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Sample records for acute traumatic coagulopathy

  1. Sympathoadrenal Activation is Associated with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy and Endotheliopathy in Isolated Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Battista, Alex P.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Lejnieks, Brandon; Min, Arimie; Shiu, Maria Y.; Peng, Henry T.; Baker, Andrew J.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Churchill, Nathan; Inaba, Kenji; Nascimento, Bartolomeu B.; de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Beckett, Andrew; Rhind, Shawn G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Acute coagulopathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a complex multifactorial hemostatic response that is poorly characterized. Objectives: To examine early posttraumatic alterations in coagulofibrinolytic, endothelial, and inflammatory blood biomarkers in relation to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and 6-month patient outcomes, using multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. Patients and Methods: A multicenter observational study of 159 adult isolated TBI patients admitted to the emergency department at an urban level I trauma center, was performed. Plasma concentrations of 6 coagulofibrinolytic, 10 vascular endothelial, 19 inflammatory, and 2 catecholamine biomarkers were measured by immunoassay on admission and 24 h postinjury. Neurological outcome at 6 months was assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. PLS-discriminant analysis was used to identify salient biomarker contributions to unfavorable outcome, whereas PLS regression analysis was used to evaluate the covariance between SNS correlates (catecholamines) and biomarkers of coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and inflammation. Results: Biomarker profiles in patients with an unfavorable outcome displayed procoagulation, hyperfibrinolysis, glycocalyx and endothelial damage, vasculature activation, and inflammation. A strong covariant relationship was evident between catecholamines and biomarkers of coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and inflammation at both admission and 24 h postinjury. Conclusions: Biomarkers of coagulopathy and endotheliopathy are associated with poor outcome after TBI. Catecholamine levels were highly correlated with endotheliopathy and coagulopathy markers within the first 24 h after injury. Further research is warranted to characterize the pathogenic role of SNS-mediated hemostatic alterations in isolated TBI. PMID:27206278

  2. Chemical sympathectomy attenuates inflammation, glycocalyx shedding and coagulation disorders in rats with acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Yu, Wen-Kui; Lin, Zhi-Liang; Tan, Shan-Jun; Bai, Xiao-Wu; Ding, Kai; Li, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) may trigger sympathoadrenal activation associated with endothelial damage and coagulation disturbances. Overexcitation of sympathetic nerve in this state would disrupt sympathetic-vagal balance, leading to autonomic nervous system dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the autonomic function in ATC and its influence on inflammation, endothelial and coagulation activation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham, ATC control (ATCC) and ATC with sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine (ATCS) group. Sham animals underwent the same procedure without trauma and bleeding. Following trauma and hemorrhage, rats underwent heart rate variability (HRV) test, which predicts autonomic dysfunction through the analysis of variation in individual R-R intervals. Then, rats were euthanized at baseline, and at 0, 1 and 2 h after shock and blood gas, conventional coagulation test and markers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial damage and catecholamine were measured. HRV showed an attenuation of total power and high frequency, along with a rise of low frequency and low frequency : high frequency ratio in the ATC rats, which both were reversed by sympathectomy in the ATCS group. Additionally, sympathetic denervation significantly suppressed the increase of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and the fibrinolysis markers including tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasmin-antiplasmin complex. Serum catecholamine, soluble thrombomodulin and syndecan-1 were also effectively inhibited by sympathectomy. These data indicated that autonomic dysfunction in ATC involves both sympathetic activation and parasympathetic inhibition. Moreover, sympathectomy yielded anti-inflammatory, antifibrinolysis and endothelial protective effects in rats with ATC. The role of autonomic neuropathy in ATC should be explored further.

  3. Blockade of Extracellular High-Mobility Group Box 1 Attenuates Systemic Inflammation and Coagulation Abnormalities in Rats with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhao, Kun; Shen, Xiao; Fan, Xin-xin; Ding, Kai; Liu, Ren-min; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background As an extracellularly released mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initiates sterile inflammation following severe trauma. Serum HMGB1 levels correlate well with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in trauma patients, which is independently associated with higher mortality. We investigated the involvement of HMGB1 in ATC through blocking extracellular HMGB1. Material/Methods The ATC model was induced by polytrauma and hemorrhage in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned to sham, ATC, and ATCH (ATC with HMGB1 blockade) groups. Thrombelastography (TEG) was performed to monitor changes in coagulation function. Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured, as well as lung levels of HMGB1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Results Compared with the sham group, HMGB1 increased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas HMGB1 blockade inhibited the induction of TNF-α and IL-6. HMGB1 also induced elevated serum soluble P-selectin and fibrinolysis markers plasmin-antiplasmin complex, which both were reduced by HMGB1 blockade. Thrombelastography revealed the hypocoagulability status in the ATC group, which was attenuated by anti-HMGB1 antibody. Furthermore, the lung level of NF-κB and expression of RAGE were decreased by anti-HMGB1 antibody, suggesting the role of RAGE/NF-κB pathway in ATC. Conclusions HMGB1 blockade can attenuate inflammation and coagulopathy in ATC rats. Anti-HMGB1 antibody might exert protective effects partly through the RAGE/NF-κB pathway. Thus, HMGB1 has potential as a therapeutic target in ATC. PMID:27436061

  4. An INR-based definition of acute traumatic coagulopathy is associated with mortality, venous thromboembolism, and multiple organ failure after injury

    PubMed Central

    Peltan, Ithan D.; Vande Vusse, Lisa K.; Maier, Ronald V.; Watkins, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is associated with adverse outcomes including death. Previous studies examining ATC's relationship with mortality are limited by inconsistent criteria for syndrome diagnosis, inadequate control of confounding and single-center designs. In this study, we validated the admission international normalized ratio (INR) as an independent risk factor for death and other adverse outcomes after trauma and compared two common INR-based definitions for ATC. Design Multicenter prospective observational study. Setting Nine level I trauma centers in the United States. Patients 1,031 blunt trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results INR exhibited a positive adjusted association with all-cause in-hospital mortality, hemorrhagic shock-associated in-hospital mortality, venous thromboembolism, and multiple organ failure. ATC affected 50% of subjects if defined as an INR >1.2 and 21% of subjects if defined by INR >1.5. After adjustment for potential confounders, ATC defined as an INR >1.5 was significantly associated with all-cause death (OR 1.88, p<0.001), hemorrhagic shock-associated death (OR 2.44, p=0.001), venous thromboembolism (1.73, p<0.001), and multiple organ failure (OR 1.38, p=0.02). ATC defined as an INR >1.2 was not associated with an increased risk for the studied outcomes. Conclusions Elevated INR on hospital admission is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity after severe trauma. Our results confirm this association in a prospectively-assembled multicenter cohort of severely injured patients. Defining ATC using an INR >1.5 but not an INR >1.2 identified a clinically-meaningful subset of trauma patients who, adjusting for confounding factors, suffered more adverse outcomes. Targeting future therapies for ATC to patients with an INR >1.5 may yield greater returns than using a lower INR threshold. PMID:25816119

  5. Trauma-induced coagulopathy: standard coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy, and endothelial damage in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard; Sølbeck, Sacha; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Larsen, Claus Falck; Welling, Karen Lise; Windeløv, Nis Agerlin; Rasmussen, Lars S; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye

    2013-02-15

    It remains to be debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy than does non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy, and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients was sampled (median of 68 min [IQR 48-88] post-injury) upon admission to our trauma center. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analyzed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin/antithrombin complex, von Willebrand factor, factor XIII, d-dimer, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), immunology (interleukin [IL]6), endothelial cell/glycocalyx damage (soluble thrombomodulin, syndecan-1), and vasculogenesis (angiopoietin-1, -2). Patients were stratified according to: (1) isolated severe head/neck injuries (Abbreviated injury score [AIS]-head/neck ≥ 3, AIS-other<3) (isoTBI); (2) severe head/neck and extracranial injuries (AIS-head/neck ≥ 3, AIS-other>3) (sTBI+other); and (3) injuries without significant head/neck injuries (AIS-head/neck<3, including all AIS-other scores) (non-TBI). Twenty-three patients presented with isoTBI, 15 with sTBI+other and 42 with non-TBI. Acute coagulopathy of trauma shock, defined as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and/or international normalized ratio (INR)>35 sec and>1.2, was found in 13%, 47%, and 5%, respectively (p=0.000). sTBI+other had significantly higher plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, annexin V, d-dimer, IL-6, syndecan-1, soluble thrombomodulin, and reduced protein C and factor XIII levels (all p<0.05). No significant biomarker differences were found between isoTBI and non-TBI patients. Injury severity scale (ISS) rather than the presence or absence of head/neck injuries

  6. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS <3) and coagulopathy (international normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. PMID:26947341

  7. Relationship between trauma-induced coagulopathy and progressive hemorrhagic injury in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Tian, Heng-Li

    2016-06-01

    Progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) can be divided into coagulopathy-related PHI and normal coagu- lation PHI. Coagulation disorders after traumatic brain injuries can be included in trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). Some studies showed that TIC is associated with PHI and increases the rates of disability and mortality. In this review, we discussed some mechanisms in TIC, which is of great importance in the development of PHI, including tissue factor (TF) hypothesis, protein C pathway and thrombocytopenia. The main mechanism in the relation of TIC to PHI is hypocoagulability. We also reviewed some coagulopathy parameters and proposed some possible risk factors, predictors and therapies. PMID:27321300

  8. Cardiolipin-mediated procoagulant activity of mitochondria contributes to traumatic brain injury-associated coagulopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zilong; Wang, Min; Tian, Ye; Hilton, Tristan; Salsbery, Breia; Zhou, Eric Z; Wu, Xiaoping; Thiagarajan, Perumal; Boilard, Eric; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianning; Dong, Jing-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid located exclusively in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its presence in blood indicates mitochondrial damage and release from injured cells. Here, we report the detection of CL-exposed brain-derived mitochondrial microparticles (mtMPs) at 17 547 ± 2677/μL in the peripheral blood of mice subjected to fluid percussion injury to the brain. These mtMPs accounted for 55.2% ± 12.6% of all plasma annexin V-binding microparticles found in the acute phase of injury. They were also released from cultured neuronal and glial cells undergoing apoptosis. The mtMPs synergized with platelets to facilitate vascular leakage by disrupting the endothelial barrier. The disrupted endothelial barrier allowed the release of mtMPs into the systemic circulation to promote coagulation in both traumatically injured and mtMP- or CL-injected mice, leading to enhanced fibrinolysis, vascular fibrin deposition, and thrombosis. This mtMP-induced coagulation was mediated by CL transported from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and was blocked by the scavenging molecule lactadherin. The mtMP-bound CL was ∼1600 times as active as purified CL in promoting coagulation. This study uncovered a novel procoagulant activity of CL and CL-exposed mitochondria that may contribute to traumatic brain injury-associated coagulopathy and identified potential pathways to block this activity. PMID:27002118

  9. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B

    2015-02-01

    Inaugural traumatic patellar dislocation is most often due to trauma sustained during physical or sports activity. Two-thirds of acute patellar dislocations occur in young active patients (less than 20 years old). Non-contact knee sprain in flexion and valgus is the leading mechanism in patellar dislocation, accounting for as many as 93% of all cases. The strong displacement of the patella tears the medial stabilizing structures, and notably the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), which is almost always injured in acute patellar dislocation, most frequently at its femoral attachment. Lateral patellar glide can be assessed with the knee in extension or 20° flexion. Displacement by more than 50% of the patellar width is considered abnormal and may induce apprehension. Plain X-ray and CT are mandatory to diagnose bony risk factors for patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia or increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG), and plan correction. MRI gives information on cartilage and capsulo-ligamentous status for treatment planning: free bodies or osteochondral fracture have to be treated surgically. If patellar dislocation occurs in an anatomically normal knee and osteochondral fracture is ruled out on MRI, non-operative treatment is usually recommended.

  10. Traumatic stress in acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Gary; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Minden, Mark D; Brandwein, Joseph; Schimmer, Aaron; Marmar, Charles; Gagliese, Lucia; Lo, Christopher; Rydall, Anne; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute leukemia is a condition with an acute onset that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. However, the psychological impact of this life-threatening condition and its intensive treatment has not been systematically examined. In the present study, we investigate the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this population. Methods Patients with acute myeloid, lymphocytic, and promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed, recently relapsed, or treatment failures were recruited at a comprehensive cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, CARES Medical Interaction Subscale, and other psychosocial measures. A multivariate regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Of the 205 participants, 58% were male, mean age was 50.1 ± 15.4 years, 86% were recently diagnosed, and 94% were receiving active treatment. The mean Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire score was 30.2 ± 22.5, with 27 of 200 (14%) patients meeting criteria for acute stress disorder and 36 (18%) for subsyndromal acute stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with more physical symptoms, physical symptom distress, attachment anxiety, and perceived difficulty communicating with health-care providers, and poorer spiritual well-being (all p <0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that clinically significant symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia and are linked to the degree of physical suffering, to satisfaction with relationships with health-care providers, and with individual psychological characteristics. Longitudinal study is needed to determine the natural history, but these findings suggest that intervention may be indicated to alleviate or prevent traumatic stress in this population. PMID:22081505

  11. Targeted Thromboelastographic (TEG) Blood Component and Pharmacologic Hemostatic Therapy in Traumatic and Acquired Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark; Fritz, Stephanie; Hake, Daniel; Son, Michael; Greve, Sarah; Jbara, Manar; Chitta, Swetha; Fritz, Braxton; Miller, Adam; Bader, Mary K; McCollester, Jonathon; Binz, Sophia; Liew-Spilger, Alyson; Thomas, Scott; Crepinsek, Anton; Shariff, Faisal; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a recently described condition which traditionally has been diagnosed by the common coagulation tests (CCTs) such as prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count, and fibrinogen levels. The varying sensitivity and specificity of these CCTs have led trauma coagulation researchers and clinicians to use Viscoelastic Tests (VET) such as Thromboelastography (TEG) to provide Targeted Thromboelastographic Hemostatic and Adjunctive Therapy (TTHAT) in a goal directed fashion to those trauma patients in need of hemostatic resuscitation. This review describes the utility of VETs, in particular, TEG, to provide TTHAT in trauma and acquired non-trauma-induced coagulopathy. PMID:26960340

  12. Non-traumatic acute rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Taly, A B; Nair, K P; Arunodaya, G R; Das, S; Christopher, R; Mohan, C; Swamy, H S

    1999-03-01

    A boy developed sudden severe generalized muscle stiffness, bulbar weakness and passed dark coloured urine. Laboratory tests revealed marked elevation of creatinine kinase(CK) levels and myoglobinuria. Histopathology of quadriceps muscle showed features of acute rhabdomyolysis. Patient made complete clinical recovery over a period of three weeks and CK returned to normal level. The possible aetiologies of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis are discussed and the relevant literature reviewed. PMID:10339709

  13. Changes in fibrinogen availability and utilization in an animal model of traumatic coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired haemostasis following shock and tissue trauma is frequently detected in the trauma setting. These changes occur early, and are associated with increased mortality. The mechanism behind trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is not clear. Several studies highlight the crucial role of fibrinogen in posttraumatic haemorrhage. This study explores the coagulation changes in a swine model of early TIC, with emphasis on fibrinogen levels and utilization of fibrinogen. Methods A total of 18 landrace pigs were anaesthetized and divided into four groups. The Trauma-Shock group (TS) were inflicted bilateral blast femoral fractures with concomitant soft tissue injury by a high-energy rifle shot to both hind legs, followed by controlled exsanguination. The Shock group (S) was exposed to shock by exsanguination, whereas a third group was exposed to trauma only (T). A fourth group (C) served as control. Physiological data, haematological measurements, blood gas analyses and conventional coagulation assays were recorded at baseline and repeatedly over 60 minutes. Thrombelastometry were performed by means of the tissue factor activated ExTEM assay and the platelet inhibiting FibTEM assay. Data were statistically analysed by repeated measurements analyses method. Results A significant reduction of fibrinogen concentration was observed in both the TS and S groups. INR increased significantly in the S group and differed significantly from the TS group. Maximum clot firmness (MCF) of the ExTEM assay was significantly reduced over time in both TS and S groups. In the FibTEM assay a significant shortening of the clotting time and an increase in MCF was observed in the TS group compared to the S group. Conclusion Despite a reduction in clotting capability measured by ExTEM MCF and a reduced fibrinogen concentration, extensive tissue trauma may induce an increased fibrin based clotting activity that attenuates the hypocoagulable tendency in exsanguinated animals. PMID

  14. [Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma].

    PubMed

    Etxaniz, A; Pita, E

    2016-05-01

    Bleeding is the most common preventable cause of death in trauma patients. Acute traumatic coagulopathy is a specific condition with a different pathophysiology from other causes of the massive bleeding. An early identification of the coagulopathy is fundamental to implementing rapid treatment. There have been many changes in the management of massive hemorrhage, for example, the administration of the tranexamic acid and the use of balanced transfusion ratio. This review presents these practical points, some of them with scientific evidence, in order to achieve a beneficial effect for patient outcomes. PMID:26164470

  15. Early coagulation events induce acute lung injury in a rat model of blunt traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hideki; Donahue, Deborah L; Walsh, Mark; Castellino, Francis J; Ploplis, Victoria A

    2016-07-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and systemic coagulopathy are serious complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that frequently lead to poor clinical outcomes. Although the release of tissue factor (TF), a potent initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, from the injured brain is thought to play a key role in coagulopathy after TBI, its function in ALI following TBI remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the systemic appearance of TF correlated with the ensuing coagulopathy that follows TBI in ALI using an anesthetized rat blunt trauma TBI model. Blood and lung samples were obtained after TBI. Compared with controls, pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary permeability were observed as early as 5 min after TBI without evidence of norepinephrine involvement. Systemic TF increased at 5 min and then diminished 60 min after TBI. Lung injury and alveolar hemorrhaging were also observed as early as 5 min after TBI. A biphasic elevation of TF was observed in the lungs after TBI, and TF-positive microparticles (MPs) were detected in the alveolar spaces. Fibrin(ogen) deposition was also observed in the lungs within 60 min after TBI. Additionally, preadministration of a direct thrombin inhibitor, Refludan, attenuated lung injuries, thus implicating thrombin as a direct participant in ALI after TBI. The results from this study demonstrated that enhanced systemic TF may be an initiator of coagulation activation that contributes to ALI after TBI. PMID:27190065

  16. Significant Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in the Setting of Massive Bee Venom-Induced Coagulopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stack, Kelsey; Pryor, Lindsey

    2016-09-01

    Bees and wasps of the Hymenoptera order are encountered on a daily basis throughout the world. Some encounters prove harmless, while others can have significant morbidity and mortality. Hymenoptera venom is thought to contain an enzyme that can cleave phospholipids and cause significant coagulation abnormalities. This toxin and others can lead to reactions ranging from local inflammation to anaphylaxis. We report a single case of a previously healthy man who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and anaphylaxis after a massive honeybee envenomation that caused a fall from standing resulting in significant head injury. He was found to have significant coagulopathy and subdural bleeding that progressed to near brain herniation requiring emergent decompression. Trauma can easily occur to individuals escaping swarms of hymenoptera. Closer attention must be paid to potential bleeding sources in these patients and in patients with massive bee envenomation.

  17. Significant Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in the Setting of Massive Bee Venom-Induced Coagulopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stack, Kelsey; Pryor, Lindsey

    2016-09-01

    Bees and wasps of the Hymenoptera order are encountered on a daily basis throughout the world. Some encounters prove harmless, while others can have significant morbidity and mortality. Hymenoptera venom is thought to contain an enzyme that can cleave phospholipids and cause significant coagulation abnormalities. This toxin and others can lead to reactions ranging from local inflammation to anaphylaxis. We report a single case of a previously healthy man who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and anaphylaxis after a massive honeybee envenomation that caused a fall from standing resulting in significant head injury. He was found to have significant coagulopathy and subdural bleeding that progressed to near brain herniation requiring emergent decompression. Trauma can easily occur to individuals escaping swarms of hymenoptera. Closer attention must be paid to potential bleeding sources in these patients and in patients with massive bee envenomation. PMID:27427329

  18. Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    McCaul, Michael; Kredo, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    In South Africa, trauma is a major concern, with violence and road traffic accidents being the fifth and seventh leading causes of death, respectively. Antifibrinolytic agents have been used in trauma and major surgery to prevent fibrinolysis and reduce blood loss. We highlight an updated Cochrane review investigating the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumatic injury. The review authorsconducted comprehensive literature searches in January 2015 with regard to all randomised controlled trials comparing antifibrinolytic agents after acute traumatic injury. Three randomised controlled trials, of which two (n=20 451) assessed the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA), were included. The authors concluded that TXA safely reduces mortality in trauma with bleeding without increasing the risk ofadverse events. TXA should be administered as early as possible, and within 3 hours of injury. There is still uncertainty with regard to the effect of TXA on patients with traumatic brain injury; however, ongoing randomised controlled trials should shed more light on this. PMID:27499400

  19. Mediastinal Packing for Intractable Coagulopathy in Acute Aortic Dissection (Types 1 and 2 DeBakey): A Life-Saving Technique—Report of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Moeinipour, Aliasghar; Fathi, Mehdi; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Amini, Shahram; Hoseinikhah, Hamid; Kianinejad, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Nonsurgical bleeding after complex thoracic aortic procedures (such as aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm) is a great challenge for cardiac surgeons because of severe coagulopathy, exsanguinous bleeding, and inevitable death. Temporary mediastinal packing (with sponge) in such cases is the only life-saving technique with good result in most cases. Herein, we presented three cases with acute aortic dissection with intractable bleeding that was successfully managed with mediastinal packing. PMID:26435855

  20. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  1. Acute renal failure due to traumatic rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, R; Akhtar, F; Yazdani, I; Hafiz, S; Zafar, N; Naqvi, A; Rizvi, A

    1995-03-01

    Trauma and non-traumatic insults can cause muscle damage to such an extent that serious sequelae to other organs may result. Myoglobinuria and subsequent acute renal failure (ARF) is a well known and widely studied fact of such sequelae. Twelve cases of ARF (between 1990-1993) who have developed renal dysfunction after prolonged muscular exercise e.g., squat jumping, sit-ups and blunt trauma from sticks or leather belts mainly given by law enforcing personnel for certain issues were studied. None of them had previous history of myopathy, neuropathy or renal disease. All were critically ill on presentation and required renal support in the form of dialysis. Although morbidity was high in all, eleven of them recovered and one expired due to sepsis.

  2. Evaluation of Prehospital Blood Products to Attenuate Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma in a Model of Severe Injury and Shock in Anesthetized Pigs.

    PubMed

    Watts, Sarah; Nordmann, Giles; Brohi, Karim; Midwinter, Mark; Woolley, Tom; Gwyther, Robert; Wilson, Callie; Poon, Henrietta; Kirkman, Emrys

    2015-08-01

    Acute trauma coagulopathy (ATC) is seen in 30% to 40% of severely injured casualties. Early use of blood products attenuates ATC, but the timing for optimal effect is unknown. Emergent clinical practice has started prehospital deployment of blood products (combined packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma [PRBCs:FFP], and alternatively PRBCs alone), but this is associated with significant logistical burden and some clinical risk. It is therefore imperative to establish whether prehospital use of blood products is likely to confer benefit. This study compared the potential impact of prehospital resuscitation with (PRBCs:FFP 1:1 ratio) versus PRBCs alone versus 0.9% saline (standard of care) in a model of severe injury. Twenty-four terminally anesthetised Large White pigs received controlled soft tissue injury and controlled hemorrhage (35% blood volume) followed by a 30-min shock phase. The animals were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups during a 60-min prehospital evacuation phase: hypotensive resuscitation (target systolic arterial pressure 80 mmHg) using either 0.9% saline (group 1, n = 9), PRBCs:FFP (group 2, n = 9), or PRBCs alone (group 3, n = 6). Following this phase, an in-hospital phase involving resuscitation to a normotensive target (110 mmHg systolic arterial blood pressure) using PRBCs:FFP was performed in all groups. There was no mortality in any group. A coagulopathy developed in group 1 (significant increase in clot initiation and dynamics shown by TEG [thromboelastography] R and K times) that persisted for 60 to 90 min into the in-hospital phase. The coagulopathy was significantly attenuated in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.025 R time and P = 0.035 K time), which were not significantly different from each other. Finally, the volumes of resuscitation fluid required was significantly greater in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.0067) (2.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.3 L, respectively). This difference was principally

  3. Evaluation of Prehospital Blood Products to Attenuate Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma in a Model of Severe Injury and Shock in Anesthetized Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sarah; Nordmann, Giles; Brohi, Karim; Midwinter, Mark; Woolley, Tom; Gwyther, Robert; Wilson, Callie; Poon, Henrietta; Kirkman, Emrys

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute trauma coagulopathy (ATC) is seen in 30% to 40% of severely injured casualties. Early use of blood products attenuates ATC, but the timing for optimal effect is unknown. Emergent clinical practice has started prehospital deployment of blood products (combined packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma [PRBCs:FFP], and alternatively PRBCs alone), but this is associated with significant logistical burden and some clinical risk. It is therefore imperative to establish whether prehospital use of blood products is likely to confer benefit. This study compared the potential impact of prehospital resuscitation with (PRBCs:FFP 1:1 ratio) versus PRBCs alone versus 0.9% saline (standard of care) in a model of severe injury. Twenty-four terminally anesthetised Large White pigs received controlled soft tissue injury and controlled hemorrhage (35% blood volume) followed by a 30-min shock phase. The animals were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups during a 60-min prehospital evacuation phase: hypotensive resuscitation (target systolic arterial pressure 80 mmHg) using either 0.9% saline (group 1, n = 9), PRBCs:FFP (group 2, n = 9), or PRBCs alone (group 3, n = 6). Following this phase, an in-hospital phase involving resuscitation to a normotensive target (110 mmHg systolic arterial blood pressure) using PRBCs:FFP was performed in all groups. There was no mortality in any group. A coagulopathy developed in group 1 (significant increase in clot initiation and dynamics shown by TEG [thromboelastography] R and K times) that persisted for 60 to 90 min into the in-hospital phase. The coagulopathy was significantly attenuated in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.025 R time and P = 0.035 K time), which were not significantly different from each other. Finally, the volumes of resuscitation fluid required was significantly greater in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.0067) (2.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.3 L, respectively). This difference was

  4. Imaging Evaluation of Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Christopher A; Talbott, Jason F; Gean, Alisa

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation, diagnosis, and triage of patients with TBI. Recent studies suggest that it also helps predict patient outcomes. TBI consists of multiple pathoanatomic entities. This article reviews the current state of TBI imaging including its indications, benefits and limitations of the modalities, imaging protocols, and imaging findings for each of these pathoanatomic entities. Also briefly surveyed are advanced imaging techniques, which include several promising areas of TBI research. PMID:27637393

  5. Deferoxamine attenuates acute hydrocephalus after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinbing; Chen, Zhi; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2014-10-01

    Acute post-traumatic ventricular dilation and hydrocephalus are relatively frequent consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several recent studies have indicated that high iron levels in brain may relate to hydrocephalus development after intracranial hemorrhage. However, the role of iron in the development of post-traumatic hydrocephalus is still unclear. This study was to determine whether or not iron has a role in hydrocephalus development after TBI. TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Some rats had intraventricular injection of iron. Acute hydrocephalus was measured by magnetic resonance T2-weighted imaging and brain hemorrhage was determined by T2* gradient-echo sequence imaging and brain hemoglobin levels. The effect of deferoxamine on TBI-induced hydrocephalus was examined. TBI resulted in acute hydrocephalus at 24 h (lateral ventricle volume: 24.1 ± 3.0 vs. 9.9 ± 0.2 mm(3) in sham group). Intraventricular injection of iron also caused hydrocephalus (25.7 ± 3.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.6 mm(3) in saline group). Deferoxamine treatment attenuated TBI-induced hydrocephalus and heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. In conclusion, iron may contribute to acute hydrocephalus after TBI.

  6. Acute renal failure due to traumatic rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, R; Ahmed, E; Akhtar, F; Yazdani, I; Bhatti, S; Aziz, T; Naqvi, A; Rizvi, A

    1996-07-01

    Between 1990 and 1993, we studied 14 cases of acute renal failure due to prolonged muscular exercise (e.g., squat jumping, sit-ups) and blunt trauma inflicted by law enforcement personnel using sticks or leather belts. None of the patients had a prior history of myopathy, neuropathy, or renal disease. All were critically ill and required renal support in the form of dialysis. Although the morbidity was high, 13 of the patients recovered normal renal function. One patient expired due to sepsis.

  7. Stent-graft repair for acute traumatic thoracic aortic rupture.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, B; Czermak, B; Jaschke, W; Waldenberger, P; Fraedrich, G; Perkmann, R

    2004-12-01

    Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta is potentially life-threatening and leads to death in 75 to 90 per cent of cases at the time of injury. In high-risk patients, as traumatic injuries of the aorta combine with multiple associated injuries, endoluminal repair is now reported as a promising therapeutic strategy with encouraging results. This study determined the outcome of patients with traumatic thoracic aortic injury treated endovascularly during the past 7 years at our institution. Thirteen patients, 11 males and 2 females (mean age, 39 years; range, 19-82), with traumatic rupture of the otherwise unremarkable descending aorta (10 acute, 3 chronic), out of a series of 64 endovascular thoracic stent-graft procedures, were treated by implantation of Talent (n = 8), Vanguard (n = 5), and Excluder (n = 2) self-expanding devices between January 1996 and August 2003. The immediate technical success rate was 92 per cent (12/13). One patient showed a proximal endoleak type I, which was treated successfully by an additional stent-graft procedure. Secondary success rate was 100 per cent. The mortality rate was 0 per cent. Two additional stent-graft procedures were performed due to type I endoleaks after 18 and 28 months. There was no other intervention-related morbidity or mortality during the mean follow-up time of 26.4 months' (range, 6-86). Endovascular stent-graft repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries is a safe, effective, and low-morbidity alternative to open thoracic surgery and has promising midterm results.

  8. Treatment of the acute traumatic acromioclavicular separation.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Julie Y; Kaeding, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Injuries to the acromioclavicular joint occur commonly in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. The majority of these injuries are type I and II acromioclavicular joint separations and are treated nonoperatively with rehabilitation. A rapid and full return to play is expected. Acute types IV, V, and VI are less common and operative intervention is recommended. The type III injury is more controversial and current trends are towards initial nonoperative management. Operative treatment is sought only when the athlete remains symptomatic with painful instability. However, some do support early intervention in the overhead athlete. The goal of operative intervention is to create a stiff and strong repair/reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments while providing stability in all planes. This will allow early and more aggressive rehabilitation. Surgical treatment includes reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments with an augmented coracoacromial ligament transfer and more recently tendon graft reconstructions. Biomechanical research supports an anatomic reconstruction of the ligaments to confer the most function and stability.

  9. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P < 0.006). Correction of coagulopathy was attained in 70 per cent (seven of 10) patients. Of these seven patients, consent for donation was obtained in six patients and resulted in 19 solid organs being procured. The cost of PCC per patient was $1022 ± 544. PCC effectively reveres coagulopathy associated with lethal traumatic brain injury and enabled patients to proceed to organ donation. Although various methodologies exist for the treatment of coagulopathy to facilitate organ donation, PCC provides a rapid and cost-effective therapy for reversal of coagulopathy in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries.

  10. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P < 0.006). Correction of coagulopathy was attained in 70 per cent (seven of 10) patients. Of these seven patients, consent for donation was obtained in six patients and resulted in 19 solid organs being procured. The cost of PCC per patient was $1022 ± 544. PCC effectively reveres coagulopathy associated with lethal traumatic brain injury and enabled patients to proceed to organ donation. Although various methodologies exist for the treatment of coagulopathy to facilitate organ donation, PCC provides a rapid and cost-effective therapy for reversal of coagulopathy in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. PMID:24887662

  11. [Acute non-traumatic myelopathy in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hugo A

    2013-09-01

    The term 'acute myelopathies'--referred to a spinal cord dysfunction--represent a heterogeneous group of disorders with distinct etiologies, clinical and radiologic features, and prognoses. The objective of this review is to discuss the non-traumatic acute myelopathies. Acute myelopathy can be due to several causes as infective agents or inflammatory processes, such as in acute myelitis, compressive lesions, vascular lesions, etc. The clinical presentation is often dramatic with tetraparesis or paraparesis, sensory disturbances and bladder and/or bowel dysfunction. History and physical examination are used to localize the lesion to the root or specific level of the cord, which can guide imaging. Different syndromes are recognized: complete transverse lesion, central grey matter syndrome, anterior horn syndrome, anterior spinal artery syndrome, etc). The first priority is to rule out a compressive lesion. If a myelopathy is suspected, a gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the spinal cord should be obtained as soon as possible. If there is no structural lesion such as epidural blood or a spinal mass, then the presence or absence of spinal cord inflammation should be documented with a lumbar puncture. The absence of pleocytosis would lead to consideration of non inflammatory causes of myelopathy such as arteriovenous malformations, fibrocartilaginous embolism, or possibly early inflammatory myelopathy. In the presence of an inflammatory process (defined by gadolinium enhancement, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, or elevated cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin index), one should determine whether there is an inflammatory or an infectious cause. Different virus, bacterias, parasites and fungi have to be considered as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that involve the central nervous system.

  12. Acute renal failure due to non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, K. S.; Nath, I. V. S.; Ubroi, H. S.; Singhal, P. C.; Pareek, S. K.; Sarkar, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen patients with acute renal failure of diverse aetiology showed myoglobinuria and elevated levels of serum creatine phosphokinase (mean 119·2 Sigma u./ml) and adolase (mean 88·5 Sibley-Lehninger (SL)u./ml), indicating the presence of diffuse muscle cell injury. The primary conditions which led to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure were burns, eclampsia, prolonged labour, crush injury, epileptiform convulsions, status asthmaticus, viral myositis and intoxication with chemicals including copper sulphate, mercuric chloride and zinc phosphide. In 10 non-myoglobinuric patients with acute renal failure, serum creatine phosphokinase was normal (mean 8·9 Sigma u./ml) and serum aldolase was only slightly elevated (mean 11·2 SL u./ml). Although uric acid was elevated in both groups, the values were significantly higher in myoglobinuric (mean 0·728 ± 0·199 mmol/l) compared to non-myoglobinuric patients (mean 0·583 ± 0·093 mmol/l). During the oliguric phase, hypocalcaemia was observed in 82·2% of myoglobinuric patients and in 20% of non-myoglobinuric patients. Ten out of 15 patients with myoglobinuric renal failure developed hypercalcaemia during the diuretic phase whereas only 3 non-myoglobinuric patients showed a transient hypercalcaemia. Although the mean serum potassium was somewhat higher in the myoglobinuric patients, the difference between the 2 groups was not significant. It is concluded that acute renal failure associated with non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is not infrequent and may occur in a variety of conditions where gross evidence of muscle injury is lacking. PMID:482182

  13. Acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and age predict outcome in military blast concussion.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L

    2015-05-01

    High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown.

  14. Acute Gonadotroph and Somatotroph Hormonal Suppression after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Justin; Dusick, Joshua R.; McArthur, David L.; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Boscardin, W. John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hormonal dysfunction is a known consequence of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we determined the incidence, time course, and clinical correlates of acute post-TBI gonadotroph and somatotroph dysfunction. Patients had daily measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, estradiol, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for up to 10 days post-injury. Values below the fifth percentile of a healthy cohort were considered abnormal, as were non-measurable growth hormone (GH) values. Outcome measures were frequency and time course of hormonal suppression, injury characteristics, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. The cohort consisted of 101 patients (82% males; mean age 35 years; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8 in 87%). In men, 100% had at least one low testosterone value, and 93% of all values were low; in premenopausal women, 43% had at least one low estradiol value, and 39% of all values were low. Non-measurable GH levels occurred in 38% of patients, while low IGF-1 levels were observed in 77% of patients, but tended to normalize within 10 days. Multivariate analysis revealed associations of younger age with low FSH and low IGF-1, acute anemia with low IGF-1, and older age and higher body mass index (BMI) with low GH. Hormonal suppression was not predictive of GOS score. These results indicate that within 10 days of complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBI, testosterone suppression occurs in all men and estrogen suppression occurs in over 40% of women. Transient somatotroph suppression occurs in over 75% of patients. Although this acute neuroendocrine dysfunction may not be TBI-specific, low gonadal steroids, IGF-1, and GH may be important given their putative neuroprotective functions. PMID:20214417

  15. Altered Cerebellar White Matter Integrity in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Acute Stage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongqiu; Wu, Wenzhong; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Tianyao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Guoxing; Chen, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Imaging studies of traumatic brain injury demonstrate that the cerebellum is often affected. We aim to examine fractional anisotropy alteration in acute-phase mild traumatic brain injury patients in cerebellum-related white matter tracts. Materials and Methods This prospective study included 47 mild traumatic brain injury patients in the acute stage and 37 controls. MR imaging and neurocognitive tests were performed in patients within 7 days of injury. White matter integrity was examined by using diffusion tensor imaging. We used three approaches, tract-based spatial statistics, graphical-model-based multivariate analysis, and region-of-interest analysis, to detect altered cerebellar white matter integrity in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Results Results from three analysis methods were in accordance with each other, and suggested fractional anisotropy in the middle cerebellar peduncle and the pontine crossing tract was changed in the acute-phase mild traumatic brain injury patients, relative to controls (adjusted p-value < 0.05). Higher fractional anisotropy in the middle cerebellar peduncle was associated with worse performance in the fluid cognition composite (r = -0.289, p-value = 0.037). Conclusion Altered cerebellar fractional anisotropy in acute-phase mild traumatic brain injury patients is localized in specific regions and statistically associated with cognitive deficits detectable on neurocognitive testing. PMID:26967320

  16. Abducted by the illness: a qualitative study of traumatic stress in individuals with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Rinat; Zimmermann, Camilla; Minden, Mark; Rydall, Anne; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Gagliese, Lucia; Schimmer, Aaron; Rodin, Gary

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia. The goal of the present qualitative study was to understand this traumatic stress, as perceived by patients. Participants were 43 patients with acute leukemia in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked in serial interviews about their experience of diagnosis and treatment. A total of 65 interviews were analyzed utilizing the grounded theory method. Our findings provide insight into the traumatic experience of the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial psychological response to this trauma. Patients coped by surrendering control to the medical team, in whom they felt great trust. Patients also expressed a strong preference for limited information, with a preference to avoid discussions about overall prognosis. These results may inform interventions to relieve traumatic stress in this high risk population.

  17. Abducted by the illness: A qualitative study of traumatic stress in individuals with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Rinat; Zimmermann, Camilla; Minden, Mark; Rydall, Anne; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Gagliese, Lucia; Schimmer, Aaron; Rodin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia. The goal of the present qualitative study was to understand this traumatic stress, as perceived by patients. Participants were 43 patients with acute leukemia in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked in serial interviews about their experience of diagnosis and treatment. A total of 65 interviews were analyzed utilizing the grounded theory method. Our findings provide insight into the traumatic experience of the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial psychological response to this trauma. Patients coped by surrendering control to the medical team, in whom they felt great trust. Patients also expressed a strong preference for limited information, with a preference to avoid discussions about overall prognosis. These results may inform interventions to relieve traumatic stress in this high risk population. PMID:23352641

  18. Very Early Administration of Progesterone for Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David W.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Silbergleit, Robert; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Hertzberg, Vicki S.; Frankel, Michael; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Caveney, Angela F.; Howlett-Smith, Harriet; Bengelink, Erin M.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Merck, Lisa H.; Janis, L. Scott; Barsan, William G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Progesterone has been shown to improve neurologic outcome in multiple experimental models and two early-phase trials involving patients with TBI. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, multicenter clinical trial in which patients with severe, moderate-to-severe, or moderate acute TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4 to 12, on a scale from 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating a lower level of consciousness) were randomly assigned to intravenous progesterone or placebo, with the study treatment initiated within 4 hours after injury and administered for a total of 96 hours. Efficacy was defined as an increase of 10 percentage points in the proportion of patients with a favorable outcome, as determined with the use of the stratified dichotomy of the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score at 6 months after injury. Secondary outcomes included mortality and the Disability Rating Scale score. RESULTS A total of 882 of the planned sample of 1140 patients underwent randomization before the trial was stopped for futility with respect to the primary outcome. The study groups were similar with regard to baseline characteristics; the median age of the patients was 35 years, 73.7% were men, 15.2% were black, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 24.4 (on a scale from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating greater severity). The most frequent mechanism of injury was a motor vehicle accident. There was no significant difference between the progesterone group and the placebo group in the proportion of patients with a favorable outcome (relative benefit of progesterone, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.06; P = 0.35). Phlebitis or thrombophlebitis was more frequent in the progesterone group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 3.03; CI, 1.96 to 4.66). There were no significant differences in the other prespecified safety outcomes. CONCLUSIONS This clinical trial did not show a

  19. Ultrasound in newborns and children suffering from non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: imaging with clinical and surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    di Giacomo, Vincenza; Trinci, Margherita; van der Byl, Giulia; Catania, Vincenzo Davide; Calisti, Alessandro; Miele, Vittorio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review ultrasonographic appearance of the most common causes of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients and to understand the applications and limitations of this technique giving a practical approach showing different clinical cases. A pictorial review of cases was made presenting the most common causes of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; sonographic features are discussed. Ultrasound in conjunction with Color Doppler imaging is a valuable tool in the evaluation of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; causes of acute abdomen in children could vary depending on the ages of the children.

  20. Investigating Metacognition, Cognition, and Behavioral Deficits of College Students with Acute Traumatic Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sarah; Davalos, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in college students who have had an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated. The cognitive, behavioral, and metacognitive effects on college students who endorsed experiencing a brain injury were specifically explored. Participants: Participants were 121 college students who endorsed a mild TBI, and 121…

  1. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  2. [Erythrocytes and microvascular tone during acute traumatic haemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Biais, M; Delaunay, F; Dubuisson, V; Cassone, O; Siméon, F; Morel, O; Janvier, G

    2013-05-01

    Haemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The concept of haematologic damage control is gradually taking place in the management of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. It is based primarily on the early implementation of a quality blood transfusion involving erythrocytes, plasmas and platelets transfusion. Red blood cell transfusion is mainly supported by the oxygen carrier properties of erythrocytes. However, it appears that erythrocytes ability to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in capillary opening and perfusion. Erythrocytes are also actively involved in the processes of hemostasis and coagulation. In this context, it seems difficult to define a threshold of hemoglobin concentration to determine the implementation of a blood transfusion in traumatic haemorrhagic shock.

  3. TACTIC: Trans-Agency Consortium for Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Mann, K G; Freeman, K

    2015-06-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) includes heterogeneous coagulopathic syndromes with different underlying causes, and treatment is challenged by limited diagnostic tests to discriminate between these entities in the acute setting. We provide an overview of progress in understanding the mechanisms of TIC and the context for several of the hypotheses that will be tested in 'TACTIC'. Although connected to ongoing clinical trials in trauma, TACTIC itself has no intent to conduct clinical trials. We do anticipate that 'early translation' of promising results will occur. Functions anticipated at this early translational level include: (i) basic science groundwork for future therapeutic candidates; (ii) development of acute coagulopathy scoring systems; (iii) coagulation factor composition-based computational analysis; (iv) characterization of novel analytes including tissue factor, polyphosphates, histones, meizothrombin and α-thrombin-antithrombin complexes, factor XIa, platelet and endothelial markers of activation, signatures of protein C activation and fibrinolysis markers; and (v) assessment of viscoelastic tests and new point-of-care methods.

  4. Neurogenic Fever after Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Katherine E.; Oleson, Christina V.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Sidhu, Gursukhman S.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Systematic review. Objective  To determine the incidence, pathogenesis, and clinical outcomes related to neurogenic fevers following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods  A systematic review of the literature was performed on thermodysregulation secondary to acute traumatic SCI in adult patients. A literature search was performed using PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus. Using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven relevant articles were obtained. Results  The incidence of fever of all origins (both known and unknown) after SCI ranged from 22.5 to 71.7% with a mean incidence of 50.6% and a median incidence of 50.0%. The incidence of fever of unknown origin (neurogenic fever) ranged from 2.6 to 27.8% with a mean incidence of 8.0% and a median incidence of 4.7%. Cervical and thoracic spinal injuries were more commonly associated with fever than lumbar injuries. In addition, complete injuries had a higher incidence of fever than incomplete injuries. The pathogenesis of neurogenic fever after acute SCI is not thoroughly understood. Conclusion  Neurogenic fevers are relatively common following an acute SCI; however, there is little in the scientific literature to help physicians prevent or treat this condition. The paucity of research underscored by this review demonstrates the need for further studies with larger sample sizes, focusing on incidence rate, clinical outcomes, and pathogenesis of neurogenic fever following acute traumatic SCI. PMID:27556002

  5. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Kiderman, Alexander; Crawford, James; Murphy, Sara; Marshall, Kathryn; Pelusso, Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications. PMID:26727256

  6. Multidetector CT in emergency radiology: acute and generalized non-traumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Paolantonio, Pasquale; Rengo, Marco; Ferrari, Riccardo; Laghi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is an imaging technique that provides otherwise unobtainable information in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A correct working diagnosis depends essentially on understanding the individual patient's clinical data and laboratory findings. In haemodynamically stable patients with acute severe and generalized abdominal pain, MDCT is now the preferred imaging test and gives invaluable diagnostic information, also in unstable patients after stabilization. In this descriptive review, we focus our attention on acute, severe and generalized or undifferentiated non-traumatic abdominal pain. The main differential diagnoses are acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, ruptured abdominal aneurysm and acute mesenteric ischaemia. We will provide radiologist readers with a technical guide to optimize MDCT imaging protocols and list the major CT signs essential to reach a correct diagnosis and guide the best treatment. PMID:26689097

  7. Lessons Learned for the Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    The lessons learned regarding the resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock are numerous and come from a better understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and experience in this population over 10-plus years of combat operations. We have now come to better understand that the greatest benefit in survival can come from improved treatment of hemorrhage in the prehospital phase of care. We have learned that there is an endogenous coagulopathy that occurs with severe traumatic injury secondary to oxygen debt and that classic resuscitation strategies for severe bleeding based on crystalloid or colloid solutions exacerbate coagulopathy and shock for those with life-threatening hemorrhage. We have relearned that a whole blood-based resuscitation strategy, or one that at least recapitulates the functionality of whole blood, may reduce death from hemorrhage and reduce the risks of excessive crystalloid administration which include acute lung injury, abdominal compartment syndrome, cerebral edema, and anasarca. Appreciation of the importance of shock and coagulopathy management underlies the emphasis on early hemostatic resuscitation. Most importantly, we have learned that there is still much more to understand regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the resuscitation strategies required to improve outcomes for casualties with hemorrhagic shock. PMID:27215864

  8. Early coagulopathy is an independent predictor of mortality in children after severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Brent; Christiaans, Sarah C; Altice, Jessica L; Chen, Mike K; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Morgan, Charity J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Pittet, Jean-François

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether early coagulopathy affects the mortality associated with severe civilian pediatric trauma, trauma patients younger than 18 years admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from 2001 to 2010 were evaluated. Patients with burns, primary asphyxiation, preexisting bleeding diathesis, lack of coagulation studies, or transferred from other hospitals more than 24 h after injury were excluded. Age, sex, race, mechanism of injury, initial systolic blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Injury Severity Score, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, and international normalized ratio were recorded. An arterial or venous blood gas was performed, if clinically indicated. Coagulopathy was defined as an international normalized ratio greater than 1.2. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stay. Eight hundred three patients were included in the study. Overall mortality was 13.4%. The incidence of age-adjusted hypotension was 5.4%. Early coagulopathy was observed in 37.9% of patients. High Injury Severity Score and/or hypotension were associated with early coagulopathy and higher mortality. Early coagulopathy was associated with a modest increase in mortality in pediatric trauma patients without traumatic brain injury (TBI). In contrast, the combination of TBI and early coagulopathy was associated with a fourfold increase in mortality in this patient population. Early coagulopathy is an independent predictor of mortality in civilian pediatric patients with severe trauma. The increase in mortality was particularly significant in patients with TBI either isolated or combined with other injuries, suggesting that a rapid correction of this coagulopathy could substantially decrease the mortality after TBI in pediatric trauma patients. PMID:23591559

  9. Acute Bilateral Traumatic Achilles Tendon Rupture – A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Maulik; Golwala, Paresh; Merh, Aditya; Patel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the body, which is commonly ruptured in male athletes. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon is a rare condition with very few reported cases in the literature. It poses a challenge in management, and hence, we report a case with traumatic bilateral Achilles tendon rupture in a young male patient and its management. One side was treated conservatively as the rupture was partial and the other side, which had a complete tear, was operated. At nine months follow-up, the patient has had a satisfactory result and is now bearing full weight without any problems. We suggest this method of treatment to be worthwhile for this unusual entity. PMID:27588227

  10. Salvage of a Failed Agility Total Ankle Replacement System Associated with Acute Traumatic Periprosthetic Midfoot Fractures.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a rare case involving combined revision of a failed Agility Total Ankle Replacement System (DePuy Orthopaedics, Warsaw, Indiana) and open reduction with internal fixation of periprosthetic midfoot fractures secondary to acute traumatic injury. The rationale for these procedures, the operative sequence of events, and recovery course are presented in detail. Causes for concern regarding subsequent revision, should this be required, are raised.

  11. Acute Scrotum Following Traumatic Spermatic Cord Hematoma: A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Pietro; Bonaccorsi, Astrid; Candiano, Giuseppe; Pietropaolo, Francesco; Panella, Paolo; Pennisi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Acute scrotum constitutes the most common urological emergency secondary to spermatic cord torsion, testicular trauma, orchiepididymitis and hernias. We report a very rare case of unique traumatic spermatic cord hematoma following scrotum injury occurred during a football match. Clinical exam showed an increased volume of the left spermatic cord; the color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) demonstrated left testicular ischemia secondary to a large spermatic cord hematoma that needs surgical exploration. Spermatic cord hematoma rarely induces acute scrotum, however it could be treated conservatively surgery is mandatory when pain is persistent or testicular ischemia is confirmed by CDU. PMID:26793493

  12. Acute Scrotum Following Traumatic Spermatic Cord Hematoma: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Pietro; Bonaccorsi, Astrid; Candiano, Giuseppe; Pietropaolo, Francesco; Panella, Paolo; Pennisi, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Acute scrotum constitutes the most common urological emergency secondary to spermatic cord torsion, testicular trauma, orchiepididymitis and hernias. We report a very rare case of unique traumatic spermatic cord hematoma following scrotum injury occurred during a football match. Clinical exam showed an increased volume of the left spermatic cord; the color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) demonstrated left testicular ischemia secondary to a large spermatic cord hematoma that needs surgical exploration. Spermatic cord hematoma rarely induces acute scrotum, however it could be treated conservatively surgery is mandatory when pain is persistent or testicular ischemia is confirmed by CDU. PMID:26793493

  13. Review of Acute Traumatic Closed Mallet Finger Injuries in Adults.

    PubMed

    Salazar Botero, Santiago; Hidalgo Diaz, Juan Jose; Benaïda, Anissa; Collon, Sylvie; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe André

    2016-03-01

    In adults, mallet finger is a traumatic zone I lesion of the extensor tendon with either tendon rupture or bony avulsion at the base of the distal phalanx. High-energy mechanisms of injury generally occur in young men, whereas lower energy mechanisms are observed in elderly women. The mechanism of injury is an axial load applied to a straight digit tip, which is then followed by passive extreme distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) hyperextension or hyperflexion. Mallet finger is diagnosed clinically, but an X-ray should always be performed. Tubiana's classification takes into account the size of the bony articular fragment and DIPJ subluxation. We propose to stage subluxated fractures as stage III if the subluxation is reducible with a splint and as stage IV if not. Left untreated, mallet finger becomes chronic and leads to a swan-neck deformity and DIPJ osteoarthritis. The goal of treatment is to restore active DIPJ extension. The results of a six- to eight-week conservative course of treatment with a DIPJ splint in slight hyperextension for tendon lesions or straight for bony avulsions depends on patient compliance. Surgical treatments vary in terms of the approach, the reduction technique, and the means of fixation. The risks involved are stiffness, septic arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Given the lack of consensus regarding indications for treatment, we propose to treat all cases of mallet finger with a dorsal glued splint except for stage IV mallet finger, which we treat with extra-articular pinning. PMID:27019806

  14. Review of Acute Traumatic Closed Mallet Finger Injuries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salazar Botero, Santiago; Hidalgo Diaz, Juan Jose; Benaïda, Anissa; Collon, Sylvie; Facca, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    In adults, mallet finger is a traumatic zone I lesion of the extensor tendon with either tendon rupture or bony avulsion at the base of the distal phalanx. High-energy mechanisms of injury generally occur in young men, whereas lower energy mechanisms are observed in elderly women. The mechanism of injury is an axial load applied to a straight digit tip, which is then followed by passive extreme distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) hyperextension or hyperflexion. Mallet finger is diagnosed clinically, but an X-ray should always be performed. Tubiana's classification takes into account the size of the bony articular fragment and DIPJ subluxation. We propose to stage subluxated fractures as stage III if the subluxation is reducible with a splint and as stage IV if not. Left untreated, mallet finger becomes chronic and leads to a swan-neck deformity and DIPJ osteoarthritis. The goal of treatment is to restore active DIPJ extension. The results of a six- to eight-week conservative course of treatment with a DIPJ splint in slight hyperextension for tendon lesions or straight for bony avulsions depends on patient compliance. Surgical treatments vary in terms of the approach, the reduction technique, and the means of fixation. The risks involved are stiffness, septic arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Given the lack of consensus regarding indications for treatment, we propose to treat all cases of mallet finger with a dorsal glued splint except for stage IV mallet finger, which we treat with extra-articular pinning. PMID:27019806

  15. Methylprednisolone exacerbates acute critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Chai, Yan; Dong, Bo; Lei, Ping; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning

    2011-03-25

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that severe illness could induce critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and cause poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic glucocorticoid, promotes post-traumatic apoptosis in both the hypothalamus and pituitary, resulting in acute CIRCI and increased mortality in the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested this hypothesis by measuring acute CIRCI in rats subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and treated with MP (5-30mg/kg). The corticosteroid response to TBI was evaluated using the corticosterone increase index (CII), where values less than 2.5 were considered indicative of acute CIRCI. The CII of MP treated rats was comparable to that of saline treated control rats before injury but was significantly decreased in injured rats receiving high-dose MP on post-injury day 7. Similarly, the incidence of acute CIRCI was significantly higher in the high-dose MP group on post-injury day 7. Furthermore, the CII of rats that did not survive post-injury was significantly lower compared to that of survival and was indicative of acute CIRCI. We also examined apoptosis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis of the pituitary, using a TUNEL assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in injured rats treated with high-dose MP. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the adenohypophysis across experimental groups at either 7 or 14days after TBI. However, autopsies performed on rats that did not survive post-injury revealed obvious apoptotic cells in the adenohypophysis. Moreover, TEM revealed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in both the PVN and adenohypophysis of high-dose MP treated rats. These data suggest that MP therapy for TBI could increase neuronal apoptosis in both the hypothalamus and pituitary and

  16. Pathophysiology of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy and Management of Critical Bleeding Requiring Massive Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Gando, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Mineji

    2016-03-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy is caused by multiple factors, such as anemia, hemodilution, hypothermia, acidosis, shock, and serious trauma itself, which affects patient outcomes due to critical bleeding requiring massive transfusion. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with the fibrinolytic phenotype directly caused by trauma and/or traumatic shock has been considered to be the primary pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy. The key to controlling DIC is vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder, that is, trauma itself and hemorrhagic shock. Damage control resuscitation, consisting of damage control surgery, permissive hypotension, and hemostatic resuscitation, aims to control severe trauma and critical bleeding, which is equivalent to managing the underlying disorder of DIC. At present, however, evidence-based practices for damage control resuscitation are lacking. A robust prospective outcome study for damage control resuscitation that considers DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype as the main pathological condition of trauma-induced coagulopathy affecting patient outcome is essential for improving therapeutic strategies.

  17. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galeiras, Rita; Mourelo, Mónica; Pértega, Sonia; Lista, Amanda; Ferreiro, Mª Elena; Salvador, Sebastián; Montoto, Antonio; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) exhibit factors that, in other populations, have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute traumatic SCI admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), as well as the development of secondary acute kidney injury and associated factors. Study Design and Setting: This was an observational, retrospective study. Patient Sample: All adult patients admitted to the ICU with acute traumatic SCI who presented rhabdomyolysis, diagnosed through creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels >500 IU/L. Outcome Measures: Incidence of rhabdomyolysis and subsequent renal dysfunction was calculated. Materials and Methods: Data about demographic variables, comorbidity, rhabdomyolysis risk factors, and variables involving SCI, severity scores, and laboratory parameters were obtained from clinical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify renal injury risk factors. Results: In 2006–2014, 200 patients with acute SCI were admitted to ICU. Of these, 103 had rhabdomyolysis (incidence = 51.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.3%–58.7%). The most typical American Spinal Injury Association classification was A (70.3%). The injury severity score was 30.3 ± 12.1 and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 5.6 ± 3.3 points. During their stay, 57 patients (55.3%; 95% CI: 45.2%–65.4%) presented renal dysfunction (creatinine ≥1.2 mg/dL). In the multivariate analysis, variables associated with renal dysfunction were creatinine at admission (odds ratio [OR] = 9.20; P = 0.006) and hemodynamic SOFA score the day following admission (OR = 1.33; P = 0.024). Creatinine was a better predictor of renal dysfunction than the peak CPK value during the rhabdomyolysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91 vs. 0.63, respectively). Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent condition in patients

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galeiras, Rita; Mourelo, Mónica; Pértega, Sonia; Lista, Amanda; Ferreiro, Mª Elena; Salvador, Sebastián; Montoto, Antonio; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) exhibit factors that, in other populations, have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute traumatic SCI admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), as well as the development of secondary acute kidney injury and associated factors. Study Design and Setting: This was an observational, retrospective study. Patient Sample: All adult patients admitted to the ICU with acute traumatic SCI who presented rhabdomyolysis, diagnosed through creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels >500 IU/L. Outcome Measures: Incidence of rhabdomyolysis and subsequent renal dysfunction was calculated. Materials and Methods: Data about demographic variables, comorbidity, rhabdomyolysis risk factors, and variables involving SCI, severity scores, and laboratory parameters were obtained from clinical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify renal injury risk factors. Results: In 2006–2014, 200 patients with acute SCI were admitted to ICU. Of these, 103 had rhabdomyolysis (incidence = 51.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.3%–58.7%). The most typical American Spinal Injury Association classification was A (70.3%). The injury severity score was 30.3 ± 12.1 and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 5.6 ± 3.3 points. During their stay, 57 patients (55.3%; 95% CI: 45.2%–65.4%) presented renal dysfunction (creatinine ≥1.2 mg/dL). In the multivariate analysis, variables associated with renal dysfunction were creatinine at admission (odds ratio [OR] = 9.20; P = 0.006) and hemodynamic SOFA score the day following admission (OR = 1.33; P = 0.024). Creatinine was a better predictor of renal dysfunction than the peak CPK value during the rhabdomyolysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91 vs. 0.63, respectively). Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent condition in patients

  19. Early stage assessment and course of acute stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Broomhall, Luke G J; Clark, C Richard; McFarlane, Alexander C; O'Donnell, Meagan; Bryant, Richard; Creamer, Mark; Silove, Derek

    2009-03-01

    Although it has been established that acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder occur after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) the qualitative differences in symptom presentation between injury survivors with and without a MTBI have not been explored in depth. This study aimed to compare the ASD and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom presentation of injury survivors with and without MTBI. One thousand one hundred sixteen participants between the ages of 17 to 65 years (mean age: 38.97 years, SD: 14.23) were assessed in the acute hospital after a traumatic injury. Four hundred seventy-five individuals met the criteria for MTBI. Results showed a trend toward higher levels of ASD in the MTBI group compared with the non-MTBI group. Those with a MTBI and ASD had longer hospital admissions and higher levels of distress associated with their symptoms. Although many of the ASD symptoms that the MTBI group scored significantly higher were also part of a postconcussive syndrome, higher levels of avoidance symptoms may suggest that this group is at risk for longer term poor psychological adjustment. Mild TBI patients may represent a injury group at risk for poor psychological adjustment after traumatic injury. PMID:19282684

  20. Effective factors on linguistic disorder during acute phase following traumatic brain injury in adults.

    PubMed

    Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Kapourchali, Sara Ramezani; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Saberi, Alia; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been known to be the leading cause of breakdown and long-term disability in people under 45 years of age. This study highlights the effective factors on post-traumatic (PT) linguistic disorder and relations between linguistic and cognitive function after trauma in adults with acute TBI. A cross-sectional design was employed to study 60 post-TBI hospitalized adults aged 18-65 years. Post-traumatic (PT) linguistic disorder and cognitive deficit after TBI were respectively diagnosed using the Persian Aphasia Test (PAT) and Persian version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at discharge. Primary post-resuscitation consciousness level was determined using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Paracilinical data was obtained by CT scan technique. Multiple logistic regression analysis illustrated that brain injury severity was the first powerful significant predictor of PT linguistic disorder after TBI and frontotemporal lesion was the second. It was also revealed that cognitive function score was significantly correlated with score of each language skill except repetition. Subsequences of TBI are more commonly language dysfunctions that demand cognitive flexibility. Moderate, severe and fronto-temporal lesion can increase the risk of processing deficit in linguistic macrostructure production and comprehension. The dissociation risk of cortical and subcortical pathways related to cognitive-linguistic processing due to intracranial lesions can augment possibility of lexical-semantic processing deficit in acute phase which probably contributes to later cognitive-communication disorder.

  1. Recurrent bleeding following traumatic hyphema due to mild hemophilia B (Christmas disease).

    PubMed

    Wilker, Shawn C; Singh, Annapurna; Ellis, Forrest J

    2007-12-01

    Traumatic hyphemas generally resolve spontaneously. When recurrent bleeding occurs, a coagulopathy should be suspected. We present a unique case of a traumatic hyphema with recurrent bleeding in association with mild hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency).

  2. Acute post-traumatic endophthalmitis secondary to Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    Shailaja, S; Kamath, Yogish; Hazarika, Manali; Vishwanath, Shashidhar

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has rarely been reported as the causative organism in acute endophthalmitis following penetrating ocular trauma. We report a 53-year-old man, who presented with best corrected vision of counting fingers at 2 m,

  3. [Endovascular repair for an acute traumatic aortic transection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sanioğlu, Soner; Sahin, Sinan; Aydoğan, Hakki; Barutça, Hakan; Eren, Ergin

    2012-03-01

    A thirty-eight-year-old male patient who suffered from 10th and 11th thoracal vertebrae fractures, paraplegia and acute traumatic aortic transection because of accidental fall was referred to our hospital. Open surgical repair carried a very high risk due to severe coexisting injuries. Transection was treated with 30x100 mm Valiant thoracic endograft, which was deployed just distal to the ostium of the left carotid artery. The patient was transferred to the neurosurgery clinic for treatment of paraplegia after an uneventful recovery. Endovascular repair of acute transection confers substantial advantages in mortality and morbidity compared to surgical repair. However, the long-term durability of thoracic endografts remains unknown. If the long-term results are as satisfactory as the promising mid-term results, this technique may become the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute transection. PMID:22792827

  4. Acute evaluation of conversational discourse skills in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Joanne; de Guise, Elaine; Champoux, Marie-Claude; Couturier, Céline; Lamoureux, Julie; Marcoux, Judith; Maleki, Mohammed; Feyz, Mitra

    2014-12-01

    This study looked at performance on the conversational discourse checklist of the Protocole Montréal d'évaluation de la communication (D-MEC) in 195 adults with TBI of all severity hospitalized in a Level 1 Trauma Centre. To explore validity, results were compared to findings on tests of memory, mental flexibility, confrontation naming, semantic and letter category naming, verbal reasoning, and to scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The relationship to outcome as measured with the Disability Rating Scale (DRS), the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E), length of stay, and discharge destinations was also determined. Patients with severe TBI performed significantly worse than mild and moderate groups (χ(2)(KW2df) = 24.435, p = .0001). The total D-MEC score correlated significantly with all cognitive and language measures (p < .05). It also had a significant moderate correlation with the DRS total score (r = -.6090, p < .0001) and the GOS-E score (r = .539, p < .0001), indicating that better performance on conversational discourse was associated with a lower disability rating and better global outcome. Finally, the total D-MEC score was significantly different between the discharge destination groups (F(3,90) = 20.19, p < .0001). Thus, early identification of conversational discourse impairment in acute care post-TBI was possible with the D-MEC and could allow for early intervention in speech-language pathology.

  5. Corticosteroids in acute traumatic brain injury: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, P.; Roberts, I.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of corticosteroids in acute traumatic brain injury. Summary odds ratios were estimated as an inverse variance weighted average of the odds ratios for each study. SETTING: Randomised trials available by March 1996. SUBJECTS: The included trials with outcome data comprised 2073 randomised participants. RESULTS: The effect of corticosteroids on the risk of death was reported in 13 included trials. The pooled odds ratio for the 13 trials was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.74 to 1.12). Pooled absolute risk reduction was 1.8% (-2.5% to 5.7%). For the 10 trials that reported death or disability the pooled odds ratio was 0.90 (0.72 to 1.11). For infections of any type the pooled odds ratio was 0.92 (0.69 to 1.23) and for the seven trials reporting gastrointestinal bleeding it was 1.05 (0.44 to 2.52). With only those trials with the best quality of concealment of allocation, the pooled odds ratio estimates for death and death or disability became closer to unity. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review of randomised controlled trials of corticosteroids in acute traumatic brain injury shows that there remains considerable uncertainty over their effects. Neither moderate benefits nor moderate harmful effects can be excluded. The widely practicable nature of the drugs and the importance of the health problem suggest that large simple trials are feasible and worth while to establish whether there are any benefits from use of corticosteroids in this setting. PMID:9224126

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias the first month after acute traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Kim; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Malmqvist, Lasse; Ballegaard, Martin; Krassioukov, Andrei; Hansen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Kruse, Anders; Welling, Karen-Lise; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular complications including cardiac arrest and arrhythmias remain a clinical challenge in the management of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Still, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the characteristics of arrhythmias in patients with acute traumatic SCI. The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrests in patients with acute traumatic SCI. Methods As early as possible after SCI 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed. Additional Holter recordings were performed 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained shortly after SCI and at 4 weeks. Results Thirty patients were included. Bradycardia (heart rate (HR) <50 b.p.m.) was present in 17–35% of the patients with cervical (C1–C8) SCI (n = 24) within the first 14 days. In the following 14 days, the occurrence was 22–32%. Bradycardia in the thoracic (Th1–Th12) SCI group (n = 6) was present in 17–33% during the observation period. The differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The mean minimum HR was significantly lower in the cervical group compared with the thoracic group both on 12-lead ECGs obtained shortly after SCI (P = 0.030) and at 4 weeks (P = 0.041). Conclusion Many patients with cervical SCI experience arrhythmias such as bradycardia, sinus node arrest, supraventricular tachycardia, and more rarely cardiac arrest the first month after SCI. Apart from sinus node arrests and limited bradycardia, no arrhythmias were seen in patients with thoracic SCI. Standard 12-lead ECGs will often miss the high prevalence these arrhythmias have. PMID:24559419

  7. Etiology of non-traumatic acute abdomen in pediatric emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wu, Han-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common complaint in pediatric emergency departments. A complete evaluation is the key factor approaching the disease and should include the patient’s age, any trauma history, the onset and chronicity of the pain, the related symptoms and a detailed physical examination. The aim of this review article is to provide some information for physicians in pediatric emergency departments, with the age factors and several causes of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain. The leading causes of acute abdominal pain are divided into four age groups: infants younger than 2 years old, children 2 to 5, children 5 to 12, and children older than 12 years old. We review the information about acute appendicitis, intussusception, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, infection, Meckel’s diverticulum and mesenteric adenitis. In conclusion, the etiologies of acute abdomen in children admitted to the emergency department vary depending on age. A complete history and detailed physical examination, as well as abdominal imaging examinations, could provide useful information for physicians in the emergency department to narrow the differential diagnosis of abdominal emergencies and give a timely treatment. PMID:24364022

  8. Acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a patient with pancreas divisum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, D; Partalis, N; Polimili, G; Kastanakis, S

    2013-09-15

    Pancreas divisum is a frequent congenital anatomical anomaly characterized by the failure of fusion of the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung during fetal development. Although the condition usually remains asymptomatic, it has been reported to be a predisposing factor of chronic and recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. We report a case of acute non-traumatic pancreatitis in a 54-year-old Caucasian male with pancreas divisum. Diagnosis was established based on the findings from magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The patient was managed conservatively and was discharged home having an uneventful clinical course after five days of hospitalization. Although the role of the pancreas in the induction of acute pancreatitis is still a matter of debate, physicians have to be aware about this prevalent pancreatic anatomic abnormality. Timely detection may help in the prevention of potential recurrent pancreatic reaction.

  9. Oxidation-Reduction Potential as a Biomarker for Severity and Acute Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Stewart; Carrick, Matthew; Mains, Charles W.; Slone, Denetta S.

    2016-01-01

    There are few reliable markers for assessing traumatic brain injury (TBI). Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been observed in TBI patients. We hypothesized that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) could be a potent biomarker in TBI. Two types of ORP were measured in patient plasma samples: the static state of oxidative stress (sORP) and capacity for induced oxidative stress (icORP). Differences in ORP values as a function of time after injury, severity, and hospital discharge were compared using ANOVAs with significance at p ≤ 0.05. Logit regression analyses were used to predict acute outcome comparing ORP, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Antioxidant capacity (icORP) on day 4 was prognostic for acute outcomes (p < 0.05). An odds ratio of 4.08 was associated with poor acute outcome when icORP > 7.25 μC. IcORP was a better predictor than ISS, AIS, or GCS scores. sORP increased in those with the highest ISS values (p < 0.05). Based on these findings ORP is useful biomarker for severity and acute outcome in TBI patients. Changes in ORP values on day 4 after injury were the most prognostic, suggesting that patients' response to brain injury over time is a factor that determines outcome.

  10. Oxidation-Reduction Potential as a Biomarker for Severity and Acute Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bjugstad, Kimberly B; Rael, Leonard T; Levy, Stewart; Carrick, Matthew; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta S; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    There are few reliable markers for assessing traumatic brain injury (TBI). Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been observed in TBI patients. We hypothesized that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) could be a potent biomarker in TBI. Two types of ORP were measured in patient plasma samples: the static state of oxidative stress (sORP) and capacity for induced oxidative stress (icORP). Differences in ORP values as a function of time after injury, severity, and hospital discharge were compared using ANOVAs with significance at p ≤ 0.05. Logit regression analyses were used to predict acute outcome comparing ORP, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Antioxidant capacity (icORP) on day 4 was prognostic for acute outcomes (p < 0.05). An odds ratio of 4.08 was associated with poor acute outcome when icORP > 7.25 μC. IcORP was a better predictor than ISS, AIS, or GCS scores. sORP increased in those with the highest ISS values (p < 0.05). Based on these findings ORP is useful biomarker for severity and acute outcome in TBI patients. Changes in ORP values on day 4 after injury were the most prognostic, suggesting that patients' response to brain injury over time is a factor that determines outcome. PMID:27642494

  11. Oxidation-Reduction Potential as a Biomarker for Severity and Acute Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Stewart; Carrick, Matthew; Mains, Charles W.; Slone, Denetta S.

    2016-01-01

    There are few reliable markers for assessing traumatic brain injury (TBI). Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been observed in TBI patients. We hypothesized that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) could be a potent biomarker in TBI. Two types of ORP were measured in patient plasma samples: the static state of oxidative stress (sORP) and capacity for induced oxidative stress (icORP). Differences in ORP values as a function of time after injury, severity, and hospital discharge were compared using ANOVAs with significance at p ≤ 0.05. Logit regression analyses were used to predict acute outcome comparing ORP, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Antioxidant capacity (icORP) on day 4 was prognostic for acute outcomes (p < 0.05). An odds ratio of 4.08 was associated with poor acute outcome when icORP > 7.25 μC. IcORP was a better predictor than ISS, AIS, or GCS scores. sORP increased in those with the highest ISS values (p < 0.05). Based on these findings ORP is useful biomarker for severity and acute outcome in TBI patients. Changes in ORP values on day 4 after injury were the most prognostic, suggesting that patients' response to brain injury over time is a factor that determines outcome. PMID:27642494

  12. Oxidation-Reduction Potential as a Biomarker for Severity and Acute Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bjugstad, Kimberly B; Rael, Leonard T; Levy, Stewart; Carrick, Matthew; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta S; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    There are few reliable markers for assessing traumatic brain injury (TBI). Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been observed in TBI patients. We hypothesized that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) could be a potent biomarker in TBI. Two types of ORP were measured in patient plasma samples: the static state of oxidative stress (sORP) and capacity for induced oxidative stress (icORP). Differences in ORP values as a function of time after injury, severity, and hospital discharge were compared using ANOVAs with significance at p ≤ 0.05. Logit regression analyses were used to predict acute outcome comparing ORP, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Antioxidant capacity (icORP) on day 4 was prognostic for acute outcomes (p < 0.05). An odds ratio of 4.08 was associated with poor acute outcome when icORP > 7.25 μC. IcORP was a better predictor than ISS, AIS, or GCS scores. sORP increased in those with the highest ISS values (p < 0.05). Based on these findings ORP is useful biomarker for severity and acute outcome in TBI patients. Changes in ORP values on day 4 after injury were the most prognostic, suggesting that patients' response to brain injury over time is a factor that determines outcome.

  13. Systems biomarkers as acute diagnostics and chronic monitoring tools for traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kevin K. W.; Moghieb, Ahmed; Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhiqun

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant biomedical problem among military personnel and civilians. There exists an urgent need to develop and refine biological measures of acute brain injury and chronic recovery after brain injury. Such measures "biomarkers" can assist clinicians in helping to define and refine the recovery process and developing treatment paradigms for the acutely injured to reduce secondary injury processes. Recent biomarker studies in the acute phase of TBI have highlighted the importance and feasibilities of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. However, much less is known about the subacute and chronic phases of TBI. We propose here that for a complex biological problem such as TBI, multiple biomarker types might be needed to harness the wide range of pathological and systemic perturbations following injuries, including acute neuronal death, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration to systemic responses. In terms of biomarker types, they range from brain-specific proteins, microRNA, genetic polymorphism, inflammatory cytokines and autoimmune markers and neuro-endocrine hormones. Furthermore, systems biology-driven biomarkers integration can help present a holistic approach to understanding scenarios and complexity pathways involved in brain injury.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:27482221

  15. TACTIC: Trans-Agency Consortium for Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Kenneth G.; Freeman, Kalev

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) includes heterogeneous coagulopathic syndromes with different underlying causes, and treatment is challenged by limited diagnostic tests to discriminate between these entities in the acute setting. We provide an overview of progress in understanding the mechanisms of TIC and the context for several of the hypotheses that will be tested in “TACTIC”. Although connected to ongoing clinical trials in trauma, TACTIC itself has no intent to conduct clinical trials. We do anticipate that “early translation” of promising results will occur. Functions anticipated at this early translational level include: 1. Basic science groundwork for future therapeutic candidates; 2. Development of acute coagulopathy scoring systems; 3. Coagulation factor composition-based computational analysis; 4. Characterization of novel analytes including tissue factor, polyP, histones, meizo and α-thrombin-antithrombin complexes, factor XIa, platelet markers of activation and trauma, signatures of protein C activation and fibrinolysis markers; 5. Assessment of visco-elastic tests and new point-of-care methods. PMID:26149052

  16. How mild traumatic brain injury may affect declarative memory performance in the post-acute stage.

    PubMed

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Vos, Pieter E; van der Werf, Sieberen; van Dijk, Gert; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-09-01

    Memory deficits are among the most frequently reported sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), especially early after injury. To date, these cognitive deficits remain poorly understood, as in most patients the brain is macroscopically intact. To identify the mechanism by which MTBI causes declarative memory impairments, we probed the functionality of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), within 6 weeks after injury in 43 patients from a consecutive cohort, and matched healthy controls. In addition to neuropsychological measures of declarative memory and other cognitive domains, all subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results showed poorer declarative memory performance in patients than controls, and decreasing performance with increasing duration of post-traumatic amnesia (a measure of injury severity). Task performance in the scanner was, as intended by the task and design, similar in patients and controls, and did not relate to injury severity. The task used reliably activated the MTL and PFC. Although we did not find significant differences in brain activity when comparing patients and controls, we revealed, in agreement with our neuropsychological findings, an inverse correlation between MTL activity and injury severity. In contrast, no difference in prefrontal activation was found between patients and controls, nor was there a relation with injury severity. On a behavioral level, injury severity was inversely related to declarative memory performance. In all, these findings suggest that reduced medial temporal functionality may contribute to poorer declarative memory performance in the post-acute stage of MTBI, especially in patients with longer post-traumatic amnesia.

  17. Structural integrity of medial temporal lobes of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Luoto, Teemu M; Brander, Antti; Wäljas, Minna; Iverson, Grant L; Ohman, Juha

    2014-07-01

    Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is an acute characteristic of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the duration of PTA is commonly used to estimate the severity of brain injury. In the context of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), PTA is an essential part of the routine clinical assessment. Macroscopic lesions in temporal lobes, especially hippocampal regions, are thought to be connected to memory loss. However, conventional neuroimaging has failed to reveal neuropathological correlates of PTA in MTBI. Texture analysis (TA) is an image analysis technique that quantifies the minor MRI signal changes among image pixels and, therefore, the variations in intensity patterns within the image. The objective of this work was to apply the TA technique to MR images of MTBI patients and control subjects, and to assess the microstructural damage in medial temporal lobes of patients with MTBI with definite PTA. TA was performed for fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images of 50 MTBI patients and 50 age- and gender-matched controls in the regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. It was hypothesized that 1) there would be statistically significant differences in TA parameters between patients with MTBIs and controls, and 2) the duration of PTA would be related to TA parameters in patients with MTBI. No significant textural differences were observed between patients and controls in the regions of interest (p>0.01). No textural features were observed to correlate with the duration of PTA. Subgroup analyses were conducted on patients with PTA of>1 h, (n=33) and compared the four TA parameters to the age- and gender-matched controls (n=33). The findings were similar. This study did not reveal significant textural changes in medial temporal structures that could be related to the duration of PTA.

  18. Association between Peripheral Oxidative Stress and White Matter Damage in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ming; Chen, Meng-Hsiang; Wang, Hung-Chen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Pei-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Su, Yu-Jih; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Kung, Chia-Te; Chiu, Tsui-Min; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Lin, Wei-Che

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the disease severity correlation between oxidative stress biomarker level and deep brain microstructural changes in acute TBI remains unknown. In present study, twenty-four patients with acute TBI and 24 healthy volunteers underwent DTI. The peripheral blood oxidative biomarkers, like serum thiol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations, were also obtained. The DTI metrics of the deep brain regions, as well as the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient, were measured and correlated with disease severity, serum thiol, and TBARS levels. We found that patients with TBI displayed lower FAs in deep brain regions with abundant WMs and further correlated with increased serum TBARS level. Our study has shown a level of anatomic detail to the relationship between white matter (WM) damage and increased systemic oxidative stress in TBI which suggests common inflammatory processes that covary in both the peripheral and central reactions after TBI. PMID:24804213

  19. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in patients with acute traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Leder, S B

    1999-10-01

    Dysphagia and aspiration in intensive care unit patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening problem. Any diagnostic technique used with this population, therefore, must be able to be performed in a timely and efficient manner while providing objective information on the nature of the swallowing problem. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of using the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) technique to diagnosis pharyngeal stage dysphagia and determine aspiration status in patients who presented with acute TBI. A total of 47 subjects were assessed with FEES. Thirty of 47 (64%) subjects swallowed successfully and were able to take an oral diet: 2 of 30 (7%) thickened liquids and purée consistencies, 8 of 30 (27%) a soft diet, and 20 of 30 (67%) a regular diet. Seventeen of 47 (36%) subjects exhibited pharyngeal stage dysphagia with aspiration and were not permitted an oral diet based on objective results provided by FEES. Of the 17 subjects who aspirated, 9 of 17 (53%) exhibited silent aspiration. Younger subjects (mean age 34 years, 3 months) aspirated significantly less often than older subjects (mean age 51 years, 8 months). No significant age difference was observed for gender or between overt and silent aspirators. It was concluded that FEES is an objective and sensitive tool that can be used successfully to diagnose pharyngeal stage dysphagia, determine aspiration status, and make recommendations for oral or nonoral feeding in patients with acute TBI.

  20. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Namas, R; Ghuma, A; Hermus, L; Zamora, R; Okonkwo, DO; Billiar, TR; Vodovotz, Y

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherently detrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and is partially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated Molecular Patterns; DAMP's). DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various animal models of T/HS in mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and non-human primates have been utilized in an attempt to move from bench to bedside. Novel approaches, including those from the field of systems biology, may yield therapeutic breakthroughs in T/HS and TBI in the near future. PMID:21483522

  1. Low-level laser therapy attenuates the acute inflammatory response induced by muscle traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Scheffer, Debora da Luz; Glaser, Viviane; Remor, Aline Pertile; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino; Aguiar Junior, Aderbal Silva; Latini, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of early and long-term low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers after acute-traumatic muscle injury in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into the following four groups: control group (CG), muscle injury group (IG), CG + LLLT, and IG + LLLT: laser treatment with doses of 3 and 5 J/cm(2). Muscle traumatic injury was induced by a single-impact blunt trauma in the rat gastrocnemius. Irradiation for 3 or 5 J/cm(2) was initiated 2, 12, and 24 h after muscle trauma induction, and the treatment was continued for five consecutive days. All the oxidant markers investigated. namely thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, carbonyl, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were increased as soon as 2 h after muscle injury and remained increased up to 24 h. These alterations were prevented by LLLT at a 3 J/cm(2) dose given 2 h after the trauma. Similarly, LLLT prevented the trauma-induced proinflammatory state characterized by IL-6 and IL-10. In parallel, trauma-induced reduction in BDNF and VEGF, vascular remodeling and fiber-proliferating markers, was prevented by laser irradiation. In order to test whether the preventive effect of LLLT was also reflected in muscle functionality, we tested the locomotor activity, by measuring distance traveled and the number of rearings in the open field test. LLLT was effective in recovering the normal locomotion, indicating that the irradiation induced biostimulatory effects that accelerated or resolved the acute inflammatory response as well as the oxidant state elicited by the muscle trauma. PMID:26983894

  2. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Glenn R; Freeman, Kalev; Thomas, Alex; Shpaner, Marina; OKeefe, Michael; Watts, Richard; Naylor, Magdalena R

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures) within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma). The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D.) hours after injury (time 1). At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2), 18 of mTBI subjects (64%) reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects compared to

  3. GFAP-BDP as an Acute Diagnostic Marker in Traumatic Brain Injury: Results from the Prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Study

    PubMed Central

    Yue, John K.; Puccio, Ava M.; Panczykowski, David M.; Inoue, Tomoo; McMahon, Paul J.; Sorani, Marco D.; Yuh, Esther L.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Valadka, Alex B.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Casey, Scott S.; Cheong, Maxwell; Cooper, Shelly R.; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Gordon, Wayne A.; Hricik, Allison J.; Hochberger, Kerri; Menon, David K.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Sinha, Tuhin K.; Schnyer, David M.; Vassar, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reliable diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health need. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in the central nervous system, and breakdown products (GFAP-BDP) are released following parenchymal brain injury. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of elevated levels of plasma GFAP-BDP in TBI. Participants were identified as part of the prospective Transforming Research And Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Study. Acute plasma samples (<24 h post-injury) were collected from patients presenting with brain injury who had CT imaging. The ability of GFAP-BDP level to discriminate patients with demonstrable traumatic lesions on CT, and with failure to return to pre-injury baseline at 6 months, was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Of the 215 patients included for analysis, 83% had mild, 4% had moderate, and 13% had severe TBI; 54% had acute traumatic lesions on CT. The ability of GFAP-BDP level to discriminate patients with traumatic lesions on CT as evaluated by AUC was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.93). The optimal cutoff of 0.68 ng/mL for plasma GFAP-BDP level was associated with a 21.61 odds ratio for traumatic findings on head CT. Discriminatory ability of unfavorable 6 month outcome was lower, AUC 0.65 (95% CI, 0.55–0.74), with a 2.07 odds ratio. GFAP-BDP levels reliably distinguish the presence and severity of CT scan findings in TBI patients. Although these findings confirm and extend prior studies, a larger prospective trial is still needed to validate the use of GFAP-BDP as a routine diagnostic biomarker for patient care and clinical research. The term “mild” continues to be a misnomer for this patient population, and underscores the need for evolving classification strategies for TBI targeted therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01565551; NIH Grant 1RC2 NS069409) PMID:23489259

  4. GFAP-BDP as an acute diagnostic marker in traumatic brain injury: results from the prospective transforming research and clinical knowledge in traumatic brain injury study.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, David O; Yue, John K; Puccio, Ava M; Panczykowski, David M; Inoue, Tomoo; McMahon, Paul J; Sorani, Marco D; Yuh, Esther L; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Valadka, Alex B; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2013-09-01

    Reliable diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health need. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in the central nervous system, and breakdown products (GFAP-BDP) are released following parenchymal brain injury. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of elevated levels of plasma GFAP-BDP in TBI. Participants were identified as part of the prospective Transforming Research And Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Study. Acute plasma samples (<24 h post-injury) were collected from patients presenting with brain injury who had CT imaging. The ability of GFAP-BDP level to discriminate patients with demonstrable traumatic lesions on CT, and with failure to return to pre-injury baseline at 6 months, was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Of the 215 patients included for analysis, 83% had mild, 4% had moderate, and 13% had severe TBI; 54% had acute traumatic lesions on CT. The ability of GFAP-BDP level to discriminate patients with traumatic lesions on CT as evaluated by AUC was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.93). The optimal cutoff of 0.68 ng/mL for plasma GFAP-BDP level was associated with a 21.61 odds ratio for traumatic findings on head CT. Discriminatory ability of unfavorable 6 month outcome was lower, AUC 0.65 (95% CI, 0.55-0.74), with a 2.07 odds ratio. GFAP-BDP levels reliably distinguish the presence and severity of CT scan findings in TBI patients. Although these findings confirm and extend prior studies, a larger prospective trial is still needed to validate the use of GFAP-BDP as a routine diagnostic biomarker for patient care and clinical research. The term "mild" continues to be a misnomer for this patient population, and underscores the need for evolving classification strategies for TBI targeted therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01565551; NIH Grant 1RC2 NS069409).

  5. Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in Venous Aneurysm following Closure of the Chronic Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Orrapin, Saranat; Arworn, Supapong; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) commonly results from an unrecognized vascular injury. In this report, there were two cases of chronic traumatic AVF of the legs with a long history of stab (case 1) and shotgun wounds (case 2). Both cases presented with varicose veins together with hyperpigmentation around the ankle of the affected leg. Angiograms showed a single large AVF in case 1, whereas, in case 2, there was a single large AVF together with multiple small AVFs. In both cases large venous aneurysm was found next to a large AVF. An open surgical AVF closure for the large AVF was performed in case 1 successfully, but patient developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a large venous aneurysm. In the second case, in order to prevent DVT, only closure of the large AVF was performed, which preserved arterial flow into the venous aneurysm. Case 2 did not have acute DVT. This report raised the concern about acute DVTs in venous aneurysms following the closure of chronic traumatic AVF in terms of prevention. Also chronic traumatic AVF is commonly due to misdiagnosis in the initial treatment, so complete and serial physical examinations in penetrating vascular injury patients are of paramount importance. PMID:27293948

  6. Readmission to Acute Care Hospital during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Flora M.; Horn, Susan D.; Smout, Randall J.; Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Ryser, David K.; Sommerfeld, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate frequency, reasons, and factors associated with readmission to acute care (RTAC) during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation. Participants 2,130 consecutive admissions for TBI rehabilitation. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) RTAC incidence, RTAC causes, rehabilitation length of stay (RLOS), and rehabilitation discharge location. Results 183 participants (9%) experienced RTAC for a total 210 episodes. 161 patients experienced 1 RTAC episode, 17 had 2, and 5 had 3. Mean days from rehabilitation admission to first RTAC was 22 days (SD 22). Mean duration in acute care during RTAC was 7 days (SD 8). 84 participants (46%) had >1 RTAC episode for medical reasons, 102 (56%) had >1 RTAC for surgical reasons, and RTAC reason was unknown for 6 (3%) participants. Most common surgical RTAC reasons were: neurosurgical (65%), pulmonary (9%), infection (5%), and orthopedic (5%); most common medical reasons were infection (26%), neurologic (23%), and cardiac (12%). Older age, history of coronary artery disease, history of congestive heart failure, acute care diagnosis of depression, craniotomy or craniectomy during acute care, and presence of dysphagia at rehabilitation admission predicted patients with RTAC. RTAC was less likely for patients with higher admission Functional Independence Measure Motor scores and education less than high school diploma. RTAC occurrence during rehabilitation was significantly associated with longer RLOS and smaller likelihood of discharge home. Conclusion(s) Approximately 9% of patients with TBI experience RTAC during inpatient rehabilitation for various medical and surgical reasons. This information may help inform interventions aimed at reducing interruptions in rehabilitation due to RTAC. RTACs were associated with longer RLOS and discharge to an institutional setting. PMID:26212405

  7. Forward and inverse electroencephalographic modeling in health and in acute traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Goh, S.Y. Matthew; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Chambers, Micah C.; Kikinis, Ron; Van Horn, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective EEG source localization is demonstrated in three cases of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) with progressive lesion loads using anatomically faithful models of the head which account for pathology. Methods Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes were used to generate head models via the finite element method (FEM). A total of 25 tissue types—including 6 types accounting for pathology— were included. To determine the effects of TBI upon source localization accuracy, a minimum-norm operator was used to perform inverse localization and to determine the accuracy of the latter. Results The importance of using a more comprehensive number of tissue types is confirmed in both health and in TBI. Pathology omission is found to cause substantial inaccuracies in EEG forward matrix calculations, with lead field sensitivity being underestimated by as much as ~200% in (peri-) contusional regions when TBI-related changes are ignored. Failing to account for such conductivity changes is found to misestimate substantial localization error by up to 35 mm. Conclusions Changes in head conductivity profiles should be accounted for when performing EEG modeling in acute TBI. Significance Given the challenges of inverse localization in TBI, this framework can benefit neurotrauma patients by providing useful insights on pathophysiology. PMID:23746499

  8. Beneficial Effect of Erythropoietin Short Peptide on Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Kang, Mitchell; Marchese, Michelle; Rodriguez, Esther; Lu, Wei; Li, Xintong; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Dowling, Peter

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no effective medical treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Beyond the immediate physical damage caused by the initial impact, additional damage evolves due to the inflammatory response that follows brain injury. Here we show that therapy with JM4, a low molecular weight 19-amino acid nonhematopoietic erythropoietin (EPO) peptidyl fragment, containing amino acids 28-46 derived from the first loop of EPO, markedly reduces acute brain injury. Mice underwent controlled cortical injury and received either whole molecule EPO, JM4, or sham-treatment with phosphate-buffered saline. Animals treated with JM4 peptide exhibited a large decrease in number of dead neural cells and a marked reduction in lesion size at both 3 and 8 days postinjury. Therapy with JM4 also led to improved functional recovery and we observed a treatment window for JM4 peptide that remained open for at least 9 h postinjury. The full-length EPO molecule was divided into a series of 6 contiguous peptide segments; the JM4-containing segment and the adjoining downstream region contained the bulk of the death attenuating effects seen with intact EPO molecule following TBI. These findings indicate that the JM4 molecule substantially blocks cell death and brain injury following acute brain trauma and, as such, presents an excellent opportunity to explore the therapeutic potential of a small-peptide EPO derivative in the medical treatment of TBI. PMID:26715414

  9. Clinical and imaging assessment of acute combat mild traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Mac Donald, Christine L.; Rivet, Dennis; Ritter, John; May, Todd; Barefield, Maria; Duckworth, Josh; LaBarge, Donald; Asher, Dean; Drinkwine, Benjamin; Woods, Yvette; Connor, Michael; Brody, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) will noninvasively reveal white matter changes not present on conventional MRI in acute blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and to determine correlations with clinical measures and recovery. Methods: Prospective observational study of 95 US military service members with mTBI enrolled within 7 days from injury in Afghanistan and 101 healthy controls. Assessments included Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPCSQ), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Military (PCLM), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), conventional MRI, and DTI. Results: Significantly greater impairment was observed in participants with mTBI vs controls: RPCSQ (19.7 ± 12.9 vs 3.6 ± 7.1, p < 0.001), PCLM (32 ± 13.2 vs 20.9 ± 7.1, p < 0.001), BDI (7.4 ± 6.8 vs 2.5 ± 4.9, p < 0.001), and BESS (18.2 ± 8.4 vs 15.1 ± 8.3, p = 0.01). The largest effect size in ANAM performance decline was in simple reaction time (mTBI 74.5 ± 148.4 vs control −11 ± 46.6 milliseconds, p < 0.001). Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced in mTBI compared with controls in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (0.393 ± 0.022 vs 0.405 ± 0.023, p < 0.001). No abnormalities were detected with conventional MRI. Time to return to duty correlated with RPCSQ (r = 0.53, p < 0.001), ANAM simple reaction time decline (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001), PCLM (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001), and BDI (r = 0.36 p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Somatic, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms and performance deficits are substantially elevated in acute blast-related mTBI. Postconcussive symptoms and performance on measures of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and neurocognitive performance at initial presentation correlate with return-to-duty time. Although changes in fractional anisotropy are uncommon and subtle, DTI is more sensitive than conventional MRI in

  10. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Lakshay; Jegaraj, Moses A. K.; Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Yadav, Bijesh; Abilash, Kundavaram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED) and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6%) were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%). Majority of the patients (76.9%) presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36%) followed by colicky type (22.3%). The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%). Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%), urinary tract infection (12.5%), acute pancreatitis (11%), acute appendicitis (10.6%) and acute gastritis (8%). More than half (51.9%) discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:26288785

  11. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global

  12. Biomarkers of increased diffusion anisotropy in semi-acute mild traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Ling, Josef M; Peña, Amanda; Yeo, Ronald A; Merideth, Flannery L; Klimaj, Stefan; Gasparovic, Charles; Mayer, Andrew R

    2012-04-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent neurological insult and frequently results in neurobehavioural sequelae. However, little is known about the pathophysiology underlying the injury and how these injuries change as a function of time. Although diffusion tensor imaging holds promise for in vivo characterization of white matter pathology, both the direction and magnitude of anisotropic water diffusion abnormalities in axonal tracts are actively debated. The current study therefore represents both an independent replication effort (n = 28) of our previous findings (n = 22) of increased fractional anisotropy during semi-acute injury, as well as a prospective study (n = 26) on the putative recovery of diffusion abnormalities. Moreover, new analytical strategies were applied to capture spatially heterogeneous white matter injuries, which minimize implicit assumptions of uniform injury across diverse clinical presentations. Results indicate that whereas a general pattern of high anisotropic diffusion/low radial diffusivity was present in various white matter tracts in both the replication and original cohorts, this pattern was only consistently observed in the genu of the corpus callosum across both samples. Evidence for a greater number of localized clusters with increased anisotropic diffusion was identified across both cohorts at trend levels, confirming heterogeneity in white matter injury. Pooled analyses (50 patients; 50 controls) suggested that measures of diffusion within the genu were predictive of patient classification, albeit at very modest levels (71% accuracy). Finally, we observed evidence of recovery in lesion load in returning patients across a 4-month interval, which was correlated with a reduction in self-reported post-concussive symptomatology. In summary, the corpus callosum may serve as a common point of injury in mild traumatic brain injury secondary to anatomical (high frequency of long unmyelinated fibres) and biomechanics factors. A

  13. Severe Acute Traumatic Mitral Regurgitation, Cardiogenic Shock Secondary to Embolized Polymethylmethracrylate Cement Foreign Body After a Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elapavaluru, Subbarao; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Khan, Fawad; Khalil, Ramzi; Schuett, Amy; Bailey, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with acute decompensated heart failure secondary to acute traumatic mitral regurgitation, resulting from polymethylmethacrylate cement found in the left ventricle less than 24 hours after fluoroscopic percutaneous vertebroplasty. The patient had a history of ovarian cancer and had undergone treatment for symptomatic osteoporotic compression fractures of the vertebrae (T11, L1, and L3). The patient underwent a successful emergency open-heart operation, mitral valve replacement, closure of an atrial septal defect, and video-assisted removal of the cement foreign body from the left ventricle. The patient was later discharged with a good outcome.

  14. Time interval to surgery and outcomes following the surgical treatment of acute traumatic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Khanna, Arjun; Kwon, Churl-Su; Phillips, H Westley; Nahed, Brian V; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2014-12-01

    Although the pre-surgical management of patients with acute traumatic subdural hematoma prioritizes rapid transport to the operating room, there is conflicting evidence regarding the importance of time interval from injury to surgery with regards to outcomes. We sought to determine the association of surgical timing with outcomes for subdural hematoma. A retrospective review was performed of 522 consecutive patients admitted to a single center from 2006-2012 who underwent emergent craniectomy for acute subdural hematoma. After excluding patients with unknown time of injury, penetrating trauma, concurrent cerebrovascular injury, epidural hematoma, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage greater than 30 mL, there remained 45 patients identified for analysis. Using a multiple regression model, we examined the effect of surgical timing, in addition to other variables on in-hospital mortality (primary outcome), as well as the need for tracheostomy or gastrostomy (secondary outcome). We found that increasing injury severity score (odds ratio [OR] 1.146; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.035-1.270; p=0.009) and age (OR1.066; 95%CI 1.006-1.129; p=0.031) were associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis. In this model, increasing time to surgery was not associated with mortality, and in fact had a significant effect in decreasing mortality (OR 0.984; 95%CI 0.971-0.997; p=0.018). Premorbid aspirin use was associated with a paradoxical decrease in mortality (OR 0.019; 95%CI 0.001-0.392; p=0.010). In this patient sample, shorter time interval from injury to surgery was not associated with better outcomes. While there are potential confounding factors, these findings support the evaluation of rigorous preoperative resuscitation as a priority in future study. PMID:25065950

  15. Simvastatin reduces VEGF and NO levels in acute stages of experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Hatice; Yavuz, Özlem; Iş, Merih; Çomunoğlu, Nil; Üzüm, Gülay; Akyüz, Feyzullah; Yıldırım, Hayriye Ak

    2013-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering agent, on vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), nitric oxide (NO) levels and neuroprotection, in rats with experimentally induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty Wistar albino rats were categorized into four groups: sham operated (S), trauma (T), trauma + vehicle (T + V) and trauma + simvastatin (T + S). The T, T + V and T + S groups were subjected to TBI. The T + V group was administered vehicle [ethanol:saline (1/2)] and the T + S group was administered 1 mg/kg of simvastatin 3 h after the injury insult. Blood and brain tissue specimens were obtained 24 h after the trauma to measure VEGFs and NO levels and perform histopathological examinations. The histopathological injury scores of brain tissues were significantly higher in the T group, and simvastatin significantly prevented brain injury in the T + S group. In the T group, significant increases of VEGF levels in serum and brain tissues were noted, which were prevented with simvastatin treatment in the T + S group. The markedly high levels of NO in brain tissues of the T group were decreased by simvastatin treatment in the T + S group. It can be concluded that, as evidenced by histopathological findings, simvastatin treatment improves neuropathology in acute stages of TBI.

  16. Effect of technique and timing of tracheostomy in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Ganuza, Javier Romero; Forcada, Angel Garcia; Gambarrutta, Claudia; De La Lastra Buigues, Elena Diez; Gonzalez, Victoria Eugenia Merlo; Fuentes, Fátima Paz; Luciani, Alejandro A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of timing and techniques of tracheostomy on morbidity, mortality, and the burden of resources in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) undergoing mechanical ventilation. Design Review of a prospectively collected database. Setting Intensive and intermediate care units of a monographic hospital for the treatment of SCI. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during their first inpatient rehabilitation for cervical and thoracic traumatic SCI. A total of 323 patients were included: 297 required mechanical ventilation and 215 underwent tracheostomy. Outcome measures Demographic data, data relevant to the patients’ neurological injuries (level and grade of spinal cord damage), tracheostomy technique and timing, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay at ICU, incidence of pneumonia, incidence of perioperative and early postoperative complications, and mortality. Results Early tracheostomy (<7 days after orotracheal intubation) tracheostomy was performed in 101 patients (47%) and late (≥7 days) in 114 (53%). Surgical tracheostomy was employed in 119 cases (55%) and percutaneous tracheostomy in 96 (45%). There were 61 complications in 53 patients related to all tracheostomy procedures. Two were qualified as serious (tracheoesophageal fistula and mediastinal abscess). Other complications were mild. Bleeding was moderate in one case (late, percutaneous tracheostomy). Postoperative infection rate was low. Mortality of all causes was also low. Conclusion Early tracheostomy may have favorable effects in patients with acute traumatic SC. Both techniques, percutaneous and surgical tracheostomy, can be performed safely in the ICU. PMID:21528630

  17. Atraumatic splenic rupture after coagulopathy owing to a snakebite.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Dong Seob; Jeong, Chi-Young

    2014-09-01

    Among the many complications that may follow envenomation by some species of venomous snakes, coagulopathy is common and well known. However, hemoperitoneum induced by coagulopathy after a snakebite is rare. Atraumatic spontaneous splenic rupture is also an uncommon and life-threatening condition. Here, we report a case of presumptive envenomation by Gloydius spp. that resulted in atraumatic splenic rupture as a probable manifestation of coagulopathy, which has not been previously reported. PMID:24882658

  18. Advances in the understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ronald; Cardenas, Jessica C; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2016-08-25

    Ten percent of deaths worldwide are due to trauma, and it is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Despite a profound upregulation in procoagulant mechanisms, one-quarter of trauma patients present with laboratory-based evidence of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), which is associated with poorer outcomes including increased mortality. The most common causes of death after trauma are hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The management of TIC has significant implications in both because many hemorrhagic deaths could be preventable, and TIC is associated with progression of intracranial injury after TBI. This review covers the most recent evidence and advances in our understanding of TIC, including the role of platelet dysfunction, endothelial activation, and fibrinolysis. Trauma induces a plethora of biochemical and physiologic changes, and despite numerous studies reporting differences in coagulation parameters between trauma patients and uninjured controls, it is unclear whether some of these differences may be "normal" after trauma. Comparisons between trauma patients with differing outcomes and use of animal studies have shed some light on this issue, but much of the data continue to be correlative with causative links lacking. In particular, there are little data linking the laboratory-based abnormalities with true clinically evident coagulopathic bleeding. For these reasons, TIC continues to be a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. PMID:27381903

  19. Risk taking in hospitalized patients with acute and severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fecteau, Shirley; Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; García-Molina, Alberto; Kumru, Hatiche; Vergara, Raúl Pelayo; Bernabeu, Monste; Roig, Teresa; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Tormos, José Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation can improve cognitive deficits observed in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, despite rehabilitation, the ability of making a choice often remains impaired. Risk taking is a daily activity involving numerous cognitive processes subserved by a complex neural network. In this work we investigated risk taking using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) in patients with acute TBI and healthy controls. We hypothesized that individuals with TBI will take less risk at the BART as compared to healthy individuals. We also predicted that within the TBI group factors such as the number of days since the injury, severity of the injury, and sites of the lesion will play a role in risk taking as assessed with the BART. Main findings revealed that participants with TBI displayed abnormally cautious risk taking at the BART as compared to healthy subjects. Moreover, healthy individuals showed increased risk taking throughout the task which is in line with previous work. However, individuals with TBI did not show this increased risk taking during the task. We also investigated the influence of three patients' characteristics on their performance at the BART: Number of days post injury, Severity of the head injury, and Status of the frontal lobe. Results indicate that performance at the BART was influenced by the number of days post injury and the status of the frontal lobe, but not by the severity of the head injury. Reported findings are encouraging for risk taking seems to naturally improve with time postinjury. They support the need of conducting longitudinal prospective studies to ultimately identify impaired and intact cognitive skills that should be trained postinjury. PMID:24386232

  20. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  1. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  2. Spontaneous recovery of post-traumatic acute bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Pravin; Madhivanan, Karthigeyan; Kamali, Nasib; Garg, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral abducens and facial palsy following head injury are extremely rare. We present a patient with post-traumatic bilateral facial and abducens palsy. There were bitemporal fractures that did not correspond with the facial canal. Despite complete facial palsy with axonal degeneration and > 90% facial muscle degenervation, conservative management helped. This report highlights the importance of conservative management in post-traumatic complete facial palsy especially when the fracture line does not correspond with the facial canal.

  3. Spontaneous recovery of post-traumatic acute bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Pravin; Madhivanan, Karthigeyan; Kamali, Nasib; Garg, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral abducens and facial palsy following head injury are extremely rare. We present a patient with post-traumatic bilateral facial and abducens palsy. There were bitemporal fractures that did not correspond with the facial canal. Despite complete facial palsy with axonal degeneration and > 90% facial muscle degenervation, conservative management helped. This report highlights the importance of conservative management in post-traumatic complete facial palsy especially when the fracture line does not correspond with the facial canal. PMID:27695556

  4. Identifying youth at risk for difficulties following a traumatic event: pre-event factors are associated with acute symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Goslin, Megan C; Stover, Carla Smith; Berkowitz, Steven; Marans, Steven

    2013-08-01

    This study examined factors related to children's acute symptoms following a potentially traumatic event (PTE) to more clearly identify domains that should be included in screenings of youth exposed to a PTE. In particular, the authors examined whether trauma category (i.e., sexual abuse/disclosure of abuse, intentionally perpetrated traumas other than sexual abuse, and unintentional traumas) was related to symptoms after controlling for other relevant factors. Participants were 112 youth presenting for clinical evaluation within a month of a PTE and their nonoffending caregivers. Using data from baseline assessments collected as part of a randomized controlled trial of a secondary prevention program, the following factors were tested in 3 hierarchical regression models: index PTE category, history of traumatic exposure, preindex event functioning, and parenting behaviors. Prior trauma exposure, preindex event functioning, and hostile parenting were uniquely related to children's symptoms in the acute posttraumatic period after controlling for time since the event and child age, but trauma category was not. Implications for identifying and referring children at high risk for poor outcomes in the early aftermath of a PTE are discussed. An exclusive focus on the event is insufficient and more comprehensive understanding of the child and family is required. PMID:23861167

  5. Traumatic brain injury and post-acute decline: what role does environmental enrichment play? A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Diana; Tomaszczyk, Jennifer; McFadyen, Bradford J.; Green, Robin E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: While a growing number of studies provide evidence of neural and cognitive decline in traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors during the post-acute stages of injury, there is limited research as of yet on environmental factors that may influence this decline. The purposes of this paper, therefore, are to (1) examine evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) can influence long-term outcome following TBI, and (2) examine the nature of post-acute environments, whether they vary in degree of EE, and what impact these variations have on outcomes. Methods: We conducted a scoping review to identify studies on EE in animals and humans, and post-discharge experiences that relate to barriers to recovery. Results: One hundred and twenty-three articles that met inclusion criteria demonstrated the benefits of EE on brain and behavior in healthy and brain-injured animals and humans. Nineteen papers on post-discharge experiences revealed that variables such as insurance coverage, financial, and social support, home therapy, and transition from hospital to home, can have an impact on clinical outcomes. Conclusion: There is evidence to suggest that lack of EE, whether from lack of resources or limited ability to engage in such environments, may play a role in post-acute cognitive and neural decline. Maximizing EE in the post-acute stages of TBI may improve long-term outcomes for the individual, their family and society. PMID:23616755

  6. Massive obstetric haemorrhage with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin Lin; Chong, Yap Seng

    2012-02-01

    Massive obstetric haemorrhage is a major contributor towards maternal morbidity and mortality. The main causes are abruptio placentae, placenta praevia and postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians managing pregnant women should be equipped with the knowledge and skills for managing massive obstetric haemorrhage to institute timely and appropriate life-saving treatment. Prompt resuscitation and reversal of coagulopathy are critical while definitive measures are carried out to arrest the bleeding. Massive antepartum haemorrhage necessitates deliveries whereas interventions for postpartum haemorrhage range from medical to surgical measures. Algorithms such as haemostasis are useful aids to the systematic and stepwise management of postpartum haemorrhage. Surgical measures used to avoid peripartum haemorrhage include uterine compression sutures, uterine balloon tamponade, uterine artery, and internal iliac artery ligation. Tranexamic acid and recombinant factor VII are more recent medical interventions in massive postpartum haemorrhage. Education, regular drills and adherence to guidelines and protocols are important to reduce haemorrhage-related maternal deaths. PMID:22101177

  7. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period.

  8. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  9. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  10. Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Multiple-Frequency Bands in Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Bai, Lijun; Kuang, Hongmei; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2016-01-01

    Functional disconnectivity during the resting state has been observed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients during the acute stage. However, it remains largely unknown whether the abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands of the low-frequency oscillations (LFO). Here, we used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) to examine the amplitudes of LFO in different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; and typical: 0.01-0.08 Hz) in patients with acute mTBI. A total of 24 acute mTBI patients and 24 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in this study. In the typical band, acute mTBI patients showed lower standardized ALFF in the right middle frontal gyrus and higher standardized ALFF in the right lingual/fusiform gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus. Further analyses showed that the difference between groups was concentrated in a narrower (slow-4) frequency band. In the slow-5 band, mTBI patients only exhibited higher standardized ALFF in the occipital areas. No significant correlation between the mini-mental state examination score and the standardized ALFF value was found in any brain region in the three frequency bands. Finally, no significant interaction between frequency bands and groups was found in any brain region. We concluded that the abnormality of spontaneous brain activity in acute mTBI patients existed in the frontal lobe as well as in distributed brain regions associated with integrative, sensory, and emotional roles, and the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in different brain regions could be better detected by the slow-4 band. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of local neural psychopathology of acute mTBI. Future studies should take the frequency bands into account when measuring intrinsic brain activity of mTBI patients. PMID:26869907

  11. Assessment of toxicity and coagulopathy of brodifacoum in Japanese quail and testing in wild owls.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kirstin H; Harr, Kendal E; Bennett, Darin C; Williams, Tony D; Cheng, Kimberly M; Maisonneuve, France; Elliott, John E

    2015-07-01

    Based on detection of hepatic residues, scavenging and predatory non-target raptors are widely exposed to second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). A small proportion, generally <10%, of tested birds are diagnosed as acutely poisoned. Little is known, however, of sub-lethal effects of SGARs, such as interaction of clotting capacity with traumatic injury. Assessment of coagulation function of birds submitted live to wildlife rehabilitators or veterinarians may provide a means of establishing the proportion of animals suffering sub-lethal coagulopathies, as well as identifying individuals requiring treatment. As a first step in exploring the potential of this approach, we dosed Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) with the SGAR, brodifacoum, at 0, 0.8, 1.4, 1.9, and 2.5 mg/kg and sampled birds at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-dosing. Prothrombin time (PT), which measures the extrinsic coagulation pathway, was significantly prolonged in 98% of brodifacoum-exposed quail in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 50-fold prolongation of PT occurred at higher brodifacoum dosages and correlated to hemorrhage found at necropsy. Activated clotting time (ACT), a measure of the intrinsic pathway also increased with dose and time. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) decreased dose- and time-dependently at doses ≥1.4 mg/kg with no significant change at 0.8 mg/kg. Reference intervals for PT (10.0-16.2 s), ACT (30-180 s), Hb (9.6-18.4 g/dl), and Hct (34-55%) were established in Japanese quail. Species-specific reference intervals are required as barn owl PT (17-29 s) and quail PT were different. The proportion of brodifacoum-exposed quail with hemorrhage was not correlated with liver residues, but was correlated with PT, suggesting that this assay is a useful indicator of avian anticoagulant rodenticide exposure. PTs measured in free-living barn owls sampled between April 2009 and August 2010 in the lower Fraser Valley of BC do not suggest significant exposure to SGARs. PMID

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy: manifestations after a routine dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kelly A; Triolo, Peter T; Darden, Daryle L

    2005-04-01

    Clinical signs and symptoms of acute disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) include bleeding from body orifices, such as the nose, mouth, or ear, bleeding from an intravenous (IV) site, areas of ecchymosis, or blood in the urine or stool. The underlying disease triggering DIC usually determines the clinical presentation. However, patients with chronic DIC (compensated DIC) may possess subclinical signs and symptoms, and the bleeding disorder may only be identified through laboratory findings. In this compensated form, the triggering factor is exposed slowly and in small amounts (seen in malignancies and vasculitis), allowing replenishing of the augmented factors by the liver, adequate reticuloendothelial clearance of fibrin degradation products, and increased production of platelets, which prevent secondary fibrinolysis and the signs of bleeding. 1,4 We report a case of an 82-year-old male who presented to the emergency room 24 hours after a routine dental extraction with bleeding from the tooth socket, severe hypotension, and presence of ecchymosis on his chest. Clinical and radiographic exam revealed multiple thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms, as well as infrarenal and iliac aneurysms, continuous oral hemorrhage, and a unique presentation rarely documented in the literature: a bleeding tooth socket as the initial clinical sign and presentation of DIC.

  13. The Natural History of Acute Recovery of Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Series During War.

    PubMed

    Larres, David T; Carr, Walter; Gonzales, Elizandro G; Hawley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) secondary to blast exposure is a common injury in the Global War on Terrorism, but little is known about the acute effects, recovery, pathophysiology, and neuropathology of blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI) in humans in a battlefield environment. Moreover, there is ongoing debate whether blast-induced mTBI is a different injury with a unique pathophysiology compared with mTBI from blunt trauma. In the case series reported here from Craig Joint Theater Hospital at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan, 15 military service members with acute concussion/mTBI associated with blast exposure were evaluated within the first 24 hours after concussion and on days 2, 3, 5, and 7 with a Graded Symptom Checklist and a balance assessment, the Balance Error Scoring System. These data suggest that the recovery in blast-induced mTBI follows the pattern of recovery in sports-related concussion reported in The National Collegiate Athletic Association Concussion Study. In this retrospective case series, we provide the first description of the natural history of acute recovery in blast-induced mTBI, and we suspect, given our experience treating military service members, that further observations of the natural history of recovery in blast-induced mTBI will continue to mirror the natural history of recovery in sports concussion.

  14. Electroencephalographic inverse localization of brain activity in acute traumatic brain injury as a guide to surgery, monitoring and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Goh, S.-Y. Matthew; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Stein, Nathan R.; Chambers, Micah C.; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To inverse-localize epileptiform cortical electrical activity recorded from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients using electroencephalography (EEG). Methods Three acute TBI cases were imaged using computed tomography (CT) and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Semi-automatic segmentation was performed to partition the complete TBI head into 25 distinct tissue types, including 6 tissue types accounting for pathology. Segmentations were employed to generate a finite element method model of the head, and EEG activity generators were modeled as dipolar currents distributed over the cortical surface. Results We demonstrate anatomically faithful localization of EEG generators responsible for epileptiform discharges in severe TBI. By accounting for injury-related tissue conductivity changes, our work offers the most realistic implementation currently available for the inverse estimation of cortical activity in TBI. Conclusion Whereas standard localization techniques are available for electrical activity mapping in uninjured brains, they are rarely applied to acute TBI. Modern models of TBI-induced pathology can inform the localization of epileptogenic foci, improve surgical efficacy, contribute to the improvement of critical care monitoring and provide guidance for patient-tailored treatment. With approaches such as this, neurosurgeons and neurologists can study brain activity in acute TBI and obtain insights regarding injury effects upon brain metabolism and clinical outcome. PMID:24011495

  15. The Natural History of Acute Recovery of Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Series During War.

    PubMed

    Larres, David T; Carr, Walter; Gonzales, Elizandro G; Hawley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) secondary to blast exposure is a common injury in the Global War on Terrorism, but little is known about the acute effects, recovery, pathophysiology, and neuropathology of blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI) in humans in a battlefield environment. Moreover, there is ongoing debate whether blast-induced mTBI is a different injury with a unique pathophysiology compared with mTBI from blunt trauma. In the case series reported here from Craig Joint Theater Hospital at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan, 15 military service members with acute concussion/mTBI associated with blast exposure were evaluated within the first 24 hours after concussion and on days 2, 3, 5, and 7 with a Graded Symptom Checklist and a balance assessment, the Balance Error Scoring System. These data suggest that the recovery in blast-induced mTBI follows the pattern of recovery in sports-related concussion reported in The National Collegiate Athletic Association Concussion Study. In this retrospective case series, we provide the first description of the natural history of acute recovery in blast-induced mTBI, and we suspect, given our experience treating military service members, that further observations of the natural history of recovery in blast-induced mTBI will continue to mirror the natural history of recovery in sports concussion. PMID:27168549

  16. Post-traumatic overload or acute syndrome of the os trigonum: a possible cause of posterior ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Mouhsine, E; Crevoisier, X; Leyvraz, P F; Akiki, A; Dutoit, M; Garofalo, R

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the post-traumatic overload syndrome of the os trigonum as a possible cause of posterior ankle impingement and hindfoot pain. We have reviewed 19 athletes who were referred to our foot unit between 1995 and 2001 because of posterior ankle pain, and in whom a post-traumatic overload syndrome of os trigonum was diagnosed. All these patients were followed up over a period of 2 years. In 11 cases a chronic repetitive movements in forced plantar flexion was found. In the other eight cases the pain appeared to persist after a standard treatment of an ankle sprain in inversion plantar flexion. The diagnosis was based on clinical history, physical examination and X-rays that revealed a non-fused os trigonum. The confirmation of diagnosis was carried-out injecting local anaesthetic under fluoroscopic control. In all cases a corticosteroid injection as first line treatment was performed. In 6 cases a second injection was necessary to alleviate pain because incomplete recovery with the first injection. Three cases (16%) were recalcitrant to this treatment and in these three cases a surgical excision of the os trigonum was carried out. Our conclusion is that after some chronic athletic activity or an acute ankle sprain the os trigonum, if present, may undergo mechanical overload, remain undisrupted and become painful. Treatment by corticosteroid injection often resolves the problem.

  17. Massive rotator cuff tear associated with acute traumatic posterior shoulder dislocation: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Luenam, Suriya; Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat

    2013-12-01

    A massive rotator cuff tear in association with acute traumatic posterior glenohumeral dislocation is rare. To our knowledge, only four documented cases have been reported in the literature. We present two additional cases of such injury secondary to the traffic accident. The first patient had an unsuccessful closed reduction due to the posterior instability while the second developed the profound shoulder weakness following the reduction. From the findings of our cases together with the previous reports, every patient had a unique injury mechanism of high-energy directed axial loading on an outstretched, adducted, and internally rotated arm. The glenohumeral capsule and rotator cuff were uniformly avulsed from the humeral attachment, and the supraspinatus and infraspinatus were always involved. However, the clinical presentations were variable based on the severity of the associated rotator cuff tear. The outcomes of operative treatment in this type of injury with the open repair were favorable. PMID:22782426

  18. Relationships between acute imaging biomarkers and theory of mind impairment in post-acute pediatric traumatic brain injury: A prospective analysis using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Cooper, Janine M; Beare, Richard; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Silk, Timothy; Crossley, Louise; Rogers, Kirrily; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith O; Anderson, Vicki A

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) forms an integral component of socially skilled behavior, and is critical for attaining developmentally appropriate goals. The protracted development of ToM is mediated by increasing connectivity between regions of the anatomically distributed 'mentalizing network', and may be vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study aimed to evaluate the post-acute effects of TBI on first-order ToM, and examine relations between ToM and both local and global indices of macrostructural damage detected using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). 104 children and adolescents with TBI and 43 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging including a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks post-injury and were assessed on cognitive ToM tasks at 6-months after injury. Compared to TD controls and children with mild-moderate injuries, children with severe TBI showed significantly poorer ToM. Moreover, impairments in ToM were related to diffuse neuropathology, and parietal lobe lesions. Our findings support the vulnerability of the immature social brain network to disruption from TBI, and suggest that global macrostructural damage commonly associated with traumatic axonal injury (TAI) may contribute to structural disconnection of anatomically distributed regions that underlie ToM. This study suggests that SWI may be a valuable imaging biomarker to predict outcome and recovery of social cognition after pediatric TBI.

  19. Acute neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ling; Wang, Yan-Gang; Fei, Zhou; Zhong, Jun; Wei, Li-Zhou; Long, Qian-Fa; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2012-05-10

    Traumatic brain injury commonly has a result of a short window of opportunity between the period of initial brain injury and secondary brain injury, which provides protective strategies and can reduce damages of brain due to secondary brain injury. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. However, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural damage after traumatic brain injury have not been reported yet. The present study aims to investigate effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the model of lateral fluid percussion injury, which were placed in non-electromagnetic fields and 15 Hz (Hertz) electromagnetic fields with intensities of 1 G (Gauss), 3 G and 5 G. At various time points (ranging from 0.5 to 30 h) after lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were treated with kainic acid (administered by intraperitoneal injection) to induce apoptosis in hippocampal cells. The results were as follows: (1) the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was dramatically decreased during the neuroprotective time window. (2) The kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields. (3) Electromagnetic fields exposure shortened the escape time in water maze test. (4) Electromagnetic fields exposure accelerated the recovery of the blood-brain barrier after brain injury. These findings revealed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields significantly prolong the window of opportunity for brain protection and enhance the intensity of neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury.

  20. How Healthcare Provider Talk with Parents of Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury is Perceived in Early Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Teresa A.; Grant, Gerald; Philipsen, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare provider talk with parents in early acute care following children’s severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects parents’ orientations to these locales, but this connection has been minimally studied. This lack of attention to this topic in previous research may reflect providers’ and researchers’ views that these locales are generally neutral or supportive to parents’ subsequent needs. This secondary analysis used data from a larger descriptive phenomenological study (2005 – 2007) with parents of children following moderate to severe TBI recruited from across the United States. Parents of children with severe TBI consistently had strong negative responses to the early acute care talk processes they experienced with providers, while parents of children with moderate TBI did not. Transcript data were independently coded using discourse analysis in the framework of ethnography of speaking. The purpose was to understand the linguistic and paralinguistic talk factors parents used in their meta-communications that could give a preliminary understanding of their cultural expectations for early acute care talk in these settings. Final participants included 27 parents of children with severe TBI from 23 families. We found the human constructed talk factors that parents reacted to were: a) access to the child, which is where information was; b) regular discussions with key personnel; c) updated information that is explained; d) differing expectations for talk in this context; and, e) perceived parental involvement in decisions. We found that the organization and nature of providers’ talk with parents was perceived by parents to positively or negatively shape their early acute care identities in these locales, which influenced how they viewed these locales as places that either supported them and decreased their workload or discounted them and increased their workload for getting what they needed. PMID:23746606

  1. The Role of Multimodal Invasive Monitoring in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Christos; Robertson, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews the role of modalities that directly monitor brain parenchyma in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The physiology monitored involves compartmental and perfusion pressures, tissue oxygenation and metabolism, quantitative blood flow, pressure autoregulation, and electrophysiology. There are several proposed roles for this multimodality monitoring, such as to track, prevent, and treat the cascade of secondary brain injury; monitor the neurologically injured patient; integrate various data into a composite, patient-specific, and dynamic picture; apply protocolized, pathophysiology-driven intensive care; use as a prognostic marker; and understand pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in secondary brain injury to develop preventive and abortive therapies, and to inform future clinical trials. PMID:27637400

  2. Cerebral Metabolism and the Role of Glucose Control in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Buitrago Blanco, Manuel M; Prashant, Giyarpuram N; Vespa, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews key concepts of cerebral glucose metabolism, neurologic outcomes in clinical trials, the biology of the neurovascular unit and its involvement in secondary brain injury after traumatic brain insults, and current scientific and clinical data that demonstrate a better understanding of the biology of metabolic dysfunction in the brain, a concept now known as cerebral metabolic energy crisis. The use of neuromonitoring techniques to better understand the pathophysiology of the metabolic crisis is reviewed and a model that summarizes the triphasic view of cerebral metabolic disturbance supported by existing scientific data is outlined. The evidence is summarized and a template for future research provided. PMID:27637395

  3. Dental management considerations for the patient with an acquired coagulopathy. Part 2: Coagulopathies from drugs.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, P B; Gibson, J; Pond, S H; Leitch, J

    2003-11-01

    Dental patients often give a medical history that suggests the possibility of a coagulopathy from drugs, with a corresponding risk for prolonged bleeding during and following an invasive procedure. Identification of patients who may be prone to oral bleeding requires specific medical history information and the proper use of laboratory tests. Some NSAIDs are reported to cause prolonged oral bleeding, but scientific evidence is lacking. Likewise, the risk of oral bleeding from anticoagulants such as warfarin is often over stated, and unnecessary adjustment of NSAID or warfarin dosage puts patients at risk for significant morbidity and mortality. Some commonly employed laboratory tests such as the prothrombin time provide helpful information when used in the appropriate setting, but others, such as the bleeding time test, provide little or no predictive value in the determination of patients at risk for oral bleeding. Dental management of patients with potential coagulopathies from medications requires an understanding of basic principles of coagulation. The vast majority of these patients can be managed in the community setting without risk and without alteration of anticoagulant drug regimes.

  4. Traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Chernyak, Victoria; Patlas, Michael N; Menias, Christine O; Soto, Jorge A; Kielar, Ania Z; Rozenblit, Alla M; Romano, Luigia; Katz, Douglas S

    2015-12-01

    Multiple traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal emergencies are occasionally encountered during the cross-sectional imaging of emergency department patients. Traumatic adrenal hematomas are markers of severe polytrauma, and can be easily overlooked due to multiple concomitant injuries. Patients with non-traumatic adrenal emergencies usually present to an emergency department with a non-specific clinical picture. The detection and management of adrenal emergencies is based on cross-sectional imaging. Adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infection, or rupture of adrenal neoplasm require immediate detection to avoid dire consequences. More often however, adrenal emergencies are detected incidentally in patients being investigated for non-specific acute abdominal pain. A high index of suspicion is required for the establishment of timely diagnosis and to avert potentially life-threatening complications. We describe cross-sectional imaging findings in patients with traumatic and non-traumatic adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal infarctions, adrenal infections, and complications of adrenal masses.

  5. The Acute Phase of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Is Characterized by a Distance-Dependent Neuronal Hypoactivity

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Victoria P.A.; Shultz, Sandy R.; Yan, Edwin B.; O'Brien, Terence J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuronal functionality are only now being elucidated. We have now examined the changes in sensory encoding in the whisker-recipient barrel cortex and the brain tissue damage in the acute phase (24 h) after induction of TBI (n=9), with sham controls receiving surgery only (n=5). Injury was induced using the lateral fluid percussion injury method, which causes a mixture of focal and diffuse brain injury. Both population and single cell neuronal responses evoked by both simple and complex whisker stimuli revealed a suppression of activity that decreased with distance from the locus of injury both within a hemisphere and across hemispheres, with a greater extent of hypoactivity in ipsilateral barrel cortex compared with contralateral cortex. This was coupled with an increase in spontaneous output in Layer 5a, but only ipsilateral to the injury site. There was also disruption of axonal integrity in various regions in the ipsilateral but not contralateral hemisphere. These results complement our previous findings after mild diffuse-only TBI induced by the weight-drop impact acceleration method where, in the same acute post-injury phase, we found a similar depth-dependent hypoactivity in sensory cortex. This suggests a common sequelae of events in both diffuse TBI and mixed focal/diffuse TBI in the immediate post-injury period that then evolve over time to produce different long-term functional outcomes. PMID:24927383

  6. Blood Component Therapy and Coagulopathy in Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Literature from the Trauma Update Group

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniele; Cortegiani, Andrea; Chieregato, Arturo; Russo, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Concetta; De Blasio, Elvio; Mengoli, Francesca; Volpi, Annalisa; Grossi, Silvia; Gianesello, Lara; Orzalesi, Vanni; Fossi, Francesca; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration). Randomized controlled trials were selected along with observational studies that used a multivariable approach to adjust for confounding. Strict criteria were adopted for quality assessment based on a two-step approach. First, we rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Then, this rating was downgraded if other three criteria were not met: high reporting quality according to shared standards, absence of internal methodological and statistical issues not detailed by the GRADE system, and absence of external validity issues. Results With few exceptions, the GRADE rating, reporting and methodological quality of observational studies was “very low”, with frequent external validity issues. The only two randomized trials retrieved were, instead, of high quality. Only weak evidence was found for a relation between coagulopathy and mortality. Very weak evidence was found supporting the use of fibrinogen administration to reduce mortality in trauma. On the other hand, we found high evidence that the use of 1:1 vs. 1:2 high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios failed to obtain a 12% mortality reduction. This does not exclude lower mortality rates, which have not been investigated. The use of tranexamic acid in trauma was supported by

  7. A Snapshot of Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Judith; Fries, Dietmar; Solomon, Cristina; Velik-Salchner, Corinna; Ausserer, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often associated with important blood loss, allogeneic blood product usage, morbidity, and mortality. Coagulopathy during CPB is complex, and the current lack of uniformity for triggers and hemostatic agents has led to a wide variability in bleeding treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a simplified picture of the data available on patients' coagulation status at the end of CPB in order to provide relevant information for the development of tailored transfusion algorithms. A nonsystematic literature review was carried out to identify changes in coagulation parameters during CPB. Both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time increased during CPB, by a median of 33.3% and 17.9%, respectively. However, there was marked variability across the published studies, indicating these tests may be unreliable for guiding hemostatic therapy. Some thrombin generation (TG) parameters were affected, as indicated by a median increase in TG lag time of 55.0%, a decrease in TG peak of 17.5%, and only a slight decrease in endogenous thrombin potential of 7%. The most affected parameters were fibrinogen levels and platelet count/function. Both plasma fibrinogen concentration and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness decreased during CPB (median change of 36.4% and 33.3%, respectively) as did platelet count (44.5%) and platelet component (34.2%). This review provides initial information regarding changes in coagulation parameters during CPB but highlights the variability in the reported results. Further studies are warranted to guide physicians on the parameters most appropriate to guide hemostatic therapy.

  8. A Snapshot of Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Judith; Fries, Dietmar; Solomon, Cristina; Velik-Salchner, Corinna; Ausserer, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often associated with important blood loss, allogeneic blood product usage, morbidity, and mortality. Coagulopathy during CPB is complex, and the current lack of uniformity for triggers and hemostatic agents has led to a wide variability in bleeding treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a simplified picture of the data available on patients' coagulation status at the end of CPB in order to provide relevant information for the development of tailored transfusion algorithms. A nonsystematic literature review was carried out to identify changes in coagulation parameters during CPB. Both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time increased during CPB, by a median of 33.3% and 17.9%, respectively. However, there was marked variability across the published studies, indicating these tests may be unreliable for guiding hemostatic therapy. Some thrombin generation (TG) parameters were affected, as indicated by a median increase in TG lag time of 55.0%, a decrease in TG peak of 17.5%, and only a slight decrease in endogenous thrombin potential of 7%. The most affected parameters were fibrinogen levels and platelet count/function. Both plasma fibrinogen concentration and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness decreased during CPB (median change of 36.4% and 33.3%, respectively) as did platelet count (44.5%) and platelet component (34.2%). This review provides initial information regarding changes in coagulation parameters during CPB but highlights the variability in the reported results. Further studies are warranted to guide physicians on the parameters most appropriate to guide hemostatic therapy. PMID:27268940

  9. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage: Independent Component and Seed-Based Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Armin; Benson, Randall R.; Welch, Robert D.; O'Neil, Brian J.; Woodard, John L.; Imran Ayaz, Syed; Kulek, Andrew; Mika, Valerie; Medado, Patrick; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Liu, Tianming; Haacke, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for more than 1 million emergency visits each year. Most of the injured stay in the emergency department for a few hours and are discharged home without a specific follow-up plan because of their negative clinical structural imaging. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly functional MRI (fMRI), has been reported as being sensitive to functional disturbances after brain injury. In this study, a cohort of 12 patients with mTBI were prospectively recruited from the emergency department of our local Level-1 trauma center for an advanced MRI scan at the acute stage. Sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were also recruited for comparison. Both group-based and individual-based independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in both posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus regions in comparison with controls, which is part of the default mode network (DMN). Further seed-based analysis confirmed reduced functional connectivity in these two regions and also demonstrated increased connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain in mTBI. Seed-based analysis using the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala regions further demonstrated increased functional connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain, particularly in the frontal lobe, in mTBI. Our data demonstrate alterations of multiple brain networks at the resting state, particularly increased functional connectivity in the frontal lobe, in response to brain concussion at the acute stage. Resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN could serve as a potential biomarker for improved detection of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:25285363

  10. The Effect of Paracetamol on Core Body Temperature in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Manoj K.; Taylor, Colman; Billot, Laurent; Bompoint, Severine; Gowardman, John; Roberts, Jason A.; Lipman, Jeffery; Myburgh, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Strategies to prevent pyrexia in patients with acute neurological injury may reduce secondary neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the routine administration of 6 grams/day of intravenous paracetamol in reducing body temperature following severe traumatic brain injury, compared to placebo. Methods A multicentre, randomised, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients were randomised to receive an intravenous infusion of either 1g of paracetamol or 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) every 4 hours for 72 hours. The primary outcome was the mean difference in core temperature during the study intervention period. Results Forty-one patients were included in this study: 21 were allocated to paracetamol and 20 to saline. The median (interquartile range) number of doses of study drug was 18 (17–18) in the paracetamol group and 18 (16–18) in the saline group (P = 0.85). From randomisation until 4 hours after the last dose of study treatment, there were 2798 temperature measurements (median 73 [67–76] per patient). The mean ± standard deviation temperature was 37.4±0.5°C in the paracetamol group and 37.7±0.4°C in the saline group (absolute difference -0.3°C; 95% confidence interval -0.6 to 0.0; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences in the use of physical cooling, or episodes of hypotension or hepatic abnormalities, between the two groups. Conclusion The routine administration of 6g/day of intravenous paracetamol did not significantly reduce core body temperature in patients with TBI. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000444280 PMID:26678710

  11. A Case of Acute Traumatic Aortic Injury of a Right-sided Aortic Arch with Rupture of an Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Taif, Sawsan; Al Kalbani, Jokha

    2013-01-01

    Acute traumatic aortic injury is a potentially lethal condition with most patients die at the scene of the accidents. Rapid deceleration due to motor vehicle accidents is the commonest mechanism of injury. These injuries can be successfully repaired in the few patients who survive the initial trauma if proper diagnosis and rapid treatment are provided. The occurrence of acute traumatic aortic injury in patients with congenital abnormality of the aortic arch has been rarely reported; however, it renders the diagnosis and treatment more difficult. In this paper, we describe an extremely rare case of aortic injury in a young patient who had a right sided aortic arch with rupture of an aberrant left subclavian artery. The patient was suspected to have a Kommerell’s diverticulum in the aberrant subclavian artery origin. This injury resulted in an unusually huge pseudoaneurysm involving part of the mediastinum and extending into the neck. Unfortunately; patient succumbed in spite of surgical intervention. PMID:24421931

  12. A case of acute traumatic aortic injury of a right-sided aortic arch with rupture of an aberrant left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Taif, Sawsan; Al Kalbani, Jokha

    2013-12-01

    Acute traumatic aortic injury is a potentially lethal condition with most patients die at the scene of the accidents. Rapid deceleration due to motor vehicle accidents is the commonest mechanism of injury. These injuries can be successfully repaired in the few patients who survive the initial trauma if proper diagnosis and rapid treatment are provided. The occurrence of acute traumatic aortic injury in patients with congenital abnormality of the aortic arch has been rarely reported; however, it renders the diagnosis and treatment more difficult. In this paper, we describe an extremely rare case of aortic injury in a young patient who had a right sided aortic arch with rupture of an aberrant left subclavian artery. The patient was suspected to have a Kommerell's diverticulum in the aberrant subclavian artery origin. This injury resulted in an unusually huge pseudoaneurysm involving part of the mediastinum and extending into the neck. Unfortunately; patient succumbed in spite of surgical intervention.

  13. Acute non-traumatic gastrothorax: presentation of a case with chest pain and atypical radiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepwant; Mackeith, Pieter; Gopal, Dipesh Pravin

    2016-03-23

    A previously well 71-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with acute-onset left-sided chest pain. She was haemodynamically stable with unremarkable systemic examination. Her electrocardiogram and troponin were within normal limits and her chest radiograph showed a raised left hemi-diaphragm. Two hours after admission, this woman became acutely breathless, and suffered a pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there was a return of spontaneous circulation and regained consciousness. A repeat clinical assessment revealed a new left-sided dullness to percussion with contralateral percussive resonance on respiratory examination. CXR revealed a left pan-hemi-thoracic opacity whilst better definition using CT-pulmonary angiography (CTPA) indicated an acute tension gastrothorax secondary to a large left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Nasogastric (NG) tube insertion was used to decompress the stomach and the patient underwent uncomplicated emergency laparoscopic hernia reduction. She remained well at 1-year follow-up.

  14. Ethnoracial Variations in Acute PTSD Symptoms Among Hospitalized Survivors of Traumatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Kari A.; Sue, Stanley; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Unützer, Jürgen; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Zatzick, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnoracial minority status contributes to an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma exposure, beyond other risk factors. A population-based sampling frame was used to examine the associations between ethnoracial groups and early PTSD symptoms while adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic characteristics. Acutely injured trauma center inpatients (N = 623) were screened with the PTSD Checklist. American Indian and African American patients reported the highest levels of posttraumatic stress and preinjury cumulative trauma burden. African American heritage was independently associated with an increased risk of higher acute PTSD symptom levels. Disparities in trauma history, PTSD symptoms, and event related factors emphasize the need for acute care services to incorporate culturally competent approaches for treating these diverse populations. PMID:20564368

  15. [POSSIBILITY OF CORRECTION OF METABOLIC DISORDERS WITH REAMBERIN IN ACUTE PERIOD OF TRAUMATIC INJURY].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, L V; Marchenkov, Yu V; Volkov, D P; Rodionov, E P; Izmajlov, V V

    2015-01-01

    56 patients at the age of 18-60 years with severe trauma were examined. Influence of the polyelectrolytic (Reamberin)solution on an acid-base state, osmolarity and electrolytic composition of plasma in the acute posttraumatic period was evaluated. It was found that patients, who was treated by isotonic sodium chloride solution and Ringer's solution, had metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In contrast, in the reamberin group 82% of patients had lower concentrations of chloride and had nothing acid-base disturbances on the second day after trauma. Reamberin didn't influence on plasma osmolarity and the rate of metabolic alkalosis during the acute period of a trauma. PMID:27025136

  16. Anaphylaxis on reperfusion during liver transplantation with coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Woehlck, Harvey J; Johnson, Christopher P; Roza, Allan M; Gottschall, Jerome L; Brumwell, Melanie; Cronin, David C

    2012-09-01

    We present a case in which anaphylaxis on hepatic reperfusion during liver transplantation presented only with hypotension and coagulopathy. There were no cutaneous manifestations or clinical features distinguishing anaphylaxis from postreperfusion syndrome. The recipient regularly consumed seafood, and the organ donor died of anaphylaxis to shellfish. The trigger for anaphylaxis was postulated to be passive transfer of immunoglobulin to the recipient. Anesthesiologists should be notified of donor factors to anticipate anaphylaxis. In this report, we discuss coagulopathy of anaphylaxis and contrast it with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  17. Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Hardik; Wiseman, Natalie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wentao; Welch, Robert D.; O’Neil, Brian J.; Zuk, Conor; Wang, Xiao; Mika, Valerie; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Haacke, E. Mark; Kou, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a significant public health care burden in the United States. However, we lack a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology following mTBI and its relation to symptoms and recovery. With advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we can investigate brain perfusion and oxygenation in regions known to be implicated in symptoms, including cortical gray matter and subcortical structures. In this study, we assessed 14 mTBI patients and 18 controls with susceptibility weighted imaging and mapping (SWIM) for blood oxygenation quantification. In addition to SWIM, 7 patients and 12 controls had cerebral perfusion measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL). We found increases in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the left striatum, and in frontal and occipital lobes in patients as compared to controls (p = 0.01, 0.03, 0.03 respectively). We also found decreases in venous susceptibility, indicating increases in venous oxygenation, in the left thalamostriate vein and right basal vein of Rosenthal (p = 0.04 in both). mTBI patients had significantly lower delayed recall scores on the standardized assessment of concussion, but neither susceptibility nor CBF measures were found to correlate with symptoms as assessed by neuropsychological testing. The increased CBF combined with increased venous oxygenation suggests an increase in cerebral blood flow that exceeds the oxygen demand of the tissue, in contrast to the regional hypoxia seen in more severe TBI. This may represent a neuroprotective response following mTBI, which warrants further investigation. PMID:25659079

  18. MRI measurement of angiogenesis and the therapeutic effect of acute marrow stromal cell administration on traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Chopp, Michael; Ding, Guang Liang; Qu, Chang Sheng; Li, Qing Jiang; Lu, Mei; Wang, Shiyang; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P; Mahmood, Asim; Jiang, Quan

    2012-11-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effect of acute administration of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to measure the temporal profile of angiogenesis after the injury with or without cell intervention. Male Wistar rats (300 to 350 g, n=18) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 mL of saline (n=9) or hMSCs in suspension (n=9, 3 × 10(6) hMSCs) 6 hours after TBI. In-vivo MRI acquisitions of T2-weighted imaging, cerebral blood flow (CBF), three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo imaging, and blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) of contrast agent were performed on all animals 2 days after injury and weekly for 6 weeks. Sensorimotor function and spatial learning were evaluated. Volumetric changes in the trauma-induced brain lesion and the lateral ventricles were tracked and quantified using T2 maps, and hemodynamic alteration and blood-brain barrier permeability were monitored by CBF and Ki, respectively. Our data show that transplantation of hMSCs 6 hours after TBI leads to reduced cerebral atrophy, early and enhanced cerebral tissue perfusion and improved functional outcome compared with controls. The hMSC treatment increases angiogenesis in the injured brain, which may promote neurologic recovery after TBI.

  19. Bone marrow edema pattern around the knee on magnetic resonance imaging excluding acute traumatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Lynne S; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very sensitive for the detection of marrow abnormalities. Bone marrow edema on MRI has been defined as an area of low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, associated with intermediate or high signal intensity findings on T2-weighted images. The bone marrow edema pattern is a nonspecific finding with multiple etiologies. The knee is a common place for bone marrow signal abnormalities to appear on MRI. Besides contusions and fractures from acute trauma, there are a variety of other causes of the bone marrow edema pattern. It is important for the interpreter of the study to be aware of the different etiologies responsible for producing these changes and to be able to narrow the differential diagnosis without mistaking such a pattern for acute trauma or infiltrative tumor. This article concentrates on those entities that produce a bone marrow edema pattern not related to acute trauma including red marrow proliferation, stress, osteochondral lesions, osteonecrosis, bone marrow edema syndrome, arthropathy, infection, Paget's disease, and marrow replacement disorders. PMID:21644195

  20. Utility of point-of-care biliary ultrasound in the evaluation of emergency patients with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Srikar; Morrison, Daniel; Lyon, Matthew; Zeger, Wes; Krueger, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    To determine the utility of emergency physician-performed point-of-care biliary ultrasound in the evaluation of emergency department (ED) patients with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain. This was a multi-center prospective observational study of adult patients presenting to the ED with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain. Patients with abdominal tenderness at any site other than the epigastric region, or with a history of gall stones, cholecystectomy, gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic abdominal pain, trauma, or altered mental status were excluded. Emergency physician investigators performed point-of-care biliary ultrasound after clinical assessment. Demographic information, history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, additional diagnostic tests, and disposition data were collected. A total of 51 patients (39 women, 12 men) were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 36.4 years ± 13.6 (SD). All subjects had isolated epigastric tenderness. Gallstones were found in 20/51 (39%, 95% CI 26-52%) on point-of-care biliary ultrasound. Of the 20 patients who had gallstones, eight had sonographic signs of chloecystitis. The treating emergency physicians' initial evaluation did not plan to include an ultrasound in 17/20 patients with gallstones. 19/20 patients were initially given a GI cocktail by the treating emergency physicians. Point-of-care biliary ultrasound detected gall stones in more than one-third of ED patients with isolated acute non-traumatic epigastric pain. All patients presenting to the ED with non-traumatic epigastric pain should be evaluated for biliary disease with an ultrasound imaging study. Bedside ultrasound can avoid misdiagnosis and expedite management in these patients.

  1. OCT imaging of acute vascular changes following mild traumatic brain injury in mice (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chico-Calero, Isabel; Shishkov, Milen; Welt, Jonathan; Blatter, Cedric; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-03-01

    While most people recover completely from mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) and concussions, a subset develop lasting neurological disorders. Understanding the complex pathophysiology of these injuries is critical to developing improved prognostic and therapeutic approaches. Multiple studies have shown that the structure and perfusion of brain vessels are altered after mTBI. It is possible that these vascular injuries contribute to or trigger neurodegeneration. Intravital microscopy and mouse models of TBI offer a powerful platform to study the vascular component of mTBI. Because optical coherence tomography based angiography is based on perfusion contrast and is not significantly degraded by vessel leakage or blood brain barrier disruption, it is uniquely suited to studies of brain perfusion in the setting of trauma. However, existing TBI imaging models require surgical exposure of the brain at the time of injury which conflates TBI-related vascular changes with those caused by surgery. In this work, we describe a modified cranial window preparation based on a flexible, transparent polyurethane membrane. Impact injuries were delivered directly through this membrane, and imaging was performed immediately after injury without the need for additional surgical procedures. Using this model, we demonstrate that mTBI induces a transient cessation of flow in the capillaries and smaller vessels near the injury point. Reperfusion is observed in all animals within 3 hours of injury. This work describes new insight into the transient vascular changes induced by mTBI, and demonstrates more broadly the utility of the OCT/polyurethane window model platform in preclinical studies of mTBI.

  2. Prior CT imaging history for patients who undergo PAN CT for acute traumatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Kenter, Jeremy; Blow, Osbert; Krall, Scott P.; Gest, Albert; Smith, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A single PAN scan may provide more radiation to a patient than is felt to be safe within a one-year period. Our objective was to determine how many patients admitted to the trauma service following a PAN scan had prior CT imaging within our six-hospital system. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected trauma registry. The study was based at a level-two trauma center and five affiliated hospitals, which comprise 70.6% of all Emergency Department visits within a twelve county region of southern Texas. Electronic medical records were reviewed dating from the point of trauma evaluation back to December 5, 2005 to determine evidence of prior CT imaging. Results. There were 867 patients were admitted to the trauma service between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. 460 (53%) received a PAN scan and were included in the study group. The mean age of the study group was 37.7 ± 1.54 years old, 24.8% were female, and the mean ISS score was 13.4 ± 1.07. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (47%). 65 (14%; 95% CI [11–18]%) of the patients had at least one prior CT. The most common prior studies performed were: CT head (29%; 19–42%), CT Face (29%; 19–42%) and CT Abdomen and Pelvis (18%; 11–30%). Conclusion. Within our trauma registry, 14% of patients had prior CT imaging within our hospital system before their traumatic event and PAN scan. PMID:26056616

  3. The burden of acute traumatic spinal cord injury among adults in the united states: an update.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Shalini; Hammond, Edward R; Haider, Adil H; Abularrage, Christopher J; Becker, Daniel; Dhiman, Nitasha; Hyder, Omar; Gupta, Deepak; Black, James H; Schneider, Eric B

    2014-02-01

    The current incidence estimate of 40 traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) per million population/year in the United States (U.S.) is based on data from the 1990s. We sought to update the incidence and epidemiology of TSCI in U.S adults by using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all-payer emergency department (ED) database in the United States. Adult ED visits between 2007 and 2009 with a principal diagnosis of TSCI were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes (806.0-806.9 and 952.0-952.9). We describe TSCI cumulative incidence, mortality, discharge disposition, and hospital charges weighted to the U.S. population. The estimated 3-year cumulative incidence of TSCI was 56.4 per million adults. Cumulative incidence of TSCI in older adults increased from 79.4 per million older adults in 2007 to 87.7 by the end of 2009, but remained steady among younger adults. Overall, falls were the leading cause of TSCI (41.5%). ED charges rose by 20% over the study period, and death occurred in 5.7% of patients. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated higher adjusted odds of mortality in the ED (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-16.6), mortality during hospitalization (AOR=5.9; 95% CI: 4.7-7.4), and being discharged to chronic care (AOR=3.7; 95% CI: 3.0-4.5). The incidence of TSCI is higher than previously reported with a progressive increase among older adults who also experience worse outcomes compared with younger adults. ED-related TSCI charges are also increasing. These updated national estimates support the development of customized prevention strategies based on age-specific risk factors.

  4. Non-traumatic spontaneous acute epidural hematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Serarslan, Yurdal; Aras, Mustafa; Altaş, Murat; Kaya, Hasan; Urfalı, Boran

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (SCD) was referred to our hospital after two days of hospitalization at another hospital for a headache crisis. This headache crisis was due to a raised intracranial pressure; these symptoms were noted and included in her comprehensive list of symptoms. There was an acute drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The cranial CT scan demonstrated a left fronto-parietal acute epidural hematoma (AEH) and a calvarial bone expansion, which was suggestive of medullary hematopoiesis. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma. There were no abnormal findings intra-operatively apart from the AEH, except skull thickening and active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries. Repeated CT scan showed a complete evacuation of the hematoma. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. In addition to the factors mentioned in the relevant literature, any active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries on the separated surface of the dura from the skull could have contributed to the expanding of the AEH in our patient. Neurosurgeons and other health care providers should be aware of spontaneous AEH in patients with SCD.

  5. Non-traumatic spontaneous acute epidural hematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Serarslan, Yurdal; Aras, Mustafa; Altaş, Murat; Kaya, Hasan; Urfalı, Boran

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (SCD) was referred to our hospital after two days of hospitalization at another hospital for a headache crisis. This headache crisis was due to a raised intracranial pressure; these symptoms were noted and included in her comprehensive list of symptoms. There was an acute drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The cranial CT scan demonstrated a left fronto-parietal acute epidural hematoma (AEH) and a calvarial bone expansion, which was suggestive of medullary hematopoiesis. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma. There were no abnormal findings intra-operatively apart from the AEH, except skull thickening and active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries. Repeated CT scan showed a complete evacuation of the hematoma. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. In addition to the factors mentioned in the relevant literature, any active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries on the separated surface of the dura from the skull could have contributed to the expanding of the AEH in our patient. Neurosurgeons and other health care providers should be aware of spontaneous AEH in patients with SCD. PMID:24447643

  6. Psychobiology of the acute stress response and its relationship to the psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Randall D; Garakani, Amir

    2002-06-01

    The literature to date that examines the biology of the acute stress reactions suggests that relatively lower baseline cortisol is associated with the development of PTSD. This is particularly informative because of the ongoing controversy surrounding baseline cortisol in PTSD. Studies have found low baseline cortisol, normal range, and elevated baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD, and it has been unclear whether this reflects methodologic differences across studies or true heterogeneity within the disorder. Thus, the few studies to date support the finding of low-normal baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD and suggest that it is a pre-existing functional trait. Whether it plays an etiologic role or is an epiphenomenon of some other process is unclear. What does seem clear, however, is that this characteristic is relatively nonspecific to PTSD, given the fact that low cortisol has been observed in multiple subject populations, including normal individuals under chronic stress as well as chronic medical conditions (for review see [23]). For example, it is possible that reduced baseline cortisol reflects the net result of input to the hypothalamus from cortical and subcortical regions of the brain linked to increased vigilance, sensitization to trauma because of prior traumatic experiences, or genetic factors. For example, primate studies have demonstrated persistent alterations in HPA axis functioning in animals reared by mothers living in moderately stressful conditions [24]. The development of PTSD is associated with sensitization of the startle response. Because the neurobiology of startle is well characterized, this finding implicates a role for specific neurocircuitry in PTSD [25]. Non-habituation of the startle response in PTSD appears related to sensitization specifically to contextual cues (i.e., the environment) that signal the presence of potential threat of danger-related fears [26]. This may be the neurobiological correlate to the over-generalization seen in

  7. [Acute post-traumatic aortic insufficiency: transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis and therapy of the lesions].

    PubMed

    Brandstätt, P; Carlioz, R; Fontaine, B; Hémery, Y; Pats, B; Chapuis, O; Lang-Lazdunsky, L; Jancovici, R; Burlaton, J P; Hvass, U

    1998-10-01

    A 58-year-old car driver suffered a road accident responsible for severe blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma. Transoephageal echocardiography, performed following the secondary development of a diastolic murmur, confirmed the presence of aortic incompetence due to commissural avulsion and guided the surgical treatment, which consisted of commissural suspension under cardiopulmonary bypass via a mini transverse trans-sternal incision. The rarity of acute aortic valve incompetence following non-penetrating thoracic trauma is illustrated by the data of the literature. This lesion is due to either avulsion of a sigmoid cusp or commissure, or laceration of the valvular tissue. Transthoracic echocardiography confirms the reality of aortic incompetence suggested clinically by appearance of a diastolic murmur, but confirmation of the mechanism of the lesions is based on transoesophageal echocardiography which allows perfectly safe and rapid visualization of the mechanism of the valvular lesion, investigation of associated lesions and guidance of therapeutic management.

  8. Traumatic amputations

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Arul

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic amputations remain one of the most emotionally disturbing wounds of conflict, as demonstrated by their frequent use in films to illustrate the horrors of war. Unfortunately, they remain common injuries, particularly following explosions, and, in addition, many survivors require primary amputation for unsalvageable injuries or to save their life. A third group, late amputations, is being increasingly recognised, often as a result of the sequelae of complex foot injuries. This article will look at the epidemiology of these injuries and their acute management, complications and outcome. PMID:26516502

  9. Comparison of Acute and Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Using Semi-Automatic Multimodal Segmentation of MR Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Micah C.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Filippou, Maria; Prastawa, Marcel W.; Wang, Bo; Hovda, David A.; Gerig, Guido; Toga, Arthur W.; Kikinis, Ron; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although neuroimaging is essential for prompt and proper management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is a regrettable and acute lack of robust methods for the visualization and assessment of TBI pathophysiology, especially for of the purpose of improving clinical outcome metrics. Until now, the application of automatic segmentation algorithms to TBI in a clinical setting has remained an elusive goal because existing methods have, for the most part, been insufficiently robust to faithfully capture TBI-related changes in brain anatomy. This article introduces and illustrates the combined use of multimodal TBI segmentation and time point comparison using 3D Slicer, a widely-used software environment whose TBI data processing solutions are openly available. For three representative TBI cases, semi-automatic tissue classification and 3D model generation are performed to perform intra-patient time point comparison of TBI using multimodal volumetrics and clinical atrophy measures. Identification and quantitative assessment of extra- and intra-cortical bleeding, lesions, edema, and diffuse axonal injury are demonstrated. The proposed tools allow cross-correlation of multimodal metrics from structural imaging (e.g., structural volume, atrophy measurements) with clinical outcome variables and other potential factors predictive of recovery. In addition, the workflows described are suitable for TBI clinical practice and patient monitoring, particularly for assessing damage extent and for the measurement of neuroanatomical change over time. With knowledge of general location, extent, and degree of change, such metrics can be associated with clinical measures and subsequently used to suggest viable treatment options. PMID:21787171

  10. The influence of traumatic lumbar puncture and timing of intrathecal therapy on outcome of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rech, Angela; de Carvalho, Gisele P; Meneses, Clarice F; Hankins, Jane; Howard, Scott; Brunetto, Algemir L

    2005-09-01

    The CNS is a frequent site of relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Traumatic lumbar puncture (TLP) is thought to increase the risk of CNS relapse. The authors examined whether TLP at the time of diagnosis affected outcome and whether this effect was influenced by the timing of intrathecal therapy (IT) in 77 patients with newly diagnosed ALL. IT was instilled at the time of either the diagnostic LP (early) or a second LP 24--48 h later (delayed). Of the 19 patients who had a TLP at diagnosis and received late IT therapy, 6 had isolated CNS relapse and 2 had combined CNS and bone marrow (BM) relapse. Of the 9 patients who had TLP and received early IT therapy, 1 had a CNS relapse (p=.20). In an analysis stratified according to risk of relapse, the odds ratio (OR) for relapse was 0.8 among patients at low and standard risk who had delayed IT therapy after TLP (p=.99) vs. 0.17 for those who had early IT (p=.47). Importantly, among patients with high-risk ALL, the OR for relapse was 21.0 for delayed IT therapy (p=.09) and only 1.5 for early IT therapy after TLP (p=.99). The results indicate that TLP at diagnosis appears to increase the risk of CNS relapse markedly in patients with high-risk ALL, and the use of early IT therapy appears to reduce this risk. These findings need to be confirmed by prospective, randomized studies.

  11. Coagulopathy in liver disease: a balancing act.

    PubMed

    Kujovich, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease results in complex alterations of all 3 phases of hemostasis. It is now recognized that hemostasis is rebalanced in chronic liver disease. The fall in clotting factor levels is accompanied by a parallel fall in anticoagulant proteins. High von Willebrand factor levels counteract defects in primary hemostasis. Conventional coagulation tests do not fully reflect the derangement in hemostasis and do not accurately predict the risk of bleeding. Global coagulation assays (thrombin generation, thromboelastography) reflect the interaction between procoagulant factors, anticoagulant factors, platelets, and the fibrinolytic system and show promise for assessing bleeding risk and guiding therapy. These assays are not yet commercially approved or validated. Prevention of bleeding should not be aimed at correcting conventional coagulation tests. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists were shown to increase the platelet count in cirrhotic patients undergoing invasive procedures but may increase the risk of thrombosis. Rebalanced hemostasis in liver disease is precarious and may be tipped toward hemorrhage or thrombosis depending on coexisting circumstantial risk factors. Bacterial infection may impair hemostasis in cirrhosis by triggering the release of endogenous heparinoids. There are no evidence-based guidelines for hemostatic therapy of acute hemorrhage in liver disease. There is currently inadequate evidence to support the use of recombinant FVIIa, prothrombin complex concentrates, or tranexamic acid in acute variceal or other hemorrhage.

  12. Iatrogenic Coagulopathy and the Development of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after L-asparaginase Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Eugenia; Vallisa, Daniele; Morelli, Nicola; Scagnelli, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical and radiological syndrome mostly related to hypertension, eclampsia, renal failure, or to chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Although the PRES pathophysiology is multifactorial, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are hypothesized to be the pivotal factors. Here we report a case of PRES in an adult patient after chemotherapy (Escherichia coli L-asparaginase [L-ASP], daunorubicin, vincristine, and intrathecal methotrexate) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The development of the PRES was strictly associated with an iatrogenic coagulopathy induced by L-ASP, which inhibits the biosynthesis of hepatic coagulation factors. The nadir of platelet count, antithrombin III (ATIII) and fibrinogen curve was coincident with the onset of the PRES neurological picture; subsequently, the normalization of the ATIII and fibrinogen levels seemed to parallel the good clinical evolution. This case seems to provide new insights into the PRES pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:27014503

  13. Procoagulant snake toxins: laboratory studies, diagnosis, and understanding snakebite coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2009-02-01

    Procoagulant toxins are important hemotoxins that have been investigated both as laboratory reagents and potential therapeutic agents. In human envenomation by some elapid and many viperid snakes, these toxins result in venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. Overall, the coagulant activity of the various venoms is difficult to characterize, and many studies simply characterize toxin conversion of isolated substrates, such as the effect of a snake toxin on purified fibrinogen, or on multiple single substrates. As the full effects of toxins on the coagulation pathway are rarely examined, even in vitro, our understanding of the pathophysiology of envenoming is limited. Although prothrombin activators cause a single effect in vitro, there may be complete consumption of fibrinogen, factor V, and factor VIII in vivo due to the downstream effects of the thrombin that is formed. Laboratory diagnosis is a key part of the treatment of snakebite coagulopathy. Assessing which assays are the most informative in snake envenoming, based on the pathophysiology of snakebite coagulopathy, will optimize diagnosis and timing of appropriate coagulation tests. A better understanding of the coagulation effects arising from human envenoming will also improve treatment with antivenom and define the role of adjuvant therapies such as factor replacement.

  14. Assessment of Impairment in Patients with Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Julio C.; Noonan, Vanessa; Singh, Anoushka

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The most common primary end-point of the trial on treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is the degree of impairment. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Standards have been widely used to assess motor function and pin-prick and light-touch sensory function. In addition, pain assessment is another clinically relevant aspect of the impairment in individuals with SCI. Given this, we sought to systematically review the studies that focused on the psychometric properties of ASIA Standards and all previously used outcome measures of pain in the SCI population in the acute care setting. For the primary literature search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were sought out. Subsequently, a secondary search strategy was carried out using the articles listed in the references of meta-analysis, systematic, and non-systematic review articles. Two reviewers (JCF and VN) independently selected the articles that fulfill the inclusion and exclusion, assessed the level of evidence of each article, and appraised the psychometric properties of each instrument. Divergences during those steps were solved by consensus between both reviewers. Of 400 abstracts captured in our primary search strategy on the ASIA Standards, 16 full articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An additional 40 references were obtained from two prior systematic reviews on ASIA Standards. While 45 of 56 of the studies on ASIA Standards provided level 4 evidence, there were 11 level 2b evidence studies. Convergent construct validity (n = 34), reliability (n = 12), and responsiveness (n = 10) were the most commonly studied psychometric properties of the ASIA Standards, but two prior studies examined their content validity. Of the 267 abstracts yielded in our primary search on pain assessment, 24 articles with level 4 evidence fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. There was no study that examined pain assessment in the acute

  15. Plasma Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Autoantibody Levels during the Acute and Chronic Phases of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin K W; Yang, Zhihui; Yue, John K; Zhang, Zhiqun; Winkler, Ethan A; Puccio, Ava M; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Lingsma, Hester F; Yuh, Esther L; Mukherjee, Pratik; Valadka, Alex B; Gordon, Wayne A; Okonkwo, David O; Manley, Geoffrey T; Cooper, Shelly R; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Hricik, Allison J; Inoue, Tomoo; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Schnyer, David M; Sinha, Tuhin K; Vassar, Mary J

    2016-07-01

    We described recently a subacute serum autoantibody response toward glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its breakdown products 5-10 days after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we expanded our anti-GFAP autoantibody (AutoAb[GFAP]) investigation to the multicenter observational study Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) to cover the full spectrum of TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale 3-15) by using acute (<24 h) plasma samples from 196 patients with acute TBI admitted to three Level I trauma centers, and a second cohort of 21 participants with chronic TBI admitted to inpatient TBI rehabilitation. We find that acute patients self-reporting previous TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (n = 43) had higher day 1 AutoAb[GFAP] (mean ± standard error: 9.11 ± 1.42; n = 43) than healthy controls (2.90 ± 0.92; n = 16; p = 0.032) and acute patients reporting no previous TBI (2.97 ± 0.37; n = 106; p < 0.001), but not acute patients reporting previous TBI without LOC (8.01 ± 1.80; n = 47; p = 0.906). These data suggest that while exposure to TBI may trigger the AutoAb[GFAP] response, circulating antibodies are elevated specifically in acute TBI patients with a history of TBI. AutoAb[GFAP] levels for participants with chronic TBI (average post-TBI time 176 days or 6.21 months) were also significantly higher (15.08 ± 2.82; n = 21) than healthy controls (p < 0.001). These data suggest a persistent upregulation of the autoimmune response to specific brain antigen(s) in the subacute to chronic phase after TBI, as well as after repeated TBI insults. Hence, AutoAb[GFAP] may be a sensitive assay to study the dynamic interactions between post-injury brain and patient-specific autoimmune responses across acute and chronic settings after TBI.

  16. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella: current perspectives and trends in Brazil☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; da Silva, Adriano Vaso Rodrigues; Ueda, Léo Renato Shigueru; Astur, Diego da Costa; Yazigi Júnior, João Alberto; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating medial patellofemoral lesions (MPFL) of the knee in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella. Materials and methods A questionnaire comprising 15 closed questions on topics relating to treating MPFL of the knee following acute dislocation of the patella was used. It was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2012. Results 106 knee surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them were from the southeastern region of Brazil. The majority (57%) reported that they perform fewer than five MPFL reconstruction procedures per year. Indication of non-surgical treatment after a first episode of acute dislocation of the patella was preferred and done by 93.4% of the sample. Only 9.1% of the participants reported that they had never observed postoperative complications. Intraoperative radioscopy was used routinely by 48%. The professionals who did not use this tool to determine the point of ligament fixation in the femur did not have a statistically greater number of postoperative complications than those who used it (p > 0.05). Conclusions There are clear evolutionary trends in treatments and rehabilitation for acute dislocation of the patella due to MPFL, in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends. PMID:26229852

  17. Comparison of non-sedated brain MRI and CT for the detection of acute traumatic injury in children 6 years of age or less.

    PubMed

    Young, Joseph Yeen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Caruso, Paul Albert; Rincon, Sandra Patricia

    2016-08-01

    CT is considered the first-line study for acute intracranial injury in children because of its availability, detection of acute hemorrhage, and lack of sedation. An MRI study with rapidly acquired sequences can obviate the need for sedation and radiation. We compared the detection rate of rapid non-sedated brain MRI to CT for traumatic head injury in young children. We reviewed a series of children 6 years of age or less who presented to our ED during a 5-year period with head trauma and received a non-sedated brain MRI and CT within 24 h of injury. Most MRI studies were limited to triplane T2 and susceptibility sequences. Two neuroradiologists reviewed the MRIs and CTs and assessed the following findings: fracture, epidural hematoma (EDH)/subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and parenchymal injury. Thirty of 33 patients had radiologically identified traumatic injuries. There was an overall agreement of 82 % between the two modalities. Skull fracture was the only injury subtype which had a statistically significant difference in detection between CT and MRI (p = 0.0001), with MRI missing 14 of 21 fractures detected on CT. While not statistically significant, MRI had a higher detection rate of EDH/SDH (p = 0.34), SAH (p = 0.07), and parenchymal injuries (p = 0.50). Non-sedated MRI has similar detection rates to CT for intracranial injury in young children presenting with acute head trauma and may be an alternative to CT in select patients. PMID:27166965

  18. Baseline Prevalence of Heart Diseases, Hypertension, Diabetes, and Obesity in Persons with Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Potential Threats in the Recovery Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic diseases impede the recovery trajectory of acutely injured persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). This study compares the odds of prevalent heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity between persons with TSCI and persons with lower extremity fractures (LEF) who were discharged from acute care facilities. Methods: 1,776 patients with acute TSCI (cases) and 1,780 randomly selected patients with LEF (controls) discharged from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2009, from all nonfederal hospitals were identified. Data extracted from uniform billing files were compared between cases and controls in a multivariable logistic regression model controlling for sociodemographic and clinical covariables. Results: Thirty percent of patients with acute TSCI had at least 1 of 4 conditions compared with 18% of patients with LEF (P < .0001). Persons with acute TSCI were 4 times more likely (odds ratio [OR], 4.05; 95% CI, 1.65–9.97) to have obesity, 2.7 times more likely to have heart disease (P < .001), 2 times more likely to have hypertension (P < .001), and 1.7 times more likely to have diabetes (P = .044) at the onset of TSCI. Disproportionately more Blacks than Whites have TSCI and chronic diseases. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is an increased burden of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases among persons with acute TSCI compared with LEF trauma controls. Unattended comorbid conditions will affect quality of life and the recovery process. This warrants continuous monitoring and management of chronic diseases during the rehabilitation process. PMID:23960701

  19. A case of a traumatic chyle leak following an acute thoracic spine injury: successful resolution with strict dietary manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chylothorax is a rare form of pleural effusion that can be associated with both traumatic and non-traumatic causes. Thoracic duct ligation is often the treatment of choice in postsurgical patients; however the optimal treatment of this disease process after traumatic injury remains unclear [1]. We present a rare case of a thoracic duct injury secondary to a blunt thoracic spine fracture and subluxation which was successfully treated non-operatively. Case Presentation A 51 year old male presented as a tier one trauma code due to an automobile versus bicycle collision. His examination and radiographic work-up revealed fractures and a subluxation at the third and fourth thoracic spine levels resulting in paraplegia. He also sustained bilateral hemothoraces secondary to multiple rib fractures. Drainage of the left hemothorax led to the diagnosis of a traumatic chylothorax. The thoracic spine fractures were addressed with surgical stabilization and the chylothorax was successfully treated with drainage and dietary manipulation. Conclusions This unusual and complex blunt thoracic duct injury required a multidisciplinary approach. Although the spine injury required surgical fixation, successful resolution of the chyle leak was achieved without surgical intervention. PMID:21443785

  20. Parent and Child Agreement for Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychopathology in a Prospective Study of Children and Adolescents Exposed to Single-Event Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…

  1. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Doctor, Allan

    2014-05-01

    C there was less clinical bleeding than when blood was reconstituted with components or when platelets were stored at 22°C. Early reversal of shock is essential to prevent exacerbation of coagulopathy and progression of cell death cascades in patients with severe traumatic injuries. Red blood cell storage solutions have evolved to accommodate the needs of non-critically ill patients yet may not be optimal for patients in hemorrhagic shock. Continued focus on the recognition and treatment of shock is essential for continued improvement in outcomes for patients who require damage control resuscitation and RDCR.

  2. Traumatic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Steinsapir, K D; Goldberg, R A

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of traumatic optic neuropathy is limited. The optic nerve is a tract of the brain. Therefore, the cellular and biochemical pathophysiology of brain and spinal cord trauma and ischemia provide insight into mechanisms that may operate in traumatic optic neuropathy. The dosage of methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/6 hours) which was successful in the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study 2 (NASCIS 2) evolved from the unique pharmacology of corticosteroids as antioxidants. The management of traumatic optic neuropathy rests on an accurate diagnosis which begins with a comprehensive clinical assessment and appropriate neuroimaging. The results of medical and surgical strategies for treating this injury have not been demonstrated to be better than those achieved without treatment. The spinal cord is a mixed grey and white matter tract of the brain in contrast to the optic nerve which is a pure white matter tract. The treatment success seen with methylprednisolone in the NASCIS 2 study may not generalize to the treatment of traumatic optic neuropathy. Conversely, if the treatment does generalize to the optic nerve, NASCIS 2 data suggests that treatment must be started within eight hours of injury, making traumatic optic neuropathy one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. Given the uncertainties in the treatment, ophthalmologists involved in the management of traumatic optic neuropathy are encouraged to participate in the collaborative study of traumatic optic neuropathy.

  3. Ascites-induced LeVeen shunt coagulopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ragni, M V; Lewis, J H; Spero, J A

    1983-01-01

    Ten of 11 patients undergoing peritoneovenous (LeVeen) shunt placement for intractable ascites had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) following the shunt procedure. Intraoperative ascitic fluid specimens revealed fibrin split products (FSP) in high titer (1:100-1:1600) in all patients. Endotoxin was found in 6 of 11 ascitic fluid samples but in no plasma samples. Activated clotting factors, clot inhibitors, excess protein, and fibrinolytic activity were not found in ascitic fluid. Clotting factor levels were much lower than in plasma. Bleeding occurred after operation in two patients; this appeared to be related to the severity of liver dysfunction as demonstrated by elevations of bilirubin, serum glutamic oxalocetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and preoperative DIC. It is concluded that the LeVeen shunt coagulopathy is DIC, and may be related to exposure of the systemic circulation to FSP-rich ascitic fluid that may activate the coagulation mechanism. Bleeding complications do not appear to be related to the severity of the post shunt coagulopathy, but rather to the severity of liver dysfunction and presence of preoperative DIC (probably caused by the liver disease). PMID:6859998

  4. [Suprapapilar puncture for biliary access to advanced cancer of the papilla and severe coagulopathy].

    PubMed

    Artifon, E; Couto, D S; Navarro, A

    2009-01-01

    Biliary cannulation to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be difficult in patients with advanced papillary cancer, due to anatomical and technical reasons. Sphincterotomy may be contraindicated in severe coagulopathy. We report a recently described technique of suprapapillary puncture for biliary access with use of an Artifon's catheter for biliary access in a high-risk patient with coagulopathy and periampullary neoplasm.

  5. Bench-to-Bedside and Bedside Back to the Bench; Seeking a Better Understanding of the Acute Pathophysiological Process in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Agoston, Denes V.

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial investments, traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the major disorders that lack specific pharmacotherapy. To a substantial degree, this situation is due to lack of understanding of the pathophysiological process of the disease. Experimental TBI research offers controlled, rapid, and cost-effective means to identify the pathophysiology but translating experimental findings into clinical practice can be further improved by using the same or similar outcome measures and clinically relevant time points. The pathophysiology during the acute phase of severe TBI is especially poorly understood. In this Mini review, I discuss some of the incongruences between current clinical practices and needs versus information provided by experimental TBI research as well as the benefits of designing animal experiments with translation into clinical practice in mind. PMID:25852631

  6. Modeling the Patient Journey from Injury to Community Reintegration for Persons with Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Canadian Centre

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Argelio; Gurling, James; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Noonan, Vanessa K.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Burns, Anthony S.; Lewis, Rachel; Soril, Lesley; Fallah, Nader; Street, John T.; Bélanger, Lise; Townson, Andrea; Liang, Liping; Atkins, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Background A patient’s journey through the health care system is influenced by clinical and system processes across the continuum of care. Methods To inform optimized access to care and patient flow for individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI), we developed a simulation model that can examine the full impact of therapeutic or systems interventions across the care continuum for patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries. The objective of this paper is to describe the detailed development of this simulation model for a major trauma and a rehabilitation centre in British Columbia (BC), Canada, as part of the Access to Care and Timing (ACT) project and is referred to as the BC ACT Model V1.0. Findings To demonstrate the utility of the simulation model in clinical and administrative decision-making we present three typical scenarios that illustrate how an investigator can track the indirect impact(s) of medical and administrative interventions, both upstream and downstream along the continuum of care. For example, the model was used to estimate the theoretical impact of a practice that reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers by 70%. This led to a decrease in acute and rehabilitation length of stay of 4 and 2 days, respectively and a decrease in bed utilization of 9% and 3% in acute and rehabilitation. Conclusion The scenario analysis using the BC ACT Model V1.0 demonstrates the flexibility and value of the simulation model as a decision-making tool by providing estimates of the effects of different interventions and allowing them to be objectively compared. Future work will involve developing a generalizable national Canadian ACT Model to examine differences in care delivery and identify the ideal attributes of SCI care delivery. PMID:24023623

  7. Acute and Chronic Plasma Metabolomic and Liver Transcriptomic Stress Effects in a Mouse Model with Features of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; D’Arpa, Peter; Donohue, Duncan E.; Muhie, Seid; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Luke, Brian T.; Grapov, Dmitry; Carroll, Erica E.; Meyerhoff, James L.; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Acute responses to intense stressors can give rise to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD diagnostic criteria include trauma exposure history and self-reported symptoms. Individuals who meet PTSD diagnostic criteria often meet criteria for additional psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers promise to contribute to reliable phenotypes of PTSD and comorbidities by linking biological system alterations to behavioral symptoms. Here we have analyzed unbiased plasma metabolomics and other stress effects in a mouse model with behavioral features of PTSD. In this model, C57BL/6 mice are repeatedly exposed to a trained aggressor mouse (albino SJL) using a modified, resident-intruder, social defeat paradigm. Our recent studies using this model found that aggressor-exposed mice exhibited acute stress effects including changed behaviors, body weight gain, increased body temperature, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic histopathologies and transcriptomic changes of heart tissue. Some of these acute stress effects persisted, reminiscent of PTSD. Here we report elevated proteins in plasma that function in inflammation and responses to oxidative stress and damaged tissue at 24 hrs post-stressor. Additionally at this acute time point, transcriptomic analysis indicated liver inflammation. The unbiased metabolomics analysis showed altered metabolites in plasma at 24 hrs that only partially normalized toward control levels after stress-withdrawal for 1.5 or 4 wks. In particular, gut-derived metabolites were altered at 24 hrs post-stressor and remained altered up to 4 wks after stress-withdrawal. Also at the 4 wk time point, hyperlipidemia and suppressed metabolites of amino acids and carbohydrates in plasma coincided with transcriptomic indicators of altered liver metabolism (activated xenobiotic and lipid metabolism). Collectively, these system-wide sequelae to repeated intense stress suggest that the simultaneous perturbed functioning of multiple organ systems (e.g., brain, heart

  8. Successful use of extracorporeal life support after double traumatic tracheobronchial injury in a patient with severe acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Valette, Xavier; Desjouis, Aurélie; Massetti, Massimo; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Icard, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an asthmatic patient with blunt trachea and left main bronchus injuries who developed acute severe asthma after surgical repair. Despite medical treatment and ventilatory support, asthma persisted with high airway pressures and severe respiratory acidosis. We proposed venovenous extracorporeal life support for CO(2) removal which allowed arterial blood gas normalization and airway pressures decrease. Extracorporeal life support was removed on day five after medical treatment of acute severe asthma. So we report the successful use of extracorporeal life support for operated double blunt tracheobronchial injury with acute severe asthma. PMID:22135742

  9. [The origin of complex coagulopathies in sleeping pill poisonings].

    PubMed

    Kühnel, L; Gaida, H; Heinrichs, C

    1978-10-15

    About 80 per cent of haemostasis disorders were found by systematic examinations of the clotting potential in 130 unselected moderately severe up to severe intoxications by tablets (degree of severity II--IV according to Reed). These disorders are essentially corresponding to a disseminated intravascular coagulation, but provided an extreme case they also may lead to a combination with production-, defect-, and casualty-coagulopathy. Occurring disorders in coagulation are to be treated dependent on stages by heparinisation, in case of need directed haemosubstitution and provided that a hyperfibrinolysis is proved also by antifibrinolytics. In special cases a--not too late beginning--therapy with streptokinase should be taken into consideration. These measures are to be classified into an optimal therapy regimen of detoxication and the exertion of influence of vital functions. PMID:735247

  10. [The origin of complex coagulopathies in sleeping pill poisonings].

    PubMed

    Kühnel, L; Gaida, H; Heinrichs, C

    1978-10-15

    About 80 per cent of haemostasis disorders were found by systematic examinations of the clotting potential in 130 unselected moderately severe up to severe intoxications by tablets (degree of severity II--IV according to Reed). These disorders are essentially corresponding to a disseminated intravascular coagulation, but provided an extreme case they also may lead to a combination with production-, defect-, and casualty-coagulopathy. Occurring disorders in coagulation are to be treated dependent on stages by heparinisation, in case of need directed haemosubstitution and provided that a hyperfibrinolysis is proved also by antifibrinolytics. In special cases a--not too late beginning--therapy with streptokinase should be taken into consideration. These measures are to be classified into an optimal therapy regimen of detoxication and the exertion of influence of vital functions.

  11. Advanced Congestive Heart Failure Associated With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Sarcon, Annahita; Liu, Xiaoli; Ton, David; Haywood, James; Hitchcock, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a complication of an underlying disease and not a primary illness. It is most commonly associated with sepsis, trauma, obstetrical complications, and malignancies. There are very few cases in the literature illustrating the association between DIC and congestive heart failure. Findings. In this report, we present a case of severe congestive heart failure, leading to biventricular thrombi and subsequently DIC. Conclusion. We suggest that the association between congestive heart failure and DIC is an underrecognized one. Congestive heart failure continues to remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical therapies. Thus far, the precise role of coagulation factors in congestive heart failure is unknown. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and coagulation factors.

  12. A State-of-the-Science Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Acute Management of Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bragge, Peter; Synnot, Anneliese; Maas, Andrew I; Menon, David K; Cooper, D James; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2016-08-15

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major global challenge, with rising incidence, unchanging mortality and lifelong impairments. State-of-the-science reviews are important for research planning and clinical decision support. This review aimed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions for acute management of moderate/severe TBI, synthesize key RCT characteristics and findings, and determine their implications on clinical practice and future research. RCTs were identified through comprehensive database and other searches. Key characteristics, outcomes, risk of bias, and analysis approach were extracted. Data were narratively synthesized, with a focus on robust (multi-center, low risk of bias, n > 100) RCTs, and three-dimensional graphical figures also were used to explore relationships between RCT characteristics and findings. A total of 207 RCTs were identified. The 191 completed RCTs enrolled 35,340 participants (median, 66). Most (72%) were single center and enrolled less than 100 participants (69%). There were 26 robust RCTs across 18 different interventions. For 74% of 392 comparisons across all included RCTs, there was no significant difference between groups. Positive findings were broadly distributed with respect to RCT characteristics. Less than one-third of RCTs demonstrated low risk of bias for random sequence generation or allocation concealment, less than one-quarter used covariate adjustment, and only 7% employed an ordinal analysis approach. Considerable investment of resources in producing 191 completed RCTs for acute TBI management has resulted in very little translatable evidence. This may result from broad distribution of research effort, small samples, preponderance of single-center RCTs, and methodological shortcomings. More sophisticated RCT design, large multi-center RCTs in priority areas, increased focus on pre-clinical research, and alternatives to RCTs, such as comparative

  13. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program.

  14. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program. PMID:27382662

  15. Coagulopathy and transfusion therapy in pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nacoti, Mirco; Corbella, Davide; Fazzi, Francesco; Rapido, Francesca; Bonanomi, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding and coagulopathy are critical issues complicating pediatric liver transplantation and contributing to morbidity and mortality in the cirrhotic child. The complexity of coagulopathy in the pediatric patient is illustrated by the interaction between three basic models. The first model, “developmental hemostasis”, demonstrates how a different balance between pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal hemostatic capacity in the pediatric patient at various ages. The second, the “cell based model of coagulation”, takes into account the interaction between plasma proteins and cells. In the last, the concept of “rebalanced coagulation” highlights how the reduction of both pro- and anticoagulation factors leads to a normal, although unstable, coagulation profile. This new concept has led to the development of novel techniques used to analyze the coagulation capacity of whole blood for all patients. For example, viscoelastic methodologies are increasingly used on adult patients to test hemostatic capacity and to guide transfusion protocols. However, results are often confounding or have limited impact on morbidity and mortality. Moreover, data from pediatric patients remain inadequate. In addition, several interventions have been proposed to limit blood loss during transplantation, including the use of antifibrinolytic drugs and surgical techniques, such as the piggyback and lowering the central venous pressure during the hepatic dissection phase. The rationale for the use of these interventions is quite solid and has led to their incorporation into clinical practice; yet few of them have been rigorously tested in adults, let alone in children. Finally, the postoperative period in pediatric cohorts of patients has been characterized by an enhanced risk of hepatic vessel thrombosis. Thrombosis in fact remains the primary cause of early graft failure and re-transplantation within the first 30 d following surgery, and it occurs despite prolongation

  16. TRAUMA-INDUCED COAGULOPATHY: AN INSTITUTION’S 35 YEAR PERSPECTIVE ON PRACTICE AND RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, E.; Moore, E. E.; Moore, H. B.; Chapman, M. P.; Silliman, C. C.; Banerjee, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Injury is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and as much as 40% of injury-related mortality is attributed to uncontrollable hemorrhage. This persists despite establishment of regionalized trauma systems and advances in the management of severely injured patients. Trauma-induced coagulopathy has been identified as the most common preventable cause of postinjury mortality. Methods A review of the current literature was performed by collecting PUBMED references related to trauma-induced coagulopathy. Data were then critically analyzed and summarized based on the authors’ clinical and research perspective, as well as that reported by other institutions and researchers interested in trauma-induced coagulopathy. A particular focus was placed on those aspects of coagulopathy in which agreement among clinical and basic scientists is currently lacking; these include, pathophysiology, the role of blood components and factor therapy, and goal-directed assessment and management. Results Trauma-induced coagulopathy has been recognized in approximately one-third of trauma patients. There is a vast range of severity, and the emergence of viscoelastic assays, such as thrombelastography and rotational thromboelastogram, has refined its diagnosis and management, particularly through the establishment of goal-directed massive transfusion protocols. Despite advancements in the diagnosis and management of trauma-induced coagulopathy, much remains to be understood regarding its pathophysiology. The cell-based model of hemostasis has allowed for characterization of endothelial dysfunction, impaired thrombin generation, platelet dysfunction, fibrinolysis, endogenous anticoagulants such as protein-C, and antifibrinolytic proteins. These concepts collectively compose the contemporary, but still partial, understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy. Conclusion Trauma-induced coagulopathy is a complex pathophysiological condition, of which some mechanisms have been

  17. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Alexandra L; Lakhani, Saquib A; Hsu, Benson S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of pediatric traumatic brain injury and its management. Within the pediatric age group, ages 1 to 19, injuries are the number one cause of death with traumatic brain injury being involved in almost 50 percent of these cases. This, along with the fact that the medical system spends over $1 billion annually on pediatric traumatic brain injury, makes this issue both timely and relevant to health care providers. Over the course of this article the epidemiology, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the early responder and the immediate interventions that should be considered and/or performed. The management discussed in this article follows the most recent recommendations from the 2012 edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Despite the focus of this article, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound--or, to be more precise and use the average human's brain measurements, just above three pounds--of cure. PMID:26630835

  18. External Validation and Recalibration of Risk Prediction Models for Acute Traumatic Brain Injury among Critically Ill Adult Patients in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Kathryn A.; Prabhu, Gita; Gomes, Manuel; Lecky, Fiona E.; Hutchinson, Peter J. A.; Menon, David K.; Rowan, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study validates risk prediction models for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) in critical care units in the United Kingdom and recalibrates the models to this population. The Risk Adjustment In Neurocritical care (RAIN) Study was a prospective, observational cohort study in 67 adult critical care units. Adult patients admitted to critical care following acute TBI with a last pre-sedation Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15 were recruited. The primary outcomes were mortality and unfavorable outcome (death or severe disability, assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months following TBI. Of 3626 critical care unit admissions, 2975 were analyzed. Following imputation of missing outcomes, mortality at six months was 25.7% and unfavorable outcome 57.4%. Ten risk prediction models were validated from Hukkelhoven and colleagues, the Medical Research Council (MRC) Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) Trial Collaborators, and the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) group. The model with the best discrimination was the IMPACT “Lab” model (C index, 0.779 for mortality and 0.713 for unfavorable outcome). This model was well calibrated for mortality at six months but substantially under-predicted the risk of unfavorable outcome. Recalibration of the models resulted in small improvements in discrimination and excellent calibration for all models. The risk prediction models demonstrated sufficient statistical performance to support their use in research and audit but fell below the level required to guide individual patient decision-making. The published models for unfavorable outcome at six months had poor calibration in the UK critical care setting and the models recalibrated to this setting should be used in future research. PMID:25898072

  19. The Influence of Time from Injury to Surgery on Motor Recovery and Length of Hospital Stay in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: An Observational Canadian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K.; Fallah, Nader; Fisher, Charles G.; Finkelstein, Joel; Kwon, Brian K.; Rivers, Carly S.; Ahn, Henry; Paquet, Jérôme; Tsai, Eve C.; Townson, Andrea; Attabib, Najmedden; Bailey, Christopher S.; Christie, Sean D.; Drew, Brian; Fourney, Daryl R.; Fox, Richard; Hurlbert, R. John; Johnson, Michael G.; Linassi, A.G.; Parent, Stefan; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the influence of time from injury to surgery on neurological recovery and length of stay (LOS) in an observational cohort of individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI), we analyzed the baseline and follow-up motor scores of participants in the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry to specifically assess the effect of an early (less than 24 h from injury) surgical procedure on motor recovery and on LOS. One thousand four hundred and ten patients who sustained acute tSCIs with baseline American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades A, B, C, or D and were treated surgically were analyzed to determine the effect of the timing of surgery (24, 48, or 72 h from injury) on motor recovery and LOS. Depending on the distribution of data, we used different types of generalized linear models, including multiple linear regression, gamma regression, and negative binomial regression. Persons with incomplete AIS B, C, and D injuries from C2 to L2 demonstrated motor recovery improvement of an additional 6.3 motor points (SE=2.8 p<0.03) when they underwent surgical treatment within 24 h from the time of injury, compared with those who had surgery later than 24 h post-injury. This beneficial effect of early surgery on motor recovery was not seen in the patients with AIS A complete SCI. AIS A and B patients who received early surgery experienced shorter hospital LOS. While the issues of when to perform surgery and what specific operation to perform remain controversial, this work provides evidence that for an incomplete acute tSCI in the cervical, thoracic, or thoracolumbar spine, surgery performed within 24 h from injury improves motor neurological recovery. Early surgery also reduces LOS. PMID:25333195

  20. White matter microstructure in chronic moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: Impact of acute-phase injury-related variables and associations with outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Håberg, A K; Olsen, A; Moen, K G; Schirmer-Mikalsen, K; Visser, E; Finnanger, T G; Evensen, K A I; Skandsen, T; Vik, A; Eikenes, L

    2015-07-01

    This study examines how injury mechanisms and early neuroimaging and clinical measures impact white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volumes in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how WM integrity in the chronic phase is associated with different outcome measures obtained at the same time. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T was acquired more than 1 year after TBI in 49 moderate-to-severe-TBI survivors and 50 matched controls. DTI data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics and automated tractography. Moderate-to-severe TBI led to widespread FA decreases, MD increases, and tract volume reductions. In severe TBI and in acceleration/deceleration injuries, a specific FA loss was detected. A particular loss of FA was also present in the thalamus and the brainstem in all grades of diffuse axonal injury. Acute-phase Glasgow Coma Scale scores, number of microhemorrhages on T2*, lesion volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia were associated with more widespread FA loss and MD increases in chronic TBI. Episodes of cerebral perfusion pressure <70 mmHg were specifically associated with reduced MD. Neither episodes of intracranial pressure >20 mmHg nor acute-phase Rotterdam CT scores were associated with WM changes. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended scores and performance-based cognitive control functioning were associated with FA and MD changes, but self-reported cognitive control functioning was not. In conclusion, FA loss specifically reflects the primary injury severity and mechanism, whereas FA and MD changes are associated with objective measures of general and cognitive control functioning. PMID:25641684

  1. External Validation and Recalibration of Risk Prediction Models for Acute Traumatic Brain Injury among Critically Ill Adult Patients in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Harrison, David A; Griggs, Kathryn A; Prabhu, Gita; Gomes, Manuel; Lecky, Fiona E; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Menon, David K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2015-10-01

    This study validates risk prediction models for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) in critical care units in the United Kingdom and recalibrates the models to this population. The Risk Adjustment In Neurocritical care (RAIN) Study was a prospective, observational cohort study in 67 adult critical care units. Adult patients admitted to critical care following acute TBI with a last pre-sedation Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15 were recruited. The primary outcomes were mortality and unfavorable outcome (death or severe disability, assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months following TBI. Of 3626 critical care unit admissions, 2975 were analyzed. Following imputation of missing outcomes, mortality at six months was 25.7% and unfavorable outcome 57.4%. Ten risk prediction models were validated from Hukkelhoven and colleagues, the Medical Research Council (MRC) Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) Trial Collaborators, and the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) group. The model with the best discrimination was the IMPACT "Lab" model (C index, 0.779 for mortality and 0.713 for unfavorable outcome). This model was well calibrated for mortality at six months but substantially under-predicted the risk of unfavorable outcome. Recalibration of the models resulted in small improvements in discrimination and excellent calibration for all models. The risk prediction models demonstrated sufficient statistical performance to support their use in research and audit but fell below the level required to guide individual patient decision-making. The published models for unfavorable outcome at six months had poor calibration in the UK critical care setting and the models recalibrated to this setting should be used in future research.

  2. Role of α-II-spectrin breakdown products in the prediction of the severity and clinical outcome of acute traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, SHANGYU; SHI, QIANKUN; ZHENG, SHUYUN; LUO, LIANGSHEN; YUAN, SHOUTAO; WANG, XIANG; CHENG, ZIHAO; ZHANG, WENHAO

    2016-01-01

    αII-spectrin breakdown products are regarded as potential biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of the present study was to further evaluate these biomarkers by assessing their clinical utility in predicting the severity of injury and clinical outcome of patients with TBI. Eligible patients with acute TBI (n=17), defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≤8, were enrolled. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sampled from each patient at 24, 72 and 120 h following TBI. An immunoblot assay was used to determine the concentrations of SBDPs in the CSF samples. The concentrations of SBDPs combined with the GCS score at 24 h after injury and the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 30 days after injury were compared and analyzed. The levels of SBDPs in CSF were markedly increased following acute TBI in comparison with those in the control group. In the early period after TBI, the levels of SBDPs were closely associated with GCS score. Comparisons of the SBDP levels with the severity of injury revealed significant differences between patients with the most severe brain injury and patients with severe brain injury in the first 24 h post-injury (P<0.05). The levels and dynamic changes of SBDPs in CSF exhibited a close association with GOS at 30 days after injury. The levels of SBDPs differed significantly between patients grouped according to prognosis (P<0.05). These results suggest that in the early period after TBI, the levels and dynamic changes of SBDPs in CSF can be useful in the prediction of the severity of injury and clinical outcome of patients. PMID:27168849

  3. Single burr hole evacuation for traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Osamu; Kameyama, Motonobu; Shimosegawa, Yasuko; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Sugai, Kazuyuki; Onuma, Takehide

    2002-08-01

    A 57-year-old man and a 55-year-old man presented with acute subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa due to trauma. Both were comatose preoperatively. Emergent single burr hole evacuation in the posterior cranial fossa was performed in the emergency room immediately after computed tomography. Neurological symptoms improved dramatically just after initiating the burr hole evacuation in both patients. A 57-year-old man became alert and could walk unassisted 1 month after surgery. The other could walk with assistance 4 months after surgery, although psychic disturbance resulting from cerebral contusion remained. Single burr hole evacuation in the emergency room is a useful treatment for acute subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa because the procedure can be performed easily and rapidly, thus achieving reduction of intracranial pressure. Progressing neurological deterioration, reversibility of brainstem function by mannitol administration and the sign of brainstem compression and noncommunicating hydrocephalus are good indicators for this treatment.

  4. Altered fibrinolysis in autosomal dominant thrombomodulin-associated coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Burley, Kate; Whyte, Claire S.; Westbury, Sarah K.; Walker, Mary; Stirrups, Kathleen E.; Turro, Ernest; Chapman, Oliver G.; Reilly-Stitt, Christopher; Mutch, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombomodulin-associated coagulopathy (TM-AC) is a newly recognized dominant bleeding disorder in which a p.Cys537Stop variant in the thrombomodulin (TM) gene THBD, results in high plasma TM levels and protein C-mediated suppression of thrombin generation. Thrombin in complex with TM also activates thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). However, the effect of the high plasma TM on fibrinolysis in TM-AC is unknown. Plasma from TM-AC cases and high-TM model control samples spiked with recombinant soluble TM showed reduced tissue factor–induced thrombin generation. Lysis of plasma clots from TM-AC cases was significantly delayed compared with controls but was completely restored when TM/thrombin-mediated TAFI activation was inhibited. Clots formed in blood from TM-AC cases had the same viscoelastic strength as controls but also showed a TAFI-dependent delay in fibrinolysis. Delayed fibrinolysis was reproduced in high-TM model plasma and blood samples. Partial restoration of thrombin generation with recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate did not alter the delayed fibrinolysis in high-TM model blood. Our finding of a previously unrecognized fibrinolytic phenotype indicates that bleeding in TM-AC has a complex pathogenesis and highlights the pivotal role of TM as a regulator of hemostasis. PMID:27436851

  5. Coagulopathy in the prostate cancer patient: prevalence and clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, A. S.; Francis, J. L.; Witherow, R. O.; Snell, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate has historically been associated with the bleeding diathesis which accompanies disseminated intravascular coagulation. We have performed a prospective study into the prevalence of coagulopathy in patients with untreated prostate cancer using matched patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as controls. Haemostatic activation was assessed by measuring fibrinopeptide A (FpA) by an ELISA and D-dimer by a latex agglutination assay. FpA and D-dimer levels were correlated with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and bone scan status. Of the cancer patients, 40% had elevated FpA, levels being higher in those with bone scan positive disease (P < 0.05). D-dimer was detectable in 24% of those with prostate cancer but in none with BPH. Neither FpA nor D-dimer were related to serum PSA but D-dimer appeared to be a predictor of bone scan status with a positive predictive value of 91%. It is concluded that changes compatible with subclinical DIC are common in patients presenting with prostate cancer and that measurement of FpA and D-dimer may have roles as tumour markers in this disease. PMID:7682795

  6. Acute Response of the Hippocampal Transcriptome Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury After Controlled Cortical Impact in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Samal, Babru B; Waites, Cameron K; Almeida-Suhett, Camila; Li, Zheng; Marini, Ann M; Samal, Nihar R; Elkahloun, Abdel; Braga, Maria F M; Eiden, Lee E

    2015-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) injury to rat cortex causes indirect, concussive injury to underlying hippocampus and other brain regions, providing a reproducible model for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and its neurochemical, synaptic, and behavioral sequelae. Here, we extend a preliminary gene expression study of the hippocampus-specific events occurring after mCCI and identify 193 transcripts significantly upregulated, and 21 transcripts significantly downregulated, 24 h after mCCI. Fifty-three percent of genes altered by mCCI within 24 h of injury are predicted to be expressed only in the non-neuronal/glial cellular compartment, with only 13% predicted to be expressed only in neurons. The set of upregulated genes following mCCI was interrogated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) augmented with manual curation of the literature (190 transcripts accepted for analysis), revealing a core group of 15 first messengers, mostly inflammatory cytokines, predicted to account for >99% of the transcript upregulation occurring 24 h after mCCI. Convergent analysis of predicted transcription factors (TFs) regulating the mCCI target genes, carried out in IPA relative to the entire Affymetrix-curated transcriptome, revealed a high concordance with TFs regulated by the cohort of 15 cytokines/cytokine-like messengers independently accounting for upregulation of the mCCI transcript cohort. TFs predicted to regulate transcription of the 193-gene mCCI cohort also displayed a high degree of overlap with TFs predicted to regulate glia-, rather than neuron-specific genes in cortical tissue. We conclude that mCCI predominantly affects transcription of non-neuronal genes within the first 24 h after insult. This finding suggests that early non-neuronal events trigger later permanent neuronal changes after mTBI, and that early intervention after mTBI could potentially affect the neurochemical cascade leading to later reported synaptic and

  7. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI. PMID:24964748

  8. Physiological complexity of acute traumatic brain injury in patients treated with a brain oxygen protocol: utility of symbolic regression in predictive modeling of a dynamical system.

    PubMed

    Narotam, Pradeep K; Morrison, John F; Schmidt, Michael D; Nathoo, Narendra

    2014-04-01

    Predictive modeling of emergent behavior, inherent to complex physiological systems, requires the analysis of large complex clinical data streams currently being generated in the intensive care unit. Brain tissue oxygen protocols have yielded outcome benefits in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the critical physiological thresholds for low brain oxygen have not been established for a dynamical patho-physiological system. High frequency, multi-modal clinical data sets from 29 patients with severe TBI who underwent multi-modality neuro-clinical care monitoring and treatment with a brain oxygen protocol were analyzed. The inter-relationship between acute physiological parameters was determined using symbolic regression (SR) as the computational framework. The mean patient age was 44.4±15 with a mean admission GCS of 6.6±3.9. Sixty-three percent sustained motor vehicle accidents and the most common pathology was intra-cerebral hemorrhage (50%). Hospital discharge mortality was 21%, poor outcome occurred in 24% of patients, and good outcome occurred in 56% of patients. Criticality for low brain oxygen was intracranial pressure (ICP) ≥22.8 mm Hg, for mortality at ICP≥37.1 mm Hg. The upper therapeutic threshold for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was 75 mm Hg. Eubaric hyperoxia significantly impacted partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue (PbtO2) at all ICP levels. Optimal brain temperature (Tbr) was 34-35°C, with an adverse effect when Tbr≥38°C. Survivors clustered at [Formula: see text] Hg vs. non-survivors [Formula: see text] 18 mm Hg. There were two mortality clusters for ICP: High ICP/low PbtO2 and low ICP/low PbtO2. Survivors maintained PbtO2 at all ranges of mean arterial pressure in contrast to non-survivors. The final SR equation for cerebral oxygenation is: [Formula: see text]. The SR-model of acute TBI advances new physiological thresholds or boundary conditions for acute TBI management: PbtO2≥25 mmHg; ICP≤22 mmHg; CPP≈60-75

  9. A Review of Radiation-Induced Coagulopathy and New Findings to Support Potential Prevention Strategies and Treatments.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R; Maity, Amit; Sanzari, Jenine K

    2016-08-01

    Results from our recent studies have led to the novel hypothesis that radiation-induced coagulopathy (RIC) and associated hemorrhage occurring as part of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a major cause of death resulting from radiation exposure in large mammals, including humans. This article contains information related to RIC, as well as potential strategies for the prevention and treatment of RIC. In addition, new findings are reported here on the occurrence of RIC biomarkers in humans exposed to radiation. To determine whether irradiated humans have RIC biomarkers, blood samples were obtained from radiotherapy patients who received treatment for different types of malignancies. Blood samples from allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) patients obtained before, during and after irradiation indicated that exposure led to prolonged clot formation times, increased levels of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complex and increased circulating nucleosome/histone (cNH) levels, which suggest potential coagulopathies in the allo-HCT patients. Since these allo-HCT patients received chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy, it is possible that the chemical agents could have influenced the observed results. Frozen plasma samples from radiotherapy patients with prostate, lung and breast cancer were also obtained for analyses of cNH levels. The results indicated that some of these patients had very high cNH blood levels. Analysis of cNH levels in plasma samples from irradiated ferrets also indicated increased cNH levels compared to preirradiation baseline levels. The results from irradiated animals and some radiotherapy patients suggest the possibility that anti-histone antibodies, which block the toxic effects of elevated cNH levels in the blood, might be useful as therapeutic agents for adverse biological radiation-induced effects. The detection of increased levels of cNH in some radiotherapy patient blood samples demonstrates its potential as a biomarker for

  10. A Review of Radiation-Induced Coagulopathy and New Findings to Support Potential Prevention Strategies and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Maity, Amit; Sanzari, Jenine K.

    2016-01-01

    Results from our recent studies have led to the novel hypothesis that radiation-induced coagulopathy (RIC) and associated hemorrhage occurring as part of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a major cause of death resulting from radiation exposure in large mammals, including humans. This article contains information related to RIC, as well as potential strategies for the prevention and treatment of RIC. In addition, new findings are reported here on the occurrence of RIC biomarkers in humans exposed to radiation. To determine whether irradiated humans have RIC biomarkers, blood samples were obtained from radiotherapy patients who received treatment for different types of malignancies. Blood samples from allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) patients obtained before, during and after irradiation indicated that exposure led to prolonged clot formation times, increased levels of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complex and increased circulating nucleosome/ histone (cNH) levels, which suggest potential coagulopathies in the allo-HCT patients. Since these allo-HCT patients received chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy, it is possible that the chemical agents could have influenced the observed results. Frozen plasma samples from radiotherapy patients with prostate, lung and breast cancer were also obtained for analyses of cNH levels. The results indicated that some of these patients had very high cNH blood levels. Analysis of cNH levels in plasma samples from irradiated ferrets also indicated increased cNH levels compared to preirradiation baseline levels. The results from irradiated animals and some radiotherapy patients suggest the possibility that anti-histone antibodies, which block the toxic effects of elevated cNH levels in the blood, might be useful as therapeutic agents for adverse biological radiation-induced effects. The detection of increased levels of cNH in some radiotherapy patient blood samples demonstrates its potential as a biomarker for

  11. Nitroglycerin prevents coagulopathies and foetal death associated with abnormal maternal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Cotechini, Tiziana; Othman, Maha; Graham, Charles H

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation-associated foetal loss is often linked to maternal coagulopathies. Here, we characterised the role of maternal inflammation in the development of various systemic maternal coagulopathies and foetal death during mid-to-late gestation in rats. Since nitric oxide (NO) functions as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and anti-oxidant, we also tested whether the NO mimetic nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) prevents inflammation-associated coagulopathies and foetal death. To induce chronic inflammation, pregnant Wistar rats were injected with low-doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10-40 μg/kg) on gestational days (GD) 13.5-16.5. To determine whether the effects of inflammation are mediated by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept was injected on GD 13.5 and 15.5. Controls consisted of rats injected with saline. GTN was administered to LPS-treated rats via daily application of a transdermal patch on GD 12.5-16.5. Using thromboelastography (TEG), various coagulation parameters were assessed on GD 17.5; foetal viability was determined morphologically. Reference coagulation parameters were established based on TEG results obtained from control animals. LPS-treated rats exhibited distinct systemic coagulopathies: hypercoagulability, hypocoagulability, hyperfibrinolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) stages I and III. A specific foetal death coagulation phenotype was observed, implicating TEG as a potential tool to identify inflammation-induced haemostatic alterations associated with pregnancy loss. Treatment with etanercept reduced the incidence of coagulopathy by 47%, while continuous delivery of GTN prevented foetal death and the inflammation-induced coagulopathies. These findings provide a rationale for investigating the use of GTN in the prevention of maternal coagulopathies and inflammation-mediated foetal death.

  12. The crucifixion of Jesus: review of hypothesized mechanisms of death and implications of shock and trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Joseph W

    2012-04-01

    The crucifixion of Jesus is arguably the most well-known and controversial execution in history. Christian faithful, dating back to the time of Jesus, have believed that Jesus was executed by crucifixion and later returned physically to life again. Others have questioned whether Jesus actually died by crucifixion, at all. From review of medical literature, physicians have failed to agree on a specific mechanism of Jesus' death. A search of Medline/Pubmed was completed with respect to crucifixion, related topics, and proposed mechanisms of Jesus' death. Several hypotheses for the mechanism of Jesus' death have been presented in medical literature, including 1) Pulmonary embolism 2) Cardiac rupture 3) Suspension trauma 4) Asphyxiation 5) Fatal stab wound, and 6) Shock. Each proposed mechanism of Jesus' death will be reviewed. The events of Jesus' execution are described, as they are pertinent to development of shock. Traumatic shock complicated by trauma-induced coagulopathy is proposed as a contributing factor, and possibly the primary mechanism, of Jesus' death by crucifixion.

  13. The coagulopathy of liver disease: does vitamin K help?

    PubMed

    Saja, Maha F; Abdo, Ayman A; Sanai, Faisal M; Shaikh, Shaffi A; Gader, Abdel Galil M Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K is frequently administered in cirrhotic patients to correct their coagulopathy, but evidence for such practice is lacking. We aimed to assess whether vitamin K administration increases the levels of the vitamin K-dependent factor VII (FVII), protein C, and protein S in patients with different stages of liver dysfunction. Eighty-nine patients were recruited into four groups: group 1 [hepatitis B virus (HBV) inactive carriers, n = 23]; group 2 [chronic HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis, n = 21]; group 3 (cirrhosis, n = 24); group 4 (hepatocellular carcinoma, n = 21); and a healthy control group (n = 39). A single dose of 10 mg of vitamin K1 was administered subcutaneously to all patients. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen, FVII, protein C, total and free protein S, and proteins induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA)-II (des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin) were measured at baseline and 72 h after vitamin K administration. There was progressive increment in baseline PIVKA-II, and decrements in fibrinogen, FVII, protein C, and protein S across study groups (P < 0.0001). Compared to baseline, vitamin K administration did not affect the measured parameters, whereas TT showed no reduction in any of the groups. Protein C levels declined in group 2, whereas FVII, total and free protein S did not increase in any group, for all parameters. Vitamin K therapy does not cause significant improvements in the majority of coagulation parameters and hence does not seem to be routinely indicated in patients with liver disease.

  14. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of an Acute Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta Complicated by a Distal Low-Flow Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bruninx, Guy; Wery, Didier; Dubois, Eric; El Nakadi, Badih; Dueren, Eric van; Verhelst, Guy; Delcour, Christian

    1999-11-15

    We report the case of a patient who suffered major trauma following a motorcycle accident that resulted in multiple fractures, bilateral hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusions, and an isthmic rupture of the aorta with a pseudoaneurysm compressing the descending aorta. This compression was responsible for distal hypotension and low flow, leading to acute renal insufficiency and massive rhabdomyolysis. Due to the critical clinical status of the patient, which prevented any type of open thoracic surgery, endovascular treatment was performed. An initial stent-graft permitted alleviation of the compression and the re-establishment of normal hemodynamic conditions, but its low position did not allow sufficient coverage of the rupture. A second stent-graft permitted total exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm while preserving the patency of the left subclavian artery.

  15. Does highly symptomatic class membership in the acute phase predict highly symptomatic classification in victims 6 months after traumatic exposure?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    Recently studies have indicated the existence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD) subtypes but no studies have investigated their mutual association. Although ASD may not be a precursor of PTSD per se, there are potential benefits associated with early identification of victims at risk of developing PTSD subtypes. The present study investigates ASD and PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) following bank robbery (N=371). Moreover, we assessed if highly symptomatic ASD and selected risk factors increased the probability of highly symptomatic PTSD. The results of LCA revealed a three class solution for ASD and a two class solution for PTSD. Negative cognitions about self (OR=1.08), neuroticism (OR=1.09) and membership of the 'High symptomatic ASD' class (OR=20.41) significantly increased the probability of 'symptomatic PTSD' class membership. Future studies are needed to investigate the existence of ASD and PTSD subtypes and their mutual relationship.

  16. Assessment of Disability in Patients with Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Julio C.; Noonan, Vanessa; Singh, Anoushka

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Given the importance of accurately and reliably assessing disability in future clinical trials, which will test therapeutic strategies in acute spinal cord injury (SCI), we sought to appraise comprehensively studies that focused on the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability, validity, and responsiveness) of all previously used outcome measures in the SCI population. The search strategy included Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently assessed each study regarding eligibility, level of evidence (using Sackett's criteria), and quality. Of 363 abstracts captured in our search, 36 full articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight different outcome measures were used to assess disability in the SCI population, including Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Spinal cord Injury Measure (SCIM), Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Timed Up & Go (TUG), 6-min walk test (6MWT), and 10-m walk test (10MWT). While 19 of 36 studies provided level-4 evidence, the remaining 17 articles were classified as level-2b evidence. Most of the instruments showed convergent construct validity in the SCI population, but criterion validity was not examined due to the lack a gold standard for assessment of disability. All instruments were tested in the rehabilitation and/or community setting, but only FIM was examined in the acute care setting. Based on our results of quality assessment, the SCIM has the most appropriate performance regarding the instrument's psychometric properties. Nonetheless, further investigations are required to confirm the adequate performance of the SCIM as a comprehensive measure of functional recovery in patients with SCI in rehabilitative care. The expert panel of the Spinal Cord Injury Solutions Network (SCISN) that participated in the modified Delphi process endorsed these conclusions. PMID:20367251

  17. Rho kinase inhibition following traumatic brain injury in mice promotes functional improvement and acute neuron survival but has little effect on neurogenesis, glial responses or neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bye, Nicole; Christie, Kimberly J; Turbic, Alisa; Basrai, Harleen S; Turnley, Ann M

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of neural injuries and diseases. In this manuscript we investigate the role of Rho kinase inhibition in recovery from traumatic brain injury using a controlled cortical impact model in mice. Mice subjected to a moderately severe TBI were treated for 1 or 4 weeks with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, and functional outcomes and neuronal and glial cell responses were analysed at 1, 7 and 35 days post-injury. We hypothesised that Y27632-treated mice would show functional improvement, with augmented recruitment of neuroblasts from the SVZ and enhanced survival of newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex, with protection against neuronal degeneration, neuroinflammation and modulation of astrocyte reactivity and blood-brain-barrier permeability. While Rho kinase inhibition enhanced recovery of motor function after trauma, there were no substantial increases in the recruitment of DCX(+) neuroblasts or the number of BrdU(+) or EdU(+) labelled newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex of Y27632-treated mice. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced the number of degenerating cortical neurons at 1day post-injury compared to saline controls but had no longer term effect on neuronal degeneration, with only modest effects on astrocytic reactivity and macrophage/microglial responses. Overall, this study showed that Rho kinase contributes to acute neurodegenerative processes in the injured cortex but does not play a significant role in SVZ neural precursor cell-derived adult neurogenesis, glial responses or blood-brain barrier permeability following a moderately severe brain injury. PMID:26896832

  18. Rho kinase inhibition following traumatic brain injury in mice promotes functional improvement and acute neuron survival but has little effect on neurogenesis, glial responses or neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bye, Nicole; Christie, Kimberly J; Turbic, Alisa; Basrai, Harleen S; Turnley, Ann M

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of neural injuries and diseases. In this manuscript we investigate the role of Rho kinase inhibition in recovery from traumatic brain injury using a controlled cortical impact model in mice. Mice subjected to a moderately severe TBI were treated for 1 or 4 weeks with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632, and functional outcomes and neuronal and glial cell responses were analysed at 1, 7 and 35 days post-injury. We hypothesised that Y27632-treated mice would show functional improvement, with augmented recruitment of neuroblasts from the SVZ and enhanced survival of newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex, with protection against neuronal degeneration, neuroinflammation and modulation of astrocyte reactivity and blood-brain-barrier permeability. While Rho kinase inhibition enhanced recovery of motor function after trauma, there were no substantial increases in the recruitment of DCX(+) neuroblasts or the number of BrdU(+) or EdU(+) labelled newborn neurons in the pericontusional cortex of Y27632-treated mice. Inhibition of Rho kinase significantly reduced the number of degenerating cortical neurons at 1day post-injury compared to saline controls but had no longer term effect on neuronal degeneration, with only modest effects on astrocytic reactivity and macrophage/microglial responses. Overall, this study showed that Rho kinase contributes to acute neurodegenerative processes in the injured cortex but does not play a significant role in SVZ neural precursor cell-derived adult neurogenesis, glial responses or blood-brain barrier permeability following a moderately severe brain injury.

  19. Human apolipoprotein E4 worsens acute axonal pathology but not amyloid-β immunoreactivity after traumatic brain injury in 3xTG-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel E; Esparza, Thomas J; Lewis, Hal A; Kim, Eddie; Mac Donald, Christine L; Sullivan, Patrick M; Brody, David L

    2013-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype is a risk factor for poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly in young patients, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. By analogy to effects of APOE4 on the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), the APOE genotype may influence β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau deposition after TBI. To test this hypothesis, we crossed 3xTG-AD transgenic mice carrying 3 human familial AD mutations (PS1(M146V), tauP(301)L, and APP(SWE)) to human ApoE2-, ApoE3-, and ApoE4-targeted replacement mice. Six- to 8-month-old 3xTG-ApoE mice were assayed by quantitative immunohistochemistry for amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ(1-40) (Aβ40), Aβ(1-42) (Aβ42), total human tau, and phospho-serine 199 (pS199) tau at 24 hours after moderate controlled cortical impact. There were increased numbers of APP-immunoreactive axonal varicosities in 3xTG-ApoE4 mice versus the other genotypes. This finding was repeated in a separate cohort of ApoE4-targeted replacement mice without human transgenes compared with ApoE3 and ApoE2 mice. There were no differences between genotypes in the extent of intra-axonal Aβ40 and Aβ42; none of the mice had extracellular Aβ deposition. Regardless of injury status, 3xTG-ApoE4 mice had more total human tau accumulation in both somatodendritic and intra-axonal compartments than other genotypes. These results suggest that the APOE4 genotype may have a primary effect on the severity of axonal injury in acute TBI.

  20. Acute traumatic posterior fracture dislocation of the elbow in pediatric patients: impact of surgery time and associated fractures on outcome.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Fuat; Dikmen, Goksel; Baş, Ali; Asma, Ali; Batibay, Sefa G; Şirikçi, Murat; Atalar, Ata Can

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the effect of the time interval from initial injury to surgery and the presence of associated fracture on functional outcomes after acute posterior elbow fracture dislocation. Twenty-six pediatric patients were evaluated with respect to operation time point (within 24 h vs. later) and associated fracture retrospectively. The Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) score was used to assess functional results. The MEPI score was 91 (80-100) in patients with one associated fracture and 83 (75-95) (P=0.02) in patients with more than one associated fracture. The MEPI score in patients treated within 24 h was 90.3 (75-95) and in those treated later than 24 h, it was 88.6 (75-100) (P=0.6). Treatment time (within 24 h vs. later) does not affect outcomes, but increasing numbers of associated injuries affect outcomes negatively. Level of study: Level IV case series. PMID:26895289

  1. Traumatic supraglottitis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Ellen S

    2004-06-01

    Traumatic supraglottitis may occur after mechanical, thermal, chemical, or other airway injury. It can be managed following the principles used for managing the airways of patients with infectious supraglottitis. A protocol for evaluation and management is described.

  2. Severe coagulopathy and transient hypertension following a Rhabdophis subminiatus bite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Adiwinata, Randy; Handayani, Siti; Rinaldi, Ikhwan

    2016-01-01

    Because the majority of colubrid species are considered harmless to human beings, colubrid snakebites are rarely reported. However, the venom of Rhabdophis, which is part of the Colubridae family, is procoagulant and leads to severe coagulopathy. Here, we present a case of disseminated intravascular coagulation with enhanced fibrinolysis following a Rhabdophis bite. Although coagulopathy can be treated effectively with the specific Rhabdophis antivenom, this antivenom is not widely available in Indonesia. We also found transient hypertension secondary to the colubrid venom, an unusual finding. PMID:27598644

  3. Persistent coagulopathy during Escherichia coli sepsis in a previously healthy infant revealed undiagnosed tyrosinaemia type 1.

    PubMed

    Georgouli, H; Schulpis, K H; Michelakaki, H; Kaltsa, M; Sdogou, T; Kossiva, L

    2010-12-29

    Hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) is caused by an enzymatic defect in tyrosine metabolism. It is an autosomal recessive disorder and affects both sexes equally. In young infants HT1 can present as severe liver involvement and in older infants as liver failure and renal tubular dysfunction together with growth failure and rickets. The authors report the case of a 5-month-old, previously healthy, male infant who presented with Escherichia coli sepsis and severe coagulopathy due to liver dysfunction. Despite the early diagnosis of HT1 and treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1, 3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), the patient died from severe coagulopathy and multi-organ failure.

  4. [Pulmonary embolism and disseminated coagulopathy syndrome after first trimester termination of pregnancy--a case report].

    PubMed

    Tsankova, M; Marinov, B

    2005-01-01

    We present a rare case report of first trimester termination of pregnancy by suction curettage because of missed abortion complicated by pulmonary thrombembolism and disseminated coagulopathy. The diagnosis was confirmed by clinical, sonographical and laboratory means. The relative risk of such complications after first trimester termination of pregnancy is discussed.

  5. Ingestion of Superwarfarin Leading to Coagulopathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Austin T.; Hartzell, Joshua D.; More, Kenneth; Durning, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Superwarfarins are found in many pesticides, including D-con, Prufe I and II, Ramik, Talon-G, Ratak, and Contrac. Ingestion of can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. Physicians need to consider this diagnosis in any patient presenting with coagulopathy of unclear etiology. We present a patient with superwarfarin-induced coagulopathy and review previous cases in adults in the literature. The patient is a 60-year-old man who presented to our medical center with painless hematuria. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated prothrombin time (PT) (42.5 seconds), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) (64.6 seconds), and international normalized ratio (INR) of 7. Liver-associated enzymes were normal, and complete blood cell count (CBC) showed no evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Subsequent work-up included the absence of an inhibitor by mixing study and deficiencies of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. The patient's warfarin level was negative. A brodifacoum level was positive, confirming superwarfarin-induced coagulopathy. The patient is currently doing well with normal coagulation studies after receiving high doses of vitamin K for several weeks. The cause of his exposure to superwarfarin remains uncertain. Physicians need to be cognizant of this unusual cause of coagulopathy in adults. The appropriate diagnostic work-up and unique features of therapy are discussed. PMID:17415322

  6. The neuropathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mckee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, is divided into three grades of severity: mild, moderate, and severe, based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, the loss of consciousness, and the development of post-traumatic amnesia. Although mild traumatic brain injury, including concussion and subconcussion, is by far the most common, it is also the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. Proper recognition, management, and treatment of acute concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are the fundamentals of an emerging clinical discipline. It is also becoming increasingly clear that some mild traumatic brain injuries have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Evidence indicates that a single traumatic brain injury can precipitate or accelerate multiple age-related neurodegenerations, increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease, and that repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries can provoke the development of a tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Clinically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory loss, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and progress slowly over decades. Pathologically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy produces atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus, septal abnormalities, and abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (τ) as neurofibrillary tangles and disordered neurites throughout the brain. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently unknown. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy frequently occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and motor neuron disease. Currently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy can be diagnosed only at

  7. Computed tomographic staging of traumatic epidural bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic findings in 45 patients with post-traumatic epidural hemotomas are subdivided into three categories (acute, subacute, and chronic) and correlated with the severity of bleeding, clot formation, and clot resorption. Active epidural bleeding may be identified in acute cases.

  8. Traumatic acute incarcerated scrotal hernia.

    PubMed

    Mucciolo, R L; Godec, C J

    1988-05-01

    A 23-year-old male presented to the ER with left scrotal pain and swelling after being struck with a knee in the left inguinoscrotal area during a basketball game. Upon examination, an incarcerated scrotal hernia with necrotic segment of small bowel was found. Bowel was resected and direct reanastomosis performed. This appears to be the first such case in the English-language literature.

  9. [Traumatic abruption of the placenta with disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    PubMed

    Benz, R; Malär, A-U; Benz-Wörner, J; Scherer, M; Hodel, M; Gähler, A; Haberthür, C; Konrad, C

    2012-10-01

    Trauma in pregnancy is infrequent and a systematic primary strategy constitutes a real challenge for the interdisciplinary team. With a high fetal mortality rate and a substantial maternal mortality rate traumatic placental abruption is a severe emergency which every anesthetist should be aware of. After hemodynamic stabilization of the mother and control of the viability of the fetus the therapy of traumatic placental abruption consists mostly of an immediate caesarean section. Coagulopathy by depletion of coagulation factors as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have to be expected and consequently a massive blood loss must be anticipated. Thrombelastography provides assistance for fast differential diagnosis and goal-directed treatment of the disturbed sections of the coagulation cascade.

  10. Traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Popoola, D; Lou, M A; Sims, E H

    1983-05-01

    At the Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital in Los Angeles, during the period from June 1972 to April 1981, seven patients underwent surgery for traumatic pancreatic pseudocysts. The overall average age was 28 and the average hospital stay was 31 days. Ultrasound was the most useful test for diagnosis and follow-up. Preoperatively, serum amylases were not consistently elevated. Overall recurrences and complications totaled 57 percent. There were no deaths. The authors consider a large cystogastrostomy the treatment of choice for mature cysts that are satisfactorily adherent to the stomach. The second preference is a Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy. External drainage was employed for acute cysts that required drainage. A distal pancreatectomy was performed for patients with small pancreatic tail pseudocysts. Patients who underwent acute drainage were usually drained externally and had a poorer outcome than patients who were operated on later with internal drainage. When compared with another group of 15 alcoholic patients who were operated on for pancreatic pseudocysts, patients with traumatic pseudocysts had a poorer outcome.

  11. Current Treatment for Venom-Induced Consumption Coagulopathy Resulting from Snakebite

    PubMed Central

    Maduwage, Kalana; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Venomous snakebite is considered the single most important cause of human injury from venomous animals worldwide. Coagulopathy is one of the commonest important systemic clinical syndromes and can be complicated by serious and life-threatening haemorrhage. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is the commonest coagulopathy resulting from snakebite and occurs in envenoming by Viperid snakes, certain elapids, including Australian elapids, and a few Colubrid (rear fang) snakes. Procoagulant toxins activate the clotting pathway, causing a broad range of factor deficiencies depending on the particular procoagulant toxin in the snake venom. Diagnosis and monitoring of coagulopathy is problematic, particularly in resource-poor countries where further research is required to develop more reliable, cheap clotting tests. MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2013 were searched to identify clinical studies of snake envenoming with VICC. The UniPort database was searched for coagulant snake toxins. Despite preclinical studies demonstrating antivenom binding toxins (efficacy), there was less evidence to support clinical effectiveness of antivenom for VICC. There were no placebo-controlled trials of antivenom for VICC. There were 25 randomised comparative trials of antivenom for VICC, which compared two different antivenoms (ten studies), three different antivenoms (four), two or three different doses or repeat doses of antivenom (five), heparin treatment and antivenom (five), and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and antivenom (one). There were 13 studies that compared two groups in which there was no randomisation, including studies with historical controls. There have been numerous observational studies of antivenom in VICC but with no comparison group. Most of the controlled trials were small, did not use the same method for assessing coagulopathy, varied the dose of antivenom, and did not provide complete details of the study design (primary outcomes, randomisation

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  13. Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma: an updated European guideline

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based recommendations are needed to guide the acute management of the bleeding trauma patient. When these recommendations are implemented patient outcomes may be improved. Methods The multidisciplinary Task Force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma was formed in 2005 with the aim of developing a guideline for the management of bleeding following severe injury. This document represents an updated version of the guideline published by the group in 2007 and updated in 2010. Recommendations were formulated using a nominal group process, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) hierarchy of evidence and based on a systematic review of published literature. Results Key changes encompassed in this version of the guideline include new recommendations on the appropriate use of vasopressors and inotropic agents, and reflect an awareness of the growing number of patients in the population at large treated with antiplatelet agents and/or oral anticoagulants. The current guideline also includes recommendations and a discussion of thromboprophylactic strategies for all patients following traumatic injury. The most significant addition is a new section that discusses the need for every institution to develop, implement and adhere to an evidence-based clinical protocol to manage traumatically injured patients. The remaining recommendations have been re-evaluated and graded based on literature published since the last edition of the guideline. Consideration was also given to changes in clinical practice that have taken place during this time period as a result of both new evidence and changes in the general availability of relevant agents and technologies. Conclusions A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to trauma care and mechanisms with which to ensure that established protocols are consistently implemented will ensure a uniform and high standard of care across Europe and beyond. Please see related letter by Morel

  14. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, K.E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Goldade, D.A.; Johnston, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new regulations on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides will likely be offset by expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In the present study, eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) were fed 10 µg diphacinone/g wet weight food for 7 d, and recovery was monitored over a 21-d postexposure period. By day 3 of exposure, diphacinone (DPN) was detected in liver (1.63 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (5.83 µg/g) and coagulopathy was apparent. By day 7, prothrombin time (PT) and Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) were prolonged, and some individuals were anemic. Upon termination of exposure, coagulopathy and anemia were resolved within 4 d, and residues decreased to <0.3 µg/g by day 7. Liver and kidney DPN elimination occurred in 2 phases (initial rapid loss, followed by slower loss rate), with overall half-lives of 11.7 d and 2.1 d, respectively. Prolonged PT and RVVT occurred in 10% of the exposed owls with liver DPN concentrations of 0.122 µg/g and 0.282 µg/g and in 90% of the owls with liver concentrations of 0.638 µg/g and 0.361 µg/g. These liver residue levels associated with coagulopathy fall in the range of values reported in raptor mortality incidents involving DPN. These tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in adult screech-owls have application for interpreting nontarget mortality and assessing the hazard of DPN in rodent-control operations. Diphacinone exposure evokes toxicity in raptors within a matter of days; but once exposure is terminated, recovery of hemostasis occurs rapidly

  15. Massive bleeding on a bladder protectant: a case report of pentosan polysulfate sodium-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharlene; Naiman, Sheldon C; Jamal, Abeed; Vickars, Linda M

    2002-07-22

    Pentosan polysulfate sodium (Elmiron; Alza Pharmaceuticals, Mountain View, Calif) is an oral preparation of pentosan polysulfate used in the symptomatic management of interstitial cystitis. While pentosan polysulfate has a known heparin-like effect in its parenteral form, there have been no previous reports of coagulopathy with oral use. We present an interesting case of inadvertent systemic anticoagulation resulting in serious bleeding complications in a young woman taking oral pentosan polysulfate for interstitial cystitis.

  16. Importance of fibrinogen in dilutional coagulopathy after neurosurgical procedures: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shalini; Nair, Bijesh Ravindran; Vidyasagar, Ajay; Joseph, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The routine management of coagulopathy during surgery involves assessing haemoglobin, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelets. Correction of these parameters involves administration of blood, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates. The study was aimed at identifying the most common coagulation abnormality during neurosurgical procedures and the treatment of dilutional coagulopathy with blood components. Methods: During 2 years period, all adult patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures who were transfused two or more units of red cells were prospectively evaluated for the presence of a coagulopathy. PT, aPTT, platelet count and fibrinogen levels were estimated before starting a component therapy. Results: After assessing PT, aPTT, platelet count and fibrinogen levels following two or more blood transfusions, thirty patients were found to have at least one abnormal parameter that required administration of a blood product. The most common abnormality was a low fibrinogen level, seen in 26 patients; this was the only abnormality in three patients. No patient was found to have an abnormal PT or aPTT without either the fibrinogen concentration or platelet count or both being low. Conclusion: Low fibrinogen concentration was the most common coagulation abnormality found after blood transfusions for neurosurgical procedures. PMID:27601735

  17. Nebulized anticoagulants limit coagulopathy but not inflammation in pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Alexander D; Hofstra, Jorrit J; Vlaar, Alexander P; van den Boogaard, Floor E; Roelofs, Joris J; van der Poll, Tom; Levi, Marcel; Groeneveld, A B Johan; Schultz, Marcus J

    2011-10-01

    Disturbed alveolar fibrin turnover is a characteristic feature of pneumonia. Inhibitors of coagulation could exert lung-protective effects via anticoagulant (inhibiting fibrin deposition) and possibly anti-inflammatory pathways, but could also affect host defense. In this randomized controlled in vivo laboratory study, rats were challenged intratracheally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inducing pneumonia, and randomized to local treatment with normal saline (placebo), recombinant human activated protein C (rh-APC), plasma-derived antithrombin (AT), heparin, or danaparoid. Induction of P. aeruginosa pneumonia resulted in activation of pulmonary coagulation and inhibition of pulmonary fibrinolysis, as reflected by increased pulmonary levels of thrombin-AT complexes and fibrin degradation products and decreased pulmonary levels plasminogen activator activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia was accompanied by systemic coagulopathy, since systemic levels of thrombin-AT complexes increased, and systemic levels of plasminogen activator activity decreased. Although rh-APC and plasma-derived AT potently limited pulmonary coagulopathy, neither heparin nor danaparoid affected net pulmonary fibrin turnover. Recombinant human APC also displayed systemic anticoagulant effects. Neither bacterial clearance nor pulmonary inflammation was affected by anticoagulant therapy. Nebulization of rh-APC or plasma-derived AT attenuated pulmonary coagulopathy, but not bacterial clearance or inflammation, in a rat model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. PMID:21897338

  18. [Post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Ponteva, Matti; Henriksson, Markus; Isoaho, Raimo; Laukkala, Tanja; Männikkö, Timo; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial support and careful monitoring are recommended for acute stress reaction (ASR) and acute stress disorder (ASD). If symptoms require, short focused cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy can be used for ASD. Medication is rarely necessary, but sleeping pills can be used for a short period. Trauma-focused psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. SSRI or SNRI antidepressant medication is also effective. There is less evidence on antipsychotic and antiepileptic medication. Psychotherapeutic interventions and medication can be, and often are, combined. Children, the elderly, and military and peacekeeping personnel need interventions that are tailored to their needs. PMID:19839195

  19. Post-traumatic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Jakabek, David; Hennessy, Maria; Quirk, Frances; Guazzo, Eric P

    2013-11-01

    Of patients hospitalised for traumatic brain injury (TBI), most pass through a state of altered consciousness known as "post-traumatic amnesia" (PTA). Despite the lack of a consistent definition, PTA is widely used as a construct in neurosurgical practice to guide decision-making and prognosis. Accurate PTA assessment is important, because over-evaluation leads to excess social, financial and opportunity costs, whilst under-evaluation risks patient welfare. Whilst anterograde memory is certainly disrupted in PTA, PTA in fact involves a far more extensive memory disturbance. More instructively, the complete "post-TBI syndrome" also comprises an extensive cognitive deficit which includes a confusional state, as well as a behavioural disturbance characterised by acute agitation. Recently, impairments in attention and executive functioning have also been emphasised; indeed, some consider these the primary disturbance with PTA. Although all of these features were fully described (or implied) by the earliest pioneers, most current PTA scores do not assess the complete "post-TBI syndrome". Currently, the Westmead PTA scale (WPTAS) directs most in-hospital TBI management throughout Australasia: however, in addition to general defects, specific limitations have been identified in the levels of evidence for WPTAS validity. We review the literature regarding PTA and, in particular, the continued role of the WPTAS in directing neurosurgical practice.

  20. Use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) as pre-hospital treatment in a swine model of fluid percussion traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bobby; Haque, Ashraful; Arnaud, Françoise G.; Teranishi, Kohsuke; Steinbach, Thomas; Auker, Charles R.; McCarron, Richard M.; Freilich, Daniel; Scultetus, Anke H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has been used as an adjunctive therapy for acute post-traumatic hemorrhage and reversal of iatrogenic coagulopathy in trauma patients in the hospital setting. However, investigations regarding its potential use in pre-hospital management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been conducted extensively. Aims: In the present study, we investigated the physiology, hematology and histology effects of a single pre-hospital bolus injection of rFVIIa compared to current clinical practice of no pre-hospital intervention in a swine model of moderate fluid percussion TBI. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomized to receive either a bolus of rFVIIa (90 μg/kg) or nothing 15 minutes (T15) post-injury. Hospital arrival was simulated at T60, and animals were euthanized at experimental endpoint (T360). Results: Survival was 100% in both groups; baseline physiology parameters were similar, vital signs were comparable. Animals that received rFVIIa demonstrated less hemorrhage in subarachnoid space (P = 0.0037) and less neuronal degeneration in left hippocampus, pons, and cerebellum (P = 0.00009, P = 0.00008, and P = 0.251, respectively). Immunohistochemical staining of brain sections showed less overall loss of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and less Flouro-Jade B positive cells in rFVIIa-treated animals. Conclusions: Early pre-hospital administration of rFVIIa in this swine TBI model reduced neuronal necrosis and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). These results merit further investigation of this approach in pre-hospital trauma care. PMID:24812455

  1. Persistent fear of aftershocks, impairment of working memory, and acute stress disorder predict post-traumatic stress disorder: 6-month follow-up of help seekers following the L'Aquila earthquake.

    PubMed

    Roncone, Rita; Giusti, Laura; Mazza, Monica; Bianchini, Valeria; Ussorio, Donatella; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our 6-month follow-up study was to assess predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals seeking treatment at the General Hospital Psychiatric Unit within the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake. Clinical, trauma-related and neurocognitive variables were considered. At the 6-month follow-up, 91 (74.5%) out of 122 subjects were re-assessed and administered the Impact of Events Scale-revised (IES-R) for the detection of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. Within 4 weeks following the earthquake, patients were assessed with a checklist of traumatic-event-related variables, along with the Stanford Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire (SASDQ) for the detection of ASD, with a short battery on working (Wechler Memory Scale-R, Digit Forward and Backward) and verbal memory (subtest of Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MODA). A statistically significant higher proportion of subjects affected by 'partial' ASD showed a PTSD diagnosis (80.6%, N = 29) compared to not diagnosed subjects (40%, N = 22) and a PTSD diagnosis was shown by all the 4 subjects (4.4%) affected by 'full' ASD at the entry in the study. At the 6-month follow-up 56% of the sample could be considered affected by PTSD on the IES-R scale. The results of the logistic regression analysis on our selected predictors indicated that the persistent fear of aftershocks seemed to increase by over 57 times the likelihood of positive estimate of PTSD, followed by impairment of working memory backward (OR 48.2), and having being diagnosed as ASD case in the first 4 week after the earthquake (OR 17.4). This study underlines the importance of identifying PTSD predictors, in order to planning early treatment interventions after natural disasters. PMID:24324929

  2. Transjugular Insertion of Biliary Stents (TIBS) in Two Patients with Malignant Obstruction, Ascites, and Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Amygdalos, Michael A.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin; Kadish, Steven L.; Long, William B.

    1996-03-15

    Two patients with pancreatic malignancies presented with biliary obstruction which could not be treated from an endoscopic approach. Standard transhepatic biliary drainage was relatively contraindicated because of moderate ascites and coagulopathy related to underlying liver disease. In one patient, a transjugular, transvenous approach was used to deliver a Wallstent endoprosthesis across the distal common bile duct obstruction in a single step procedure. In the second case, a previously placed biliary Wallstent was revised with an additional stent from a similar approach. Transjugular biliary catheterization offers a valuable alternative approach for primary stent placement or revision in patients with contraindication to standard transhepatic drainage.

  3. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy Is Associated with a Complex Inflammatory Response in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Darlington, Daniel N; Gonzales, Mary D; Craig, Teresa; Dubick, Michael A; Cap, Andrew P; Schwacha, Martin G

    2015-08-01

    Severe trauma can lead to a coagulopathy in patients, which is associated with increased mortality. We developed a rat polytrauma model that demonstrates a similar progression of coagulopathy. Because coagulation is influenced by changes in inflammation, and this interrelationship is poorly understood, we have studied the progression of inflammation, and its correlation with coagulation, in this rat model of severe polytrauma. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. Polytrauma was induced by damaging 10 cm of small intestines, right and medial liver lobes, right leg skeletal muscle, femur fracture, and hemorrhaging 40% of blood volume. No resuscitation was given. Polytrauma and hemorrhage resulted in a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes and an increase in monocytes and granulocytes. There was an increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor α (40×), interleukin (IL)-6 (20×), IL-1β (16×), IL-17 (15×), interferon γ (10×), IL-1α (8×) and IL-12p70 (5×); anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 (100×), IL-13 (16×), and IL-4 (5×); chemokines: growth-regulated protein/keratinocyte chemoattractant (30×), macrophage inflammatory protein 3α (10×), regulated and normal T-cell expressed and secreted (3×); and growth factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (5×), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (6×), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (3×), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (2×), and IL-5 (3×). There was a strong and significant correlation between prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and fibrin monomer concentration, and many cytokines. Polytrauma with hemorrhage is associated with a coagulopathy and a complex inflammatory response consisting of a concurrent rise in both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The rise in plasma concentrations of chemokines and growth factors likely contribute to the mobilization of monocytes and granulocytes

  4. Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background: In view of the increasing number of implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), the number of people suffering from so-called “multiple ICD shocks” is also increasing. The delivery of more than five shocks (appropriate or inappropriate) in 12 months or three or more shocks (so called multiple shocks) in a short time period (24 hours) leads to an increasing number of patients suffering from severe psychological distress (anxiety disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder). Untreated persons show chronic disease processes and a low rate of spontaneous remission and have an increased morbidity and mortality. Few papers have been published concerning the psychotherapeutic treatment for these patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder after multiple ICD shocks. Design: Explorative feasibility study: Treatment of 22 patients as a natural design without randomisation and without control group. The period of recruitment was three years, from March 2007 to March 2010. The study consisted of two phases: in the first phase (pilot study) we tested different components and dosages of psychotherapeutic treatments. The final intervention programme is presented in this paper. In the second phase (follow-up study) we assessed the residual post-traumatic stress symptoms in these ICD patients. The time between treatment and follow-up measurement was 12 to 30 months. Population: Thirty-one patients were assigned to the Department of Psychocardiology after multiple shocks. The sample consisted of 22 patients who had a post-traumatic stress disorder or an adjustment disorder and were willing and able to participate. They were invited for psychological treatment. 18 of them could be included into the follow-up study. Methods: After the clinical assessment at the beginning and at the end of the inpatient treatment a post

  5. Endogenous plasminogen activators mediate progressive intracerebral hemorrhage after traumatic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Nuha; Abu Fanne, Rami; Abramovitch, Rinat; Yarovoi, Serge; Higazi, Muhamed; Abdeen, Suhair; Basheer, Maamon; Maraga, Emad; Cines, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of death and disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI) for which no medical treatment is available. Delayed bleeding is often ascribed to consumptive coagulopathy initiated by exposed brain tissue factor. We examined an alternative hypothesis, namely, that marked release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) followed by delayed synthesis and release of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from injured brain leads to posttraumatic bleeding by causing premature clot lysis. Using a murine model of severe TBI, we found that ICH is reduced in tPA−/− and uPA−/− mice but increased in PAI-1−/− mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. tPA−/−, but not uPA−/−, mice developed a systemic coagulopathy post-TBI. Tranexamic acid inhibited ICH expansion in uPA−/−mice but not in tPA−/− mice. Catalytically inactive tPA-S481A inhibited plasminogen activation by tPA and uPA, attenuated ICH, lowered plasma d-dimers, lessened thrombocytopenia, and improved neurologic outcome in WT, tPA−/−, and uPA−/− mice. ICH expansion was also inhibited by tPA-S481A in WT mice anticoagulated with warfarin. These data demonstrate that protracted endogenous fibrinolysis induced by TBI is primarily responsible for persistent ICH and post-TBI coagulopathy in this model and offer a novel approach to interrupt bleeding. PMID:25673638

  6. Antivenom cross neutralisation in a suspected Asian pit viper envenoming causing severe coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Isbister, G K; Maduwage, K; Page, C B

    2014-11-01

    There is evidence of cross-neutralisation between common toxin groups in snake venoms and therefore the potential for antivenoms to be effective against species they are not raised against. Here we present a 49 year old female bitten by an unknown pit-viper in Nepal. She developed a venom induced consumption coagulopathy with an unrecordable international normalised ratio and undetectable fibrinogen. On return to Australia 5 days post-bite she was treated successfully with one antivenom raised against Malayan pit viper and green pit viper venoms (Haemato-polvalent antivenom from Thailand) and then subsequently with another antivenom raised against American pit-viper venoms (Antivipmyn). Presumed pit viper venom was detected in patient sera with an enzyme immunoassay against Hypnale hypnale venom. There was increased absorbance before antivenom compared to non-envenomed control samples, which then decreased after the administration of each antivenom. The recurrence of venom detected by enzyme immunoassay between antivenom doses was accompanied by a recurrence of the coagulopathy. Cross reactivity between the unknown venom and both antivenoms was supported by the fact that no venom was detected in the pre-antivenom samples after they were incubated in vitro with both antivenoms. This case and investigation of the venom and antivenoms suggest cross-neutralisation between pit vipers, including pit vipers from different continents. PMID:25178876

  7. Painful Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Benoliel; Sorin, Teich; Eli, Eliav

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses neuropathic pain of traumatic origin affecting the trigeminal nerve. This syndrome has been termed painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy by the International Headache Society and replaces atypical odontalgia, deafferentation pain, traumatic neuropathy, and phantom toothache. The discussion emphasizes the diagnosis and the early and late management of injuries to the trigeminal nerve and subsequent painful conditions.

  8. Mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Katz, Douglas I; Cohen, Sara I; Alexander, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but accurate diagnosis and defining criteria for mild TBI and its clinical consequences have been problematic. Mild TBI causes transient neurophysiologic brain dysfunction, sometimes with structural axonal and neuronal damage. Biomarkers, such as newer imaging technologies and protein markers, are promising indicators of brain injury but are not ready for clinical use. Diagnosis relies on clinical criteria regarding depth and duration of impaired consciousness and amnesia. These criteria are particularly difficult to confirm at the least severe end of the mild TBI continuum, especially when relying on subjective, retrospective accounts. The postconcussive syndrome is a controversial concept because of varying criteria, inconsistent symptom clusters and the evidence that similar symptom profiles occur with other disorders, and even in a proportion of healthy individuals. The clinical consequences of mild TBI can be conceptualized as two multidimensional disorders: (1) a constellation of acute symptoms that might be termed early phase post-traumatic disorder (e.g., headache, dizziness, imbalance, fatigue, sleep disruption, impaired cognition), that typically resolve in days to weeks and are largely related to brain trauma and concomitant injuries; (2) a later set of symptoms, a late phase post-traumatic disorder, evolving out of the early phase in a minority of patients, with a more prolonged (months to years), sometimes worsening set of somatic, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. The later phase disorder is highly influenced by a variety of psychosocial factors and has little specificity for brain injury, although a history of multiple concussions seems to increase the risk of more severe and longer duration symptoms. Effective early phase management may prevent or limit the later phase disorder and should include education about symptoms and expectations for recovery, as well as recommendations for activity modifications

  9. Riluzole for the treatment of acute traumatic spinal cord injury: rationale for and design of the NACTN Phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fehlings, Michael G; Wilson, Jefferson R; Frankowski, Ralph F; Toups, Elizabeth G; Aarabi, Bizhan; Harrop, James S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Harkema, Susan J; Guest, James D; Tator, Charles H; Burau, Keith D; Johnson, Michele W; Grossman, Robert G

    2012-09-01

    In the immediate period after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) a variety of secondary injury mechanisms combine to gradually expand the initial lesion size, potentially leading to diminished neurological outcomes at long-term follow-up. Riluzole, a benzothiazole drug, which has neuroprotective properties based on sodium channel blockade and mitigation of glutamatergic toxicity, is currently an approved drug that attenuates the extent of neuronal degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Moreover, several preclinical SCI studies have associated riluzole administration with improved functional outcomes and increased neural tissue preservation. Based on these findings, riluzole has attracted considerable interest as a potential neuroprotective drug for the treatment of SCI. Currently, a Phase I trial evaluating the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of riluzole in human SCI patients is being conducted by the North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) for Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury. The current review summarizes the existing preclinical and clinical literature on riluzole, provides a detailed description of the Phase I trial, and suggests potential opportunities for future investigation. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00876889.

  10. Riluzole for the treatment of acute traumatic spinal cord injury: rationale for and design of the NACTN Phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fehlings, Michael G; Wilson, Jefferson R; Frankowski, Ralph F; Toups, Elizabeth G; Aarabi, Bizhan; Harrop, James S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Harkema, Susan J; Guest, James D; Tator, Charles H; Burau, Keith D; Johnson, Michele W; Grossman, Robert G

    2012-09-01

    In the immediate period after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) a variety of secondary injury mechanisms combine to gradually expand the initial lesion size, potentially leading to diminished neurological outcomes at long-term follow-up. Riluzole, a benzothiazole drug, which has neuroprotective properties based on sodium channel blockade and mitigation of glutamatergic toxicity, is currently an approved drug that attenuates the extent of neuronal degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Moreover, several preclinical SCI studies have associated riluzole administration with improved functional outcomes and increased neural tissue preservation. Based on these findings, riluzole has attracted considerable interest as a potential neuroprotective drug for the treatment of SCI. Currently, a Phase I trial evaluating the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of riluzole in human SCI patients is being conducted by the North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) for Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury. The current review summarizes the existing preclinical and clinical literature on riluzole, provides a detailed description of the Phase I trial, and suggests potential opportunities for future investigation. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00876889. PMID:22985381

  11. Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bodanapally, Uttam K; Sours, Chandler; Zhuo, Jiachen; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Computed tomography (CT) is the first-line imaging technique allowing rapid detection of primary structural brain lesions that require surgical intervention. CT also detects various deleterious secondary insults allowing early medical and surgical management. Serial imaging is critical to identifying secondary injuries. MR imaging is indicated in patients with acute TBI when CT fails to explain neurologic findings. However, MR imaging is superior in patients with subacute and chronic TBI and also predicts neurocognitive outcome.

  12. Traumatic injuries in revue dancers.

    PubMed

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Koch, Franziska; Wanke, Alice; Groneberg, David A

    2014-03-01

    Revue productions are a combination of dancing and singing, musical and spoken sequences, and acrobatics, performed with or without a story line, and characterized by a versatility of dance styles and a high number of performances (over 250 in a 10-month season). The aim of this quantitative single cohort study is to evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in this dance genre. Data were obtained from work accident reports of the German Social Accident Insurance Institution for the public sector in Berlin (UKB) involving 440 revue dancers (183 males and 257 females). Analysis was conducted with Excel 2007 and PASW Statistics 18. One out of three female dancers and one out of two male dancers sustained an acute injury in the course of a theatrical season (0.22 injuries per 1,000 hours). The incidence rate was 0.44 for males and 0.31 for females, with the lower extremity as the most commonly injured body region, followed by the spine. Of all occupational accidents, 75.1% happened on stage, with 69% during performances. The dance partner and dance floor were the most common exogenous factors resulting in a traumatic injury. Of all traumatic injuries, 81.7% occurred in the first 3 hours after starting work. Gender specific differences could be observed. Due to the limited availability of comparable studies of other forms of professional dance, in this study revue dance is largely considered as an independent genre.

  13. Thrombin products: economic impact of immune-mediated coagulopathies and practical formulary considerations.

    PubMed

    Voils, Stacy A

    2009-07-01

    Thrombin has demonstrated utility in aiding surgical hemostasis since its introduction more than 60 years ago. It is used across a wide variety of surgical procedures by virtually every specialty. Only recently have new equally effective and safe products entered the market, causing decision makers to evaluate formulary selection among products with otherwise modest differences. This evaluation includes identifying costs beyond those of acquisition and storage, as well as indirect factors such as monitoring or specialized distribution requirements. One factor to consider specifically in selection of topical thrombin products is the potential for patients to develop an immune-mediated coagulopathy (IMC) after exposure to bovine-derived thrombin. Costs due to adverse drug events fall into the category of indirect costs and, in some instances, can be substantial if bleeding due to IMC occurs. PMID:19558281

  14. Oral contrast for CT in patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal and pelvic pain: what should be its current role?

    PubMed

    Kielar, Ania Z; Patlas, Michael N; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Positive oral contrast agents, including barium suspensions and water-soluble iodinated solutions, have traditionally been used in conjunction with the CT evaluation of patients with abdominal and pelvic pain. Due to continued advancements in CT technology, and due to increasing obesity and correspondingly a general increase in the intra-abdominal and intra-pelvic fat separating bowel loops in North American patients and in patients in other parts of the world over the past few decades, the ability of radiologists to accurately evaluate the cause of acute symptoms has substantially improved. Recent research and evolving imaging society guidelines/systematic reviews increasingly support performing CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis without the need for positive oral contrast in these types of adult patient populations, in most clinical situations. Increased patient throughput, patient preference, patient safety, and most importantly, retention of high diagnostic accuracy, are reasons for this recent change in practice to routinely omit the use of enteric contrast agents for the majority of patients presenting with acute abdominal and pelvic pain whom are undergoing emergency CT. PMID:27166963

  15. Bothrops jararaca Venom Metalloproteinases Are Essential for Coagulopathy and Increase Plasma Tissue Factor Levels during Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Karine M.; Alves, André F.; Barbaro, Katia C.; Santoro, Marcelo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Methods/Principal Findings Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. Conclusions SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering

  16. Older Age Results in Differential Gene Expression after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Is Linked to Imaging Differences at Acute Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Latour, Lawrence L.; Kim, Hyungsuk; Turtzo, L. Christine; Olivera, Anlys; Livingston, Whitney S.; Wang, Dan; Martin, Christiana; Lai, Chen; Cashion, Ann; Gill, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Older age consistently relates to a lesser ability to fully recover from a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is limited data to explicate the nature of age-related risks. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of age on gene-activity following a TBI, and how this biomarker relates to changes in neuroimaging findings. A young group (between the ages of 19 and 35 years), and an old group (between the ages of 60 and 89 years) were compared on global gene-activity within 48 h following a TBI, and then at follow-up within 1-week. At each time-point, gene expression profiles, and imaging findings from both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography were obtained and compared. The young group was found to have greater gene expression of inflammatory regulatory genes at 48 h and 1-week in genes such as basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BACH2), leucine-rich repeat neuronal 3 (LRRN3), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) compared to the old group. In the old group, there was increased activity in genes within S100 family, including calcium binding protein P (S100P) and S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), which previous studies have linked to poor recovery from TBI. The old group also had reduced activity of the noggin (NOG) gene, which is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is linked to neurorecovery and neuroregeneration compared to the young group. We link these gene expression findings that were validated to neuroimaging, reporting that in the old group with a MRI finding of TBI-related damage, there was a lesser likelihood to then have a negative MRI finding at follow-up compared to the young group. Together, these data indicate that age impacts gene activity following a TBI, and suggest that this differential activity related to immune regulation and neurorecovery contributes to a lesser likelihood of neuronal recovery in older patients as indicated through neuroimaging. PMID

  17. Older Age Results in Differential Gene Expression after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Is Linked to Imaging Differences at Acute Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Eun; Latour, Lawrence L; Kim, Hyungsuk; Turtzo, L Christine; Olivera, Anlys; Livingston, Whitney S; Wang, Dan; Martin, Christiana; Lai, Chen; Cashion, Ann; Gill, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Older age consistently relates to a lesser ability to fully recover from a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is limited data to explicate the nature of age-related risks. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of age on gene-activity following a TBI, and how this biomarker relates to changes in neuroimaging findings. A young group (between the ages of 19 and 35 years), and an old group (between the ages of 60 and 89 years) were compared on global gene-activity within 48 h following a TBI, and then at follow-up within 1-week. At each time-point, gene expression profiles, and imaging findings from both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography were obtained and compared. The young group was found to have greater gene expression of inflammatory regulatory genes at 48 h and 1-week in genes such as basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BACH2), leucine-rich repeat neuronal 3 (LRRN3), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) compared to the old group. In the old group, there was increased activity in genes within S100 family, including calcium binding protein P (S100P) and S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), which previous studies have linked to poor recovery from TBI. The old group also had reduced activity of the noggin (NOG) gene, which is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is linked to neurorecovery and neuroregeneration compared to the young group. We link these gene expression findings that were validated to neuroimaging, reporting that in the old group with a MRI finding of TBI-related damage, there was a lesser likelihood to then have a negative MRI finding at follow-up compared to the young group. Together, these data indicate that age impacts gene activity following a TBI, and suggest that this differential activity related to immune regulation and neurorecovery contributes to a lesser likelihood of neuronal recovery in older patients as indicated through neuroimaging. PMID

  18. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26912636

  19. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury.

  20. The hemostatic disturbance in patients with acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xinliang; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coagulopathy is still a frequent complication in the surgical treatment of acute aortic dissection. However, the physiopathology of surgically induced coagulopathy has never been systematically and comprehensively studied in patients with acute aortic dissection. The aim of the present study was to describe the perioperative hemostatic system in patients with acute aortic dissection. The 87 patients who underwent aortic arch surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection from January 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in this study. The perioperative biomarkers of hemostatic system were evaluated using standard laboratory tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) at 5 time points: anesthesia induction (T1), lowest nasopharyngeal temperature (T2), protamine reversal (T3), 4 hours after surgery (T4), and 24 hours after surgery (T5). The ELISAs biomarkers revealed activation of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT] and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] were elevated), suppression of anticoagulation (antithrombin III [AT III] levels were depressed), and activation of fibrinolysis (plasminogen was decreased and plasmin-antiplasmin complex [PAP] was elevated). The standard laboratory tests also demonstrated that surgery resulted in a significant reduction in platelet counts and fibrinogen concentration. Systemic activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and inhibition of anticoagulation were observed during the perioperative period in patients with acute aortic dissection. Indeed, these patients exhibited consumption coagulopathy and procoagulant state perioperatively. Therefore, we believe that this remarkable disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like coagulopathy has a high risk of bleeding and may influence postoperative outcome of patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:27603366

  1. Neutrophil elastase mediates acute pathogenesis and is a determinant of long-term behavioral recovery after traumatic injury to the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Semple, Bridgette D; Trivedi, Alpa; Gimlin, Kayleen; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    , WT mice treated acutely with the NE inhibitor showed no long-term behavioral or structural improvements. Together, these findings validate the central role of NE in both acute pathogenesis and chronic functional recovery, and support future exploration of the therapeutic window, taking into account the prolonged period of neutrophil trafficking into the injured immature brain. PMID:25497734

  2. Südeck's post-traumatic osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Murariu, Isabella Cristina; Macovei, Luana

    2012-01-01

    The diversity that exists in the types of trauma, in the investigated anatomical structures, in the sites of trauma, in the outcomes of traumatic injuries, and in the general reaction of the body lead to a symptomatological polymorphism of post-traumatic sequelae. Therefore it is impossible to establish a well-defined nosological entity of these sequelae. The damaged tissues react under a very similar scheme, irrespective of the type of tissue, trauma or area, namely, through an inflammatory process, that causes various sequelae depending on certain parameters. Südeck post-traumatic osteodystrophy may be defined as a pathological entity based on some well-defined clinical features, on the development of its own therapy and on its more or less ubiquitous character. Südeck's post-traumatic osteodystrophy of the hand is rarely found isolated. This "acute bone atrophy" is usually included in the "pathological syndrome of the hand" and is caused by circulatory disorders that occur on a traumatized hand or on a hand with injury "at a distance", especially when nerve damage is involved. PMID:23700903

  3. [Post-traumatic stress disorder: a problem for occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Koniarek, J

    2000-01-01

    The impact of the mental stress on the human functioning and health has been evidenced in numerous studies. The majority of these studies focus on adverse effects of a long-term stress. Recently, a growing attention has been paid to the relationship between health and acute stress induced by sudden and short-lasting events or experiences characterised by particular intensity. A traumatic stress is one of the forms of the acute stress. It is some kind of reaction to an event in which life of an individual is directly threatened (serious injury, endangered physical integrity, etc.) or he/she witnesses sudden death, serious injury or life-threatening situation of other people. Traumatic experiences may lead among others to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The review of the studies, presented in this paper, indicates that the proportion of people with traumatic experiences ranges between 40 and 90% depending on the population. There are professions (rescue services, the police, etc.) with inherent traumatic experiences. About 10% of people with traumatic experiences develop PTSD. The author indicates factors responsible for the development of PTSD. The society, particularly people whose professions involve traumatic experiences, and those employed in various institutions responsible for health care should be aware of health problems related to this kind of experiences. PMID:11002473

  4. A clinical prediction model for long-term functional outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury based on acute clinical and imaging factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jefferson R; Grossman, Robert G; Frankowski, Ralph F; Kiss, Alexander; Davis, Aileen M; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Harrop, James S; Aarabi, Bizhan; Vaccaro, Alexander; Tator, Charles H; Dvorak, Marcel; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Harkema, Susan; Guest, James D; Fehlings, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    To improve clinicians' ability to predict outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to help classify patients within clinical trials, we have created a novel prediction model relating acute clinical and imaging information to functional outcome at 1 year. Data were obtained from two large prospective SCI datasets. Functional independence measure (FIM) motor score at 1 year follow-up was the primary outcome, and functional independence (score ≥ 6 for each FIM motor item) was the secondary outcome. A linear regression model was created with the primary outcome modeled relative to clinical and imaging predictors obtained within 3 days of injury. A logistic model was then created using the dichotomized secondary outcome and the same predictor variables. Model validation was performed using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Of 729 patients, 376 met the inclusion criteria. The mean FIM motor score at 1 year was 62.9 (±28.6). Better functional status was predicted by less severe initial American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale grade, and by an ASIA motor score >50 at admission. In contrast, older age and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics consistent with spinal cord edema or hemorrhage predicted worse functional outcome. The linear model predicting FIM motor score demonstrated an R-square of 0.52 in the original dataset, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.52,0.53) across the 200 bootstraps. Functional independence was achieved by 148 patients (39.4%). For the logistic model, the area under the curve was 0.93 in the original dataset, and 0.92 (95% CI 0.92,0.93) across the bootstraps, indicating excellent predictive discrimination. These models will have important clinical impact to guide decision making and to counsel patients and families.

  5. A Clinical Prediction Model for Long-Term Functional Outcome after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Based on Acute Clinical and Imaging Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jefferson R.; Grossman, Robert G.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Kiss, Alexander; Davis, Aileen M.; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Harrop, James S.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Vaccaro, Alexander; Tator, Charles H.; Dvorak, Marcel; Shaffrey, Christopher I.; Harkema, Susan; Guest, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To improve clinicians' ability to predict outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to help classify patients within clinical trials, we have created a novel prediction model relating acute clinical and imaging information to functional outcome at 1 year. Data were obtained from two large prospective SCI datasets. Functional independence measure (FIM) motor score at 1 year follow-up was the primary outcome, and functional independence (score ≥6 for each FIM motor item) was the secondary outcome. A linear regression model was created with the primary outcome modeled relative to clinical and imaging predictors obtained within 3 days of injury. A logistic model was then created using the dichotomized secondary outcome and the same predictor variables. Model validation was performed using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Of 729 patients, 376 met the inclusion criteria. The mean FIM motor score at 1 year was 62.9 (±28.6). Better functional status was predicted by less severe initial American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale grade, and by an ASIA motor score >50 at admission. In contrast, older age and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics consistent with spinal cord edema or hemorrhage predicted worse functional outcome. The linear model predicting FIM motor score demonstrated an R-square of 0.52 in the original dataset, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.52,0.53) across the 200 bootstraps. Functional independence was achieved by 148 patients (39.4%). For the logistic model, the area under the curve was 0.93 in the original dataset, and 0.92 (95% CI 0.92,0.93) across the bootstraps, indicating excellent predictive discrimination. These models will have important clinical impact to guide decision making and to counsel patients and families. PMID:22709268

  6. Acute kidney injury in acute liver failure: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joanna K; Love, Eleanor; Craig, Darren G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2013-11-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and often devastating condition consequent on massive liver cell necrosis that frequently affects young, previously healthy individuals resulting in altered cognitive function, coagulopathy and peripheral vasodilation. These patients frequently develop concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). This abrupt and sustained decline in renal function, through a number of pathogenic mechanisms such as renal hypoperfusion, direct drug-induced nephrotoxicity or sepsis/systemic inflammatory response contributes to increased morbidity and is strongly associated with a worse prognosis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology AKI in the context of acute liver failure may be beneficial in a number of areas; the development of new and sensitive biomarkers of renal dysfunction, refining prognosis and organ allocation, and ultimately leading to the development of novel treatment strategies, these issues are discussed in more detail in this expert review.

  7. Coagulopathy triggered autoimmunity: experimental antiphospholipid syndrome in factor V Leiden mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated interactions between genetically and autoimmune-mediated coagulopathies by inducing experimental antiphospholipid syndrome (eAPS) in mice carrying the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation. Methods eAPS was induced in heterozygous and homozygous FVL transgenic mice (C57BL/6 background) by immunization with β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). Autoantibody levels were measured at 1 and 5 months post-immunization. Mice were tested at 4 months post-immunization for behavior and cognitive function in the staircase, elevated plus-maze, and swim T-maze tests. Brains were removed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for inflammatory markers and neurodegenerative processes. Results A single immunization with β2-GPI induced significantly higher and longer-lasting immune responses, and this was dependent on the number of FVL alleles. At 1 and 5 months post-immunization, levels of antibodies rose from 1.17 ± 0.07 to 1.62 ± 0.17 (optical density units; ODU) in homozygous FVL mice, compared with stable levels of 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.48 ± 0.16 ODU in heterozygous FVL mice and a drop from 1.62 ± 0.21 to 0.61 ± 0.13 ODU in wild-type mice. Behavioral and cognitive clinical features of eAPS were also correlated with FVL allele load, as assessed by the elevated plus-maze (altered anxiety), staircase (hyperactivity and higher exploration), and swim T-maze (impaired learning) tests. Histological studies identified significant neurodegenerative changes in both grey and white matter in the eAPS-FVL brains. In spite of the potential interaction of two prothrombotic disease states, there were no ischemic lesions seen in this group. Conclusions The results indicate that genetically mediated coagulopathies increase the risk of developing coagulation-targeted autoimmune responses, and suggest the importance of antibody-mediated neurodegenerative processes in the brain in APS. PMID:23566870

  8. Traumatic events and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a one-time traumatic event or a repeated trauma that happens over and over again. Examples of one-time traumatic events are: Natural disasters, such as a tornado, hurricane, fire, or flood Rape Witness shooting or stabbing of a person Sudden ...

  9. Efficacy of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Treatment in Patients with Liver Coagulopathy Who Underwent Various Invasive Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lesmana, Cosmas Rinaldi A.; Cahyadinata, Lidwina; Pakasi, Levina S.; Lesmana, Laurentius A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) containing prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X, as well as the inhibitors protein C and S have been used as an emergent reversal for oral anticoagulation therapy. The use of PCCs in hepatobiliary disorder patients or patients with liver coagulopathy who need to undergo invasive procedures has not been well studied. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of PCC treatment in order to control or prevent bleeding complications in patients with liver coagulopathy who undergo various invasive procedures. Methods This was a prospective, open-label, non-randomized, before-and-after study in patients with hepatobiliary disorders who underwent invasive procedures accompanied by liver impairment and received PCC injection (Cofact®, Sanquin, The Netherlands). Patients with coagulopathy from various causes were recruited consecutively. Data collected were the episodes of bleeding, liver function test and the international normalized ratio (INR) before and after PCC therapy. The primary endpoint was INR change after treatment, while secondary endpoints included bleeding control and bleeding event after treatment. Results Thirty patients (17 men, 13 women) were enrolled. Patients’ mean age was 57.0 + 15.5 years. Liver cirrhosis was found in 14 patients (46.7%). The procedures consisted of liver biopsy, liver abscess aspiration, abdominal paracentesis, therapeutic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, abdominal surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. After treatment, 25 patients (83.3%) showed a decreased median INR (from 1.6 to 1.3) (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test). Five patients failed to show INR reduction. No new bleeding event related to the invasive procedures was observed. Conclusion PCC treatment is effective to control and prevent bleeding complications in patients with liver coagulopathy who undergo invasive procedures. PMID:27482190

  10. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  11. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury.

    PubMed

    Grottke, Oliver; Braunschweig, Till; Spronk, Henri M H; Esch, Stephanie; Rieg, Annette D; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Fitzner, Christina; Tolba, Rene; Rossaint, Rolf

    2011-08-18

    Despite increasing use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to treat hemorrhage-associated coagulopathy, few studies have investigated PCC in trauma, and there is a particular lack of safety data. This study was performed to evaluate PCC therapy in a porcine model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Coagulopathy was induced in 27 anesthetized pigs by replacing approximately 70% blood volume with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactate solution; erythrocytes were collected and retransfused. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received PCC (35 or 50 IU/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters including thromboelastometry, thrombin generation, and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. Internal organs were examined macroscopically and histologically to determine the presence of emboli and assess liver injury. Total blood loss was significantly lower and survival was higher in both PCC groups versus the control group (P < .05). These outcomes appeared to be dose-independent. Thromboembolism was found in all animals treated with 50 IU/kg PCC; 44% also showed signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Liver injury was similar in all animals. In conclusion, 35 IU/kg PCC safely improved coagulation and attenuated blood loss. However, the higher dose of PCC (50 IU/kg) appeared to increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  12. New insights into the coagulopathy of liver disease and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Senzolo, M; Burra, P; Cholongitas, E; Burroughs, AK

    2006-01-01

    The liver is an essential player in the pathway of coagulation in both primary and secondary haemostasis. Only von Willebrand factor is not synthetised by the liver, thus liver failure is associated with impairment of coagulation. However, recently it has been shown that the delicate balance between pro and antithrombotic factors synthetised by the liver might be reset to a lower level in patients with chronic liver disease. Therefore, these patients might not be really anticoagulated in stable condition and bleeding may be caused only when additional factors, such as infections, supervene. Portal hypertension plays an important role in coagulopathy in liver disease, reducing the number of circulating platelets, but platelet function and secretion of thrombopoietin have been also shown to be impaired in patients with liver disease. Vitamin K deficiency may coexist, so that abnormal clotting factors are produced due to lack of gamma carboxylation. Moreover during liver failure, there is a reduced capacity to clear activated haemostatic proteins and protein inhibitor complexes from the circulation. Usually therapy for coagulation disorders in liver disease is needed only during bleeding or before invasive procedures. When end stage liver disease occurs, liver transplantation is the only treatment available, which can restore normal haemostasis, and correct genetic clotting defects, such as haemophilia or factor V Leiden mutation. During liver transplantation haemorrage may occur due to the pre-existing hypocoagulable state, the collateral circulation caused by portal hypertension and increased fibrinolysis which occurs during this surgery. PMID:17203512

  13. Direct activation of platelets by heat is the possible trigger of the coagulopathy of heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Gader, A M; al-Mashhadani, S A; al-Harthy, S S

    1990-01-01

    The trigger of the coagulopathy that complicates heat stroke is obscure, but direct platelet activation by heat is a possibility we set out to study. Platelet rich plasma (PRP), prepared from blood donors, was incubated at increasing temperatures (38-45 degrees C) and then platelet aggregation was undertaken in response to decreasing low doses of ADP (less than 2.0 mumol/l). Hyperaggregability was manifested when the incubation temperature reached 43 degrees C and was maximum at 44 degrees C before complete inhibition of responses at 45 degrees C. The platelet hyperactivity induced by heating at 44 degrees C persisted after reincubating PRP samples at 37 degrees C. These platelet responses could not be triggered in PRP samples prepared from subjects after the overnight ingestion of aspirin or after the addition of aspirin to PRP before starting the heating procedure. However, aspirin was less effective when added to PRP after the appearance of the heat-induced hyperaggregability. In conclusion, these results indicate that platelets can be activated directly by heat. This mechanism which may be operational in heat stroke, is unaffected by cooling (body cooling being basic in the management of heat stroke) but can be prevented by the early administration of aspirin. PMID:2310701

  14. Coagulopathy after snake bite by Bothrops neuwiedi: case report and results of in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Dempfle, C E; Kohl, R; Harenberg, J; Kirschstein, W; Schlauch, D; Heene, D L

    1990-12-01

    Coagulation studies were performed in a patient who had been bitten by a snake of the species Bothrops neuwiedi. The patient presented with hemorrhagic necrosis at the envenomization site and considerable bleeding from venous puncture sites. He developed a severe defibrination syndrome with a clottable fibrinogen level of approximately 0.1 g/l. Fibrinogen was not measurable by clotting time assay. Fibrin degradation products were greatly elevated. Treatment with antivenom caused an anaphylactic reaction within ten minutes and serum sickness after three days. In vitro experiments revealed that B. neuwiedi venom directly activates Factors II and X, but does not activate Factor XIII. In vivo consumption of Factor XIII after B. neuwiedi envenomization is ascribed to the action of Factor IIa. At low venom concentrations clotting is initiated by activation of prothrombin by the venom either directly or via Factor X activation. Treatment with heparin might be beneficial in coagulopathy secondary to snake bite by reducing circulating active thrombin. The venom contains thrombin-like proteases which cause slow clotting of fibrinogen, and plasmin-like components causing further proteolysis of fibrinogen and fibrin. Antivenom has no effect on the proteolytic action of the snake venom. The in vivo effects of antivenom are presumably caused by acceleration of the elimination of venom components from the circulation. Intravenous administration of antivenom caused normalization of blood coagulation parameters within 48 h. PMID:2291986

  15. Thrombo-hemorrhagic deaths in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Lo Coco, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become the most curable form of acute myeloid leukemia after the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, early deaths (ED) mostly due to the disease-associated coagulopathy remain the major cause of treatment failure. In particular, hemorrhagic events account for 40-65% of ED and several prognostic factors have been identified for such hemorrhagic deaths, including poor performance status, high white blood cell (WBC) count and coagulopathy. Occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with ATRA may be associated with differentiation syndrome (DS) or represent an isolated event. Some prognostic factors have been reported to be associated with thrombosis, including increased WBC or aberrant immunophenotype of leukemic promyelocytes. Aim of this review is to report the incidence, severity, possible pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombo-haemorrhagic deaths in APL.

  16. Thrombo-hemorrhagic deaths in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Lo Coco, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become the most curable form of acute myeloid leukemia after the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, early deaths (ED) mostly due to the disease-associated coagulopathy remain the major cause of treatment failure. In particular, hemorrhagic events account for 40-65% of ED and several prognostic factors have been identified for such hemorrhagic deaths, including poor performance status, high white blood cell (WBC) count and coagulopathy. Occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with ATRA may be associated with differentiation syndrome (DS) or represent an isolated event. Some prognostic factors have been reported to be associated with thrombosis, including increased WBC or aberrant immunophenotype of leukemic promyelocytes. Aim of this review is to report the incidence, severity, possible pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombo-haemorrhagic deaths in APL. PMID:24862130

  17. Massive transfusion: an overview of the main characteristics and potential risks associated with substances used for correction of a coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Samama, Meyer Michel

    2012-10-01

    Massive transfusion (MT) is an empiric mode of treatment advocated for uncontrolled bleeding and massive haemorrhage, aiming at optimal resuscitation and aggressive correction of coagulopathy. Conventional guidelines recommend early administration of crystalloids and colloids in conjunction with red cells, where the red cell also plays a critical haemostatic function. Plasma and platelets are only used in patients with microvascular bleeding with PT/APTT values >1.5 times the normal values and if PLT counts are below 50×10(9)/L. Massive transfusion carries a significant mortality rate (40%), which increases with the number of volume expanders and blood components transfused. Controversies still exist over the optimal ratio of blood components with respect to overall clinical outcomes and collateral damage. While inadequate transfusion is believed to be associated with poor outcomes but empirical over transfusion results in unnecessary donor exposure with an increased rate of sepsis, transfusion overload and infusion of variable amounts of some biological response modifiers (BRMs), which have the potential to cause additional harm. Alternative strategies, such as early use of tranexamic acid are helpful. However in trauma settings the use of warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) instead of reconstituted components with a different ratio of stored components might be the most cost effective and safer option to improve the patient's survival rate and minimise collateral damage. This manuscript, after a brief summary of standard medical intervention in massive transfusion focuses on the main characteristics of various substances currently available to overcome massive transfusion coagulopathy. The relative levels of some BRMs in fresh and aged blood components of the same origin are highlighted and some myths and unresolved issues related to massive transfusion practice are discussed. In brief, the coagulopathy in MT is a complex phenomenon, often complicated by chronic

  18. [Simultaneous occurrence of hemophilia A and acute lymphatic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Schmid, L; Schafroth, U; Osterwalder, B; Senn, H J

    1987-11-14

    In this paper the case of a man with haemophilia A is presented. At the age of 18 years an acute lymphatic leukaemia was observed. The case report demonstrates that even in the presence of a severe plasmatic coagulopathy an acute lymphatic leukaemia can be successfully treated with intensive chemotherapy, if the monitoring of the coagulation values and the substitution of antihaemophilic globulin and thrombocytes are guaranteed. Only 4 cases of haemophilia and acute leukaemia in the same patient are described in the literature. So we believe that the association of these two rare disorders is merely accidental.

  19. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment.

  20. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment. PMID:23198672

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities include problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), ... barrier. NIH Patient Recruitment for Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  3. TEG® and RapidTEG® are unreliable for detecting warfarin-coagulopathy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thromboelastography® (TEG) utilizes kaolin, an intrinsic pathway activator, to assess clotting function. Recent published studies suggest that TEG results are commonly normal in patients receiving warfarin, despite an increased International Normalized Ratio (INR). Because RapidTEG™ includes tissue factor, an extrinsic pathway activator, as well as kaolin, we hypothesized that RapidTEG would be more sensitive in detecting a warfarin-effect. Methods Included in this prospective study were 22 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardioversion and receiving warfarin. Prior to cardioversion, blood was collected to assess INR, Prothrombin Time, TEG, and RapidTEG. Results INR Results: 2.8 ± 0.5 (1.6 to 4.2). Prothrombin Time Results: 19.1 ± 2.2 (13.9. to 24.3). TEG Results (Reference Range): R-Time: 8.3 ± 2.7 (2–8); K-Time: 2.1 ± 1.4 (1–3); Angle: 62.5 ± 10.3 (55–78); MA: 63.2 ± 10.3 (51–69); G: 9.4 ± 3.5 (4.6-10.9); R-Time within normal range: 10 (45.5%) with INR 2.9 ± 0.3; Correlation coefficients for INR and each of the 5 TEG variables were insignificant (P > 0.05). RapidTEG Results (Reference Range): ACT: 132 ± 58 (86–118); K-Time: 1.2 ± 0.5 (1–2); Angle: 75.4 ± 5.2 (64–80); MA: 63.4 ± 5.1 (52–71); G: 8.9 ± 2.0 (5.0-11.6); ACT within normal range: 9 (40.9%) with INR 2.7 ± 0.5; Correlation coefficients for INR and each of the 5 RapidTEG variables were insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusions TEG, using kaolin activation, and RapidTEG, with kaolin and tissue factor activation, were normal in a substantial percent of warfarin patients, despite an increased INR. The false-negative rate for detecting warfarin coagulopathy with either test is unacceptable. The lack of correlation between INR and all TEG and RapidTEG components further indicates that these methodologies are insensitive to warfarin effects. Findings suggest that intrinsic pathway activation may

  4. Does saline resuscitation affect mechanisms of coagulopathy in critically ill trauma patients? An exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin A; Gosselin, Robert C; Utter, Garth H; Galante, Joseph M; Young, Jason B; Scherer, Lynette A; Schermer, Carol R

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic acidosis has been implicated in the development of coagulopathy, although the specific mechanisms have not been well characterized. We sought to explore whether resuscitation of injured patients with a balanced crystalloid solution affects coagulation, as measured by endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and thromboelastography (TEG). We performed an exploratory analysis of a subset of subjects enrolled in a randomized trial comparing the effect of resuscitation with isotonic saline versus Plasma-Lyte A (PLA) on acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities. We collected plasma at admission and 6 h later for subsequent ETP and TEG analysis and compared subjects receiving isotonic saline to those receiving PLA. Among 18 evaluated subjects, baseline characteristics, including ETP and TEG parameters, were similar between the two arms. At 6 h, subjects receiving isotonic saline were more acidemic. At 6 h, there were no differences in ETP parameters between groups; however, TEG results showed the time from initial clot formation to an amplitude of 20 mm (K) was shorter (3.8 ± 2.1 vs. 7.2 ± 2.8 s) and the rapidity of fibrin build-up and cross-linking (α angle) was significantly greater (41 ± 8 vs. 24 ± 15 deg) for the PLA group than in the isotonic saline group. Relative to PLA, isotonic saline does not alter thrombin generation, but isotonic saline and PLA may differentially impact clotting factor availability. The shorter time to reach prespecified clot amplitude and the increased rate of fibrin generation imply faster amplification of clotting factors with PLA without effect on latency time or clot strength. PMID:25803514

  5. Biological basis of personalized anticoagulation in cancer: oncogene and oncomir networks as putative regulators of coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Activation of stromal response pathways in cancer is increasingly viewed as both a local and systemic extension of molecular alterations driving malignant transformation. Rather than reflecting passive and unspecific responses to anatomical abnormalities, the coagulation system is a target of oncogenic deregulation, impacting the role of clotting and fibrinolytic proteins, and integrating hemostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis and cellular growth effects in cancer. These processes signify, but do not depend on, the clinically manifest coagulopathy and thrombosis. In this regard, the role of driver mutations affecting oncoprotein coding genes such as RAS, EGFR or MET and tumour suppressors (PTEN, TP53) are well described as regulators of tissue factor (TF), protease activated receptors (PAR-1/2) and ectopic coagulation factors (FVII). Indeed, in both adult and pediatric brain tumours the expression patterns of coagulation and angiogenesis regulators (coagulome and angiome, respectively) reflect the molecular subtypes of the underlying diseases (glioblastoma or medulloblastoma) as defined by their oncogenic classifiers and clinical course. This emerging understanding is still poorly established in relation to the transforming effects of non-coding genes, including those responsible for the expression of microRNA (miR). Indeed, several miRs have been recently found to regulate TF and other effectors. We recently documented that in the context of the aggressive embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) the oncogenic driver miR (miR-520g) suppresses the expression of TF and correlates with hypocoagulant tumour characteristics. Unlike in adult cancers, the growth of pediatric embryonal brain tumour cells as spheres (to maintain stem cell properties) results in upregulation of miR-520g and downregulation of TF expression and activity. We postulate that oncogenic protein and miR coding genes form alternative pathways of coagulation system regulation in different

  6. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  7. Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.

  8. Traumatic Alterations in Consciousness: Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) refers to the clinical condition of transient alteration of consciousness as a result of traumatic injury to the brain. The priority of emergency care is to identify and facilitate the treatment of rare but potentially life threatening intra-cranial injuries associated with mTBI through the judicious application of appropriate imaging studies and neurosurgical consultation. Although post-mTBI symptoms quickly and completely resolve in the vast majority of cases, a significant number of patients will complain of lasting problems that may cause significant disability. Simple and early interventions such as patient education and appropriate referral can reduce the likelihood of chronic symptoms. Although definitive evidence is lacking, mTBI is likely to be related to significant long-term sequelae such as Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative processes. PMID:20709244

  9. [Clinical approach to post-traumatic stress disorders].

    PubMed

    Boussaud, Marie

    2015-01-01

    A confrontation with death can lead to acute reactions of stress, followed possibly, after a phase of latency, by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterised by the appearance of a repetition syndrome combining reliving, hypervigilance and avoidance; comorbidities frequently arise, increasingthe risk of suicide. Caregivers have an important role to play in identifying them.

  10. Evaluation of risk factors in patients with vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy presumed to be caused by exposure to brodifacoum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Jeong; You, Mi-Ra; Moon, Woo-Ram; Sul, Hyoung; Chung, Choon-Hae; Park, Chi-Young

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Recently, many cases of vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy of unknown origin have been reported. Such patients lack any relevant family history and have no systemic disease, raising suspicion of superwarfarin intoxication. We evaluated individual risk factors causing coagulopathy and hemorrhagic symptoms in patients with suspected superwarfarin intoxication. In addition, we determined how to effectively treat vitamin K-dependent coagulopathy caused by suspected superwarfarin intoxication. Methods Seven patients with suspected superwarfarin intoxication who lacked any definitive history of rodenticide ingestion were included. Thirty-one patients initially diagnosed with rodenticide poisoning were also included. We performed a retrospective chart review of all subjects and examined clinical data including patient demographics and medical histories. Results Patients initially diagnosed with rodenticide poisoning were divided into two groups, one of which had a laboratory abnormality (prothrombin time [PT] > 13 seconds) and another group with PTs in the normal range. There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of age, gender, the extent of chronic alcohol consumption, the causative rodenticide, psychiatric problems, ingestion of drugs interacting with warfarin, the extent of intoxication, or the type of ingestion attempt. The albumin level of the former group was significantly lower than that of the latter group (p = 0.014). Furthermore, a significant difference between the two groups was evident in terms of simultaneous ingestion of rodenticide and alcohol (p = 0.023). Conclusions Most patients with superwarfarin poisoning did not exhibit any complication. When such complications were evident, they were associated with serum albumin level and coingestion of rodenticide and alcohol. PMID:25045298

  11. Tooth loss and associated factors in patients with coagulopathies in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Larycia Vicente; Moreira, Mayara dos Santos Camêlo; de Oliveira, Carla Ramos; de Medeiros, Julia Julliêta; Lima, Eufrásio de Andrade; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    2013-01-01

    Background The most common and best known hereditary coagulopathies are hemophilia A and B followed by von Willebrand Disease. Objective This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tooth loss and investigate its association with demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as to discuss self-reported oral morbidity and use of health services by patients with coagulopathies treated in blood centers in Paraíba, Brazil. Methods This was a quantitative cross-sectional epidemiological survey. Data was collected in the period from October 2011 to July 2012 by clinical examination and by assessing interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics with the level of significance (α) being set at 10%. Results One hundred and six, predominantly male (88.8%), patients with coagulopathies were evaluated. The ages ranged from one to 59 years. Most patients were of mixed race (61.3%), most reported family incomes between R$ 501.00 and R$ 1500.00 (49.1%), and most had not completed elementary school (37.1%). Hemophilia A was found in 76.4% of the cases. The prevalence of dental caries among individuals was 50.0% predominantly in the 13- to 19-year-old age range (66.7%). As regards to tooth loss, teeth were missing in 35.1% of the study participants. Conclusion Tooth loss is high in this population. Males with severe hemophilia A, those who use fluoride and have a good or very good perception about their last dental appointment have a reduced chance of losing their teeth. PMID:24255614

  12. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder

    MedlinePlus

    PTSD ... providers do not know why traumatic events cause PTSD in some people, but not in others. Your ... Past emotional trauma may increase your risk of PTSD after a recent traumatic event. With PTSD, the ...

  14. The hemostatic disturbance in patients with acute aortic dissection: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xinliang; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2016-09-01

    Coagulopathy is still a frequent complication in the surgical treatment of acute aortic dissection. However, the physiopathology of surgically induced coagulopathy has never been systematically and comprehensively studied in patients with acute aortic dissection. The aim of the present study was to describe the perioperative hemostatic system in patients with acute aortic dissection.The 87 patients who underwent aortic arch surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection from January 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in this study. The perioperative biomarkers of hemostatic system were evaluated using standard laboratory tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) at 5 time points: anesthesia induction (T1), lowest nasopharyngeal temperature (T2), protamine reversal (T3), 4 hours after surgery (T4), and 24 hours after surgery (T5).The ELISAs biomarkers revealed activation of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT] and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] were elevated), suppression of anticoagulation (antithrombin III [AT III] levels were depressed), and activation of fibrinolysis (plasminogen was decreased and plasmin-antiplasmin complex [PAP] was elevated). The standard laboratory tests also demonstrated that surgery resulted in a significant reduction in platelet counts and fibrinogen concentration.Systemic activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and inhibition of anticoagulation were observed during the perioperative period in patients with acute aortic dissection. Indeed, these patients exhibited consumption coagulopathy and procoagulant state perioperatively. Therefore, we believe that this remarkable disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like coagulopathy has a high risk of bleeding and may influence postoperative outcome of patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:27603366

  15. [Traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, K; Unterberg, A

    2016-02-01

    Since traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of long-term disability and death among young adults, it represents an enormous socio-economic and healthcare burden. As a consequence of the primary lesion, a perifocal brain edema develops causing an elevation of the intracranial pressure due to the limited intracranial space. This entails a reduction of the cerebral perfusion pressure and the cerebral blood flow. A cerebral perfusion deficit below the threshold for ischemia leads to further ischemic lesions and to a progression of the contusion. As the irreversible primary lesion can only be inhibited by primary prevention, the therapy of traumatic brain injury focuses on the secondary injuries. The treatment consists of surgical therapy evacuating the space-occupying intracranial lesion and conservative intensive medical care. Due to the complex pathophysiology the therapy of traumatic brain injury should be rapidly performed in a neurosurgical unit. PMID:26810405

  16. Prehospital Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock with Hypertonic Solutions Worsens Hypocoagulation and Hyperfibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Delano, Matthew J; Rizoli, Sandro B; Rhind, Shawn G; Cuschieri, Joseph; Junger, Wolfgang; Baker, Andrew J; Dubick, Michael A; Hoyt, David B; Bulger, Eileen M

    2015-07-01

    Impaired hemostasis frequently occurs after traumatic shock and resuscitation. The prehospital fluid administered can exacerbate subsequent bleeding and coagulopathy. Hypertonic solutions are recommended as first-line treatment of traumatic shock; however, their effects on coagulation are unclear. This study explores the impact of resuscitation with various hypertonic solutions on early coagulopathy after trauma. We conducted a prospective observational subgroup analysis of large clinical trial on out-of-hospital single-bolus (250 mL) hypertonic fluid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock trauma patients (systolic blood pressure, ≤70 mmHg). Patients received 7.5% NaCl (HS), 7.5% NaCl/6% Dextran 70 (HSD), or 0.9% NaCl (normal saline [NS]) in the prehospital setting. Thirty-four patients were included: 9 HS, 8 HSD, 17 NS. Treatment with HS/HSD led to higher admission systolic blood pressure, sodium, chloride, and osmolarity, whereas lactate, base deficit, fluid requirement, and hemoglobin levels were similar in all groups. The HSD-resuscitated patients had higher admission international normalized ratio values and more hypocoagulable patients, 62% (vs. 55% HS, 47% NS; P < 0.05). Prothrombotic tissue factor was elevated in shock treated with NS but depressed in both HS and HSD groups. Fibrinolytic tissue plasminogen activator and anti-fibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 were increased by shock but not thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. The HSD patients had the worst imbalance between procoagulation/anticoagulation and profibrinolysis/antifibrinolysis, resulting in more hypocoagulability and hyperfibrinolysis. We concluded that resuscitation with hypertonic solutions, particularly HSD, worsens hypocoagulability and hyperfibrinolysis after hemorrhagic shock in trauma through imbalances in both procoagulants and anticoagulants and both profibrinolytic and antifibrinolytic activities.

  17. [Traumatic and occupational deafness].

    PubMed

    Poncet, J L; Kossowski, M; Verdaille, P

    2000-01-15

    The frequency of accidental, traumatic hearing loss is increasing due to a sometimes violently noisy environment and to the development of sports as leisure activities. The diagnosis is based on knowledge of the circumstances of the trauma and on otoscopic examination. Total audiometry localises the damage. Occupational hearing loss forms a special subset of traumatic deafness. This trauma is usually due to intense noise occurring at the work-place. It is of insidious onset, irreversibly progressive and without treatment once under way; Prevention is based on knowledge of the deleterious effects of noise and on the individual factors of the subject at risk.

  18. [Bleeding complications in acute myeloblastic leukemia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sutor, A H

    1979-03-01

    Bleeding is common in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). At the time of diagnosis, the danger of bleeding cannot be predicted by laboratory means. However, the following factors represent increased risks: Promyeloblastic leukemia, high blast count, low fibrinogen, low plasminogen. From coagulation studies performed at the time of bleeding complications, the pathomechanism leading to bleeding complications usually cannot be detected. The question whether impairment of production, consumption coagulopathy, or primary fibrinolysis causes the bleeding complications can only be answered by controlling frequently clinical and hemostatic criteria, which include the thrombocytic stystem as well as plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolysis. At the present time, the therapy of bleeding complications in AML is symptomatic. It consists of transfusion with thrombocytes or fresh whole blood, respectively. Coagulation factor concentrates should only be given in combination with Heparin to prevent the deterioration of consumption coagulopathy.

  19. Bronchoalveolar hemostasis in lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glas, G J; Van Der Sluijs, K F; Schultz, M J; Hofstra, J-J H; Van Der Poll, T; Levi, M

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced intrapulmonary fibrin deposition as a result of abnormal broncho-alveolar fibrin turnover is a hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and is important to the pathogenesis of these conditions. The mechanisms that contribute to alveolar coagulopathy are localized tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation, impaired activity of natural coagulation inhibitors and depression of bronchoalveolar urokinase plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis, caused by the increase of plasminogen activator inhibitors. There is an intense and bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammatory pathways in the bronchoalveolar compartment. Systemic or local administration of anticoagulant agents (including activated protein C, antithrombin and heparin) and profibrinolytic agents (such as plasminogen activators) attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy. Several preclinical studies show additional anti-inflammatory effects of these therapies in ARDS and pneumonia. PMID:23114008

  20. Glutamate and GABA imbalance following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Réjean M.; Giza, Christopher C.; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to multiple short and long term changes in neuronal circuits that ultimately conclude with an imbalance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, receptor populations and specific cell survival are important contributing factors. Many of these changes occur gradually, which may explain the vulnerability of the brain to multiple mild impacts, alterations in neuroplasticity, and delays in the presentation of post-traumatic epilepsy. In this review we provide an overview of normal glutamate and GABA homeostasis, and describe acute, subacute and chronic changes that follow injury. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for therapeutic interventions in this paradigm. PMID:25796572

  1. Transition after Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuban, Caelan

    2011-01-01

    Children experience grief when they suffer the loss of a close relationship. When that loss also traumatizes children, they experience additional emotional reactions. It is important that adults educate themselves and others who deal with children about typical, healthy grief reactions. Following a non-violent loss, the initial reactions of…

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463. ... and Spotlights U.S. hospitals miss followup for suspected child abuse Q&A with NICHD Acting Director Catherine ...

  3. Post-traumatic brachymetatarsia.

    PubMed

    Marcinko, D E; Rappaport, M J; Gordon, S

    1984-01-01

    A case report of post-traumatic brachymetatarsia of the fourth right metatarsal is presented. The literature is reviewed and surgical alternatives are discussed. Treatment consisted of a step-up elongational osteotomy with good results and rapid patient recovery. PMID:6520345

  4. Coping with Traumatic Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This workshop seeks to train persons interested in counseling those who have suffered traumatic loss. The training comes about in part by the participants' introspection into their own past trauma reactions and the coping strategies they used. They also learn from the shared experiences of other participants. The goals of this workshop are to 1)…

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... a concussion may feel dazed and may lose vision or balance for a while after the injury A brain contusion is a bruise of the brain. This ... consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ... or severe traumatic brain injury include all of the symptoms listed above ...

  6. Diabetes Insipidus after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Capatina, Cristina; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Mitchell, Rosalid; Karavitaki, Niki

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI. PMID:26239685

  7. Diabetes Insipidus after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Capatina, Cristina; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Mitchell, Rosalid; Karavitaki, Niki

    2015-07-13

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many age groups. Neuroendocrine dysfunction has been recognized as a consequence of TBI and consists of both anterior and posterior pituitary insufficiency; water and electrolyte abnormalities (diabetes insipidus (DI) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)) are amongst the most challenging sequelae. The acute head trauma can lead (directly or indirectly) to dysfunction of the hypothalamic neurons secreting antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or of the posterior pituitary gland causing post-traumatic DI (PTDI). PTDI is usually diagnosed in the first days after the trauma presenting with hypotonic polyuria. Frequently, the poor general status of most patients prevents adequate fluid intake to compensate the losses and severe dehydration and hypernatremia occur. Management consists of careful monitoring of fluid balance and hormonal replacement. PTDI is associated with high mortality, particularly when presenting very early following the injury. In many surviving patients, the PTDI is transient, lasting a few days to a few weeks and in a minority of cases, it is permanent requiring management similar to that offered to patients with non-traumatic central DI.

  8. [Pre-hospital care management of acute spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Hess, Thorsten; Hirschfeld, Sven; Thietje, Roland; Lönnecker, Stefan; Kerner, Thoralf; Stuhr, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Acute injury to the spine and spinal cord can occur both in isolation as also in the context of multiple injuries. Whereas a few decades ago, the cause of paraplegia was almost exclusively traumatic, the ratio of traumatic to non-traumatic causes in Germany is currently almost equivalent. In acute treatment of spinal cord injury, restoration and maintenance of vital functions, selective control of circulation parameters, and avoidance of positioning or transport-related additional damage are in the foreground. This article provides information on the guideline for emergency treatment of patients with acute injury of the spine and spinal cord in the preclinical phase. PMID:27070515

  9. Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Robert A.; Baskin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed. PMID:26239686

  10. When Is “Pseudo–Ludwig’s Angina” Associated With Coagulopathy Also a “Pseudo” Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, Emily; Patterson, Sarah; Erickson, Mitchel; Chin, Cynthia; Blanc, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual hematoma secondary to short-acting anticoagulants such as warfarin has been labeled “pseudo–Ludwig’s angina” to distinguish it from the classic syndrome of localized infection and swelling involving the upper airway. Sublingual hematoma with airway compromise secondary to brodifacoum, a common long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide, has only been reported in the veterinary literature. We report a case of massive tongue swelling and impending airway compromise in the context of an intentional long-acting anticoagulant ingestion leading to coagulopathy. The swelling was initially presumed to be due either to infection or hemorrhage, but this was not supported by computed tomography scan imaging. Instead, the patient’s clinical course was consistent with corticosteroid-responsive angioedema, temporally associated with the ingested brodifacoum. PMID:26425576

  11. Transjugular Insertion of Bare-Metal Biliary Stent for the Treatment of Distal Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Complicated by Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsauo Jiaywei Li Xiao Li Hongcui Wei Bo Luo Xuefeng Zhang Chunle Tang Chengwei; Wang Weiping

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to investigate retrospectively the feasibility of transjugular insertion of biliary stent (TIBS) for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice complicated by coagulopathy. Between April 2005 and May 2010, six patients with distal malignant obstructive jaundice associated with coagulopathy that was unable to be corrected underwent TIBS at our institution for the palliation of jaundice. Patients' medical record and imaging results were reviewed to obtain information about demographics, procedure details, complications, and clinical outcomes. The intrahepatic biliary tract was successfully accessed in all six patients via transjugular approach. The procedure was technically successfully in five of six patients, with a bare-metal stent implanted after traversing the biliary strictures. One procedure failed, because the guidewire could not traverse the biliary occlusion. One week after TIBS, the mean serum bilirubin in the five successful cases had decreased from 313 {mu}mol/L (range 203.4-369.3) to 146.2 {mu}mol/L (range 95.8-223.3) and had further decreased to 103.6 {mu}mol/L (range 29.5-240.9) at 1 month after the procedure. No bleeding, sepsis, or other major complications were observed after the procedure. The mean survival of these five patients was 4.5 months (range 1.9-5.8). On imaging follow-up, there was no evidence of stent stenosis or migration, with 100 % primary patency. When the risks of hemorrhage from percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage are high, TIBS may be an effective alternative for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice.

  12. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell’s Viper Bites with Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Maduwage, Kalana; Scorgie, Fiona E.; Shahmy, Seyed; Mohamed, Fahim; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harendra; O’Leary, Margaret A.; Gnanathasan, Christeine A.; Lincz, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Russell’s viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell’s viper envenoming. Methodology/Principal Findings In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell’s viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39y (16–82y) and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range[IQR]:3.7 to >13), associated with low fibrinogen [median,<0.01g/L;IQR:<0.01–0.9g/L), low factor V levels [median,<5%;IQR:<5–4%], low factor VIII levels [median,40%;IQR:12–79%] and low factor X levels [median,48%;IQR:29–67%]. There were smaller reductions in factors II, IX and VII over time. All factors recovered over 48h post-antivenom. The median INR remained >3 at 6h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50sec) at 24h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02) and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03) were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis). Conclusions Russell’s viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations. PMID:26296235

  13. [Necrotizing tonsillitis and renal vein thrombosis due to acute myeloid leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Akram, Javed; Josefsson, Pernilla; Rømeling, Frans

    2012-09-01

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with severe tonsillitis with unilateral necrotizing tonsillitis. She suddenly got fever, malaise, difficulties swallowing, pain in the throat and deterioration despite four days of penicillin treatment. During hospitalisation, she experienced abdominal pain, and blood tests showed pancytopenia. She was transferred to a haematological department, where a bone marrow biopsy showed acute myeloid leukaemia. Subsequently, an abdominal computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed bilateral renal vein thrombosis, probably because of coagulopathy due to leukaemia.

  14. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages. PMID:24160423

  15. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  16. Traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Risdall, Jane E.; Menon, David K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of military traumatic brain injury (TBI), and similar injuries are seen in civilians in war zones or terrorist incidents. Indeed, blast-induced mild TBI has been referred to as the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Assessment involves schemes that are common in civilcian practice but, in common with civilian TBI, takes little account of information available from modern imaging (particularly diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging) and emerging biomarkers. The efficient logistics of clinical care delivery in the field may have a role in optimizing outcome. Clinical care has much in common with civilian TBI, but intracranial pressure monitoring is not always available, and protocols need to be modified to take account of this. In addition, severe early oedema has led to increasing use of decompressive craniectomy, and blast TBI may be associated with a higher incidence of vasospasm and pseudoaneurysm formation. Visual and/or auditory deficits are common, and there is a significant risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. TBI is rarely an isolated finding in this setting, and persistent post-concussive symptoms are commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain, a constellation of findings that has been called the polytrauma clinical triad. PMID:21149359

  17. [Effects of traumatic stress].

    PubMed

    Herbst, Gesa; Jaeger, Ulrich; Leichsenring, Falk; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis PTSD does not adequately describe the impact of exposure to childhood trauma of the developing child. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of different interpersonal trauma types and to describe the long-term effects of maltreatment and neglect in a clinical sample of 34 adolescents. The majority (62%) of the sample was exposed to two different types of trauma during childhood. Emotional abuse and emotional neglect have been the most common trauma types (59%; 53%). 71% of the traumatized adolescents did not meet the criteria for PTSD. The most common diagnosis in the sample was Borderline Personality Disorder. All average scores at SCL-90-Symptom-Scale were clinical significant. Half of the sample reported suicide attempts and self destructive behavior. One third reported substance abuse and aggressive behavior against others respectively. None of the traumatized adolescents had a positive Self-concept. Altogether the results show that abused children and adolescents have a range of psychological sequelae that are not captured in the PTSD diagnostic criteria. Therefore the results support the necessity for a new and more precise diagnosis for chronically traumatized children and adolescents. PMID:19961125

  18. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  19. Approach to traumatic hand injuries for primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the initial management of common traumatic hand injuries seen by primary care physicians. Sources of information Current clinical evidence and literature identified through MEDLINE electronic database searches was reviewed. Expert opinion was used to supplement recommendations for areas with little evidence. Main message Primary care physicians must routinely manage patients with acute traumatic hand injuries. In the context of a clinical case, we review the assessment, diagnosis, and initial management of common traumatic hand injuries. The presentation and management of nail bed injuries, fingertip amputations, mallet fingers, hand fractures, tendon lacerations, bite injuries, and infectious tenosynovitis will also be discussed. The principles of managing traumatic hand injuries involve the reduction and immobilization of fractures, obtaining post-reduction x-ray scans, obtaining soft tissue coverage, preventing and treating infection, and ensuring tetanus prophylaxis. Conclusion Proper assessment and management of traumatic hand injuries is essential to prevent substantial long-term morbidity in this generally otherwise healthy population. Early recognition of injuries that require urgent or emergent referral to a hand surgeon is critical. PMID:23766041

  20. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: The Neuropathological Legacy of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer; Johnson, Victoria E; Smith, Douglas H; Stewart, William

    2016-05-23

    Almost a century ago, the first clinical account of the punch-drunk syndrome emerged, describing chronic neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae occurring in former boxers. Thereafter, throughout the twentieth century, further reports added to our understanding of the neuropathological consequences of a career in boxing, leading to descriptions of a distinct neurodegenerative pathology, termed dementia pugilistica. During the past decade, growing recognition of this pathology in autopsy studies of nonboxers who were exposed to repetitive, mild traumatic brain injury, or to a single, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury, has led to an awareness that it is exposure to traumatic brain injury that carries with it a risk of this neurodegenerative disease, not the sport or the circumstance in which the injury is sustained. Furthermore, the neuropathology of the neurodegeneration that occurs after traumatic brain injury, now termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, is acknowledged as being a complex, mixed, but distinctive pathology, the detail of which is reviewed in this article. PMID:26772317

  1. Traumatic asphyxial deaths due to an uncontrolled crowd.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen

    2004-12-01

    Nine people died of traumatic asphyxia due to an uncontrolled crowd at a community basketball game in New York City in 1991. We reviewed the circumstances, postmortem findings, and the causes of death. The majority of people had petechiae of the conjunctivae and face consistent with chest compression. There were minimal superficial blunt injuries and no fractures or acute intoxications. These deaths are often incorrectly attributed to blunt force injuries, while the cause typically is asphyxia due to chest compression.

  2. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  3. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood traumatic grief (CTG) is a condition in which trauma symptoms impinge on children's ability to negotiate the normal grieving process. Clinical characteristics of CTG and their implications for treatment are discussed, and data from a small number of open-treatment studies of traumatically bereaved children are reviewed. An empirically…

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a hurricane, sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the danger is over. It affects your life and ...

  5. [Update on Current Care Guidelines: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder].

    PubMed

    Ponteva, Matti; Henriksson, Markus; Isoaho, Raimo; Laukkala, Tanja; Punamäki, Leena; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The updated Current Care Guidelines for ASD and PTSD recommend psychosocial support and careful monitoring for acute stress reaction (ASR) and acute stress disorder (ASD). If symptoms require, short focused cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy can be used for ASD. Medication is rarely necessary. Trauma-focused psychotherapeutic interventions are the first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Antidepressant medication is an effective second-line treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions and medication should often be combined. Specific groups, such as children, the elderly, and military and peacekeeping personnel need tailored interventions. PMID:26237898

  6. Neuroepidemiology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A J; Zafonte, R

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old). It is estimated that approximately 1.5-2 million Americans suffer from TBI annually. TBIs account for around 1.4 million emergency room visits, 275 000 hospital admissions, and 52 000 deaths in the USA each year. TBI contributes to approximately 30% of all deaths in the USA annually. In Australia, it is estimated that approximately 338 700 individuals (1.9% of the population) suffer from a disability related to TBI. Of these, 160 200 were severely or profoundly affected by acquired brain injury, requiring daily support. In the UK, TBI accounted for 3.4% of all emergency department attendances annually. An overall rate of 453 per 100 000 was found for all TBI severities, of which 40 per 100 000 (10.9%) were moderate to severe. TBI often results in residual symptoms that affect an individual's cognition, movement, sensation, and/or emotional functioning. Recovery and rehabilitation from TBI may require considerable resources and may take years. Some individuals never fully recover, and some require lifetime ongoing care and support. TBI has an enormous social and financial cost, with estimates of the annual financial burden associated with TBI ranging between 9 and 10 billion US dollars. PMID:27637960

  7. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations.

  8. Cancer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Are Associated with Coagulopathy Causing Ischemic Stroke via Tissue Factor-Independent Way: The OASIS-CANCER Study

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Jong-Won; Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Cho, Yeon Hee; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer and stroke, which are known to be associated with one another, are the most common causes of death in the elderly. However, the pathomechanisms that lead to stroke in cancer patients are not well known. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in cancer-associated thrombosis and tumor progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that cancer cell-derived EVs cause cancer-related coagulopathy resulting in ischemic stroke. Methods Serum levels of D-dimer and EVs expressing markers for cancer cells (epithelial cell adhesion molecule [CD326]), tissue factor (TF [CD142]), endothelial cells (CD31+CD42b-), and platelets (CD62P) were measured using flow cytometry in (a) 155 patients with ischemic stroke and active cancer (116 − cancer-related, 39 − conventional stroke mechanisms), (b) 25 patients with ischemic stroke without cancer, (c) 32 cancer patients without stroke, and (d) 101 healthy subjects. Results The levels of cancer cell-derived EVs correlated with the levels of D-dimer and TF+ EVs. The levels of cancer cell-derived EVs (CD326+ and CD326+CD142+) were higher in cancer-related stroke than in other groups (P<0.05 in all the cases). Path analysis showed that cancer cell-derived EVs are related to stroke via coagulopathy as measured by D-dimer levels. Poor correlation was observed between TF+ EV and D-dimer, and path analysis demonstrated that cancer cell-derived EVs may cause cancer-related coagulopathy independent of the levels of TF+ EVs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cancer cell-derived EVs mediate coagulopathy resulting in ischemic stroke via TF-independent mechanisms. PMID:27427978

  9. Traumatic Optic Neuropathy – A Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vinoth Kanna; Devanathan, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Visual impairment following head injury may be an enigma especially if the onset of symptoms were to be few days after the actual trauma and the bias arising out of the initial normal ophthalmological examination is not neutralised by unbiased repeated formal clinical evaluation aided with electrophysiology. We report and discuss here a 32-year-old lady with delayed onset of indirect traumatic visual loss with anaemia who failed to improve after blood transfusion but improved immediately following steroid therapy seven days after trauma. Though steroids have not been shown to have a significant contribution on outcomes following Traumatic optic neuropathy, this report rekindles its role in delayed progressive visual loss following head trauma and the need to re-analyse the role of steroids in patients with delayed progressive visual disturbance following head injury excluding those with acute onset symptoms in view of different pathologies in both these presentations. This paper also highlights potential mechanisms for the two major types of presentation. PMID:27134913

  10. Neurological consequences of traumatic brain injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Ling, Helen; Hardy, John; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in boxing and other contact sports. The long term irreversible and progressive aftermath of TBI in boxers depicted as punch drunk syndrome was described almost a century ago and is now widely referred as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The short term sequelae of acute brain injury including subdural haematoma and catastrophic brain injury may lead to death, whereas mild TBI, or concussion, causes functional disturbance and axonal injury rather than gross structural brain damage. Following concussion, symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, reduced attention, amnesia and headache tend to develop acutely but usually resolve within a week or two. Severe concussion can also lead to loss of consciousness. Despite the transient nature of the clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological, neuropsychological and neurochemical assessments indicate that the disturbance of concussion takes over a month to return to baseline and neuropathological evaluation shows that concussion-induced axonopathy may persist for years. The developing brains in children and adolescents are more susceptible to concussion than adult brain. The mechanism by which acute TBI may lead to the neurodegenerative process of CTE associated with tau hyperphosphorylation and the development of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) remains speculative. Focal tau-positive NFTs and neurites in close proximity to focal axonal injury and foci of microhaemorrhage and the predilection of CTE-tau pathology for perivascular and subcortical regions suggest that acute TBI-related axonal injury, loss of microvascular integrity, breach of the blood brain barrier, resulting inflammatory cascade and microglia and astrocyte activation are likely to be the basis of the mechanistic link of TBI and CTE. This article provides an overview of the acute and long-term neurological consequences of TBI in sports. Clinical, neuropathological and the possible pathophysiological

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury Models in Animals.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in young adults in industrialized nations and in the developing world the WHO considers TBI a silent epidemic caused by an increasing number of traffic accidents. Despite the major improvement of TBI outcome in the acute setting in the past 20 years, the assessment, therapeutic interventions, and prevention of long-term complications remain a challenge. In order to get a deeper insight into the pathology of TBI and advancement of medical understanding and clinical progress experimental animal models are an essential requirement. This chapter provides an overview of most commonly used experimental animal TBI models and the pathobiological findings based on current data. In addition, limitations and advantages of each TBI model are mentioned. This will hopefully give an insight into the possibilities of each model and be of value in choosing one when designing a study. PMID:27604712

  12. Inflammatory neuroprotection following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Russo, Matthew V; McGavern, Dorian B

    2016-08-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits an inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) that involves both resident and peripheral immune cells. Neuroinflammation can persist for years following a single TBI and may contribute to neurodegeneration. However, administration of anti-inflammatory drugs shortly after injury was not effective in the treatment of TBI patients. Some components of the neuroinflammatory response seem to play a beneficial role in the acute phase of TBI. Indeed, following CNS injury, early inflammation can set the stage for proper tissue regeneration and recovery, which can, perhaps, explain why general immunosuppression in TBI patients is disadvantageous. Here, we discuss some positive attributes of neuroinflammation and propose that inflammation be therapeutically guided in TBI patients rather than globally suppressed. PMID:27540166

  13. Neurobiological consequences of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide public health problem typically caused by contact and inertial forces acting on the brain. Recent attention has also focused on the mechanisms of injury associated with exposure to blast events or explosions. Advances in the understanding of the neuropathophysiology of TBI suggest that these forces initiate an elaborate and complex array of cellular and subcellular events related to alterations in Ca++ homeostasis and signaling. Furthermore, there is a fairly predictable profile of brain regions that are impacted by neurotrauma and the related events. This profile of brain damage accurately predicts the acute and chronic sequelae that TBI survivors suffer from, although there is enough variation to suggest that individual differences such as genetic polymorphisms and factors governing resiliency play a role in modulating outcome. This paper reviews our current understanding of the neuropathophysiology of TBI and how this relates to the common clinical presentation of neurobehavioral difficulties seen after an injury. PMID:22033563

  14. Management of Traumatic Wounds and a Novel Approach to Delivering Wound Care in Children.

    PubMed

    Bernabe, Kathryn Q; Desmarais, Thomas J; Keller, Martin S

    2014-04-01

    Significance: The costs and morbidity of pediatric traumatic wounds are not well known. The literature lacks a comprehensive review of the volume, management, and outcomes of children sustaining soft tissue injury. We briefly review the existing literature for traumatic wounds such as open fractures and burns. Such injuries require dedicated wound care and we propose a novel approach for more efficient and more effective delivery of dedicated pediatric wound care. Recent Advances: New pediatric literature is emerging regarding the long-term effects of wound care pain in traumatic injuries-especially burns. A variety of wound dressings and alternative management techniques exist and are geared toward reducing wound care pain. Our institution utilizes a unique model to provide adequate sedation and pain control through a dedicated pediatric wound care unit. We believe that this model reduces the cost of wound care by decreasing emergency department and operating room visits as well as hospital length of stay. Critical Issues: First, medical costs related to pediatric traumatic wound care are not insignificant. The need for adequate pain control and sedation in children with complex wounds is traditionally managed with operating room intervention. Afterward, added costs can be from a hospital stay for ongoing acute wound management. Second, morbidities of complex traumatic wounds are shown to be related to the acute wound care received. Future Directions: Further guidelines are needed to determine the most effective and efficient care of complex traumatic soft tissue injuries in the pediatric population.

  15. Traumatic chylothorax: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sendama, Wezi; Shipley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare entity characterised by leakage of lymphatic fluid into the pleural cavity from the thoracic duct. We present a case of traumatic chylothorax following a traumatic fracture of the L1 vertebra. An 84-year-old lady presented to the emergency department after being found collapsed at home. She gave a preceding history of one day of diarrhoea. Chest X-ray showed a rightsided effusion. Drainage of the effusion yielded a cloudy, off-white fluid that settled in layers in the drainage container. Pleural fluid examination revealed a lymphocyte-rich transudate with high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. CT imaging of the chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed an acute left sided pulmonary embolus, and a multisegment burst fracture of the L1 vertebra. The patient was anticoagulated for the pulmonary embolus. Conservative fracture management was advised. Chylous drainage of 1l/24hr was observed. Due to ongoing chylous leak the patient was commenced on a medium-chain fatty acid diet and octreotide. Whilst chylous drainage ceased the patient died from infected pressure sores, malnutrition and acute kidney injury. Spinal trauma can rarely cause disruption of the thoracic duct and chylothorax. Diagnosis of chylothorax hinges on the typically high triglyceride content of chylous fluid and the detection of chylomicrons where the triglyceride concentration is equivocal. Management options for persistently draining chylothorax are varied and range from non-invasive medical measures to radiological and surgical interventions (although the patient in the case we present was an unsuitable candidate for surgery). We discuss pertinent diagnostic testing and put forward possible medical management strategies for chylothorax. PMID:26029578

  16. Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singman, Eric L; Daphalapurkar, Nitin; White, Helen; Nguyen, Thao D; Panghat, Lijo; Chang, Jessica; McCulley, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) refers to optic nerve injury resulting from impact remote to the optic nerve. The mechanism of injury is not understood, and there are no confirmed protocols for prevention, mitigation or treatment. Most data concerning this condition comes from case series of civilian patients suffering blunt injury, such as from sports- or motor vehicle-related concussion, rather than military-related ballistic or blast damage. Research in this field will likely require the development of robust databases to identify patients with ITON and follow related outcomes, in addition to both in-vivo animal and virtual human models to study the mechanisms of damage and potential therapies. PMID:26759722

  17. Outcomes of traumatic exposure.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J

    2014-04-01

    There is a great need to recognize, prevent, reduce, or treat the immediate and long-term effects of childhood trauma. Most children affected by trauma will not develop long-term posttraumatic sequelae due to their resilience, but comorbid psychopathological outcomes occur and are more common after exposure to severe traumatic events. Factors influencing posttraumatic outcomes are numerous. Young dependent children tend to be more susceptible than older children; children with pain or injury are also more susceptible. Psychopathological effects may not be evident until adulthood. Awareness of the range of adverse outcomes underscores the importance of preventive interventions, accurate assessment, diagnosis and where possible, treatment. Advocacy and public policy initiatives are essential to improving outcomes.

  18. Post-traumatic vertigo.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jules M

    2004-10-01

    The vestibular-like symptoms that commonly follow head injury are most often due to one of a number of specific pathologies affecting vestibular, CNS or cervical structures. These pathologies can be readily identified in the majority of cases by appropriate testing in the examining room, and in vestibular function or neurodiagnosic laboratories. Whereas vestibular suppressants have a roll, they often delay recovery and have been supplanted as the mainstay of treatment in most cases by vestibular rehabilitation techniques. Given the large number of patients requiring outpatient management following head injury, it is appropriate that most generalists and many subspecialists should be aware of the differential diagnosis, workup and treatment options for post-traumatic vertigo.

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician September 01, 2000, http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000901/1035.html) Post-traumatic Stress Reactions Following ... Physician August 01, 1999, http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/524.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  20. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to acute hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Younis, Bilal Bin; Arshad, Rozina; Khurhsid, Saima; Masood, Junaid; Nazir, Farhan; Tahira, Maham

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been identified as an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function from massive hepatic necrosis leading to encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We admitted a female patient at Shalamar Hospital with jaundice, fever, encephalopathy and coagulopathy of short duration with no history of any comorbidity. Her hepatitis viral screen revealed positive anti HCV. Her viral loads were also high. A diagnosis of FHF due to acute HCV infection was made. Patient was treated conservatively and improved gradually. In summary, acute HCV can cause FHF and should be ruled out in patients with FHF of unknown cause in an endemic country for HCV like Pakistan.

  1. Neuroimaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Current and Future Predictors of Functional Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskauer, Stacy J.; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although neuroimaging has long played a role in the acute management of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), until recently, its use as a tool for understanding and predicting long-term brain-behavior relationships after TBI has been limited by the relatively poor sensitivity of routine clinical imaging for detecting diffuse axonal injury…

  2. Traumatic dissection of the internal carotid artery: simultaneous infarct of optic nerve and brain

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Edgar; Martinez, Braulio

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery dissection is a rare but significant cause of stroke in patients in their forties, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Simultaneous ischemic stroke and optic nerve infarction can occur. Clinical suspicion of dissection is determining in the acute management. PMID:25356244

  3. Traumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S R; Bhagwat, R A; Shahane, A G; Cheema, B S

    1990-09-01

    Five cases of traumatic heart disease (THD) who sustained blunt chest injury in road accidents are reported. In addition to fracture of the ribs (observed in all the cases), there was fracture of the sternum and rupture of the liver and spleen in one case each. Two patients had flail chest. One presented with recurrent ventricular tachycardia lasting for 72 hours followed by changes suggestive of subendocardial infarction. The second case also had changes like subendocardial infarction and it was preceded by junctional tachycardia with aberrant conduction during the first 48 hours. Ventricular premature beats (VPB) were the only abnormality noted in one case and the remaining two had ST-T wave changes suggestive of inferolateral ischaemia without any arrhythmias. The patient with VPB developed pericardial rub without effusion. There was one death and postmortem revealed ruptured liver and spleen in addition to laceration of the right ventricle and haemopericardium. The electrocardiographic changes persisted for two to eight weeks. All four cases were symptom-free at 12 weeks and treadmill exercise test done after 12 to 18 weeks was normal. PMID:2266073

  4. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Juneyoung; Padalino, David J; Chin, Lawrence S; Montenegro, Philip; Cantu, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has gained increased prominence, in part due to media coverage of several well-known athletes who have died from consequences of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE was first described by Martland in 1928 as a syndrome seen in boxers who had experienced significant head trauma from repeated blows. The classic symptoms of impaired cognition, mood, behavior, and motor skills also have been reported in professional football players, and in 2005, the histopathological findings of CTE were first reported in a former National Football League (NFL) player. These finding were similar to Alzheimer's disease in some ways but differed in critical areas such as a predominance of tau protein deposition over amyloid. The pathophysiology is still unknown but involves a history of repeated concussive and subconcussive blows and then a lag period before CTE symptoms become evident. The involvement of excitotoxic amino acids and abnormal microglial activation remain speculative. Early identification and prevention of this disease by reducing repeated blows to the head has become a critical focus of current research.

  5. Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

  6. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  7. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J.; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved. PMID:26981581

  8. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-02-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved. PMID:26981581

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder vs traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) often coexist because brain injuries are often sustained in traumatic experiences. This review outlines the significant overlap between PTSD and TBI by commencing with a critical outline of the overlapping symptoms and problems of differential diagnosis. The impact of TBI on PTSD is then described, with increasing evidence suggesting that mild TBI can increase risk for PTSD. Several explanations are offered for this enhanced risk. Recent evidence suggests that impairment secondary to mild TBI is largely attributable to stress reactions after TBI, which challenges the long-held belief that postconcussive symptoms are a function of neurological insult This recent evidence is pointing to new directions for treatment of postconcussive symptoms that acknowledge that treating stress factors following TBI may be the optimal means to manage the effects of many TBIs, PMID:22034252

  10. t(17;19) in Children with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Report of 3 Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Minson, Katherine A; Prasad, Pinki; Vear, Susan; Borinstein, Scott; Ho, Richard; Domm, Jennifer; Frangoul, Haydar

    2013-01-01

    Several cytogenetic abnormalities identified in patients with childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) have been associated with a poor prognosis. There are several case reports in the literature describing t(17;19) in children with ALL. This translocation has been associated with hypercalcemia, coagulopathy, and poor outcome. We present three cases of ALL with t(17;19) treated at our institution and review the outcome of children reported in the medical literature.

  11. Utility of Measurement of Serum Lactate in Diagnosis of Coagulopathy Associated with Peripheral Circulatory Insufficiency: Retrospective Evaluation Using Thromboelastometry from a Single Center in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koami, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Sakurai, Ryota; Ohta, Miho; Goto, Akiko; Imahase, Hisashi; Yahata, Mayuko; Umeka, Mitsuru; Miike, Toru; Nagashima, Futoshi; Iwamura, Takashi; Chris Yamada, Kosuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, serum lactate level rather than systolic blood pressure (sBP) has been widely used to diagnose peripheral circulatory insufficiency, which often leads to coagulopathy with systemic inflammation. However, most of the reported disorders were examined by plasma samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of serum lactate for detecting coagulopathy with circulatory failure by using thromboelastometry as well as standard coagulation test. 192 adult patients transported to our hospital between January 2013 and September 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The sBP, serum lactate and thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) were measured in these patients in the emergency department. All patients were divided into three groups based on serum lactate levels: (1) the severe group (≥4 mmol/L, n=41); (2) the mild group (<4 mmol/L and ≥2 mmol/L, n=59); and (3) the normal group (<2 mmol/L, n=92). Patients in the severe group were of a significantly younger age but had lower pH and poor outcome. SBP was significantly lower and heart rates were higher in the severe group than in the other groups. Prolonged PT-INR and APTT were statistically confirmed in the severe group. ROTEM findings in the severe group revealed significantly lower alpha angle, shortened Lysis Onset Time and significantly more cases exhibited hyperfibrinolysis. The same analysis with the cut-off level of sBP at 90 mmHg showed no significant difference in ROTEM findings between the two groups. Abnormal serum lactate levels (≥4.0 mmol/L) properly reflected peripheral circulatory insufficiency and were more closely associated with coagulopathy such as hyperfibrinolysis and hypocoagulability than sBP. PMID:27680483

  12. Detection of Venom after Antivenom Is Not Associated with Persistent Coagulopathy in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Envenomings

    PubMed Central

    Maduwage, Kalana; O'Leary, Margaret A.; Scorgie, Fiona E.; Shahmy, Seyed; Mohamed, Fahim; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harindra; Lincz, Lisa F.; Gnanathasan, Christeine A.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Venom recurrence or persistence in the circulation after antivenom treatment has been documented many times in viper envenoming. However, it has not been associated with clinical recurrence for many snakes, including Russell's viper (Daboia spp.). We compare the recovery of coagulopathy to the recurrence or persistence of venom in patients with Russell's viper envenoming. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included patients with Russell's viper (D. russelii) envenoming presenting over a 30 month period who had Russell's viper venom detected by enzyme immunoassay. Demographics, information on the snake bite, and clinical effects were collected for all patients. All patients had serum collected for venom specific enzyme immunoassay and citrate plasma to measure fibrinogen levels and prothrombin time (international normalised ratio; INR). Patients with venom recurrence/persistence were compared to those with no detectable recurrence of venom. There were 55 patients with confirmed Russell's viper envenoming and coagulopathy with low fibrinogen concentrations: 31 with venom recurrence/persistence, and 24 with no venom detected post-antivenom. Fibrinogen concentrations increased and INR decreased after antivenom in both the recurrence and non-recurrence patients. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, antivenom dose and length of hospital were similar for both groups. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations were higher in patients with venom recurrence/persistence with a median venom concentration of 385 ng/mL (16–1521 ng/mL) compared to 128 ng/mL (14–1492 ng/mL; p = 0.008). Conclusion Recurrence of Russell's viper venom was not associated with a recurrence of coagulopathy and length of hospital stay. Further work is required to determine if the detection of venom recurrence is due to the venom specific enzyme immunoassay detecting both venom-antivenom complexes as well as free venom. PMID:25521820

  13. Cardiac injury complicating traumatic asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Rosato, R M; Shapiro, M J; Keegan, M J; Connors, R H; Minor, C B

    1991-10-01

    During a 3-year period (1986-1989), 8 patients were seen at St. Louis University Medical Center exhibiting the stigmata of traumatic asphyxia. Fewer than 200 cases of traumatic asphyxia have been reported and there is only a single report of a cardiac injury. In this series, 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients were found to have an injury to the heart: two cardiac contusions and a ventricular rupture. Five patients were crushed in motor vehicle collisions, one by an elevator counterweight, and two patients by river barges. Injuries associated with these patients include pulmonary contusion, hemopneumothorax, traumatic pneumatocele, traumatic retinopathy, bone fractures, mental confusion, and liver contusion. There was one death in the series, a patient with rupture of the right ventricle and severe splenic and liver injuries. The cardiac status of the patients was evaluated by serial serum cardiac enzyme determinations, electrocardiograms, and echocardiography. This report illustrates the importance of complete cardiac evaluation in patients with traumatic asphyxia. PMID:1942148

  14. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  15. The management of traumatic dental injuries.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Roberta; Dumsha, Thomas C

    2003-01-01

    Traumatic injuries require a vast and complex treatment methodology. This manuscript although in a "cookbook" format will still require from the practitioner sound clinical judgment prior to treating a traumatized tooth.

  16. Post-traumatic extrapyramidal syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S; Mazzini, L

    1990-02-01

    We report the case of a young man with possible post-traumatic extrapyramidal syndrome. Some features of this case have a bearing on the controversy surrounding the existence of post-traumatic Parkinson disease.

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury: FDA Research and Actions

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Traumatic Brain Injury: FDA Research and Actions Share Tweet Linkedin ... top What to Do if You Suspect Traumatic Brain Injury Anyone with signs of moderate or severe ...

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with post-traumatic stress need early treatment with methods that are used to treat other trauma victims. ... symptoms of post-traumatic stress. The crisis intervention method aims to relieve distress and help the patient ...

  19. Acute Liver Failure including Acetaminophen Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic and highly unpredictable clinical syndrome defined by the sudden onset of coagulopathy and encephalopathy. Although many disease processes can cause ALF, acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause in the United States, and has a 66% chance of recovery with early N-acetylcysteine treatment and supportive care. Cerebral edema and infectious complications are notoriously difficult to detect and treat in ALF patients and may lead to irreversible brain damage and multi-organ failure. Emergency liver transplantation is associated with a 70% 1-year patient survival but 20% of listed patients die, highlighting the importance of early referral of ALF patients with a poor prognosis to a liver transplant center. PMID:18570942

  20. Effects of platelet and plasma transfusion on outcome in traumatic brain injury patients with moderate bleeding diatheses.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Catherine O; Spence, Jeffrey S; Warner, Matthew A; Paliotta, Christopher; Harper, Caryn; Moore, Carol; Sarode, Ravi; Madden, Christopher; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2013-03-01

    Object Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet transfusion thresholds for mildly to moderately abnormal ranges of international normalized ratio and platelet count remain controversial. This study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in TBI patients with moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Methods This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of patients with mild to severe TBI. Data include patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Ordinal regression was performed to account for potential confounding variables to further define relationships between transfusion status and long-term outcome. By analyzing collected data, mild to moderate coagulopathy was defined as an international normalized ratio 1.4-2.0, moderate thrombocytopenia as platelet count 50 × 10(9)/L to 107 × 10(9)/L, and moderate anemia as 21%-30% hematocrit. Results In patients with mild to moderate laboratory hematological abnormalities, univariate analysis shows significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium were included in the ordinal regression model using backward variable selection. In the moderate coagulopathy subgroup, patients transfused with FFP were more likely to have a lower GOSE

  1. Acute fracture of the os trigonum.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Eva M; MacDonald, Taylor L; Hunter, John C

    2006-12-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with ankle pain after a motor vehicle accident. Imaging revealed an acute fracture of the os trigonum in addition to multiple, other lower-extremity fractures. In this case, the fracture of the os trigonum was a result of a significant traumatic injury. Thus, the presence of this fracture in an acute setting should prompt a search for other associated fractures.

  2. Knowledge of Traumatic Brain Injury among Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, William J.; Gallo, Adrienne B.; Sellers, Amanda L.; Mulrine, Jessica; MacNamara, Luciana; Abrahamson, Allison; Kneavel, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine knowledge of traumatic brain injury among educators. Few studies have examined knowledge of traumatic brain injury in this population and fewer still have included a substantial proportion of general education teachers. Examining knowledge of traumatic brain injury in educators is important as the vast…

  3. Memory for Traumatic Experiences in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Ingrid M.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Sayfan, Liat; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.

    2004-01-01

    Traumatic experiences in early childhood raise important questions about memory development in general and about the durability and accessibility of memories for traumatic events in particular. We discuss memory for early childhood traumatic events, from a developmental perspective, focusing on those factors that may equally influence memories for…

  4. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  5. Early Traumatic Stress Responses in Parents Following a Serious Illness in Their Child: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Claudia; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki A; McCarthy, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature investigating the early traumatic stress responses in parents of children diagnosed with a serious illness/injury. A literature review was conducted (September 2013) using Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Twenty-four studies related to parents of children hospitalized due to diagnosis of cancer, type 1 diabetes, meningococcal disease, trauma or serious injury, preterm birth and other serious illnesses requiring admission to intensive care were included. Parents were assessed for early traumatic stress symptoms within 3 months of their child's diagnosis/hospitalization. Prevalence rates of acute stress disorder in parents ranged from 12 to 63%. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 8 to 68%. Variability was related to methodological factors including differences in study design, timing of assessments, measurement tools, and scoring protocols. Psychosocial factors rather than medical factors predicted parent distress. This review integrates and compares early traumatic reactions in parents with children suffering a range of serious illnesses. Findings suggest a high prevalence of acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents. Methodological inconsistencies made comparison of early traumatic stress prevalence rates difficult. Risk factors associated with traumatic stress symptoms were identified.

  6. Pretrauma Center Red Blood Cell Transfusion Is Associated With Reduced Mortality and Coagulopathy in Severely Injured Patients With Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Minei, Joseph P.; Maier, Ronald V.; West, Michaela A.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Moore, Ernest E.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Sperry, Jason L.; Inflammation, The

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of pretrauma center (PTC) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion with outcomes in severely injured patients. Background Hemorrhage remains a major driver of mortality. Little evidence exists supporting PTC interventions to mitigate this. Methods Blunt injured patients in shock arriving at a trauma center within 2 hours of injury were included from the Glue Grant database. Subjects were dichotomized by PTC RBC transfusion. Outcomes included 24-hour mortality, 30-day mortality, and trauma-induced coagulopathy [(TIC), admission international normalized ratio >1.5]. Cox regression and logistic regression determined the association of PTC RBC transfusion with outcomes. To address baseline differences, propensity score matching was used. Results Of 1415 subjects, 50 received PTC RBC transfusion. Demographics and injury severity score were similar. The PTC RBC group received 1.3 units of RBCs (median), and 52% were scene transports. PTC RBC transfusion was associated with a 95% reduction in odds of 24-hour mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01–0.48; P < 0.01], 64% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality [hazard ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15–0.83; P = 0.02], and 88% reduction in odds of TIC (OR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02–0.79; P = 0.03). The matched cohort included 113 subjects (31% PTC RBC group). Baseline characteristics were similar. PTC RBC transfusion was associated with a 98% reduction in odds of 24-hour mortality (OR = 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.69; P = 0.04), 88% reduction in the risk of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03–0.61; P = 0.01), and 99% reduction in odds of TIC (OR = 0.01; 95% CI, 0.01–0.95; P = 0.05). Conclusions PTC RBC administration was associated with a lower risk of 24-hour mortality, 30-day mortality, and TIC in severely injured patients with blunt trauma, warranting further prospective study. PMID:24670858

  7. Linking Traumatic Brain Injury to Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Identification of Potential Mechanisms Leading to Neurofibrillary Tangle Development

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon Peter; Turner, Ryan Coddington; Logsdon, Aric Flint; Bailes, Julian Edwin; Huber, Jason Delwyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significant attention has recently been drawn to the potential link between head trauma and the development of neurodegenerative disease, namely chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The acute neurotrauma associated with sports-related concussions in athletes and blast-induced traumatic brain injury in soldiers elevates the risk for future development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as CTE. CTE is a progressive disease distinguished by characteristic tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and, occasionally, transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP43) oligomers, both of which have a predilection for perivascular and subcortical areas near reactive astrocytes and microglia. The disease is currently only diagnosed postmortem by neuropathological identification of NFTs. A recent workshop sponsored by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke emphasized the need for premortem diagnosis, to better understand disease pathophysiology and to develop targeted treatments. In order to accomplish this objective, it is necessary to discover the mechanistic link between acute neurotrauma and the development of chronic neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders such as CTE. In this review, we briefly summarize what is currently known about CTE development and pathophysiology, and subsequently discuss injury-induced pathways that warrant further investigation. Understanding the mechanistic link between acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration will facilitate the development of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic options for CTE and other related disorders. PMID:24499307

  8. Considerations for animal models of blast-related traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The association of military blast exposure and brain injury was first appreciated in World War I as commotio cerebri, and later as shell shock. Similar injuries sustained in modern military conflicts are now classified as mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent research has yielded new insights into the mechanisms by which blast exposure leads to acute brain injury and chronic sequelae, including postconcussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, post-traumatic headache, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a tau protein neurodegenerative disease. Impediments to delivery of effective medical care for individuals affected by blast-related TBI include: poor insight into the heterogeneity of neurological insults induced by blast exposure; limited understanding of the mechanisms by which blast exposure injures the brain and triggers sequelae; failure to appreciate interactive injuries that affect frontal lobe function, pituitary regulation, and neurovegetative homeostasis; unknown influence of genetic risk factors, prior trauma, and comorbidities; absence of validated diagnostic criteria and clinical nosology that differentiate clinical endophenotypes; and lack of empirical evidence to guide medical management and therapeutic intervention. While clinicopathological analysis can provide evidence of correlative association, experimental use of animal models remains the primary tool for establishing causal mechanisms of disease. However, the TBI field is confronted by a welter of animal models with varying clinical relevance, thereby impeding scientific coherence and hindering translational progress. Animal models of blast TBI will be far more translationally useful if experimental emphasis focuses on accurate reproduction of clinically relevant endpoints (output) rather than scaled replication of idealized blast shockwaves (input). The utility of an animal model is dependent on the degree to which the model recapitulates pathophysiological mechanisms

  9. Glutamate and GABA imbalance following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Giza, Christopher C; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to multiple short- and long-term changes in neuronal circuits that ultimately conclude with an imbalance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, receptor populations, and specific cell survival are important contributing factors. Many of these changes occur gradually, which may explain the vulnerability of the brain to multiple mild impacts, alterations in neuroplasticity, and delays in the presentation of posttraumatic epilepsy. In this review, we provide an overview of normal glutamate and GABA homeostasis and describe acute, subacute, and chronic changes that follow injury. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for therapeutic interventions in this paradigm. PMID:25796572

  10. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae; however, this topic has been understudied. This review considers the rationale for examining traumatic events and related symptomology in individuals with ASD and summarizes the limited research on this topic. A conceptual framework for understanding the interplay of ASD, trauma and traumatic sequelae is proposed and recommendations for future research presented.

  11. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  12. Coagulopathy following major liver resection: the effect of rBPI21 and the role of decreased synthesis of regulating proteins by the liver.

    PubMed

    Meijer, C; Wiezer, M J; Hack, C E; Boelens, P G; Wedel, N I; Meijer, S; Nijveldt, R J; Statius Muller, M G; Wiggers, T; Zoetmulder, F A; Borel Rinkes, I H; Cuesta, M A; Gouma, D J; van de Velde, C J; Tilanus, H W; Scotté, M; Thijs, L G; van Leeuwen, P A

    2001-04-01

    This prospective study investigated the role of reduced hepatic synthesis of regulating proteins in coagulopathy after partial hepatectomy (PH) compared with major abdominal surgery (MAS) without involvement of the liver. Furthermore, we studied the effect of rBPI21, an endotoxin-neutralizing agent, on coagulopathy after PH was studied. Compared with MAS, PH resulted in significantly elevated levels of thrombin-antithrombin-III and plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complexes. Levels of antithrombin-3, alpha2-antiplasmin, fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), and C1-inhibitor remained lower following PH. Treatment with rBPI21 led to significantly lower levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Post-operative disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was associated with significantly higher bilirubin and t-PA plasma levels and significantly lower levels of alpha2-M. This study indicates that PH induced hepatic failure results in decreased synthesis of hepatic regulating plasma proteins and subsequent activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Prevention of t-PA release by rBPI21 may have important clinical implications. Decreased availability of alpha2-M may be a factor in post-operative DIC.

  13. Conservative management of a case of traumatic pancreatitis in childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dixit, P; Sharma, V; Singh, K R; Thapa, B R; Rathore, M

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is relatively uncommon in pediatric age group. Traumatic injury is an important cause of AP in children. Ductal disruption resulting from pancreatic trauma usually needs surgical intervention. A three-and-a-half year old child presented with complaints of abdominal pain and distension following blunt trauma abdomen. Computed tomography of abdomen revealed presence of grade III pancreatic injury with fluid collection in lesser sac. The patient was managed with antibiotics and pigtail drainage and he improved. Therapy for traumatic pancreatitis in paediatric patients must be individualised. Even high grade injuries can be managed non-operatively. PMID:24992606

  14. Non-traumatic compartment syndrome secondary to deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter Alexander; Deo, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of non-traumatic compartment syndrome in three compartments of the left lower limb in a 57-year-old male inpatient. He had recently been started on anticoagulation therapy for multiple pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis of the left posterior tibial and peroneal veins. Three of the four osteofascial compartments had pressures above 70 mm Hg, hence four compartment fasciotomies were performed. Postoperatively, intravenous heparin therapy was started resulting in a significant blood loss, but he had no neurovascular deficit. At reoperation, for primary wound closure, his tissues looked healthy. Non-traumatic causes of acute compartment syndrome, including deep venous thrombosis and anticoagulation, are considered.

  15. Imaging assessment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Currie, Stuart; Saleem, Nayyar; Straiton, John A; Macmullen-Price, Jeremy; Warren, Daniel J; Craven, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes injury that occurs to the brain as a result of trauma. It should be appreciated as a heterogeneous, dynamic pathophysiological process that starts from the moment of impact and continues over time with sequelae potentially seen many years after the initial event. Primary traumatic brain lesions that may occur at the moment of impact include contusions, haematomas, parenchymal fractures and diffuse axonal injury. The presence of extra-axial intracranial lesions such as epidural and subdural haematomas and subarachnoid haemorrhage must be anticipated as they may contribute greatly to secondary brain insult by provoking brain herniation syndromes, cranial nerve deficits, oedema and ischaemia and infarction. Imaging is fundamental to the management of patients with TBI. CT remains the imaging modality of choice for initial assessment due to its ease of access, rapid acquisition and for its sensitivity for detection of acute haemorrhagic lesions for surgical intervention. MRI is typically reserved for the detection of lesions that may explain clinical symptoms that remain unresolved despite initial CT. This is especially apparent in the setting of diffuse axonal injury, which is poorly discerned on CT. Use of particular MRI sequences may increase the sensitivity of detecting such lesions: diffusion-weighted imaging defining acute infarction, susceptibility-weighted imaging affording exquisite data on microhaemorrhage. Additional advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI may provide important information regarding coexistent structural and functional brain damage. Gaining robust prognostic information for patients following TBI remains a challenge. Advanced MRI sequences are showing potential for biomarkers of disease, but this largely remains at the research level. Various global collaborative research groups have been established in an effort to combine imaging data with clinical and

  16. Imaging assessment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Currie, Stuart; Saleem, Nayyar; Straiton, John A; Macmullen-Price, Jeremy; Warren, Daniel J; Craven, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes injury that occurs to the brain as a result of trauma. It should be appreciated as a heterogeneous, dynamic pathophysiological process that starts from the moment of impact and continues over time with sequelae potentially seen many years after the initial event. Primary traumatic brain lesions that may occur at the moment of impact include contusions, haematomas, parenchymal fractures and diffuse axonal injury. The presence of extra-axial intracranial lesions such as epidural and subdural haematomas and subarachnoid haemorrhage must be anticipated as they may contribute greatly to secondary brain insult by provoking brain herniation syndromes, cranial nerve deficits, oedema and ischaemia and infarction. Imaging is fundamental to the management of patients with TBI. CT remains the imaging modality of choice for initial assessment due to its ease of access, rapid acquisition and for its sensitivity for detection of acute haemorrhagic lesions for surgical intervention. MRI is typically reserved for the detection of lesions that may explain clinical symptoms that remain unresolved despite initial CT. This is especially apparent in the setting of diffuse axonal injury, which is poorly discerned on CT. Use of particular MRI sequences may increase the sensitivity of detecting such lesions: diffusion-weighted imaging defining acute infarction, susceptibility-weighted imaging affording exquisite data on microhaemorrhage. Additional advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI may provide important information regarding coexistent structural and functional brain damage. Gaining robust prognostic information for patients following TBI remains a challenge. Advanced MRI sequences are showing potential for biomarkers of disease, but this largely remains at the research level. Various global collaborative research groups have been established in an effort to combine imaging data with clinical and

  17. Pathogenesis and treatment of thrombohemorrhagic diathesis in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Anna; Russo, Laura; Tartari, Carmen J

    2011-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by t(15;17) chromosomal translocation, which involves the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha). APL typically presents with a life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis. Before the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for the cure of APL, fatal hemorrhages due, at least in part, to the APL-associated coagulopathy, were a major cause of induction remission failure. The laboratory abnormalities of blood coagulation found in these patients indicate the occurrence of a hypercoagulable state. Major determinants of the coagulopathy of APL are endogenous factors expressed by the leukemic cells, including procoagulant factors, fibrinolytic proteins, and non-specific proteolytic enzymes. In addition, these cells have an increased capacity to adhere to the vascular endothelium, and to secrete inflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)], which in turn stimulate the expression of prothrombotic activities by endothelial cells and leukocytes. ATRA can interfere with each of the principal hemostatic properties of the leukemic cell, thus reducing the APL cell procoagulant potential, in parallel to the induction of cellular differentiation. This effect occurs in vivo, in the bone marrow of APL patients receiving ATRA, and is associated with the improvement of the bleeding symptoms. Therapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO) also beneficially affects coagulation in APL. However, early deaths from bleeding still remain a major problem in APL and further research is required in this field. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of the APL-associated coagulopathy and will overview the therapeutic approaches for the management of this complication. PMID:22220265

  18. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Thrombohemorrhagic Diathesis in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Falanga, Anna; Russo, Laura; Tartari, Carmen J

    2011-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by t(15;17) chromosomal translocation, which involves the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha). APL typically presents with a life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis. Before the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for the cure of APL, fatal hemorrhages due, at least in part, to the APL-associated coagulopathy, were a major cause of induction remission failure. The laboratory abnormalities of blood coagulation found in these patients indicate the occurrence of a hypercoagulable state. Major determinants of the coagulopathy of APL are endogenous factors expressed by the leukemic cells, including procoagulant factors, fibrinolytic proteins, and non-specific proteolytic enzymes. In addition, these cells have an increased capacity to adhere to the vascular endothelium, and to secrete inflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)], which in turn stimulate the expression of prothrombotic activities by endothelial cells and leukocytes. ATRA can interfere with each of the principal hemostatic properties of the leukemic cell, thus reducing the APL cell procoagulant potential, in parallel to the induction of cellular differentiation. This effect occurs in vivo, in the bone marrow of APL patients receiving ATRA, and is associated with the improvement of the bleeding symptoms. Therapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO) also beneficially affects coagulation in APL. However, early deaths from bleeding still remain a major problem in APL and further research is required in this field. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of the APL-associated coagulopathy and will overview the therapeutic approaches for the management of this complication. PMID:22220265

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  20. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  1. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassuk, Ellen L.; Konnath, Kristina; Volk, Katherine T.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected loss of a loved one, a car accident, or exposure to a violent experience is familiar to many. Everyone reacts to such events, but the responses vary widely, ranging from numbness and withdrawal, to crying, nervousness, and agitation. Because traumatic events are prevalent, cause profound suffering, and may lead to life altering…

  2. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  3. Children's Memory for Traumatic Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Bell, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Three- through 13-year olds were interviewed a few days after a hospital stay for traumatic injury, and again six months later. Children provided considerable information about the injury and hospital stay and made few commission errors; children's distress at the time of injury did not affect their recall of the event, but distress during the…

  4. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  5. The costs of traumatic brain injury: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Ioan; Wood, Rodger L; Phillips, Ceri J; Macey, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to review the literature relating to the psychosocial costs associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Nine online journal databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and PUBMED, were queried for studies between July 2010 and May 2012 pertaining to the economic burden of head injuries. Additional studies were identified through searching bibliographies of related publications and using Google internet search engine. Results One hundred and eight potentially relevant abstracts were identified from the journal databases. Ten papers were chosen for discussion in this review. All but two of the chosen papers were US studies. The studies included a cost-benefit analysis of the implementation of treatment guidelines from the US brain trauma foundation and a cost-effectiveness analysis of post-acute traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Conclusion Very little research has been published on the economic burden that mild and moderate traumatic brain injury patients pose to their families, careers, and society as a whole. Further research is needed to estimate the economic burden of these patients on healthcare providers and social services and how this can impact current health policies and practices. PMID:23836998

  6. [Neuroendocrine dysfunctions and their consequences following traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Czirják, Sándor; Rácz, Károly; Góth, Miklós

    2012-06-17

    Posttraumatic hypopituitarism is of major public health importance because it is more prevalent than previously thought. The prevalence of hypopituitarism in children with traumatic brain injury is unknown. Most cases of posttraumatic hypopituitarism remain undiagnosed and untreated in the clinical practice, and it may contribute to the severe morbidity seen in patients with traumatic brain injury. In the acute phase of brain injury, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should not be missed. Determination of morning serum cortisol concentration is mandatory, because adrenal insufficiency can be life threatening. Morning serum cortisol lower than 200 nmol/L strongly suggests adrenal insufficiency. A complete hormonal investigation should be performed after one year of the trauma. Isolated growth hormone deficiency is the most common deficiency after traumatic brain injury. Sports-related chronic repetitive head trauma (because of boxing, kickboxing, football and ice hockey) may also result in hypopituitarism. Close co-operation between neurosurgeons, endocrinologists, rehabilitation physicians and representatives of other disciplines is important to provide better care for these patients. PMID:22695628

  7. [Neuroendocrine dysfunctions and their consequences following traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Czirják, Sándor; Rácz, Károly; Góth, Miklós

    2012-06-17

    Posttraumatic hypopituitarism is of major public health importance because it is more prevalent than previously thought. The prevalence of hypopituitarism in children with traumatic brain injury is unknown. Most cases of posttraumatic hypopituitarism remain undiagnosed and untreated in the clinical practice, and it may contribute to the severe morbidity seen in patients with traumatic brain injury. In the acute phase of brain injury, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should not be missed. Determination of morning serum cortisol concentration is mandatory, because adrenal insufficiency can be life threatening. Morning serum cortisol lower than 200 nmol/L strongly suggests adrenal insufficiency. A complete hormonal investigation should be performed after one year of the trauma. Isolated growth hormone deficiency is the most common deficiency after traumatic brain injury. Sports-related chronic repetitive head trauma (because of boxing, kickboxing, football and ice hockey) may also result in hypopituitarism. Close co-operation between neurosurgeons, endocrinologists, rehabilitation physicians and representatives of other disciplines is important to provide better care for these patients.

  8. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  9. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks. PMID:27630820

  10. Acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Eduardo; Mestres, Carlos A; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Josa, Miguel

    2004-03-01

    Traumatic rupture of intracardiac structures is an uncommon phenomenon although there are a number of reports with regards to rupture of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation of traumatic origin. Both lesions were seen separated by 2 weeks. Pathophysiology is reviewed. The combination of both aortic and mitral lesions following blunt chest trauma is almost exceptional.

  11. Less Is More: Low-dose Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Effective in Acute Care Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Quick, Jacob A; Meyer, Jennifer M; Coughenour, Jeffrey P; Barnes, Stephen L

    2015-06-01

    Optimal dosing of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) has yet to be defined and varies widely due to concerns of efficacy and thrombosis. We hypothesized a dose of 15 IU/kg actual body weight of a three-factor PCC would effectively correct coagulopathy in acute care surgery patients. Retrospective review of 41 acute care surgery patients who received 15 IU/kg (± 10%) actual body weight PCC for correction of coagulopathy. Demographics, laboratory results, PCC dose, blood and plasma transfusions, and thrombotic complications were analyzed. We performed subset analyses of trauma patients and those taking warfarin. Mean age was 69 years (18-94 years). Thirty (73%) trauma patients, 8 (20%) emergency surgery patients, 2 (5%) burns, and 1 (2%) nontrauma neurosurgical patient were included. Mean PCC dose was 1305.4 IU (14.2 IU/kg actual body weight). Mean change in INR was 2.52 to 1.42 (p 0.00004). Successful correction (INR <1.5) was seen in 78 per cent. Treatment failures had a higher initial INR (4.3 vs 2.03, p 0.01). Mean plasma transfusion was 1.46 units. Mean blood transfusion was 1.61 units. Patients taking prehospital warfarin (n = 29, 71%) had higher initial INR (2.78 vs 1.92, p 0.05) and received more units of plasma (1.93 vs 0.33, p 0.01) than those not taking warfarin. No statistical differences were seen between trauma and nontrauma patients. One thrombotic event occurred. Administration of low-dose PCC, 15 IU/kg actual body weight, effectively corrects coagulopathy in acute care surgery patients regardless of warfarin use, diagnosis or plasma transfusion. PMID:26031281

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Motzkin, Julian C; Koenigs, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of "organic" neurologic damage and psychological distress after a traumatic brain injury poses a significant challenge to researchers and clinicians. Establishing a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been particularly contentious, reflecting difficulties in establishing a unique diagnosis for conditions with overlapping and sometimes contradictory symptom profiles. However, each disorder is linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes, underscoring the need to better understand how neurologic and psychiatric risk factors interact following trauma. Here, we present data showing that individuals with a TBI are more likely to develop PTSD, and that individuals with PTSD are more likely to develop persistent cognitive sequelae related to TBI. Further, we describe neurobiological models of PTSD, highlighting how patterns of neurologic damage typical in TBI may promote or protect against the development of PTSD in brain-injured populations. These data highlight the unique course of PTSD following a TBI and have important diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment implications for individuals with a dual diagnosis.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT THERAPIES FOR TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Edward D.; Vaishnav, Radhika A.; Mustafa, Ayman G.

    2010-01-01

    Free radical-induced oxidative damage reactions, and membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) in particular, are one of the best validated secondary injury mechanisms in preclinical traumatic brain injury models. In addition to the disruption of the membrane phospholipid architecture, LP results in the formation of cytotoxic aldehyde-containing products that bind to cellular proteins and impair their normal functions. This article reviews the progress over the past three decades in regards to the preclinical discovery and attempted clinical development of antioxidant drugs designed to inhibit free radical-induced LP and its neurotoxic consequences via different mechanisms including the O2•- scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the lipid peroxidation inhibitor tirilazad. In addition, various other antioxidant agents that have been shown to have efficacy in preclinical TBI models are briefly presented such as the LP inhibitors U83836E, resveratrol, curcumin, OPC-14177 and lipoic acid; the iron chelator deferoxamine and the nitroxide-containing antioxidants such as α-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone and tempol. A relatively new antioxidant mechanistic strategy for acute TBI is aimed at the scavenging of aldehydic LP by-products that are highly neurotoxic with “carbonyl scavenging” compounds. Finally, it is proposed that the most effective approach to interrupt posttraumatic oxidative brain damage after TBI might involve the combined treatment with mechanistically-complementary antioxidants that simultaneously scavenge LP-initiating free radicals, inhibit LP propagation and lastly remove neurotoxic LP byproducts. PMID:20129497

  14. Traumatic brain injury, neuroimaging, and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2012-01-01

    Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1) the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2) how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3) how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury. PMID:23964217

  15. Paintball-related traumatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Luck, Joshua; Bell, Daniel; Bashir, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Paintball is a popular recreational sport played at both amateur and professional level. Ocular injuries are well recognised, although there is a growing body of literature documenting superficial vascular as well as deep solid organ injuries. An 18-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms consistent with acute appendicitis. Intraoperatively, a grade III liver injury was identified and packed before a relook at 48 h. No further active bleeding was identified; however, follow-up ultrasound at 3 weeks demonstrated non-resolution of a large subcapsular haematoma. The patient was readmitted for a short period of observation and discharged with repeat ultrasound scheduled for 3 months. This represents the first report of paintball-related blunt traumatic injury to the liver. Solid organ injuries of this nature have only been reported three times previously-all in the urological setting. This case also highlights issues surrounding the use of routine follow-up imaging in blunt liver trauma and provides a concise discussion of the relevant literature. PMID:27122206

  16. Traumatic brain injury, neuroimaging, and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2013-01-01

    Depending on severity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces immediate neuropathological effects that in the mildest form may be transient but as severity increases results in neural damage and degeneration. The first phase of neural degeneration is explainable by the primary acute and secondary neuropathological effects initiated by the injury; however, neuroimaging studies demonstrate a prolonged period of pathological changes that progressively occur even during the chronic phase. This review examines how neuroimaging may be used in TBI to understand (1) the dynamic changes that occur in brain development relevant to understanding the effects of TBI and how these relate to developmental stage when the brain is injured, (2) how TBI interferes with age-typical brain development and the effects of aging thereafter, and (3) how TBI results in greater frontotemporolimbic damage, results in cerebral atrophy, and is more disruptive to white matter neural connectivity. Neuroimaging quantification in TBI demonstrates degenerative effects from brain injury over time. An adverse synergistic influence of TBI with aging may predispose the brain injured individual for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders long after surviving the brain injury.

  17. Crural Artery Traumatic Injuries: Treatment with Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Suri, Rajeev; Cura, Marco; Kroma, Ghazwan; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to report our experience with the endovascular treatment of crural arterial injuries using transcatheter and direct embolization techniques. A total of eight consecutive patients have been treated during a 7-year period. Six males and two females, mean age 32 years (range, 15-56 years), presented with penetrating trauma to the lower extremities. Mechanisms of injuries were stab wounds in six patients, gun shot wound in one patient, and iatrogenic injury in one patient. Five patients presented with acute trauma, while three patients presented with delayed injuries. Crural arterial injuries encountered included pseudoaneurysms with arteriovenous fistulas (n = 6), pseudoaneurysms with vessel transections (n = 2), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). Proximal and distal embolization with coils was used in three cases, proximal embolization with coils in three cases, percutaneous thrombin injection in one case, and liquid n-butyl cyanoacrylate in one case. Complete exclusion of the lesions was accomplished by sacrifice of one crural vessel in seven cases and of two crural vessels in one case. Two cases of delayed injuries required combined coil and liquid embolization techniques for lesion exclusion. A minor complication (groin hematoma) occurred in one patient, no distal ischemia was seen, and no amputations were required. Mean follow-up was 61 days (range, 1-180 days). One pseudoaneurysm treated with thrombin injection recurred and required surgical excision. We conclude that transcatheter embolization alone or in combination with different endovascular techniques is useful in the treatment of traumatic crural vessel injuries.

  18. Decompressive craniectomy following traumatic brain injury: developing the evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Kolias, Angelos G.; Adams, Hadie; Timofeev, Ivan; Czosnyka, Marek; Corteen, Elizabeth A.; Pickard, John D.; Turner, Carole; Gregson, Barbara A.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Murray, Gordon D.; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used as part of tiered therapeutic protocols for patients with intracranial hypertension (secondary or protocol-driven DC). In addition, the bone flap can be left out when evacuating a mass lesion, usually an acute subdural haematoma (ASDH), in the acute phase (primary DC). Even though, the principle of “opening the skull” in order to control brain oedema and raised intracranial pressure has been practised since the beginning of the 20th century, the last 20 years have been marked by efforts to develop the evidence base with the conduct of randomised trials. This article discusses the merits and challenges of this approach and provides an overview of randomised trials of DC following TBI. An update on the RESCUEicp study, a randomised trial of DC versus advanced medical management (including barbiturates) for severe and refractory post-traumatic intracranial hypertension is provided. In addition, the rationale for the RESCUE-ASDH study, the first randomised trial of primary DC versus craniotomy for adult head-injured patients with an ASDH, is presented. PMID:26972805

  19. Acute interventions for refugee children and families.

    PubMed

    Brymer, Melissa J; Steinberg, Alan M; Sornborger, Jo; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the exposure of refugees, and particularly refugee children, to trauma, loss, and severe hardship in their countries of origin, while fleeing to their host countries, and after arrival in the host country. It then discusses acute psychosocial interventions for traumatized children and families, in particular the "Psychological First Aid" and "Skills for Psychological Recovery" guidelines developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. It concludes by discussing the need to establish an evidence base for the effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:18558316

  20. Therapy Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(8;16) Mimicking Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chharchhodawala, Taher; Gajendra, Smeeta; Tiwari, Priya; Gogia, Ajay; Gupta, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;q13) is a distinct clinical and morphological entity with poor prognosis, which is characterized by a high frequency of extramedullary involvement, most commonly leukemia cutis; association with therapy related AML; frequent coagulopathy and morphologic features overlapping acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL). Herein, we present a case of 47 year-old post-menopausal woman developing secondary AML with t(8;16)(p11;q13) after 1 year of completion of therapy for breast carcinoma. Blasts were granulated with few showing clefted nucleus resembling promyelocytes and immnuophenotyping showed high side scatter with MPO positivity and CD 34 and HLA-DR negativity. In view of promyelocyte like morphology and immunophenotyping of blasts, possibility of APL was considered but, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for PML-RARα fusion transcript came out to be negative. Conventional cytogenetics showed t(8;16)(p11;q13). So, we should keep possibility of t(8;16) (p11;q13) in therapy related acute myeloid leukemia in patient showing clinical and morphological features of acute promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:27408347

  1. Traumatic Retrolisthesis of L5 and L5/S1 Extruded Disc Herniation; A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pourabbas, Babak; Effani, Mohammad Ali; Namdari, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic retrolisthesis is a rare injury and may result in intervertebral disc extrusion and nerve root injury. These injuries are highly unstable and require surgery for decompression and stabilization. Traumatic retrolisthesis of L5 with acute L5/S1 disc extrusion associated with nerve root injury has not been reported previously in English literatures. We herein report a case of traumatic retrolisthesis of L5 and extruded disc. A 22 year-old patient presented with lower extremity weakness due to L5/S1 retrolisthesis and traumatic acute L5/S1 disc extrusion after falling of 8 meters height. The patient underwent surgical decompression and reduction with instrumentation. Accordingly complete recovery of neurologic deficit was occurred. Therefore, early decompression of the nerve roots followed by circumferential instrumentation and fusion of the involved segment results in dramatic improvement in neurologic symptoms.  PMID:27540553

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury by a Closed Head Injury Device Induces Cerebral Blood Flow Changes and Microhemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Bandaru, Sharath; Zakaria, Nisrine; Shen, Yimin; Kou, Zhifeng; Zhang, Liying; Haacke, Ewart Mark; Cavanaugh, John M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Traumatic brain injury is a poly-pathology characterized by changes in the cerebral blood flow, inflammation, diffuse axonal, cellular, and vascular injuries. However, studies related to understanding the temporal changes in the cerebral blood flow following traumatic brain injury extending to sub-acute periods are limited. In addition, knowledge related to microhemorrhages, such as their detection, localization, and temporal progression, is important in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods: Cerebral blood flow changes and microhemorrhages in male Sprague Dawley rats at 4 h, 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days were assessed following a closed head injury induced by the Marmarou impact acceleration device (2 m height, 450 g brass weight). Cerebral blood flow was measured by arterial spin labeling. Microhemorrhages were assessed by susceptibility-weighted imaging and Prussian blue histology. Results: Traumatic brain injury rats showed reduced regional and global cerebral blood flow at 4 h and 7 days post-injury. Injured rats showed hemorrhagic lesions in the cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and brainstem in susceptibility-weighted imaging. Injured rats also showed Prussian blue reaction products in both the white and gray matter regions up to 7 days after the injury. These lesions were observed in various areas of the cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain. Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow and hemorrhagic lesions can persist for sub-acute periods after the initial traumatic insult in an animal model. In addition, microhemorrhages otherwise not seen by susceptibility-weighted imaging are present in diverse regions of the brain. The combination of altered cerebral blood flow and microhemorrhages can potentially be a source of secondary injury changes following traumatic brain injury and may need to be taken into consideration in the long-term care of these cases. PMID:26605126

  3. Hypothermia in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aminul I; Bullock, M Ross; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2016-10-01

    For over 50 years, clinicians have used hypothermia to manage traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the last two decades numerous trials have assessed whether hypothermia is of benefit in patients. Mild to moderate hypothermia reduces the intracranial pressure (ICP). Randomized control trials for short-term hypothermia indicate no benefit in outcome after severe TBI, whereas longer-term hypothermia could be of benefit by reducing ICP. This article summarises current evidence and gives recommendations based upon the conclusions. PMID:27637398

  4. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    PubMed

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well. PMID:26982058

  5. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    PubMed

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  6. Inflammation and white matter degeneration persist for years after a single traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Stewart, Janice E; Begbie, Finn D; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Douglas H; Stewart, William

    2013-01-01

    A single traumatic brain injury is associated with an increased risk of dementia and, in a proportion of patients surviving a year or more from injury, the development of hallmark Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies. However, the pathological processes linking traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease remain poorly understood. Growing evidence supports a role for neuroinflammation in the development of Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, little is known about the neuroinflammatory response to brain injury and, in particular, its temporal dynamics and any potential role in neurodegeneration. Cases of traumatic brain injury with survivals ranging from 10 h to 47 years post injury (n = 52) and age-matched, uninjured control subjects (n = 44) were selected from the Glasgow Traumatic Brain Injury archive. From these, sections of the corpus callosum and adjacent parasaggital cortex were examined for microglial density and morphology, and for indices of white matter pathology and integrity. With survival of ≥3 months from injury, cases with traumatic brain injury frequently displayed extensive, densely packed, reactive microglia (CR3/43- and/or CD68-immunoreactive), a pathology not seen in control subjects or acutely injured cases. Of particular note, these reactive microglia were present in 28% of cases with survival of >1 year and up to 18 years post-trauma. In cases displaying this inflammatory pathology, evidence of ongoing white matter degradation could also be observed. Moreover, there was a 25% reduction in the corpus callosum thickness with survival >1 year post-injury. These data present striking evidence of persistent inflammation and ongoing white matter degeneration for many years after just a single traumatic brain injury in humans. Future studies to determine whether inflammation occurs in response to or, conversely, promotes white matter degeneration will be important. These findings may provide parallels for studying neurodegenerative disease

  7. Diffuse traumatic brain injury induces prolonged immune dysregulation and potentiates hyperalgesia following a peripheral immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K; Ellis, Gavin I; Harrison, Jordan L; Bachstetter, Adam D; Corder, Gregory F; Van Eldik, Linda J; Taylor, Bradley K; Marti, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Background Nociceptive and neuropathic pain occurs as part of the disease process after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Central and peripheral inflammation, a major secondary injury process initiated by the traumatic brain injury event, has been implicated in the potentiation of peripheral nociceptive pain. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response to diffuse traumatic brain injury potentiates persistent pain through prolonged immune dysregulation. Results To test this, adult, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain injury or to sham procedure. One cohort of mice was analyzed for inflammation-related cytokine levels in cortical biopsies and serum along an acute time course. In a second cohort, peripheral inflammation was induced seven days after surgery/injury with an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. This was followed by measurement of mechanical hyperalgesia, glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba1 immunohistochemical analysis of neuroinflammation in the brain, and flow cytometric analysis of T-cell differentiation in mucosal lymph. Traumatic brain injury increased interleukin-6 and chemokine ligand 1 levels in the cortex and serum that peaked within 1–9 h and then resolved. Intraplantar carrageenan produced mechanical hyperalgesia that was potentiated by traumatic brain injury. Further, mucosal T cells from brain-injured mice showed a distinct deficiency in the ability to differentiate into inflammation-suppressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). Conclusions We conclude that traumatic brain injury increased the inflammatory pain associated with cutaneous inflammation by contributing to systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells are immune suppressors and failure of T cells to differentiate into regulatory T cells leads to unregulated cytokine production which may contribute to the potentiation of peripheral pain through the excitation of peripheral sensory neurons. In addition, regulatory T cells are

  8. Comment on "chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model".

    PubMed

    Tisdall, Martin; Petzold, Axel

    2012-10-24

    In a case study, the authors report an increase in phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain, a marker of neuroaxonal damage, in the plasma of a blast-exposed patient immediately after injury. They suggest that this phosphoprotein may be a useful body fluid indicator of acute blast traumatic brain injury.

  9. Beyond the physical injuries: child and parent coping with medical traumatic stress after pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, Susan E; Campbell, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Experiencing a traumatic event and then the required care for the physical injuries can elicit stress symptoms in the injured child and parents. Stress-related symptoms affect a significant number of injured children and can have an impact on emotional and physical health outcomes after injury. Yet the majority of children who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder postinjury go undiagnosed and untreated. Medical traumatic stress symptoms that occur often as adaptive responses initially can persist. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed when the stress symptoms persist less than 1 month postinjury and affect normal functioning. Inclusion of screening for acute stress and the development of models and guidelines are needed to systematically incorporate the care for the emotional trauma as an integral part of pediatric trauma care. Pediatric trauma nurses with knowledge and resources are in a position to minimize potentially traumatic aspects of the care they deliver, recognize traumatic stress symptoms, and help parents to support their child's coping and promote appropriate help seeking.

  10. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  11. Aging, Neurodegenerative Disease, and Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent condition with significant effects on cognition and behavior. While the acute and sub-acute effects of TBI recover over time, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of TBI in relation to neurodegenerative disease. This issue has recently garnered a great deal of attention due to publicity surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes, although CTE is but one of several neurodegenerative disorders associated with a history of TBI. Here, we review the literative on neurodegenerative disorders linked to remote TBI. We also review the evidence for neuroimaging changes associated with unhealthy brain aging in the context of remote TBI. We conclude that neuroimaging biomarkers have significant potential to increase understanding of the mechanisms of unhealthy brain aging and neurodegeneration following TBI, with potential for identifying those at risk for unhealthy brain aging prior to the clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25192426

  12. Acute sports-related traumatic brain injury and repetitive concussion.

    PubMed

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Broglio, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Concussions are described as functional, not structural injuries, and therefore cannot be easily detected through standard diagnostic imaging. The vast differences between individual athletes makes identifying and evaluating sport-related concussion one of the most complex and perplexing injuries faced by medical personnel. The literature, as well as most consensus statements, supports the use of a multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation on the sideline of the athletic field. Using a standardized clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of concussion-related symptoms, cognitive function, and balance provides clinicians with the ability to track recovery in an objective manner. When used in combination, these tests allow for more informed diagnosis and treatment plan, which should involve a graduated return to play progression. Establishing a comprehensive emergency action plan that can guide the on-field management of a more serious and potentially catastrophic brain injury is also essential. This review will address these management issues, as well as the recent concerns about the risk of long-term neurologic conditions believed to be associated with repetitive concussion.

  13. Traumatic bleeding of spinal angiolipoma presenting with subacute paraparesis--a case report and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Vijay; Carey, Martyn; Shad, Amjad

    2010-12-01

    Spinal angiolipoma is a rare benign tumour. It usually presents as a slowly progressive compressive lesion. Bleeding in this tumour is extremely rare and is spontaneous and acute. This is the first reported case of post-traumatic bleeding from a spinal angiolipoma, who developed subacute progressive paraparesis. The pathological definition of this rare entity is not well established. Histologically it is distinct from cutaneous angiolipoma.

  14. Traumatic Bonding: Clinical Implications in Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deYoung, Mary; Lowry, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    "Traumatic bonding" is defined as "the evolution of emotional dependency between...a child and an adult [in] a relationship characterized by periodic sexual abuse." Maintains that the concept holds promise for explaining confusing dynamics of incest. Demonstrates ways in which traumatic bonding can be applied to cases of incest and discusses…

  15. Seizures Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dennis

    This guide provides information on seizures in students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and offers guidelines for classroom management. First, a classification system for seizures is presented with specific types of seizures explained. Post-traumatic seizures are specifically addressed as is the importance of seizure prevention when possible.…

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Challenge for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.; Mohr, J. Darrell

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide information designed to enhance the knowledge and understanding of school personnel about traumatic brain injury (TBI). The authors specifically define TBI and enumerate common characteristics associated with traumatic brain injury, discuss briefly the growth and type of services provided, and offer some…

  17. Secondary Traumatic Stress in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bride, Brian E.; Walls, Erin

    2006-01-01

    The terms secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious traumatization (VT), and compassion fatigue (CF) have all been used, sometimes interchangeably, to refer to the observation that those who provide clinical services to trauma survivors may themselves experience considerable emotional disruption, becoming indirect victims of the trauma.…

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper is a clinical discussion of post-traumatic stress disorder and violence, particularly as it applies to the Vietnam Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. In the first section, the syndrome is described as the sudden onset of explosive rage and unprovoked violence with little or no warning, accompanied by a drastic change in personality. It is…

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder in somatic disease: lessons from critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-recognized complication of severe illness. PTSD has been described in patients after multiple trauma, burns, or myocardial infarction with a particularly high incidence in survivors of acute pulmonary failure (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) or septic shock. Many patients with evidence of PTSD after critical illness have been treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Studies in long-term survivors of ICU treatment demonstrated a clear and vivid recall of different categories of traumatic memory such as nightmares, anxiety, respiratory distress, or pain with little or no recall of factual events. A high number of these traumatic memories from the ICU has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the later development of PTSD in long-term survivors. In addition, patients in the ICU are often treated with stress hormones like epinephrine, norepinephrine, or cortisol. The number of the above-mentioned categories of traumatic memory increased with the totally administered dosages of catecholamines and cortisol, and the evaluation of these categories at different time points after discharge from the ICU showed better memory consolidation with higher dosages of stress hormones administered. Conversely, the prolonged administration of beta-adrenergic antagonists during the recovery phase after cardiac surgery resulted in a lower number of traumatic memories and a lower incidence of stress symptoms at 6 months after surgery. Findings with regard to the administration of the stress hormone cortisol were more complex, however. Several studies from our group have demonstrated that the administration of stress doses of cortisol to critically ill patients resulted in a significant reduction of PTSD symptoms measured after recovery without influencing the number of categories of traumatic memory. This can possibly be explained by a cortisol-induced temporary impairment in traumatic memory retrieval that has previously been

  20. Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Melissa J; Povlishock, John T

    2016-10-01

    This article provides a concise overview, at the structural and functional level, of those changes evoked by traumatic brain injury across the spectrum of the disease. Using data derived from animals and humans, the pathogenesis of focal versus diffuse brain damage is presented for consideration of its overall implications for morbidity. Emphasis is placed on contusion and its potential expansion in concert with diffuse changes primarily assessed at the axonal level. Concomitant involvement of neuroexcitation and its role in global and focal metabolic changes is considered. Lastly, the influence of premorbid factors including age, genetics, and socioeconomic background is discussed. PMID:27637392

  1. Delayed Post-Traumatic Anisocoria.

    PubMed

    Ergül, Dursun Fırat; Ekemen, Serdar; Özdemir, Özcan; Uzan, Çağdaş; Yelken, Birgül

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic carotid artery dissection is one of the major causes of ischemic stroke in young patients; its diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians because of its variable clinical presentation. An otherwise healthy 37-year-old man was referred to the intensive care unit of our faculty for the management of multiple trauma because of a car accident. At 11 days from admission, his doctor noticed the advent of anisocoria. A prompt treatment was instituted with anti-platelet and-coagulant agents. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms. The prognosis was good, and the patient achieved a complete clinical recovery. He was discharged without any sequelae. PMID:27366498

  2. Complex Traumatic Facial Degloving Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav N, Chandan; Ramdas, Sharad; Lingam, P P; Sateesh, Suhas

    2016-06-01

    By definition, degloving is detachment of skin and subcutaneous tissue, most often affecting the limbs and extremities and occasionally the scalp. Degloving generally occurs from high-energy trauma. This paper describes a patient of traumatic facial degloving injury. This is an extremely rare condition, as the patient survived despite the risk of imminent death. This patient report addresses the decisions made regarding the emergency management, prevention of necrosis and infection by surgical debridement, and timely repair of the vital soft tissue structures that guided the management. PMID:27171962

  3. Is nasogastric suction necessary in acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Salingret, E; Clumeck, N; De Troyer, A; Devis, G

    1978-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis were randomly allocated to treatment with or without nasogastric suction (27 and 31 patients respectively). Intravenous fluids and pethidine hydrochloride were also given. The two groups were comparable clinically at the start of the study. There were no differences between the two groups in the mean duration of the following features: abdominal pain or tenderness; absence of bowel movements; raised serum amylase concentration; time to resumption of oral feeding; and days in hospital. Prolonged hyperamylasaemia (serum amylase greater than 0.33 mU/l) occurred in one patient in the suction group and in three patients in the non-suction group. A mild recurrence of abdominal pain after resumption of oral feeding occurred in three patients in the suction group and in two patients in the non-suction group. Two patients in the suction group developed overt consumption coagulopathy and two others pulmonary complications. No patient in the non-suction group had complications. The findings suggest that most patients with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis do not benefit from nasogastric suction. The procedure should be elective rather than mandatory in treating this condition. PMID:698650

  4. Preconditioning for traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Shoji; Mazzeo, Anna T; Hosein, Khadil; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bullock, M. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is now focused on the prevention of primary injury and reduction of secondary injury. However, no single effective treatment is available as yet for the mitigation of traumatic brain damage in humans. Both chemical and environmental stresses applied before injury, have been shown to induce consequent protection against post-TBI neuronal death. This concept termed “preconditioning” is achieved by exposure to different pre-injury stressors, to achieve the induction of “tolerance” to the effect of the TBI. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this “tolerance” phenomenon are not fully understood in TBI, and therefore even less information is available about possible indications in clinical TBI patients. In this review we will summarize TBI pathophysiology, and discuss existing animal studies demonstrating the efficacy of preconditioning in diffuse and focal type of TBI. We will also review other non-TBI preconditionng studies, including ischemic, environmental, and chemical preconditioning, which maybe relevant to TBI. To date, no clinical studies exist in this field, and we speculate on possible futureclinical situation, in which pre-TBI preconditioning could be considered. PMID:24323189

  5. The Role of Markers of Inflammation in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Thomas; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Within minutes of a traumatic impact, a robust inflammatory response is elicited in the injured brain. The complexity of this post-traumatic squeal involves a cellular component, comprising the activation of resident glial cells, microglia, and astrocytes, and the infiltration of blood leukocytes. The second component regards the secretion immune mediators, which can be divided into the following sub-groups: the archetypal pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin-6), the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, Interleukin-10, and TGF-beta), and the chemotactic cytokines or chemokines, which specifically drive the accumulation of parenchymal and peripheral immune cells in the injured brain region. Such mechanisms have been demonstrated in animal models, mostly in rodents, as well as in human brain. Whilst the humoral immune response is particularly pronounced in the acute phase following Traumatic brain injury (TBI), the activation of glial cells seems to be a rather prolonged effect lasting for several months. The complex interaction of cytokines and cell types installs a network of events, which subsequently intersect with adjacent pathological cascades including oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, or reparative events including angiogenesis, scarring, and neurogenesis. It is well accepted that neuroinflammation is responsible of beneficial and detrimental effects, contributing to secondary brain damage but also facilitating neurorepair. Although such mediators are clear markers of immune activation, to what extent cytokines can be defined as diagnostic factors reflecting brain injury or as predictors of long term outcome needs to be further substantiated. In clinical studies some groups reported a proportional cytokine production in either the cerebrospinal fluid or intraparenchymal tissue with initial brain damage, mortality, or poor outcome scores. However, the validity of cytokines as biomarkers is not broadly accepted. This

  6. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  7. Pulsed arterial spin labeling effectively and dynamically observes changes in cerebral blood flow after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Ping; Li, Yi-Ning; Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Zi-Shu; Zhou, Shun-Ke; Tao, Fang-Xu; Zhang, Zhi-Xue

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral blood flow is strongly associated with brain function, and is the main symptom and diagnostic basis for a variety of encephalopathies. However, changes in cerebral blood flow after mild traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. This study sought to observe changes in cerebral blood flow in different regions after mild traumatic brain injury using pulsed arterial spin labeling. Our results demonstrate maximal cerebral blood flow in gray matter and minimal in the white matter of patients with mild traumatic brain injury. At the acute and subacute stages, cerebral blood flow was reduced in the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, central region, subcutaneous region, and frontal lobe. Cerebral blood flow was restored at the chronic stage. At the acute, subacute, and chronic stages, changes in cerebral blood flow were not apparent in the insula. Cerebral blood flow in the temporal lobe and limbic lobe diminished at the acute and subacute stages, but was restored at the chronic stage. These findings suggest that pulsed arterial spin labeling can precisely measure cerebral blood flow in various brain regions, and may play a reference role in evaluating a patient's condition and judging prognosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:27073378

  8. Pulsed arterial spin labeling effectively and dynamically observes changes in cerebral blood flow after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-ping; Li, Yi-ning; Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Zi-shu; Zhou, Shun-ke; Tao, Fang-xu; Zhang, Zhi-xue

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow is strongly associated with brain function, and is the main symptom and diagnostic basis for a variety of encephalopathies. However, changes in cerebral blood flow after mild traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. This study sought to observe changes in cerebral blood flow in different regions after mild traumatic brain injury using pulsed arterial spin labeling. Our results demonstrate maximal cerebral blood flow in gray matter and minimal in the white matter of patients with mild traumatic brain injury. At the acute and subacute stages, cerebral blood flow was reduced in the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, central region, subcutaneous region, and frontal lobe. Cerebral blood flow was restored at the chronic stage. At the acute, subacute, and chronic stages, changes in cerebral blood flow were not apparent in the insula. Cerebral blood flow in the temporal lobe and limbic lobe diminished at the acute and subacute stages, but was restored at the chronic stage. These findings suggest that pulsed arterial spin labeling can precisely measure cerebral blood flow in various brain regions, and may play a reference role in evaluating a patient's condition and judging prognosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:27073378

  9. The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…

  10. Severe envenomation by Cerastes cerastes viper: an unusual mechanism of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rebahi, Houssam; Nejmi, Hicham; Abouelhassan, Taoufik; Hasni, Khadija; Samkaoui, Mohamed-Abdenasser

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral complications after snake bites--particularly ischemic complications--are rare. Very few cases of cerebral infarction resulting from a viper bite have been reported, and we call attention to this uncommon etiology. We discuss 3 authenticated reports of acute ischemic cerebrovascular accidents after 3 typical severe envenomations by Cerastes cerastes vipers. The 3 patients developed extensive local swelling and life-threatening systemic envenomation characterized by disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, increased fibrinolysis, thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute renal failure. This clinical picture involved atypical neurologic manifestations. These patients had either low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) or hemiparesis within hours to 4 days after being bitten, and they were found to have computed tomographic evidence of single or multiple ischemic (nonhemorrhagic) strokes of small- to large-vessel territories of the brain. One patient had good clinical recovery without neurologic deficits. Thrombotic complications occurred an average of 36 hours after being bitten, and their importance depends on the degree of envenomation. The possible mechanisms for cerebral infarction in these cases include generalized prothrombotic action of the venom (consumptive coagulopathy), toxin-induced vasculitis, and endothelial damage.

  11. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage as the initial presentation of acute lymphocytic leukemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shashikant; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Thakur, Jai Deep; Khan, Imad Saeed; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic complications of acute leukemia are well described and are a common cause of mortality in these patients. However, to our knowledge, fatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) as an initial presentation of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has only been reported once. We report a case of previously undiagnosed ALL presenting with ICH. Our patient is a 17-year old male who was found unresponsive several hours after complaining of headache. Initial emergency room evaluation found the patient to have anisocoria with a fixed and dilated right pupil and demonstrated evidence of decorticate posturing. Imaging revealed a large right-sided intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, midline shift, and uncal herniation. Laboratory evaluation showed marked leukocytosis with blastic predominance and evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Emergent surgical intervention was performed. However, despite evacuation of the hematoma, the patient eventually progressed to clinical brain death. Usually, ICH is seen in ALL patients after the diagnosis has been made. We report a unique case of fatal intracranial hemorrhage as the initial presentation of ALL and discuss the possible management dilemmas to treat such entities. ALL should be kept in the broad differential diagnosis of spontaneous ICH, especially in a young patient with evidence of severe coagulopathy.

  12. Nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-H; Huang, I-S

    2007-06-01

    Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess is rare, commonly seen in patients with poor immunity, and presents as isolated nasal septal abscess. Further, nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis is rather rare. Very little literature has been generated for non-traumatic nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis in healthy patients. Prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment will help to prevent the complications associated with nasal septal abscess such as saddle nose and intracranial involvement. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first case involving an otherwise healthy little girl with nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis.

  13. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Reifschneider, Kent; Auble, Bethany A.; Rose, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life. PMID:26287247

  14. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Reifschneider, Kent; Auble, Bethany A; Rose, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children's quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6-12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life. PMID:26287247

  15. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Kendall R.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:23847533

  16. [Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: diagnostic and therapeutic issues].

    PubMed

    Lecoq, A-L; Chanson, P

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-known public health problem worldwide and is a leading cause of death and disability, particularly in young adults. Besides neurological and psychiatric issues, pituitary dysfunction can also occur after TBI, in the acute or chronic phase. The exact prevalence of post-traumatic hypopituitarism is difficult to assess due to the wide heterogeneity of published studies and bias in interpretation of hormonal test results in this specific population. Predictive factors for hypopituitarism have been proposed and are helpful for the screening. The pathophysiology of pituitary dysfunction after TBI is not well understood but the vascular hypothesis is privileged. Activation of pituitary stem/progenitor cells is probably involved in the recovery of pituitary functions. Those cells also play a role in the induction of pituitary tumors, highlighting their crucial place in pituitary conditions. This review updates the current data related to anterior pituitary dysfunction after TBI and discusses the bias and difficulties encountered in its diagnosis. PMID:26776284

  17. Male pituitary-gonadal dysfunction following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Zasler, N D; Kreutzer, J S

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate pituitary-gonadal function and correlated parameters in 21 adult males with severe traumatic brain injury during acute inpatient rehabilitation. Serum concentrations of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured within 1 week after the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation unit. Fourteen of 21 patients (67%) had abnormally low testosterone levels. One of 21 patients had a subnormal FSH level and one had a supranormal level. Three of 21 patients had subnormal LH levels and two had supranormal levels. There was no correlation between the severity of brain injury and the levels of testosterone, FSH or LH. The presence of increased intracranial pressure, hypoxia, skull fracture or abnormal CT findings had no significant influence on the levels of testosterone, FSH or LH. The high incidence of hypotestosteronaemia in survivors of severe traumatic brain injury is seemingly more related to accompanying physiological stressors rather than structural or neurochemical disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Early identification is important relative to the potential neuromedical and rehabilitative consequences of prolonged hypotestosteronaemia in this patient population.

  18. Ouabain Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dvela-Levitt, Moran; Ami, Hagit Cohen-Ben; Rosen, Haim; Shohami, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cardiac steroid ouabain binds to Na+, K+-ATPase and inhibits its activity. Administration of the compound to animals and humans causes an increase in the force of contraction of heart muscle and stabilizes heart rate. In addition, this steroid promotes the growth of cardiac, vascular, and neuronal cells both in vitro and in vivo. We studied the effects of ouabain on mouse recovery following closed head injury (CHI), a model for traumatic brain injury. We show that chronic (three times a week), but not acute, intraperitoneal administration of a low dose (1 μg/kg) of ouabain significantly improves mouse recovery and functional outcome. The improvement in mouse performance was accompanied by a decrease in lesion size, estimated 43 d following the trauma. In addition, mice that underwent CHI and were treated with ouabain showed an increase in the number of proliferating cells in the subventricular zone and in the area surrounding the site of injury. Determination of the identity of the proliferating cells in the area surrounding the trauma showed that whereas there was no change in the proliferation of endothelial cells or astrocytes, neuronal cell proliferation almost doubled in the ouabain-treated mice in comparison with that of the vehicle animals. These results point to a neuroprotective effects of low doses of ouabain and imply its involvement in brain recovery and neuronal regeneration. This suggests that ouabain and maybe other cardiac steroids may be used for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. PMID:25007121

  19. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Autoimmunity and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of secondary hypopituitarism in children and adults, and is responsible for impaired quality of life, disabilities and compromised development. Alterations of pituitary function can occur at any time after the traumatic event, presenting in various ways and evolving during time, so they require appropriate screening for early detection and treatment. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, several mechanisms have been hypothesized, including hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity (HP-A). The aim of this study was to systematically review literature on the association between HP-A and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. Major pitfalls related to the HP-A investigation were also discussed. Methods: The PubMed database was searched with a string developed for this purpose, without temporal or language limits, for original articles assessing the association of HP-A and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. Results: Three articles from the same group met the inclusion criteria. Anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamic antibodies were detected using indirect immunofluorescence in a significant number of patients with acute and chronic TBI. Elevated antibody titer was associated with an increased risk of persistent hypopituitarism, especially somatotroph and gonadotroph deficiency, while no correlations were found with clinical parameters. Conclusion: HPA seems to contribute to TBI-induced pituitary damage, although major methodological issues need to be overcome and larger studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary data. PMID:26239463

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder in disaster survivors.

    PubMed

    North, C S; Smith, E M

    1990-12-01

    In spite of the difficulties inherent in the study of traumatic stress in disaster victims, the benefit of obtaining more knowledge on the subject is potentially great, especially considering the numbers of individuals affected. Recent estimates of the frequency of world-wide traumatic events have determined that almost two million households annually experience damages and/or injuries from fire, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes alone. The population that is at risk is expected to grow exponentially with our expanding technology, making it even more vital to acquire knowledge to help the growing number of future disaster victims. Additionally, disaster research can contribute to a better understanding of PTSD and human coping processes that can be generalized to more ordinary stress situations. In the meantime, survivors of major catastrophes who experience acute symptoms of PTSD such as insomnia, nightmares, and jumpiness should be observed for nonresolution of symptoms over time, especially if there is a premorbid history of psychopathology or character problems. Otherwise, survivors may benefit from reassurance that PTSD symptoms are common in the short-term postdisaster period and that they can usually be expected to dissipate with time.

  1. [Neuroanatomical basis for traumatic coma: clinical and magnetic resonance correlates].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A A; Zakharova, N E; Kornienko, V N; Pronin, I N; Alexandrova, E V; Zaitsev, O S; Likhterman, L B; Gavrilov, A G; Danilov, G V; Oshorov, A V; Sychev, A A; Polupan, A A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between brain lesion localization (verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its outcomes is presented. Magnetic resonance studies in different modes (T1, T2, FLAIR, DWI, DTI, T2 * GRE, SWAN) were performed in 162 patients with acute TBI. Statistical analysis was done using Statistica 6, 8 software and R programming language. A new advanced MRI-based classification of TBI was introduced implying the assessment of hemispheric and brainstem traumatic lesions level and localization. Statistically significant correlations were found between the Glasgow coma and outcome scales scores (p < 0.001), and the proposed MRI grading scale scores, which means a high prognostic value of the new classification. The knowledge of injured brain microanatomy coming from sensitive neuroimaging, in conjunction with the assessment of mechanisms, aggravating factors and clinical manifestation of brain trauma is the basis for the actual predictive model of TBI. The proposed advanced MRI classification contributes to this concept development. PMID:24761591

  2. [Physical and psychological traumatism. Dialectic of singular tragedy and biology].

    PubMed

    Barrois, C; Pailler, J L; Brinquin, L

    1990-01-01

    A good clinical assessment and a strict hospital's organization characterized essentially by the best climate of cooperation between the different departments permits now to control and to prevent some surgical sequelae. For a long time (approximately the 50's) generalists physicians, psychiatrists, behaviourists, have been limited in diagnosis and treatment afterwards. They could not take preventive measures, because the lack or insufficient acknowledge about this area. In fact, every surgical intervention implies psychic and existential, acute or long term disorders. A briefly summarized clinical case illustrate principles for the practice. The preventive approach of the post-surgical psychic troubles concern a lot of elements related to the patient's environement: social interactions, technic cares, types of drugs, style of relation between the specialized teams and patient, social and professional support and so on... The events, even the apparently minor, have to be enough mastered into the resuscitation's setting. The most important trouble is the "post-traumatic stress disorder" (cf D.S.M. III R), or (in the european traduction) a "névrose traumatique". It is a stress or illness of the whole existence, especially in the case of delayed subtype. The authors emphasize the notion of "second traumatism", often withdrived from social, familial and medical supports.

  3. Acute pancreatitis in infants and children.

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, C.; Gryboski, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is being encountered more often in children due to antimetabolite therapy, accidental injury, and traumatic battering. Pancreatitis may occur in the absence of traditionally elevated serum amylase and lipase, and initial diagnosis may depend upon ultrasonography. Traditional therapy of enteric rest with nasogastric suction has been supported by the use of parenteral nutrition. Newer pharmaceutical agents have been ineffective in altering the course of the illness or in preventing complications of pseudocyst or abscess. PMID:6382834

  4. Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Almutez; Savage, Howard I; Scherer, Roberta W; Goldberg, Morton F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic hyphema is the entry of blood into the anterior chamber (the space between the cornea and iris) subsequent to a blow or a projectile striking the eye. Hyphema uncommonly causes permanent loss of vision. Associated trauma (e.g. corneal staining, traumatic cataract, angle recession glaucoma, optic atrophy, etc.) may seriously affect vision. Such complications may lead to permanent impairment of vision. Patients with sickle cell trait/disease may be particularly susceptible to increases of elevated intraocular pressure. If rebleeding occurs, the rates and severity of complications increase. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of various medical interventions in the management of traumatic hyphema. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMED-LINE (January 1946 to August 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 30 August 2013. Selection criteria Two authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all reports identified by the electronic and manual searches. In this review, we included randomized and quasi-randomized trials that compared various medical interventions versus other medical interventions or control groups for the treatment of traumatic hyphema following closed globe trauma. We applied no restrictions regarding age, gender, severity of the closed globe trauma, or level of visual acuity at the time of enrolment. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted the

  5. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  6. Use of High-Flow Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy with Citrate Anticoagulation to Control Intracranial Pressure by Maintaining Hypernatremia in a Patient with Acute Brain Injury and Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Medow, Joshua E; Sanghvi, Shalin R; Hofmann, R Michael

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury and intracranial hypertension often require treatment to optimize patient outcome. There are a variety of complex medical conditions that can preclude standard approaches to the treatment of intracranial hypertension. We describe a case where a novel approach using continuous dialysis with trisodium citrate was used to optimize the outcome of a young male with acute renal failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the setting of acute traumatic brain injury.

  7. Midline (Central) Fluid Percussion Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel K; Griffiths, Daniel R; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Research models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) hold significant validity towards the human condition, with each model replicating a subset of clinical features and symptoms. After 30 years of characterization and implementation, fluid percussion injury (FPI) is firmly recognized as a clinically relevant model of TBI, encompassing concussion through severe injury. The midline variation of FPI may best represent mild and diffuse clinical brain injury, because of the acute behavioral deficits, the late onset of subtle behavioral morbidities, and the absence of gross histopathology. This chapter outlines the procedures for midline (diffuse) FPI in adult male rats and mice. With these procedures, it becomes possible to generate brain-injured laboratory animals for studies of injury-induced pathophysiology and behavioral deficits, for which rational therapeutic interventions can be implemented. PMID:27604721

  8. Genetic predictors of outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Robert H; Lin, Mingkuan

    2015-01-01

    The nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has acute and chronic outcomes for those who survive. Over time, the chronic process of injury impacts multiple organ systems that may lead to disease. We discuss possible mechanisms and methodological issues in the context of candidate gene association studies using TBI patient populations. Because study population sizes have been generally limited, we discussed results on genes that have been the focus of independent studies. We also present a justification for testing more speculative candidate genes in recovery from TBI, such as those involved in circadian rhythm, to outline the importance of prioritizing functional variants in genes that may modulate recovery or provide neuroprotection from TBI. Finally, we provide a perspective on how future research will integrate population level genetic findings with the biological basis of disease in order to create a resource of predictive outcome measures for individual patients.

  9. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints. PMID:27566327

  10. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.

  11. [Traumatic splenic rupture--fatal increase in thrombocytes after splenectomy].

    PubMed

    Schulz, F; Lieske, K

    1997-04-01

    A patient with CMGM developed after traumatic splenectomy a severe thrombocytosis up to 4 millions. 25 days after the accident he died of acute right heart failure caused by vascular occlusion of lung vessels due to thrombocyte aggregations. According to the regulations of professional cooperatives in Germany the death is caused by the occupational accident. A bereaved pension will be payed. For the private life insurance the blood disease is with 33% partial responsible for the fatal development and reduces the payment. According to german penal law the death of the victim will tighten the punishment, if someone else is guilty for the accident. A professional error on the part of a doctor is not provable.

  12. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in Stroke and Traumatic CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Mary; Dempsey, Robert J; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbene formed in many plants in response to various stressors, elicits multiple beneficial effects in vertebrates. Particularly, resveratrol was shown to have therapeutic properties in cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Resveratrol-induced benefits are modulated by multiple synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Despite the lack of a definitive mechanism, both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol can induce a neuroprotective state when administered acutely or prior to experimental injury to the CNS. In this review, we discuss the neuroprotective potential of resveratrol in stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, with a focus on the molecular pathways responsible for this protection. PMID:26277384

  13. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  14. Negligent homicide by traumatic asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Miyaishi, S; Yoshitome, K; Yamamoto, Y; Naka, T; Ishizu, H

    2004-04-01

    We presented an unusual case of negligent homicide by thorax compression, which is the expanded concept of traumatic asphyxia. A 58-year-old man was restrained in the prone position by six prison officers. They were ordered by their superiors to continue restraining him for about 15 min and the victim died. At the forensic autopsy, typical findings of thorax compression with intramuscular hemorrhages on the back and multiple fractures of the ribs were observed. No evidence of neck compression/smothering or other fatal issues likely to occur by chest compression was found. The reconstruction of the scene corresponded exactly with the localization of the injuries found in the victim. This is the first case of death by pure thorax compression without other fatal factors during intentional restraint, in which the force causing the chest compression was distinctly determined by the autopsy and reconstruction. PMID:14727121

  15. Suicide and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 80 years, suicidality was not considered to be a core clinical feature of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In recent years, suicide has been widely cited as being associated with CTE, and now depression has been proposed to be one of three core diagnostic features alongside cognitive impairment and anger control problems. This evolution of the clinical features has been reinforced by thousands of media stories reporting a connection between mental health problems in former athletes and military veterans, repetitive neurotrauma, and CTE. At present, the science underlying the causal assumption between repetitive neurotrauma, depression, suicide, and the neuropathology believed to be unique to CTE is inconclusive. Epidemiological evidence indicates that former National Football League players, for example, are at lower, not greater, risk for suicide than men in the general population. This article aims to discuss the critical issues and literature relating to these possible relationships. PMID:26449269

  16. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of traumatic and non-traumatic brachial plexopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yiru Lorna; Othman, Mohamad Isham Bin; Dubey, Niraj; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset brachial plexopathy can be classified into traumatic and non-traumatic aetiologies. Traumatic brachial plexopathies can affect the pre- or postganglionic segments of the plexus. Non-traumatic brachial plexopathies may be due to neoplasia, radiotherapy, thoracic outlet syndrome and idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to localise the area of injury or disease, and identify the likely cause. This review discusses some of the common causes of adult-onset brachial plexopathy and their imaging features on MRI. We also present a series of cases to illustrate some of these causes and their MRI findings. PMID:27779278

  18. Concussion in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Thor D.; Alvarez, Victor E.; McKee, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. It is associated with a variety of clinical symptoms in multiple domains, and there is a distinct pattern of pathological changes. The abnormal tau pathology in CTE occurs uniquely in those regions of the brain that are likely most susceptible to stress concentration during trauma. CTE has been associated with a variety of types of repetitive head trauma, most frequently contact sports. In cases published to date, the mean length of exposure to repetitive head trauma was 15.4 years. The clinical symptoms of the disease began after a mean latency of 14.5 years with a mean age of death of 59.3 years. Most subjects had a reported history of concussions with a mean of 20.3. However, 16 % of published CTE subjects did not have a history of concussion suggesting that subconcussive hits are sufficient to lead to the development of CTE. Overall, the number of years of exposure, not the number of concussions, was significantly associated with worse tau pathology in CTE. This suggests that it is the chronic and repetitive nature of head trauma, irrespective of concussive symptoms, that is the most important driver of disease. CTE and exposure to repetitive head trauma is also associated with a variety of other neurodegenerations, including Alzheimer disease. In fact, amyloid β peptide deposition is altered and accelerated in CTE and is associated with worse disease. Here, we review the current exposure, clinical, and pathological associations of CTE. PMID:26260277

  19. Concussion in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Stein, Thor D; Alvarez, Victor E; McKee, Ann C

    2015-10-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. It is associated with a variety of clinical symptoms in multiple domains, and there is a distinct pattern of pathological changes. The abnormal tau pathology in CTE occurs uniquely in those regions of the brain that are likely most susceptible to stress concentration during trauma. CTE has been associated with a variety of types of repetitive head trauma, most frequently contact sports. In cases published to date, the mean length of exposure to repetitive head trauma was 15.4 years. The clinical symptoms of the disease began after a mean latency of 14.5 years with a mean age of death of 59.3 years. Most subjects had a reported history of concussions with a mean of 20.3. However, 16 % of published CTE subjects did not have a history of concussion suggesting that subconcussive hits are sufficient to lead to the development of CTE. Overall, the number of years of exposure, not the number of concussions, was significantly associated with worse tau pathology in CTE. This suggests that it is the chronic and repetitive nature of head trauma, irrespective of concussive symptoms, that is the most important driver of disease. CTE and exposure to repetitive head trauma is also associated with a variety of other neurodegenerations, including Alzheimer disease. In fact, amyloid β peptide deposition is altered and accelerated in CTE and is associated with worse disease. Here, we review the current exposure, clinical, and pathological associations of CTE. PMID:26260277

  20. Endothelial Cell Sensitization by Death Receptor Fractions of an Anti-Dengue Nonstructural Protein 1 Antibody Induced Plasma Leakage, Coagulopathy, and Mortality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Ying-Chen; Lien, Te-Sheng; King, Chwan-Chuen; Shih, Yung-Luen; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Wang, Teng-Yi; Li, Chen-Ru; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-09-15

    The mechanisms leading to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) remain elusive. DHF preferentially occurs during secondary dengue infections, suggesting that aberrant immune responses are involved in its development. We previously demonstrated that the autoantibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1; anti-NS1 Igs) induce plasma leakage and mortality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. However, the involved pathogenic Ig fractions of anti-NS1 Igs remain unclear. In this study, the autoreactive Igs in patients with DHF and in NS1-immunized rabbits crossreacted with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (death receptor [DR]4). Challenges with the DENV in a subcytotoxic dose sensitized endothelial cells to apoptosis. Treatments with the autoantibodies induced proapoptotic activities and suppressed the surface expression of endothelial anticoagulant thrombomodulin. Combined treatments comprising the DENV and DR4 affinity-purified fractions of anti-NS1 IgGs (anti-NS1-DR4 Ig), but not preimmune control IgGs, in subcytotoxic doses led to apoptosis in endothelial cells. Treatments with the anti-NS1-DR4 Ig led to plasma leakage, coagulopathy, and morality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. These results suggest that DR4-induced endothelial cell sensitization through NS1-elicited autoantibodies exacerbates anticoagulant suppression, vascular injury, and plasma leakage. Detecting and blocking anti-DR Igs in patients may be novel strategies for managing severe DENV infection. PMID:26259584

  1. Endothelial Cell Sensitization by Death Receptor Fractions of an Anti-Dengue Nonstructural Protein 1 Antibody Induced Plasma Leakage, Coagulopathy, and Mortality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Ying-Chen; Lien, Te-Sheng; King, Chwan-Chuen; Shih, Yung-Luen; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Wang, Teng-Yi; Li, Chen-Ru; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-09-15

    The mechanisms leading to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) remain elusive. DHF preferentially occurs during secondary dengue infections, suggesting that aberrant immune responses are involved in its development. We previously demonstrated that the autoantibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1; anti-NS1 Igs) induce plasma leakage and mortality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. However, the involved pathogenic Ig fractions of anti-NS1 Igs remain unclear. In this study, the autoreactive Igs in patients with DHF and in NS1-immunized rabbits crossreacted with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (death receptor [DR]4). Challenges with the DENV in a subcytotoxic dose sensitized endothelial cells to apoptosis. Treatments with the autoantibodies induced proapoptotic activities and suppressed the surface expression of endothelial anticoagulant thrombomodulin. Combined treatments comprising the DENV and DR4 affinity-purified fractions of anti-NS1 IgGs (anti-NS1-DR4 Ig), but not preimmune control IgGs, in subcytotoxic doses led to apoptosis in endothelial cells. Treatments with the anti-NS1-DR4 Ig led to plasma leakage, coagulopathy, and morality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. These results suggest that DR4-induced endothelial cell sensitization through NS1-elicited autoantibodies exacerbates anticoagulant suppression, vascular injury, and plasma leakage. Detecting and blocking anti-DR Igs in patients may be novel strategies for managing severe DENV infection.

  2. Glutamate and post-traumatic stress disorder: toward a psychobiology of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R A; Bremner, J D; Moghaddam, B; Southwick, S M; Charney, D S; Krystal, J H

    1999-10-01

    Dissociative cognitive and perceptual alterations commonly occur at the time of traumatization and as an enduring feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). After stress exposure, dissociative symptoms are a predictor of the development of PTSD. Recent preclinical data suggest that stress stimulates the cortico-limbic release of glutamate. The glutamate that is released during stress in animal models influences behavior, induces a variety of changes in neural plasticity that may have long-lasting effects on brain function and behavior, and contributes to neural toxicity. Antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor also stimulates transient cortico-limbic glutamate release in animals. Further, some of the effects of NMDA antagonists in animals are blocked by drugs that attenuate glutamate release. Clinical studies suggest that NMDA antagonists may transiently stimulate glutamate release and produce symptoms resembling dissociative states in humans. A recent study suggests that a drug that reduces glutamate release also attenuates the perceptual effects of the NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Because of the possible contributions of hyperglutamatergic states to the acute and long-lasting consequences of traumatic stress exposure, the therapeutic and neuroprotective potential of drugs that attenuate glutamate release should be explored in traumatized individuals with dissociative symptoms.

  3. Post-traumatic syndrome after minor head injury cannot be predicted by neurological investigations.

    PubMed

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schreck, Jochen; Weser, Jürgen; Lehmkuhl, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate predictive factors of post-traumatic syndrome in children with minor head injury. Prospective neurological, electroencephalographic and psychological investigations were performed in 98 children aged 3-13 years within 24 h after the trauma and 4-6 weeks later. Inclusion criteria for mild head injury were unconsciousness <10 min or none at all, lack of overt neurological symptoms and other complications requiring intensive care. Twenty-six of the children had been unconscious for a short period. Ten had suffered a skull fracture. Within the first 24 h, nearly all children reported acute symptoms of concussion and 64 of 98 showed abnormal EEG findings. After 4-6 weeks, 23 of 98 still exhibited post-traumatic complaints with headache, fatigue, sleep disturbances, anxiety and affect instability. Such post-traumatic symptoms did not correlate with somatic, neurological or electroencephalographic findings observed immediately after the injury or at the follow-up investigation. As opposed to the situation in more severe head trauma, post-traumatic syndrome after minor head injury in children is apparently not due to central nervous injury detectable by neurological examination or electroencephalography. Irrespective of the necessity of neuroradiological investigations and repeated EEGs in more severe and complicated head trauma, we discourage the routine EEG examination in very slight head injury and instead rather recommend parent and patient counselling.

  4. Traumatic epidural hematoma in children.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Giovanni; Caroli, Emanuela; Raco, Antonino; Salvati, Maurizio; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of childhood acute epidural hematoma and to report our experience in recent years. A series of 35 patients below the age of 15 years treated for acute epidural hematoma at our institution between June 1991 and December 2000 was analyzed in detail. Pediatric epidural hematoma presents both age-related and atypical features when compared with epidural hematoma in adults. In selected cases, prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma results in an excellent outcome. Outcomes seem to be directly related to the patient's preoperative neurologic status and the presence of associated intracranial lesions.

  5. The pathophysiology underlying repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Petraglia, Anthony L.; Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Chen, Michael; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Huang, Jason H.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Background: An animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is essential for further understanding the pathophysiological link between repetitive head injury and the development of chronic neurodegenerative disease. We previously described a model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in mice that encapsulates the neurobehavioral spectrum characteristic of patients with CTE. We aimed to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this animal model. Methods: Our previously described model allows for controlled, closed head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Briefly, 12-week-old mice were divided into three groups: Control, single, and repetitive mTBI. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily, for 7 days. Mice were then subsequently sacrificed for macro- and micro-histopathologic analysis at 7 days, 1 month, and 6 months after the last TBI received. Brain sections were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for astrocytes, CD68 for activated microglia, and AT8 for phosphorylated tau protein. Results: Brains from single and repetitive mTBI mice lacked macroscopic tissue damage at all time-points. Single mTBI resulted in an acute rea ctive astrocytosis at 7 days and increased phospho-tau immunoreactivity that was present acutely and at 1 month, but was not persistent at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI resulted in a more marked neuroinflammatory response, with persistent and widespread astrogliosis and microglial activation, as well as significantly elevated phospho-tau immunoreactivity to 6-months. Conclusions: The neuropathological findings in this new model of repetitive mTBI resemble some of the histopathological hallmarks of CTE, including increased astrogliosis, microglial activation, and hyperphosphorylated tau protein accumulation. PMID:25593768

  6. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%-70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  7. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Journal of Traumatic Stress StressPoints Research White Papers Membership + Join ISTSS New Member Application Member Benefits ... Links Trauma Research Methods Trauma Blog Search White Papers A Public Health Approach to Trauma Membership Join ...

  8. Traumatic injury among females: does gender matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Generally, the incidence of traumatic injuries is disproportionately high in males. However, trauma in females is underreported. Aim To study the epidemiology and outcome of different mechanisms and types of traumatic injuries in women. Methods We conducted a traditional narrative review using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, searching for English-language publications for gender-specific trauma between January 1993 and January 2013 using key words “trauma”, “gender”, “female” and “women”. Results Among 1150 retrieved articles, 71 articles were relevant over 20 years. Although it is an important public health problem, traumatic injuries among females remain under-reported. Conclusion There is a need for further research and evaluation of the exact burden of traumatic injuries among females together with the implementation of effective community based preventive programs. PMID:25089153

  9. CT appearance of a traumatic cataract.

    PubMed

    Segev, Y; Goldstein, M; Lazar, M; Reider-Groswasser, I

    1995-05-01

    We describe a case of a traumatic cataract that presented on CT as a hypodense lens with a hyderdense rim. The finding reflects the pathogenesis of this entity: a capsular tear and consequent entry of fluid into the lens.

  10. Traumatic injuries in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients sustained traumatic injuries. Identification of risk factors of traumatic injuries that lead to hospital admissions and death in DM patients is crucial to set effective preventive strategies. We aimed to conduct a traditional narrative literature review to describe the role of hypoglycemia as a risk factor of driving and fall-related traumatic injuries. DM poses significant burden as a risk factor and predictor of worse outcomes in traumatic injuries. Although there is no consensus on the impact and clear hazards of hyperglycemia in comparison to the hypoglycemia, both extremes of DM need to be carefully addressed and taken into consideration for proper management. Moreover, physicians, patients, and concerned authorities should be aware of all these potential hazards to share and establish the right management plans. PMID:27162438

  11. Traumatic injuries in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients sustained traumatic injuries. Identification of risk factors of traumatic injuries that lead to hospital admissions and death in DM patients is crucial to set effective preventive strategies. We aimed to conduct a traditional narrative literature review to describe the role of hypoglycemia as a risk factor of driving and fall-related traumatic injuries. DM poses significant burden as a risk factor and predictor of worse outcomes in traumatic injuries. Although there is no consensus on the impact and clear hazards of hyperglycemia in comparison to the hypoglycemia, both extremes of DM need to be carefully addressed and taken into consideration for proper management. Moreover, physicians, patients, and concerned authorities should be aware of all these potential hazards to share and establish the right management plans. PMID:27162438

  12. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    PTSD is a severe reaction to a traumatic event that involves re-experiencing the event through dreams, recollections or flashbacks. Social support plays a role in protecting people from developing PTSD.

  14. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy following traumatic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Wainapel, S F

    1984-04-01

    Two cases of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in the upper extremity of patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries are reported. Both patients had very incomplete lesions with early neurological recovery, suggesting an underlying central cord syndrome. Although reflex sympathetic dystrophy is often seen following stroke, it has only rarely been documented in traumatic myelopathy, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained pain syndromes in the extremities of paraplegic or quadriplegic patients. PMID:6728500

  15. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  16. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  17. Post-traumatic amnesia and confusional state: hazards of retrospective assessment.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Daniel; Swash, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) must take into account factors other than traumatic brain injury (TBI) which may impact on memory both at the time of injury and subsequent to the injury. These include analgesics, anaesthesia required for surgery, and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. This is relevant in clinical and medicolegal settings. Repeated assessments of the post-injury state, involving tests for continuing amnesia, risk promoting recall of events suggested by the examiner, or generating confabulations. The PTA syndrome affects the categorical autobiographical memory, and is accompanied by confusion as an essential component; this should be suspected from the initial or early Glasgow Coma Scale score (13-14/15) if not directly recorded by clinical staff. PTA by itself is only one of several indices of severity of TBI. The nature of the head injury, including observers' accounts, clinical and neuroimaging data, the possible role of other external injuries, blood loss, acute stress disorder and the potential for hypoxic brain injury, must be taken into account as well as concomitant alcohol or substance abuse, and systemic shock. A plausible mechanism for a TBI must be demonstrable, and other causes of amnesia excluded.

  18. Post-traumatic amnesia and confusional state: hazards of retrospective assessment.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Daniel; Swash, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) must take into account factors other than traumatic brain injury (TBI) which may impact on memory both at the time of injury and subsequent to the injury. These include analgesics, anaesthesia required for surgery, and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. This is relevant in clinical and medicolegal settings. Repeated assessments of the post-injury state, involving tests for continuing amnesia, risk promoting recall of events suggested by the examiner, or generating confabulations. The PTA syndrome affects the categorical autobiographical memory, and is accompanied by confusion as an essential component; this should be suspected from the initial or early Glasgow Coma Scale score (13-14/15) if not directly recorded by clinical staff. PTA by itself is only one of several indices of severity of TBI. The nature of the head injury, including observers' accounts, clinical and neuroimaging data, the possible role of other external injuries, blood loss, acute stress disorder and the potential for hypoxic brain injury, must be taken into account as well as concomitant alcohol or substance abuse, and systemic shock. A plausible mechanism for a TBI must be demonstrable, and other causes of amnesia excluded. PMID:26888959

  19. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Geoffrey T.; Knovich, Mary Ann; Savage, Rodney W.; Sane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction and acute myeloid leukemia are rarely reported as concomitant conditions. The management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients who have acute myeloid leukemia is challenging: the leukemia-related thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, and systemic coagulopathy increase the risk of bleeding, and the administration of thrombolytic agents can be fatal. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who presented emergently with STEMI, myelodysplastic syndrome, and newly recognized acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Standard antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy were contraindicated by the patient's thrombocytopenia and by his reported ecchymosis and gingival bleeding upon admission. He declined cardiac catheterization, was provided palliative care, and died 2 hours after hospital admission. We searched the English-language medical literature, found 8 relevant reports, and determined that the prognosis for patients with concomitant STEMI and acute myeloid leukemia is clearly worse than that for either individual condition. No guidelines exist to direct the management of STEMI and concomitant acute myeloid leukemia. In 2 reports, dual antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, and drug-eluting stent implantation were used without an increased risk of bleeding in the short term, even in the presence of thrombocytopenia. However, we think that a more conservative approach—balloon angioplasty with the provisional use of bare-metal stents—might be safer. Simultaneous chemotherapy for the acute myeloid leukemia is crucial. Older age seems to be a major risk factor: patients too frail for emergent treatment can die within hours or days. PMID:24808792

  20. Repair of an acute blunt popliteal artery trauma via endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Sciarretta, Jason D; Salsamendi, Jason; Karmacharya, Jagajan; Romano, Andrea; Namias, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    Popliteal vascular trauma remains a challenging entity and carries the greatest risk of limb loss among the lower extremity vascular injuries. Operative management of patients presenting with traumatic popliteal vascular injuries continues to evolve. We present a case of successful endovascular repair with stent grafting of an acute blunt popliteal artery injury. Endovascular repair of traumatic popliteal vascular injuries appears as an attractive alternative to surgical repair in a very selective group of patients. Further investigation is still needed to define the safety and feasibility of endovascular approach in the management of traumatic popliteal vascular injuries.

  1. What do Youth Report as a Traumatic Event? Toward a Developmentally Informed Classification of Traumatic Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore youth reports of traumatic events by 1) identifying the types of events that children and adolescents report as traumatic in their lives, 2) investigating the association between self reported traumatic events and self and parent reported emotional problems and 3) by examining developmental differences in the types and severity of the events reported as traumatic. Information regarding traumas and symptoms was collected from a sample of youth aged 6–17 using The Child PTSD Checklist. A coding system was developed for classifying the events reported. Findings suggest that youth reported a wide variety of experiences as traumatic that could be reliably coded and classified, and that youth reporting traumatic events and symptoms consistent with PTSD evidence higher levels of emotional, and behavioral problems (via parent and child report) than youth not reporting traumatic events. Youth aged 13–17 tended to report traumas that were rated by independent coders as more severe than youth aged 6–12. While the types of events reported did not differ in PTSD symptoms and other emotional, and behavioral problems there were differences in objective ratings of physical severity and psychological intensity. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the creation of developmentally informed classification of traumatic stressors. PMID:20414479

  2. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinski, Jennifer Blevins

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…

  3. Stress and Traumatic Stress: How Do Past Events Influence Current Traumatic Stress among Mothers Experiencing Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie K.; Hall, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between past traumatic events and the level of current traumatic stress among mothers experiencing homelessness. The data for this study were gathered from 75 homeless mothers between May 2006 and October 2006 using a cross-sectional survey design with purposive sampling. All mothers…

  4. Gender Differences in Traumatic Events and Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…

  5. Factors prognosticating the outcome of decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Priya; Haspani, Saffari; Idris, Zamzuri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the characteristics of severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in a regional trauma centre Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) along with its impact of various prognostic factors post Decompressive Craniectomy (DC). Materials and Methods: Duration of the study was of 13 months in HKL. 110 consecutive patients undergoing DC and remained in our centre were recruited. They were then analysed categorically with standard analytical software. Results: Age group have highest range between 12-30 category with male preponderance. Common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident involving motorcyclist. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant in referral area (P = 0.006). In clinical evaluation statistically significant was the motor score (P = 0.040), pupillary state (P = 0.010), blood pressure stability (P = 0.013) and evidence of Diabetes Insipidus (P < 0.001). In biochemical status the significant statistics included evidence of coagulopathy (P < 0.001), evidence of acidosis (P = 0.003) and evidence of hypoxia (P = 0.030). In Radiological sector, significant univariate analysis proved in location of the subdural clot (P < 0.010), location of the contusion (P = 0.045), site of existence of both type of clots (P = 0.031) and the evidence of edema (P = 0.041). The timing of injury was noted to be significant as well (P = 0.061). In the post operative care was, there were significance in the overall stability in intensive care (P < 0.001), the stability of blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, pulse rates and oxygen saturation (all P < 0.001)seen individually, post operative ICP monitoring in the immediate (P = 0.002), within 24 hours (P < 0.001) and within 24-48 hours (P < 0.001) period, along with post operative pupillary size (P < 0.001) and motor score (P < 0.001). Post operatively, radiologically significant statistics included evidence of midline shift post operatively in the CT scan

  6. [The biological kinetics of biofilms of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa separated from patients with bronchopulmonary complications under traumatic disease of spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Ul'ianov, V Iu; Opredelentseva, S V; Shvidenko, I G; Norkin, I A; Korshunov, G V; Gladkova, E V

    2014-08-01

    The capacity and intensity of formation of microbial biofilms was analyzed in 24 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in static conditions of cultivation during 24, 48, 72 and 96 yours. The microorganisms were separated from patients with bronchopulmonary infectious complications in acute and early periods of traumatic disease of spinal cord. PMID:25552053

  7. [The biological kinetics of biofilms of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa separated from patients with bronchopulmonary complications under traumatic disease of spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Ul'ianov, V Iu; Opredelentseva, S V; Shvidenko, I G; Norkin, I A; Korshunov, G V; Gladkova, E V

    2014-08-01

    The capacity and intensity of formation of microbial biofilms was analyzed in 24 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in static conditions of cultivation during 24, 48, 72 and 96 yours. The microorganisms were separated from patients with bronchopulmonary infectious complications in acute and early periods of traumatic disease of spinal cord.

  8. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  9. Non-traumatic compartment syndrome secondary to deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter Alexander; Deo, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of non-traumatic compartment syndrome in three compartments of the left lower limb in a 57-year-old male inpatient. He had recently been started on anticoagulation therapy for multiple pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis of the left posterior tibial and peroneal veins. Three of the four osteofascial compartments had pressures above 70 mm Hg, hence four compartment fasciotomies were performed. Postoperatively, intravenous heparin therapy was started resulting in a significant blood loss, but he had no neurovascular deficit. At reoperation, for primary wound closure, his tissues looked healthy. Non-traumatic causes of acute compartment syndrome, including deep venous thrombosis and anticoagulation, are considered. PMID:24443334

  10. Dislocation of the penis: a rare complication after traumatic pelvic injury.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei Chin; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Teh, Hui Seong; Teh, Chang Peng Colin

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the male external genitalia is frequently encountered, but acute traumatic dislocation of the penile structure is extremely rare, with only a few reports found in the literature. We herein report the case of a 21-year-old man who sustained blunt trauma to the pelvis following a motor vehicle accident, and had features suspicious of penile dislocation. With the use of computed tomography and bedside ultrasonography, a diagnosis of penile dislocation was made, which was subsequently confirmed intraoperatively. Immediate surgical intervention via gentle manipulation of the penile tissue back to its native position was performed in order to restore normal anatomy. The exact mechanism of penile dislocation is not known. However, circumferential laceration around the foreskin causing degloving injury of the penis is suggested in our patient.

  11. Managing behavioral health needs of veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in primary care.

    PubMed

    King, Paul R; Wray, Laura O

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in the United States, and has been given particular attention in the veteran population. Recent accounts have estimated TBI incidence rates as high as 20 % among US veterans who served in Afghanistan or Iraq, and many of these veterans experience a host of co-morbid concerns, including psychiatric complaints (such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder), sleep disturbance, and substance abuse which may warrant referral to behavioral health specialists working in primary care settings. This paper reviews many common behavioral health concerns co-morbid with TBI, and suggests areas in which behavioral health specialists may assess, intervene, and help to facilitate holistic patient care beyond the acute phase of injury. The primary focus is on sequelae common to mild and moderate TBI which may more readily present in primary care clinics.

  12. Alcohol's Burden on Immunity Following Burn, Hemorrhagic Shock, or Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Molina, Patricia E; Katz, Paige S; Souza-Smith, Flavia; Ford, Stephen M; Teng, Sophie X; Dodd, Tracy Y; Maxi, John K; Mayeux, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption contributes to increased incidence and severity of traumatic injury. Compared with patients who do not consume alcohol, alcohol-consuming patients have higher rates of long-term morbidity and mortality during recovery from injury. This can be attributed in part to an impaired immune response in individuals who consume alcohol. Acute and chronic alcohol use can affect both the innate and adaptive immune defense responses within multiple organ systems; the combination of alcohol use and injury results in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral pathogens. This review examines the major deleterious effects of alcohol on immunity following tissue damage or traumatic injury, with a focus on alcohol's influence on the ability of the immune and major organ systems to fight disease and to repair damaged tissues following injury. PMID:26695749

  13. Targeting the Epidemic: Interventions and Follow-up Are Necessary in the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Clinic.

    PubMed

    Choe, M C; Valino, H; Fischer, J; Zeiger, M; Breault, J; McArthur, D L; Leung, M; Madikians, A; Yudovin, S; Lerner, J T; Giza, C C

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major public health problem in the pediatric population. Previously, management was acute emergency department/primary care evaluation with follow-up by primary care. However, persistent symptoms after traumatic brain injury are common, and many do not have access to a specialized traumatic brain injury clinic to manage chronic issues. The goal of this study was to determine the factors related to outcomes, and identify the interventions provided in this subspecialty clinic. Data were extracted from medical records of 151 retrospective and 403 prospective patients. Relationships between sequelae, injury characteristics, and clinical interventions were analyzed. Most patients returning to clinic were not fully recovered from their injury. Headaches were more common after milder injuries, and seizures were more common after severe. The majority of patients received clinical intervention. The presence of persistent sequelae for traumatic brain injury patients can be evaluated and managed by a specialty concussion/traumatic brain injury clinic ensuring that medical needs are met. PMID:25795464

  14. Targeting the Epidemic: Interventions and Follow-up Are Necessary in the Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Clinic.

    PubMed

    Choe, M C; Valino, H; Fischer, J; Zeiger, M; Breault, J; McArthur, D L; Leung, M; Madikians, A; Yudovin, S; Lerner, J T; Giza, C C

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major public health problem in the pediatric population. Previously, management was acute emergency department/primary care evaluation with follow-up by primary care. However, persistent symptoms after traumatic brain injury are common, and many do not have access to a specialized traumatic brain injury clinic to manage chronic issues. The goal of this study was to determine the factors related to outcomes, and identify the interventions provided in this subspecialty clinic. Data were extracted from medical records of 151 retrospective and 403 prospective patients. Relationships between sequelae, injury characteristics, and clinical interventions were analyzed. Most patients returning to clinic were not fully recovered from their injury. Headaches were more common after milder injuries, and seizures were more common after severe. The majority of patients received clinical intervention. The presence of persistent sequelae for traumatic brain injury patients can be evaluated and managed by a specialty concussion/traumatic brain injury clinic ensuring that medical needs are met.

  15. Post-traumatic carpal instability.

    PubMed

    Chantelot, C

    2014-02-01

    The complexity of the carpus explains the difficulty treating carpal injuries. Lesions are dominated by perilunate dislocation, scapholunate dislocation, and scaphoid fractures. The other injuries are trivial. Symptoms include pain and loss of wrist strength, reversible for an acute and well-treated lesion. Too often, these ligament injuries are diagnosed late. For delays longer than 6 weeks, ligament repair is ineffective. These old, complex lesions are potentially highly arthritic in the radiocarpal and mediocarpal joints. Improvements in wrist surgery have mitigated these chronic lesions. Various surgical techniques can preserve a functional wrist; wrist arthrodesis is no longer the only solution for these arthritic wrists. Over the past decade, arthroscopy has contributed to better understanding the injuries of the carpus as well as to better healing them. For acute or chronic ligament injuries without degenerative osteoarthritis, arthroscopy is the treatment of the future. This technique involves a long learning curve and the various arthroscopic techniques must be validated.

  16. Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI.

  17. Neuropsychologists diagnose traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wade, James B; DeMatteo, David; Hart, Robert P

    2004-07-01

    The case of John versus Im (2002) stands for the proposition that clinical neuropsychologists are not qualified to diagnose traumatic brain injury. This ruling by the Supreme Court of Virginia prohibits neuropsychologists from testifying about these professional conclusions in the courtroom. However, in clinical practice neuropsychologists are often asked to disentangle the relative contribution of brain dysfunction and psychological factors to presenting symptomology. In the proposed submission, the authors provide an analysis of the neuropsychological testimony at issue in John versus Im using the admissibility standards for expert testimony that were established and refined by a trilogy of cases from the Supreme Court of the United States. The paper provides support for the notion that neuropsychological method has an established scientific base of knowledge, standards for clinical competence, and evidence of peer-reviewed acceptance by medical related disciplines. No other scientific discipline has employed a more rigorous methodology for assessing cognitive function and disentangling the relative contributions of brain dysfunction and psychological factors to presenting symptomology. By limiting the testimony of neuropsychologists as to cause of an individual's cognitive impairment, courts will exclude opinions based on scientific research and specialized knowledge that would assist in the trier of fact.

  18. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and athletes.

    PubMed

    Meehan, William; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-10-27

    Recent case reports have described athletes previously exposed to repetitive head trauma while participating in contact sports who later in life developed mood disorders, headaches, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, difficulties with speech, and aggressive behavior. Postmortem discoveries show that some of these athletes have pathologic findings that are collectively termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Current hypotheses suggest that concussions or perhaps blows to the head that do not cause the signs and symptoms necessary for making the diagnosis of concussion, so-called subconcussive blows, cause both the clinical and pathologic findings. There are, however, some athletes who participate in contact sports who do not develop the findings ascribed to CTE. Furthermore, there are people who have headaches, mood disorders, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, and other clinical problems who have neither been exposed to repeated head trauma nor possessed the pathologic postmortem findings of those currently diagnosed with CTE. The current lack of prospective data and properly designed case-control studies limits the current understanding of CTE, leading to debate about the causes of the neuropathologic findings and the clinical observations. Given the potential for referral and recall bias in available studies, it remains unclear whether or not the pathologic findings made postmortem cause the presumed neurobehavioral sequela and whether the presumed risk factors, such as sports activity, cerebral concussions, and subconcussive blows, are solely causative of the clinical signs and symptoms. This article discusses the current evidence and the associated limitations. PMID:26253448

  19. Traumatic brain injury and reserve.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  20. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  1. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saulle, Michael; Greenwald, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a long-term consequence of single or repetitive closed head injuries for which there is no treatment and no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis. It has been closely tied to athletes who participate in contact sports like boxing, American football, soccer, professional wrestling and hockey. Risk factors include head trauma, presence of ApoE3 or ApoE4 allele, military service, and old age. It is histologically identified by the presence of tau-immunoreactive NFTs and NTs with some cases having a TDP-43 proteinopathy or beta-amyloid plaques. It has an insidious clinical presentation that begins with cognitive and emotional disturbances and can progress to Parkinsonian symptoms. The exact mechanism for CTE has not been precisely defined however, research suggest it is due to an ongoing metabolic and immunologic cascade called immunoexcitiotoxicity. Prevention and education are currently the most compelling way to combat CTE and will be an emphasis of both physicians and athletes. Further research is needed to aid in pre-mortem diagnosis, therapies, and support for individuals and their families living with CTE. PMID:22567320

  2. Traumatic central cord syndrome: neurologic recovery after surgical management.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Greg; Sayadipour, Amirali; Limthongkul, Worawat; Martin, Neil D; Vaccaro, Alexander; Harrop, James S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurologic recovery following an acute, traumatic central cord syndrome (TCCS) injury. We retrospectively reviewed 69 patients who were treated surgically following an acute TCCS injury. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor scores (AMS) were obtained from the time of presentation, from the time of hospital discharge, and from the most recent follow-up visit. The mean AMS was 63.2 ± 25.8 at presentation and 89.9 ± 14.6 at final follow-up (P<.001). Overall, 74% of the patients improved at least one ASIA impairment scale grade. Surgery was performed at a mean of 2.9 days (range, 0.25-24 days) following the injury using a posterior approach in 33 patients (48%), anterior approach in 22 patients (32%), and combined anterior-posterior approach in 14 patients (20%). Neither surgical timing nor approach appears to affect motor recovery. Adverse events were encountered in 24.6% of the patients. There were no deaths. A history of a loss of consciousness, decreased rectal tone at presentation, the presence of a fracture, the timing of surgery, and surgical approach did not have a significant impact on motor recovery.

  3. Endovascular Treatment of Iatrogenic and Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Stefan; Donas, Konstantinos P. Pitoulias, Georgios A.; Horsch, Svante

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports on the early and midterm results of endovascular treatment of acute carotid artery dissections, its specific problems, and its limitations. We encountered seven patients with symptomatic extracranial carotid artery dissection, three cases of which occurred after carotid endarterectomy, two after carotid angioplasty and stenting, and two after trauma. Balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents were placed using a transfemoral approach. Success in restoring the carotid lumen was achieved in all patients. No procedure-related complications occurred. All patients experienced significant clinical improvement while in the hospital and achieved complete long-term recovery. At follow-up (mean, 22.4 months), good luminal patency of the stented segments was observed. In conclusion, in this small series, primary stent-supported angioplasty seems to be a safe and effective strategy in the treatment of selected patients having acute traumatic extracranial carotid artery dissection, with excellent early and midterm results. Larger series and longer-term follow-up are required before definitive recommendations can be made.

  4. Immune dysfunction in acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Ashwin D; Collins, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) is a serious complication of alcohol misuse and has high short term mortality. It is a clinical syndrome characterised by jaundice and coagulopathy in a patient with a history of recent heavy alcohol use and is associated with profound immune dysfunction with a primed but ineffective immune response against pathogens. Here, we review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis and immune defects of AAH and identify areas requiring further study. Alcohol activates the immune system primarily through the disruption of gut tight junction integrity allowing the escape of pathogen-associated molecular particles (PAMPs) into the portal venous system. PAMPs stimulate cells expressing toll-like receptors (mainly myeloid derived cells) and initiate a network of intercellular signalling by secretion of many soluble mediators including cytokines and chemokines. The latter coordinates the infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes and T cells and results in hepatic stellate cell activation, cellular damage and hepatocyte death by necrosis or apoptosis. On the converse of this immune activation is the growing evidence of impaired microbial defence. Neutrophils have reduced phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst and there is recent evidence that T cell exhaustion plays a role in this. PMID:26576079

  5. Acute liver failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the presence of coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio ≥ 1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy due to severe liver damage in patients without pre-existing liver disease. Although the mortality due to ALF without liver transplantation is over 80%, the survival rates of patients have considerably improved with the advent of liver transplantation, up to 60% to 90% in the last two decades. Recent large studies in Western countries reported 1, 5, and 10-year patient survival rates after liver transplantation for ALF of approximately 80%, 70%, and 65%, respectively. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has mainly evolved in Asian countries where organ availability from deceased donors is extremely scarce, has also improved the survival rate of ALF patients in these regions. According to recent reports, the overall survival rate of adult ALF patients who underwent LDLT ranges from 60% to 90%. Although there is still controversy regarding the graft type, optimal graft volume, and ethical issues, LDLT has become an established treatment option for ALF in areas where the use of deceased donor organs is severely restricted. PMID:25343108

  6. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Sowmya; Jeong, Daniel K; Muddaraju, Manjunath; Jeong, Katherine; Hill, Ebone D; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potentially fatal pulmonary disease syndrome that affects individuals with hematological and nonhematological malignancies. The range of inciting factors is wide for this syndrome and includes thrombocytopenia, underlying infection, coagulopathy, and the frequent use of anticoagulants, given the high incidence of venous thrombosis in this population. Dyspnea, fever, and cough are commonly presenting symptoms. However, clinical manifestations can be variable. Obvious bleeding (hemoptysis) is not always present and can pose a potential diagnostic challenge. Without prompt treatment, hypoxia that rapidly progresses to respiratory failure can occur. Diagnosis is primarily based on radiological and bronchoscopic findings. This syndrome is especially common in patients with hematological malignancies, given an even greater propensity for thrombocytopenia as a result of bone marrow suppression as well as the often prolonged immunosuppression in this patient population. The syndrome also has an increased incidence in individuals with hematological malignancies who have received a bone marrow transplant. We present a case series of 5 patients with acute myeloid leukemia presenting with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage at our institution. A comparison of clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, treatment course, and outcomes are described. A review of the literature and general overview of the diagnostic evaluation, differential diagnoses, pathophysiology, and treatment of this syndrome are discussed. PMID:27556667

  7. Liver transplantation in acute liver failure: A challenging scenario

    PubMed Central

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Silva, Marcelo Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a critical medical condition defined as rapid development of hepatic dysfunction associated with encephalopathy. The prognosis in these patients is highly variable and depends on the etiology, interval between jaundice and encephalopathy, age, and the degree of coagulopathy. Determining the prognosis for this population is vital. Unfortunately, prognostic models with both high sensitivity and specificity for prediction of death have not been developed. Liver transplantation has dramatically improved survival in patients with acute liver failure. Still, 25% to 45% of patients will survive with medical treatment. The identification of patients who will eventually require liver transplantation should be carefully addressed through the combination of current prognostic models and continuous medical assessment. The concerns of inaccurate selection for transplantation are significant, exposing the recipient to a complex surgery and lifelong immunosuppression. In this challenging scenario, where organ shortage remains one of the main problems, alternatives to conventional orthotopic liver transplantation, such as living-donor liver transplantation, auxiliary liver transplant, and ABO-incompatible grafts, should be explored. Although overall outcomes after liver transplantation for acute liver failure are improving, they are not yet comparable to elective transplantation. PMID:26819519

  8. Secondary Traumatization in Vietnam Veterans' Families.

    PubMed

    Yager, Thomas J; Gerszberg, Nicole; Dohrenwend, Bruce P

    2016-08-01

    This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization. There was evidence of secondary traumatization in the veterans' sons (odds ratio [OR] = 20.31 for internalizing behavior problems). Current PTSD in the veterans was associated with demoralization in their wives or partners (β = 0.24), which in turn was associated with behavior problems in their daughters (ORs = 2.67 and 4.61 for internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively; these were adjusted for veteran's PTSD). Demoralization of the wife or partner was also associated with current alcoholism in the veterans (β = 0.30, adjusting for veteran's PTSD). These associations were also adjusted for other veteran risk factors, including severity of combat exposure, involvement in harming civilians or prisoners, and prewar vulnerability. Even with the degree of secondary traumatization present, the veterans' children appeared at least as healthy as counterparts in the general population. PMID:27529559

  9. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and 38 CFR 9.13. (j) Who will be paid the traumatic injury protection benefit? The injured member who... traumatic injury— (i) Caused by— (A) The member's attempted suicide, while sane or insane; (B)...

  10. 38 CFR 9.20 - Traumatic injury protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and 38 CFR 9.13. (j) Who will be paid the traumatic injury protection benefit? The injured member who... traumatic injury— (i) Caused by— (A) The member's attempted suicide, while sane or insane; (B)...

  11. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Sign up Search: Defense Centers of Excellence For Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury U.S. Department ... Section 508 External Link Disclaimer Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury | 800- ...

  12. Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Shohami, Esther; Cohen-Yeshurun, Ayelet; Magid, Lital; Algali, Merav; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents the leading cause of death in young individuals. It triggers the accumulation of harmful mediators, leading to secondary damage, yet protective mechanisms are also set in motion. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system consists of ligands, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), receptors (e.g. CB1, CB2), transporters and enzymes, which are responsible for the ‘on-demand’ synthesis and degradation of these lipid mediators. There is a large body of evidence showing that eCB are markedly increased in response to pathogenic events. This fact, as well as numerous studies on experimental models of brain toxicity, neuroinflammation and trauma supports the notion that the eCB are part of the brain's compensatory or repair mechanisms. These are mediated via CB receptors signalling pathways that are linked to neuronal survival and repair. The levels of 2-AG, the most highly abundant eCB, are significantly elevated after TBI and when administered to TBI mice, 2-AG decreases brain oedema, inflammation and infarct volume and improves clinical recovery. The role of CB1 in mediating these effects was demonstrated using selective antagonists or CB1 knockout mice. CB2 were shown in other models of brain insults to reduce white blood cell rolling and adhesion, to reduce infarct size and to improve motor function. This review is focused on the role the eCB system plays as a self-neuroprotective mechanism and its potential as a basis for the development of novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of CNS pathologies with special emphasis on TBI. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21418185

  13. [Therapeutic possibilities after traumatic experiences].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2008-12-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequent, but not obligatory psychological sequelae following trauma. A major subgroup of patients face a chronic course of illness associated with an increased psychiatric comorbidity and significant impairments in psychosocial adaptation. The typical psychopathological symptoms of ASD and PTSD are best described within a multifactorial model integrating both neurobiological and psychosocial influences. The complex etiopathogenesis of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder favours multimodal approaches in the treatment. Differential psychotherapeutic and pharmacological strategies are available. In a critical survey on empirical studies, psychological debriefing cannot be considered as a positive approach to be recommended as general preventive measure during the immediate posttraumatic phase. Positive effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions can be established for ASD. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and EMDR show promising results in the treatment of PTSD. Major clinical restrictions of patient sampling within special research facilities, however, do not allow an unconditional generalization of these data to psychiatric routine care. In an empirical analysis the SSRIs are the most and best studied medications for ASD and PTSD. In comparison to tricyclic antidepressants SSRIs demonstrate a broader spectrum of therapeutic effects and are better tolerated. The substance classes of SSNRI, DAS, SARI and NaSSA are to be considered as drugs of second choice. They promise a therapeutic efficacy equivalent to the SSRIs, being investigated so far only in open studies. MAO-inhibitors may dispose of a positive therapeutic potential, their profile of side effects must be respected, however. Mood stabilizers and atypical neuroleptics may be used first and foremost in add-on strategies. Benzodiazepines should be used only with increased caution for a short time in states of

  14. Traumatic white matter injury and toxic leukoencephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Al-Hasani, Omer Hussain; Smith, Colin

    2011-09-01

    White matter injury may be secondary to a range of neurodegenerative disorders, such as the common dementing disorders of the elderly, or may be a consequence of specific white matter disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and the rare leukodystrophies. This article will focus on two relatively common primary groups of disorders of the white matter, traumatic white matter injury and toxic leukoencephalopathies. Traumatic axonal injury may be focal or diffuse, and is associated with a clinical spectrum ranging from concussion through to coma and death. The molecular mechanisms underlying axonal degeneration secondary to traumatic axonal degeneration are being elucidated and may give an insight into potential therapeutic targets. Toxic leukoencephalopathy may be secondary to exposure to a wide range of compounds, including chemotherapeutic drugs. These toxins may produce white matter injury through a range of mechanisms, and the potential toxic effects of compounds need to be considered when assessing a patient with a nonspecific leukoencephalopathy.

  15. A family therapeutic approach to transgenerational traumatization.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, T K

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of transgenerational traumatization has currently become widely recognized and described, although the task of disentangling the underlying interactional mechanisms remains a difficult one. These transgenerational mechanisms were first detected in families of the survivors of the Holocaust, but they may be equally prominent in families of parents who have been traumatized in other ways, for example, as victims of child neglect and abuse, as orphaned children, or during military service. In cases in which parents have themselves been subjected to early parental deprivation, one or more children may become projectively identified with a parent's (posttraumatic) "bad child"-self, whereas the parent him/herself has identified with--enacts the role of--the idealized internal "martyr" parent. A case study is presented describing the individual and family therapeutic treatment of a woman who, as a child, had been traumatically separated from her parents.

  16. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  17. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  18. Surveillance of traumatic brain injuries in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, D J; Jeppson, L; Burnett, C L; Beaudoin, D E; Rheinberger, M M; Sniezek, J E

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 through 1992 we conducted surveillance of cases requiring hospital admission and of fatal cases of traumatic brain injury among residents of Utah and found an annual incidence rate of 108.8 per 100,000 population. The greatest number of injuries occurred among men and persons aged 15 to 24 years. Motor vehicles were the leading cause of injury, followed by falls and assaults. The incidence rate we found is substantially lower than previously published rates of traumatic brain injury. This may be the result of a decrease in the incidence of these injuries in the decade since earlier studies were done, as well as changing hospital admission criteria that serve to exclude less severe cases of injury. Despite the apparent decline in rates, our findings indicate the continued importance of traumatic brain injury as a public health problem and the need to develop more effective prevention strategies that will address the major causes of these injuries. PMID:8987423

  19. Discriminating military and civilian traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew W; Velez, Carmen S

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at higher rates among service members than civilians. Explosions from improvised explosive devices and mines are the leading cause of TBI in the military. As such, TBI is frequently accompanied by other injuries, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. In addition to postconcussion symptoms, those who sustain a TBI commonly report chronic pain and posttraumatic stress symptoms. This combination of symptoms is so typical they have been referred to as the "polytrauma clinical triad" among injured service members. We explore whether these symptoms discriminate civilian occurrences of TBI from those of service members, as well as the possibility that repeated blast exposure contributes to the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Traumatic Brain Injury'.

  20. [Medicolegal assessment of post-traumatic vertigo].

    PubMed

    Thömke, F; Dieterich, M

    2011-12-01

    Post-traumatic vertigo refers to a group of different disorders which occur following trauma, mainly closed head injury and whiplash injury of the cervical spine. Aside from headaches, vertigo is the most common symptom in this group of patients. In general, there are two main groups of patients with post-traumatic vertigo: those with documented vestibular dysfunctions and those without. The most common post-traumatic vestibular disorders are benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo, labyrinthine concussion, canal dehiscence and otolithic lesions. Some of these disorders are characterized by spontaneous improvement or recovery over weeks or months and some may also be treated effectively. A number of patients, however, develop phobic postural vertigo requiring psychiatric or psychosomatic exploration.