Fractures.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a rare case involving combined revision of a failed Agility Total Ankle Replacement System (DePuy Orthopaedics, Warsaw, Indiana) and open reduction with internal fixation of periprosthetic midfoot fractures secondary to acute traumatic injury. The rationale for these procedures, the operative sequence of events, and recovery course are presented in detail. Causes for concern regarding subsequent revision, should this be required, are raised.

  18. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  19. The effects of acute normovolaemic haemodilution on peri-operative coagulation in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shin, H J; Na, H S; Do, S H

    2015-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty results in substantial blood loss in the peri-operative period. We evaluated the effects of acute normovolaemic haemodilution on blood coagulation and platelet function in 11 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. We performed acute normovolaemic haemodilution and haematological tests, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®) ) and whole-blood impedance aggregometry. Blood samples were obtained at three time points: (i) before the initiation of acute normovolaemic haemodilution; (ii) 20 min after completion of acute normovolaemic haemodilution; and (iii) 20 min after retransfusion. After acute normovolaemic haemodilution, ROTEM parameters demonstrated hypocoagulability. Clot formation time of INTEM was increased by 31.6% (p = 0.016), whereas the α-angle and maximum clot formation of INTEM decreased by 8.1% (p = 0.032) and 3.0% (p = 0.013) respectively, compared with baseline values. Clotting time and clot formation time of EXTEM were increased by 40.8% (p = 0.042) and 31.3% (p = 0.016), respectively, whereas the α-angle and maximum clot formation of EXTEM were decreased by 11.9% (p = 0.020) and 9.5% (p = 0.013), respectively. The maximum clot formation of FIBTEM decreased by 35.1% compared with the baseline value (p = 0.007). Following retransfusion, ROTEM values returned to baseline; clot formation time decreased and the α-angle and maximum clot formation increased. There were no significant changes in platelet aggregation during the study. At 20 min after the end of acute normovolaemic haemodilution, the international normalised ratio of prothrombin time was increased compared with the baseline value (p = 0.003). We conclude that acute normovolaemic haemodilution resulted in a hypocoagulable state compared with baseline values and that coagulation parameters returned to normal after retransfusion.

  20. Carbohydrate-Binding Non-Peptidic Pradimicins for the Treatment of Acute Sleeping Sickness in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M.; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M.; Reichardt, Niels C.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments available for African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are limited, with poor efficacy and unacceptable safety profiles. Here, we report a new approach to address treatment of this disease based on the use of compounds that bind to parasite surface glycans leading to rapid killing of trypanosomes. Pradimicin and its derivatives are non-peptidic carbohydrate-binding agents that adhere to the carbohydrate moiety of the parasite surface glycoproteins inducing parasite lysis in vitro. Notably, pradimicin S has good pharmaceutical properties and enables cure of an acute form of the disease in mice. By inducing resistance in vitro we have established that the composition of the sugars attached to the variant surface glycoproteins are critical to the mode of action of pradimicins and play an important role in infectivity. The compounds identified represent a novel approach to develop drugs to treat HAT. PMID:27662652

  1. Total aortic repair: the new paradigm in the treatment of acute type A aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Nisal K.; Galvin, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is in a period of rapid evolution. Understanding the complex physiology and anatomy of both acute and chronic dissection has been enhanced by the ready availability of state of the art imaging techniques. Technical advances in the intraoperative monitoring of organ perfusion, together with adjuncts to limit organ injury and increasing sophistication in open and endovascular surgery have led to a major reduction in both perioperative morbidity and mortality. In many centers, there has been a transition in mindset and surgical approach away from a purely central aortic operation focusing on the ascending aorta and a ‘live to fight another day’ philosophy. The current more global perspective recognizes the importance of aortic valve function, malperfusion, false lumen (FL) patency and the potential for future complex aneurysm development. The time is now right to transition into the next phase of sophistication in the management of ATAAD with the aim of achieving not only a safe acute operation, but to either entirely prevent chronic complications or to greatly simplify their management by the creation of an anatomical situation that facilitates future endovascular intervention in place of complex re-do surgery. We present our view on the evolution of surgery for ATAAD leading to our current technique of Branch First Arch replacement and Total Aortic Repair, which not only provides a safe immediate operation, but also offers the hope of a simplified future management if not a total cure for the pathology. PMID:27386409

  2. The effect of acute sleep deprivation and fatigue in cardiovascular perfusion students: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ashley B; Snyder, Alexandra C; Fernandez, Adam L; Boan, Andrea D; Malek, Angela M; Sistino, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Sleep deprivation as a result of long working hours has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events in healthcare professions but not in cardiovascular perfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on cardiovascular perfusion students. Testing with high-fidelity simulation after 24 hours of sleep deprivation allowed investigators to assess user competency and the effect of fatigue on performance. After informed consent, seven senior perfusion students were enrolled in the study (three declined to participate). The qualitative portion of the study included a focus group session, whereas the quantitative portion included administration of questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), as well as clinical skills assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Subjects were assessed at three different intervals of sleep deprivation over a 24-hour period: baseline (6:00 AM), 12 hours (6:00 PM), 16 hours (10:00 PM), and 24 hours (6:00 AM) of wakefulness. During each scenario, normally monitored bypass parameters, including mean arterial pressure, activated clotting times, partial pressures of oxygen, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and venous flow, were manipulated, and the subjects were required to return the parameters to normal levels. In addition, the scenario required calculation of the final protamine dose (using a dose-response curve) and detection of electrocardiography changes. Each task was varied at the different simulation sessions to decrease the effect of learning. Despite any lack of sleep, we hypothesized that, because of repetition, the times to complete the task would decrease at each session. We also hypothesized that the ESS and SSS scores would increase over time. We expected that the students would anticipate which tasks were being evaluated and would react more quickly. The average ESS scores progressively increased at each time period

  3. The Effect of Acute Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue in Cardiovascular Perfusion Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Snyder, Alexandra C.; Fernandez, Adam L.; Boan, Andrea D.; Malek, Angela M.; Sistino, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Sleep deprivation as a result of long working hours has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events in healthcare professions but not in cardiovascular perfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on cardiovascular perfusion students. Testing with highfidelity simulation after 24 hours of sleep deprivation allowed investigators to assess user competency and the effect of fatigue on performance. After informed consent, seven senior perfusion students were enrolled in the study (three declined to participate). The qualitative portion of the study included a focus group session, whereas the quantitative portion included administration of questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), as well as clinical skills assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Subjects were assessed at three different intervals of sleep deprivation over a 24-hour period: baseline (6:00 am), 12 hours (6:00 pm), 16 hours (10:00 pm), and 24 hours (6:00 am) of wakefulness. During each scenario, normally monitored bypass parameters, including mean arterial pressure, activated clotting times, partial pressures of oxygen, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and venous flow, were manipulated, and the subjects were required to return the parameters to normal levels. In addition, the scenario required calculation of the final protamine dose (using a dose–response curve) and detection of electrocardiography changes. Each task was varied at the different simulation sessions to decrease the effect of learning. Despite any lack of sleep, we hypothesized that, because of repetition, the times to complete the task would decrease at each session. We also hypothesized that the ESS and SSS scores would increase over time. We expected that the students would anticipate which tasks were being evaluated and would react more quickly. The average ESS scores progressively increased at each time

  4. The effect of acute sleep deprivation and fatigue in cardiovascular perfusion students: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ashley B; Snyder, Alexandra C; Fernandez, Adam L; Boan, Andrea D; Malek, Angela M; Sistino, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Sleep deprivation as a result of long working hours has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events in healthcare professions but not in cardiovascular perfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on cardiovascular perfusion students. Testing with high-fidelity simulation after 24 hours of sleep deprivation allowed investigators to assess user competency and the effect of fatigue on performance. After informed consent, seven senior perfusion students were enrolled in the study (three declined to participate). The qualitative portion of the study included a focus group session, whereas the quantitative portion included administration of questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), as well as clinical skills assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Subjects were assessed at three different intervals of sleep deprivation over a 24-hour period: baseline (6:00 AM), 12 hours (6:00 PM), 16 hours (10:00 PM), and 24 hours (6:00 AM) of wakefulness. During each scenario, normally monitored bypass parameters, including mean arterial pressure, activated clotting times, partial pressures of oxygen, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and venous flow, were manipulated, and the subjects were required to return the parameters to normal levels. In addition, the scenario required calculation of the final protamine dose (using a dose-response curve) and detection of electrocardiography changes. Each task was varied at the different simulation sessions to decrease the effect of learning. Despite any lack of sleep, we hypothesized that, because of repetition, the times to complete the task would decrease at each session. We also hypothesized that the ESS and SSS scores would increase over time. We expected that the students would anticipate which tasks were being evaluated and would react more quickly. The average ESS scores progressively increased at each time period

  5. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  6. Metabolic complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Qanta A

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a widely prevalent disorder, hallmarked by partial or total upper airway obstruction during sleep. These events fracture sleep integrity resulting in chronic partial sleep deprivation with destructive metabolic sequelae, the focus of this review.

  7. Prolonged total parenteral nutrition in a pregnant woman with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gineston, J L; Capron, J P; Delcenserie, R; Delamarre, J; Blot, M; Boulanger, J C

    1984-06-01

    During the 22nd week of her first pregnancy, a 28-year-old woman developed an attack of acute pancreatitis 10 months after pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic origin. She received total parenteral nutrition without complications for 83 days until the cesarean delivery of a child weighing 2,120 g. During that time, clinical, biological, and echographic signs of pancreatitis progressively disappeared. The favorable outcome for both mother and fetus suggests that prolonged TPN may be a useful measure in the management of severe digestive disease occurring during pregnancy.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Enteral Nutrition and Total Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Heming; Wang, Xingpeng; Guo, Chuanyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. Randomized controlled trials of TPN and EN in patients with acute pancreatitis were searched in NCBI and CBM databases and The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Six studies were enrolled into the analysis, and the details about the trial designs, characters of the subjects, results of the studies were reviewed by two independent authors and analyzed by STATA 11.0 software. Results. Compared with TPN, EN was associated with a significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infection complications (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436∼0.709, P = .000), MOF (RR = 0.395, 95% CI 0.272∼0.573, P = .003), surgical interventions (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436∼0.709, P = .000), and mortality (RR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.238∼0.764, P = .167). There was no statistic significance in non-pancreatitis-related complications (RR = 0.853, 95% CI 0.490∼1.483, P = .017). However, EN had a significantly higher incidence of non-infection-related complications (RR = 2.697, 95% CI 1.947∼3.735, P = .994). Conclusion. EN could be the preferred nutrition feeding method in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:21687619

  9. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  10. The development of insomnia or the plasticity of good sleep? A preliminary study of acute changes in sleep and insomnia resulting from an analogue trauma.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Cele; Gradisar, Michael; Pulford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The present preliminary study aimed to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the development of insomnia. An analogue stressor (i.e., trauma video) was used to prevent presleep cognitive de-arousal. Subsequent changes in nocturnal sleep and sleep-related attentional processing were examined. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a cognitive arousal (trauma video; age: M = 22.9, SD = 4.3, 6 male, 11 female) or control (pleasant video; age: M = 23.8, SD = 5.8, 7 male, 10 female) condition. Although no significant differences were found for presleep cognitive de-arousal (p = .39), the cognitive arousal group experienced a significant worsening in sleep latency (p = .048, partial η(2) = .12) and an increase in sleep-related attentional bias (p = .032, d = 0.51) following the manipulation. However, changes in sleep and attentional bias were not maintained. Vulnerability to stress did not significantly account for any change in attentional bias, arousal, or sleep. These findings challenge current conceptualizations of the development of insomnia, yet also supporting the notion that good sleep is a default state that protects individuals from sleep disturbance.

  11. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  14. Acute sleep deprivation increases the rate and efficiency of cocaine self-administration, but not the perceived value of cocaine reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Matthew D; Fang, Jidong; Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2009-12-01

    Relapse to drug seeking and drug taking is elicited by exposure to stress, drug-associated cues, or drugs of abuse themselves. According to the clinical literature, relapse also can be elicited in humans by sleep deprivation. Even so, the effect of sleep deprivation on drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors has received relatively little attention in the laboratory (i.e., currently, no animal model exists) and the underlying circuitry remains unexplored. In the present study, 42 naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and were then divided, on the basis of their behavior, into low (n=20) and high (n=22) drug-taking groups. Self-administration behavior was extinguished, and the effect of acute sleep deprivation (0, 4, or 8h) on drug-induced reinstatement and on progressive ratio responding (i.e., on the motivation to work for drug) was investigated. The results showed that, relative to low drug-takers, high drug-takers took more drug in acquisition, made more infusion attempts during drug-induced reinstatement, worked harder for drug, and exhibited greater goal-directed behavior. Acute sleep deprivation had little impact on high drug-takers beyond increasing the rate of infusions self-administered during progressive ratio (PR) testing. Conversely, in low drug-takers, acute sleep deprivation completely abolished cocaine-induced reinstatement during extinction testing. During PR testing, however, sleep deprivation increased the speed with which low drug-taking rats initiated responding for drug, increased the rate of infusions, and increased goal-directed behavior. It did not, however, increase the perceived value of the cocaine reward (i.e., neither sleep-deprived low drug-takers nor high drug-takers exhibited a higher break point for cocaine than their non-deprived counterparts). These data are the first to demonstrate a direct link between sleep deprivation and responding for cocaine, particularly in subjects that would otherwise

  15. Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome) Following Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Monique; Eddy, Eliza; Davis, Suzanne; Chin-Lenn, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), or Ogilvie's syndrome, is paramount in the management of this condition, which, if unresolved, can progress to bowel ischemia and perforation with significant morbidity and mortality. We present the first case report, to our knowledge, of ACPO following total laparoscopic hysterectomy. We describe the presentation and management of ACPO in a patient who underwent uncomplicated total laparoscopic hysterectomy to treat menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea after declining conservative treatment. Following initial conservative management, the patient rapidly deteriorated and required laparotomy for clinically suspected cecal ischemia. Cecal resection, colonic decompression, and end ileostomy formation were performed. A brief review of the current literature is presented with respect to the case report.

  16. Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction (Ogilvie's Syndrome) Following Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Monique; Eddy, Eliza; Davis, Suzanne; Chin-Lenn, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), or Ogilvie's syndrome, is paramount in the management of this condition, which, if unresolved, can progress to bowel ischemia and perforation with significant morbidity and mortality. We present the first case report, to our knowledge, of ACPO following total laparoscopic hysterectomy. We describe the presentation and management of ACPO in a patient who underwent uncomplicated total laparoscopic hysterectomy to treat menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea after declining conservative treatment. Following initial conservative management, the patient rapidly deteriorated and required laparotomy for clinically suspected cecal ischemia. Cecal resection, colonic decompression, and end ileostomy formation were performed. A brief review of the current literature is presented with respect to the case report. PMID:26164536

  17. Behavioral Sleep-Wake Homeostasis and EEG Delta Power Are Decoupled By Chronic Sleep Restriction in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Richard; Caron, Aimee M.; Famina, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) is prevalent in society and is linked to adverse consequences that might be ameliorated by acclimation of homeostatic drive. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the sleep-wake homeostat will acclimatize to CSR. DESIGN: A four-parameter model of proportional control was used to quantify sleep homeostasis with and without recourse to a sleep intensity function. Setting: Animal laboratory, rodent walking-wheel apparatus. Subjects: Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Acute total sleep deprivation (TSD, 1 day × 18 or 24 h, N = 12), CSR (10 days × 18 h TSD, N = 6, or 5 days × 20 h TSD, N = 5). Measurements and Results: Behavioral rebounds were consistent with model predictions for proportional control of cumulative times in wake, nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Delta (Δ) energy homeostasis was secondary to behavioral homeostasis; a biphasic NREM Δ power rebound contributed to the dynamics (rapid response) but not to the magnitude of the rebound in Δ energy. REM behavioral homeostasis was little affected by CSR. NREM behavioral homeostasis was attenuated in proportion to cumulative NREM deficit, whereas the biphasic NREM Δ power rebound was only slightly suppressed, indicating decoupled regulatory mechanisms following CSR. Conclusions: We conclude that sleep homeostasis is achieved through behavioral regulation, that the nonrapid eye movement sleep behavioral homeostat is susceptible to attenuation during chronic sleep restriction and that the concept of sleep intensity is not essential in a model of sleep-wake regulation. Citation: Stephenson R, Caron AM, Famina S. Behavioral sleep-wake homeostasis and EEG delta power are decoupled by chronic sleep restriction in the rat. SLEEP 2015;38(5):685–697. PMID:25669184

  18. Suppression of preoptic sleep-regulatory neuronal activity during corticotropin-releasing factor-induced sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gvilia, Irma; Suntsova, Natalia; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is implicated in sleep and arousal regulation. Exogenous CRF causes sleep suppression that is associated with activation of at least two important arousal systems: pontine noradrenergic and hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons. It is not known whether CRF also impacts sleep-promoting neuronal systems. We hypothesized that CRF-mediated changes in wake and sleep involve decreased activity of hypothalamic sleep-regulatory neurons localized in the preoptic area. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CRF on sleep-wake measures and c-Fos expression in GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) in different experimental conditions. Administration of CRF (0.1 nmol) during baseline rest phase led to delayed sleep onset and decreases in total amount and mean duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Administration of CRF during acute sleep deprivation (SD) resulted in suppression of recovery sleep and decreased c-Fos expression in MnPN/VLPO GABAergic neurons. Compared with vehicle controls, intracerebroventricular CRF potentiated disturbances of both NREM and REM sleep in rats exposed to a species-specific psychological stressor, the dirty cage of a male conspecific. The number of MnPN/VLPO GABAergic neurons expressing c-Fos was reduced in the CRF-treated group of dirty cage-exposed rats. These findings confirm the involvement of CRF in wake-sleep cycle regulation and suggest that increased CRF signaling in the brain 1) negatively affects homeostatic responses to sleep loss, 2) exacerbates stress-induced disturbances of sleep, and 3) suppresses the activity of sleep-regulatory neurons of the MnPN and VLPO. PMID:26333784

  19. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  20. Normal breathing pattern and arterial blood gases in awake and sleeping goats after near total destruction of the presumed pre-Bötzinger complex and the surrounding region

    PubMed Central

    Krause, K. L.; Forster, H. V.; Kiner, T.; Davis, S. E.; Bonis, J. M.; Qian, B.; Pan, L. G.

    2009-01-01

    Abrupt neurotoxic destruction of >70% of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötzC) in awake goats results in respiratory and cardiac failure (Wenninger JM, Pan LG, Klum L, Leekley T, Bastastic J, Hodges MR, Feroah TR, Davis S, Forster HV. J Appl Physiol 97: 1629–1636, 2004). However, in reduced preparations, rhythmic respiratory activity has been found in other areas of the brain stem (Huang Q, St. John WM. J Appl Physiol 64: 1405–1411, 1988; Janczewski WA, Feldman JL. J Physiol 570: 407–420, 2006; Lieske SP, Thoby-Brisson M, Telgkamo P, Ramierz JM. Nature Neurosci 3: 600–607, 2000; St. John WM, Bledsoe TA. J Appl Physiol 59: 684–690, 1985); thus we hypothesized that, when the preBötzC is destroyed incrementally over weeks, time-dependent plasticity within the respiratory network will result in a respiratory rhythm capable of maintaining normal blood gases. Microtubules were bilaterally implanted into the presumed preBötzC of seven goats. After recovery from surgery, studies were completed to establish baseline values for respiratory parameters. At weekly intervals, increasing volumes (in order 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μl) of ibotenic acid (IA; 50 mM) were then injected into the preBötzC. All IA injections resulted in an acute tachypnea and dysrhythmia featuring augmented breaths, apneas, and increased breath-to-breath variation in breathing. In studies at night, apneas were nearly all central and occurred in the awake state. Breath-to-breath variation in breathing was greater (P < 0.05) during wakefulness than during non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, one week after the final IA injection, the breathing pattern, breath-to-breath variation, and arterial blood gases and pH were unchanged from baseline, but there was a 20% decrease in respiratory frequency (f) and CO2 sensitivity (P < 0.05), as well as a 40% decrease in the ventilatory response to hypoxia (P < 0.001). In subsequent histological analysis of the presumed preBötzC region of lesioned goats, it

  1. Acute effects of oxygen administration on transmural pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Marrone, O; Bellia, V; Pieri, D; Salvaggio, A; Bonsignore, G

    1992-04-01

    In order to investigate the role of hypoxia on the cyclic oscillation of transmural pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in obstructive sleep apnea, oxygen was administered during one half of the night to six patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during a nocturnal polysomnographic study. In each patient, transmural PAP measurements were performed on 15 randomly selected apneas recorded while breathing room air, and on 15 during O2 administration. During O2 administration in all patients, apneas were associated with a higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2), a smaller SaO2 swing, and a higher transcutaneous PCO2. The mean highest level of transmural PAP in the apneic episodes, commonly reached at their end, was significantly lower than while breathing room air in only two patients; however, due to a decrease in the mean lowest PAP level (at the beginning of apneas), the extent of the PAP increase within apneas did not differ between air and O2 breathing; these patients showed the smallest increase in transcutaneous PCO2 in our sample. End-apneic transmural PAP during O2 administration was significantly higher in one subject (for systolic values) and was not significantly different in the remaining three subjects. The extent of the increase in transmural PAP within apneas was greater in one patient; it was smaller in another one, but only for the diastolic values; and it did not differ significantly with respect to the value observed while breathing room air in all of the other subjects. The results suggest that hypoxia in obstructive apneas, at least in some patients, may lead to a steady increase in PAP, detectable both at the beginning and at the end of the episodes; conversely, the increase in PAP within apneas does not seem to be influenced by the simultaneous decrease in SaO2. PMID:1555416

  2. Homeostasis alteration within small intestinal mucosa after acute enteral refeeding in total parenteral nutrition mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongjia; Barrett, Meredith; Hou, Yue; Yoon, Hong Keun; Ochi, Takanori; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2016-02-15

    Feeding strategies to care for patients who transition from enteral nutrient deprivation while on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feedings generally proceed to full enteral nutrition once the gastrointestinal tract recovers; however, an increasing body of literature suggests that a subgroup of patients may actually develop an increased incidence of adverse events, including death. To examine this further, we studied the effects of acute refeeding in a mouse model of TPN. Interestingly, refeeding led to some beneficial effects, including prevention in the decline in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. However, refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an upregulation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). Refeeding also failed to prevent TPN-associated increases in IEC apoptosis, loss of epithelial barrier function, and failure of the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive stem cell expression. Transitioning from TPN to enteral feedings led to a partial restoration of the small bowel microbial population. In conclusion, while acute refeeding led to some restoration of normal gastrointestinal physiology, enteral refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal inflammatory markers and may suggest alternative strategies to enteral refeeding should be considered.

  3. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen M.; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis; Bates, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph based records. The findings that parent reported and actigraph recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents’ awareness of their child’s sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep. PMID:26151612

  4. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    duration and depth of sleep after thermogenetic sleep deprivation. Neither of the two genotypes has reduced total baseline sleep. Statistical analysis across all screened lines shows that genotype is a strong predictor of recovery sleep, independent from effects of genotype on baseline sleep. Conclusions: Our data show that rebound sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation can be genetically separated from sleep at baseline. This suggests that genetically controlled mechanisms of sleep regulation not manifest under undisturbed conditions contribute to sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation. Citation: Dubowy C, Moravcevic K, Yue Z, Wan JY, Van Dongen HP, Sehgal A. Genetic dissociation of daily sleep and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1083–1095. PMID:26951392

  5. Sleeping Beauty transposon screen identifies signaling modules that cooperate with STAT5 activation to induce B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heltemes-Harris, Lynn M.; Larson, Jon D.; Starr, Timothy K.; Hubbard, Gregory K.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    STAT5 activation occurs frequently in human progenitor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). To identify gene alterations that cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate leukemia we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) to mice in which a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon (T2/Onc) was mobilized only in B cells. Stat5b-CA mice typically do not develop B-ALL (<2% penetrance); in contrast, 89% of Stat5b–CA mice in which the T2/Onc transposon had been mobilized died of B-ALL by 3 months of age. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to identify genes frequently targeted by the T2/Onc transposon; these included Sos1 (74%), Kdm2a (35%), Jak1 (26%), Bmi1 (19%), Prdm14 or Ncoa2 (13%), Cdkn2a (10%), Ikzf1 (8%), Caap1 (6%) and Klf3 (6%). Collectively, these mutations target three major cellular processes: (i) the JAK/STAT5 pathway (ii) progenitor B cell differentiation and (iii) the CDKN2A tumor suppressor pathway. Transposon insertions typically resulted in altered expression of these genes, as well as downstream pathways including STAT5, ERK and p38. Importantly, expression of Sos1 and Kdm2a, and activation of p38, correlated with survival, further underscoring the role these genes and associated pathways play in B-ALL. PMID:26500062

  6. Effects of acute microinjections of the thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine to the preoptic region of adult male rats on sleep, thermoregulation and motor activity.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas D; Moffett, Steven X; Scanlan, Thomas S; Martin, Joseph V

    2013-06-01

    The decarboxylated thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) has been reported as having behavioral and physiological consequences distinct from those of thyroid hormones. Here, we investigate the effects of T1AM on EEG-defined sleep after acute administration to the preoptic region of adult male rats. Our laboratory recently demonstrated a decrease in EEG-defined sleep after administration of 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) to the same brain region. After injection of T1AM or vehicle solution, EEG, EMG, activity, and core body temperature were recorded for 24h. Sleep parameters were determined from EEG and EMG data. Earlier investigations found contrasting systemic effects of T3 and T1AM, such as decreased heart rate and body temperature after intraperitoneal T1AM injection. However, nREM sleep was decreased in the present study after injections of 1 or 3 μg T1AM, but not after 0.3 or 10 μg, closely mimicking the previously reported effects of T3 administration to the preoptic region. The biphasic dose-response observed after either T1AM or T3 administration seems to indicate shared mechanisms and/or functions of sleep regulation in the preoptic region. Consistent with systemic administration of T1AM, however, microinjection of T1AM decreased body temperature. The current study is the first to show modulation of sleep by T1AM, and suggests that T1AM and T3 have both shared and independent effects in the adult mammalian brain.

  7. Effects of acute microinjections of the thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine to the preoptic region of adult male rats on sleep, thermoregulation and motor activity.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas D; Moffett, Steven X; Scanlan, Thomas S; Martin, Joseph V

    2013-06-01

    The decarboxylated thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) has been reported as having behavioral and physiological consequences distinct from those of thyroid hormones. Here, we investigate the effects of T1AM on EEG-defined sleep after acute administration to the preoptic region of adult male rats. Our laboratory recently demonstrated a decrease in EEG-defined sleep after administration of 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) to the same brain region. After injection of T1AM or vehicle solution, EEG, EMG, activity, and core body temperature were recorded for 24h. Sleep parameters were determined from EEG and EMG data. Earlier investigations found contrasting systemic effects of T3 and T1AM, such as decreased heart rate and body temperature after intraperitoneal T1AM injection. However, nREM sleep was decreased in the present study after injections of 1 or 3 μg T1AM, but not after 0.3 or 10 μg, closely mimicking the previously reported effects of T3 administration to the preoptic region. The biphasic dose-response observed after either T1AM or T3 administration seems to indicate shared mechanisms and/or functions of sleep regulation in the preoptic region. Consistent with systemic administration of T1AM, however, microinjection of T1AM decreased body temperature. The current study is the first to show modulation of sleep by T1AM, and suggests that T1AM and T3 have both shared and independent effects in the adult mammalian brain. PMID:23702093

  8. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  9. Total parenteral nutrition during acute pancreatitis: clinical experience with 156 patients.

    PubMed

    Robin, A P; Campbell, R; Palani, C K; Liu, K; Donahue, P E; Nyhus, L M

    1990-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 156 of 815 patients admitted to a single institution with acute pancreatitis received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 2,572 patient days. Seventy had "simple" acute pancreatitis (group I) and 86 (group II) developed local complex disease (pseudocyst, abscess, or necrotic gland). In groups I and II, respectively, days without oral intake (NPO) were 13.6 +/- 1.5 (SEM) and 24.0 +/- 2.1 (p less than 0.005), hospital days were 19.8 +/- 1.7 and 35.8 +/- 3.2 (p less than 0.005), and duration of TPN was 10.9 +/- 1.0 and 21.0 +/- 2.3 days (p less than 0.005). Thirty-three patients in group I and 53 in group II required exogenous insulin. Alteration of standard formulas was necessary in 87 patients, but cessation of therapy was necessary in only one instance. Twenty catheters were removed for suspected sepsis with only 3 confirmed cases. Fat-based formulas were well tolerated in 15% of patients. During TPN, body weight rose from 95.0 +/- 2.4% to 97.4 +/- 4.3% of ideal in group I and remained at 90.5 +/- 1.8% in group II. Albumin rose from 3.36 +/- 0.10 to 3.50 +/- 0.08 g/dl in group I and from 3.01 +/- 0.07 to 3.35 +/- 0.07 g/dl in group II. The entire cohort differed from 10 randomly chosen patients who did not receive TPN in terms of days NPO (2.8 +/- 0.3) and hospital days (5.5 +/- 0.6). Variables associated with prolongation of hospital stay and time NPO were number of prognostic criteria, local complex disease, and underlying chronic pancreatitis only in select groups. We conclude that during acute pancreatitis, TPN can be administered safely but with careful monitoring and we recommend early aggressive therapy in the subgroups noted above and when underlying malnutrition exists. In the borderline patient, TPN may be administered by peripheral vein until the severity of disease is manifest.

  10. Impact of a nursing-driven sleep hygiene protocol on sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Faraklas, Iris; Holt, Brennen; Tran, Sally; Lin, Hsin; Saffle, Jeffrey; Cochran, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact on sleep quality of a nursing-driven sleep hygiene protocol (SHP) instituted in a single burn-trauma intensive care unit. Criteria for eligibility were adult patients admitted to the Burn Service who were not delirious, able to respond verbally, and had not received general anesthesia in the prior 24 hours. Patients were surveyed using the validated Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire prior to implementation ("PRE"; May to December 2010) and following implementation ("POST"; January to August 2011) of a SHP that sought to minimize environmental stimuli and limit disruptions during the night. This analysis includes only initial survey responses from each patient. A total of 130 patients were surveyed, 81 PRE and 49 POST; 60% were burn admissions. There was no significant difference in responses to the questionnaire between burn and nonburn patients. All patients in the POST group were significantly older and more frequently endorsed taking sleep medication at home. Although not significant, POST patients reported falling asleep somewhat more quickly, but no other differences were identified between the two groups. Among patients who reported having sleep difficulties prior to admission, POST patients not only reported a significantly higher pain score than PRE patients, but also reported significant improvement in falling asleep and being able to go back to sleep. Frequency of complaints of sleep disruption was unchanged between PRE and POST patients. POST patients did complain significantly less than PRE patients about sleep disruptions by clinicians. Implementation of the SHP permitted acutely injured or ill patients in our intensive care unit to fall asleep more quickly and to experience fewer sleep disruptions. A sleep protocol may be helpful in improving sleep and overall well-being of burn center patients. PMID:23412331

  11. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  12. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  13. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24 h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1β signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions.

  14. A Novel BHLHE41 Variant is Associated with Short Sleep and Resistance to Sleep Deprivation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J.; Dinges, David F.; Kuna, Samuel T.; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Design: Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. Results: We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. Conclusions: There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Citation: Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336. PMID:25083013

  15. Acute Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment Associated with Transition onto the First Night of Work Impairs Visual Selective Attention

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Horowitz, Todd S.; Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search), vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT]) and alertness (with a visual analog scale) in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p = .04), and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming ‘fast and sloppy’. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05) indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05). Conclusions/Significance These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work. PMID:18043740

  16. Sleep Loss in Resident Physicians: The Cause of Medical Errors?

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Milton

    2010-01-01

    This review begins with the history of the events starting with the death of Libby Zion that lead to the Bell Commission, that the studied her death and made recommendations for improvement that were codified into law in New York state as the 405 law that the ACGME essentially adopted in putting a cap on work hours and establishing the level of staff supervision that must be available to residents in clinical situations particularly the emergency room and acute care units. A summary is then provided of the findings of the laboratory effects of total sleep deprivation including acute total sleep loss and the consequent widespread physiologic alterations, and of the effects of selective and chronic sleep loss. Generally the sequence of responses to increasing sleep loss goes from mood changes to cognitive effects to performance deficits. In the laboratory situation, deficits resulting from sleep deprivation are clearly and definitively demonstrable. Sleep loss in the clinical situation is usually sleep deprivation superimposed on chronic sleep loss. An examination of questionnaire studies, the literature on reports of sleep loss, studies of the reduction of work hours on performance as well as observational and a few interventional studies have yielded contradictory and often equivocal results. The residents generally find they feel better working fewer hours but improvements in patient care are often not reported or do not occur. A change in the attitude of the resident toward his role and his patient has not been salutary. Decreasing sleep loss should have had a positive effect on patient care in reducing medical error, but this remains to be unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:21188260

  17. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  18. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    PubMed Central

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  19. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  20. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  1. Acute Psychophysiological Relationships Between Mood, Inflammatory and Cortisol Changes in Response to Simulated Physical Firefighting Work and Sleep Restriction.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined how changes in wildland firefighters' mood relate to cytokine and cortisol levels in response to simulated physical firefighting work and sleep restriction. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated wildfire suppression work separated by an 8-h (control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep opportunity (sleep restriction condition; n = 17) each night. Firefighters' mood was assessed daily using the Mood Scale II and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale. Participants also provided samples for the determination of salivary cortisol and pro- (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels. An increase in the positive mood dimension Happiness was related to a rise in IL-8 and TNF-α in the sleep restriction condition. A rise in the positive mood dimension Activation among sleep restricted firefighters was also related to higher IL-6 levels. An increase in the negative mood dimension Fatigue in the sleep restriction condition was associated with increased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and cortisol levels. In addition, an increase in Fear among sleep restricted firefighters was associated with a rise in TNF-α. Elevated positive mood and immune activation may reflect an appropriate response by the firefighters to these stressors. To further understand this relationship, subsequent firefighting-based research is needed that investigates whether immune changes are a function of affective arousal linked to the expression of positive moods. Positive associations between negative mood and inflammatory and cortisol levels to physical work and restricted sleep provide useful information to fire agencies about subjective fire-ground indicators of physiological changes.

  2. Sleep Schedules and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Studied relationship between adolescents' sleep/wake habits and daytime functioning. Found that self-reported total sleep times decreased from age 13 to 19 years. Struggling or failing students obtained less sleep, went to bed later, and had greater weekend delays of sleep than those with better grades. Students with inadequate sleep reported…

  3. Early postoperative albumin level following total knee arthroplasty is associated with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Jung; Koh, Won-Uk; Kim, Sae-Gyeol; Park, Hyeok-Seong; Song, Jun-Gol; Ro, Young-Jin; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypoalbuminemia has been reported to be an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, little is known about the relationship between the albumin level and the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of our study was to assess incidence and risk factors for AKI and to evaluate the relationship between albumin level and AKI following TKA. The study included a retrospective review of medical records of 1309 consecutive patients who underwent TKA between January 2008 and December 2014. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the lowest serum albumin level within 2 postoperative days (POD2_alb level < 3.0 g/dL vs ≥3.0 g/dL). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for AKI. A comparison of incidence of AKI, hospital stay, and overall mortality in the 2 groups was performed using propensity score analysis. Of 1309 patients, 57 (4.4%) developed AKI based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Factors associated with AKI included age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.09; P = 0.030), diabetes (OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.65–5.89; P < 0.001), uric acid (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.26–1.82; P < 0.001), beta blocker use (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.48–4.73; P = 0.001), diuretics (OR 16.42; 95% CI 3.08–87.68; P = 0.001), and POD2_alb level < 3.0 g/dL (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.09–3.37; P = 0.023). After propensity score analysis, POD2_alb level<3.0 g/dL was associated with AKI occurrence (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.03–3.24, P = 0.041) and longer hospital stay (P = 0.001). In this study, we demonstrated that POD2_alb level<3.0 g/dL was an independent risk factor for AKI and lengthened hospital stay in patients undergoing TKA. PMID:27495094

  4. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle. PMID:26594659

  5. Predicting risk in space: Genetic markers for differential vulnerability to sleep restriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2012-08-01

    Several laboratories have found large, highly reliable individual differences in the magnitude of cognitive performance, fatigue and sleepiness, and sleep homeostatic vulnerability to acute total sleep deprivation and to chronic sleep restriction in healthy adults. Such individual differences in neurobehavioral performance are also observed in space flight as a result of sleep loss. The reasons for these stable phenotypic differential vulnerabilities are unknown: such differences are not yet accounted for by demographic factors, IQ or sleep need, and moreover, psychometric scales do not predict those individuals cognitively vulnerable to sleep loss. The stable, trait-like (phenotypic) inter-individual differences observed in response to sleep loss—with intraclass correlation coefficients accounting for 58-92% of the variance in neurobehavioral measures—point to an underlying genetic component. To this end, we utilized multi-day highly controlled laboratory studies to investigate the role of various common candidate gene variants—each independently—in relation to cumulative neurobehavioral and sleep homeostatic responses to sleep restriction. These data suggest that common genetic variations (polymorphisms) involved in sleep-wake, circadian, and cognitive regulation may serve as markers for prediction of inter-individual differences in sleep homeostatic and neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep restriction in healthy adults. Identification of genetic predictors of differential vulnerability to sleep restriction—as determined from candidate gene studies—will help identify astronauts most in need of fatigue countermeasures in space flight and inform medical standards for obtaining adequate sleep in space. This review summarizes individual differences in neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep deprivation and ongoing genetic efforts to identify markers of such differences.

  6. Treosulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-29

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  7. The effect of CA1 α2 adrenergic receptors on memory retention deficit induced by total sleep deprivation and the reversal of circadian rhythm in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Norozpour, Yaser; Nasehi, Mohammad; Sabouri-Khanghah, Vahid; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    The α2 adrenergic receptors which abundantly express in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play an important role in the regulation of sleep and memory retention processes. Based on the available evidence, the aim of our study was to investigate consequences of the activation and deactivation of CA1 α2 adrenergic receptors (by clonidine and yohimbine, respectively) on the impairment of memory retention induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) and the reversal of circadian rhythm (RCR) in a rat model. To this end, the water box apparatus and passive avoidance task were in turn used to induce sleep deprivation and assess memory retention. Our findings suggested that TSD (for 24 and 36, but not 12h) and RCR (12h/day for 3 consecutive days) impair memory function. The post-training intra-CA1 administration of yohimbine (α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on its own, at the dose of 0.1μg/rat, decreased the step-through latency and locomotor activity in the TSD- sham treated but not undisturbed sleep rats. Unlike yohimbine, clonidine (α2 adrenergic receptor agonist), in all applied doses (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1μg/rat), failed to induce such an effect. While the subthreshold dose of yohimbine (0.001μg/rat) abrogated the impairment of memory retention induced by the 24-h TSD, it could potentiate the impairment of memory retention induced by 36-h TSD, suggesting the modulatory effect of yohimbine. Moreover, the subthreshold dose of clonidine (0.1μg/rat) restored the memory retention deficit in TSD rats (24 and 36h). On the other hand, the subthreshold dose of clonidine (0.1μg/rat), but not yohimbine (0.001μg/rat) restored the memory retention deficit in RCR rats. Such interventions however did not alter the locomotor activity. The above observations proposed that CA1 α2 adrenergic receptors play a potential role in memory retention deficits induced by TSD and RCR. PMID:27291858

  8. Emergency revascularization procedures in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to acute total occlusion of unprotected left main coronary artery: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Aygül, Nazif; Aygül, Meryem Ulkü; Ozdemir, Kurtuluş; Altunkeser, Bülent Behlül

    2010-03-01

    Several studies have compared the efficacy of elective coronary artery stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. However, a definite reperfusion modality has yet to be established in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to acute total occlusion of ULMCA, which has catastrophic clinical results. We presented five patients (3 males, 2 females; mean age 59 years; range 53 to 67 years) with acute anterior STEMI and angiographically documented acute total occlusion of ULMCA. On presentation, all the patients had chest pain and four patients were in cardiogenic shock. All the patients were taken to the catheterization room with minimum delay. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation was used during coronary angiography in all the patients. Three patients underwent PCI and, after balloon predilatation, bare-metal stents were implanted and TIMI III flow was achieved. One patient who had atrial fibrillation on admission died on the 14th day of hospitalization after PCI due to pump failure. After diagnostic coronary angiography, two patients were submitted to surgery for emergency CABG. They both died, one within two hours of admission during preparation of the surgical team, and the other on the third postoperative day. Both were in cardiogenic shock on admission.

  9. Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation and Chemotherapy Before Donor Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission

  10. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  11. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  12. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships. PMID:27089346

  13. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M.; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships. PMID:27089346

  14. Endothelial function and sleep: associations of flow-mediated dilation with perceived sleep quality and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Milic, Milos S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J; Loredo, José S; Von Känel, Roland; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2014-02-01

    Endothelial function typically precedes clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and provides a potential mechanism for the associations observed between cardiovascular disease and sleep quality. This study examined how subjective and objective indicators of sleep quality relate to endothelial function, as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In a clinical research centre, 100 non-shift working adults (mean age: 36 years) completed FMD testing and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, along with a polysomnography assessment to obtain the following measures: slow wave sleep, percentage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep latency, total arousal index, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and apnea-hypopnea index. Bivariate correlations and follow-up multiple regressions examined how FMD related to subjective (i.e., Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores) and objective (i.e., polysomnography-derived) indicators of sleep quality. After FMD showed bivariate correlations with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, percentage REM sleep and REM latency, further examination with separate regression models indicated that these associations remained significant after adjustments for sex, age, race, hypertension, body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index, smoking and income (Ps < 0.05). Specifically, as FMD decreased, scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index increased (indicating decreased subjective sleep quality) and percentage REM sleep decreased, while REM sleep latency increased (Ps < 0.05). Poorer subjective sleep quality and adverse changes in REM sleep were associated with diminished vasodilation, which could link sleep disturbances to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage.

  16. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  17. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yanshun; Qin, Maoquan; Wang, Bin; Li, Sidan; Zhu, Guanghua; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Huyong

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI) myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD). The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27217774

  18. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  19. Age-Related Influences of Prior Sleep on Brain Activation during Verbal Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Jonelis, Michelle B.; Drummond, Sean P. A.; Salamat, Jennifer S.; McKenna, Benjamin S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bondi, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OLD) than younger adults (YOUNG), often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OLD and YOUNG. Twenty-seven OLD (ages 59–82) and 27 YOUNG (ages 19–36) underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses examined the group (OLD vs. YOUNG) by prior sleep quantity (total sleep time, TST) or quality (sleep efficiency, SE) interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampal in OLD and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YOUNG. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YOUNG, but not in OLD. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OLD, longer sleep duration may be linked to the ability to engage in functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YOUNG, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YOUNG, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding. PMID:22493590

  20. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  1. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both P<0·05) and 3-d energy intake deficits of approximately 30 % (both P=0·015). Resting and meal-induced thermogenesis were not significantly affected by either ER intervention. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the ability of substantial ER to acutely alter postprandial glucose-lipid metabolism (with partial ER producing the more favourable overall response), as well as incomplete energy-intake compensation amongst overweight/obese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health. PMID:26819200

  2. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2016-03-28

    The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (75-100 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. This study aimed to characterise the early metabolic response to these varying degrees of ER, which occurs acutely and prior to weight loss. Ten (three female) healthy, overweight/obese participants (36 (SEM 5) years; 29·0 (sem 1·1) kg/m2) took part in this acute three-way cross-over study. Participants completed three 1-d dietary interventions in a randomised order with a 1-week washout period: isoenergetic intake, partial 75 % ER and total 100 % ER. Fasting and postprandial (6-h) metabolic responses to a liquid test meal were assessed the following morning via serial blood sampling and indirect calorimetry. Food intake was also recorded for two subsequent days of ad libitum intake. Relative to the isoenergetic control, postprandial glucose responses were increased following total ER (+142 %; P=0·015) and to a lesser extent after partial ER (+76 %; P=0·051). There was also a delay in the glucose time to peak after total ER only (P=0·024). Both total and partial ER interventions produced comparable reductions in postprandial TAG responses (-75 and -59 %, respectively; both P<0·05) and 3-d energy intake deficits of approximately 30 % (both P=0·015). Resting and meal-induced thermogenesis were not significantly affected by either ER intervention. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the ability of substantial ER to acutely alter postprandial glucose-lipid metabolism (with partial ER producing the more favourable overall response), as well as incomplete energy-intake compensation amongst overweight/obese participants. Further investigations are required to establish how metabolism adapts over time to the repeated perturbations experienced during IER, as well as the implications for long-term health.

  3. Effects of acute microinjections of thyroid hormone to the preoptic region of euthyroid adult male rats on sleep and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joseph V; Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Moffett, Steven X; James, Thomas D

    2013-06-21

    In adult brain tissue, thyroid hormones are known to have multiple effects which are not mediated by chronic influences of the hormones on heterodimeric thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. Previous work has shown that acute microinjections of l-triiodothyronine (T3) to the preoptic region significantly influence EEG-defined sleep in hypothyroid rats. The current study examined the effects of similar microinjections in euthyroid rats. In 7 rats with histologically confirmed microinjection sites bilaterally placed in the preoptic region, slow-wave sleep time was significantly decreased, but REM and waking were increased as compared to vehicle-injected controls. The EEG-defined parameters were significantly influenced by the microinjections in a biphasic dose-response relationship; the lowest (0.3μg) and highest (10μg) doses tested were without significant effect while intermediate doses (1 and 3μg) induced significant differences from controls. There were significant diurnal variations in the measures, yet no significant interactions between the effect of hormone and time of day were demonstrated. Core body temperature was not significantly altered in the current study. The demonstration of effects of T3 within hours instead of days is consistent with a rapid mechanism of action such as a direct influence on neurotransmission. Since the T3-mediated effects were robust in the current work, euthyroid rats retain thyroid hormone sensitivity which would be needed if sleep-regulatory mechanisms in the preoptic region are continuously modulated by the hormones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled LInked: BRES-D-12-01552 & BRES-D-12-01363R2.

  4. Effects of acute microinjections of thyroid hormone to the preoptic region of euthyroid adult male rats on sleep and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joseph V; Giannopoulos, Phillip F; Moffett, Steven X; James, Thomas D

    2013-06-21

    In adult brain tissue, thyroid hormones are known to have multiple effects which are not mediated by chronic influences of the hormones on heterodimeric thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. Previous work has shown that acute microinjections of l-triiodothyronine (T3) to the preoptic region significantly influence EEG-defined sleep in hypothyroid rats. The current study examined the effects of similar microinjections in euthyroid rats. In 7 rats with histologically confirmed microinjection sites bilaterally placed in the preoptic region, slow-wave sleep time was significantly decreased, but REM and waking were increased as compared to vehicle-injected controls. The EEG-defined parameters were significantly influenced by the microinjections in a biphasic dose-response relationship; the lowest (0.3μg) and highest (10μg) doses tested were without significant effect while intermediate doses (1 and 3μg) induced significant differences from controls. There were significant diurnal variations in the measures, yet no significant interactions between the effect of hormone and time of day were demonstrated. Core body temperature was not significantly altered in the current study. The demonstration of effects of T3 within hours instead of days is consistent with a rapid mechanism of action such as a direct influence on neurotransmission. Since the T3-mediated effects were robust in the current work, euthyroid rats retain thyroid hormone sensitivity which would be needed if sleep-regulatory mechanisms in the preoptic region are continuously modulated by the hormones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled LInked: BRES-D-12-01552 & BRES-D-12-01363R2. PMID:23348377

  5. Sleep depth and continuity before and after chronic exercise in older men: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2015-03-01

    During later life sleep depth (slow-wave sleep, SWS) and maintenance exhibit deleterious changes, with possible negative effects on daytime function. This study assessed the effect of chronic, supervised exercise on sleep using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and repeated measures in older adults. Thirteen men aged 64±3served as their own controls and had their sleep measured for a total of 6 nights: 3 before and 3 after the 16-week training intervention. Each sequence involved 1 familiarization trial followed by 2 experimental nights (exercise night; nonexercise night) measured using 13-channel PSG (combined electroencephalography, electromyography, and electro-oculography). The exercise challenges consisted of inclined treadmill brisk walking (60min, 68-69% V˙O2peak). The intervention successfully improved some parameters of aerobic fitness, i.e. ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (P<0.05). Acute exercise triggered increases in circulating free fatty acids and lactate levels both at baseline and after the intervention (P<0.05). Noteworthy, acute exercise following training resulted in a 71% increase in SWS during subsequent sleep in comparison with the nonexercise condition before training, respectively 2.4% and 1.4% (P<0.05). Following training, acute exercise reduced total wake time by 30% and REM onset latency by 14% (P<0.05). Acute exercise improved sleep continuity by decreasing total wake time. These results show that aerobic training could increase sleep depth and continuity, during active days, in elderly men. In habitual exercisers, these effects of aerobic exercise on sleep, although modest, might counteract those resulting from aging. PMID:25540930

  6. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles. PMID:21112025

  7. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    PubMed

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    effects of sleep could be objectively differentiated from the effects of rest and recumbency. Furthermore, the specific effects of sleep onset and termination, and the effects of different sleep stages, could be assessed. Technological advances, with consequently enhanced and relatively non-invasive approaches to cardiovascular regulation, have greatly broadened our understanding of the effects of sleep stage on cardiovascular function. Continuous monitoring of simultaneous measures of polysomnographic and cardiovascular variables enables characterization of the effects of dynamic changes and rapid transitions in sleep stage, such as arousals. The capacity for measuring acute and immediate changes in autonomic, EEG and hemodynamic responses to sleep and arousal on a continuous basis has played an important role in enabling us to understand the interplay between changes in EEG and changes in the more peripheral measurements of neural and circulatory variables, such as sympathetic nerve traffic, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) (8-10), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) (11-16), and intraneural measurement of sympathetic nerve traffic to muscle (MSNA) (17-22) and skin (SSNA) (23-24) have further advanced our understanding of mechanisms linking sleep and cardiovascular physiology.

  8. Total dream loss: a distinct neuropsychological dysfunction after bilateral PCA stroke.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Matthias; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2004-10-01

    The term Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome (CWS) denotes dream loss following focal brain damage. We report the first case of CWS, in whom neuropsychological functions, extension of the underlying lesion, and sleep architecture changes were assessed. A 73-year-old woman reported a total dream loss after acute, bilateral occipital artery infarction (including the right inferior lingual gyrus), which lasted for over 3 months. In the absence of sleep-wake complaints and (other) neuropsychological deficits, polysomnography demonstrated an essentially normal sleep architecture with preservation of REM sleep. Dreaming was denied also after repeated awakenings from REM sleep. This observation suggests that CWS (1) can represent a distinct and isolated neuropsychological manifestation of deep occipital lobe damage, and (2) may occur in the absence of detectable REM sleep abnormalities.

  9. Acute Administration of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Increases the Pro-BDNF/Total-BDNF Ratio in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O S; Furlanetto, Camila B; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by an inborn error in metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. High levels of BCAAs are associated with neurological dysfunction and the role of pro- and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neurological dysfunction of MSUD is still unclear. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of an acute BCAA pool administration on BDNF levels and on the pro-BDNF cleavage-related proteins S100A10 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat brains. Our results demonstrated that acute Hyper-BCAA (H-BCAA) exposure during the early postnatal period increases pro-BDNF and total-BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Moreover, tPA levels were significantly decreased, without modifications in the tPA transcript levels in the hippocampus and striatum. On the other hand, the S100A10 mRNA and S100A10 protein levels were not changed in the hippocampus and striatum. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed increased pro-BDNF, total-BDNF and tPA levels only in the striatum, whereas the tPA and S100A10 mRNA expression and the immunocontent of S100A10 were not altered. In conclusion, we demonstrated that acute H-BCAA administration increases the pro-BDNF/total-BDNF ratio and decreases the tPA levels in animals, suggesting that the BCAA effect may depend, at least in part, on changes in BDNF post-translational processing. PMID:25681161

  10. Successful Surgical Exclusion of Rapidly Expanding Kommerell Diverticulum Following a Total Arch Replacement for an Acute Type A Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Natsume, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hiraiwa, Takane

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with an acute type A aortic dissection with an aberrant right subclavian artery. Emergent total arch replacement with an elephant trunk was performed. Intraoperatively, the origin of the aberrant right subclavian artery could not be resected because it was located too far from the distal arch. After two weeks, the patient became aware of dysphagia. Postoperative computed tomography showed the esophagus was compressed anteriorly by the aneurismal origin of this aberrant vessel (Kommerell diverticulum) with a patent false lumen. Additional replacement of the descending aorta via left thoracotomy was performed immediately to exclude a Kommerell diverticulum. PMID:25298842

  11. Successful surgical exclusion of rapidly expanding kommerell diverticulum following a total arch replacement for an acute type a aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keizo; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Natsume, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hiraiwa, Takane

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with an acute type A aortic dissection with an aberrant right subclavian artery. Emergent total arch replacement with an elephant trunk was performed. Intraoperatively, the origin of the aberrant right subclavian artery could not be resected because it was located too far from the distal arch. After two weeks, the patient became aware of dysphagia. Postoperative computed tomography showed the esophagus was compressed anteriorly by the aneurismal origin of this aberrant vessel (Kommerell diverticulum) with a patent false lumen. Additional replacement of the descending aorta via left thoracotomy was performed immediately to exclude a Kommerell diverticulum.

  12. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Artz, Andrew S; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Epstein, Robert B; Lazarus, Hillard M; Olsson, Richard F; Selby, George B; Williams, Kirsten M; Cooke, Kenneth R; Pasquini, Marcelo C; McCarthy, Philip L

    2015-07-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n = 948; TBICy, n = 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLA-matched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P = .67; relative risk, 1.01; P = .91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P = .34; relative risk, .89, P = .18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P = .27; relative risk, .93; P = .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P = .39; relative risk, .9; P = .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P = .62; relative risk, .96; P = .57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P = .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning.

  13. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Artz, Andrew S; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Epstein, Robert B; Lazarus, Hillard M; Olsson, Richard F; Selby, George B; Williams, Kirsten M; Cooke, Kenneth R; Pasquini, Marcelo C; McCarthy, Philip L

    2015-07-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n = 948; TBICy, n = 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLA-matched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P = .67; relative risk, 1.01; P = .91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P = .34; relative risk, .89, P = .18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P = .27; relative risk, .93; P = .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P = .39; relative risk, .9; P = .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P = .62; relative risk, .96; P = .57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P = .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning. PMID:25840335

  14. Molecular and cellular profiling of acute responses to total body radiation exposure in ovariectomized female cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    DeBo, Ryne J.; Register, Thomas C.; Caudell, David L.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Dugan, Gregory; Gray, Shauna; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Bourland, J. Daniel; Chao, Nelson J.; Cline, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The threat of radiation exposure requires a mechanistic understanding of radiation-induced immune injury and recovery. The study objective was to evaluate responses to ionizing radiation in ovariectomized (surgically post-menopausal) female cynomolgus macaques. Materials and methods Animals received a single total-body irradiation (TBI) exposure at doses of 0, 2 or 5 Gy with scheduled necropsies at 5 days, 8 weeks and 24 weeks post-exposure. Blood and lymphoid tissues were evaluated for morphologic, cellular, and molecular responses. Results Irradiated animals developed symptoms of acute hematopoietic syndrome, and reductions in thymus weight, thymopoiesis, and bone marrow cellularity. Acute, transient increases in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were observed in 5 Gy animals along with dose-dependent alterations in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) signatures in thymus, spleen, and lymph node. Expression of T cell markers was lower in thymus and spleen, while expression of macrophage marker CD68 (cluster of differentiation 68) was relatively elevated in lymphoid tissues from irradiated animals. Conclusions Ovariectomized female macaques exposed to moderate doses of radiation experienced increased morbidity, including acute, dose-dependent alterations in systemic and tissue-specific biomarkers, and increased macrophage/T cell ratios. The effects on mortality exceeded expectations based on previous studies in males, warranting further investigation. PMID:25786585

  15. Passive body heating improves sleep patterns in female patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andressa; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Andersen, Monica Levy; Mônico-Neto, Marcos; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Roizenblatt, Suely; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of passive body heating on the sleep patterns of patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Six menopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the criteria determined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. All women underwent passive immersion in a warm bath at a temperature of 36±1°C for 15 sessions of 30 minutes each over a period of three weeks. Their sleep patterns were assessed by polysomnography at the following time-points: pre-intervention (baseline), the first day of the intervention (acute), the last day of the intervention (chronic), and three weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Core body temperature was evaluated by a thermistor pill during the baseline, acute, chronic, and follow-up periods. The impact of this treatment on fibromyalgia was assessed via a specific questionnaire termed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sleep latency, rapid eye movement sleep latency and slow wave sleep were significantly reduced in the chronic and acute conditions compared with baseline. Sleep efficiency was significantly increased during the chronic condition, and the awakening index was reduced at the chronic and follow-up time points relative to the baseline values. No significant differences were observed in total sleep time, time in sleep stages 1 or 2 or rapid eye movement sleep percentage. The core body temperature and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire responses did not significantly change over the course of the study. CONCLUSION: Passive body heating had a positive effect on the sleep patterns of women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23525306

  16. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  17. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol, and blood pressure/heart rate and whether a 2-hour mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (4 consecutive nights followed by a night of sleep loss and 2 recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (1400–1600) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-hour blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (pre-deprivation) and sixth day (post-deprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of “comfort” food and obesity. PMID:20545838

  18. Glycyrrhizin Represses Total Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Acute Liver Injury in Rats by Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lee, Kam-Fai; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an artificial way to support daily nutritional requirements by bypassing the digestive system, but long-term TPN administration may cause severe liver dysfunction. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root that has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizin on TPN-associated acute liver injury in vivo. Liver dysfunction was induced by intravenous infusion of TPN at a flow rate of 20 mL/kg/h for three h in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with Glycyrrhizin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg intravenously). After receiving TPN or saline (control group) for three h, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and liver tissue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. We found that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in the TPN group without glycyrrhizin pretreatment and decreased in the glycyrrhizin-pretreated TPN group in a dose-dependent manner. The stained liver sections showed that glycyrrhizin relieved acute liver injury. The upregulation of serum protein biomarkers of reactive nitrogen species, including nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were attenuated by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors, such as phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK and CHOP, were decreased by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. In summary, our results suggest that glycyrrhizin decreases TPN-associated acute liver injury factors by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reactive nitrogen stress. PMID:23771023

  19. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545

  20. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  1. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » About the NHLBI » Organization » National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) » Patient & Public Information » Sleep Quiz National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Research Professional Education Patient & Public Information Communications ...

  2. Links between the innate immune system and sleep.

    PubMed

    Majde, Jeannine A; Krueger, James M

    2005-12-01

    Sleep is a fundamental physiologic process with unknown functions. It is divided into 2 distinct states: non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep. After acute infection with nonneurotropic agents, there are stereotypic changes in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, particularly increased time spent in slow-wave sleep, and often a reduction of time spent in rapid-eye-movement sleep. It is now recognized that both infection-associated sleep and spontaneous sleep are regulated, in part, by immune mediators called cytokines. This review provides brief tutorials on the elements of the innate immune system that detect infection, how sleep is characterized in the laboratory, issues regarding the interpretation of sleep effects on immune function, the interaction of sleep with circadian rhythms and stress, and some of the microbial products, cytokines, and neuropeptides associated with sleep regulation. We also summarize our current understanding of the role of sleep in host defense and asthma exacerbation.

  3. Clinical Considerations of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Little REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Dae Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more severe during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during non-REM sleep. We aimed to determine the features of patients with OSA who experience little REM sleep. Methods Patients with a chief complaint of sleep-disordered breathing were enrolled. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) and completed questionnaires on sleep quality. Patients were divided into the following three groups according to the proportion of REM sleep detected in overnight PSG: little REM sleep [REM sleep <20% of total sleep time (TST)], normal REM sleep (20–25% of TST), and excessive REM sleep (>25% of TST). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. The success rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration was estimated in these groups. Results The age and body mass index of the patients were 47.9±15.9 years (mean±SD) and 25.2±4.1 kg/m2, respectively. The 902 patients comprised 684 (76%) men and 218 (24%) women. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in the little-REM-sleep group was 22.1±24.4 events/hour, which was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that a higher AHI (p<0.001; odds ratio, 1.512; 95% confidence interval, 1.020–1.812) was independently predictive of little REM sleep. The titration success rate was lower in the little-REM-sleep group than in the normal-REM-sleep group (p=0.038). Conclusions The AHI is higher and the success rate of CPAP titration is lower in OSA patients with little REM sleep than those with normal REM sleep.

  4. Sustained Sleep Fragmentation Induces Sleep Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1–4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4–40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF. Citation: Baud MO, Magistretti PJ, Petit JM. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice. SLEEP 2015;38(4):567–579. PMID:25325477

  5. Molecular imaging of in vivo calcium ion expression in area postrema of total sleep deprived rats: Implications for cardiovascular regulation by TOF-SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Ling, Yong-Chien; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Excessive calcium influx in chemosensitive neurons of area postrema (AP) is detrimental for sympathetic activation and participates in the disruption of cardiovascular activities. Since total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a stressful condition known to harm the cardiovascular function, the present study is aimed to determine whether the in vivo calcium expression in AP would significantly alter following TSD by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and calretinin (a specific calcium sensor protein in AP neurons) immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in normal rats, the calcium intensity was estimated to be 0.5 × 10 5 at m/ z 40.08. However, following TSD, the intensity for calcium ions was greatly increased to 1.2 × 10 5. Molecular imaging revealed that after TSD, various strongly expressed calcium signals were distributed throughout AP with clear identified profiles instead of randomly scattered within this region in normal rats. Immunohistochemical staining corresponded well with ionic image in which a majority of calcium-enriched gathering co-localized with calretinin positive neurons. The functional significance of TSD-induced calcium augmentation was demonstrated by increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, clinical markers for cardiovascular dysfunction. Considering AP-mediated sympathetic activation is important for cardiovascular regulation, exaggerated calcium influx in AP would render this neurocircuitry more vulnerable to over-excitation, which might serve as the underlying mechanism for the development of TSD-relevant cardiovascular deficiency.

  6. Hemiarch versus total aortic arch replacement in acute type A dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Shi Sum; Theologou, Thomas; Harrington, Deborah; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Oo, Aung

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in aortic surgery, acute type A aortic dissection remains a surgical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Appropriate management is crucial to achieve satisfactory outcomes but the optimal surgical approach is controversial. The present systematic review and meta-analysis sought to access cumulative data from comparative studies between hemiarch and total aortic arch replacement in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. Methods A systematic review of the literature using six databases. Eligible studies include comparative studies on hemiarch versus total arch replacement reporting short, medium and long term outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed on eligible studies reporting outcome of interest to quantify the effects of hemiarch replacement on mortality and morbidity risk compared to total arch replacement. Result Fourteen retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria and 2,221 patients were included in the final analysis. Pooled analysis showed that hemiarch replacement was associated with a lower risk of post-operative renal dialysis [risk ratio (RR) =0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56–0.94; P=0.02; I2=0%]. There was no significant difference in terms of in-hospital mortality between the two groups (RR =0.84; 95% CI: 0.65–1.09; P=0.20; I2=0%). Cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross clamp and circulatory arrest times were significantly longer in total arch replacement. During follow up, no significant difference was reported from current studies between the two operative approaches in terms of aortic re-intervention and freedom from aortic reoperation. Conclusions Within the context of publication bias by high volume aortic centres and non-randomized data sets, there was no difference in mortality outcomes between the two groups. This analysis serves to demonstrate that for those centers doing sufficient total aortic arch activity to allow for publication, excellent and equivalent outcomes

  7. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  8. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Levels of Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and Their Value for Predicting Short-Term Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Antonia; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; Gomez, Cristina; de la Peña, Monica; Pierola, Javier; Rodriguez, Alberto; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Abad, Jorge; Mediano, Olga; Amilibia, Jose; Masdeu, Maria Jose; Teran, Joaquin; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercè; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PlGF) induces angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair, and plasma PlGF levels change markedly during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with AMI is a subject of debate. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between PlGF levels and both the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and short-term outcomes after ACS in patients with and without OSA. Methods A total of 538 consecutive patients (312 OSA patients and 226 controls) admitted for ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent polygraphy in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. The severity of disease and short-term prognoses were evaluated during the hospitalization period. Plasma PlGF levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results Patients with OSA were significantly older and more frequently hypertensive and had higher BMIs than those without OSA. After adjusting for age, smoking status, BMI and hypertension, PlGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with OSA compared with patients without OSA (19.9 pg/mL, interquartile range: 16.6–24.5 pg/mL; 18.5 pg/mL, interquartile range: 14.7–22.7 pg/mL; p<0.001), and a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was associated with higher PlGF concentrations (p<0.003). Patients with higher levels of PlGF had also an increased odds ratio for the presence of 3 or more diseased vessels and for a Killip score>1, even after adjustment. Conclusions The results of this study show that in patients with ACS, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of OSA and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335087 PMID:26930634

  9. Estimating individual optimal sleep duration and potential sleep debt

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Shingo; Katayose, Yasuko; Nakazaki, Kyoko; Motomura, Yuki; Oba, Kentaro; Katsunuma, Ruri; Terasawa, Yuri; Enomoto, Minori; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hida, Akiko; Mishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual’s optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual’s vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level. Recovery from PSD was also associated with the improvement in glycometabolism, thyrotropic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Additionally, the increase (rebound) in total sleep time from HSD at the first extended sleep would be a simple indicator of PSD. These findings confirmed self-evaluating the degree of sleep debt at home as a useful clinical marker. To establish appropriate sleep habits, it is necessary to evaluate OSD, vulnerability to sleep loss, and sleep homeostasis characteristics on an individual basis. PMID:27775095

  10. Daily Sleep Changes in a Noisy Environment Assessed by Subjective and Polygraphic Sleep Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    1997-08-01

    Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency, REM cycle, REM duration, frequency and duration in minutes of awakening during sleep, total sleep time, number of sleep stage shifts, sleep efficiency, number of sleep spindles and density. The differences between reaction times before sleep that night and the following morning were also examined. The subjects were twelve students aged 19 to 21 who were tested a total of 96 nights. Each subject slept in an experimental room and was exposed to recorded passing truck noise with peak levels of 45, 50, 55 and 60 dB(A) at intervals of 15 min. Significant changes were recognized in Stage 1, MT, frequency of awakening and number of sleep stage shifts. The authors speculate that the decrease in the shallow stage as noisy nights were repeated reflects habituation of night sleep to repeated passing truck noise, whose interval, duration and nature was constant.

  11. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  12. Effects of acute cigarette smoking on total blood count and markers of oxidative stress in active and passive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lymperaki, E; Makedou, K; Iliadis, S; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free radicals, as a product of cigarette smoke, are considered to have deleterious effects causing oxidative stress. Acute active smoking seems to be followed by transient leukocytosis and delayed increase in neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of smokers and passive non-smokers, as well as the impact that acute cigarette smoking has on hematological parameters. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers, 16 active smokers (Group A) aged 20-23 years and 16 age-matched, non-smokers (Group B), 18 women and 14 men in total, participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects did not have any food, drink, or cigarette smoking for eight hours before the study. Each time, two active smokers and two non-smokers were exposed simultaneously for half an hour to the smoke of two cigarettes smoked consecutively by the smokers. Blood was drawn before and after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Whole blood was analyzed immediately for total blood count parameters and serum was stored in -70◦C until serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E (VitE), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Results: No statistical significant difference was observed in the values of white blood cells and their subpopulations between the two groups and within the same group before and after exposure to cigarette smoke. In the group of smokers, granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly, MDA levels showed significant elevation and protective VitE serum levels decreased significantly, whereas TAC was reduced, but not significantly, after the exposure. In the group of passive, non-smokers the results of the blood count parameters, MDA and VitE were similar to Group A, and there was a significant decrease in TAC, as well. Between the two groups, only hematocrit values and MDA levels differed significantly before the exposure to smoke, and no other significant difference was detected before or after the

  13. Moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest in total arch repair for acute type A aortic dissection: clinical safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ming; Ma, Wei-Guo; Guan, Xin-Liang; Wang, Long-Fei; Li, Jia-Chen; Lan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Continued debates exist regarding the optimal temperature during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) in aortic arch repair for patients with type A aortic dissection (TAAD). This study seeks to examine whether the use of moderate HCA in emergency aortic arch surgery provides comparable operative outcomes to deep HCA for patients with acute TAAD. Methods We prospectively enrolled 74 consecutive patients (mean age 47.7±9.8 years, 54 males) with acute TAAD, who underwent emergency total arch replacement and frozen elephant trunk implantation under HCA (18–28 °C) with unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (uSACP). Patients were divided into two groups based on the nasopharyngeal temperature at the initiation of HCA: deep HCA (DHCA, <20 °C) in 35 (47.3%) and moderate HCA (MHCA, 20–28 °C) in 39 (52.7%). Operative outcomes including mortality, morbidity and visceral organ functions were compared between the two groups. Results The mean times of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamp were 211±54 and 238±62 minutes (P=0.053) and 118±27 and 142±45 minutes (P=0.005) in the MHCA and DHCA groups, respectively. Operative mortality did not differ between two groups (10.2% in MHCA vs. 14.3% in DHCA groups, P=0.862). Nor did the incidence of morbidities differ between the two groups (P>0.05). The temporal trend in the changes of postoperative levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and lactate did not differ between two groups (P>0.05). Multivariate analysis found that the temperature during HCA (MHCA vs. DHCA) did not affect operative mortality, morbidities and neurologic complications. Instead, CPB time (in minutes) was the risk factor for operative mortality (odds ratio, 1.032; 95% confidence interval, 1.004–1.061; P=0.023). Conclusions: Moderate HCA is associated with equivalent operative mortality and morbidity and visceral organ functions compared to deep HCA in patients with acute TAAD undergoing

  14. Sleep education for paradoxical insomnia.

    PubMed

    Geyer, James D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Ruiter, Megan E; Ward, L Charles; Carney, Paul R; Dillard, Stephenie C

    2011-01-01

    This case study series investigated a new treatment for paradoxical insomnia patients as there is no standard treatment for this patient group at this time. Four paradoxical insomnia patients had a polysomnography (PSG) sleep study, an unsuccessful brief course of behavioral treatment for insomnia, and then a novel sleep education treatment comprising review of their PSG with video and exploration of the discrepancy between their reported and observed sleep experience. Two patients responded well to sleep education, mainly with improved self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and Insomnia Severity Index scores; and the other two, who exhibited sleep architecture anomalies, were unresponsive. These findings suggest that sleep education holds promise for some paradoxical insomnia patients. Suggestions for future studies are given.

  15. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  16. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  17. A new mathematical model for the homeostatic effects of sleep loss on neurobehavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V.; Smith, Amber D.; Belenky, Gregory; Dinges, David F.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The two-process model of sleep regulation makes accurate predictions of sleep timing and duration for a variety of experimental sleep deprivation and nap sleep scenarios. Upon extending its application to waking neurobehavioral performance, however, the model fails to predict the effects of chronic sleep restriction. Here we show that the two-process model belongs to a broader class of models formulated in terms of coupled non-homogeneous first-order ordinary differential equations, which have a dynamic repertoire capturing waking neurobehavioral functions across a wide range of wake/sleep schedules. We examine a specific case of this new model class, and demonstrate the existence of a bifurcation: for daily amounts of wakefulness less than a critical threshold, neurobehavioral performance is predicted to converge to an asymptotically stable state of equilibrium; whereas for daily wakefulness extended beyond the critical threshold, neurobehavioral performance is predicted to diverge from an unstable state of equilibrium. Comparison of model simulations to laboratory observations of lapses of attention on a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), in experiments on the effects of chronic sleep restriction and acute total sleep deprivation, suggests that this bifurcation is an essential feature of performance impairment due to sleep loss. We present three new predictions that may be experimentally verified to validate the model. These predictions, if confirmed, challenge conventional notions about the effects of sleep and sleep loss on neurobehavioral performance. The new model class implicates a biological system analogous to two connected compartments containing interacting compounds with time-varying concentrations as being a key mechanism for the regulation of psychomotor vigilance as a function of sleep loss. We suggest that the adenosinergic neuromodulator/receptor system may provide the underlying neurobiology. PMID:18938181

  18. Dislocation of a total hip arthroplasty: acute management in the ED.

    PubMed

    Fillingham, Yale A; Erickson, Brandon J; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Della Valle, Craig J

    2014-12-01

    Dislocation is one of the most common complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Because of the growing number of patients undergoing THA annually and the immense number of patients who have previously undergone the procedure, familiarity with the diagnosis and treatment of this complication is critical. Although the most common direction of dislocation is posterior, anterior dislocations do occur, and correctly identifying the direction of dislocation is important before attempted closed reduction as both the reduction maneuvers used and the postoperative instructions afterward are distinct for an anterior as opposed to a posterior dislocation. We present the current case of an anterior hip dislocation that was unable to be closed reduced as the direction of dislocation was presumed to be posterior. Although a shoot through lateral is recommended in all cases to confirm the direction of dislocation, we highlight how the physician can differentiate the direction of dislocation based on the position of the foot and location of the lesser trochanter on the anteroposterior radiograph. PMID:24877720

  19. The effect of acute mental stress on limb vasodilation is unrelated to total peripheral resistance.

    PubMed

    Paine, Nicola J; Ring, Christopher; Bosch, Jos A; McIntyre, David; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S

    2013-07-01

    Mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction, with poor vascular responses to stress implicated as a pathway. Vascular stress reactivity can be assessed by different methods, such as total peripheral resistance (TPR) and forearm blood flow (FBF). Little is known about how these vascular assessments are linked. This was examined in two separate studies. Healthy men (Study 1: N = 29, Study 2: N = 23) completed rest and mental arithmetic (Study 1: 8 min, Study 2: 16 min). In both studies, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and FBF increased in response to stress. In Study 1, no changes in TPR were seen, but Study 2 found stress-induced increases in TPR. FBF was not linked to TPR at any time (all ps > .05). It appears that limb vasculature and TPR responses to stress do not give the same information about impairments of the vasculature. These findings are relevant to the interpretation of prior research findings and the design of future studies on stress and vascular responses.

  20. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  1. Sleep and sleepiness of fishermen on rotating schedules.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, Leigh

    2008-04-01

    Seafaring is a hazardous occupation with high death and injury rates, but the role of seafarer fatigue in these events is generally not well documented. The International Maritime Organization has identified seafarer fatigue as an important health and safety issue. Most research to date has focused on more regularly scheduled types of operations (e.g., merchant vessels, ferries), but there is relatively little information on commercial fishing, which often involves high day-to-day and seasonal variability in work patterns and workload. The present study was designed to monitor the sleep and sleepiness of commercial fishermen at home and during extended periods at sea during the peak of the hoki fishing season, with a view to developing better fatigue management strategies for this workforce. Sleep (wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries) and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS] before and after each sleep period) of 20 deckhands were monitored for 4-13 days at home and for 5-9 days at sea while working a nominal 12 h on/6 h off schedule. On the 12 h on/6 hoff schedule, there was still a clear preference for sleep at night. Comparing the last three days at home and the first three days at sea showed that fishermen were more likely to have split sleep at sea (Wilcoxon signed ranks p < 0.001), but the median sleep/24 h did not differ significantly by location (5.9 h at sea vs. 6.7 h at home). However, on 23% of days at sea, fishermen obtained < 4 h total sleep/24 h, compared to 3% of days at home ( p(chi 2) < 0.01). Sleep efficiency, mean activity counts/min sleep, and subjective ratings of sleep quality did not differ significantly between the last three days at home and the first three days at sea. However, sleepiness ratings remained higher after sleep at sea (Wilcoxon signed ranks p < 0.05), with fishermen having post-sleep KSS ratings >or= 7 on 24% of days at sea vs. 9% of days at home (Wilcoxon signed ranks p < 0.01). This work adds to the limited number of

  2. Total body irradiation of donors can alter the course of tolerance and induce acute rejection in a spontaneous tolerance rat liver transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YeWei; Zhao, HeWei; Bo, Lin; Yang, YinXue; Lu, Xiang; Sun, JingFeng; Wen, JianFei; He, Xia; Yin, GuoWen

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Graft rejection occurs unless the recipient receives immunosuppression after transplantation. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of acute rejection of liver allografts in rats pre-treated with total body irradiation to eliminate passenger lymphocytes and to define the role of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in the induction of immunotolerance in the recipient. Male Lewis rats were used as donors and male DA rats were recipients. Rats were randomly assigned to the following four groups: control group, homogeneity liver transplantation group, idio-immunotolerance group and acute rejection group. After transplantation, the survival time of each group, serum alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin levels, number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, expression of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor on T cell subgroups, histopathology of the hepatic graft and spleen cytotoxic T lymphocyte lytic activity were measured. In the acute rejection group, where donors were preconditioned with total body irradiation before liver transplantation, all recipients died between day 17 and day 21. On day 14, serum alanine aminotransferase increased significantly to (459.2±76.9) U L(-1), total bilirubin increased to (124.1±33.7) μmol L(-1) (P<0.05) and the ratio of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells decreased significantly to 1.50%±0.50% (P<0.05) compared with the other groups. Analysis of the T cell subpopulations in the acute rejection group varied from the other groups. Histological analysis showed typical changes of acute rejection in the acute rejection group only. Preconditioning of the donors with total body irradiation eliminated passenger lymphocytes of the liver graft, and thus affected the course of tolerance and induced acute rejection after liver transplantation.

  3. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  4. Impact of predischarge nocturnal pulse oximetry (sleep-disordered breathing) on postdischarge clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Takayasu; Iwama, Yoshitaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Kato, Takao; Suda, Shoko; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-15

    Stratifying patients at a high risk for readmission and mortality before their discharge after acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is important. Although sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure, only few studies have investigated the impact of SDB on hospitalized patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after ADHF. Thus, we assessed the prevalence of SDB using nocturnal pulse oximetry and the relation between SDB and clinical events in this patient group. One hundred consecutive patients with LV systolic dysfunction who were hospitalized for ADHF were enrolled in the study. Predischarge nocturnal oximetry was performed to determine if they had SDB (defined as an oxygen desaturation index of ≥5 events/hour with ≥4% decrease in saturation level). Data on death and readmission for ADHF were collected. Forty-one patients had SDB. Complete outcome data were collected in the mean follow-up period of 14.2 months during which 33 events occurred. On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the presence of SDB was a significant independent predictor of postdischarge readmission and mortality (hazard ratio 2.93, p = 0.006). In conclusion, SDB, as determined by predischarge nocturnal oximetry, is prevalent and is an independent predictor of the combined end point of readmission and mortality in hospitalized patients with LV systolic dysfunction after ADHF.

  5. The Design and Methods of Genetic Studies on Acute and Chronic Postoperative Pain in Patients after Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Belfer, Inna; Greco, Carol M.; Lokshin, Anna; Vulakovich, Katie; Landsittel, Douglas; Dai, Feng; Crossett, Lawrence; Chelly, Jacques E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Total knee replacement (TKR) is the treatment option of choice for the millions of individuals whose osteoarthritis pain can no longer be managed through non-invasive methods. Over 500,000 TKRs are performed annually in the United States. Although most patients report improvement in pain and functioning following TKR, up to 30% report persistent pain that interferes with daily function. However, the reasons for poor outcomes are not clear. To best determine which patients are at risk for pain post TKR, a detailed and comprehensive approach is needed. In this article, we present the methodology of a study designed to identify a set of genetic, proteomic, clinical, demographic, psychosocial, and psychophysical risk factors for severe acute and chronic pain post TKR. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting University Hospital System. Subjects Patients scheduled for unilateral TKR with a target number of 150. Methods Prior to surgery, we collect demographic, psychosocial, and pain data. Biological data, including blood samples for genetic analyses, and serum, urine, and joint fluid for cytokine assessment are collected intraoperatively. Pain assessments as well as medication use are collected during each of the three days postsurgery. Additionally, pain and psychosocial information is collected 6 and 12 months following surgery. Conclusions This study, for the first time, captures the information on both genetic and “environmental” risk factors for acute and chronic pain post-TKR and has the potential to lead to the next step—multicenter large-scale studies on predictors and biomarkers of poor TKR outcomes as well as on tailored interventions and personalized medicine approaches for those at risk. PMID:25040948

  6. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L.; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Artz, Andrew S.; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Epstein, Robert B.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Olsson, Richard F.; Selby, George B.; Williams, Kirsten M.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; McCarthy, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI N=948, TBICy N=821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who received TBI (1200-1500cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The two cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Ph+ ALL, HLA matched siblings, stem cell source, anti-thymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect TRM (24% vs. 23% at 3y, p=0.67; relative risk [RR] 1.01, p=0.91), leukemia relapse (27% vs. 29% at 3y, p=0.34; RR 0.89, p=0.18), leukemia-free survival (49% vs. 48% at3y, p=0.27; RR 0.93, p=0.29), chronic GVHD (45% vs. 47% at 1y, p=0.39; RR 0.9, p=0.11) or overall survival (53% vs. 52% at 3y, p=0.62; RR 0.96, p=0.57) for CyTBI and TBICy respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (p=0.08). This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplant outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing HCT with myeloablative conditioning. PMID:25840335

  7. REM sleep homeostasis in the absence of REM sleep: Effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Andrew; Wafford, Keith; Shanks, Elaine; Ligocki, Marcin; Edgar, Dale M; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Most antidepressants suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is thought to be important to brain function, yet the resulting REM sleep restriction is well tolerated. This study investigated the impact of antidepressants with different mechanisms of action, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), on the regulation of REM sleep in rats. REM sleep was first demonstrated to be homeostatically regulated using 5, 8 and 10 h of REM-sleep specific restriction through EEG-triggered arousals, with an average of 91 ± 10% of lost REM sleep recovered following a 26-29 -hour recovery period. Acute treatment with the antidepressants paroxetine, citalopram and imipramine inhibited REM sleep by 84 ± 8, 84 ± 8 and 69 ± 9% respectively relative to vehicle control. The pharmacologically-induced REM sleep deficits by paroxetine and citalopram were not fully recovered, whereas, after imipramine the REM sleep deficit was fully compensated. Given the marked difference between REM sleep recovery following the administration of paroxetine, citalopram, imipramine and REM sleep restriction, the homeostatic response was further examined by pairing REM sleep specific restriction with the three antidepressants. Surprisingly, the physiologically-induced REM sleep deficits incurred prior to suppression of REM sleep by all antidepressants was consistently recovered. The data indicate that REM sleep homeostasis remains operative following subsequent treatment with antidepressants and is unaffected by additional pharmacological inhibition of REM sleep. PMID:27150557

  8. REM sleep homeostasis in the absence of REM sleep: Effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Andrew; Wafford, Keith; Shanks, Elaine; Ligocki, Marcin; Edgar, Dale M; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Most antidepressants suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is thought to be important to brain function, yet the resulting REM sleep restriction is well tolerated. This study investigated the impact of antidepressants with different mechanisms of action, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), on the regulation of REM sleep in rats. REM sleep was first demonstrated to be homeostatically regulated using 5, 8 and 10 h of REM-sleep specific restriction through EEG-triggered arousals, with an average of 91 ± 10% of lost REM sleep recovered following a 26-29 -hour recovery period. Acute treatment with the antidepressants paroxetine, citalopram and imipramine inhibited REM sleep by 84 ± 8, 84 ± 8 and 69 ± 9% respectively relative to vehicle control. The pharmacologically-induced REM sleep deficits by paroxetine and citalopram were not fully recovered, whereas, after imipramine the REM sleep deficit was fully compensated. Given the marked difference between REM sleep recovery following the administration of paroxetine, citalopram, imipramine and REM sleep restriction, the homeostatic response was further examined by pairing REM sleep specific restriction with the three antidepressants. Surprisingly, the physiologically-induced REM sleep deficits incurred prior to suppression of REM sleep by all antidepressants was consistently recovered. The data indicate that REM sleep homeostasis remains operative following subsequent treatment with antidepressants and is unaffected by additional pharmacological inhibition of REM sleep.

  9. Exploring the Lived Experience of Difficult Sleep and Good Sleep Among Psychiatric Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Zust, Barbara Lois; Gruenberg, Marjorie E; Sendelbach, Susan Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore psychiatric inpatients' reflections on their experiences with sleep throughout their lives. Fourteen patients in an acute care behavioral health unit agreed to participate in this study. Participants met individually with a researcher to reflect on times in their lives when they experienced good sleep; times when they had difficulty sleeping; and times when difficult sleep was resolved. The major findings of the study indicated that feeling alone with life problems triggered difficult sleep; while feelings of belonging and purpose were associated with good sleep.

  10. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  11. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  12. Total and partial sleep deprivation: Effects on plasma TNF-αRI, TNF-αRII, and IL-6, and reversal by caffeine operating through adenosine A2 receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, William T.; Reuben, James M.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Mullington, Janet; Price, Nicholas; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α are elevated in individuals who are deprived of sleep. TNF-α regulates expression of its soluble receptors, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII. Sleep deprivation (SD) also increases extracellular adenosine that induces sedation and sleep. An antagonist of adenosine, caffeine, raises exogenous adenosine levels, stimulates the expression of IL-6 and inhibits the release of TNF-α. Our objective was to determine the effect of total SD (TSD) or partial SD (PSD) on the levels of these sleep regulatory molecules in volunteers who experienced SD with or without the consumption of caffeine. Plasma levels of IL-6, sTNF-αRI and sTNF-αRII were assayed by ELISA in samples collected at 90-min intervals from each subject over an 88-hour period. The results were analyzed by the repeated measures ANOVA. Whereas only TSD significantly increased sTNF-αRI over time, caffeine suppressed both sTNF-α receptors in TSD and PSD subjects. The selective increase in the expression of sTNF-αRI and not sTNF-αRII in subjects experiencing TSD with caffeine compared with others experiencing PSD with caffeine has not been previously reported. Moreover, caffeine significantly increased IL-6 in TSD subjects compared with those who did not receive caffeine. However, subjects who were permitted intermittent naps (PSD) ablated the effects of caffeine and reduced their level of IL-6 to that of the TSD group. These data further lend support to the hypothesis that the sTNF-αRI and not the sTNF-αRII plays a significant role in sleep regulation by TNF-α. .

  13. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  14. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness.

  15. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  16. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  17. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  18. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  19. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  20. Low erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity is correlated with high serum total homocysteine levels in tunisian patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant systems has been suggested to be implicated in the physiopathology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in Tunisian patients and to assess the possible relationship between erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity and hyperhomocysteinaemia. Methods 108 patients with AMI and 81 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Catalase erythrocyte enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically whereas “total antioxidant status” (TAS) concentration was measured by a commercially available method. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level was determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Lipid peroxidation was measured with a fluorimetric method as “thiobarbituric acid reactive substances” (TBARS). Results Compared with healthy subjects, patients with AMI had significantly lower catalase activity (P<0.001), TAS concentrations (P<0.001), and significantly higher serum tHcy (P<0.001) and TBARS levels (P<0.001). Erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity was negatively correlated with serum tHcy and TBARS while serum tHcy and TBARS were in positive correlation. Furthermore, the unbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants seems to be more aggravated in patients with Q wave AMI compared to patients with non-Q wave AMI. Conclusion Our results suggest the involvement of hyperhomocysteinaemia in the drop of erythrocyte catalase activity related to myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Hyperhomocysteinaemia may increase the myocardial wall dysfunction under ischemia reperfusion by excessive production of reactive oxygen species which is made evident by increased lipid peroxidation. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1623509866881834 PMID:23631751

  1. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Liu, Chun-Lei; Zhou, Ren-Lai; Gong, Hong-Han; Wu, Bin; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN) impairment after sleep deprivation (SD) and its relationships with clinical features. Methods Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW) and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT). The independent component analysis (ICA), rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001), a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003), a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001), and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0.33; P=0.021). The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40) and in the left precuneus (PrC)/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (BA30, 31). The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7) and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37). However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40). The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) value of the

  2. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  3. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric; Palmer, Joycelynne; Stein, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to

  4. Sleep EEG in growth disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B J; Brook, C G

    1986-08-01

    The sleep of 30 children with disorders of growth and development was studied because of the known association between sleep and the secretion of hormones. Thirty three normal children were studied for comparison. The sleep of two consecutive nights was monitored at home using a small portable electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram recorder. Within the normal group there were no significant differences between sexes nor between the first and second nights of recording. There was a significant decrease in total sleep time with increasing age due to reduction in the amounts of rapid eye movement sleep and stage IV sleep. There was no change in rapid eye movement latency or overall rapid eye movement activity between the three age groups. Children with genetic short stature and those with poor growth as a result of poor eating habits had an increased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. A significant decrease in the percentage of stage IV sleep, increased amount of rapid eye movement sleep (especially active rapid eye movement sleep), and decreased rapid eye movement cycling time was found in five children with severe psychosocial deprivation. Children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty had an increased rapid eye movement cycling time and thus less rapid eye movement sleep over the whole night.

  5. Sleep deprivation in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stefan; Herrmann, Eva; Kaiser, Walter

    2004-06-01

    Rest at night in forager honey bees (Apis mellifera) meets essential criteria of sleep. This paper reports the effect of a 12-h total sleep deprivation (SD) by forced activity on the behaviour of these animals. The behaviour of sleep-deprived animals is compared with that of control animals under LD [periodic alternation between light (L) and darkness (D)] 12 : 12 hours. SD for 12 h during the first D period resulted in a significant difference with respect to the parameter 'hourly amount of antennal immobility' between sleep-deprived and control animals during the remaining L and D periods. This difference did not occur in the L period following the deprivation night, but rather it became obvious at the beginning of the following D period. The increase of the amount of antennal immobility in sleep-deprived bees was accompanied by an increase of the duration of episodes of antennal immobility. Moreover, the latency from 'lights off' to the first episode of antennal immobility lasting 20 s or longer ('deep sleep latency') tended to be shorter in sleep-deprived than in control animals. Disturbing the bees during the day (L period) did not result in such differences between disturbed and control animals. Highest reaction thresholds in sleeping honey bees occur during long episodes of antennal immobility. We therefore conclude that honey bees compensate a sleep deficit by intensification (deepening) of the sleep process and thus that sleep in honey bees, like that in other arthropods and mammals, is controlled by regulatory mechanisms.

  6. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  7. Biperiden administration during REM sleep deprivation diminished the frequency of REM sleep attempts.

    PubMed

    Salin-Pascual, R J; Grandos-Fuentes, D; Galicia-Polo, L; Nieves, E; Roehrs, T A; Roth, T

    1992-06-01

    Sixteen subjects were assigned to a group using either placebo or biperiden, with eight subjects in each group. Both groups were studied for one acclimatization night, one baseline night, four nights of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation and two recovery nights. All the subjects received either placebo or 4 mg biperiden 1 hour before sleep during the four nights of REM sleep deprivation. During the baseline and the recovery nights both groups received placebo capsules. The results showed that REM sleep time during the REM sleep deprivation was reduced by 70-75% below the baseline night in both groups. The number of attempts to enter REM sleep was significantly reduced by biperiden as compared to placebo for each of the four REM sleep deprivation nights. Because the total sleep time in the biperiden group was reduced, the number of REM sleep attempts was corrected by the total sleep time. The adjusted number of REM sleep attempts was also significantly reduced in the biperiden group. REM sleep latency showed a reduction in the placebo group, whereas in the biperiden group REM sleep latency was unchanged throughout the deprivation nights. In the recovery night REM sleep time was increased in both groups, with no differences between the groups. The REM sleep latency showed a reduction in the first recovery night in both groups that persisted through the second recovery night. The above findings support the role of biperiden as a REM sleep suppressive drug.

  8. Sleep in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  9. Sleep in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  10. Effect of Patient Sex on the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Newly Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Admitted by an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Abad, Jorge; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Mediano, Olga; Cabriada, Valentín; Masdeu, María José; Terán, Joaquín; Masa, Juan Fernando; de la Peña, Mónica; Aldomá, Albina; Worner, Fernando; Valls, Joan; Barbé, Ferran; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) differ by sex. We hypothesized that sex influences the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with OSA. OSA was defined as an apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI)>15 events·h-1. We evaluated the severity of ACS according to the ejection fraction, Killip class, number of diseased vessels, number of stents implanted and plasma peak troponin level. Methods We included 663 men (mean±SD, AHI 37±18 events·h-1) and 133 women (AHI 35±18 events·h-1) with OSA. Results The men were younger than the women (59±11 versus 66±11 years, p<0.0001), exhibited a higher neck circumference (p<0.0001), and were more likely to be smokers and alcohol users than women (p<0.0001, p = 0.0005, respectively). Body mass index and percentage of hypertensive patients or diabetics were similar between sexes. We observed a slight tendency for a higher Killip classification in women, although it was not statistically significant (p = 0.055). For men, we observed that the number of diseased vessels and the number of stents implanted were higher (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, respectively), and a decrease in the ejection fraction (p = 0.002). Conclusions This study shows that sex in OSA influences the severity of ACS. Men show a lower ejection fraction and an increased number of diseased vessels and number of stents implanted. PMID:27416494

  11. Sleeping Beauty transposon screen identifies signaling modules that cooperate with STAT5 activation to induce B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Heltemes-Harris, L M; Larson, J D; Starr, T K; Hubbard, G K; Sarver, A L; Largaespada, D A; Farrar, M A

    2016-06-30

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation occurs frequently in human progenitor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). To identify gene alterations that cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate leukemia, we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) with mice in which a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon (T2/Onc) was mobilized only in B cells. Stat5b-CA mice typically do not develop B-ALL (<2% penetrance); in contrast, 89% of Stat5b-CA mice in which the T2/Onc transposon had been mobilized died of B-ALL by 3 months of age. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to identify genes frequently targeted by the T2/Onc transposon; these included Sos1 (74%), Kdm2a (35%), Jak1 (26%), Bmi1 (19%), Prdm14 or Ncoa2 (13%), Cdkn2a (10%), Ikzf1 (8%), Caap1 (6%) and Klf3 (6%). Collectively, these mutations target three major cellular processes: (i) the Janus kinase/STAT5 pathway (ii) progenitor B-cell differentiation and (iii) the CDKN2A tumor-suppressor pathway. Transposon insertions typically resulted in altered expression of these genes, as well as downstream pathways including STAT5, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and p38. Importantly, expression of Sos1 and Kdm2a, and activation of p38, correlated with survival, further underscoring the role these genes and associated pathways have in B-ALL.

  12. Sleeping Beauty transposon screen identifies signaling modules that cooperate with STAT5 activation to induce B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Heltemes-Harris, L M; Larson, J D; Starr, T K; Hubbard, G K; Sarver, A L; Largaespada, D A; Farrar, M A

    2016-06-30

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation occurs frequently in human progenitor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). To identify gene alterations that cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate leukemia, we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) with mice in which a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon (T2/Onc) was mobilized only in B cells. Stat5b-CA mice typically do not develop B-ALL (<2% penetrance); in contrast, 89% of Stat5b-CA mice in which the T2/Onc transposon had been mobilized died of B-ALL by 3 months of age. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to identify genes frequently targeted by the T2/Onc transposon; these included Sos1 (74%), Kdm2a (35%), Jak1 (26%), Bmi1 (19%), Prdm14 or Ncoa2 (13%), Cdkn2a (10%), Ikzf1 (8%), Caap1 (6%) and Klf3 (6%). Collectively, these mutations target three major cellular processes: (i) the Janus kinase/STAT5 pathway (ii) progenitor B-cell differentiation and (iii) the CDKN2A tumor-suppressor pathway. Transposon insertions typically resulted in altered expression of these genes, as well as downstream pathways including STAT5, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and p38. Importantly, expression of Sos1 and Kdm2a, and activation of p38, correlated with survival, further underscoring the role these genes and associated pathways have in B-ALL. PMID:26500062

  13. Chronic Alcohol Treatment in Rats Alters Sleep by Fragmenting Periods of Vigilance Cycling in the Light Period with Extended Wakenings

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Simasko, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that disturbed sleep produced by chronic alcohol abuse in humans can predict relapse drinking after periods of abstinence. How alcohol produces disturbed sleep remains unknown. In this study we used a novel analysis of sleep to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep patterns in rats. This analysis separates waking into multiple components and defines a period labeled vigilance cycling (VC) in which the rat rapidly cycles through various vigilance states. These VC episodes are separated by long duration wake periods (LDW). We find that 6 weeks of alcohol (6% in a liquid diet) caused fragmentation of extended VC episodes that normally occur in the light period. However, total daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) remained constant. The daily amount of wake, SWS, and REMS remained constant because the alcohol treated rats increased the amount of VC in the dark period, and the sleep nature of VC in the dark period became more intense. In addition, we observed more wake and less REMS early in the light period in alcohol treated rats. All effects completely reversed by day 16 of alcohol withdrawal. Comparison of the effects of chronic alcohol to acute alcohol exposure demonstrated the effects of chronic alcohol are due to adaptation and not the acute presence of alcohol. The effects of chronic alcohol treatment in rats mimic the effects reported in humans (REMS suppression, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty remaining asleep). PMID:19014977

  14. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep

  15. Preoperative Pain, Symptoms, and Psychological Factors related to Higher Acute Pain Trajectories during Hospitalization for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Maren Falch; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Paul, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a significant problem. This longitudinal study investigated how preoperative pain intensity, as well as a comprehensive list of preoperative and perioperative factors, influenced the severity of acute average and worst pain after TKA. Methods Prior to surgery, 203 patients completed a demographic questionnaire, Lee Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Brief Pain Inventory was completed prior to surgery as well as through postoperative days (POD) 0 to 4. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Results Several factors were associated with higher levels of preoperative and postoperative pain. Lower preoperative average and worst pain intensity scores were associated with increases in average and worst postoperative pain from POD1 to POD4. A higher number of comorbidities, higher C-reactive protein values, and higher pain interference with function were associated with higher preoperative levels of average pain. Older age, higher fatigue levels, and higher scores on identity and emotional responses to osteoarthritis (OA) were associated with higher preoperative levels of worst pain. Lower perceived consequences of OA were associated with higher pain from POD1 to POD4. Males and patients with lower preoperative scores for average pain had higher worst pain following surgery. Discussion Patients at higher risk for more severe postoperative pain can be identified through an assessment of pain and other risk factors identified in this study. Future research needs to test the efficacy of interventions that modify patients’ perceptions of living with OA and pain intensity before surgery on short and long term postoperative outcomes. PMID:27583551

  16. Impact of admission serum total cholesterol level on in-hospital mortality in patients with acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xintian; Su, Xi; Zeng, Hesong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the association between serum total cholesterol (TC) on admission and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD). Methods: From January 2007 to January 2014, we enrolled 1492 consecutive AAD patients with serum TC measured immediately on admission. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital mortality were compared between the patients with serum TC above and below the median (4.00 mmol/L). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to account for known confounders in the study. Cox proportional hazard model was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for admission serum TC levels. Results: With the use of PSM, 521 matched pairs of patients with AAD were yielded in this analysis due to their similar propensity scores. Patients with admission serum TC < 4.00 mmol/L, as compared with those with admission serum TC ≥ 4.00 mmol/L, had higher in-hospital mortality (11.7% vs. 5.8%; HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.33-3.19, P = 0.001). Stratified analysis according to Stanford classification showed that the inverse association between admission serum TC and in-hospital mortality was observed in patients with Type-A AAD (24.0% vs. 11.3%; HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.33 - 3.57, P = 0.002) but not in those with Type-B AAD (3.8% vs. 2.2%; HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.67 - 4.34, P = 0.261). Conclusions: Lower serum TC level on admission was strongly associated with higher in-hospital mortality in patients with Type-A AAD. PMID:27648044

  17. Acute sleep deprivation enhances avoidance learning and spatial memory and induces delayed alterations in neurochemical expression of GR, TH, DRD1, pCREB and Ki67 in rats.

    PubMed

    Azogu, Idu; de la Tremblaye, Patricia Barra; Dunbar, Megan; Lebreton, Marianne; LeMarec, Nathalie; Plamondon, Hélène

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigated the effects of acute versus repeated periods of sleep deprivation on avoidance learning and spatial memory and on the expression of discrete biochemical brain signals involved in stress regulation, motivation and brain plasticity. Male Long-Evans rats were sleep deprived using the platform-over-water method for a single 4 h period (ASD) or for daily 4h RSD period on five consecutive days (CSD). The Y maze passive avoidance task (YM-PAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) were used to determine learning and memory 1h following the last SD period. Region-specific changes in glucocorticoid receptors (GR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine 1 receptors (DRD1), phospho-CREB (pCREB) and Ki-67 expression were assessed in the hippocampal formation, hypothalamus and mesolimbic regions 72 h following RSD. Behaviorally, our findings revealed increased latency to re-enter the aversive arm in the YM-PAT and reduced distance traveled and latency to reach the platform in the MWM in ASD rats compared to all other groups, indicative of improved avoidance learning and spatial memory, respectively. Acute SD enhanced TH expression in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and A11 neurons of the hypothalamus and DRD1 expression in the lateral hypothalamus. Cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and pCREB expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions was also enhanced following acute SD. In contrast, repeated SD significantly elevated GR-ir at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and CA1 and CA3 layers of the hippocampus compared to all other groups. Our study supports that a brief 4h sleep deprivation period is sufficient to induce delayed neurochemical changes. PMID:25433096

  18. [How does sleeping restore our brain?].

    PubMed

    Wigren, Henna-Kaisa; Stenberg, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The central function of sleep is to keep our brain functional, but what is the restoration that sleep provides? Sleep after learning improves learning outcomes. According to the theory of synaptic homeostasis the total strength of synapses, having increased during the day, is restored during sleep, making room for the next day's experiences. According to the theory of active synaptic consolidation, repetition during sleep strengthens the synapses, and these strengthened synapses form a permanent engram. According to a recent study, removal of waste products from the brain may also be one of the functions of sleep. PMID:26237917

  19. Short-term homeostasis of REM sleep assessed in an intermittent REM sleep deprivation protocol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Vivaldi, Ennio A

    2002-03-01

    An intermittent rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation protocol was applied to determine whether an increase in REM sleep propensity occurs throughout an interval without REM sleep comparable with the spontaneous sleep cycle of the rat. Seven chronically implanted rats under a 12 : 12 light-dark schedule were subjected to an intermittent REM sleep deprivation protocol that started at hour 6 after lights-on and lasted for 3 h. It consisted of six instances of a 10-min REM sleep permission window alternating with a 20-min REM sleep deprivation window. REM sleep increased throughout the protocol, so that total REM sleep in the two REM sleep permission windows of the third hour became comparable with that expected in the corresponding baseline hour. Attempted REM sleep transitions were already increased in the second deprivation window. Attempted transitions to REM sleep were more frequent in the second than in the first half of any 20-min deprivation window. From one deprivation window to the next, transitions to REM sleep changed in correspondence to the amount of REM sleep in the permission window in-between. Our results suggest that: (i) REM sleep pressure increases throughout a time segment similar in duration to a spontaneous interval without REM sleep; (ii) it diminishes during REM sleep occurrence; and (iii) that drop is proportional to the intervening amount of REM sleep. These results are consistent with a homeostatic REM sleep regulatory mechanism that operates in the time scale of spontaneous sleep cycle.

  20. Sleeping to fuel the immune system: mammalian sleep and resistance to parasites.

    PubMed

    Opp, Mark R

    2009-01-09

    Sleep is an enigma. Why animals forgo eating and reproducing, while potentially increasing their risk of predation remains unknown. Although some may question whether all animals sleep, it is clear that all living organisms possess defenses against attack by pathogens. Immune responses of humans and animals are impaired by sleep loss, and responses to immune challenge include altered sleep. Thus, sleep is hypothesized to be a component of the acute phase response to infection and to function in host defense. Examining phylogenetic relationships among sleep parameters, components of the mammalian immune system and resistance to infection may provide insight into the evolution of sleep and lead to a greater appreciation for the role of sleep in host defense.

  1. A new likelihood ratio metric for the psychomotor vigilance test and its sensitivity to sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Mcguire, Sarah; Goel, Namni; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F

    2015-12-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a widely used assay of behavioural alertness sensitive to the effects of sleep loss and circadian misalignment. However, there is currently no accepted PVT composite outcome metric that captures response slowing, attentional lapses and compensatory premature reactions observed typically in sleep-deprived subjects. We developed a novel likelihood ratio metric (LRM) based on relative frequency distributions in 50 categories of reaction times (RT) and false starts in alert and sleep-deprived subjects (acute total sleep deprivation: n = 31 subjects). The LRM had the largest effect size both in a 33-h total sleep deprivation protocol [1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61-2.44; followed by response speed 1/RT, effect size 1.93, 95% CI: 1.55-2.65] and in a chronic partial sleep restriction protocol (1.22; 95% CI: 0.96-1.59; followed by response speed 1/RT, effect size 1.21, 95% CI: 0.94-1.59; 5 nights at 4 h sleep per night; n = 43 subjects). LRM scores correlated highly with response speed (R(2 ) = 0.986), and less well with five other common PVT outcome metrics (R(2 ) = 0.111-0.886). In conclusion, the new LRM is a sensitive PVT outcome metric with high statistical power that takes subtle sleep loss-related changes in the distribution of reaction times (including false starts) into account, is not prone to outliers, does not require baseline data and can be calculated and interpreted easily. Congruence between LRM and PVT response speed and their similar effect size rankings support the use of response speed as the primary, most sensitive and most parsimonious standard PVT outcome metric for determining neurobehavioural deficits from sleep loss. PMID:26118830

  2. Effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-09-01

    Increased acute anxiety is a commonly reported behavioral consequence of sleep deprivation in humans. However, rodent studies conducted so far produced inconsistent results, failing to reproduce the same sleep deprivation induced-anxiety observed in clinical experiments. While some presented anxiogenesis as result of sleep deprivation, others reported anxiolysis. In face of such inconsistencies, this article explores the effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research through a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. A total of 50 of articles met our inclusion criteria, 30 on mice, 19 on rats and one on Zebrafish. Our review shows that sleep deprivation induces a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in preclinical models, which is opposite to results observed in human settings. These results were corroborated in stratified analyses according to species, sleep deprivation method and anxiety measurement technique. In conclusion, the use of animal models for the evaluation of the relationship between sleep deprivation lacks translational applicability and new experimental tools are needed to properly evaluate sleep deprivation-induced anxiogenesis in rodents. PMID:27345144

  3. Effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-09-01

    Increased acute anxiety is a commonly reported behavioral consequence of sleep deprivation in humans. However, rodent studies conducted so far produced inconsistent results, failing to reproduce the same sleep deprivation induced-anxiety observed in clinical experiments. While some presented anxiogenesis as result of sleep deprivation, others reported anxiolysis. In face of such inconsistencies, this article explores the effects of experimental sleep deprivation on anxiety-like behavior in animal research through a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. A total of 50 of articles met our inclusion criteria, 30 on mice, 19 on rats and one on Zebrafish. Our review shows that sleep deprivation induces a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in preclinical models, which is opposite to results observed in human settings. These results were corroborated in stratified analyses according to species, sleep deprivation method and anxiety measurement technique. In conclusion, the use of animal models for the evaluation of the relationship between sleep deprivation lacks translational applicability and new experimental tools are needed to properly evaluate sleep deprivation-induced anxiogenesis in rodents.

  4. To sleep or not to sleep: the ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; McNamara, Patrick; Nunn, Charles L

    2008-01-01

    Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity). Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Agents acquire food and sleep energy based on an internal circadian clock coded by 24 traits (one for each hour of the day) that correspond to "genes" that evolve by means of a genetic algorithm. These traits can assume three different values that specify the agents' behavior: sleep (or search for a sleep site), eat (or search for a food site), or flexibly decide action based on relative levels of sleep energy and food energy. Individuals with higher fitness scores leave more offspring in the next generation of the simulation, and the model can therefore be used to identify evolutionarily adaptive circadian clock parameters under different ecological conditions. Results We systematically varied input parameters related to the number of food and sleep sites, the degree to which food and sleep sites overlap, and the rate at which food patches were depleted. Our results reveal that: (1) the increased costs of traveling between more spatially separated food and sleep clusters select for monophasic sleep, (2) more rapid food patch depletion reduces sleep times, and (3) agents spend more time attempting to acquire the "rarer" resource, that is, the average time spent sleeping is positively correlated with the number of food patches and negatively correlated with the number of sleep patches. "Flexible" genes, in general, do not appear to be advantageous, though their arrangements in the agents' genome show characteristic patterns that suggest that selection acts on their distribution. Conclusion

  5. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. Vaughn BV. Disorders of sleep. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  6. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  7. Loss of Melanopsin Photoreception and Antagonism of the Histamine H3 Receptor by Ciproxifan Inhibit Light-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Fanuel; Colas, Damien; Ikeme, Jesse; Ruby, Norman F; Heller, H Craig

    2015-01-01

    Light has direct effects on sleep and wakefulness causing arousal in diurnal animals and sleep in nocturnal animals. In the present study, we assessed the modulation of light-induced sleep by melanopsin and the histaminergic system by exposing mice to millisecond light flashes and continuous light respectively. First, we show that the induction of sleep by millisecond light flashes is dose dependent as a function of light flash number. We found that exposure to 60 flashes of light occurring once every 60 seconds for 1-h (120-ms of total light over an hour) induced a similar amount of sleep as a continuous bright light pulse. Secondly, the induction of sleep by millisecond light flashes was attenuated in the absence of melanopsin when animals were presented with flashes occurring every 60 seconds over a 3-h period beginning at ZT13. Lastly, the acute administration of a histamine H3 autoreceptor antagonist, ciproxifan, blocked the induction of sleep by a 1-h continuous light pulse during the dark period. Ciproxifan caused a decrease in NREMS delta power and an increase in theta activity during both sleep and wake periods respectively. The data suggest that some form of temporal integration occurs in response to millisecond light flashes, and that this process requires melanopsin photoreception. Furthermore, the pharmacological data suggest that the increase of histaminergic neurotransmission is sufficient to attenuate the light-induced sleep response during the dark period.

  8. Loss of Melanopsin Photoreception and Antagonism of the Histamine H3 Receptor by Ciproxifan Inhibit Light-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Fanuel; Colas, Damien; Ikeme, Jesse; Ruby, Norman F.; Heller, H. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Light has direct effects on sleep and wakefulness causing arousal in diurnal animals and sleep in nocturnal animals. In the present study, we assessed the modulation of light-induced sleep by melanopsin and the histaminergic system by exposing mice to millisecond light flashes and continuous light respectively. First, we show that the induction of sleep by millisecond light flashes is dose dependent as a function of light flash number. We found that exposure to 60 flashes of light occurring once every 60 seconds for 1-h (120-ms of total light over an hour) induced a similar amount of sleep as a continuous bright light pulse. Secondly, the induction of sleep by millisecond light flashes was attenuated in the absence of melanopsin when animals were presented with flashes occurring every 60 seconds over a 3-h period beginning at ZT13. Lastly, the acute administration of a histamine H3 autoreceptor antagonist, ciproxifan, blocked the induction of sleep by a 1-h continuous light pulse during the dark period. Ciproxifan caused a decrease in NREMS delta power and an increase in theta activity during both sleep and wake periods respectively. The data suggest that some form of temporal integration occurs in response to millisecond light flashes, and that this process requires melanopsin photoreception. Furthermore, the pharmacological data suggest that the increase of histaminergic neurotransmission is sufficient to attenuate the light-induced sleep response during the dark period. PMID:26083020

  9. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  10. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Results: Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. Conclusion: The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. Citation: Vanini G. Sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to a noxious inflammatory insult influence characteristics and duration of pain. SLEEP 2016;39(1):133–142. PMID:26237772

  11. Effects of sleep fragmentation on sleep and markers of inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Trammell, Rita A; Verhulst, Steve; Toth, Linda A

    2014-02-01

    Many people in our society experience curtailment and disruption of sleep due to work responsibilities, care-giving, or life style choice. Delineating the health effect of acute and chronic disruptions in sleep is essential to raising awareness of and creating interventions to manage these prevalent concerns. To provide a platform for studying the health impact and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with inadequate sleep, we developed and characterized an approach to creating chronic disruption of sleep in laboratory mice. We used this method to evaluate how 3 durations of sleep fragmentation (SF) affect sleep recuperation and blood and lung analyte concentrations in male C57BL/6J mice. Mice housed in environmentally controlled chambers were exposed to automated SF for periods of 6, 12, or 24 h or for 12 h daily during the light (somnolent) phase for 4 sequential days. Sleep time, slow-wave amplitude, or bout lengths were significantly higher when uninterrupted sleep was permitted after each of the 3 SF durations. However, mice did not recover all of the lost slow-wave sleep during the subsequent 12- to 24-h period and maintained a net loss of sleep. Light-phase SF was associated with significant changes in serum and lung levels of some inflammatory substances, but these changes were not consistent or sustained. The data indicate that acute light-phase SF can result in a sustained sleep debt in mice and may disrupt the inflammatory steady-state in serum and lung.

  12. Companionable sleep: social regulation of sleep and cosleeping in Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2007-03-01

    This exploratory study examined family sleep patterns and quality in a setting of normative napping and cosleeping. Participants were 78 members of 16 families from 2 locales in Egypt (Cairo and a village). Each family member provided a history of sleeping arrangements, 1 week of continuous activity records, and details of each sleep event. Sleep records documented late-onset and dispersed sleep patterns with extensive cosleeping. Of recorded sleep events, 69% involved cosleeping, 24% included more than 1 cosleeper, and only 21% were solitary. Mid-late afternoon napping occurred on 31% of days, and night sleep onsets averaged after midnight. Age and gender structured sleep arrangements and, together with locale, extensively explained sleep behavior (onset, duration, total) and quality. Cosleepers had fewer night arousals, shorter and less variable night sleep duration, and less total sleep. Increased solitary sleep in adolescents and young adults was associated with increased sleep dysregulation, including exaggerated phase shifts in males and more nighttime arousals in females. Where normative, cosleeping may provide psychosensory stimuli that moderate arousal and stabilize sleep. Such moderating features may address important self-regulatory developmental needs during adolescence. PMID:17371117

  13. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Wei-Wen; Landis, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the associations of sleep hygiene and actigraphy measures of sleep with self-reported sleep quality in 197 pregnant women in northern Taiwan. Third-trimester pregnant women completed the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (SHPS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and wore an actigraph for 7 consecutive days. Student's t-test was used to compare the SHPS scores and means as well as variability of actigraphy sleep variables between poor sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score >5) and good sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score ≤5). Compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers reported significantly worse sleep hygiene, with higher SHPS scores and higher sleep schedule, arousal-related behavior, and sleep environment subscale scores. Poor sleepers had significantly greater intra-individual variability of sleep onset latency, total nighttime sleep, and wake after sleep onset than good sleepers. In stepwise linear regression, older maternal age (p = .01), fewer employment hours per week (p = .01), higher CES-D total score (p < .01), and higher SHPS arousal-related behavior subscale scores (p < .01) predicted self-reported global sleep quality. Findings support avoiding physically, physiologically, emotionally, or cognitively arousing activities before bedtime as a target for sleep-hygiene intervention in women during pregnancy. PMID:26650922

  14. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  15. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xue; Koransky, Rebecca; Kang, Victor; Buchman, Sarah; Sarris, Christina E.; Wagner, George C.

    2011-01-01

    A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance. PMID:22084618

  16. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    PubMed

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  17. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits

    PubMed Central

    Milojevich, Helen M.; Lukowski, Angela F.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning. PMID:27280714

  18. Sleep insufficiency, sleep health problems and performance in high school students.

    PubMed

    Ming, Xue; Koransky, Rebecca; Kang, Victor; Buchman, Sarah; Sarris, Christina E; Wagner, George C

    2011-01-01

    A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.

  19. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  20. The Effect of Gabapentin on Acute Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lifeng; Song, Zhoufeng; Liu, Kang

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin versus placebo for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).In December 2015, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Google, and Chinese Wanfang databases. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria. The primary endpoint was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score after TKA with rest or mobilization at 24 and 48 hours, representing the efficacy of pain control after TKA. Cumulative morphine consumption via patient controlled anesthesia (PCA) was also assessed to determine the morphine-spare effect. Complications such as dizziness, pruritus, vomiting, nausea, and sedation were also compiled to assess the safety of gabapentin. Stata 12.0 software was used for the meta-analysis. After testing for publication bias and heterogeneity across studies, the data were aggregated for random-effects modeling whenever necessary.Six studies involving 769 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis revealed that gabapentin resulted in superior pain relief compared to the control group in terms of VAS score with rest at 24 hours (mean difference [MD] = -3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.16 to -0.77; P = 0.012) and at 48 hours postoperatively (MD = -2.25; 95% CI -4.21 to -0.30; P = 0.024). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to the VAS score at 24 hours postoperatively (MD = 1.05; 95% CI -3.31 to 5.42; P = 0.636) or at 48 hours (MD = 1.71; 95% CI -0.74 to 4.15; P = 0.171). These results indicated that the perioperative administration of gabapentin decreases the cumulative morphine

  1. [Sleep disturbance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    1990-01-01

    Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly. PMID:2191161

  2. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  3. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  4. A single dose of hypnotic corrects sleep and EEG abnormalities in symptomatic Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Sandor; Varga, Janos; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities are prominent early features of Huntington's disease (HD) that typically appear before the onset of characteristic motor symptoms. The changes in sleep and electroencephalogram seen in HD patients are largely recapitulated in mouse models of HD such as transgenic R6/2 lines. To test whether or not drugs with hypnotic properties can correct the sleep and electroencephalogram abnormalities seen in HD mice, we treated male wild-type (WT; N = 7) and R6/2 mice (N = 9) acutely with intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, zolpidem (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) or amitriptyline (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), and then monitored their sleep-wake behavior. In R6/2 mice, both zolpidem and amitriptyline suppressed the abnormally high REM sleep amount and electroencephalographic gamma (30-46 Hz) oscillations in a dose-dependent manner. Amitriptyline's effect on sleep was similar in both genotypes, whereas zolpidem showed significant genotype differences. Zolpidem exerted a strong hypnotic effect in WT mice by increasing electroencephalographic delta power, doubling the mean bout duration and the total amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep. However, no such effect was seen in R6/2 mice. Our study demonstrates that the pathophysiological changes seen in sleep and electroencephalogram are not 'hard-wired' in HD brain and can be reversed even at late stages of the disease. The diminished hypnotic effect of zolpidem suggests that the GABAergic control of sleep-wake states is impaired in HD mice. A better understanding of the neurochemical basis underlying these abnormalities should lead to more effective and rational therapies for HD. PMID:26805423

  5. Image-Guided Total-Marrow Irradiation Using Helical Tomotherapy in Patients With Multiple Myeloma and Acute Leukemia Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. Rosenthal, Joseph; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an important role in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but is associated with significant toxicities. Targeted TBI using helical tomotherapy results in reduced doses to normal organs, which predicts for reduced toxicities compared with standard TBI. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with multiple myeloma were treated in an autologous tandem transplantation Phase I trial with high-dose melphalan, followed 6 weeks later by total-marrow irradiation (TMI) to skeletal bone. Dose levels were 10, 12, 14, and 16 Gy at 2 Gy daily/twice daily. In a separate allogeneic HCT trial, 8 patients (5 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 with multiple myeloma) were treated with TMI plus total lymphoid irradiation plus splenic radiotherapy to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice daily) combined with fludarabine/melphalan. Results: For the 13 patients in the tandem autologous HCT trial, median age was 54 years (range, 42-66 years). Median organ doses were 15-65% that of the gross target volume dose. Primarily Grades 1-2 acute toxicities were observed. Six patients reported no vomiting; 9 patients, no mucositis; 6 patients, no fatigue; and 8 patients, no diarrhea. For the 8 patients in the allogeneic HCT trial, median age was 52 years (range, 24-61 years). Grades 2-3 nausea, vomiting, mucositis, and diarrhea were observed. In both trials, no Grade 4 nonhematologic toxicity was observed, and all patients underwent successful engraftment. Conclusions: This study shows that TMI using helical tomotherapy is clinically feasible. The reduced acute toxicities observed compare favorably with those seen with standard TBI. Initial results are encouraging and warrant further evaluation as a method to dose escalate with acceptable toxicity or to offer TBI-containing regimens to patients unable to tolerate standard approaches.

  6. The cognitive cost of sleep lost

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, John G.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night’s sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep disturbance to cognitive deficits, attempts to develop valid and reliable rodent models of these phenomena are fewer, and relatively more recent. This review focuses primarily on the cognitive impairments produced by sleep disruption in rodent models of several human patterns of sleep loss/sleep disturbance. Though not an exclusive list, this review will focus on four specific types of sleep disturbance: total sleep deprivation, experimental sleep fragmentation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic sleep restriction. The use of rodent models can provide greater opportunities to understand the neurobiological changes underlying sleep loss induced cognitive impairments. Thus, this review concludes with a description of recent neurobiological findings concerning the neuroplastic changes and putative brain mechanisms that may underlie the cognitive deficits produced by sleep disturbances. PMID:21875679

  7. The cognitive cost of sleep lost.

    PubMed

    McCoy, John G; Strecker, Robert E

    2011-11-01

    A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night's sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep disturbance to cognitive deficits, attempts to develop valid and reliable rodent models of these phenomena are fewer, and relatively more recent. This review focuses primarily on the cognitive impairments produced by sleep disruption in rodent models of several human patterns of sleep loss/sleep disturbance. Though not an exclusive list, this review will focus on four specific types of sleep disturbance: total sleep deprivation, experimental sleep fragmentation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic sleep restriction. The use of rodent models can provide greater opportunities to understand the neurobiological changes underlying sleep loss induced cognitive impairments. Thus, this review concludes with a description of recent neurobiological findings concerning the neuroplastic changes and putative brain mechanisms that may underlie the cognitive deficits produced by sleep disturbances.

  8. Sleep Tight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    At the same time their biological systems program them for later sleep and waking times, adolescents' schedules and lifestyles keep them from getting a healthy amount of sleep. Although a few schools have altered their schedules, most are confounded by costs and contractual complications. Minnesota schools are leaders. (MLH)

  9. Acute alertness-promoting effects of a novel histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist in healthy sleep-deprived male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Iannone, R; Palcza, J; Renger, J J; Calder, N; Cerchio, K; Gottesdiener, K; Hargreaves, R; Dijk, D J; Boyle, J; Murphy, M G

    2010-12-01

    The alertness-promoting effect of MK-0249 (10 or 50 mg), a histamine subtype-3 receptor (HRH3) inverse agonist (IA), was evaluated in the stimulant reference sleep deprivation model (SRSDM) using a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and modafinil- (200 mg) controlled, four-period crossover design in 24 healthy young men. The two primary hypotheses were related to sleep latency (first appearance of one epoch of stage 2, 3, or 4 or REM sleep, as detected using polysomnography (PSG)) at 8:00 AM on day 2. Statistically significant increases in sleep latency were observed in association with the use of modafinil 200 mg (9.07 min; P < 0.0001), MK-0249 50 mg (5.17 min; P = 0.008), and MK-0249 10 mg (5.45 min; P = 0.005) at the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) at 8:00 AM. Sleep latency was higher when averaged over all MWT time points (P < 0.0001 for modafinil and for both doses of MK-0249). The alertness-promoting effect with the use of MK-0249 in the SRSDM suggests that HRH3 IAs may be effective in disorders involving excessive somnolence. PMID:20981000

  10. Ancestral sleep.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-01

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3].

  11. Ancestral sleep.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-01

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3]. PMID:27046809

  12. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement -- or NREM sleep -- and rapid eye movement -- or REM sleep. NREM sleep includes four stages, ranging from light to deep sleep. Then we go into REM sleep, the most active ... During REM sleep, the eyes move back and forth beneath the eyelids and ...

  13. Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation and Chemotherapy Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Lymphocytic or Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    PubMed

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  15. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    PubMed

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas. PMID:23520548

  16. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  17. A Multistudy Analysis of the Effects of Early Cocaine Abstinence on Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Matuskey, D; Pittman, B; Forselius, E; Malison, RT; Morgan, PT

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the sleep patterns of early cocaine abstinence in chronic users by polysomnographic and subjective measures. Methods 28 cocaine-dependent participants (ages 24-55) underwent polysomnographic sleep (PSG) recording on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of abstinence on a research dedicated inpatient facility. Objective measures of total sleep time, total REM time, slow wave sleep, sleep efficiency and a subjective measure (sleep quality) along with demographic data were collected from three different long term research studies over a five year period. Data were reanalyzed to allow greater statistical power for comparisons. Results Progressive weeks of abstinence had main effects on all assessed PSG sleep measures showing decreased total sleep time, REM sleep, stage 1 and 2 sleep, and sleep efficiency; increases in sleep onset and REM latencies and a slight increase in slow-wave sleep time were also present. Total sleep time and slow wave sleep were negatively associated with years of cocaine use. Total sleep time was positively associated with the amount of current ethanol use. Sex differences were found with females having more total REM time and an increase at a near significance level in slow wave sleep. Subjective measures were reported as improving with increasing abstinence over the same time period. Conclusions Chronic cocaine users show a general deterioration in objective sleep measures over a three-week period despite an increase in subjective overall sleep quality providing further evidence for “occult insomnia” during early cocaine abstinence. PMID:21144676

  18. Selective REM sleep deprivation in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Vu, Manh Hoang; Hurni, Christoph; Mathis, Johannes; Roth, Corinne; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2011-03-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormalities, including cataplexy. The aim of this study was to assess REM sleep pressure and homeostasis in narcolepsy. Six patients with narcolepsy and six healthy controls underwent a REM sleep deprivation protocol, including one habituation, one baseline, two deprivation nights (D1, D2) and one recovery night. Multiple sleep latency tests (MSLTs) were performed during the day after baseline and after D2. During D1 and D2 REM sleep was prevented by awakening the subjects at the first polysomnographic signs of REM sleep for 2 min. Mean sleep latency and number of sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMs) were determined on all MSLT. More interventions were required to prevent REM sleep in narcoleptics compared with control subjects during D1 (57 ± 16 versus 24 ± 10) and D2 (87 ± 22 versus 35 ± 8, P = 0.004). Interventions increased from D1 to D2 by 46% in controls and by 53% in narcoleptics (P < 0.03). Selective REM sleep deprivation was successful in both controls (mean reduction of REM to 6% of baseline) and narcoleptics (11%). Both groups had a reduction of total sleep time during the deprivation nights (P = 0.03). Neither group had REM sleep rebound in the recovery night. Narcoleptics had, however, an increase in the number of SOREMs on MSLT (P = 0.005). There was no increase in the number of cataplexies after selective REM sleep deprivation. We conclude that: (i) REM sleep pressure is higher in narcoleptics; (ii) REM sleep homeostasis is similar in narcoleptics and controls; (iii) in narcoleptics selective REM sleep deprivation may have an effect on sleep propensity but not on cataplexy.

  19. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Non-human Primate Total- and Partial-body Irradiation Models: Correlation of Circulating Citrulline to Acute and Prolonged Gastrointestinal Injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jace W; Bennett, Alexander; Carter, Claire L; Tudor, Gregory; Hankey, Kim G; Farese, Ann M; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for acute and prolonged gastrointestinal injury via exposure to total- and partial-body irradiation (6 MV LINAC-derived photons; 0.80 Gy min) in nonhuman primate models was investigated. The irradiation exposure covered gastrointestinal injuries spanning lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal doses. The acute gastrointestinal injury was assessed via measurement of plasma citrulline and small intestinal histopathology over the first 15 d following radiation exposure and included total-body irradiation at 13.0 Gy, 10.5 Gy, and 7.5 Gy and partial-body irradiation at 11.0 Gy with 5% bone marrow sparing. The dosing schemes of 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation and 11.0 Gy partial-body irradiation included time points out to day 60 and day 180, respectively, which allowed for correlation of plasma citrulline to prolonged gastrointestinal injury and survival. Plasma citrulline values were radiation-dependent for all radiation doses under consideration, with nadir values ranging from 63-80% lower than radiation-naïve NHP plasma. The nadir values were observed at day 5 to 7 post irradiation. Longitudinal plasma citrulline profiles demonstrated prolonged gastrointestinal injury resulting from acute high-dose irradiation had long lasting effects on enterocyte function. Moreover, plasma citrulline did not discriminate between total-body or partial-body irradiation over the first 15 d following irradiation and was not predictive of survival based on the radiation models considered herein.

  20. Total Hip Arthroplasty for Failed Internal Fixation After Femoral Neck Fracture Versus That for Acute Displaced Femoral Neck Fracture: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhouyuan; Liu, Huifang; Xie, Xiaowei; Tan, Zhen; Qin, Tianqiang; Kang, Pengde

    2015-08-01

    The outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed internal fixation after femoral neck fracture (FNF) versus that for acute displaced femoral neck fracture is still controversial. This study retrospectively analyzed a consecutive series of 130 THAs for acute displaced FNF (64, group I) and for failed internal fixation (66, group II). Results showed THAs in group II were more technically demanding procedures with longer operative time and larger amounts of drainage compared to that in group I. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that the associations between THAs (group II) and hip complications were notable (OR=4.15, P=0.017). These increased risks should be paid much attention to, not only for choosing the appropriate treatment option, but also for providing effective perioperative care.

  1. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain antihistamines. These medicines are commonly used to treat allergies. While these ...

  2. Sex Chromosomes Regulate Nighttime Sleep Propensity during Recovery from Sleep Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pinckney, Lennisha; Paul, Ketema N.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in spontaneous sleep amount are largely dependent on reproductive hormones; however, in mice some sex differences in sleep amount during the active phase are preserved after gonadectomy and may be driven by non-hormonal factors. In this study, we sought to determine whether or not these sex differences are driven by sex chromosome complement. Mice from the four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, whose sex chromosome complement (XY, XX) is independent of phenotype (male or female), were implanted with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes for the recording of sleep-wake states and underwent a 24-hr baseline recording followed by six hours of forced wakefulness. During baseline conditions in mice whose gonads remained intact, males had more total sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep than females during the active phase. Gonadectomized FCG mice exhibited no sex differences in rest-phase sleep amount; however, during the mid-active-phase (nighttime), XX males had more spontaneous non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep than XX females. The XY mice did not exhibit sex differences in sleep amount. Following forced wakefulness there was a change in the factors regulating sleep. XY females slept more during their mid-active phase siestas than XX females and had higher NREM slow wave activity, a measure of sleep propensity. These findings suggest that the process that regulates sleep propensity is sex-linked, and that sleep amount and sleep propensity are regulated differently in males and females following sleep loss. PMID:23658713

  3. Independent associations between fatty acids and sleep quality among obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome after controlling for possible confounders. Sixty-three patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Anthropometric measurements were carried out. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Significant positive associations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. This study revealed independent associations between certain gluteal adipose tissue fatty acids and sleep quality after controlling for age, gender, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome indices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

  4. [Analysis of efficiency of human sleep by Pareto principle].

    PubMed

    Verbitskiĭ, E V; Grachev, G A

    2013-01-01

    The results of system assessment efficiency of human night sleep which was registered on a large number of people without health problems, and data on the modeling of sleep structure by Pareto principle were showed. In contrast to the assessment of sleep efficiency, as the ratio of the duration of electrophysiological sleep to the total time of sleep, the introduced method increase adequacy assessment by taking into gender factor in the somnology and personalized medicine.

  5. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

  6. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads.

  7. A descriptive study to assess the impact of surgical stomas on individuals' sleep perceptions & response to sleep hygiene.

    PubMed

    Vorbeck, Ellen; Willette-Murphy, Karen; Meiers, Sonja; Rudel, Rebecca; Alakhras, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the sleep quality of individuals with surgically created stomas. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted to: 1) assess subjective sleep quality perceptions and objective sleep measurement in adults with stomas, 2) determine if there is a correlation between subjective and objective measurement of sleep in this group, and 3) implement a stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention to improve these sleep quality perceptions. Subjective assessment focused on sleep subset questions from the Stoma Quality of Life Index (SQOLI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents' (n = 26) subjective sleep scores were 7.23 mean global score on seven questions (PSQI, range: 0 [no difficulty sleeping] to 3 [severe difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 21) with a mean score of 7.32 on three questions (SQOLI, range 1 [severe difficulty sleeping] to 4 [no difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 12) on sleep subset questions; composite scores of 5 or greater (PSQI) and 3 or less (SQOLI) indicating sleep problems. Scores showed that adults with stomas have increased sleep disruption and poor sleep quality. Five respondents who met intervention enrollment criteria participated in an objective sleep assessment using actigraphy, overnight oxygenation studies, and a 4-week sleep hygiene intervention. Mean PSQI score improved by 1.20 but the difference was not statistically significant. Because the results of this study confirm that sleep problems are common in older adults with a stoma, larger sample size studies of >4 weeks' duration are warranted. Until additional research results are available, the existence of sleep quality and overnight pouching concerns should be recognized and use of the low-cost, easy-to-use, stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention considered.

  8. Decitabine and Total-Body Irradiation Followed By Donor Bone Marrow Transplant and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-08

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety and Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Öztürk, Levent; Kurt, Cem; Bulut, Erdogan; Sut, Necdet; Vardar, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02) whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance. Key pointsShort time total sleep deprivation (30 hours) increases state anxiety without any competition stress.Anaerobic performance parameters such as peak power, mean power and minimum power may not show a distinctive difference from anaerobic performance in a normal sleep day despite the high anxiety level induced by short time sleep deprivation.Partial sleep deprivation does not affect anxiety level and anaerobic performance of the next day. PMID:24149488

  10. Epidemiological, clinical and sleep laboratory evaluations of insomnia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixler, E. O.; Kales, A.; Kales, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have contributed to the understanding of the total scope of the insomnia problem, both in terms of the incidence of sleep difficulties, and the extent and frequency of hypnotic drug use. Clinical studies - at the Sleep Research and Treatment Center - have been used to evaluate the medical, psychological, pharmacological and situational factors contributing to insomnia, and to evaluate the psychotherapy and chemotherapy best suited to treatment of insomnia. The sleep laboratory studies were of two types: (1) the study of sleep induction, sleep maintenance, and sleep stages, and (2) the use of hypnotic drugs, emphasizing their effectiveness in inducing and maintaining sleep, and the duration of this effectiveness.

  11. Behavioral sleep in the walrus.

    PubMed

    Pryaslova, Julia P; Lyamin, Oleg I; Siegel, Jerome M; Mukhametov, Lev M

    2009-07-19

    In this study we examined behavioral sleep in the walrus, the only living species of the family Odobenidae. The behavior of four 1.5-2-year-old captive walruses was videotaped continuously for 7-17 days and scored in 1-min epochs. When walruses had access to water and land, behavioral sleep, the combined amount of quiet and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, occupied on average 17+/-4% of 24 h (n=4) with the majority of sleep occurring on land. All walruses alternated periods of almost continuous swimming lasting for 40-84 h with periods of rest on land lasting for 2-19 h. When in water they were predominantly awake (88-99% of the time). On land walruses were asleep on average 40-74% of the time. The total sleep time varied between 0 and 60% of 24h with the daily amount of REM sleep ranging from 0 to 5% of 24 h. In water, walruses slept while floating at the surface, lying on the bottom or standing and leaning against the pool wall. REM sleep in water occurred in all positions. On land the breathing pattern was regular during quiet sleep (most pauses were <30s) and arrhythmic in REM sleep (apneas lasted up to 160 s). While in water the irregularity of breathing further increased (apneas were >4 min) and all REM sleep episodes occurred during a single apnea. Data indicate that the pattern of sleep and breathing in walruses is similar to the Otariidae seals while on land and the Phocidae seals while in water. PMID:19428620

  12. Sleep deprivation in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stefan; Herrmann, Eva; Kaiser, Walter

    2004-06-01

    Rest at night in forager honey bees (Apis mellifera) meets essential criteria of sleep. This paper reports the effect of a 12-h total sleep deprivation (SD) by forced activity on the behaviour of these animals. The behaviour of sleep-deprived animals is compared with that of control animals under LD [periodic alternation between light (L) and darkness (D)] 12 : 12 hours. SD for 12 h during the first D period resulted in a significant difference with respect to the parameter 'hourly amount of antennal immobility' between sleep-deprived and control animals during the remaining L and D periods. This difference did not occur in the L period following the deprivation night, but rather it became obvious at the beginning of the following D period. The increase of the amount of antennal immobility in sleep-deprived bees was accompanied by an increase of the duration of episodes of antennal immobility. Moreover, the latency from 'lights off' to the first episode of antennal immobility lasting 20 s or longer ('deep sleep latency') tended to be shorter in sleep-deprived than in control animals. Disturbing the bees during the day (L period) did not result in such differences between disturbed and control animals. Highest reaction thresholds in sleeping honey bees occur during long episodes of antennal immobility. We therefore conclude that honey bees compensate a sleep deficit by intensification (deepening) of the sleep process and thus that sleep in honey bees, like that in other arthropods and mammals, is controlled by regulatory mechanisms. PMID:15175094

  13. Behavioral sleep in the walrus.

    PubMed

    Pryaslova, Julia P; Lyamin, Oleg I; Siegel, Jerome M; Mukhametov, Lev M

    2009-07-19

    In this study we examined behavioral sleep in the walrus, the only living species of the family Odobenidae. The behavior of four 1.5-2-year-old captive walruses was videotaped continuously for 7-17 days and scored in 1-min epochs. When walruses had access to water and land, behavioral sleep, the combined amount of quiet and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, occupied on average 17+/-4% of 24 h (n=4) with the majority of sleep occurring on land. All walruses alternated periods of almost continuous swimming lasting for 40-84 h with periods of rest on land lasting for 2-19 h. When in water they were predominantly awake (88-99% of the time). On land walruses were asleep on average 40-74% of the time. The total sleep time varied between 0 and 60% of 24h with the daily amount of REM sleep ranging from 0 to 5% of 24 h. In water, walruses slept while floating at the surface, lying on the bottom or standing and leaning against the pool wall. REM sleep in water occurred in all positions. On land the breathing pattern was regular during quiet sleep (most pauses were <30s) and arrhythmic in REM sleep (apneas lasted up to 160 s). While in water the irregularity of breathing further increased (apneas were >4 min) and all REM sleep episodes occurred during a single apnea. Data indicate that the pattern of sleep and breathing in walruses is similar to the Otariidae seals while on land and the Phocidae seals while in water.

  14. Feedback has a positive effect on cognitive function during total sleep deprivation if there is sufficient time for it to be effectively processed.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Lamond, Nicole; Dawson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the provision of feedback and the interval between successive stimuli interact to affect performance on a serial simple reaction time test during sleep deprivation. Sixteen participants (9 female, 7 male, aged 18-27 yr) completed four versions of the 5-min psychomotor vigilance task for a handheld personal digital assistant (PalmPVT) every 2 h during 28 h of sustained wakefulness. The four versions differed in terms of whether or not they provided feedback immediately after each response, and whether the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) were long (2-10 s) or short (1-5 s). Cognitive function was assessed using reciprocal response time and percentage of responses that were lapses (i.e., had a response time ≥ 500 ms). Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with three within-subjects factors: test session, feedback, and ISI. For both measures, the only significant interaction was between feedback and ISI. Cognitive function was enhanced by feedback when the ISIs were long because it provided motivation. Cognitive function was not affected by feedback when the ISIs were short because there was insufficient time to both attend to the feedback and prepare for the subsequent stimulus. PMID:26360220

  15. Feedback has a positive effect on cognitive function during total sleep deprivation if there is sufficient time for it to be effectively processed.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Lamond, Nicole; Dawson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the provision of feedback and the interval between successive stimuli interact to affect performance on a serial simple reaction time test during sleep deprivation. Sixteen participants (9 female, 7 male, aged 18-27 yr) completed four versions of the 5-min psychomotor vigilance task for a handheld personal digital assistant (PalmPVT) every 2 h during 28 h of sustained wakefulness. The four versions differed in terms of whether or not they provided feedback immediately after each response, and whether the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) were long (2-10 s) or short (1-5 s). Cognitive function was assessed using reciprocal response time and percentage of responses that were lapses (i.e., had a response time ≥ 500 ms). Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with three within-subjects factors: test session, feedback, and ISI. For both measures, the only significant interaction was between feedback and ISI. Cognitive function was enhanced by feedback when the ISIs were long because it provided motivation. Cognitive function was not affected by feedback when the ISIs were short because there was insufficient time to both attend to the feedback and prepare for the subsequent stimulus.

  16. Comparison of ultrasound and hepatobiliary imaging in the early detection of acute total common bile duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Egbert, R M; Braunstein, P

    1984-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 17 selected patients who underwent hepatobiliary imaging studies using technetium Tc 99m iprofenin that demonstrated acute complete common bile duct obstruction, and who also had a temporally related ultrasonographic study of the hepatobiliary tree. We compared the accuracy of the two methods in the detection of common duct obstruction. The average duration of symptoms was 2.9 days. Serum bilirubin levels averaged 3.3 mg/dL and the average alkaline phosphatase level was 336 mg/dL. The serum amylase level was elevated in only three patients. Ultrasonographic dilatation of the ductal structures was present in seven (41%) of 17 patients; 88% of the patients had other manifestations of gallbladder disease on ultrasonography--either cholelithiasis, dilatation of the gallbladder, or wall thickening. Of 15 patients who were operated on, 11 had stones impacted at the ampulla of Vater. There was a poor correlation of ultrasonographic ductal dilatation and operative findings of ductal dilatation. This study shows the superiority of nuclear imaging over ultrasonography in the early detection of acute, common bile duct obstruction.

  17. Does more sleep matter? Differential effects of NREM- and REM-dominant sleep on sleepiness and vigilance.

    PubMed

    Neu, D; Mairesse, O; Newell, J; Verbanck, P; Peigneux, P; Deliens, G

    2015-05-01

    We investigated effects of NREM and REM predominant sleep periods on sleepiness and psychomotor performances measured with visual analog scales and the psychomotor vigilance task, respectively. After one week of stable sleep-wake rhythms, 18 healthy sleepers slept 3hours of early sleep and 3hours of late sleep, under polysomnographic control, spaced by two hours of sustained wakefulness between sleep periods in a within subjects split-night, sleep interruption protocol. Power spectra analysis was applied for sleep EEG recordings and sleep phase-relative power proportions were computed for six different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, sigma, beta and gamma). Both sleep periods presented with similar sleep duration and efficiency. As expected, phasic NREM and REM predominances were obtained for early and late sleep conditions, respectively. Albeit revealing additive effects of total sleep duration, our results showed a systematic discrepancy between psychomotor performances and sleepiness levels. In addition, sleepiness remained stable throughout sustained wakefulness during both conditions, whereas psychomotor performances even decreased after the second sleep period. Disregarding exchanges for frequency bands in NREM or stability in REM, correlations between outcome measures and EEG power proportions further evidenced directional divergence with respect to sleepiness and psychomotor performances, respectively. Showing that the functional correlation pattern changed with respect to early and late sleep condition, the relationships between EEG power and subjective or behavioral outcomes might however essentially be related to total sleep duration rather than to the phasic predominance of REM or NREM sleep.

  18. Performance, ability to stay awake, and tendency to fall asleep during the night after a diurnal sleep with temazepam or placebo.

    PubMed

    Porcù, S; Bellatreccia, A; Ferrara, M; Casagrande, M

    1997-07-01

    Sleep loss and increased sleepiness on the job are among the most prevalent problems encountered by people involved in night shift work, especially in cases of abrupt shift of the wake-sleep cycle. In such conditions, detrimental effects on performance are well documented. In these situations, to avoid decrements of performance at night, one possibility is to use hypnotics for improving the quality and quantity of daytime sleep. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 20 mg of temazepam on daytime sleep, the subsequent levels of nocturnal alertness/sleepiness, and performance in a laboratory simulation of acute night shift. For evaluating alertness, sleepiness, and performance we used, respectively, the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), and two pencil and paper tests: digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and deux barrages test (DBT). All tests were administered four times at 2-hour intervals during the nighttime after daytime sleep. Results showed that the ability to maintain wakefulness (MWT) and to perform some visuo-attentive tasks were substantially maintained during the night. On the other hand, sleep tendency (MSLT) linearly increased during the night. Temazepam resulted in being an effective diurnal hypnotic, increasing total sleep time with no residual detrimental effects on sleepiness and performance and with an increase in the ability to stay awake.

  19. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses.

  20. Sleep and performance--recent trends.

    PubMed

    Himashree, Gidugu; Banerjee, P K; Selvamurthy, W

    2002-01-01

    Sleep and sleep deprivation are intimately related to performance. Sleep management of people working in different sectors of the society like multi shift workers, nurses, doctors, students in professional schools and the armed forces has a great bearing on performance, health and safety of the subject population. The detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on psychological performance are indicated as increased lapsing, cognitive slowing, memory impairment, decrease in vigilance and sustained attention and shift in optimum response capability. Its effects on physical performance are manifested as decline in ability to perform maximal exercise, self-selected walking pace and increase in perceived exertion. Sleep deprivation appears to have no effect in respect of muscle contractile properties and maximum anaerobic power. At high altitude (HA), there is a reduction in NREM sleep with frequent awakening due to hypoxia as a physiological adaptive measure to prevent accentuation of hypoxemia due to sleep-hypoventilation. Total sleep deprivation for 48 hours at high altitude can affect the acclimatization status, thermoregulation efficiency and cognitive functions. The concept of 'sleepiness' has also been studied, as it is an emerging concept for better understanding of the effects of sleep deprivation and its effects on performance. A special mention of sustained operations in the armed forces has been made keeping in mind its uniqueness in challenging the normal sleep-work schedule and its deployment in extreme environment and operational condition. This article reviews in detail the functions of sleep, its requirement and the effects of sleep deprivation on human performance.

  1. Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in a Murine Model of the H-ARS: Multiple-Organ Injury Consequent to <10 Gy Total Body Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J; Quickery, Ariel K; Ferguson, Ethan L; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P; Plett, P Artur; Sandusky, George E; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

    2015-11-01

    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a Cs radiation source and studied 1-21 mo later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ∼22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69 ± 6.0 mg dL, p < 0.01 vs. non-irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29 ± 1.8% vs. 64 ± 9.7% of total glomeruli, p < 0.01 vs. non-irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peribronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ∼9-21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart, and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model, which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs.

  2. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset. PMID:10607159

  3. Predictability of Sleep in Patients with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Vallières, Annie; Ivers, Hans; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Morin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate whether the night-to-night variability in insomnia follows specific predictable patterns and to characterize sleep patterns using objective sleep and clinical variables. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: University-affiliated sleep disorders center. Participants: 146 participants suffering from chronic and primary insomnia. Measurements and Results: Daily sleep diaries were completed for an average of 48 days and self-reported questionnaires once. Three nights were spent in the sleep laboratory for polysomnographic (PSG) assessment. Sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time were derived from sleep diaries and PSG. Time-series diary data were used to compute conditional probabilities of having an insomnia night after 1, 2, or 3 consecutive insomnia night(s). Conditional probabilities were submitted to a k-means cluster analysis. A 3-cluster solution was retained. One cluster included 38 participants exhibiting an unpredictable insomnia pattern. Another included 30 participants with a low and decreasing probability to have an insomnia night. The last cluster included 49 participants exhibiting a high probability to have insomnia every night. Clusters differed on age, insomnia severity, and mental fatigue, and on subjective sleep variables, but not on PSG sleep variables. Conclusion: These findings replicate our previous study and provide additional evidence that unpredictability is a less prevalent feature of insomnia than suggested previously in the literature. The presence of the 3 clusters is discussed in term of sleep perception and sleep homeostasis dysregulation. Citation: Vallières A; Ivers H; Beaulieu-Bonneau S; Morin CM. Predictability of sleep in patients with insomnia. SLEEP 2011;34(5):609-617. PMID:21532954

  4. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    PubMed Central

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by – more or less qualified – advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  5. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking.

    PubMed

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Leder, Johannes; Ketturat, Charlene; Dresler, Martin; Faber, Nadira Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We conducted a 2 (sleep deprivation: yes vs. no) ×2 (competency of advisor: medium vs. high) experimental study to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on advice taking in an estimation task. We compared participants with one night of total sleep deprivation to participants with a night of regular sleep. Competency of advisor was manipulated within subjects. We found that sleep deprived participants show increased advice taking. An interaction of condition and competency of advisor and further post-hoc analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for the medium competency advisor compared to the high competency advisor. Furthermore, sleep deprived participants benefited more from an advisor of high competency in terms of stronger improvement in judgmental accuracy than well-rested participants. PMID:27109507

  6. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats

  7. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  8. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many of the body's cells also show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during deep sleep. ... deep sleep, REM sleep is associated with increased production of proteins. One study found that REM sleep ...

  9. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep ...

  10. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  12. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  13. Surgical management of acute type A aortic dissection: branch-first arch replacement with total aortic repair

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.; Perera, Nisal K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute type A dissection (ATAAD) remains a morbid condition with reported surgical mortality as high as 25%. We describe our surgical approach to ATAAD and discuss the indications for adjunct techniques such as the frozen elephant trunk or complete aortic repair with endovascular methods. Arch replacement using the “branch-first technique” allows for complete root, ascending aorta, and arch replacement. A long landing zone is created for proximal endografting with a covered stent. Balloon-assisted intimal disruption and bare metal stenting of all residual dissected aorta to the level of the aortic bifurcation is then performed to obliterate the false lumen (FL) and achieve single true lumen (TL) flow. Additional branch vessel stenting is performed as required. PMID:27386413

  14. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  15. Sleep in Othello

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  16. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  17. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R.; Schmitt, Luke I.; Halassa, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5–4 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

  18. Increased Sleep Depth in Developing Neural Networks: New Insights from Sleep Restriction in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Salome; Dean, Douglas C.; Achermann, Peter; O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Huber, Reto; Deoni, Sean C. L.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain networks respond to sleep deprivation or restriction with increased sleep depth, which is quantified as slow-wave activity (SWA) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). When adults are sleep deprived, this homeostatic response is most pronounced over prefrontal brain regions. However, it is unknown how children’s developing brain networks respond to acute sleep restriction, and whether this response is linked to myelination, an ongoing process in childhood that is critical for brain development and cortical integration. We implemented a bedtime delay protocol in 5- to 12-year-old children to obtain partial sleep restriction (1-night; 50% of their habitual sleep). High-density sleep EEG was assessed during habitual and restricted sleep and brain myelin content was obtained using mcDESPOT magnetic resonance imaging. The effect of sleep restriction was analyzed using statistical non-parametric mapping with supra-threshold cluster analysis. We observed a localized homeostatic SWA response following sleep restriction in a specific parieto-occipital region. The restricted/habitual SWA ratio was negatively associated with myelin water fraction in the optic radiation, a developing fiber bundle. This relationship occurred bilaterally over parieto-temporal areas and was adjacent to, but did not overlap with the parieto-occipital region showing the most pronounced homeostatic SWA response. These results provide evidence for increased sleep need in posterior neural networks in children. Sleep need in parieto-temporal areas is related to myelin content, yet it remains speculative whether age-related myelin growth drives the fading of the posterior homeostatic SWA response during the transition to adulthood. Whether chronic insufficient sleep in the sensitive period of early life alters the anatomical generators of deep sleep slow-waves is an important unanswered question. PMID:27708567

  19. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using the keywords "childhood," "adversity," "abuse," and "sleep" as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in the types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N = 25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (odds ratio, OR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p

  20. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with adult sleep disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Gelaye, Bizu; Jackson, Chandra L; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represent substantial threats to public health and affect about 58% of youth in the US. In addition to their acute effects such as injury and physical trauma, ACEs are associated with an increased risk of several negative health outcomes throughout the life course. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep disorders may be one such outcome, but existing studies have not been systematically reviewed and summarized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence concerning the relationship between ACEs and sleep disorders and disturbances, with a focus on adult women. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science using the keywords "childhood," "adversity," "abuse," and "sleep" as well as searches of the reference lists of eligible studies. Studies evaluating ACEs that occurred before 18 years of age and sleep outcomes that were assessed at 18 years or older were adjudicated and included. A total of 30 publications were identified. Of the 30 studies, 28 were retrospective analyses and there was vast heterogeneity in the types of ACEs and sleep outcomes measured. The majority of retrospective studies (N = 25 of 28) documented statistically significant associations between sleep disorders including sleep apnea, narcolepsy, nightmare distress, sleep paralysis, and psychiatric sleep disorders with a history of childhood adversity. In many studies, the strengths of associations increased with the number and severity of adverse experiences. These associations were corroborated by the two prospective studies published to date. Notably, investigators have documented statistically significant associations between family conflict at 7-15 years of age and insomnia at 18 years of age (odds ratio, OR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.7) and between childhood sexual abuse and sleep disturbances 10 years later in adult women (β = 0.24, p

  1. Sleep Spindles Characteristics in Insomnia Sufferers and Their Relationship with Sleep Misperception.

    PubMed

    Normand, Marie-Pier; St-Hilaire, Patrick; Bastien, Célyne H

    2016-01-01

    Cortical hyperarousal is higher in insomnia sufferers (INS) than in good sleepers (GS) and could be related to an alteration in sleep protection mechanisms, like reduced density or altered characteristics in sleep spindles. The deficient sleep protection mechanisms might in turn enhance underestimation of sleep. This study's objective was to document sleep spindles characteristics in INS compared with GS and to investigate their potential role in sleep consolidation and misperception. Seventeen individuals with paradoxical insomnia (PARA-I), 24 individuals with psychophysiological insomnia (PSY-I), and 29 GS completed four consecutive polysomnographic nights in laboratory. Sleep spindles were detected automatically during stage 2 and SWS (3-4) on night 3. Number, density, duration, frequency, and amplitude of sleep spindles were calculated. A misperception index was used to determine the degree of discrepancy between subjective and objective total sleep times. Kruskal-Wallis H tests and post hoc tests revealed that PARA-I had significantly shorter sleep spindles than GS but that PSY-I and GS did not differ on spindles length. A standard multiple regression model revealed that neither sleep spindles characteristics nor objective sleep measures were predictive of sleep misperception. A longer duration of spindles could reflect a higher gating process but this hypothesis still needs to be confirmed in replication studies. PMID:27478648

  2. Sleep Spindles Characteristics in Insomnia Sufferers and Their Relationship with Sleep Misperception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cortical hyperarousal is higher in insomnia sufferers (INS) than in good sleepers (GS) and could be related to an alteration in sleep protection mechanisms, like reduced density or altered characteristics in sleep spindles. The deficient sleep protection mechanisms might in turn enhance underestimation of sleep. This study's objective was to document sleep spindles characteristics in INS compared with GS and to investigate their potential role in sleep consolidation and misperception. Seventeen individuals with paradoxical insomnia (PARA-I), 24 individuals with psychophysiological insomnia (PSY-I), and 29 GS completed four consecutive polysomnographic nights in laboratory. Sleep spindles were detected automatically during stage 2 and SWS (3-4) on night 3. Number, density, duration, frequency, and amplitude of sleep spindles were calculated. A misperception index was used to determine the degree of discrepancy between subjective and objective total sleep times. Kruskal-Wallis H tests and post hoc tests revealed that PARA-I had significantly shorter sleep spindles than GS but that PSY-I and GS did not differ on spindles length. A standard multiple regression model revealed that neither sleep spindles characteristics nor objective sleep measures were predictive of sleep misperception. A longer duration of spindles could reflect a higher gating process but this hypothesis still needs to be confirmed in replication studies. PMID:27478648

  3. An Actigraphy Study of Sleep and Pain in Midlife Women – The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Howard M.; Zheng, Huiyong; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Owens, Jane; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether women reporting nighttime pain would have more actigraphy-measured evidence for disturbed sleep and report feeling less rested compared to women without nighttime pain. Methods Up to 27 consecutive nights of actigraphy and sleep diary data were analyzed from each participant in this community-based study of 314 African-American (n=118), White (n=141), and Chinese (n=55) women, aged 48-58 years, who were pre-, peri- or post-menopausal and participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Dependent variables were actigraphy-measured movement and fragmentation index, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency, and diary self-report of feeling rested after waking up. All outcomes were fit using linear mixed effect models to examine covariate-adjusted associations between the independent variable, nighttime pain severity, and sleep outcomes. Results Higher pain severity scores were associated with longer sleep duration but reduced sleep efficiency and feeling less rested. Women reporting nocturnal vasomotor symptoms had more sleep-related movement and sleep fragmentation, reduced sleep efficiency, and were less likely to feel rested after wakening, regardless of whether they reported pain. Conclusions Midlife women who report higher nighttime pain levels have more objective evidence for less efficient sleep, consistent with self-reported less restful sleep. Nocturnal vasomotor symptoms also can contribute to restlessness and wakefulness in midlife women. PMID:25706182

  4. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents.

  5. [Distal Aortic Arch Aneurysm, Acute type B Aortic Dissection, and Acute Bilateral Limb Ischemia Treated by Two-stage Total Arch Replacement;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazunori; Itoh, Satoshi; Tajima, Yasushi; Kimura, Naoyuki; Yuri, Kohichi; Matumoto, Harunobu; Adachi, Kohichi; Yamaguchi, Atushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2015-05-01

    A 74-year-old female patient experienced sudden and severe pain in her lower back and both legs. Upon examination, her femoral pulses were weak, and her legs were pale. Computed tomography revealed a 66-mm thoracic aneurysm in the distal arch and type B aortic dissection. Stenosis was present from the terminal aorta to the iliac arteries. The left common iliac artery was occluded at its bifurcation, and both lower limbs were ischemic. We performed bilateral axillary-femoral artery bypass, which improved blood flow to both limbs. The next day, it was apparent that compartment syndrome had developed in the patient's left leg. Rehabilitation therapy was effective for the compartment syndrome, the patient's symptoms resolved, and she was discharged. We later performed two-stage total arch replacement, and the subsequent clinical course has been without incident.

  6. Chronic sleep disturbance impairs glucose homeostasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Barf, R Paulien; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS), a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS), and a home cage control group. To establish changes in glucose regulation, animals were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) before and after 1 or 8 days of sleep restriction or disturbance. Data show that both RS and DS reduce body weight without affecting food intake and also lead to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin levels during an IVGTT. Acute sleep disturbance also caused hyperglycemia during an IVGTT, yet, without affecting the insulin response. In conclusion, both moderate and severe disturbances of sleep markedly affect glucose homeostasis and body weight control. PMID:20339560

  7. Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while after ILLLI the level of these index in treatment group decreased statistically significantly compared with those in injury group (P<0.05). Conclusion ILLLI can significantly decrease the expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

  8. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  9. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles.

  10. Acute antidepressant response to sleep deprivation combined with light therapy is influenced by the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(108/158)Met polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Dallaspezia, Sara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Locatelli, Clara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Radaelli, Daniele; Smeraldi, Enrico; Colombo, Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates norepinephrine and dopamine via methyl conjugation, and a G-A transition in the COMT gene (rs4680) influences the enzyme activity. It is a current area of debate whether rs4680 can influence antidepressant response in major depressive disorder, and whether this influence extends to bipolar depression. Chronotherapeutic interventions, such as sleep deprivation and light therapy, are multi-target in nature and are effective in bipolar depression. Here we studied the effect of rs4680 on response to sleep deprivation combined with light therapy (36 h awake followed by a night of undisturbed sleep, with 10,000 lx light administered for 30 min during the night awake and upon awakening) in 87 bipolar depressed inpatients. Patients who were homozygotic for the Val/Val variant showed a significantly less efficient antidepressant effect after the night awake than those who were heterozygotic and homozygotic for the Met variant. This effect of rs4680 is similar to its observed influence on response to serotonergic and noradrenergic drug treatments in major depressive disorder. This is the first study reporting an influence of rs4680 on antidepressant response in bipolar depression. This finding supports the hypothesis of a major role for catecholamines in the mechanism of action of chronotherapeutics, and for rs4680 in modulating this effect.

  11. Mediator Effect of Sleep Hygiene Practices on Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Other Sleep-Related Factors in Chinese Mainland University Students.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zhou, Kaina; Li, Xiaomei; Liu, Miao; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Duolao; Xin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediator effect of sleep hygiene practices (SHP) on relationships between sleep quality and other sleep-related factors in Chinese mainland university students using structural equation modeling analysis. Of the 413 students, 41.4% had poor sleep quality. Gender, academic stress, relaxed psychological status, good physical status, and SHP had significant direct effects on sleep quality; relaxed psychological status had significant direct effect on SHP and indirect effect on sleep quality via SHP. The direct, indirect, and total effects of gender, academic stress, relaxed psychological status, good physical status, and SHP explained 25% of the variance in sleep quality. The Chinese mainland university students had relative poor sleep quality. SHP was a mediator between sleep quality and relaxed psychological status.

  12. The exploratory power of sleep effort, dysfunctional beliefs and arousal for insomnia severity and polysomnography-determined sleep.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Differences between subjective sleep perception and sleep determined by polysomnography (PSG) are prevalent, particularly in patients with primary insomnia, indicating that the two measures are partially independent. To identify individualized treatment strategies, it is important to understand the potentially different mechanisms influencing subjective and PSG-determined sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent three major components of insomnia models, i.e., sleep effort, dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, and presleep arousal, are associated with subjective insomnia severity and PSG-determined sleep. A sample of 47 patients with primary insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria and 52 good sleeper controls underwent 2 nights of PSG and completed the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale, the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale, the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the impact of the three predictors on subjective insomnia severity and PSG- determined total sleep time. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, depressive symptoms and group status. The results showed that subjective insomnia severity was associated positively with sleep effort. PSG-determined total sleep time was associated negatively with somatic presleep arousal and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep. This pattern of results provides testable hypotheses for prospective studies on the impact of distinct cognitive and somatic variables on subjective insomnia severity and PSG-determined total sleep time.

  13. Similar Survival for Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Versus Myeloablative TBI as Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplant in Acute Leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, John L.; Waller, Edmund K.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Rangaraju, Sravanti; Ali, Zahir; Graiser, Michael; Hall, William A.; Langston, Amelia A.; Esiashvili, Natia; Khoury, H. Jean; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the mainstay of treatment for adults with acute leukemia. Total body irradiation (TBI) remains an important part of the conditioning regimen for HCST. For those patients unable to tolerate myeloablative TBI (mTBI), reduced intensity TBI (riTBI) is commonly used. In this study we compared outcomes of patients undergoing mTBI with those of patients undergoing riTBI in our institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with acute leukemia who underwent TBI-based conditioning, using a prospectively acquired database of HSCT patients treated at our institution. Patient data including details of the transplantation procedure, disease status, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), response rates, toxicity, survival time, and time to progression were extracted. Patient outcomes for various radiation therapy regimens were examined. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Between June 1985 and July 2012, 226 patients with acute leukemia underwent TBI as conditioning for HSCT. Of those patients, 180 had full radiation therapy data available; 83 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 94 had acute myelogenous leukemia; 45 patients received riTBI, and 135 received mTBI. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.7 months. Median relapse-free survival (RFS) for all patients was 10.2 months. Controlling for age, sex, KPS, disease status, and diagnosis, there were no significant differences in OS or RFS between patients who underwent riTBI and those who underwent mTBI (P=.402, P=.499, respectively). Median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients who received riTBI than for those who received mTBI (16 days vs 23 days, respectively; P<.001), and intensive care unit admissions were less frequent following riTBI than mTBI (2.22% vs 12.69%, respectively, P=.043). Nonrelapse survival rates were also similar (P=.186). Conclusions: No differences in OS or RFS were seen between

  14. Mobile phones and sleep - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supe, Sanjay S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones has raised concerns regarding the potential health effects of exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. An increasing amount research related to mobile phone use has focussed on the possible effects of mobile phone exposure on human brain activity and function. In particular, the use of sleep research has become a more widely used technique for assessing the possible effects of mobile phones on human health and wellbeing especially in the investigation of potential changes in sleep architecture resulting from mobile phone use. Acute exposure to a mobile phone prior to sleep significantly enhances electroencephalogram spectral power in the sleep spindle frequency range. This mobile phone-induced enhancement in spectral power is largely transitory and does not linger throughout the night. Furthermore, a reduction in rapid eye movement sleep latency following mobile phone exposure was also found, although interestingly, neither this change in rapid eye movement sleep latency or the enhancement in spectral power following mobile phone exposure, led to changes in the overall quality of sleep. In conclusion, a short exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone handset immediately prior to sleep is sufficient to induce changes in brain activity in the initial part of sleep. The consequences or functional significance of this effect are currently unknown and it would be premature to draw conclusions about possible health consequences.

  15. Morphine Inhibits Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area Via Mu Receptors and Induces Wakefulness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Yue, Xiao-Fang; Qu, Wei-Min; Tan, Rong; Zheng, Ping; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    Morphine is the most efficacious and widely prescribed treatment for pain. However, it decreases the total amount of deep sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in humans. Acute morphine administration at low doses causes wakefulness in animal models. To clarify the mechanism by which morphine affects sleep–wake behavior, we investigated the effects of morphine on the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), a putative sleep-active nucleus, using in vitro brain slices by the patch-clamp technique. We also examined the effects of morphine on sleep–wake profiles after administration of opioid receptor antagonist to the VLPO using EEG and electromyogram recordings in freely moving rats. The results showed that morphine inhibited the firing rate of sleep-promoting neurons and hyperpolarized their membrane potentials without affecting interneurons in the VLPO. Morphine-induced hyperpolarization of membrane potentials could be reversed by, D-Phe-Cys-Thr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu receptor antagonist, in the presence of tetrodotoxin. However, after the mu receptors were blocked by CTOP, morphine still suppressed the firing of the sleep-promoting neurons. This effect was antagonized by nor-BIN, a kappa receptor antagonist. Activation of kappa receptor by U50488H inhibited the firing of the sleep-promoting neurons. These results indicate that morphine could inhibit the activity of sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO through mu and kappa receptors. EEG recordings revealed that morphine injected subcutaneously induced arousal in a dose-dependent manner. CTOP microinjected into VLPO antagonized the arousal effects of morphine, but nor-BIN did not. However, CTOP alone was not associated with any changes in the physiological sleep–wake cycle. Taken together, these findings clearly indicate that morphine inhibits sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO by affecting mu receptors and so induces wakefulness in rats. PMID:23303062

  16. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph.

    PubMed

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  17. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences. PMID:26483920

  18. Effectiveness of balance exercises in the acute post-operative phase following total hip and knee arthroplasty: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Overend, Tom J; Spaulding, Sandi J; Zecevic, Aleksandra; Kramer, John F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of balance exercises in the acute post-operative phase following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Patients who had total hip arthroplasty (n = 30) or total knee arthroplasty (n = 33) were seen in their residence 1–2 times per week for 5 weeks. At the first post-operative home visit, patients were randomly assigned to either typical (TE, n = 33) or typical plus balance (TE + B, n = 30) exercise groups. The TE group completed seven typical surgery-specific joint range-of-motion and muscle strengthening exercises, while the TE + B group completed the typical exercises plus three balance exercises. Patients were assessed before and 5 weeks after administering the rehabilitation program using four outcome measures: (1) the Berg Balance Scale, (2) the Timed Up and Go test, (3) the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and (4) the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale. Results: Post-intervention scores for all four outcome measures were significantly improved (p < 0.01) over baseline scores. Patients who participated in the TE + B group demonstrated significantly greater improvement on the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go tests (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Balance exercises added to a typical rehabilitation program resulted in significantly greater improvements in balance and functional mobility compared to typical exercises alone. PMID:26770765

  19. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Smith, Kelly E.; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Jackson, Garrett J.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  20. Lentiviral infection, immune response peptides and sleep.

    PubMed

    Darko, D F; Mitler, M M; Henriksen, S J

    1995-01-01

    The aberrant sleep documented in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uniquely important because of the contribution this poor quality sleep makes to the fatigue, disability, and eventual unemployment that befalls these patients. Especially given this importance in clinical care, the research on the prominent sleep changes described in HIV infection remains modest in quantity. The chronic asymptomatic stage of HIV infection is associated with the most intriguing and singular sleep structure changes. Especially robust is the increase in slow wave sleep, particularly in latter portions of the sleep period. This finding is rare in other primary or secondary sleep disorders. The sleep structure alterations are among the most replicable of several pathophysiological sequelae in the brain associated with early HIV infection. It is unlikely that these sleep architecture changes are psychosocial in etiology, and they occur before medical pathology is evident. They are not associated with stress, anxiety, or depression. Evidence is accumulating to support a role for the somnogenic immune peptides tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and interleukin (IL-1 beta) in the sleep changes and fatigue commonly seen in HIV infection. These peptides are elevated in the blood of HIV-infected individuals, and are somnogenic in clinical use and animal models. The peripheral production of these peptides may also have a role in the regulation of normal sleep physiology. The lentivirus family contains both HIV and the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The use of the FIV model of HIV infection may provide a way to further investigate the mechanism of a neurotropic, neurotoxic virus initiating the immune acute phase response and affecting sleep. Neurotropic lentivirus infection is a microbiological probe facilitating neuroimmune investigation. PMID:7795894

  1. Uncovering Residual Effects of Chronic Sleep Loss on Human Performance

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel A.; Wang, Wei; Wyatt, James K.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Czeisler, Charles A.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss leads to profound performance decrements. Yet many individuals believe they adapt to chronic sleep loss or that recovery requires only a single extended sleep episode. To evaluate this, we designed a protocol whereby the usual sleep:wake ratio was reduced from 1:2 to 1:3.3, while the durations of both sleep and wake episodes were increased to ten hours and 32.85 hours respectively. These sleep and wake episodes were distributed across all circadian phases, enabling measurement of the effects of acute and chronic sleep loss at different times of the circadian day and night. Despite recurrent acute and substantial chronic sleep loss, ten hour sleep opportunities consistently restored vigilance performance for several hours of wakefulness. However, chronic sleep loss increased the rate of deterioration in performance across wakefulness, particularly during the circadian “night”. Thus, extended wake during the circadian night reveals the cumulative detrimental effects of chronic sleep loss on performance, with potential adverse health and safety consequences. PMID:20371466

  2. Objective assessment of sleep and sleep problems in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    van de Wouw, Ellen; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about sleep in older adults with intellectual disability (ID). Aim of this study was to investigate sleep and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems in this population. This study was part of the healthy aging and intellectual disabilities study. Sleep was assessed using the Actiwatch, a watch-like device that measures sleep and wakefulness based on movement activity. Participants (n=551) wore the Actiwatch at least seven days and nights continuously. Variables of interest were time in bed (TIB), sleep onset latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency and get-up time latency. Multivariate analyses were used to investigate factors associated with these sleep parameters. Provisional definitions were drafted to estimate the prevalence of sleep problems. Mean TIB was 630 min. Longer TIB was independently associated with higher age, more severe level of ID, living at a central facility, wheelchair dependence, female gender and depressive symptoms (adjusted R(2)=.358, F-change=8.302, p<.001). The prevalence of sleep problems was 23.9% settling problem, 63.1% night waking problem, 20.9% short sleep time, 9.3% early waking problem. 72% of the participants had at least one problem, 12.3% had three or more sleep problems. Older adults with ID lie in bed very long, and the prevalence of sleep problems is high. Further research should focus on causality of the relationships found in this study, and effects of sleep problems on health and well-being in this population. PMID:23692894

  3. Orangutans (Pongo spp.) have deeper, more efficient sleep than baboons (Papio papio) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Samson, David R; Shumaker, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The nightly construction of arboreal sleeping platforms or "nests" has been observed among every great ape population studied to date. However, this behavior has never been reported in any other nonhuman primate and comparisons between ape and monkey sleep illuminate the link between sleeping substrates, positional behavior, and sleep efficiency. Here, we compare sleep depth and efficiency and night-time positional behavior between a large-bodied cercopithecoid (Papio papio) and a large-bodied hominoid (Pongo spp.) at the Indianapolis Zoo. We used infrared videography to assess nightly sleep and awake behavioral states, gross body movements, and postures in baboons (N = 45 nights) and orangutans (N = 128 nights). We calculated the total waking time, total sleep time, sleep fragmentation (the number of brief awakenings ≥2 min/h), sleep motor activity (number of motor activity bouts per hour), sleep efficiency (sleep duration/time in bed), and percentage of time spent in each posture. By every measure, orangutans experienced overall deeper, more efficient sleep. Baboons were more likely to sleep in guarded, upright positions (weight bearing on their ischial callosities) and never opted to use additional materials to augment sleep environments, whereas orangutans slept in insouciant, relaxed positions on constructed sleeping materials. Our results suggest that relaxed sleeping postures may have been enabled by sleeping platforms as a behavioral facilitator to sleep, which could have allowed for greater sleep depth and next-day cognitive capacities in both great apes and hominins.

  4. The Relationship Between Sleep Disturbance and Functional Status in Mild Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinil; Kim, Yuntae; Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Doh-eui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep state of mild stroke patients and relationship between sleep disturbance and functional status. Methods A total of 80 acute stroke patients were enrolled in this study. The criteria for inclusion in the study was as following: 1) first stroke, 2) cognitive function preserved enough to perform the test (Mini Mental State Examination ≥24), 3) good functional levels (Modified Rankin Scale ≤3), 4) upper extremity motor function preserved enough to perform occupational tests (hand strength test, Purdue pegboard test, 9-hole peg test, and Medical Research Council score ≥3), and 5) less than 2 weeks between the stroke and the assessment. Quality of sleep was assessed by using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Activities of daily living was assessed by using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and depressed mood was assessed by using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Gross and fine motor function of the upper extremity was assessed by using hand strength test (Jamar dynamometer), Purdue pegboard test, and the 9-hole peg test. Results The results of the occupational assessment were fine in the good sleepers. The PSQI, ESS, and ISI were correlated with some of the assessment tools (BDI, MBI, Purdue pegboard, 9-hole peg, and hand strength). Conclusion In conclusion, this study emphasizes that sleep disturbance can affect the functional status in mild acute stroke patients. Therefore, clinicians must consider sleep status in stroke patients and need to work to control it. PMID:26361590

  5. Total body irradiation in a patient with fragile X syndrome for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in preparation for stem cell transplantation: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Collins, D T; Mannina, E M; Mendonca, M

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a congenital disorder caused by expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' end of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) on the X chromosome that leads to chromosomal instability and diminished serum levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Afflicted individuals often have elongated features, marfanoid habitus, macroorchidism and intellectual impairment. Evolving literature suggests the condition may actually protect from malignancy while chromosomal instability would presumably elevate the risk. Increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation should also be predicted by unstable sites within the DNA. Interestingly, in this report, we detail a patient with FXS diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with induction followed by subsequent cycles of hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) with a complete response who then was recommended to undergo peripheral stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of his conditioning regimen and despite the concern of his clinicians, developed minimal acute toxicity and successful engraftment. The pertinent literature regarding irradiation of patients with FXS is also reviewed.

  6. Total body irradiation in a patient with fragile X syndrome for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in preparation for stem cell transplantation: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Collins, D T; Mannina, E M; Mendonca, M

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a congenital disorder caused by expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' end of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) on the X chromosome that leads to chromosomal instability and diminished serum levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Afflicted individuals often have elongated features, marfanoid habitus, macroorchidism and intellectual impairment. Evolving literature suggests the condition may actually protect from malignancy while chromosomal instability would presumably elevate the risk. Increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation should also be predicted by unstable sites within the DNA. Interestingly, in this report, we detail a patient with FXS diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with induction followed by subsequent cycles of hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) with a complete response who then was recommended to undergo peripheral stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of his conditioning regimen and despite the concern of his clinicians, developed minimal acute toxicity and successful engraftment. The pertinent literature regarding irradiation of patients with FXS is also reviewed. PMID:26097012

  7. [Prevention and treatment of sleep disorders through regulation] of sleeping habits].

    PubMed

    Onen, S H; Onen, F; Bailly, D; Parquet, P

    1994-03-12

    Healthy sleeping habits is a complex balance between behaviour, environment and circadian rhythm. The quality of sleep can be improved by behaviour, e.g. eating tryptophan and carbohydrate rich foods, physical exercise in the afternoon or a cold shower just before going to bed. Total sleep time is maximal in thermoneutrality and decreases above and below the thermoneutrality zone. Thermoneutrality is reached for an environmental temperature of 30-32 degrees C without night clothing or of 16-19 degrees with a pyjama and at least one sheet. Noise also modifies sleep structure and above 50dB shortens total sleeping time. Although subjects do become subjectively accustomed to noise, vegetative cardiovascular reactivity to environmental noise remains unchanged. The spontaneous circadian awake/sleep cycle is 25 hours, slightly longer than the body temperature cycle, but when subjects are exposed to environmental synchronization, the two cycles coincide. In individuals undergoing temporal isolation, the two rhythms become independent often leading to subjective discomfort and fatigue. Certain factors including age can favour internal desynchronization. Other factors may include social contact, stress due to mental work load, and constant lighting which could lengthen the awake/sleep cycle. Caffeine blocks the receptors of adenosine, and thus its effects of inhibiting neurotransmission. Intake 30 to 60 minutes before sleeping shortens total sleep time and increases the duration of stage 2 and shortens stage 3 and 4. Alcohol may act as a relaxing, sedative agent when consumed just before sleeping but can also lead to night-time awakening due to sympathetic activation which does not return to baseline levels until the blood alcohol levels have returned to 0. Nicotine has a biphasic effect on sleep: at low concentrations, it leads to relaxation and sedation and at high concentrations inhibits sleep. A careful study of sleeping habits is the first step in evaluating complains

  8. Why we need a tax on sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    Kripke, D F

    1983-05-01

    In the United States every year the total costs of giving sleeping pills can be estimated at $500 million to $1 billion. Many if not most of the prescriptions are inappropriate. Sleeping pill use, associated with a 50% increase in overall mortality, is especially dangerous for older people, who have a high risk of sleep apnea. There is virtually no evidence that sleeping pills are effective with prolonged usage and no evidence for life-preserving benefits. Excessive use of sleeping pills should be discouraged with a tax of 4 per pill. Revenues from the tax should fund new research to determine which sleeping pills are safest and when alternative treatments are safer.

  9. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  10. "Sleep well, our tough heroes!"--in adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to better sleep schedules.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Kirov, Roumen; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is understood as the display of confidence, commitment, challenge, and control. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which greater MT is associated with subjectively assessed sleep among adolescents. A total of 284 adolescents (M = 18.26 years) completed a series of questionnaires assessing MT, psychological functioning, and sleep. Greater MT was significantly associated with better sleep quality, shorter sleep onset latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and longer sleep duration. Greater MT was also associated with less perceived stress and less depressive symptoms. MT was directly and indirectly associated with sleep quality. Mentally tough adolescents report good sleep quality and sleep schedules, along with psychological wellbeing.

  11. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  12. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder.

  14. Use of Melatonin in Young Children for Sleep Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Dyken, Deborah C.; Dyken, Mark Eric

    2002-01-01

    Sleep problems may occur in up to 88% of children with visual impairments who have developmental disabilities. The use of oral melatonin has recently been used for the management of sleep difficulties in children with and without disabilities. Sustained-release melatonin may reduce nighttime awakenings and increase total sleep time. (Contains…

  15. Human African trypanosomiasis (T.b. gambiense): a study of 16 fatal cases of sleeping sickness with some observations on acute reactive arsenical encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Adams, J H; Haller, L; Boa, F Y; Doua, F; Dago, A; Konian, K

    1986-01-01

    The principal clinical and pathological findings in 16 fatal cases of human African trypanosomiasis caused by T.b. Gambiense are described. The changes in the brain took the form of a non-specific lymphoplasmacytic meningo-encephalitis of varying intensity. Other features included morular cells, diffuse microglial hyperplasia, and large reactive astrocytes in the white matter. Carditis was identified in 10 cases. Acute reactive arsenical encephalopathy appeared to be the principal cause of death in 10 patients. Convulsions figured prominently in this type of encephalopathy in seven patients and were sufficiently severe to produce hypoxic brain damage. In three cases of acute reactive arsenical encephalopathy the structural changes in the brain were those of acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalopathy.

  16. The Skylab sleep monitoring experiment - Methodology and initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Delucchi, M. R.; Shumate, W. H.; Booher, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The sleep monitoring experiment permitted an objective evaluation of sleep characteristics during the first two manned Skylab flights. Hardware located onboard the spacecraft accomplished data acquisition, analysis, and preservation, thereby permitting near-real-time evaluation of sleep during the flights and more detailed postmission analysis. The crewman studied during the 28-Day Mission showed some decrease in total sleep time and an increase in the percentage of Stage 4 sleep, while the subject in the 59-Day Mission exhibited little change in total sleep time and a small decrease in Stage 4 and REM sleep. Some disruption of sleep characteristics was seen in the final days of both missions, and both subjects exhibited decreases in REM-onset latency in the immediate postflight period. The relatively minor changes seen were not of the type nor magnitude which might be expected to be associated with significant degradation of performance capability.

  17. The Skylab sleep monitoring experiment: methodology and initial results.

    PubMed

    Frost, J D; Shumate, W H; Booher, C R; DeLucchi, M R

    1975-01-01

    The sleep monitoring experiment permitted an objective evaluation of sleep characteristics during the first two manned Skylab flights. Hardware located onboard the spacecraft accomplished data acquisition, analysis, and preservation, thereby permitting near-real-time evaluation of sleep during the flights and more detailed postmission analysis. The crewman studied during the 28-Day Mission showed some decrease in total sleep time an increase in the percentage of Stage 4 sleep, while the subject in the 59-Day Mission exhibited little change in total sleep time and a small decrease in Stage 4 and REM sleep. Some disruption of sleep characteristics was seen in the final days of both missions, and both subjects exhibited decreases in REM-onset latency in the immediate postflight period. The relatively minor changes seen were not of the type nor magnitude which might be expected to be associated with significant degradation of performance capability.

  18. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  19. Short neuropeptide F is a sleep-promoting inhibitory modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuhua; Donelson, Nathan C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Guo, Fang; Rosbash, Michael; Griffith, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To advance the understanding of sleep regulation, we screened for sleep-promoting cells and identified neurons expressing neuropeptide Y-like short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Sleep-induction by sNPF meets all relevant criteria. Rebound sleep following sleep deprivation is reduced by activation of sNPF neurons and flies even experience negative sleep rebound upon cessation of sNPF neuronal stimulation, indicating that sNPF provides an important signal to the sleep homeostat. Only a subset of sNPF-expressing neurons, which includes the small ventrolateral clock neurons, is sleep-promoting. Their release of sNPF increases sleep consolidation in part by suppressing the activity of wake-promoting large ventrolateral clock neurons, and suppression of neuronal firing may be the general response to sNPF receptor activation. sNPF acutely increases sleep without altering feeding behavior, which it affects only on a much longer time scale. The profound effect of sNPF on sleep indicates that it is an important sleep-promoting molecule. PMID:24094110

  20. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominately Asian (P-A) and predominately Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children’s sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  1. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Youngmin; Williamson, Ariel A; Seo, Hyun-Joo; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children's sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  2. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  3. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  4. Healthcare Providers' Knowledge of Disordered Sleep, Sleep Assessment Tools, and Nonpharmacological Sleep Interventions for Persons Living with Dementia: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Cary A.; Jones, Allyson; Crick, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    A large proportion of persons with dementia will also experience disordered sleep. Disordered sleep in dementia is a common reason for institutionalization and affects cognition, fall risk, agitation, self-care ability, and overall health and quality of life. This report presents findings of a survey of healthcare providers' awareness of sleep issues, assessment practices, and nonpharmacological sleep interventions for persons with dementia. There were 1846 participants, with the majority being from nursing and rehabilitation. One-third worked in long-term care settings and one-third in acute care. Few reported working in the community. Findings revealed that participants understated the incidence of sleep deficiencies in persons with dementia and generally lacked awareness of the relationship between disordered sleep and dementia. Their knowledge of sleep assessment tools was limited to caregiver reports, self-reports, and sleep diaries, with few using standardized tools or other assessment methods. The relationship between disordered sleep and comorbid conditions was not well understood. The three most common nonpharmacological sleep interventions participants identified using were a regular bedtime routine, increased daytime activity, and restricted caffeine. Awareness of other evidence-based interventions was low. These findings will guide evidence-informed research to develop and test more targeted and contextualized sleep and dementia knowledge translation strategies. PMID:24851185

  5. Sleep abnormalities associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiate use: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Angarita, Gustavo A; Emadi, Nazli; Hodges, Sarah; Morgan, Peter T

    2016-04-26

    Sleep abnormalities are associated with acute and chronic use of addictive substances. Although sleep complaints associated with use and abstinence from addictive substances are widely recognized, familiarity with the underlying sleep abnormalities is often lacking, despite evidence that these sleep abnormalities may be recalcitrant and impede good outcomes. Substantial research has now characterized the abnormalities associated with acute and chronic use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates. This review summarizes this research and discusses the clinical implications of sleep abnormalities in the treatment of substance use disorders.

  6. Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. Methods: We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools’ Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night (± standard deviation) were 7.9 ± 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 ± 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.00–1.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. Interpretation: In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23027917

  7. Sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances in autism spectrum disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Klukowski, Mark; Wasilewska, Jolanta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers. Sleep-related problems have been shown to affect overall autism scores, social skills decits, stereotypic behavior, and cognitive performance. Additionally, problematic sleep in children with ASD has been associated with higher levels of parental stress. Underlying causes specically related to sleep disorders are not fully known. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with sleep problems in these patients. Children with ASD and GI symptoms have been found to have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with typically developing peers who do not have GI symptoms. Treatment approaches to children with sleep disorders are varied and range from lifestyle modications and behavioral interventions to drug therapies and surgical interventions. Physicians should take into account GI disorders as possible underlying causes of sleep-related problems in children with ASD. Therapeutic interventions should begin with less invasive methods before progressing to more invasive options such as pharmacotherapy and should be based on medical indications in order to provide effective care while minimizing potential adverse health effects. Evidence-based studies concerning GI and sleep disorders in children with ASD are limited and further studies are warranted.

  8. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  9. Sleep dynamics: A self-organized critical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, J. C.; Ravassard, P.; Salin, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    In psychiatric and neurological diseases, sleep is often perturbed. Moreover, recent works on humans and animals tend to show that sleep plays a strong role in memory processes. Reciprocally, sleep dynamics following a learning task is modified [Hubert , Nature (London) 02663, 1 (2004), Peigneux , Neuron 44, 535 (2004)]. However, sleep analysis in humans and animals is often limited to the total sleep and wake duration quantification. These two parameters are not fully able to characterize the sleep dynamics. In mammals sleep presents a complex organization with an alternation of slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) episodes. Moreover, it has been shown recently that these sleep episodes are frequently interrupted by micro-arousal (without awakening). We present here a detailed analysis of the basal sleep properties emerging from the mechanisms underlying the vigilance states alternation in an animal model. These properties present a self-organized critical system signature and reveal the existence of two W, two SWS, and a PS structure exhibiting a criticality as met in sand piles. We propose a theoretical model of the sleep dynamics based on several interacting neuronal populations. This new model of sleep dynamics presents the same properties as experimentally observed, and explains the variability of the collected data. This experimental and theoretical study suggests that sleep dynamics shares several common features with critical systems.

  10. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p < .01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  11. Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Function in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather E.; Lam, Janet C.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, ages 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance—including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness—(all p≤0.01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p<0.01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p≤0.01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p<0.01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD, rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  12. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Brooks A.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Urpa, Lea M.; Davis, Devon E.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. New Method We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4 hours during the 12-hour light cycle on baseline, 8 hours of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8 hours of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. Results The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (~90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76 s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. Comparison with Existing Method There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-hour period. Conclusions Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5 h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. PMID:26014662

  13. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to excel in the profession of sleep technology. Sleep Education SleepEducation.org provides patients and the general public with comprehensive, accurate information about healthy sleep and sleep disorders, along with ...

  14. Sleep studies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... person during sleep may also be used. The test is performed for people who suffer from insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, breathing difficulties during sleep, or behavior disturbances ...

  15. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... a health care provider to find out whether depression or another health condition is affecting your sleep. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems in the elderly. Other sleep disorders , such as restless legs syndrome, ...

  16. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  17. Do placebos alter sleep?

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Adamson, L; Brezinová, V; Oswald, I

    1976-01-24

    Deliberate suggestion that an inert capsule was a sleeping pill was found not to influence subjective ratings of sleep quality or anxiety or the electrophysiologically recorded features of sleep in 10 volunteers aged 41-62 years. PMID:1247770

  18. Do placebos alter sleep?

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Adamson, L; Brezinová, V; Oswald, I

    1976-01-24

    Deliberate suggestion that an inert capsule was a sleeping pill was found not to influence subjective ratings of sleep quality or anxiety or the electrophysiologically recorded features of sleep in 10 volunteers aged 41-62 years.

  19. Sleep Troubles, Heart Troubles?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161037.html Sleep Troubles, Heart Troubles? American Heart Association says it's ... 19, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders -- including too little or too much sleep -- ...

  20. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  1. Sleep and your health

    MedlinePlus

    ... back pain, heart disease, and conditions such as asthma that make it hard to breathe. Depression , anxiety, and substance abuse also make sleep hard to come by. Some medicines disrupt sleep. Stress about sleeping . After several nights of tossing and ...

  2. Caffeine treatment prevents rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2015-11-01

    The CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) are physically and functionally closely related areas of the hippocampus, but they differ in various respects, including their reactions to different insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of chronic caffeine treatment on late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signalling cascade in the DG area of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement sleep-deprived rats. Rats were chronically treated with caffeine (300 mg/L drinking water) for 4 weeks, after which they were sleep-deprived for 24 h. L-LTP was induced in in anaesthetized rats, and extracellular field potentials from the DG area were recorded in vivo. The levels of L-LTP-related signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Sleep deprivation markedly reduced L-LTP magnitude, and basal levels of total cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB), and calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV). Chronic caffeine treatment prevented the reductions in the basal levels of P-CREB, total CREB and CaMKIV in sleep-deprived rats. Furthermore, caffeine prevented post-L-LTP sleep deprivation-induced downregulation of P-CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DG. The current findings show that caffeine treatment prevents acute sleep deprivation-induced deficits in brain function.

  3. Caffeine treatment prevents rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2015-11-01

    The CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) are physically and functionally closely related areas of the hippocampus, but they differ in various respects, including their reactions to different insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of chronic caffeine treatment on late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signalling cascade in the DG area of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement sleep-deprived rats. Rats were chronically treated with caffeine (300 mg/L drinking water) for 4 weeks, after which they were sleep-deprived for 24 h. L-LTP was induced in in anaesthetized rats, and extracellular field potentials from the DG area were recorded in vivo. The levels of L-LTP-related signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Sleep deprivation markedly reduced L-LTP magnitude, and basal levels of total cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB), and calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV). Chronic caffeine treatment prevented the reductions in the basal levels of P-CREB, total CREB and CaMKIV in sleep-deprived rats. Furthermore, caffeine prevented post-L-LTP sleep deprivation-induced downregulation of P-CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DG. The current findings show that caffeine treatment prevents acute sleep deprivation-induced deficits in brain function. PMID:26449851

  4. Sleep Hygiene Practices and Their Relation to Sleep Quality in Medical Students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Moghaddam, Parichehr; Jalilolghadr, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Poor quality of sleep is a distressing and worrying condition that can disturb academic performance of medical students. Sleep hygiene practices are one of the important variables that affect sleep quality. The objective of this study was to assess association between sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality of medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods:In this descriptive-correlational study, a total of 285 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic data, sleep-wake schedule in weekday and weekend, and sleep duration were collected. Students' sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver 13. Results: Overall, 164 (57.5) of students had poor sleep quality. Mean global PSQI score and average score of four subscales were significantly higher in male than female. Regression analysis showed that male students (β=-0.85, P<0.05), students at senior level (β=-0.81, P<0.05), married students (β=-0.45, P<0.05), and those with improper sleep hygiene practices slept worse. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality in medical students is high. Improper sleep hygiene behaviors might be a reason for poor quality of sleep in medical students. PMID:27354979

  5. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  6. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian; Oprescu, Nicoleta; Zagrean, Leon; Popa-Wagner, Aurel

    2010-03-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20) were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by reversible right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min. In 10 rats, MCAO was performed just after 6-h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) by "gentle handling", whereas the other rats served as controls. Neurological function during the first week after stroke was monitored using a battery of behavioral tests investigating the asymmetry of sensorimotor deficit (tape removal test and cylinder test), bilateral sensorimotor coordination (rotor-rod and Inclined plane) and memory (T-maze and radial maze). Following MCAO, control rats had impaired behavioral performance in all tests. The largest impairment was noted in the tape test where the tape removal time from the left forelimb (contralateral to MCAO) was increased by approximately 10 fold (p<0.01). In contrast, rats subjected to TSD had complete recovery of sensorimotor performance consistent with a 2.5 fold smaller infarct volume and reduced morphological signs of neuronal injury at day 7 after MCAO. Our data suggest that brief TSD induces a neuroprotective response that limits the severity of a subsequent stroke, similar to rapid ischemic preconditioning. PMID:20045410

  7. Parental Sleep Concerns in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Variations from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Suzanne E.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Clemons, Traci; Malow, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems of adolescents and older children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were compared to toddlers and young children in 1,859 children. Sleep was measured with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Total sleep problems were significant across all age groups, however the factors contributing to these problems differed. Adolescents…

  8. Relations between Physiological and Cognitive Regulatory Systems: Infant Sleep Regulation and Subsequent Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Bordeleau, Stephanie; Carrier, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate the prospective links between infant sleep regulation and subsequent executive functioning (EF). The authors assessed sleep regulation through a parent sleep diary when children were 12 and 18 months old (N = 60). Child EF was assessed at 18 and 26 months of age. Higher proportions of total sleep occurring…

  9. Sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication of iatrogenic vocal cord trauma.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Kodali, Lavanya; Hessel, Amy C; Evans, Scott E; Balachandran, Diwakar D

    2016-06-01

    A case of a 55-year-old woman with iatrogenic vocal cord trauma and sleep-related symptoms is reported. In particular, this case highlights sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication after iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. The patient developed acute stridor from a contralateral vocal cord hematoma following vocal fold injection for right vocal cord paralysis. Acute respiratory symptoms resolved with oxygen, steroids, and nebulized therapy, but nocturnal symptoms persisted and polysomnography revealed sleep-related hypoventilation and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Positive pressure therapy was successfully used to ameliorate her symptoms and treat sleep-disordered breathing until her hematoma resolved. In addition to the typically acute respiratory symptoms that may result from vocal cord dysfunction, sleep-disordered breathing may also present as a significant subacute or chronic problem. Management of the acute respiratory symptoms is relatively well established, but clinicians should be alert for more subtle nocturnal symptoms that may require further study with polysomnography.

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication of iatrogenic vocal cord trauma.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Kodali, Lavanya; Hessel, Amy C; Evans, Scott E; Balachandran, Diwakar D

    2016-06-01

    A case of a 55-year-old woman with iatrogenic vocal cord trauma and sleep-related symptoms is reported. In particular, this case highlights sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication after iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. The patient developed acute stridor from a contralateral vocal cord hematoma following vocal fold injection for right vocal cord paralysis. Acute respiratory symptoms resolved with oxygen, steroids, and nebulized therapy, but nocturnal symptoms persisted and polysomnography revealed sleep-related hypoventilation and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Positive pressure therapy was successfully used to ameliorate her symptoms and treat sleep-disordered breathing until her hematoma resolved. In addition to the typically acute respiratory symptoms that may result from vocal cord dysfunction, sleep-disordered breathing may also present as a significant subacute or chronic problem. Management of the acute respiratory symptoms is relatively well established, but clinicians should be alert for more subtle nocturnal symptoms that may require further study with polysomnography. PMID:27544828

  11. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, Total-Body Irradiation and Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  12. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2014-01-01

    Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs. PMID

  13. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).

  14. Sleep Disturbances and Pain among Individuals with Prescription Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Emily E.; Pfeifer, James G.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Back, Sudie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor sleep quality has been observed in individuals with substance use disorders and is often a trigger for relapse. To date, little research has investigated sleep quality among individuals with prescription opioid (PO) dependence. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining subjective and objective sleep disturbances among PO dependent individuals. METHODS Subjects were 68 non-treatment seeking individuals (33 PO dependent, 35 healthy controls). Subjective sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Subjects were admitted for an overnight inpatient hospital stay during which objective sleep data was collected using an actigraphy device. Self-report pain was measured with the Brief Pain Inventory. RESULTS Significant group differences in subjective sleep quality were revealed in the PSQI (p<0.01) and ISI (p<0.01). Poor sleep quality (i.e., PSQI total score > 5) was identified in 80.6% of the PO group, as compared to 8.8% of the control group (p<.001). Significant group differences in sleep quality were identified in five of six actigraphy variables: total time asleep, sleep efficiency, latency of onset of sleep, total time awake and time mobile. Furthermore, significant associations between pain severity and sleep quality were observed. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate high rates of sleep impairment and poor sleep quality among PO dependent individuals. Pain severity was significantly correlated with sleep quality. Although preliminary, the findings highlight the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbances, as well as pain, among patients with PO dependence. PMID:24999989

  15. Development of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project Sleep Health Surveillance Questions

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Croft, Janet B.; Dort, Leslie C.; Loeding, Lauren D.; Mullington, Janet M.; Thomas, Sherene M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: For the first time ever, as emphasized by inclusion in the Healthy People 2020 goals, sleep health is an emphasis of national health aims. The National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project (NHSAP) was tasked to propose questions for inclusion in the next Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a survey that includes a number of questions that target behaviors thought to impact health, as a means to measure community sleep health. The total number of questions could not exceed five, and had to include an assessment of the risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: An appointed workgroup met via teleconference and face-to-face venues to develop an inventory of published survey questions being used to identify sleep health, to develop a framework on which to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of current survey questions concerning sleep, and to develop recommendations for sleep health and disease surveillance questions going forward. Results: The recommendation was to focus on certain existing BRFSS questions pertaining to sleep duration, quality, satisfaction, daytime alertness, and to add to these other BRFSS existing questions to make a modified STOP-BANG questionnaire (minus the N for neck circumference) to assess for risk of OSA. Conclusions: Sleep health is an important dimension of health that has previously received less attention in national health surveys. We believe that 5 questions recommended for the upcoming BRFSS question banks will assist as important measures of sleep health, and may help to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve sleep health in our nation. Citation: Morgenthaler TI, Croft JB, Dort LC, Loeding LD, Mullington JM, Thomas SM. Development of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project sleep health surveillance questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):1057–1062. PMID:26235156

  16. Genetics of Sleep and Sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Amita; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep remains one of the least understood phenomena in biology – even its role in synaptic plasticity remains debatable. Since sleep was recognized to be regulated genetically, intense research has launched on two fronts: the development of model organisms for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sleep and attempts to identify genetic underpinnings of human sleep disorders. In this Review, we describe how unbiased, high-throughput screens in model organisms are uncovering sleep regulatory mechanisms and how pathways, such as the circadian clock network and specific neurotransmitter signals, have conserved effects on sleep from Drosophila to humans. At the same time, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have uncovered ~14 loci increasing susceptibility to sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and restless leg syndrome. To conclude, we discuss how these different strategies will be critical to unambiguously defining the function of sleep. PMID:21784243

  17. Noise and sleep on board vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Erlend; Bratveit, Magne; Pallesen, Stale; Moen, Bente Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that exposure to noise during sleep can cause sleep disturbance. Seamen on board vessels are frequently exposed to noise also during sleep periods, and studies have reported sleep disturbance in this occupational group. However, studies of noise and sleep in maritime settings are few. This study's aim was to examine the associations between noise exposure during sleep, and sleep variables derived from actigraphy among seamen on board vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN). Data were collected on board 21 RNoN vessels, where navy seamen participated by wearing an actiwatch (actigraph), and by completing a questionnaire comprising information on gender, age, coffee drinking, nicotine use, use of medication, and workload. Noise dose meters were used to assess noise exposure inside the seamen's cabin during sleep. Eighty-three sleep periods from 68 seamen were included in the statistical analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the association between noise exposure and the sleep variables percentage mobility during sleep and sleep efficiency, respectively. Noise exposure variables, coffee drinking status, nicotine use status, and sleeping hours explained 24.9% of the total variance in percentage mobility during sleep, and noise exposure variables explained 12.0% of the total variance in sleep efficiency. Equivalent noise level and number of noise events per hour were both associated with increased percentage mobility during sleep, and the number of noise events was associated with decreased sleep efficiency.

  18. Noise and sleep on board vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Erlend; Bråtveit, Magne; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that exposure to noise during sleep can cause sleep disturbance. Seamen on board vessels are frequently exposed to noise also during sleep periods, and studies have reported sleep disturbance in this occupational group. However, studies of noise and sleep in maritime settings are few. This study's aim was to examine the associations between noise exposure during sleep, and sleep variables derived from actigraphy among seamen on board vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN). Data were collected on board 21 RNoN vessels, where navy seamen participated by wearing an actiwatch (actigraph), and by completing a questionnaire comprising information on gender, age, coffee drinking, nicotine use, use of medication, and workload. Noise dose meters were used to assess noise exposure inside the seamen's cabin during sleep. Eighty-three sleep periods from 68 seamen were included in the statistical analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the association between noise exposure and the sleep variables percentage mobility during sleep and sleep efficiency, respectively. Noise exposure variables, coffee drinking status, nicotine use status, and sleeping hours explained 24.9% of the total variance in percentage mobility during sleep, and noise exposure variables explained 12.0% of the total variance in sleep efficiency. Equivalent noise level and number of noise events per hour were both associated with increased percentage mobility during sleep, and the number of noise events was associated with decreased sleep efficiency. PMID:26960785

  19. Subjective sleep quality in premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin; Tanriverdi, Gulbu; Degirmenci, Yildiz

    2012-08-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder observed in late luteal phase and presenting with behavioral changes that can affect interpersonal relationships and normal daily activity. Sleep disturbances are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between PMS and subjective sleep quality with Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the Medical Academy students, whom have considerable information about menstruation. PMS was detected with "Premenstrual Syndrome Scale", and PSQI was used to evaluate subjective sleep quality. Chi-square test and Kendall's rank correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. p values (p < 0.05) were considered as statistical significant. Poor sleep quality was found in the 75.6% of the participants with PMS, and 58.8% of the participants without PMS (p < 0.05). Only component 5 (sleep disorder component) of the PSQI components revealed statistically significant difference (1.7 ± 0.6 in participants with PMS, and 1.5 ± 0.6 without PMS, p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between total PSQI score and all of its' components, except component 6 (sleeping pill usage component) (p < 0.05). The strongest association was found to be in the component 5 (r = 0.528; p = 0.0001). Results of our study suggested the poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders in women with PMS. PMID:22316208

  20. Subjective sleep quality in premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin; Tanriverdi, Gulbu; Degirmenci, Yildiz

    2012-08-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder observed in late luteal phase and presenting with behavioral changes that can affect interpersonal relationships and normal daily activity. Sleep disturbances are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between PMS and subjective sleep quality with Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the Medical Academy students, whom have considerable information about menstruation. PMS was detected with "Premenstrual Syndrome Scale", and PSQI was used to evaluate subjective sleep quality. Chi-square test and Kendall's rank correlation analysis were used in statistical analysis. p values (p < 0.05) were considered as statistical significant. Poor sleep quality was found in the 75.6% of the participants with PMS, and 58.8% of the participants without PMS (p < 0.05). Only component 5 (sleep disorder component) of the PSQI components revealed statistically significant difference (1.7 ± 0.6 in participants with PMS, and 1.5 ± 0.6 without PMS, p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between total PSQI score and all of its' components, except component 6 (sleeping pill usage component) (p < 0.05). The strongest association was found to be in the component 5 (r = 0.528; p = 0.0001). Results of our study suggested the poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders in women with PMS.

  1. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  2. Sleep Apnea and Risk of Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Chen, Yung-Tai; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wu, Li-An; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Su, Wei-Juin; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lee, Yu-Chin; Chou, Kun-Ta

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Epidemiological studies have identified a trend in the development of depressive and anxiety disorders following a diagnosis of sleep apnea. The relationship between sleep apnea and subsequent panic disorder, however, remains unclear. METHODS Using a nationwide database, the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, patients with sleep apnea and age-, sex-, income-, and urbanization-matched control patients who did not have sleep apnea were enrolled between 2000 and 2010. Patients with a prior diagnosis of panic disorder before enrollment were excluded. The 2 cohorts were observed until December 31, 2010. The primary endpoint was occurrence of newly diagnosed panic disorder. RESULTS A total of 8,704 sleep apnea patients and 34,792 control patients were enrolled. Of the 43,496 patients, 263 (0.60%) suffered from panic disorder during a mean follow-up period of 3.92 years, including 117 (1.34%) from the sleep apnea cohort and 146 (0.42%) from the control group. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a predisposition of patients with sleep apnea to develop panic disorder (log-rank test, P <.001). After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratio for subsequent panic disorder among the sleep apnea patients was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.68–2.81; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS Sleep apnea appears to confer a higher risk for future development of panic disorder. PMID:26195676

  3. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated. PMID:26678391

  4. Identifying sleep regulatory genes using a Drosophila model of insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Thimgan, Matthew; Donlea, Jeff; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Steve P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that sleep must serve an essential biological function, little is known about molecules that underlie sleep regulation. Given that insomnia is a common sleep disorder that disrupts the ability to initiate and maintain restorative sleep, a better understanding of its molecular underpinning may provide crucial insights into sleep regulatory processes. Thus, we created a line of flies using laboratory selection that share traits with human insomnia. After 60 generations insomnia-like (ins-l) flies sleep 60 min a day, exhibit difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and show evidence of daytime cognitive impairment. ins-l flies are also hyperactive and hyper responsive to environmental perturbations. In addition they have difficulty maintaining their balance, have elevated levels of dopamine, are short-lived and show increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. While their core molecular clock remains intact, ins-l flies lose their ability to sleep when placed into constant darkness. Whole genome profiling identified genes that are modified in ins-l flies. Among those differentially expressed transcripts genes involved in metabolism, neuronal activity, and sensory perception constituted over-represented categories. We demonstrate that two of these genes are upregulated in human subjects following acute sleep deprivation. Together these data indicate that the ins-l flies are a useful tool that can be used to identify molecules important for sleep regulation and may provide insights into both the causes and long-term consequences of insomnia. PMID:19494137

  5. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  6. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples) as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i) cueing memory reactivation during sleep; (ii) stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations; and (iii) targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep (SWS)) by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications. PMID:24765066

  7. Sleep medicine content in dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Minichbauer, Brittany C; Sheats, Rose D; Wilder, Rebecca S; Phillips, Ceib L; Essick, Gregory K

    2015-05-01

    According to the National Research Council, 70 million Americans chronically suffer from approximately 60 medically recognized sleep disorders. With most clinicians unaware of these disorders, many individuals remain undiagnosed. To effectively address this issue, health care professionals must work collaboratively to educate, identify, and treat patients with sleep disorders. However, medical and dental clinicians do not receive adequate education in sleep medicine. On the frontline regarding prevention and counseling, dental hygienists play an important role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the amount of sleep medicine content in U.S. dental hygiene programs. An electronic survey was emailed to all 334 accredited U.S. dental hygiene programs. The 18-question survey assessed the sleep medicine content presented during the 2012-13 academic year. A total of 35.3% (n=118) of the programs responded. The mean number of hours devoted to sleep medicine in their curricula was 1.55 hours (SD=1.37). Although 69% (n=79) of the responding programs reported spending time on sleep bruxism (mean=1.38 hours, SD=0.85), only 28% (n=32) reported spending time on other topics such as snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (mean=1.39 hours, SD=0.72). These results suggest that sleep medicine is included in the majority of U.S. dental hygiene programs, but the content is limited and focused on sleep bruxism. This level of training is inadequate to prepare dental hygienists for their potential role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep-related breathing disorders.

  8. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Maternal Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of mothers of children (ages birth to 6 years) in multiple predominantly Asian and predominantly Caucasian countries. Methods: Mothers of 10,085 young children (predominantly Asian countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; predominantly Caucasian countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results: Mothers in predominantly Asian countries/regions had later bedtimes, decreased number and duration of night wakings, more nighttime sleep, and more total sleep than mothers from predominantly Caucasian countries, P < 0.001. More than half (54.7%) of mothers reported having poor sleep, ranging from 50.9% of mothers in Malaysia to 77.8% of mothers in Japan. Sleep disturbance symptoms were quite common, especially symptoms related to insomnia, and were more likely to be reported by mothers in predominantly Caucasian countries. However, psychosocial factors, including having children of a younger age, being unemployed, and having a lower education level were the best predictors of poor sleep, whereas culture was not a significant predictor. Conclusions: Overall, mothers in predominantly Asian countries/regions reported later bedtimes but sleeping better and longer than mothers from predominantly Caucasian countries, which is dissimilar to cross-cultural findings of young children. Psychosocial factors were found to be the best predictors of poor sleep, irrespective of culture. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of these findings. Citation: Mindell JA; Sadeh A; Kwon R; Goh DYT. Cross-cultural comparison of maternal sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1699-1706. PMID:24179304

  9. Disturbances of the circadian sleep-wake rhythm after time zone changes.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M; Endo, S

    1985-03-01

    Studies on the changes in circadian rhythms due to time zone changes were described with emphasis placed on sleep. The results were summarized as follows. Eastward flights; Decrease of total sleep time, or increase of TST, Disturbances of intra-sleep cycles, Increase of slow wave sleep, Decrease of REM sleep in the amount, Prolonged REM sleep latency. Westward flights; Shortened sleep latency, Shortened REM sleep latency, Increase of percentage REM sleep, Unusual temporal distributions of REM sleep periods. Southward flight; No significant change. From all above mentioned it becomes evident that after transmeridian flight sleep rhythm is clearly disturbed. In this time we emphasized the changes in particular sleep stages rather than the overall changes in sleep-wake cycles. The changes in sleep pattern followed by time zone changes, however, are thought to result from a complicated summation of effects, such as sleep deprivation, sleep reversal, naps, shift in sleep onset time, and circadian rhythm alternation. The possible factors about the changes in sleep will be presented by Dr. Endo in the next lecture.

  10. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), slee