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Sample records for acute unilateral vestibular

  1. Acute Unilateral Vestibular Failure Does Not Cause Spatial Hemineglect.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Visuo-spatial neglect and vestibular disorders have common clinical findings and involve the same cortical areas. We questioned (1) whether visuo-spatial hemineglect is not only a disorder of spatial attention but may also reflect a disorder of higher cortical vestibular function and (2) whether a vestibular tone imbalance due to an acute peripheral dysfunction can also cause symptoms of neglect or extinction. Therefore, patients with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular failure (VF) were tested for symptoms of hemineglect. Twenty-eight patients with acute VF were assessed for signs of vestibular deficits and spatial neglect using clinical measures and various common standardized paper-pencil tests. Neglect severity was evaluated further with the Center of Cancellation method. Pathological neglect test scores were correlated with the degree of vestibular dysfunction determined by the subjective visual vertical and caloric testing. Three patients showed isolated pathological scores in one or the other neglect test, either ipsilesionally or contralesionally to the VF. None of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of spatial hemineglect or extinction. A vestibular tone imbalance due to unilateral failure of the vestibular endorgan does not cause spatial hemineglect, but evidence indicates it causes mild attentional deficits in both visual hemifields.

  2. Acute Unilateral Vestibular Failure Does Not Cause Spatial Hemineglect

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Visuo-spatial neglect and vestibular disorders have common clinical findings and involve the same cortical areas. We questioned (1) whether visuo-spatial hemineglect is not only a disorder of spatial attention but may also reflect a disorder of higher cortical vestibular function and (2) whether a vestibular tone imbalance due to an acute peripheral dysfunction can also cause symptoms of neglect or extinction. Therefore, patients with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular failure (VF) were tested for symptoms of hemineglect. Methods Twenty-eight patients with acute VF were assessed for signs of vestibular deficits and spatial neglect using clinical measures and various common standardized paper-pencil tests. Neglect severity was evaluated further with the Center of Cancellation method. Pathological neglect test scores were correlated with the degree of vestibular dysfunction determined by the subjective visual vertical and caloric testing. Results Three patients showed isolated pathological scores in one or the other neglect test, either ipsilesionally or contralesionally to the VF. None of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of spatial hemineglect or extinction. Conclusions A vestibular tone imbalance due to unilateral failure of the vestibular endorgan does not cause spatial hemineglect, but evidence indicates it causes mild attentional deficits in both visual hemifields. PMID:26247469

  3. Saccadic entropy of head impulses in acute unilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Li-Chun; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Guo-She

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the complexity of vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss (AUVL) via entropy analysis of head impulses. Horizontal head impulse test (HIT) with high-velocity alternating directions was used to evaluate 12 participants with AUVL and 16 healthy volunteers. Wireless electro-oculography and electronic gyrometry were used to acquire eye positional signals and head velocity signals. The eye velocity signals were then obtained through differentiation, band-pass filtering. The approximate entropy of eye velocity to head velocity (R ApEn ) was used to evaluate chaos property. VOR gain, gain asymmetry ratio, and R ApEn asymmetry ratio were also used to compare the groups. For the lesion-side HIT of the patient group, the mean VOR gain was significantly lower and the mean R ApEn was significantly greater compared with both nonlesion-side HIT and healthy controls (p < 0.01, one-way analysis of variance). Both the R ApEn asymmetry ratio and gain asymmetry ratio of the AUVL group were significantly greater compared with those of the control group (p < 0.05, independent sample t test). Entropy and gain analysis of HIT using wireless electro-oculography system could be used to detect the VOR dysfunctions of AUVL and may become effective methods for evaluating vestibular disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Health-related quality of life and disability in patients with acute unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Petri, Maria; Chirilă, Magdalena; Bolboacă, Sorana D; Cosgarea, Marcel

    Health-related quality of life is used to denote that portion of the quality of life that is influenced by the person's health. To compare the health-related quality of life of individuals with vestibular disorders of peripheral origin by analyzing functional, emotional and physical disabilities before and after vestibular treatment. A prospective, non randomized case-controlled study was conduced in the ENT Department, between January 2015 and December 2015. All patients were submitted to customize a 36 item of health survey on quality of life, short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory for assessing the disability. Individuals were diagnosed with acute unilateral vestibular peripheral disorders classified in 5 groups: vestibular neuritis, Ménière Disease, Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, cochlear-vestibular dysfunction (other than Ménière Disease), or other type of acute peripheral vertigo (as vestibular migraine). There was a statistical significant difference for each parameter of Dizziness Handicap Inventory score (the emotional, functional and physical) between the baseline and one month both in men and women, but with any statistical significant difference between 7 days and 14 days. It was found a statistical significant difference for all eight parameters of SF-36 score between the baseline and one month later both in men and women; the exception was the men mental health perception. The correlation between the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the SF-36 scores according to diagnostics type pointed out that the Spearman's correlation coefficient was moderate correlated with the total scores of these instruments. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the SF-36 are useful, proved practical and valid instruments for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia

  5. Psychological symptoms and spatial orientation during the first 3 months after acute unilateral vestibular lesion.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alvarez, Fatima B; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine

    2011-02-01

    We undertook this study to assess the correlation between the results of simple tests of spatial orientation and the occurrence of common psychological symptoms during the first 3 months after an acute, unilateral, peripheral, vestibular lesion. Ten vestibular patients were selected and accepted to participate in the study. During a 3-month follow-up, we recorded the static visual vertical (VV), the estimation error of reorientation in the yaw plane and the responses to a standardized questionnaire of balance symptoms, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), the depersonalization/derealization inventory by Cox and Swinson (DD), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Zung Instrument for Anxiety Disorders and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. At week 1, all patients showed a VV >2° and failed to reorient themselves effectively. They reported several balance symptoms and handicap as well as DD symptoms, including attention/concentration difficulties; 80% of the patients had a Hamilton score ≥8. At this time the balance symptom score correlated with the DHI. After 3 months, all scores decreased. Multiple regression analysis of the differences from baseline showed that the DD score difference was related to the difference on the balance score, the reorientation error and the DHI score (p <0.01). No other linear relationships were observed (p >0.5). During the acute phase of a unilateral, peripheral, vestibular lesion, patients may show poor spatial orientation concurrent with DD symptoms including attention/concentration difficulties, and somatic depression symptoms. After vestibular rehabilitation, DD symptoms decrease as the spatial orientation improves, even if somatic symptoms of depression persist. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuronal network-based mathematical modeling of perceived verticality in acute unilateral vestibular lesions: from nerve to thalamus and cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasauer, S; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T

    2018-05-29

    Acute unilateral lesions of vestibular graviceptive pathways from the otolith organs and semicircular canals via vestibular nuclei and the thalamus to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex regularly cause deviations of perceived verticality in the frontal roll plane. These tilts are ipsilateral in peripheral and in ponto-medullary lesions and contralateral in ponto-mesencephalic lesions. Unilateral lesions of the vestibular thalamus or cortex cause smaller tilts of the perceived vertical, which may be either ipsilateral or contralateral. Using a neural network model, we previously explained why unilateral vestibular midbrain lesions rarely manifest with rotational vertigo. We here extend this approach, focussing on the direction-specific deviations of perceived verticality in the roll plane caused by acute unilateral vestibular lesions from the labyrinth to the cortex. Traditionally, the effect of unilateral peripheral lesions on perceived verticality has been attributed to a lesion-based bias of the otolith system. We here suggest, on the basis of a comparison of model simulations with patient data, that perceived visual tilt after peripheral lesions is caused by the effect of a torsional semicircular canal bias on the central gravity estimator. We further argue that the change of gravity coding from a peripheral/brainstem vectorial representation in otolith coordinates to a distributed population coding at thalamic and cortical levels can explain why unilateral thalamic and cortical lesions have a variable effect on perceived verticality. Finally, we propose how the population-coding network for gravity direction might implement the elements required for the well-known perceptual underestimation of the subjective visual vertical in tilted body positions.

  7. The Effect of Age on Improvements in Vestibulo-Ocular Reflexes and Balance Control after Acute Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Loss.

    PubMed

    Scheltinga, Alja; Honegger, Flurin; Timmermans, Dionne P H; Allum, John H J

    2016-01-01

    An acute unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (aUVL) initially causes severe gaze and balance control problems. However, vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and balance control are nearly normal 3 months later as a result of peripheral recovery and/or central compensation. As pre-existing vestibular sensory loss is assumed to be greater in the healthy elderly, this study investigated whether improvements in VOR and balance function over time after aUVL are different for the elderly than for the young. Thirty aUVL patients divided into three age-groups were studied (8 age range 23-35, 10 with range 43-58, and 12 with range 60-74 years). To measure VOR function eye movements were recorded during caloric irrigation, rotating chair (ROT), and head impulse tests. Balance control during stance and gait was recorded as lower trunk angular velocity in the pitch and roll planes. Measurements were taken at deficit onset, and 3, 6, and 13 weeks later. There was one difference in VOR improvements over time between the age-groups: Low acceleration ROT responses were less at onset in the elderly group. Deficit side VOR responses and asymmetries in each group improved to within ranges of healthy controls at 13 weeks. Trunk sway of the elderly was greater for stance and gait at onset when compared to healthy age-matched controls and the young and greater than that of the young and controls during gait tasks at 13 weeks. The sway of the young was not different from controls at either time point. Balance control for the elderly improved slower than for the young. These results indicate that VOR improvement after an aUVL does not differ with age, except for low accelerations. Recovery rates are different between age-groups for balance control tests. Balance control in the elderly is more abnormal at aUVL onset for stance and gait tasks with the gait abnormalities remaining after 13 weeks. Thus, we conclude that balance control in the elderly is more affected by the UVL than

  8. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in patients with unilateral vestibular neuritis: abnormal VEMP and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kentaro; Ohashi, Toru; Watanabe, Shoji

    2003-02-01

    The incidence of inferior vestibular nerve disorders in patients suffering from unilateral vestibular neuritis and the recovery of these disorders were evaluated by monitoring the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). Eight patients ranged from 21 to 73 years that suffered from unilateral vestibular neuritis underwent VEMP and caloric testing. Abnormal VEMP was observed in two of the eight patients with unilateral vestibular neuritis. Two patients were diagnosed as having an inferior vestibular nerve disorder. One of these patients showed recovery of the inferior vestibular nerve function as assessed by the VEMP. Disorders of the inferior vestibular nerve function and their recovery was confirmed by our current results. The time course of recoveries of the superior and inferior vestibular nerve systems were similar in the two patients.

  9. Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  10. Recovery of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Symmetry After an Acute Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Deficit: Time Course and Correlation With Canal Paresis.

    PubMed

    Allum, John H J; Cleworth, T; Honegger, Flurin

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how response asymmetries and deficit side response amplitudes for head accelerations used clinically to test the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) are correlated with caloric canal paresis (CP) values. 30 patients were examined at onset of an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (aUPVD) and 3, 6, and 13 weeks later with three different VOR tests: caloric, rotating chair (ROT), and video head impulse tests (vHIT). Response changes over time were fitted with an exponential decay model and compared with using linear regression analysis. Recovery times (to within 10% of steady state) were similar for vHIT-asymmetry and CP (>10 weeks) but shorter for ROT asymmetry (<4 weeks). Regressions with CP were similar (vHIT asymmetry, R = 0.68, ROT, R = 0.62). Responses to the deficit side were also equally well correlated with CP values (R = 0.71). Specificity for vHIT and 20 degrees/s ROT deficit side responses was 100% in comparison to CP values, sensitivity was 74% for vHIT, 75% for ROT. A decrease in normal side responses occurred for ROT but not for vHIT at 3 weeks. Normal side responses were weekly correlated with CP for ROT (R = 0.49) but not for vHIT (R = 0.17). These results indicate that vHIT deficit side VOR gains are slightly better correlated with CP values than ROT, probably because of similar recovery time courses of vHIT and caloric responses and the lack of normal side vHIT changes. However, specificity and sensitivity is the same for vHIT and ROT tests.

  11. Asymmetric vestibular stimulation reveals persistent disruption of motion perception in unilateral vestibular lesions.

    PubMed

    Panichi, R; Faralli, M; Bruni, R; Kiriakarely, A; Occhigrossi, C; Ferraresi, A; Bronstein, A M; Pettorossi, V E

    2017-11-01

    Self-motion perception was studied in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions (UVL) due to acute vestibular neuritis at 1 wk and 4, 8, and 12 mo after the acute episode. We assessed vestibularly mediated self-motion perception by measuring the error in reproducing the position of a remembered visual target at the end of four cycles of asymmetric whole-body rotation. The oscillatory stimulus consists of a slow (0.09 Hz) and a fast (0.38 Hz) half cycle. A large error was present in UVL patients when the slow half cycle was delivered toward the lesion side, but minimal toward the healthy side. This asymmetry diminished over time, but it remained abnormally large at 12 mo. In contrast, vestibulo-ocular reflex responses showed a large direction-dependent error only initially, then they normalized. Normalization also occurred for conventional reflex vestibular measures (caloric tests, subjective visual vertical, and head shaking nystagmus) and for perceptual function during symmetric rotation. Vestibular-related handicap, measured with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) at 12 mo correlated with self-motion perception asymmetry but not with abnormalities in vestibulo-ocular function. We conclude that 1 ) a persistent self-motion perceptual bias is revealed by asymmetric rotation in UVLs despite vestibulo-ocular function becoming symmetric over time, 2 ) this dissociation is caused by differential perceptual-reflex adaptation to high- and low-frequency rotations when these are combined as with our asymmetric stimulus, 3 ) the findings imply differential central compensation for vestibuloperceptual and vestibulo-ocular reflex functions, and 4 ) self-motion perception disruption may mediate long-term vestibular-related handicap in UVL patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A novel vestibular stimulus, combining asymmetric slow and fast sinusoidal half cycles, revealed persistent vestibuloperceptual dysfunction in unilateral vestibular lesion (UVL) patients. The compensation of

  12. Cold shivering activity after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The bioelectric activity of muscles (flexors and extensors of the forelimbs and hindlimbs) during cold shivering after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus. It was found, that unilateral delabyrinthing produces bilateral facilitation of cold shivering in the flexor extremities more pronounced on the ipsilateral side. In the extensor muscles there was an absence of bioelectric activity both before and after delabyrinthing. Enhancement of cold shivering in the flexor extremities following intervention was evidently conditioned by removal of the inhibiting effect of the vestibulary apparatus on the function of special centers.

  13. The effect of severity of unilateral vestibular dysfunction on symptoms, disabilities and handicap in vertiginous patients.

    PubMed

    Bamiou, D E; Davies, R A; McKee, M; Luxon, L M

    1999-02-01

    This study compares the symptoms, disabilities and handicap, as assessed by means of a questionnaire, in two groups of patients with a unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder: those with a total canal paresis and those with a partial canal paresis, as judged by the duration parameter using the Fitzgerald Hallpike caloric test in the absence of optic fixation. The results of the study indicate that the severity of dizziness, the Dizziness Index (severity x frequency) and the overall level of disabilities related to visual vertigo are less severe in unilateral profound or total loss of vestibular function than in unilateral mild vestibular loss.

  14. Outcomes after vestibular rehabilitation and Wii® therapy in patients with chronic unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Verdecchia, Daniel H; Mendoza, Marcela; Sanguineti, Florencia; Binetti, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy is an exercise-based programme designed to promote central nervous system compensation for inner ear deficit. The objective of the present study was to analyse the differences in the perception of handicap, the risk of falls, and gaze stability in patients diagnosed with chronic unilateral vestibular hypofunction before and after vestibular rehabilitation treatment with complementary Wii® therapy. A review was performed on the clinical histories of patients in the vestibular rehabilitation area of a university hospital between April 2009 and May 2011. The variables studied were the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Dynamic Gait Index and dynamic visual acuity. All subjects received complementary Wii® therapy. There were 69 cases (41 woman and 28 men), with a median age of 64 years. The initial median Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was 40 points (range 0-84, percentile 25-75=20-59) and the final, 24 points (range 0-76, percentile 25-75=10.40), P<.0001. The initial median for the Dynamic Gait Index score was 21 points (range 8-24, percentile 25-75=17.5-2.3) and the final, 23 (range 12-24, percentile 25-75=21-23), P<.0001. The initial median for dynamic visual acuity was 2 (range 0-6, percentile 25-75=1-4) and the final, 1 (range 0-3, percentile 25-75=0-2), P<.0001. A reduction was observed in the Dizziness Handicap Inventory Values. Values for the Dynamic Gait Index increased and dynamic visual acuity improved. All these variations were statistically significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  15. The differential effects of acute right- vs. left-sided vestibular failure on brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Becker-Bense, Sandra; Dieterich, Marianne; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bartenstein, Peter; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The human vestibular system is represented in the brain bilaterally, but it has functional asymmetries, i.e., a dominance of ipsilateral pathways and of the right hemisphere in right-handers. To determine if acute right- or left-sided unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN) is associated with differential patterns of brain metabolism in areas representing the vestibular network and the visual-vestibular interaction, patients with acute VN (right n = 9; left n = 13) underwent resting state (18)F-FDG PET once in the acute phase and once 3 months later after central vestibular compensation. The contrast acute vs. chronic phase showed signal differences in contralateral vestibular areas and the inverse contrast in visual cortex areas, both more pronounced in VN right. In VN left additional regions were found in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis bilaterally, accentuated in severe cases. In general, signal changes appeared more pronounced in patients with more severe vestibular deficits. Acute phase PET data of patients compared to that of age-matched healthy controls disclosed similarities to these patterns, thus permitting the interpretation that the signal changes in vestibular temporo-parietal areas reflect signal increases, and in visual areas, signal decreases. These data imply that brain activity in the acute phase of right- and left-sided VN exhibits different compensatory patterns, i.e., the dominant ascending input is shifted from the ipsilateral to the contralateral pathways, presumably due to the missing ipsilateral vestibular input. The visual-vestibular interaction patterns were preserved, but were of different prominence in each hemisphere and more pronounced in patients with right-sided failure and more severe vestibular deficits.

  16. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in vestibular schwannoma and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Marco; Giannuzzi, Annalisa; Astore, Serena; Trabalzini, Franco; Nuti, Daniele

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of hyperventilation-induced nystagmus (HVN) in 49 patients with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging evidence of vestibular schwannoma and 53 patients with idiopathic unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and normal radiological findings. The sensitivity and specificity of the hyperventilation test were compared with other audio-vestibular diagnostic tests (bedside examination of eye movements, caloric test, auditory brainstem responses) in the two groups of patients. The hyperventilation test scored the highest diagnostic efficiency (sensitivity 65.3 %; specificity 98.1 %) of the four tests in the differential diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma and idiopathic unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Small tumors with a normal caloric response or caloric paresis were associated with ipsilateral HVN and larger tumors and severe caloric deficits with contralateral HVN. These results confirm that the hyperventilation test is a useful diagnostic test for predicting vestibular schwannoma in patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  17. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV.

  18. Effectiveness of conventional versus virtual reality-based balance exercises in vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral peripheral vestibular loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Dara; Herdman, Susan; Vance, Roisin; Murray, Deirdre; Malone, Kareena; Duffy, Douglas; Glennon, Aine; McConn-Walsh, Rory

    2015-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of virtual reality-based balance exercises to conventional balance exercises during vestibular rehabilitation in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (UVL). Assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial. Two acute care university teaching hospitals. Patients with UVL (N=71) who had dizziness/vertigo, and gait and balance impairment. Patients with UVL were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of either conventional (n=36) or virtual reality-based (n=35) balance exercises during vestibular rehabilitation. The virtual reality-based group received an off-the-shelf virtual reality gaming system for home exercise, and the conventional group received a foam balance mat. Treatment comprised weekly visits to a physiotherapist and a daily home exercise program. The primary outcome was self-preferred gait speed. Secondary outcomes included other gait parameters and tasks, Sensory Organization Test (SOT), dynamic visual acuity, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Vestibular Rehabilitation Benefits Questionnaire, and Activities Balance Confidence Questionnaire. The subjective experience of vestibular rehabilitation was measured with a questionnaire. Both groups improved, but there were no significant differences in gait speed between the groups postintervention (mean difference, -.03m/s; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.09 to .02m/s). There were also no significant differences between the groups in SOT scores (mean difference, .82%; 95% CI, -5.00% to 6.63%) or on any of the other secondary outcomes (P>.05). In both groups, adherence to exercise was high (∼77%), but the virtual reality-based group reported significantly more enjoyment (P=.001), less difficulty with (P=.009) and less tiredness after (P=.03) balance exercises. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences in physical outcomes. Virtual reality-based balance exercises performed during vestibular rehabilitation were not superior to conventional balance

  19. Asymmetric vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in unilateral Menière patients

    PubMed Central

    Wit, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured in 22 unilateral Menière patients with monaural and binaural stimulation with 250 and 500 Hz tone bursts. For all measurement situations significantly lower VEMP amplitudes were on average measured at the affected side compared to the unaffected side. Unilateral Menière patients have, in contrast to normal subjects, asymmetric VEMPs, indicating a permanently affected vestibular (most likely otolith) system at the side of hearing loss. The diagnostic value of VEMP amplitude asymmetry measurement in individual patients is low, because of the large overlap of the VEMP amplitude asymmetry range for unilateral Menière patients with that for normal subjects. PMID:20665043

  20. Unilateral vestibular schwannoma in a patient with schwannomatosis in the absence of LZTR1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Gautam U.; Feldman, Michael J.; Wang, Herui; Ding, Dale; Chittiboina, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The presence of vestibular schwannomas has long been considered an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis of schwannomatosis. Recently, 2 cases of vestibular schwannoma were reported in patients with schwannomatosis, leading to a revision of the diagnostic criteria for this genetic disorder. Overall, the relative infrequency of vestibular schwannomas in schwannomatosis is unexplained, and the genetics of this uncommon phenomenon have not been described. The authors report on a family with clinical manifestations consistent with schwannomatosis, including 4 affected members, that was identified as having an affected member harboring a unilateral cerebellopontine angle mass with extension into the internal auditory canal. Radiologically, this mass was consistent with a vestibular schwannoma and resulted in a symptomatic change in ipsilateral hearing (word recognition 86% at 52 dB) and increased latency of the wave I–V interval on auditory brainstem response testing. The patient was found to be negative for a germline mutation of NF2 and LZTR1, and her affected mother was found to harbor neither NF2 nor SMARCB1 mutations on genetic testing. Although vestibular schwannomas have been classically considered to not occur in the setting of schwannomatosis, this patient with schwannomatosis and a vestibular schwannoma further confirms that schwannomas can occur on the vestibular nerve in this syndrome. Further, this is the first such case found to be negative for a mutation on the LZTR1 gene. PMID:26848914

  1. Unilateral vestibular schwannoma in a patient with schwannomatosis in the absence of LZTR1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gautam U; Feldman, Michael J; Wang, Herui; Ding, Dale; Chittiboina, Prashant

    2016-12-01

    The presence of vestibular schwannomas has long been considered an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis of schwannomatosis. Recently, 2 cases of vestibular schwannoma were reported in patients with schwannomatosis, leading to a revision of the diagnostic criteria for this genetic disorder. Overall, the relative infrequency of vestibular schwannomas in schwannomatosis is unexplained, and the genetics of this uncommon phenomenon have not been described. The authors report on a family with clinical manifestations consistent with schwannomatosis, including 4 affected members, that was identified as having an affected member harboring a unilateral cerebellopontine angle mass with extension into the internal auditory canal. Radiologically, this mass was consistent with a vestibular schwannoma and resulted in a symptomatic change in ipsilateral hearing (word recognition 86% at 52 dB) and increased latency of the wave I-V interval on auditory brainstem response testing. The patient was found to be negative for a germline mutation of NF2 and LZTR1, and her affected mother was found to harbor neither NF2 nor SMARCB1 mutations on genetic testing. Although vestibular schwannomas have been classically considered to not occur in the setting of schwannomatosis, this patient with schwannomatosis and a vestibular schwannoma further confirms that schwannomas can occur on the vestibular nerve in this syndrome. Further, this is the first such case found to be negative for a mutation on the LZTR1 gene.

  2. Where is straight ahead to a patient with unilateral vestibular loss?

    PubMed

    Saj, Arnaud; Honoré, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane

    2013-05-01

    The vestibular system is classically associated with postural control, oculomotor reflexes and self-motion perception. The patients with vestibular loss are primarily concerned with balance and gait problems including head and trunk tilt and walking trajectory deviation to the lesioned side. These long-lasting postural and locomotor biases are thought to originate from changes in spatial perception of self. Indeed, we show here that vestibular cues are necessary for an accurate representation of body orientation. Patients with right (RVN; n=11) or left vestibular neurotomy (LVN; 9) as a treatment for Menière's disease were compared with 10 healthy controls. The subjective straight ahead (SSA) was investigated using a method disentangling lateral shift and tilt components of error. In the horizontal plane, subjects were required to align a rod with their body midline. In the frontal plane, they were asked to align the rod with the midline of head or trunk. The analysis of SSA clearly showed distinct results according to the side of the lesion. The LVN patients had a contralesional lateral shift of SSA. In addition, they showed an ipsilesional tilt, more severe for the head than for the trunk. By contrast, in RVN patients, the representation of the body midline was fairly accurate in both the horizontal and frontal planes and did not differ from that of control subjects. The present study shows deviations in body orientation representation after unilateral vestibular loss. Deviations are observed in the horizontal as well as in the frontal planes. Interestingly, only patients with left vestibular loss were concerned with these changes in perception of self-orientation in space. These data support the hypothesis of an asymmetric vestibular function in healthy subjects and confirm the similarity of functional disorders in patients with vestibular deficits or spatial neglect. For the first time, this similarity is found at the level of body representation. Copyright

  3. Multimodal Integration After Unilateral Labyrinthine Lesion: Single Vestibular Nuclei Neuron Responses and Implications for Postural Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Minor, Lloyd B.

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in neuronal responses is necessary for compensation following brain lesions and adaptation to new conditions and motor learning. In a previous study, we showed that compensatory changes in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) following unilateral vestibular loss were characterized by dynamic reweighting of inputs from vestibular and extravestibular modalities at the level of single neurons that constitute the first central stage of VOR signal processing. Here, we studied another class of neurons, i.e., the vestibular-only neurons, in the vestibular nuclei that mediate vestibulospinal reflexes and provide information for higher brain areas. We investigated changes in the relative contribution of vestibular, neck proprioceptive, and efference copy signals in the response of these neurons during compensation after contralateral vestibular loss in Macaca mulata monkeys. We show that the time course of recovery of vestibular sensitivity of neurons corresponds with that of lower extremity muscle and tendon reflexes reported in previous studies. More important, we found that information from neck proprioceptors, which did not influence neuronal responses before the lesion, were unmasked after lesion. Such inputs influenced the early stages of the compensation process evidenced by faster and more substantial recovery of the resting discharge in proprioceptive-sensitive neurons. Interestingly, unlike our previous study of VOR interneurons, the improvement in the sensitivity of the two groups of neurons did not show any difference in the early or late stages after lesion. Finally, neuronal responses during active head movements were not different before and after lesion and were attenuated relative to passive movements over the course of recovery, similar to that observed in control conditions. Comparison of compensatory changes observed in the vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal pathways provides evidence for similarities and differences between the two classes of

  4. Multimodal integration after unilateral labyrinthine lesion: single vestibular nuclei neuron responses and implications for postural compensation.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Soroush G; Minor, Lloyd B; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2011-02-01

    Plasticity in neuronal responses is necessary for compensation following brain lesions and adaptation to new conditions and motor learning. In a previous study, we showed that compensatory changes in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) following unilateral vestibular loss were characterized by dynamic reweighting of inputs from vestibular and extravestibular modalities at the level of single neurons that constitute the first central stage of VOR signal processing. Here, we studied another class of neurons, i.e., the vestibular-only neurons, in the vestibular nuclei that mediate vestibulospinal reflexes and provide information for higher brain areas. We investigated changes in the relative contribution of vestibular, neck proprioceptive, and efference copy signals in the response of these neurons during compensation after contralateral vestibular loss in Macaca mulata monkeys. We show that the time course of recovery of vestibular sensitivity of neurons corresponds with that of lower extremity muscle and tendon reflexes reported in previous studies. More important, we found that information from neck proprioceptors, which did not influence neuronal responses before the lesion, were unmasked after lesion. Such inputs influenced the early stages of the compensation process evidenced by faster and more substantial recovery of the resting discharge in proprioceptive-sensitive neurons. Interestingly, unlike our previous study of VOR interneurons, the improvement in the sensitivity of the two groups of neurons did not show any difference in the early or late stages after lesion. Finally, neuronal responses during active head movements were not different before and after lesion and were attenuated relative to passive movements over the course of recovery, similar to that observed in control conditions. Comparison of compensatory changes observed in the vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal pathways provides evidence for similarities and differences between the two classes of

  5. N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  6. N-acetyl-L-leucine accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lisa; Beck, Roswitha; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  7. Vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour in rats following a transient unilateral vestibular loss induced by lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, A K; Tham, R

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a transient vestibular nerve blockade, achieved by intra-tympanic instillation of lidocaine, were studied in rats by recording horizontal eye movements in darkness. Evaluation of the dose-response relationship showed that a maximal effect was attained with a concentration of 4% lidocaine. Within 15 min of lidocaine instillation, a vigorous spontaneous nystagmus was observed which reached maximal frequency and velocity of the slow phase after about 20 min. Subsequently, the nystagmus failed for approximately half an hour before it reappeared. This could be avoided by providing visual feedback in between the recordings in darkness or by a contralateral instillation of 2.5% lidocaine. It is suggested that the failure reflects an overload of the vestibulo-oculomotor circuits. After recovery from the nerve blockade, when the gaze was stable, dynamic vestibular tests were performed. They revealed that a decrease of the slow phase velocity gain and the dominant time constant during, respectively, sinusoidal- and step stimulation toward the unanaesthetised side, had developed with the nerve blockade. These modulations were impaired by a nodulo-uvulectomy but not by bilateral flocculectomy, which is consistent with the concept of vestibular habituation. A GABA(B) receptor antagonist, CGP 56433A, given systemically during the nerve blockade, aggravated the vestibular asymmetry. The same effect has previously been demonstrated in both short- (days) and long-term (months) compensated rats, by antagonising the GABA(B) receptor. In summary, this study provides the first observations of vestibulo-oculomotor disturbances during the first hour after a rapid and transient unilateral vestibular loss in the rat. By using this method, it is possible to study immediate behavioural consequences and possible neural changes that might outlast the nerve blockade.

  8. Demyelination of vestibular nerve axons in unilateral Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert F; Sismanis, Aristides; Kilpatrick, Jefferson K; Shaia, Wayne T

    2002-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine whether vestibular nerves in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease whose symptoms are refractory to medical management exhibit neuropathologic changes. We also endeavored to determine whether retrocochlear abnormalities are primary or secondary factors in the disease process. To these ends, we obtained vestibular nerve segments from five patients during retrosigmoid (posterior fossa) neurectomy, immediately fixed them, and processed them for light and electron microscopy. We found that all five segments exhibited moderate to severe demyelination with axonal sparing. Moreover, we noted that reactive astrocytes produced an extensive proliferation of fibrous processes and that the microglia assumed a phagocytic role. We conclude that the possible etiologies of demyelination include viral and/or immune-mediated factors similar to those seen in other demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our findings suggest that some forms of Ménière's disease that are refractory to traditional medical management might be the result of retrocochlear pathology that affects the neuroglial portion of the vestibular nerve.

  9. Long-term potentiation and depression after unilateral labyrinthectomy in the medial vestibular nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Dutia, Mayank; Frondaroli, Adele; Dieni, Cristina; Grassi, Silvarosa

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated in rat brainstem slices that high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the vestibular afferents induces long-term potentiation (LTP) in the ventral part (Vp) of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and long-term depression (LTD) in the dorsal part (Dp). Both LTP and LTD depend on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, which increases synaptic efficacy; however, in the Dp, LTP reverses to LTD because of the activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurons. Here we show that the probability of inducing long-term effects in the MVN of rat brainstem slices is altered after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In fact, LTP occurs less frequently in the ventral contra-lesional side compared with sham-operated rats. In the dorsal ipsi-lesional side, LTD is reduced and LTP enhanced, while the opposite occurs in the dorsal contra-lesional side. These changes in synaptic plasticity may be useful for re-balancing the tonic discharge of the MVN of the two sides during vestibular compensation, and for enhancing the dynamic responses of the deafferented MVN neurons in the long term.

  10. Transtympanic gentamicin and fibrin tissue adhesive for treatment of unilateral Menière's disease: effects on vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Casani, Augusto; Nuti, Daniele; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari; Gaudini, Elisa; Dallan, Iacopo

    2005-12-01

    To determine the effects of transtympanic injections, with a mixture composed of gentamicin and fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA), on vestibular function of patients with intractable unilateral Menière's disease. This was an open, prospective study. The study was performed at 2 tertiary referral centers. Twenty-six patients affected by "definite" unilateral Menière's disease, unresponsive to medical therapy for at least 6 months, were enrolled. A buffered gentamicin solution mixed with FTA was injected in the middle ear until the development of bedside vestibular hypofunction signs and/or caloric weakness in the treated ear. Vestibular function was evaluated by 3 bedside vestibular tests (observation of spontaneous nystagmus, head shaking test, and head thrust test) and by a caloric test. Tests were performed on days 10 and 30 after completion of treatment. Tests were also performed 3, 6, and 12 months from completion of the gentamicin-FTA protocol. The effects of treatment were also assessed in terms of hearing levels, control of vertigo, and disability status. In 22 of the 26 patients, only 1 gentamicin-FTA injection was necessary to obtain 1 or more signs indicating a reduction of the vestibular function in the treated ear. Four patients needed another treatment because of the persistence of their incapacitating symptoms during the follow-up. Four patients needed more than 1 injection to obtain a vestibular hypofunction. None of the patients who received 1 or 2 injections presented hearing loss in direct temporal relationship to the treatment. A mixture of gentamicin and fibrin glue makes it possible to considerably reduce the number of administrations in patients with intractable unilateral Menière's disease. Spontaneous nystagmus, post head shaking nystagmus, and a head thrust sign are the clinical signs that indicate onset or progression of unilateral vestibular hypofunction. These signs were obtained with only 1 injection in 81% of patients.

  11. Rapid compensatory changes in GABA receptor efficacy in rat vestibular neurones after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Him, Aydin; Cameron, Susan A; Dutia, Mayank B

    2000-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the GABAA agonist muscimol and the GABAB agonist baclofen on tonically active medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurones were recorded in slices of the rat dorsal brainstem in vitro, to determine whether any changes occurred in the functional efficacy of GABAergic inhibition in these cells during the initial rapid stage of ‘vestibular compensation’, the behavioural recovery that takes place after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). These experiments were carried out in preparations where the midline was cut, severing all commissural connections between the two vestibular nuclei. Slices of the MVN were prepared from normal animals and animals that had been unilaterally labyrinthectomised 4 h earlier. The mean in vitro discharge rate of MVN neurones in the rostral region of the ipsi-lesional nucleus after UL was significantly higher than that in control slices, confirming our earlier reports of an increase in intrinsic excitability of these cells in the early stage of vestibular compensation. The in vitro discharge rates of caudal ipsi-lesional MVN cells, and rostral and caudal contra-lesional MVN cells, were not different from controls. Muscimol and baclofen caused reversible, dose-related inhibition of the tonic discharge rate of MVN cells in control slices. In slices prepared from UL animals, MVN cells in the rostral region of the ipsi-lesional nucleus showed a marked downregulation of their response to both muscimol and baclofen, seen as a rightward shift and a decrease in slope of the dose-response relationships for the two agonists. In the contra-lesional nucleus, there was a small but significant upregulation of the responsiveness of both rostral and caudal MVN cells to baclofen, and a marked upregulation of the responsiveness of caudal MVN cells to muscimol. In slices from animals that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy 4 h earlier, the downregulation of the functional efficacy of GABA receptors in the rostral MVN cells did not

  12. Three-dimensional head-mounted gaming task procedure maximizes effects of vestibular rehabilitation in unilateral vestibular hypofunction: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Micarelli, Alessandro; Viziano, Andrea; Augimeri, Ivan; Micarelli, Domenico; Alessandrini, Marco

    2017-12-01

    Considering the emerging advantages related to virtual reality implementation in clinical rehabilitation, the aim of the present study was to discover possible (i) improvements achievable in unilateral vestibular hypofunction patients using a self-assessed head-mounted device (HMD)-based gaming procedure when combined with a classical vestibular rehabilitation protocol (HMD group) as compared with a group undergoing only vestibular rehabilitation and (ii) HMD procedure-related side effects. Therefore, 24 vestibular rehabilitation and 23-matched HMD unilateral vestibular hypofunction individuals simultaneously underwent a 4-week rehabilitation protocol. Both otoneurological measures (vestibulo-ocular reflex gain and postural arrangement by studying both posturography parameters and spectral values of body oscillation) and performance and self-report measures (Italian Dizziness Handicap Inventory; Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale; Zung Instrument for Anxiety Disorders, Dynamic Gait Index; and Simulator Sickness Questionnaire) were analyzed by means of a between-group/within-subject analysis of variance model. A significant post-treatment between-effect was found, and the HMD group demonstrated an overall improvement in vestibulo-ocular reflex gain on the lesional side, in posturography parameters, in low-frequency spectral domain, as well as in Italian Dizziness Handicap Inventory and Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale scores. Meanwhile, Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores demonstrated a significant reduction in symptoms related to experimental home-based gaming tasks during the HMD procedure. Our findings revealed the possible advantages of HMD implementation in vestibular rehabilitation, suggesting it as an innovative, self-assessed, low-cost, and compliant tool useful in maximizing vestibular rehabilitation outcomes.

  13. Impaired math achievement in patients with acute vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Moser, Ivan; Vibert, Dominique; Caversaccio, Marco D; Mast, Fred W

    2017-12-01

    Broad cognitive difficulties have been reported in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit, especially in the domain of spatial cognition. Processing and manipulating numbers relies on the ability to use the inherent spatial features of numbers. It is thus conceivable that patients with acute peripheral vestibular deficit show impaired numerical cognition. Using the number Stroop task and a short math achievement test, we tested 20 patients with acute vestibular neuritis and 20 healthy, age-matched controls. On the one hand, patients showed normal congruency and distance effects in the number Stroop task, which is indicative of normal number magnitude processing. On the other hand, patients scored lower than healthy controls in the math achievement test. We provide evidence that the lower performance cannot be explained by either differences in prior math knowledge (i.e., education) or slower processing speed. Our results suggest that peripheral vestibular deficit negatively affects numerical cognition in terms of the efficient manipulation of numbers. We discuss the role of executive functions in math performance and argue that previously reported executive deficits in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit provide a plausible explanation for the lower math achievement scores. In light of the handicapping effects of impaired numerical cognition in daily living, it is crucial to further investigate the mechanisms that cause mathematical deficits in acute PVD and eventually develop adequate means for cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nicergoline facilitates vestibular compensation in aged male rats with unilateral labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Rampello, L; Drago, F

    1999-05-28

    The ergoline derivatives, nicergoline (NIC) or dihydroergocristine (DHE) were administered at various doses (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) to aged male rats subjected to labyrinth unilateral lesion (LBX). The nystagmus rate appeared to be lower in animals treated with DHE or NIC 1mg/kg than in saline-injected rats, when observed on day 1 and 2 after operation. The number of falls in the rotorod test of LBX animals was decreased by NIC 0.5 or 1 mg/kg at all observation times. This parameter was affected by DHE only at the higher dose. These results suggest that NIC facilitates vestibular compensation of LBX rats. DHE appeared to be less potent in this respect. Since both drugs act on central dopaminergic neurotransmission, it is possible that this neurotransmission may be involved in their mechanism of action.

  15. Symptoms, disability and handicap in unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders. Effects of early presentation and initiation of balance exercises.

    PubMed

    Bamiou, D E; Davies, R A; McKee, M; Luxon, L M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a profile of disability and handicap in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disorders presenting to a specialist tertiary care unit. Two validated questionnaires were sent to patients who had a unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder as defined by strict criteria. Some patients still suffered moderate handicap and disability 5 years after the initial symptoms related to a unilateral vestibular disorder, although the duration of symptoms (onset to questionnaire completion) did not correlate with severity of disability and handicap, as judged by questionnaire scores. However, patients presenting to the unit within 6 months of onset of vertigo commenced balance exercises significantly earlier and had significantly lower disability scores than patients presenting later. A high proportion of non-compliance with, and delay in initiation of, vestibular rehabilitation exercises was noted in the total patient sample, while compliance with, and early initiation of, Cooksey Cawthorne exercises were significantly correlated with low disability and questionnaire scores. These findings suggest that early referral to a specialist balance unit for patients with persistent dizziness is associated with better outcome.

  16. Examination and treatment of patients with unilateral vestibular damage, with focus on the musculoskeletal system: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Kjersti; Kvåle, Alice

    2014-07-01

    Persistent dizziness and balance problems have been reported in some patients with unilateral vestibular pathology. The purpose of this case series was to address the examination and treatment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction. The musculoskeletal system was evaluated with the Global Physiotherapy Examination, dynamic balance was measured during walking with triaxial accelerometers positioned on the lower and upper trunk, and symptoms and functional limitations were assessed with standardized self-report measures. The 4 included patients had symptoms of severe dizziness that had lasted more than 1 year after the onset of vestibular dysfunction and a moderate level of perceived disability. Musculoskeletal abnormalities typically included postural misalignment, restricted abdominal respiration, restricted trunk movements, and tense muscles of the upper trunk and neck. The patients attended a modified vestibular rehabilitation program consisting of body awareness exercises addressing posture, movements, and respiration. After the intervention, self-reported symptoms and perceived disability improved. Improvements in mobility and positive physical changes were found in the upper trunk and respiratory movements. The attenuation of mediolateral accelerations (ie, body oscillations) in the upper trunk changed; a relatively more stable upper trunk and a concomitantly more flexible lower trunk were identified during walking in 3 patients. The recovery process may be influenced by self-inflicted rigid body movements and behavior strategies that prevent compensation. Addressing physical dysfunction and enhancing body awareness directly and dizziness indirectly may help patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction break a self-sustaining cycle of dizziness and musculoskeletal problems. Considering the body as a functional unit and including both musculoskeletal and vestibular systems in examination and treatment may be

  17. Hearing Outcomes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Intracanalicular Vestibular Schwannomas: Implication of Transient Volume Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul; Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the prognostic factors for hearing outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for unilateral sporadic intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (IC-VSs) as a clinical homogeneous group of VSs. Methods and Materials: Sixty consecutive patients with unilateral sporadic IC-VSs, defined as tumors in the internal acoustic canal, and serviceable hearing (Gardner-Roberson grade 1 or 2) were treated with SRS as an initial treatment. The mean tumor volume was 0.34 {+-} 0.03 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.03-1.00 cm{sup 3}), and the mean marginal dose was 12.2 {+-} 0.1 Gy (range, 11.5-13.0 Gy). The median follow-up duration was 62 months (range, 36-141 months). Results: Themore » actuarial rates of serviceable hearing preservation were 70%, 63%, and 55% at 1, 2, and 5 years after SRS, respectively. In multivariate analysis, transient volume expansion of {>=}20% from initial tumor size was a statistically significant risk factor for loss of serviceable hearing and hearing deterioration (increase of pure tone average {>=}20 dB) (odds ratio = 7.638; 95% confidence interval, 2.317-25.181; P=.001 and odds ratio = 3.507; 95% confidence interval, 1.228-10.018; P=.019, respectively). The cochlear radiation dose did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Transient volume expansion after SRS for VSs seems to be correlated with hearing deterioration when defined properly in a clinically homogeneous group of patients.« less

  18. Responses of non-eye movement central vestibular neurons to sinusoidal horizontal translation in compensated macaques after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Nan; Wei, Min

    2014-01-01

    After vestibular labyrinth injury, behavioral deficits partially recover through the process of vestibular compensation. The present study was performed to improve our understanding of the physiology of the macaque vestibular system in the compensated state (>7 wk) after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Three groups of vestibular nucleus neurons were included: pre-UL control neurons, neurons ipsilateral to the lesion, and neurons contralateral to the lesion. The firing responses of neurons sensitive to linear acceleration in the horizontal plane were recorded during sinusoidal horizontal translation directed along six different orientations (30° apart) at 0.5 Hz and 0.2 g peak acceleration (196 cm/s2). This data defined the vector of best response for each neuron in the horizontal plane, along which sensitivity, symmetry, detection threshold, and variability of firing were determined. Additionally, the responses of the same cells to translation over a series of frequencies (0.25–5.0 Hz) either in the interaural or naso-occipital orientation were obtained to define the frequency response characteristics in each group. We found a decrease in sensitivity, increase in threshold, and alteration in orientation of best responses in the vestibular nuclei after UL. Additionally, the phase relationship of the best neural response to translational stimulation changed with UL. The symmetry of individual neuron responses in the excitatory and inhibitory directions was unchanged by UL. Bilateral central utricular neurons still demonstrated two-dimension tuning after UL, consistent with spatio-temporal convergence from a single vestibular end-organ. These neuronal data correlate with known behavioral deficits after unilateral vestibular compromise. PMID:24717349

  19. Quality of life in patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma on wait and see - strategy.

    PubMed

    Klersy, P C; Arlt, F; Hofer, M; Meixensberger, J

    2018-01-01

    A 'wait and see' strategy is an option when managing patients with small vestibular schwannomas (VS). A risk of growth and worsening of hearing may influence a patient's daily quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the present study focused on QOL parameters in patients who are on a 'wait and see' strategy following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based diagnosis of small unilateral VS. Sixty-five patients (mean age 64.4 years; male:female, 32:33) who suffered from a small unilateral VS (9.34 mm, range 1.5-23 mm) between 2013 and 2016 were included in a prospective single center study. During follow-up, in addition to clinical and neurological examinations and MRI imaging, all patients answered the Short Form 36 questionnaire once to characterize QOL. Additionally, the severity of tinnitus was determined by the Mini-TQ-12 from Hiller and Goebel. It was found during follow-up that there was no lowering of QOL in patients with small VS who were on 'wait and see' strategy compared with Germany's general population and no tumor growth was detected in 53 patients (81.5%). Patients with a tumor diameter larger than 10 mm did not suffer from stronger tinnitus, vertigo or unsteadiness than the group with an average tumor size, which is smaller than 10 mm. Sixty-two patients (95.4%) showed ipsilateral hearing loss and three of these reported deafness (4.6%). Severe vertigo or tinnitus is connected with lower levels of mental component scale and physical component scale. These findings reduced the QOL (p = 0.05). In our series, QOL is not influenced in patients with unilateral untreated small VS in comparison to Germany's general population. This is helpful information when advising patients during follow-up and finding out the optimal timing of individual treatment.

  20. Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of Turkish Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale in Patients with Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karapolat, Hale; Eyigor, Sibel; Kirazli, Yesim; Celebisoy, Nese; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and sensitivity to change of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in people with peripheral vestibular disorder. Thirty-three patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular disease were included in the study. Patients were…

  1. Acute vestibular syndrome: clinical head impulse test versus video head impulse test.

    PubMed

    Celebisoy, Nese

    2018-03-05

    HINTS battery involving head impulse test (HIT), nystagmus, and test of skew is the critical bedside examination to differentiate acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy from posterior circulation stroke (PCS) in acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The highest sensitivity component of the battery has been reported to be the horizontal HIT, whereas skew deviation is defined as the most specific but non-sensitive sign for PCS. Video-oculography-based HIT (vHIT) may have an additional power in making the differentiation. If vHIT is undertaken, then both gain and gain asymmetry should be taken into account as anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) strokes are at risk of being misclassified based on VOR gain alone. Further refinement in video technology, increased operator proficiency and incorporation with saccade analysis will increase the sensitivity of vHIT for PCS diagnosis. For the time being, clinical examination seems adequate in frontline diagnostic evaluation of AVS.

  2. Modulated discharge of Purkinje and stellate cells persists after unilateral loss of vestibular primary afferent mossy fibers in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yakhnitsa, V.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells are excited by two afferent pathways: climbing and mossy fibers. Climbing fibers evoke large “complex spikes” (CSs) that discharge at low frequencies. Mossy fibers synapse on granule cells whose parallel fibers excite Purkinje cells and may contribute to the genesis of “simple spikes” (SSs). Both afferent systems convey vestibular information to folia 9c–10. After making a unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) in mice, we tested how the discharge of CSs and SSs was changed by the loss of primary vestibular afferent mossy fibers during sinusoidal roll tilt. We recorded from cells identified by juxtacellular neurobiotin labeling. The UL preferentially reduced vestibular modulation of CSs and SSs in folia 8–10 contralateral to the UL. The effects of a UL on Purkinje cell discharge were similar in folia 9c–10, to which vestibular primary afferents project, and in folia 8–9a, to which they do not project, suggesting that vestibular primary afferent mossy fibers were not responsible for the UL-induced alteration of SS discharge. UL also induced reduced vestibular modulation of stellate cell discharge contralateral to the UL. We attribute the decreased modulation to reduced vestibular modulation of climbing fibers. In summary, climbing fibers modulate CSs directly and SSs indirectly through activation of stellate cells. Whereas vestibular primary afferent mossy fibers cannot account for the modulated discharge of SSs or stellate cells, the nonspecific excitation of Purkinje cells by parallel fibers may set an operating point about which the discharges of SSs are sculpted by climbing fibers. PMID:23966673

  3. The mixed blessing of treating symptoms in acute vestibular failure--evidence from a 4-aminopyridine experiment.

    PubMed

    Beck, Roswitha; Günther, Lisa; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Böning, Guido; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Early symptomatic treatment of acute unilateral vestibulopathy is thought to impede the course of ensuing central vestibular compensation (VC). Despite the great clinical importance of this hypothesis there is no experimental evidence of its validity. The present study addressed this question by investigating the direct effect of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on ocular motor and postural symptoms in acute unilateral vestibulopathy as well as its long-term consequences for VC in a rat model of chemical unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). After UL, one group of Sprague-Dawley rats was treated with 4-AP p.o. (1mg/kg/day), another with 0.9% NaCl solution p.o. for 3days. Behavioural testing for symptoms of vestibular tone imbalance was done 1day before and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 21, and 30days after UL. In addition, sequential whole-brain [(18)F]-FDG-μPET was performed before and 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30days after UL to examine and visualize 4-AP-induced modulation of VC. Administration of 4-AP on days 1-3 significantly improved postural imbalance 2h after administration compared to that in controls. This effect was only transient. Remarkably, the 4-AP group had a prolonged and impaired course of postural compensation compared to that of controls. The μPET revealed a significant increase of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the vestibulocerebellum 2h after administration of 4-AP. However, the 4-AP group exhibited a persistent asymmetry of rCGM after day 3 in the vestibular nuclei and posterolateral thalami. In conclusion, this study confirms the hypothesis that early pharmacological abatement of vestibular symptoms impedes VC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Built-in emergency brake in the balance system. Animal experiment research shows that a hierarchy of mechanisms compensate after acute peripheral vestibular decline].

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Anna K; Tham, Richard

    A sudden unilateral loss of peripheral vestibular input results in the onset of acute dizziness and imbalance associated with spontaneous nystagmus, postural instability and nausea. Fortunately, these symptoms ameliorate rapidly, even without treatment, due to central nervous plastic changes which are collectively termed "vestibular compensation". This concept has become a widely accepted research model for studying lesion-induced plasticity. Recent research has dealt in particular with the plasticity of the medial vestibular nuclei that mediate the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex. Studies range from a cellular level in vitro to a functional level in vivo. Taken together, results from such studies have contributed greatly to what is known of vestibular compensation today. This article summarises evidence for several plasticity mechanisms that drive the recovery of spontaneous nystagmus, one of which is dependent on an endocrine stress-response. In the long run, such knowledge might influence the management and treatment of patients with balance disorders.

  5. Response of vestibular-nerve afferents to active and passive rotations under normal conditions and after unilateral labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Soroush G; Minor, Lloyd B; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the possible contribution of signals carried by vestibular-nerve afferents to long-term processes of vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Semicircular canal afferents were recorded from the contralesional nerve in three macaque monkeys before [horizontal (HC) = 67, anterior (AC) = 66, posterior (PC) = 50] and 1-12 mo after (HC = 192, AC = 86, PC = 57) lesion. Vestibular responses were evaluated using passive sinusoidal rotations with frequencies of 0.5-15 Hz (20-80 degrees /s) and fast whole-body rotations reaching velocities of 500 degrees /s. Sensitivities to nonvestibular inputs were tested by: 1) comparing responses during active and passive head movements, 2) rotating the body with the head held stationary to activate neck proprioceptors, and 3) encouraging head-restrained animals to attempt to make head movements that resulted in the production of neck torques of < or =2 Nm. Mean resting discharge rate before and after the lesion did not differ for the regular, D (dimorphic)-irregular, or C (calyx)-irregular afferents. In response to passive rotations, afferents showed no change in sensitivity and phase, inhibitory cutoff, and excitatory saturation after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Moreover, head sensitivities were similar during voluntary and passive head rotations and responses were not altered by neck proprioceptive or efference copy signals before or after the lesion. The only significant change was an increase in the proportion of C-irregular units postlesion, accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of regular afferents. Taken together, our findings show that changes in response properties of the vestibular afferent population are not likely to play a major role in the long-term changes associated with compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy.

  6. Modification of tenascin-R expression following unilateral labyrinthectomy in rats indicates its possible role in neural plasticity of the vestibular neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Gaal, Botond; Jóhannesson, Einar Örn; Dattani, Amit; Magyar, Agnes; Wéber, Ildikó; Matesz, Clara

    2015-09-01

    We have previously found that unilateral labyrinthectomy is accompanied by modification of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan staining in the lateral vestibular nucleus of rats and the time course of subsequent reorganization of extracellular matrix assembly correlates to the restoration of impaired vestibular function. The tenascin-R has repelling effect on pathfinding during axonal growth/regrowth, and thus inhibits neural circuit repair. By using immunohistochemical method, we studied the modification of tenascin-R expression in the superior, medial, lateral, and descending vestibular nuclei of the rat following unilateral labyrinthectomy. On postoperative day 1, tenascin-R reaction in the perineuronal nets disappeared on the side of labyrinthectomy in the superior, lateral, medial, and rostral part of the descending vestibular nuclei. On survival day 3, the staining intensity of tenascin-R reaction in perineuronal nets recovered on the operated side of the medial vestibular nucleus, whereas it was restored by the time of postoperative day 7 in the superior, lateral and rostral part of the descending vestibular nuclei. The staining intensity of tenascin-R reaction remained unchanged in the caudal part of the descending vestibular nucleus bilaterally. Regional differences in the modification of tenascin-R expression presented here may be associated with different roles of individual vestibular nuclei in the compensatory processes. The decreased expression of the tenascin-R may suggest the extracellular facilitation of plastic modifications in the vestibular neural circuit after lesion of the labyrinthine receptors.

  7. Head sway response to optic flow: effect of age is more important than the presence of unilateral vestibular hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.; Furman, Joseph M.; Redfern, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine how older adults with vestibular impairment use sensory feedback for postural control. Methods Nine older adult subjects with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH, mean age 69 y) and 14 older (mean age 70 y) and 8 young adult controls (CON, mean age 28 y) viewed full-field optic flow scenes while standing on a fixed or sway-referenced support surface. The subjects with UVH had 100% caloric asymmetry. Optic flow consisted of sinusoidal anterior-posterior movement of the visual surround at three frequencies and three amplitudes of stimulation. The anterior-posterior head sway was measured. The number of head sway responses that were coupled to the optic flow and magnitude of head sway during optic flow relative to during quiet stance on fixed floor was quantified. Results The number of trials in which the head sway response was significantly coupled to the optic flow was significantly greater in the Older UVH and Older CON subjects compared with the Young CON subjects. Furthermore, the magnitude of head sway was two to three times greater in Older UVH and CON compared with Young CON subjects. There was no difference in coupling or magnitude of head sway between Older UVH and Older CON subjects. The amplitude of sway was also dependent on the amount of surface support, stimulus frequency, and stimulus amplitude. Conclusions Older adults with unilateral vestibular hypofunction who are able to effectively compensate show no difference in postural responses elicited by optic flow compared with age-matched controls. PMID:17312341

  8. Correlation between the dizziness handicap inventory and balance performance during the acute phase of unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Son, Eun Jin; Lee, Dong-Hee; Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Jeon, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) is widely used to evaluate self-perceived handicap due to dizziness, and is known to correlate with vestibular function tests in chronic dizziness. However, whether DHI reflects subjective symptoms during the acute phase has not been studied. This study aims to investigate the correlations of subjective and objective measurements to highlight parameters that reflect the severity of dizziness during the first week of acute unilateral vestibulopathy. Thirty-seven patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy were examined. Patients' subjective perceptions of dizziness were measured using the DHI, Vertigo Visual Analog Scale (VVAS), Disability Scale (DS), and Activity-Specific Balance Scale (ABC). Additionally, the oculomotor tests, Romberg and sharpened Romberg tests, functional reach test, and dynamic visual acuity tests were performed. The correlation between the DHI and other tests was evaluated. DHI-total scores exhibited a moderately positive correlation with VVAS and DS, and a moderately negative correlation with ABC. However, DHI-total score did not correlate with results of the Romberg, sharpened Romberg, or functional reach tests. When compared among four groups divided according to DHI scores, VVAS and DS scores exhibited statistically significant differences, but no significant differences were detected for other test results. Our findings revealed that the DHI correlated significantly with self-perceived symptoms measured by VVAS and DS, but not ABC. There was no significant correlation with other balance function tests during the first week of acute vestibulopathy. The results suggest that DHI, VVAS and DS may be more useful to measure the severity of acute dizziness symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Secondary rhinoplasty using flying-bird and vestibular tornado incisions for unilateral cleft lip patients.

    PubMed

    Matsuya, Tokuzo; Iida, Seiji; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2003-08-01

    To correct the nasal deformity in cleft lip patients, a new procedure of open rhinoplasty using a "flying-bird" incision in the nostril tip with a vestibule "tornado"-shaped incision in the cleft side is presented. The newly designed vestibular incision produces effective vestibular advancement with the freed lower lateral cartilage. The flying-bird incision makes it possible to produce a suitable nostril tip appearance with symmetrical external nostril vestibules. If the vestibular defect after flap advancement is wide, a full-thickness skin graft is used to give priority for making a good external nostril shape. This procedure is useful for most cleft lip noses, particularly in cases of moderate to severe deformity.

  10. Effectiveness of conventional versus virtual reality based vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of dizziness, gait and balance impairment in adults with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Dara; Herdman, Susan; Moloney, Roisin; Murray, Deirdre; Duffy, Douglas; Malone, Kareena; French, Helen; Hone, Stephen; Conroy, Ronan; McConn-Walsh, Rory

    2012-03-26

    Unilateral peripheral vestibular loss results in gait and balance impairment, dizziness and oscillopsia. Vestibular rehabilitation benefits patients but optimal treatment remains unknown. Virtual reality is an emerging tool in rehabilitation and provides opportunities to improve both outcomes and patient satisfaction with treatment. The Nintendo Wii Fit Plus® (NWFP) is a low cost virtual reality system that challenges balance and provides visual and auditory feedback. It may augment the motor learning that is required to improve balance and gait, but no trials to date have investigated efficacy. In a single (assessor) blind, two centre randomised controlled superiority trial, 80 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss will be randomised to either conventional or virtual reality based (NWFP) vestibular rehabilitation for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure is gait speed (measured with three dimensional gait analysis). Secondary outcomes include computerised posturography, dynamic visual acuity, and validated questionnaires on dizziness, confidence and anxiety/depression. Outcome will be assessed post treatment (8 weeks) and at 6 months. Advances in the gaming industry have allowed mass production of highly sophisticated low cost virtual reality systems that incorporate technology previously not accessible to most therapists and patients. Importantly, they are not confined to rehabilitation departments, can be used at home and provide an accurate record of adherence to exercise. The benefits of providing augmented feedback, increasing intensity of exercise and accurately measuring adherence may improve conventional vestibular rehabilitation but efficacy must first be demonstrated. Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01442623.

  11. Acute Transient Vestibular Syndrome: Prevalence of Stroke and Efficacy of Bedside Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Park, Min-Gyu; Choi, Seo Young; Park, Kyung-Pil; Baik, Seung Kug; Kim, Ji-Soo; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of stroke and efficacy of bedside evaluation in diagnosing stroke in acute transient vestibular syndrome (ATVS). We performed a prospective, single-center, observational study that had consecutively recruited 86 patients presenting with ATVS to the emergency department of Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January to December 2014. All patients received a constructed evaluation, including HINTS plus (head impulse, nystagmus patterns, test of skew, and finger rubbing) and brain magnetic resonance imagings. Patients without an obvious cause further received perfusion-weighted imaging. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine clinical parameters to identify stroke in ATVS. The prevalence of stroke was 27% in ATVS. HINTS plus could not be applied to the majority of patients because of the resolution of the vestibular symptoms, and magnetic resonance imagings were falsely negative in 43% of confirmed strokes. Ten patients (12%) showed unilateral cerebellar hypoperfusion on perfusion-weighted imaging without an infarction on diffusion-weighted imaging, and 8 of them had a focal stenosis or hypoplasia of the corresponding vertebral artery. The higher risk of stroke in ATVS was found in association with craniocervical pain (odds ratio, 9.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-45.2) and focal neurological symptoms/signs (odds ratio, 15.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-93.8). Bedside examination and routine magnetic resonance imagings have a limitation in diagnosing strokes presenting with ATVS, and perfusion imaging may help to identify strokes in ATVS of unknown cause. Associated craniocervical pain and focal neurological symptoms/signs are the useful clues for strokes in ATVS. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Asymmetrical perception of body rotation after unilateral injury to human vestibular cortex.

    PubMed

    Philbeck, John W; Behrmann, Marlene; Biega, Tim; Levy, Lucien

    2006-01-01

    Vestibular information plays a key role in many perceptual and cognitive functions, but surprisingly little is known about how vestibular signals are processed at the cortical level in humans. To address this issue, we tested the ability of two patients, with damage to key components of the vestibular network in either the left or right hemisphere, to perceive passive whole-body rotations (25-125 degrees) about the yaw axis. In both patients, the posterior insula, hippocampus, putamen, and thalamus were extensively damaged. The patients' responses were compared with those of nine age- and sex-matched neurologically intact participants. The body rotations were conducted without vision and the peak angular velocities ranged from 40 degrees to 90 degrees per second. Perceived rotation was assessed by open-loop manual pointing. The right hemisphere patient exhibited poor sensitivity for body rotations toward the contralesional (left) hemispace and generally underestimated the rotations. By contrast, his judgments of rotations toward the ipsilesional (right) hemispace greatly overestimated the physical rotation by 50-70 degrees for all tested magnitudes. The left hemisphere patient's responses were more appropriately scaled for both rotation directions, falling in the low-normal range. These findings suggest that there is some degree of hemispheric specialization in the cortical processing of dynamic head rotations in the yaw plane. In this view, right hemisphere structures play a dominant role, processing rotations in both directions, while left hemisphere structures process rotations only toward the contralesional hemispace.

  13. Subjective visual horizontal during follow-up after unilateral vestibular deafferentation with gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Tribukait, A; Bergenius, J; Brantberg, K

    1998-07-01

    The subjective visual horizontal (SVH) was measured by means of a small, rotatable, luminous line in darkness in the upright head and body position and at 10, 20 and 30 degrees of tilt to the right and left before, and repeatedly during a follow-up period of 1 year after intratympanic gentamicin instillations in 12 patients with recurrent vertigo attacks. This treatment caused a loss of the bithermal caloric responses on the diseased side. Shortly after treatment there was a significant tilt of SVH towards the treated side (group mean = 10.6 degrees). Repeated testing made it possible to characterize mathematically the changes with time for SVH. For the group of patients as a whole this otolithic component of vestibular compensation was best described by a power function, SVH = 8.65t(-0.16) degrees, where t is time in days after maximum tilt of SVH. After 1 year, SVH was still significantly tilted towards the treated side (group mean = 3.16 degrees). Gentamicin treatment also caused a significant reduction in the perception of head and body tilt towards the deafferented side, while the perception of tilt towards the healthy side did not show any significant changes. During follow-up there was a gradual improvement in the perception of tilt towards the treated side. However, a significant asymmetry in roll-tilt perception was still present 1 year after deafferentation. There was no correlation between SVH in the upright position and roll-tilt perception, suggesting that these parameters are to some extent dependent on different afferent input from the vestibular organ. They were also found to be complementary for the detection of vestibular disturbance.

  14. Brainstem abnormalities and vestibular nerve enhancement in acute neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Scheffel, Hans; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2013-12-21

    Borreliosis is a widely distributed disease. Neuroborreliosis may present with unspecific symptoms and signs and often remains difficult to diagnose in patients with central nervous system symptoms, particularly if the pathognomonic erythema chronica migrans does not develop or is missed. Thus, vigilance is mandatory in cases with atypical presentation of the disease and with potentially severe consequences if not recognized early. We present a patient with neuroborreliosis demonstrating brain stem and vestibular nerve abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented with headaches, neck stiffness, weight loss, nausea, tremor, and gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2-weighted hyperintense signal alterations in the pons and in the vestibular nerves as well as bilateral post-contrast enhancement of the vestibular nerves. Serologic testing of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. Patients infected with neuroborreliosis may present with unspecific neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive imaging tool showing signal abnormalities in the brain stem and nerve root enhancement may help in establishing the diagnosis.

  15. The Risk Factors of Symptomatic Communicating Hydrocephalus After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: The Implication of Brain Atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jung Ho; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul; Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To identify the effect of brain atrophy on the development of symptomatic communicating hydrocephalus (SCHCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Methods and Materials: A total of 444 patients with VS were treated with SRS as a primary treatment. One hundred eighty-one patients (40.8%) were male, and the mean age of the patients was 53 {+-} 13 years (range, 11-81 years). The mean follow-up duration was 56.8 {+-} 35.8 months (range, 12-160 months). The mean tumor volume was 2.78 {+-} 3.33 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.03-23.30 cm{sup 3}). The cross-sectional area of the lateral ventricles (CALV),more » defined as the combined area of the lateral ventricles at the level of the mammillary body, was measured on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images as an indicator of brain atrophy. Results: At distant follow-up, a total of 25 (5.6%) patients had SCHCP. The median time to symptom development was 7 months (range, 1-48 months). The mean CALV was 334.0 {+-} 194.0 mm{sup 2} (range, 44.70-1170 mm{sup 2}). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.988 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.976-0.994; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CALV had a significant relationship with the development of SCHCP (p < 0.001; odds ration [OR] = 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.007). Tumor volume and female sex also had a significant association (p < 0.001; OR = 1.246; 95% CI, 1.103-1.409; p < 0.009; OR = 7.256; 95% CI, 1.656-31.797, respectively). However, age failed to show any relationship with the development of SCHCP (p = 0.364). Conclusion: Brain atrophy may be related to de novo SCHCP after SRS, especially in female patients with a large VS. Follow-up surveillance should be individualized, considering the risk factors involved for each patient, for prompt diagnosis of SCHCP.« less

  16. Vestibular Rehabilitation for Peripheral Vestibular Hypofunction: An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Herdman, Susan J.; Whitney, Susan L.; Cass, Stephen P.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Fife, Terry D.; Furman, Joseph M.; Getchius, Thomas S. D.; Goebel, Joel A.; Shepard, Neil T.; Woodhouse, Sheelah N.

    2016-01-01

    patient to understand the goals of the program and how to manage and progress themselves independently. As a general guide, persons without significant comorbidities that affect mobility and with acute or subacute unilateral vestibular hypofunction may need once a week supervised sessions for 2 to 3 weeks; persons with chronic unilateral vestibular hypofunction may need once a week sessions for 4 to 6 weeks; and persons with bilateral vestibular hypofunction may need once a week sessions for 8 to 12 weeks. In addition to supervised sessions, patients are provided a daily home exercise program. Disclaimer: These recommendations are intended as a guide for physical therapists and clinicians to optimize rehabilitation outcomes for persons with peripheral vestibular hypofunction undergoing vestibular rehabilitation. Video Abstract available for more insights from the author (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A124). PMID:26913496

  17. Adaptation to vestibular disorientation. IV, Responses to angular acceleration and to bilateral caloric stimulation following unilateral caloric habituation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1967-01-01

    The paper provides information that angular acceleration tests of the vestibular system transcend clinical caloric tests in revealing adaptation to angular accelerations as experienced in rotary motions, including flight situations. The caloric test ...

  18. Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Cecilia S.; Payne, John F.; Bergstrom, Chris S.; Cribbs, Blaine E.; Yan, Jiong; Hubbard, G. Baker; Olsen, Timothy W.; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical features and imaging characteristics in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM). Methods This is a retrospective review of four patients diagnosed with UAIM. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, Snellen visual acuity (VA), and funduscopic features) and images from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein (FA), and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography were analyzed. Results The median age at presentation was 31 years (range 27–52 years). The median interval between symptom onset and presentation was four weeks (range 1–20 weeks). Associated systemic findings included a viral prodrome (50%), orchitis (50%), hand-foot-mouth disease (25%), and positive Coxsackie virus titers (50%). The median presenting VA was 20/400 (range 20/70–1/400), which improved to 20/30 (range 20/20–20/60) at final follow-up. The median follow-up time was 6 weeks (range 0–8 weeks). Early in the disease course, the central macula developed irregular, circular areas of white-grey discoloration. Following recovery, the macula had a stippled retinal pigment epithelium characterized by rarefaction and hyperplasia. FA demonstrated irregular early hyperfluorescence and late subretinal hyperfluorescence. SD-OCT showed a partially reversible disruption of the outer photoreceptor layer. FAF initially revealed stippled autofluorescence that eventually became more hypoautofluorescent. ICG showed “moth-eaten” appearing choroidal vasculature, suggestive of choroidal inflammation. Conclusions The imaging characteristics highlight the structural changes during the active and resolution phases of UAIM. The visual recovery correlates with structural changes and suggests that the pathogenesis involves inflammation of the inner choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer photoreceptor complex that is partially reversible. PMID:22232475

  19. Acute unilateral hip pain in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Frederick S; Al Mukaddam, Mona; Pignolo, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    Flare-ups of the hips are among the most feared and disabling complications of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and are poorly understood. In order to better understand the nature of hip flare-ups in FOP, we evaluated 25 consecutive individuals with classic FOP (14 males, 11 females; 3-56years old, median age, 17years old) who presented with acute unilateral hip pain. All 25 individuals were suspected of having a flare-up of the hip based on clinical history and a favorable response to a four day course of high-dose oral prednisone. Ten individuals (40%) experienced rebound symptoms of pain and/or stiffness within seven days after discontinuation of prednisone and all ten subsequently developed heterotopic ossification (HO) or decreased mobility of the affected hip. None of the 14 individuals who experienced sustained relief of symptoms following a course of oral prednisone experienced HO or decreased mobility. Incidental radiographic findings at the time of presentation were multifactoral and included osteochondromas of the proximal femur (18/25; 72%), degenerative arthritis (17/25; 68%), developmental hip dysplasia (15/25; 60%), previously existing heterotopic ossification (12/25; 48%), intra-articular synovial osteochondromatosis (8/25; 32%) or traumatic fractures through pre-existing heterotopic bone (1/25; 4%). Developmental joint pathology may confound clinical evaluation of hip pain in FOP. The most useful modality for suspecting an ossification-prone flare-up of the hip was lack of sustained response to a brief course of oral prednisone. Evaluation of soft tissue edema by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging showed promise in identifying ossification-prone flare-ups and warrants further analysis in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Video Head Impulse Test for Early Diagnosis of Vestibular Neuritis Among Acute Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qiongfeng; Zhang, Lisan; Hong, Wenke; Yang, Yi; Chen, Zhaoying; Lu, Peilin; Zhang, Dan; Hu, Xingyue

    2017-09-01

    This study assesses the value of the video head impulse test (vHIT) for early diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) among acute vertigo. Thirty-three cases of vestibular neuritis (VN), 96 patients with other acute vertigo (AV), and 50 cases of normal controls used vHIT to quantitatively test a pair of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflection (VOR) gains, two pairs of vertical VOR gains, and the corresponding three pairs of VOR gain asymmetry. The peculiarity of VOR gains in VN and the differences between VN and other AV, normal controls by vHIT, were collected and analyzed. There were statistically significant differences in the three pairs of VOR gains asymmetry between VN and other AV, and normal controls (P<0.01). The sensitivity was 87.9% and specificity was 94.3% in differentiating VN from normal and other acute vertigo by vHIT. This study shows vHIT has advantages in the diagnosis of VN in acute vertigo with good sensitivity and specificity and indicates a widespread clinical application.

  2. Effects of Acute Administration of Ketorolac on Mammalian Vestibular Sensory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, G Christopher; Jones, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac is a candidate for use as a supplemental analgesic during major surgery in anesthetized rodents. The use of ketorolac during surgery is believed to reduce the anesthetic dose required to achieve and maintain an adequate surgical plane, thus improving the physiologic condition and survival of animals during long experimental procedures. Ketorolac has reported side effects that include dizziness, ear pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo in humans, but ketorolac has not been reported to affect the vestibular system in animals. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the acute effects of ketorolac on vestibular compound action potentials in C57BL/6 mice. Linear vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEP) were recorded during the administration of ketorolac at doses 3 to 14 times the effective analgesic dose. VsEP results for ketorolac were compared with those from a control group maintained under anesthesia for the same period. Ketorolac did not significantly affect the temporal profiles of response latencies and amplitudes or the rate of change in response measures over time between controls and ketorolac-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ketorolac can be used as an analgesic to supplement anesthesia in mice without concerns of modifying the amplitudes and latencies of the linear VsEP. PMID:23562034

  3. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in the prediction of recovery from acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Te; Fang, Kai-Min; Young, Yi-Ho; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Click and galvanic stimulations of vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (c-VEMP and g-VEMP) were applied to measure the interaural difference (IAD) of saccular responses in patients with acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL). This study intended to explore the relationship between saccular asymmetry and final hearing recovery. We hypothesize that greater extent of saccular dysfunction may be associated with lesser hearing recovery. Twenty-one patients with unilateral ALHL were prospectively enrolled to receive c-VEMP and g-VEMP tests in a random sequence. The IAD of the saccular responses for each patient was measured using three parameters-the raw and corrected amplitudes of c-VEMP, and corrected c-VEMP to g-VEMP amplitude ratio (C/G ratio). The IAD for each parameter was classified as depressed, normal, or augmented by calculating the difference between the affected and unaffected ears and dividing by its sum for both ears. After 3 consecutive months of oral medication and follow-up, 19 patients displayed a hearing recovery of >50%; only two had a recovery of <50%. The significant correlation between the IAD of corrected C/G ratios and hearing recovery demonstrated that subjects with depressed responses had a worse hearing outcome (percent recovery: 51% [45-80%], median [minimum-maximum]), compared with those with normal responses, who exhibited the best recovery (87% [56-100%]), whereas patients with augmented response showed an intermediate recovery (67% [54-100%]; p = 0.02, Kruskal-Wallis test). On the contrary, the raw and corrected amplitudes of c-VEMP did not reveal a significantly different hearing recovery among the three groups of saccular responses. The extent of saccular dysfunction in ALHL might be better explored by combining the results of c-VEMP and g-VEMP. Outcome analysis indicated that the corrected C/G ratio might be a promising prognostic factor for hearing recovery in ALHL.

  4. [CHARACTERIZATION OF VESTIBULAR DISORDERS IN THE INJURED PERSONS WITH THE BRAIN CONCUSSION IN ACUTE PERIOD].

    PubMed

    Skobska, O E; Kadzhaya, N V; Andreyev, O A; Potapov, E V

    2015-04-01

    There were examined 32 injured persons, ageing (34.1 ± 1.3) yrs at average, for the brain commotion (BC). The adopted protocol SCAT-3 (Standardized Concussion Assessment Tool, 3rd ed.), DHI (Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaire), computer stabilography (KS) were applied for the vestibular disorders diagnosis. There was established, that in acute period of BC a dyssociation between regression of objective neurological symptoms and permanence of the BC indices occurs, what confirms a latent disorder of the balance function. Changes of basic indices of statokinesiography, including increase of the vibration amplitude enhancement in general centre of pressure in a saggital square and the BC square (235.3 ± 13.7) mm2 in a modified functional test of Romberg with the closed eyes is possible to apply as objective criteria for the BC diagnosis.

  5. Effects of Saccular Function on Recovery of Subjective Dizziness After Vestibular Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Junhui; Jung, Jinsei; Lee, Jeon Mi; Suh, Michelle J; Kwak, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sung Huhn

    2017-08-01

    We attempted to investigate whether the integrity of saccular function influences the severity of subjective dizziness after vestibular rehabilitation in vestibular neuritis. Retrospective analysis. Tertiary referral center. Forty-six patients with acute unilateral vestibular neuritis were included. Diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative. All the patients completed vestibular rehabilitation therapy until their computerized dynamic posturography and rotary chair test results were significantly improved. The rehabilitation patients were classified into the normal to mild subjective dizziness and moderate to severe subjective dizziness groups according to the dizziness handicap inventory score (cutoff of 40). Differences between the two groups were analyzed. After rehabilitation, 32.6% of the patients still complained of moderate to severe dizziness. Age, sex distribution, the presence of comorbidities, caloric weakness, pre- and postrehabilitation gain values in rotary chair test, postrehabilitation composite scores in posturography, and the duration of rehabilitation were not significantly different between the two groups. However, initial dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) score and composite score in dynamic posturography were worse and the proportion of patients with absent cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in the moderate to severe group was much higher (93.3% vs. 35.5%, p < 0.001). After multiple regression analysis of those factors, initial DHI score and absent cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential response were identified as being associated with higher postrehabilitation DHI score. Saccular dysfunction in acute vestibular neuritis can contribute to persistent subjective dizziness, even after the objective parameters of vestibular function tests have been improved by vestibular rehabilitation.

  6. Pitfalls and Rewards for Implementing Ocular Motor Testing in Acute Vestibular Syndrome: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrascu, Oana M.; Torbati, Sam; Tighiouart, Mourad; Newman-Toker, David E.; Song, Shlee S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Isolated Acute Vestibular Syndrome (iAVS) presentations to the Emergency Department (ED) pose management challenges given concerns for posterior circulation strokes. False negative brain imaging may erroneously reassure clinicians, while HINTS-plus examination outperforms imaging to screen for strokes in iAVS. We studied the feasibility of implementing HINTS-plus testing in the ED, aiming to reduce neuroimaging in patients with iAVS. Methods We launched an institutional Quality Improvement initiative, using DMAIC methodology. The outcome measures (proportion of iAVS subjects that had HINTS-plus examinations and underwent neuroimaging by CT/MRI) were compared before and after the established intervention. The intervention consisted of formal training for neurologists and emergency physicians on how to perform, document, and interpret HINTS-plus and implementation of novel iAVS management algorithm. Neuroimaging was not recommended if HINTS-plus suggested peripheral vestibular etiology. If a central process was suspected, brain MRI/MR angiogram was performed. Head CT was reserved only for thrombolytic time-window cases. Results In the first 2 months post-implementation, HINTS-plus testing performance by neurologists increased from 0% to 80% (p = 0.007), and by ED providers from 0% to 9.09% (p = 0.367). Head CT scans were reduced from 18.5% to 6. 25%. Brain MRI use was reduced from 51.8% to 31.2%. 60% of the iAVS subjects were discharged from the ED; none were readmitted or had another ED presentation in the ensuing 30 days. Conclusions Implementation of HINTS-plus evaluation in the ED is valuable and feasible for neurologists, but challenging for emergency physicians. Future studies should determine the ‘dose-response’ curve of educational interventions. PMID:28248913

  7. Pitfalls and Rewards for Implementing Ocular Motor Testing in Acute Vestibular Syndrome: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, Oana M; Torbati, Sam; Tighiouart, Mourad; Newman-Toker, David E; Song, Shlee S

    2017-03-01

    Isolated acute vestibular syndrome (iAVS) presentations to the emergency department (ED) pose management challenges, given the concerns for posterior circulation strokes. False-negative brain imaging may erroneously reassure clinicians, whereas HINTS-plus examination outperforms imaging to screen for strokes in iAVS. We studied the feasibility of implementing HINTS-plus testing in the ED, aiming to reduce neuroimaging in patients with iAVS. We launched an institutional Quality Improvement initiative, using DMAIC methodology. The outcome measures [proportion of iAVS subjects who had HINTS-plus examinations and underwent neuroimaging by computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI)] were compared before and after the established intervention. The intervention consisted of formal training for neurologists and emergency physicians on how to perform, document, and interpret HINTS-plus and implementation of novel iAVS management algorithm. Neuroimaging was not recommended if HINTS-plus suggested peripheral vestibular etiology. If a central process was suspected, brain MRI/MR angiogram was performed. Head CT was reserved only for thrombolytic time-window cases. In the first 2 months postimplementation, HINTS-plus testing performance by neurologists increased from 0% to 80% (P=0.007), and by ED providers from 0% to 9.09% (P=0.367). Head CT scans were reduced from 18.5% to 6.25%. Brain MRI use was reduced from 51.8% to 31.2%. About 60% of the iAVS subjects were discharged from the ED; none were readmitted or had another ED presentation in the ensuing 30 days. Implementation of HINTS-plus evaluation in the ED is valuable and feasible for neurologists, but challenging for emergency physicians. Future studies should determine the "dose-response" curve of educational interventions.

  8. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Matthew L., E-mail: carlson.matthew@mayo.edu; Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota; Glasgow, Amy E.

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS weremore » identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000

  9. Characterization of pulse amplitude and pulse rate modulation for a human vestibular implant during acute electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. A. K.; DiGiovanna, J.; Cavuscens, S.; Ranieri, M.; Guinand, N.; van de Berg, R.; Carpaneto, J.; Kingma, H.; Guyot, J.-P.; Micera, S.; Perez Fornos, A.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The vestibular system provides essential information about balance and spatial orientation via the brain to other sensory and motor systems. Bilateral vestibular loss significantly reduces quality of life, but vestibular implants (VIs) have demonstrated potential to restore lost function. However, optimal electrical stimulation strategies have not yet been identified in patients. In this study, we compared the two most common strategies, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and pulse rate modulation (PRM), in patients. Approach. Four subjects with a modified cochlear implant including electrodes targeting the peripheral vestibular nerve branches were tested. Charge-equivalent PAM and PRM were applied after adaptation to baseline stimulation. Vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movement responses were recorded to evaluate stimulation efficacy during acute clinical testing sessions. Main results. PAM evoked larger amplitude eye movement responses than PRM. Eye movement response axes for lateral canal stimulation were marginally better aligned with PRM than with PAM. A neural network model was developed for the tested stimulation strategies to provide insights on possible neural mechanisms. This model suggested that PAM would consistently cause a larger ensemble firing rate of neurons and thus larger responses than PRM. Significance. Due to the larger magnitude of eye movement responses, our findings strongly suggest PAM as the preferred strategy for initial VI modulation.

  10. Modulation of Memory by Vestibular Lesions and Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Geddes, Lisa H.; Baek, Jean-Ha; Darlington, Cynthia L.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    For decades it has been speculated that there is a close association between the vestibular system and spatial memories constructed by areas of the brain such as the hippocampus. While many animal studies have been conducted which support this relationship, only in the last 10 years have detailed quantitative studies been carried out in patients with vestibular disorders. The majority of these studies suggest that complete bilateral vestibular loss results in spatial memory deficits that are not simply due to vestibular reflex dysfunction, while the effects of unilateral vestibular damage are more complex and subtle. Very recently, reports have emerged that sub-threshold, noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation can enhance memory in humans, although this has not been investigated for spatial memory as yet. These studies add to the increasing evidence that suggests a connection between vestibular sensory information and memory in humans. PMID:21173897

  11. [Management experience of acute renal failure induced by unilateral ureteral calculi obstruction].

    PubMed

    Tan, Fu-qing; Shen, Bo-hua; Xie, Li-ping; Meng, Hong-zhou; Fang, Dan-bo; Wang, Chao-jun

    2013-05-28

    To explore the causes and treatment options of acute renal failure induced by unilateral ureteral calculi obstruction. The clinical data of 12 cases of acute renal failure induced by unilateral ureteral calculi obstruction between August 2008 and July 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 5 males and 7 females with an average age of 65.7 years. Their clinical data and treatment options were retrospectively analyzed and summarized. Seven cases showed right side ureteral calculus with hydronephrosis while another 5 presented left side ureteral calculus with hydronephrosis. Serum creatinine was higher than 310 µmol/L in 12 cases. Anuria appeared in 4 cases for 1-7 days while oliguria in 8 cases for 2-10 days. High fever was present in 11 cases, the highest of whom was 40 °C. White blood cell count increased in 10 cases (>10×10(9)/L) and decreased in 2 cases (<4 × 10(9)/L). The therapeutic options included insertion of double J stent for internal drainage (n = 1), percutaneous nephrostomy for external drainage (n = 10) and open operation (n = 1). Traditional treatments were performed to manage ureteral calculus in the above 11 cases with drainage. All cases had improved renal function after comprehensive treatment of anti-infection, antishock, rinsing stones and relieving obstruction. All 12 cases were treated successfully. Unilateral ureteral calculus may impair contralateral renal function and cause acute renal failure due to the absorption of toxin at obstructive side. The keys of management are eliminating toxin and relieving obstruction.

  12. [Inferior vestibular neuritis: diagnosis using VEMP].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Repik, I

    2012-02-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are a new method to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. The sacculocollic reflex of the cervical VEMP to air conduction (AC) reflects predominantly saccular function due to saccular afferents to the inferior vestibular nerve. We describe a case of inferior vestibular neuritis as a rare differential diagnosis of vestibular neuritis. Clinical signs were a normal caloric response, unilaterally absent AC cVEMPs and bilaterally preserved ocular VEMPs (AC oVEMPs).

  13. Acute antidepressant effects of right unilateral ultra-brief ECT: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mayur, Prashanth; Byth, Karen; Harris, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    Shortening the pulse width to 0.3 ms holds neurophysiological and clinical promise of making ECT safer by limiting cognitive side effects. However, the antidepressant effects of right ultra-brief unilateral ECT are under contention. In an acute ECT course, antidepressant equivalence of ultra-brief right unilateral ECT to the high-dose brief pulse right unilateral ECT was investigated. Severely depressed patients were randomised to 1 ms-brief pulse (n=18) or 0.3 ms ultra-brief pulse (n=17) right unilateral ECT, both at high-dose (6 times threshold stimulus dose) given thrice weekly. Depression severity was measured using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale at baseline, after 8 treatments and after the acute course of ECT. Depression severity declined equally in both groups: F (1.27,41.97)=0.31, p=0.63. Median time in days to remission (95%CI) was in brief pulse ECT: 26 (18.6-33.4) and ultra-brief pulse ECT:28 (17.9-38.0). The small sample study in the study increases the likelihood of type 2 error. In severe depression, high-dose ultra-brief right unilateral ECT appears to show matching acute antidepressant response to an equally high-dose brief pulse right unilateral ECT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential [(18)F]FDG µPET whole-brain imaging of central vestibular compensation: a model of deafferentation-induced brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zwergal, Andreas; Schlichtiger, Julia; Xiong, Guoming; Beck, Roswitha; Günther, Lisa; Schniepp, Roman; Schöberl, Florian; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Bartenstein, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Dutia, Mayank B; la Fougère, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral inner ear damage is followed by a rapid behavioural recovery due to central vestibular compensation. In this study, we utilized serial [(18)F]Fluoro-deoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG)-µPET imaging in the rat to visualize changes in brain glucose metabolism during behavioural recovery after surgical and chemical unilateral labyrinthectomy, to determine the extent and time-course of the involvement of different brain regions in vestibular compensation and test previously described hypotheses of underlying mechanisms. Systematic patterns of relative changes of glucose metabolism (rCGM) were observed during vestibular compensation. A significant asymmetry of rCGM appeared in the vestibular nuclei, vestibulocerebellum, thalamus, multisensory vestibular cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the acute phase of vestibular imbalance (4 h). This was followed by early vestibular compensation over 1-2 days where rCGM re-balanced between the vestibular nuclei, thalami and temporoparietal cortices and bilateral rCGM increase appeared in the hippocampus and amygdala. Subsequently over 2-7 days, rCGM increased in the ipsilesional spinal trigeminal nucleus and later (7-9 days) rCGM increased in the vestibulocerebellum bilaterally and the hypothalamus and persisted in the hippocampus. These systematic dynamic rCGM patterns during vestibular compensation, were confirmed in a second rat model of chemical unilateral labyrinthectomy by serial [(18)F]FDG-µPET. These findings show that deafferentation-induced plasticity after unilateral labyrinthectomy involves early mechanisms of re-balancing predominantly in the brainstem vestibular nuclei but also in thalamo-cortical and limbic areas, and indicate the contribution of spinocerebellar sensory inputs and vestibulocerebellar adaptation at the later stages of behavioural recovery.

  15. Unilateral Renal Ischemia as a Model of Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Fibrosis in Cats.

    PubMed

    Schmiedt, C W; Brainard, B M; Hinson, W; Brown, S A; Brown, C A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the acute and chronic effects of 1-hour unilateral in vivo renal ischemia on renal function and histology in cats. Twenty-one adult purpose-bred research cats were anesthetized, and 1 kidney underwent renal artery and vein occlusion for 1 hour. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations, urine protein:creatinine ratio, urine-specific gravity, glomerular filtration rate, hematocrit, platelet concentration and function, and white blood cell count were measured at baseline and variable time points after ischemia. Renal histopathology was evaluated on days 3, 6, 12, 21, 42, and 70 postischemia; changes in smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen were examined. Following ischemia, whole animal glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced (57% of baseline on day 6; P < .05). At the early time points, the ischemic kidneys exhibited severe acute epithelial necrosis accompanied by evidence of regeneration of tubules predominantly within the corticomedullary junction. At later periods, postischemic kidneys had evidence of tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation with significantly more smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen staining and interstitial fibrosis when compared with the contralateral control kidneys. This study characterizes the course of ischemic acute kidney injury in cats and demonstrates that ischemic acute kidney injury triggers chronic fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy in feline kidneys. These late changes are typical of those observed in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Interaction of Fatigue and Potentiation Following an Acute Bout of Unilateral Squats.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Samantha K; Horodyski, Jesse M; MacLeod, Daniel A; Whitten, Joseph; Behm, David G

    2016-12-01

    A prior conditioning resistance exercise can augment subsequent performance of the affected muscles due to the effects of post-activation potentiation (PAP). The non-local muscle fatigue literature has illustrated the global neural effects of unilateral fatigue. However, no studies have examined the possibility of acute non-local performance enhancements. The objective of the study was to provide a conditioning stimulus in an attempt to potentiate the subsequent jump performance of the affected limb and determine if there were performance changes in the contralateral limb. Using a randomized allocation, 14 subjects (6 females, 8 males) completed three conditions on separate days: 1) unilateral, dominant leg, Bulgarian split squat protocol with testing of the exercised leg, 2) unilateral, dominant leg, Bulgarian split squat protocol with testing of the contralateral, non-exercised leg and 3) control session with testing of the non-dominant leg. Pre- and post-testing consisted of countermovement (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ). The exercised leg exhibited CMJ height increases of 3.5% (p = 0.008; d = 0.28), 4.0% (p = 0.011; d = 0.33) and 3.2% (p = 0.013; d = 0.26) at 1, 5, and 10 min post-intervention respectively. The contralateral CMJ height had 2.0% (p = 0.034; d = 0.18), 1.2% (p = 0.2; d = 0.12), and 2.1% (p = 0.05; d = 0.17) deficits at 1, 5, and 10 min post-intervention respectively. Similar relative results were found for CMJ power. There were no significant interactions for DJ measures or control CMJ measures. The findings suggest that PAP effects were likely predominant for the exercised leg whereas the conditioning exercise provided trivial magnitude although statistically significant neural impairments for the contralateral limb.

  17. The Interaction of Fatigue and Potentiation Following an Acute Bout of Unilateral Squats

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Samantha K.; Horodyski, Jesse M.; MacLeod, Daniel A.; Whitten, Joseph; Behm, David G.

    2016-01-01

    A prior conditioning resistance exercise can augment subsequent performance of the affected muscles due to the effects of post-activation potentiation (PAP). The non-local muscle fatigue literature has illustrated the global neural effects of unilateral fatigue. However, no studies have examined the possibility of acute non-local performance enhancements. The objective of the study was to provide a conditioning stimulus in an attempt to potentiate the subsequent jump performance of the affected limb and determine if there were performance changes in the contralateral limb. Using a randomized allocation, 14 subjects (6 females, 8 males) completed three conditions on separate days: 1) unilateral, dominant leg, Bulgarian split squat protocol with testing of the exercised leg, 2) unilateral, dominant leg, Bulgarian split squat protocol with testing of the contralateral, non-exercised leg and 3) control session with testing of the non-dominant leg. Pre- and post-testing consisted of countermovement (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ). The exercised leg exhibited CMJ height increases of 3.5% (p = 0.008; d = 0.28), 4.0% (p = 0.011; d = 0.33) and 3.2% (p = 0.013; d = 0.26) at 1, 5, and 10 min post-intervention respectively. The contralateral CMJ height had 2.0% (p = 0.034; d = 0.18), 1.2% (p = 0.2; d = 0.12), and 2.1% (p = 0.05; d = 0.17) deficits at 1, 5, and 10 min post-intervention respectively. Similar relative results were found for CMJ power. There were no significant interactions for DJ measures or control CMJ measures. The findings suggest that PAP effects were likely predominant for the exercised leg whereas the conditioning exercise provided trivial magnitude although statistically significant neural impairments for the contralateral limb. Key points Post-activation potentiation of unilateral CMJ height was achieved following 5 sequential squats at 50% 1RM, 2 squats at 70% 1RM, 1 squat at 90% 1RM with 3 min rest periods. The conditioning exercises did not elicit

  18. The Vestibular Effects of Repeated Low-Level Blasts.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Philip D; Pinto, Robin L; Burrows, Holly L; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a prospective cohort of United States Marine Corps (USMC) instructors to identify any acute or long-term vestibular dysfunction following repeated blast exposures during explosive breaching training. They were assessed in clinic and on location during training at the USMC Methods of Entry School, Quantico, VA. Subjects received comprehensive baseline vestibular assessments and these were repeated in order to identify longitudinal changes. They also received shorter assessments immediately following blast exposure in order to identify acute findings. The main outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, vestibular Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of subjective vestibular function, videonystagmography (VNG), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), rotary chair (including the unilateral centrifugation test), computerized dynamic posturography, and computerized dynamic visual acuity. A total of 11 breachers and 4 engineers were followed for up to 17 months. No acute effects or longitudinal deteriorations were identified, but there were some interesting baseline group differences. Upbeat positional nystagmus was common, and correlated (p<0.005) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several instructors had abnormally short low-frequency phase leads on rotary chair testing. This study evaluated breaching instructors over a longer test period than any other study, and the results suggest that this population appears to be safe from a vestibular standpoint at the current exposure levels. Upbeat positional nystagmus correlated with a history of mTBI in this population, and this has not been described elsewhere. The data trends also suggest that this nystagmus could be an acute blast effect. However, the reasons for the abnormally short phase leads seen in rotary chair testing are unclear at this time. Further investigation seems warranted.

  19. Vestibular recruitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsemakhov, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibular recruitment is defined through the analysis of several references. It is concluded that vestibular recruitment is an objective phenomenon which manifests itself during the affection of the vestibular receptor and thus serves as a diagnostic tool during affection of the vestibular system.

  20. Is Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Bilaterally Impaired after Unilateral Acute Ischemic Stroke?

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Tian, Ge; Lin, Wenhua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Leung, Thomas; Mok, Vincent; Liu, Jia; Chen, Xiangyan; Wong, Ka Sing

    2017-05-01

    Whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired focally in the affected hemisphere or bilaterally in both the affected and nonaffected hemispheres after ischemic stroke remains controversial. We therefore investigated the pattern of dCA in acute ischemic stroke patients with different subtypes. Sixty acute ischemic stroke patients with unilateral anterior circulation infarct [30 with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), 13 with small vessel disease (SVD), and 17 with coexisting LAA and SVD] and 16 healthy controls were enrolled. Spontaneous arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity fluctuations in both bilateral middle cerebral arteries using transcranial Doppler were recorded over 10 minutes. Transfer function analysis was applied to obtain autoregulatory parameters, autoregulation index (ARI), phase difference (PD), and gain. PD was significantly lower on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides in the LAA group (ipsilateral, 30.74 degrees; contralateral, 29.17 degrees) and the coexisting LAA and SVD group (20.23 degrees; 13.10 degrees) than that in healthy controls (left side, 51.66 degrees; right side, 58.48 degrees) (all P < .05), but there were no significant differences between the 2 sides when compared with each other in all groups. However, in the coexisting LAA and SVD group, phase on both sides was significantly lower when compared with that in the LAA and SVD groups, respectively. The results of ARI were consistent with the findings in PD. The results indicate that dCA is bilaterally impaired in acute ischemic patients with LAA, and the coexisting SVD may aggravate the bilateral impairment of dCA. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rickettsial retinitis: acute unilateral vision loss with cystoid macular edema and stellate maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Brett; Read, Russell W; Taylor, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    To report on the presentation and treatment of a patient with infectious posterior segment uveitis because of infection with Rickettsia rickettsii. Interventional case report. We conducted a retrospective chart review of a 39-year-old man who presented with a history of acute vision loss in his right eye over a 6-day period. Vision at presentation in the involved eye was 2/200, with mild conjunctival injection, trace anterior chamber cell, moderate vitritis, localized retinitis and retinal hemorrhages, and severe macular edema. The left eye had 20/20 vision and was normal on examination. History was notable for a tick bite followed by high fevers, 1 month before presentation, at which time his family physician diagnosed mononucleosis syndrome with low platelets. A serum Rickettsia rickettsii test was positive. He was treated with oral doxycycline followed by corticosteroids. Vision gradually improved to 20/20 with minimal residual metamorphopsia. Only ten cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever-related uveitis have been reported. The current case is unique because of the delayed onset of ophthalmic complications after the tick bite, its unilateral nature, dramatic improvement in acuity after treatment, and lack of associated rash.

  2. Prevention of reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy by neonatal administration of MSG

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.Y.; Wiedemann, E.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1987-02-01

    Acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN) results in natriuresis from the remaining kidney through reflex pathways involving the central nervous system and requiring an intact pituitary gland. The natriuresis is accompanied by an increase in the plasma concentration of a peptide or peptides derived from the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of proopiomelanocortin. The authors measured plasma immunoreactive NTF-like material (IR-NTF) by radioimmunoassay, before and after AUN in control rats and rats treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG), a procedure that produces neuroendocrine dysfunction by destroying cell bodies in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, median eminence, and other brain regions. In control rats, IR-NTF increasedmore » from 85.8 +/- 54.9 (SD) to 207 +/- 98.1 fmol/ml after AUN as sodium excretion (U/sub Na/V) doubled. In MSG-treated rats, AUN produced no change in plasma IR-NTF concentration, nor did U/sub Na/V increase. Tissue content of IR-NTF was reduced in the arcuate nucleus and anterior lobe of pituitaries from MSG-treated rats compared with controls, but was no different in the neurointermediate lobe. These results indicate that the hypothalamic lesion produced by neonatal administration of MSG prevents both the increase in plasma IR-NTF concentration and the natruiuresis after AUN, and therefore lend further support to the concept of a casual relationship between these two consequences of AUN.« less

  3. Inter-joint coordination strategies during unilateral stance following first-time, acute lateral ankle sprain: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-07-01

    This investigation combined measures of inter-joint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate eyes-open (condition 1) and eyes-closed (condition 2) static unilateral stance performance in a group of participants with an acute, first-time lateral ankle sprain injury in comparison to a control group. Sixty-six participants with an acute first-time lateral ankle sprain and 19 non-injured controls completed three 20-second unilateral stance task trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb 3-D kinematic data for similarity in the aim of establishing patterns of inter-joint coordination for these groups. Between-group analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb inter-joint coordination strategies for conditions 1 and 2. Injured participants displayed increases in ankle-hip linked coordination compared to controls in condition 1 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.12 [0.09] vs 0.06 [0.04]; η(2)=.16) and condition 2 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.18 [0.13] vs 0.08 [0.06]; η(2)=0.37). Participants with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain exhibit a hip-dominant coordination strategy for static unilateral stance compared to non-injured controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  5. Postrenal acute kidney injury in a patient with unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    In patients with bilateral ureteral obstruction, the serum creatinine levels are often elevated, sometimes causing postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI). In contrast, those with unilateral ureteral obstruction present normal serum creatinine levels, as long as their contralateral kidneys are preserved intact. However, the unilateral obstruction of the ureter could affect the renal function, as it humorally influences the renal hemodynamics. A 66-year-old man with a past medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus came to our outpatient clinic because of right abdominal dullness. Unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by a radio-opaque calculus in the right upper ureter and a secondary renal dysfunction. As oral hydration and the use of calcium antagonists failed to allow the spontaneous stone passage, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed. Immediately after the passage of the stone, the number of red blood cells in the urine was dramatically decreased and the serum creatinine level almost returned to the normal range with the significant increase in glomerular filtration rate. Unilateral ureteral obstruction by the calculus, which caused reflex vascular constriction and ureteral spasm in the contralateral kidney, was thought to be responsible for the deteriorating renal function.

  6. Vestibular-related neuroscience and manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, Makoto

    1988-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the human vestibular system are examined, reviewing the results of recent investigations. The functional, neurophysiological, and neurochemical changes which occur during adaptation to weightlessness are discussed; theoretical models proposed to explain the underlying mechanism are outlined; and particular attention is given to the author's experiments on squirrel monkeys. There, good correlations were found between (1) the recovery of locomotor balance function in the acute compensation phase after unilateral labyrinthectomy and (2) the bilateral imbalance in the optical density of GABA-like immunoreactivity.

  7. Changes in diaphragm muscle collagen gene expression after acute unilateral denervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Sieck, G. C.; Aleff, R. A.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute (3 days) unilateral diaphragm denervation (DNV) on 1) levels of alpha 1(I) and alpha 1(III) procollagen mRNA; 2) collagen concentration [hydroxyproline (HYP)]; 3) amount of the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP); and 4) the passive force-length relationship of the muscle. The levels of alpha 1(I) and alpha 1(III) procollagen mRNA, HYP concentration, and amount of HP were measured in muscle segments from the midcostal region of DNV and intact (INT) hemidiaphragms of adult male Fischer 344 rats (250-300 g). The in vitro passive force-length relationship of DNV and INT hemidiaphragm was determined by lengthening and shortening the diaphragm muscle segments from 85 to 115% of optimal length at a constant velocity (0.6 optimal length/s). Three days after DNV, the level of alpha 1(I) procollagen mRNA was increased over 15-fold in the DNV hemidiaphragm compared with INT (P < 0.05), whereas the level of alpha 1(III) procollagen mRNA was increased by approximately sixfold in the DNV hemidiaphragm compared with INT (P < 0.05). Collagen (HYP) concentration did not differ between groups, averaging 8.7 and 8.9 micrograms/mg dry wt for the DNV and INT hemidiaphragms, respectively. In addition, there was no difference in the amount of the mature nonreducible collagen cross-link HP between the DNV and INT hemidiaphragms (0.66 vs. 0.76 mole HP/mole collagen, respectively). The amount of passive force developed during lengthening did not differ between DNV and INT hemidiaphragms. These data indicate that acute DNV of the hemidiaphragm is associated with an increase in the mRNA level of the two principal fibrillar collagen phenotypes in skeletal muscle. However, despite extensive muscle remodeling, the passive force-length relationship of the DNV hemidiaphragm is unaffected compared with the INT muscle.

  8. Unilateral spatial neglect in the acute phase of ischemic stroke can predict long-term disability and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Moliga, Augusta Fabiana; Rizzatti, Gabriela Rizzo Soares; Fogaroli, Marcelo Ortolani; Moura Neto, Eduardo de; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho; Resende, Luiz Antônio de Lima; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of unilateral spatial neglect during the acute phase of stroke and long-term functional independence. This was a prospective study of right ischemic stroke patients in which the independent variable was the degree of spatial neglect and the outcome that was measured was functional independence. The potential confounding factors included sex, age, stroke severity, topography of the lesion, risk factors, glycemia and the treatment received. Unilateral spatial neglect was measured using the line cancellation test, the star cancellation test and the line bisection test within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Functional independence was measured using the modified Rankin and Barthel scales at 90 days after discharge. The relationship between unilateral spatial neglect and functional independence was analyzed using multiple logistic regression that was corrected for confounding factors. We studied 60 patients with a median age of 68 (34-89) years, 52% of whom were male and 74% of whom were Caucasian. The risk for moderate to severe disability increased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=1.14 [1.03-1.26], p=0.01) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically positive association with disability (OR=1.63 [1.13-2.65], p=0.01). The best chance of functional independence decreased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=0.86 [0.78-0.96], p=0.006) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically negative association with independence (OR=0.66 [0.48-0.92], p=0.017). The severity of unilateral spatial neglect in acute stroke worsens the degree of long-term disability and functional independence.

  9. Changes in resting-state fMRI in vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Helmchen, Christoph; Ye, Zheng; Sprenger, Andreas; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-11-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is a sudden peripheral unilateral vestibular failure with often persistent head movement-related dizziness and unsteadiness. Compensation of asymmetrical activity in the primary peripheral vestibular afferents is accomplished by restoration of impaired brainstem vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, but presumably also by changing cortical vestibular tone imbalance subserving, e.g., spatial perception and orientation. The aim of this study was to elucidate (i) whether there are changes of cerebral resting-state networks with respect to functional interregional connectivity (resting-state activity) in VN patients and (ii) whether these are related to neurophysiological, perceptual and functional parameters of vestibular-induced disability. Using independent component analysis (ICA), we compared resting-state networks between 20 patients with unilateral VN and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Patients were examined in the acute VN stage and after 3 months. A neural network (component 50) comprising the parietal lobe, medial aspect of the superior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus and midbrain was modulated between acute VN patients and healthy controls and in patients over time. Within this network, acute VN patients showed decreased resting-state activity (ICA) in the contralateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in close vicinity to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which increased after 3 months. Resting-state activity in IPS tended to increase over 3 months in VN patients who improved with respect to functional parameters of vestibular-induced disability (VADL). Resting-state activity in the IPS was not related to perceptual (subjective visual vertical) or neurophysiological parameters of vestibular-induced disability (e.g., gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex, caloric

  10. Clinical effect of intratympanic dexamethasone injection in acute unilateral tinnitus: A prospective, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min-Beom; Yoo, Shin-Young; Park, Shi Nae; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) in acute tinnitus of presumed cochlear origin. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter study. Between August 2013 and December 2015, 54 patients with unilateral tinnitus were enrolled at four different centers. Patients were assigned either to an ITDI (n = 27) or an intratympanic normal saline injection (ITNI; n = 27) group through block randomization. Intratympanic injections were administered four times over 2 weeks. At 4 weeks after initial injection, we analyzed the improvement rates of tinnitus using the tinnitus handicap Inventory (THI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for loudness, awareness, and annoyance. We defined improvement as the reduction of more than 7 points or of more than 20% in the final THI score compared to the initial THI score. The initial mean hearing thresholds and VAS and THI scores of the two groups did not differ significantly. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the mean VAS and THI scores of both groups had significantly reduced. However, the improvement rate did not differ significantly between the groups (ITDI, 51.9%; ITNI, 59.3%). The results indicate that ITDI might not be more effective than ITNI for the treatment of acute unilateral tinnitus. Therefore, ITDI should not be considered as the main treatment for patients presenting with acute tinnitus as the primary symptom. 1b. Laryngoscope, 128:184-188, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Using Acute Performance on a Comprehensive Neurocognitive, Vestibular, and Ocular Motor Assessment Battery to Predict Recovery Duration After Sport-Related Concussions.

    PubMed

    Sufrinko, Alicia M; Marchetti, Gregory F; Cohen, Paul E; Elbin, R J; Re, Valentina; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-04-01

    A sport-related concussion (SRC) is a heterogeneous injury that requires a multifaceted and comprehensive approach for diagnosis and management, including symptom reports, vestibular/ocular motor assessments, and neurocognitive testing. To determine which acute (eg, within 7 days) vestibular, ocular motor, neurocognitive, and symptom impairments predict the duration of recovery after an SRC. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-nine patients with a mean age of 15.3 ± 1.9 years completed a neurocognitive, vestibular/ocular motor, and symptom assessment within 7 days of a diagnosed concussion. Patients were grouped by recovery time: ≤14 days (n = 27, 39.1%), 15-29 days (n = 25, 36.2%), and 30-90 days (n = 17, 24.6%). Multinomial regression was used to identify the best subset of predictors associated with prolonged recovery relative to ≤14 days. Acute visual motor speed and cognitive-migraine-fatigue symptoms were associated with an increased likelihood of recovery times of 30-90 days and 15-29 days relative to a recovery time of ≤14 days. A model with visual motor speed and cognitive-migraine-fatigue symptoms within the first 7 days of an SRC was 87% accurate at identifying patients with a recovery time of 30-90 days. The current study identified cognitive-migraine-fatigue symptoms and visual motor speed as the most robust predictors of protracted recovery after an SRC according to the Post-concussion Symptom Scale, Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing, and Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS). While VOMS components were sensitive in identifying a concussion, they were not robust predictors for recovery. Clinicians may consider particular patterns of performance on clinical measures when providing treatment recommendations and discussing anticipated recovery with patients.

  12. Unilateral acute maculopathy associated with adult onset hand, foot and mouth disease: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Bhan, Kanchan; Balaggan, Kam; Lee, Richard Wj; Pavesio, Carlos E; Addison, Peter Kf

    2015-01-01

    Acute maculopathy is a rare condition of unknown aetiology and Coxsackie virus is known to be associated with this macular chorioretinitis. We report a case of acute unilateral maculopathy in a 35-year-old woman with concurrent hand foot and mouth disease. Furthermore, we display multimodal imaging (colour fundus photographs, autofluorescence, spectral domain ocular coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography) charting the course of the disease. The source of the virus was thought to be the patient's child. Empirical treatment with oral corticosteroids was commenced and the inflammation resolved, leaving a residual macular scar. We present this case combined with the review of literature of adult onset Coxsackie-virus-associated retinitis. This case reiterates the fact that Coxsackie virus is an uncommon but important consideration in the differential diagnosis of chorioretinitis and posterior uveitis with atypical retinopathy.

  13. Posterior insular cortex - a site of vestibular-somatosensory interaction?

    PubMed

    Baier, Bernhard; Zu Eulenburg, Peter; Best, Christoph; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Birklein, Frank; Dieterich, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    Background In previous imaging studies the insular cortex (IC) has been identified as an essential part of the processing of a wide spectrum of perception and sensorimotor integration. Yet, there are no systematic lesion studies in a sufficient number of patients examining whether processing of vestibular and the interaction of somatosensory and vestibular signals take place in the IC. Methods We investigated acute stroke patients with lesions affecting the IC in order to fill this gap. In detail, we explored signs of a vestibular tone imbalance such as the deviation of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). We applied voxel-lesion behaviour mapping analysis in 27 patients with acute unilateral stroke. Results Our data demonstrate that patients with lesions of the posterior IC have an abnormal tilt of SVV. Furthermore, re-analysing data of 20 patients from a previous study, we found a positive correlation between thermal perception contralateral to the stroke and the severity of the SVV tilt. Conclusions We conclude that the IC is a sensory brain region where different modalities might interact.

  14. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Sebastian Felix; Fasser, Mariette; Polzer, Hans; Sieb, Michael; Regauer, Markus; Mutschler, Wolf; Schieker, Matthias; Blauth, Michael

    2013-01-14

    Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. 60 patients, aged 18-40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV is a promising treatment method for

  15. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV

  16. Acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with anabolic steroids and polycythaemia: case report.

    PubMed

    Tikka, T; Mistry, N; Janjua, A

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss due to an infarct in the vertebrobasilar system has been widely reported. Most patients have a background of traditional coronary risk factors related to these cerebrovascular episodes. A 32-year-old male, a regular user of anabolic steroids, presented to the emergency department with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and symptoms suggestive of an infarct of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery but in the absence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of infarction in the region supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Polycythaemia was found on haematological analysis, which we believe was secondary to the use of anabolic steroids. The patient was commenced on aspirin as per the stroke management protocol. There was resolution of neurological symptomatology six weeks after the episode, but no improvement in hearing. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss secondary to the use of anabolic steroids causing polycythaemia. This cause should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss, especially in young males, when no other risk factors can be identified.

  17. In Vivo Imaging of Glial Activation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy in the Rat: A [18F]GE180-PET Study.

    PubMed

    Zwergal, Andreas; Günther, Lisa; Brendel, Matthias; Beck, Roswitha; Lindner, Simon; Xiong, Guoming; Eilles, Eva; Unterrainer, Marcus; Albert, Nathalie Lisa; Becker-Bense, Sandra; Brandt, Thomas; Ziegler, Sibylle; la Fougère, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Bartenstein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The functional relevance of reactive gliosis for recovery from acute unilateral vestibulopathy is unknown. In the present study, glial activation was visualized in vivo by [ 18 F]GE180-PET in a rat model of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) and compared to behavioral vestibular compensation (VC) overtime. 14 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a UL by transtympanic injection of bupivacaine/arsenilate, 14 rats a SHAM UL (injection of normal saline). Glial activation was depicted with [ 18 F]GE180-PET and ex vivo autoradiography at baseline and 7, 15, 30 days after UL/SHAM UL. Postural asymmetry and nystagmus were registered at 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 30 days after UL/SHAM UL. Signs of vestibular imbalance were found only after UL, which significantly decreased until days 15 and 30. In parallel, [ 18 F]GE180-PET and ex vivo autoradiography depicted glial activation in the ipsilesional vestibular nerve and nucleus on days 7 and 15 after UL. Correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association of [ 18 F]GE180 uptake in the ipsilesional vestibular nucleus on day 7 with the rate of postural recovery ( R  = -0.90, p  < 0.001), suggesting that glial activation accelerates VC. In conclusion, glial activation takes place in the ipsilesional vestibular nerve and nucleus within the first 30 days after UL in the rat and can be visualized in vivo by [ 18 F]GE180-PET.

  18. In Vivo Imaging of Glial Activation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy in the Rat: A [18F]GE180-PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Zwergal, Andreas; Günther, Lisa; Brendel, Matthias; Beck, Roswitha; Lindner, Simon; Xiong, Guoming; Eilles, Eva; Unterrainer, Marcus; Albert, Nathalie Lisa; Becker-Bense, Sandra; Brandt, Thomas; Ziegler, Sibylle; la Fougère, Christian; Dieterich, Marianne; Bartenstein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The functional relevance of reactive gliosis for recovery from acute unilateral vestibulopathy is unknown. In the present study, glial activation was visualized in vivo by [18F]GE180-PET in a rat model of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) and compared to behavioral vestibular compensation (VC) overtime. 14 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a UL by transtympanic injection of bupivacaine/arsenilate, 14 rats a SHAM UL (injection of normal saline). Glial activation was depicted with [18F]GE180-PET and ex vivo autoradiography at baseline and 7, 15, 30 days after UL/SHAM UL. Postural asymmetry and nystagmus were registered at 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 30 days after UL/SHAM UL. Signs of vestibular imbalance were found only after UL, which significantly decreased until days 15 and 30. In parallel, [18F]GE180-PET and ex vivo autoradiography depicted glial activation in the ipsilesional vestibular nerve and nucleus on days 7 and 15 after UL. Correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association of [18F]GE180 uptake in the ipsilesional vestibular nucleus on day 7 with the rate of postural recovery (R = −0.90, p < 0.001), suggesting that glial activation accelerates VC. In conclusion, glial activation takes place in the ipsilesional vestibular nerve and nucleus within the first 30 days after UL in the rat and can be visualized in vivo by [18F]GE180-PET. PMID:29312111

  19. [Effects of acute infrasound exposure on vestibular and auditory functions and the ultrastructural changes of inner ear in the guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Feng, B; Jiang, S; Yang, W; Han, D; Zhang, S

    2001-02-01

    To define the effects of acute infrasound exposure on vestibular and auditory functions and the ultrastructural changes of inner ear in guinea pigs. The animals involved in the study were exposed to 8 Hz infrasound at 135dB SPL for 90 minutes in a reverberant chamber. The sinusoidal pendular test (SPT), auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were respectively detected pre-exposure and at 0(within 2 hrs), 2 and 5 day after exposure. The ultrastructures of the inner ear were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The slow-phase velocity and the frequency of the vestibular nystagmus elicited by sinusoidal pendular test (SPT) declined slightly following infrasound exposure, but the changes were not significant (P > 0.05). No differences in the ABR thresholds, the latencies and the interval peak latencies of I, III, V waves were found between the normal and the experimental groups, and among experimental groups. The amplitudes of DPOAE at any frequency declined remarkably in all experimental groups. The ultrastructures of the inner ear were damaged to different extent. Infrasound could transiently depress the excitability of the vestibular end-organs, decrease the function of OHC in the organ of Corti and cause damage to the inner ear of guinea pigs.

  20. [Vestibular paroxismia].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Mar'enko, I P; Antonenko, A I

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present publication was to demonstrate a clinical case of peripheral vestibular paroxismia verified in a woman with the help of the MRI technique. Vestibular paroxismia is a relatively rare disease manifested in such characteristic signs and symptoms as sudden and short-lived episodes of dizziness, unstable gait, and the concomitant vegetative disorders accompanied as a rule by tympanophonia, impairment of hearing, and falls. In typical cases, the duration of such episodes varies from several minutes to a few days. A case of vestibular paroxismia associated with the lesion in the peripheral section of the vestibular system is described; it was caused by compression of the nerve by a blood vessel as shown by means of magnetic resonance imaging of cranial nerves.

  1. Habilitation of auditory and vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Snapp, Hillary A; Schubert, Michael C

    2012-04-01

    Although unilateral hearing loss is often the initial sign of vestibular schwannoma (VS), the pathogenesis of the associated structures within the cerebellopontine angle can result in vestibular, facial, or vascular symptoms. Removal of a VS causes deficits in hearing, balance, and gaze stability. The resulting hearing loss eliminates the benefits of binaural listening that provide localization, loudness summation, and listening-in-noise ability. Reduced balance and gaze stability increase fall risk. This review discusses modern treatment options for auditory and vestibular rehabilitation including contralateral routing of signals (CROS), bilateral CROS, bone-anchored implants, tinnitus management, gaze and gait stability exercises. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The application of subjective visual gravity in assessment of vestibular compensation: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Taisheng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Kaixu; Wen, Chao; Liu, Qiang; Han, Xi; Li, Shanshan; Li, Xiaojie; Lin, Peng

    2016-05-01

    To discuss the characteristics of subjective visual gravity (subjective visual vertical/horizontal, SVV/SVH) and assess its clinical application for peripheral unilateral vestibular compensation. 69 cases of acute peripheral unilateral vestibular dysfunction patients (case group) accepted SVV/SVH, spontaneous nystagmus (SN), caloric test (CT) and other vestibular function tests. 49 healthy people (control group) accepted SVV/SVH only. SVV/SVH, SN and unilateral weakness (UW) were selected as for the observation indicators. The correlations between SVV/SVH, SN, UW and courses were investigated respectively, as well as the characteristic of SVV/SVH, SN in period of vestibular compensation. Among case group SVV, SVH positive in 42 patients(60.9%) and 44 patients(63.8%), the absolute values of the skew angle were in the range between 2.1°-20.0°, 2.1°-22.2°. Skew angles of SVV/SVH in control were in the range between -1.5°-2.0° and -2.0°-1.6°, and had no statistical significance with case group(t=5.336 and 5.864, P<0.05). SN-positive 28 cases (40.6%), the range of intensities at 2.4°-17.1°; UW-positive 50 cases (72.5%). In case group, positive correlation between SVV and SVH(r=0.948, P=0.00), negatively correlated between SVV/SVH and SN respectively(r values were -0.720, -0.733, P values were 0.00), no correlation between the skew angle of SVV/SVH, strength of SN and UW value(r values were 0.191, 0.189, and 0.179, P>0.05), there was no correlation between the absolute value of SVV, SVH, SN, UW with the duration (rs values were -0.075, -0.065, -0.212, and 0.126, P>0.05). Subjective visual gravity can be used not only to assess the range of unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction, but also help assess the static compensatory of otolithic, guidance and assessment of vestibular rehabilitation.

  3. Evidence for differential control of tibial position in perturbed unilateral stance after acute ACL rupture.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, T L; Ramsey, D K; Snyder-Mackler, L

    2005-01-01

    Functional outcomes in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient "potential copers" and "non-copers" may be related to their knee stabilization strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to differentiate dynamic knee stabilization strategies of potential copers and non-copers through analysis of sagittal plane knee angle and tibia position during disturbed and undisturbed unilateral standing. Ten uninjured potential coper and non-coper subjects stood in unilateral stance on a platform that translated anteriorly, posteriorly and laterally. Knee angle and tibia position with reference to the femur were calculated before and after platform movement. During perturbation trials, potential copers maintained kinematics that were similar to uninjured subjects across conditions. Conversely, non-copers stood with greater knee flexion than uninjured subjects and a tibia position that was more posterior than the other groups. Both non-copers and potential copers demonstrated small changes in tibia position following platform movement, but direction of movement was not similar. The similarities between the knee kinematics of potential copers and uninjured subjects suggest that potential copers compensated well from their injury by utilizing analogous dynamic knee stabilization strategies. In comparison to the other groups, by keeping the knee in greater flexion and the tibia in a more posterior position, non-copers appear to constrain the tibia in response to a challenging task, which is consistent with a "stiffening strategy". Based on the poor functional outcomes of non-copers, a stiffening strategy does not lead to dynamic knee stability, and the strategy may increase compressive forces which could contribute to or exacerbate articular cartilage degeneration.

  4. Compensation Following Bilateral Vestibular Damage

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Yates, Bill J.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that non-labyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained. PMID:22207864

  5. Unilateral nephrectomy diminishes ischemic acute kidney injury through enhanced perfusion and reduced pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Haiyun; Damgaard, Mads; Laustsen, Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael; Krag, Søren; Birn, Henrik; Nørregaard, Rikke; Jespersen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    While unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) is suggested to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the remaining kidney, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, functional MRI was employed in a renal IRI rat model to reveal global and regional changes in renal filtration, perfusion, oxygenation and sodium handling, and microarray and pathway analyses were conducted to identify protective molecular mechanisms. Wistar rats were randomized to either UNx or sham UNx immediately prior to 37 minutes of unilateral renal artery clamping or sham operation under sevoflurane anesthesia. MRI was performed 24 hours after reperfusion. Blood and renal tissue were harvested. RNA was isolated for microarray analysis and QPCR validation of gene expression results. The perfusion (T1 value) was significantly enhanced in the medulla of the post-ischemic kidney following UNx. UNx decreased the expression of fibrogenic genes, i.a. Col1a1, Fn1 and Tgfb1 in the post-ischemic kidney. This was associated with a marked decrease in markers of activated myofibroblasts (Acta2/α-Sma and Cdh11) and macrophages (Ccr2). This was most likely facilitated by down-regulation of Pdgfra, thus inhibiting pericyte-myofibroblast differentiation, chemokine production (Ccl2/Mcp1) and macrophage infiltration. UNx reduced ischemic histopathologic injury. UNx may exert renoprotective effects against IRI through increased perfusion in the renal medulla and alleviation of the acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses possibly through decreased myofibroblast activation. The identified pathways involved may serve as potential therapeutic targets and should be taken into account in experimental models of IRI. PMID:29267404

  6. [Investigation of color vision in acute unilateral optic neuritis using a web-based color vision test].

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, J; Blum, M; Paul, F

    2016-03-01

    In acute unilateral optic neuritis (ON) color vision defects combined with a decrease in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity frequently occur. This study investigated whether a web-based color vision test is a reliable detector of acquired color vision defects in ON and, if so, which charts are particularly suitable. In 12 patients with acute unilateral ON, a web-based color vision test ( www.farbsehtest.de ) with 25 color plates (16 Velhagen/Broschmann and 9 Ishihara color plates) was performed. For each patient the affected eye was tested first and then the unaffected eye. The mean best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) in the ON eye was 0.36 ± 0.20 and 1.0 ± 0.1 in the contralateral eye. The number of incorrectly read plates correlated with the visual acuity. For the ON eye a total of 134 plates were correctly identified and 166 plates were incorrectly identified, while for the disease-free fellow eye, 276 plates were correctly identified and 24 plates were incorrectly identified. Both of the blue/yellow plates were identified correctly 14 times and incorrectly 10 times using the ON eye and exclusively correctly (24 times) using the fellow eye. The Velhagen/Broschmann plates were incorrectly identified significantly more frequently in comparison with the Ishihara plates. In 4 out of 16 Velhagen/Broschmann plates and 5 out of 9 Ishihara plates, no statistically significant differences between the ON eye and the fellow eye could be detected. The number of incorrectly identified plates correlated with a decrease in visual acuity. Red/green and blue/yellow plates were incorrectly identified significantly more frequently with the ON eye, while the Velhagen/Broschmann color plates were incorrectly identified significantly more frequently than the Ishihara color plates. Thus, under defined test conditions the web-based color vision test can also be used to detect acquired color vision defects, such as those caused by ON. Optimization of the test by

  7. Aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect due to acute thalamic hemorrhage: clinical correlations and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro

    2016-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL.

  8. HINTS to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome: three-step bedside oculomotor examination more sensitive than early MRI diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Jorge C; Talkad, Arun V; Wang, David Z; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Newman-Toker, David E

    2009-11-01

    Acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is often due to vestibular neuritis but can result from vertebrobasilar strokes. Misdiagnosis of posterior fossa infarcts in emergency care settings is frequent. Bedside oculomotor findings may reliably identify stroke in AVS, but prospective studies have been lacking. The authors conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study at an academic hospital. Consecutive patients with AVS (vertigo, nystagmus, nausea/vomiting, head-motion intolerance, unsteady gait) with >or=1 stroke risk factor underwent structured examination, including horizontal head impulse test of vestibulo-ocular reflex function, observation of nystagmus in different gaze positions, and prism cross-cover test of ocular alignment. All underwent neuroimaging and admission (generally <72 hours after symptom onset). Strokes were diagnosed by MRI or CT. Peripheral lesions were diagnosed by normal MRI and clinical follow-up. One hundred one high-risk patients with AVS included 25 peripheral and 76 central lesions (69 ischemic strokes, 4 hemorrhages, 3 other). The presence of normal horizontal head impulse test, direction-changing nystagmus in eccentric gaze, or skew deviation (vertical ocular misalignment) was 100% sensitive and 96% specific for stroke. Skew was present in 17% and associated with brainstem lesions (4% peripheral, 4% pure cerebellar, 30% brainstem involvement; chi(2), P=0.003). Skew correctly predicted lateral pontine stroke in 2 of 3 cases in which an abnormal horizontal head impulse test erroneously suggested peripheral localization. Initial MRI diffusion-weighted imaging was falsely negative in 12% (all <48 hours after symptom onset). Skew predicts brainstem involvement in AVS and can identify stroke when an abnormal horizontal head impulse test falsely suggests a peripheral lesion. A 3-step bedside oculomotor examination (HINTS: Head-Impulse-Nystagmus-Test-of-Skew) appears more sensitive for stroke than early MRI in AVS.

  9. Vestibular effects of cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Buchman, Craig A; Joy, Jennifer; Hodges, Annelle; Telischi, Fred F; Balkany, Thomas J

    2004-10-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) carries with it the potential risk for vestibular system insult or stimulation with resultant dysfunction. As candidate profiles continue to evolve and with the recent development of bilateral CI, understanding the significance of this risk takes on an increasing importance. Between 1997 to 2001, a prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care medical center to assess the effects of unilateral CI on the vestibular system. Assessment was performed using the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) testing using both alternate bithermal caloric irrigations (ENG) and rotational chair-generated sinusoidal harmonic accelerations (SHA), and computerized dynamic platform posturography (CDP) at preoperative, 1-month, 4-month, 1-year and 2-year postimplantation visits. CI was carried out without respect to the preoperative vestibular function test results. Specifically, 86 patients were entered into the study after informed consent. For the group as a whole, pair wise comparisons revealed few significant differences between preoperative and postoperative values for VOR testing (ENG and SHA) at any of the follow-up intervals. Likewise, DHI testing was also unchanged except for significant reductions (improvements) in the emotional subcategory scores at both the 4-month and 1-year intervals. CDP results demonstrated substantial improvements in postural sway in the vestibular conditions (5 and 6) as well as composite scores with the device "off" and "on" at the 1-month, 4-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. Device activation appeared to improve postural stability in some conditions. Excluding those patients with preoperative areflexic or hyporeflexic responses in the implanted ear (total [warm + cool] caloric response or=21 deg/s maximum slow phase velocity) in total caloric response were observed for 8 (29%) patients at the 4-month interval. These persisted

  10. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vertigo (bilateral vestibulopathy, kinetosis, height vertigo, vestibular disorders when diving (Tables 1 (Tab. 1) and 2 (Tab. 2)). Glucocorticoid and training therapy encourage the compensation of unilateral vestibular loss. In the case of a bilateral vestibular loss, it is important to treat the underlying disease (e.g. Cogan's disease). Although balance training does improve the patient's sense of balance, it will not restore it completely. In the case of Meniere's disease, there are a number of medications available to either treat bouts or to act as a prophylactic (e.g. dimenhydrinate or betahistine). In addition, there are non-ablative (sacculotomy) as well as ablative surgical procedures (e.g. labyrinthectomy, neurectomy of the vestibular nerve). In everyday practice, it has become common to proceed with low risk therapies initially. The physical treatment of mild postural vertigo can be carried out quickly and easily in outpatients (repositioning or liberatory maneuvers). In very rare cases it may be necessary to carry out a semicircular canal occlusion. Isolated disturbances of the otolith function or an involvement of the otolith can be found in roughly 50% of labyrinth disturbances. A specific surgical procedure to selectively block the otolith organs is currently being studied. When an external perilymph fistula involving loss of perilymph is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy involving also the round and oval window niches must be carried out. A traumatic rupture of

  11. HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS AND VESTIBULAR DYSFUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Giuseppe; Russo, Diego; Monzani, Fabio; Petrolo, Claudio; Fattori, Bruno; Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Cassandro, Ettore; Costante, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature concerning the relationship between Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and vestibular dysfunction. We used electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) to search and collect all published articles about the association between HT and vestibular disorders. Several observational and retrospective studies have postulated a relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and vestibular disorders. In most cases, an appropriate control group was lacking, and the impact of thyroid functional status could not precisely be established. In recent years, two well-designed prospective studies have provided convincing evidence that the association is not random. One article reported that patients with Ménière disease (MD) had a significantly higher prevalence of positive anti-thyroid autoantibody as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, more than half of MD patients had either positive anti-thyroid or non-organ-specific autoantibody titers, compared to less than 30% of both patients with unilateral vestibular paresis without cochlear involvement and healthy controls. Another study found that patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) had significantly higher serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and antithyroid autoantibody levels than healthy controls. Additionally, almost one-fifth of euthyroid patients with HT had signs of BPPV. The published results indicate that patients with MD or BPPV are potential candidates to also develop HT. Thus, in HT patients, the presence of even slight symptoms or signs potentially related to vestibular lesions should be carefully investigated. AITD = autoimmune thyroid disease; BPPV = benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; EH = endolymphatic hydrops; HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis; L-T 4 = L-thyroxine; MD = Ménière disease; PS = Pendred syndrome; Tg = thyroglobulin; TPO = thyroid peroxidase; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.

  12. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in peripheral vestibular structures and vestibular nuclear complex of rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F X; Pang, Y W; Zhang, M M; Zhang, T; Dong, Y L; Lai, C H; Shum, D K Y; Chan, Y S; Li, J L; Li, Y Q

    2011-01-26

    Glutamate transmission from vestibular end organs to central vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) plays important role in transferring sensory information about head position and movements. Three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been considered so far the most specific markers for glutamatergic neurons/cells. In this study, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were immunohistochemically localized to axon terminals in VNC and somata of vestibular primary afferents in association with their central and peripheral axon endings, and VGLUT1 and VGLUT3 were co-localized to hair cells of otolith maculae and cristae ampullaris. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 defined three subsets of Scarpa's neurons (vestibular ganglionic neurons): those co-expressing VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 or expressing only VGLUT2, and those expressing neither. In addition, many neurons located in all vestibular subnuclei were observed to contain hybridized signals for VGLUT2 mRNA and a few VNC neurons, mostly scattered in medial vestibular nucleus (MVe), displayed VGLUT1 mRNA labelling. Following unilateral ganglionectomy, asymmetries of VGLUT1-immunoreactivity (ir) and VGLUT2-ir occurred between two VNCs, indicating that the VNC terminals containing VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2 are partly of peripheral origin. The present data indicate that the constituent cells/neurons along the vestibular pathway selectively apply VGLUT isoforms to transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles for glutamate transmission. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vestibular Restoration and Adaptation in Vestibular Neuritis and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome With Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Rueda, Almudena; Esteban-Sanchez, Jonathan; Yanes, Joaquin; Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Sanz-Fernandez, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate vestibular restoration and the evolution of the compensatory saccades in acute severe inflammatory vestibular nerve paralysis, including vestibular neuritis and Ramsay Hunt syndrome with vertigo. Prospective. Tertiary referral center. Vestibular neuritis (n = 18) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients with vertigo (n = 13) were enrolled. After treatment with oral corticosteroids, patients were followed up for 6 months. Functional recovery of the facial nerve was scored according to the House-Brackman grading system. Caloric and video head impulse tests were performed in every patient at the time of enrolment. Subsequently, successive video head impulse test (vHIT) exploration was performed at the 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up. Eighteen patients with vestibular neuritis and 13 with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and associated vertigo were included. Vestibular function was significantly worse in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome than in those with vestibular neuritis. Similar compensatory saccades velocity and latency values were observed in both groups, in both the caloric and initial vHIT tests. Successive vHIT results showed a significantly higher vestibulo-ocular reflex gain recovery in vestibular neuritis patients than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. A significantly faster reduction in the latency, velocity, and organization of the compensatory saccades was observed in neuritis than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. In addition to the recovery of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the reduction of latency, velocity and the organization of compensatory saccades play a role in vestibular compensation.

  14. Comparative analysis of pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil) and its two isomers (N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine) on vestibular compensation: Behavioral investigation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Leonard, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Lacour, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Head roll tilt, postural imbalance and spontaneous nystagmus are the main static vestibular deficits observed after an acute unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). In the UVL cat model, these deficits are fully compensated over 6 weeks as the result of central vestibular compensation. N-Acetyl-dl-leucine is a drug prescribed in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of acute UVL patients. The present study investigated the effects of N-acetyl-dl-leucine on the behavioral recovery after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat, and compared the effects of each of its two isomers N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine. Efficacy of these three drug treatments has been evaluated with respect to a placebo group (UVN+saline water) on the global sensorimotor activity (observation grids), the posture control (support surface measurement), the locomotor balance (maximum performance at the rotating beam test), and the spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (recorded in the light). Whatever the parameters tested, the behavioral recovery was strongly and significantly accelerated under pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine and N-acetyl-L-leucine. In contrast, the N-acetyl-D-leucine isomer had no effect at all on the behavioral recovery, and animals of this group showed the same recovery profile as those receiving a placebo. It is concluded that the N-acetyl-L-leucine isomer is the active part of the racemate component since it induces a significant acceleration of the vestibular compensation process similar (and even better) to that observed under treatment with the racemate component only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional organization of primate translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes and effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; McHenry, M. Q.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes (trVORs) are characterized by distinct spatio-temporal properties and sensitivities that are proportional to the inverse of viewing distance. Anodal (inhibitory) labyrinthine stimulation (100 microA, < 2 s) during motion decreased the high-pass filtered dynamics, as well as horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance. Cathodal (excitatory) currents had opposite effects. Translational VORs were also affected after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Animals lost their ability to modulate trVOR sensitivity as a function of viewing distance acutely after the lesion. These deficits partially recovered over time, albeit a significant reduction in trVOR sensitivity as a function of viewing distance remained in compensated animals. During fore-aft motion, the effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy were more dramatic. Both acute and compensated animals permanently lost their ability to modulate fore-aft trVOR responses as a function of target eccentricity. These results suggest that (1) the dynamics and viewing distance-dependent properties of the trVORs are very sensitive to changes in the resting firing rate of vestibular afferents and, consequently, vestibular nuclei neurons; (2) the most irregularly firing primary otolith afferents that are most sensitive to labyrinthine electrical stimulation might contribute to reflex dynamics and sensitivity; (3) inputs from both labyrinths are necessary for the generation of the translational VORs.

  16. Responses evoked by a vestibular implant providing chronic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lara A; Haburcakova, Csilla; Gong, Wangsong; Lee, Daniel J; Wall, Conrad; Merfeld, Daniel M; Lewis, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss experience dehabilitating visual, perceptual, and postural difficulties, and an implantable vestibular prosthesis that could improve these symptoms would be of great benefit to these patients. In previous work, we have shown that a one-dimensional, unilateral canal prosthesis can improve the vestibulooccular reflex (VOR) in canal-plugged squirrel monkeys. In addition to the VOR, the potential effects of a vestibular prosthesis on more complex, highly integrative behaviors, such as the perception of head orientation and posture have remained unclear. We tested a one-dimensional, unilateral prosthesis in a rhesus monkey with bilateral vestibular loss and found that chronic electrical stimulation partially restored the compensatory VOR and also that percepts of head orientation relative to gravity were improved. However, the one-dimensional prosthetic stimulation had no clear effect on postural stability during quiet stance, but sway evoked by head-turns was modestly reduced. These results suggest that not only can the implementation of a vestibular prosthesis provide partial restitution of VOR but may also improve perception and posture in the presence of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH). In this review, we provide an overview of our previous and current work directed towards the eventual clinical implementation of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.

  17. Characteristics of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangwei; Gopen, Quinton

    2011-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and to determine the diagnostic value of VEMP testing for this particular inner ear structural anomaly. Retrospective cohort study in a pediatric tertiary care facility. A total of 25 pediatric cases (37 ears) of EVA were identified with complete records, including otologic evaluation, CT scan of the temporal bone, and audiologic assessment. Results of audiometry, tympanometry, and VEMP testing were analyzed. Hearing loss was found in 97% (36/37) of the ears with EVA. Airbone gaps (conductive components) were found in all hearing losses with normal middle ear pressure and mobility. Abnormally low threshold VEMP responses were found in 92% (34/37) of the ears with EVA. VEMP responses were absent unilaterally in three EVA patients who had vestibular complaints. No clear correlation was found between the size of EVA and the audiologic findings. The presence of airbone gaps in children with EVA was found without apparent middle ear pathology. Characteristics of VEMP in EVA were lower thresholds and higher amplitudes despite of the presence of airbone gaps. The abnormally low threshold VEMP responses suggested a "third" window effect in the pathologic condition of EVA. Unilateral absence of VEMP may implicate peripheral vestibular impairment. The findings from our study are helpful in clinical evaluation of young children who usually give limited and ambiguous input regarding their hearing and vestibular problems.

  18. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or “à la carte” VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

  19. Visual Dependency and Dizziness after Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Sian; Cutfield, Nicholas J.; Kaski, Diego; Palla, Antonella; Seemungal, Barry M.; Golding, John F.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

    2014-01-01

    Symptomatic recovery after acute vestibular neuritis (VN) is variable, with around 50% of patients reporting long term vestibular symptoms; hence, it is essential to identify factors related to poor clinical outcome. Here we investigated whether excessive reliance on visual input for spatial orientation (visual dependence) was associated with long term vestibular symptoms following acute VN. Twenty-eight patients with VN and 25 normal control subjects were included. Patients were enrolled at least 6 months after acute illness. Recovery status was not a criterion for study entry, allowing recruitment of patients with a full range of persistent symptoms. We measured visual dependence with a laptop-based Rod-and-Disk Test and severity of symptoms with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). The third of patients showing the worst clinical outcomes (mean DHI score 36–80) had significantly greater visual dependence than normal subjects (6.35° error vs. 3.39° respectively, p = 0.03). Asymptomatic patients and those with minor residual symptoms did not differ from controls. Visual dependence was associated with high levels of persistent vestibular symptoms after acute VN. Over-reliance on visual information for spatial orientation is one characteristic of poorly recovered vestibular neuritis patients. The finding may be clinically useful given that visual dependence may be modified through rehabilitation desensitization techniques. PMID:25233234

  20. Case report: ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block for outpatient acute pain management of multilevel unilateral rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hiroaki; Salviz, Emine Aysu; Chen, Stephanie; Vandepitte, Catherine; Hadzic, Admir

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with multiple unilateral rib fractures (T3-T8) gained the ability to breathe deeply and to ambulate after ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block and was discharged home after being observed for 15 hours after the block. The ultrasound guidance was helpful in determining the site of rib fractures and the optimal level for catheter placement. This report also discusses the management of analgesia using continuous paravertebral block in an outpatient with trauma.

  1. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Adenwalla, H S; Narayanan, P V

    2009-10-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web.

  2. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    PubMed Central

    Adenwalla, H. S.; Narayanan, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web. PMID:19884683

  3. Treatment of unilateral zone I cytomegalovirus retinitis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with oral valganciclovir and intravitreal ganciclovir

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Koushik; Mittal, Kanhaiya; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Bakhshi, Sameer; Chawla, Rohan

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is an opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients, especially suffering from acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is uncommonly seen in hematological malignancies and in patients on immunosuppressants. The authors present a 12-year-old girl with unilateral CMVR who was on maintenance phase therapy for mixed phenotype (B/myeloid) leukemia. Serology for human immunodeficiency virus was negative. The child was successfully treated with oral valganciclovir and repeated intravitreal ganciclovir injections. CMVR in pediatric population with leukemia can be successfully treated with oral valganciclovir and intravitreal ganciclovir injections. PMID:29118508

  4. State Anxiety Subjective Imbalance and Handicap in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Saman, Yougan; Mclellan, Lucie; Mckenna, Laurence; Dutia, Mayank B; Obholzer, Rupert; Libby, Gerald; Gleeson, Michael; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for a significant clinical and neuroanatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety, and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. (1) To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit. (2) To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. Two separate cohorts of vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and caloric responses) and questionnaire assessments [vertigo handicap questionnaire (VHQ), vertigo symptom scale (VSS), and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAIY)]. Fifteen post-resection VS patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1). Forty-five patients with VS in situ formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2). Experiment 1: VS subjects (N = 15) with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a state anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterward with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1). Experiment 2: state anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of patients with VS in situ presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1, N = 26) and without balance symptoms (Group 2, N = 11) (Aim 2). The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER. In Experiment 1, a significant difference (p < 0.01) was found when comparing STAIY

  5. Vestibular function outcomes after vestibular neurectomy in Meniere disease: can vestibular neurectomy provide complete vestibular deafferentation?

    PubMed

    Leveque, M; Seidermann, L; Tran, H; Langagne, T; Ulmer, E; Chays, A

    2010-06-01

    Vestibular neurectomy is considered the reference treatment of incapacitating vertigo accompanying Meniere disease, with an efficiency rate of 85-95% in most literature reports. The aim of this study is to evaluate if vestibular neurectomy can provide a complete vestibular deafferentation by investigating complete vestibular function after surgery. Prospective study. Twenty-four patients suffering from incapacitated Meniere vertigo crisis beneficiated from a vestibular neurectomy by retrosigmoid approach. The average time between surgery and vestibular evaluation was 1 year. We performed (i) kinetic test, (ii) caloric test and (iii) vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) at 30, 60 and 100Hz under videonystagmography recording, (iv) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), (v) video head impulsed test (VHIT) for each semicircular canals and (vi) an evaluation of visual vertical and horizontal subjective (VVS and HVS). On clinical evaluation, all the patients except one had never experienced any recurrence of vertigo crisis after surgery. The 24 patients would definitely undergo the surgery again. On vestibular evaluation, on the operated side, all patients showed a total areflexia at caloric test; 23 patients had no VEMP response; 23 patients had abolished canals response to VHIT. All the patients had VVS and HVS deviated towards the operated side; 23 patients had a high velocity VIN from 30 to 60Hz. This study proves that vestibular neurectomy can provide a complete vestibular deafferentation. We discuss this vestibular evaluation protocol and the main difficulties encounter during surgery, which could lead to partial nerve section and partial relief, and explain residual vestibular function after vestibular neurectomy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical verification of a unilateral otolith test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzig, J.; Hofstetter-Degen, K.; Maurer, J.; von Baumgarten, R. J.

    In a previous study 13 we reported promising results for a new test to differentiate in vivo unilateral otolith functions. That study pointed to a need for further validation on known pathological cases. In this presentation we will detail the results gathered on a group of clinically verified vestibular defectives (verum) and a normal (control) group. The subjects in the verum group were former patients of the ENT clinic of the university hospital. These subjects had usually suffered from neurinoma of the VIIth cranial nerve or inner ear infections. All had required surgical intervention including removal of the vestibular system. The patients were contacted usually two or more years postoperatively. A group of students from the pre- and clinical phase of medical training served as control. Both groups were subjected to standardized clinical tests. These tests served to reconfirm the intra- or postoperative diagnosis of unilateral vestibular loss in the verum group. In the control group they had to establish the normalcy of the responses of the vestibular system. Both groups then underwent testing on our exccentric rotary chair in the manner described before 13. Preliminary results of the trials indicate that this test may indeed for the first time offer a chance to look at isolated otolith apparati in vivo.

  7. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  8. Review of book vestibular crises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    The etiology, pathogenesis, clinical practice, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with vestibular crises is discussed. Classifications for vestibular disorders are given. Information on the frequency of vestibular crises is given.

  9. Evaluation of vestibular functions in children with vertigo attacks

    PubMed Central

    Uneri, A; Turkdogan, D

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To examine vestibular system functions in children with episodic vertigo attacks. Methods: Thirty four children (20 males) aged 4–18 years with paroxysmal dizziness and/or vertigo attacks were evaluated. A medical history for vestibular symptoms and migraine was taken. Vestibular and auditory functions were assessed. Results: Chronic headache attacks consistent with migraine were reported in 12 children and motion sickness was reported in 30. Family history in first degree relatives was positive for migraine in 29 children and for episodic vertigo in 22. Electronystagmography and videonystagmography showed two types of nystagmus: spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (41%) and benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus (BPPN) (59%). The first type of nystagmus was assessed as a sign of vestibulopathy and the patients with BPPN were diagnosed as having benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Audiometric examination in four cases revealed bilateral sensory neural hearing loss in low frequencies. Pure tone averages in 30 cases were within normal ranges; however low frequencies in 28 of them were approximately 10 dB lower than high frequencies. Unilateral caloric responses diminished in eight children. Conclusions: Peripheral vestibular problems in childhood present in a wide spectrum, which varies from a short episode of dizziness to a typical vestibular attack with fluctuating sensory neural hearing loss or episodes of BPPV. A considerable number of these vestibular problems might be related to the migraine syndrome. PMID:12765917

  10. Postural compensation for vestibular loss and implications for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Horak, Fay B

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the role of the vestibular system in postural control so that specific and effective rehabilitation can be designed that facilitates compensation for loss of vestibular function. Patients with bilateral or unilateral loss of peripheral vestibular function are exposed to surface perturbations to quantify automatic postural responses. Studies also evaluated the effects of audio- and vibrotactile-biofeedback to improve stability in stance and gait. The most important role of vestibular information for postural control is to control orientation of the head and trunk in space with respect to gravitoinertial forces, particularly when balancing on unstable surfaces. Vestibular sensory references are particularly important for postural control at high frequencies and velocities of self-motion, to reduce trunk drift and variability, to provide an external reference frame for the trunk and head in space; and to uncouple coordination of the trunk from the legs and the head-in-space from the body CoM. The goal of balance rehabilitation for patients with vestibular loss is to help patients 1) use remaining vestibular function, 2) depend upon surface somatosensory information as their primary postural sensory system, 3) learn to use stable visual references, and 4) identify efficient and effective postural movement strategies.

  11. Acute effects of unilateral temporary stellate ganglion block on human atrial electrophysiological properties and atrial fibrillation inducibility.

    PubMed

    Leftheriotis, Dionyssios; Flevari, Panayota; Kossyvakis, Charalampos; Katsaras, Dimitrios; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Arvaniti, Chrysa; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Lekakis, John

    2016-11-01

    In experimental models, stellate ganglion block (SGB) reduces the induction of atrial fibrillation (AF), while data in humans are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of unilateral SGB on atrial electrophysiological properties and AF induction in patients with paroxysmal AF. Thirty-six patients with paroxysmal AF were randomized in a 2:1 order to temporary, transcutaneous, pharmaceutical SGB with lidocaine or placebo before pulmonary vein isolation. Lidocaine was 1:1 randomly infused to the right or left ganglion. Before and after randomization, atrial effective refractory period (ERP) of each atrium, difference between right and left atrial ERP, intra- and interatrial conduction time, AF inducibility, and AF duration were assessed. After SGB, right atrial ERP was prolonged from a median (1st-3rd quartile) of 240 (220-268) ms to 260 (240-300) ms (P < .01) and left atrial ERP from 235 (220-260) ms to 245 (240-280) ms (P < .01). AF was induced by atrial pacing in all 24 patients before SGB, but only in 13 patients (54%) after the intervention (P < .01). AF duration was shorter after SGB: 1.5 (0.0-5.8) minutes from 5.5 (3.0-12.0) minutes (P < .01). Intra- and interatrial conduction time was not significantly prolonged. No significant differences were observed between right and left SGB. No changes were observed in the placebo group. Unilateral temporary SGB prolonged atrial ERP, reduced AF inducibility, and decreased AF duration. An equivalent effect of right and left SGB on both atria was observed. These findings may have a clinical implication in the prevention of drug refractory and postsurgery AF and deserve further clinical investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vestibular efferent neurons project to the flocculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinder, M. E.; Purcell, I. M.; Kaufman, G. D.; Perachio, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    A bilateral projection from the vestibular efferent neurons, located dorsal to the genu of the facial nerve, to the cerebellar flocculus and ventral paraflocculus was demonstrated. Efferent neurons were double-labeled by the unilateral injections of separate retrograde tracers into the labyrinth and into the floccular and ventral parafloccular lobules. Efferent neurons were found with double retrograde tracer labeling both ipsilateral and contralateral to the sites of injection. No double labeling was found when using a fluorescent tracer with non-fluorescent tracers such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), but large percentages of efferent neurons were found to be double labeled when using two fluorescent substances including: fluorogold, microruby dextran amine, or rhodamine labeled latex beads. These data suggest a potential role for vestibular efferent neurons in modulating the dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during normal and adaptive conditions.

  13. Organization of projections from the raphe nuclei to the vestibular nuclei in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberstadt, A. L.; Balaban, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous anatomic and electrophysiological evidence suggests that serotonin modulates processing in the vestibular nuclei. This study examined the organization of projections from serotonergic raphe nuclei to the vestibular nuclei in rats. The distribution of serotonergic axons in the vestibular nuclei was visualized immunohistochemically in rat brain slices using antisera directed against the serotonin transporter. The density of serotonin transporter-immunopositive fibers is greatest in the superior vestibular nucleus and the medial vestibular nucleus, especially along the border of the fourth ventricle; it declines in more lateral and caudal regions of the vestibular nuclear complex. After unilateral iontophoretic injections of Fluoro-Gold into the vestibular nuclei, retrogradely labeled neurons were found in the dorsal raphe nucleus (including the dorsomedial, ventromedial and lateral subdivisions) and nucleus raphe obscurus, and to a minor extent in nucleus raphe pallidus and nucleus raphe magnus. The combination of retrograde tracing with serotonin immunohistofluorescence in additional experiments revealed that the vestibular nuclei receive both serotonergic and non-serotonergic projections from raphe nuclei. Tracer injections in densely innervated regions (especially the medial and superior vestibular nuclei) were associated with the largest numbers of Fluoro-Gold-labeled cells. Differences were observed in the termination patterns of projections from the individual raphe nuclei. Thus, the dorsal raphe nucleus sends projections that terminate predominantly in the rostral and medial aspects of the vestibular nuclear complex, while nucleus raphe obscurus projects relatively uniformly throughout the vestibular nuclei. Based on the topographical organization of raphe input to the vestibular nuclei, it appears that dense projections from raphe nuclei are colocalized with terminal fields of flocculo-nodular lobe and uvula Purkinje cells. It is hypothesized that

  14. Observations on the elicitation of secondary and inverted primary nystagmus from the cat by unilateral caloric irrigation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1963-02-01

    Vestibular stimulation by repeated unilateral caloric irrigation of cats occasioned the appearance of secondary, tertiary, and inverted primary nystagmus in some animals. These inverse responses were recorded with stimulus temperatures of 5, 23.5, an...

  15. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential elicited from binaural air-conducted stimulations: clinical feasibility in patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Egami, Naoya; Inoue, Aki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimoto, Chisato; Murofushi, Toshihisa; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) to binaural air-conducted stimulation (ACS) may provide a convenient way of assessing the crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with vestibular dysfunction as well as in healthy subjects. To investigate the clinical feasibility of using oVEMPs in response to binaural ACS to assess normal subjects and patients with vestibular dysfunction. The study investigated 24 normal subjects (14 men and 10 women, aged from 23 to 60 years) and 14 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Each subject underwent oVEMP testing in response to monaural ACS and binaural ACS (500 Hz tone burst, 135 dBSPL). In normal subjects, bilateral oVEMPs were elicited in 75% of subjects in response to monaural ACS and in 91% in response to binaural ACS. Asymmetry ratios (ARs) of the responses to binaural ACS were significantly smaller than those of the responses to monaural ACS (p < 0.01). In patients with unilateral vestibular dysfunction, there were no significant differences in the amplitude, latency, or AR of the responses between monaural and binaural ACS. Approximately 30% of patients showed reduced ARs to binaural ACS relative to monaural ACS, primarily due to contamination by uncrossed responses elicited in healthy ears.

  16. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in patients with acoustic neuromas.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, N; Sakamoto, T; Fukuda, S; Inuyama, Y

    2001-05-01

    To study the utility of VEMP (vestibular-evoked myogenic potential) in the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas. Eighteen patients with unilateral acoustic neuromas were subjected to this study. Myogenic potential responding to loud click stimuli was recorded at ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle. A normal range of VEMP was obtained from 20 controls. VEMP responses were compared with both, clinical symptoms and results of caloric tests. Thirteen out of 18 patients showed decreased responses of VEMP at the affected side. VEMP responses seemed to have little relation with dysequilibrium, spontaneous nystagmus, canal paresis and pure-tone hearing. VEMP is useful for detecting dysfunction of inferior vestibular nerve in patients with acoustic neuromas.

  17. Otolith-Canal Convergence in Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David

    1996-01-01

    During manned spaceflight, acute vestibular disturbances often occur, leading to physical duress and a loss of performance. Vestibular adaptation to the weightless environment follows within two to three days yet the mechanisms responsible for the disturbance and subsequent adaptation are still unknown In order to understand vestibular system function in space and normal earth conditions the basic physiological mechanisms of vestibular information co coding must be determined. Information processing regarding head movement and head position with respect to gravity takes place in the vestibular nuclei neurons that receive signals From the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the vestibular labyrinth. These neurons must synthesize the information into a coded output signal that provides for the head and eye movement reflexes as well as the conscious perception of the body in three-dimensional space The current investigation will for the first time. determine how the vestibular nuclei neurons quantitatively synthesize afferent information from the different linear and angular acceleration receptors in the vestibular labyrinths into an integrated output signal. During the second year of funding, progress on the current project has been focused on the anatomical orientation of semicircular canals and the spatial orientation of the innervating afferent responses. This information is necessary in order to understand how vestibular nuclei neurons process the incoming afferent spatial signals particularly with the convergent otolith afferent signals that are also spatially distributed Since information from the vestibular nuclei is presented to different brain regions associated with differing reflexive and sensory functions it is important to understand the computational mechanisms used by vestibular neurons to produce the appropriate output signal.

  18. Current evidence of peripheral vestibular symptoms secondary to otitis media.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Kasemodel, Ana Luiza Papi; Tomaz, Andreza; Paparella, Michael M; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2018-05-06

    The association between otitis media and vestibular symptoms has been hypothesized in the past. Thus, in this study, we aimed to critically analyze (based in a systematic review of the literature) whether patients who have otitis media are at greater risk of developing vestibular impairment or not. We performed a systematic review of the literature and identified potentially relevant articles reporting vestibular symptoms and results of vestibular function tests in patients with otitis media through searches of the PubMED, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the final set of records was assessed using the "Newcaste-Ottawa Scale". Of the 2334 records searched, 43 met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, and those included 2250 patients. The records comprised 20 longitudinal studies, 21 cross-sectional studies, and 2 case reports. Regarding the type of otitis media studied, 25 examined vestibular impairment in otitis media with effusion, 6 acute otitis media, and 12 chronic otitis media. Results of anamnesis, clinical exams, and several vestibular function tests are reported and critically discussed. Most studies evaluating the association between otitis media and vestibular symptoms have potential methodological flaws. Clinical evidence suggests that patients with otitis media have increased chances for having vestibular symptoms, delayed acquisition of developmental milestones, and abnormalities in several vestibular function tests as compared with controls. Future studies with rigorous methodology aiming to assess the clinical significance (and prognostic factors) of the association between otitis media and vestibular impairment are warranted. Key message Several studies demonstrated long-term sequelae secondary to otitis media. However, the evidence supporting those assumptions are based in low-quality evidence. Thus, better structured studies are warranted to better understand the clinical relevance of such association.

  19. Effects of acute altered gravity during parabolic flight and/or vestibular loss on cell proliferation in the rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiwen; Gliddon, Catherine M; Aitken, Phillip; Stiles, Lucy; Machado, Marie-Laure; Philoxene, Bruno; Denise, Pierre; Smith, Paul F; Besnard, Stephane

    2017-07-27

    Both parabolic flight, i.e. a condition of altered gravity, and loss of vestibular function, have been suggested to affect spatial learning and memory, which is known to be influenced by neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In this study we investigated whether short alternated micro- and hyper-gravity stimulations during parabolic flight and/or loss of vestibular function, would alter cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats, by measuring the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated cells. Rats were randomly allocated to the following experimental groups: (1) sham transtympanic saline injection only (n=5); (2) bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) by sodium arsanilate transtympanic injection only (n=5); (3) sham treatment and parabolic flight (n=5); (4) BVD and parabolic flight (n=6). Forty-two days following transtympanic injection, the animals were subjected to parabolic flight in an awake restrained condition after habituation. A modified Airbus A300 aircraft was flown on a parabolic path, creating 20s of 1.8G during both climbing and descending and 22s of 0G at the apex of each parabola. The no flight animals were subjected to the same housing for the same duration. Immediately after the parabolic flight or control ground condition, animals were injected with BrdU (300mg/kg, i.p). Twenty-four hs after BrdU injection, rats were sacrificed. BrdU immunolabelling was performed and the number of BrdU +ve cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was quantified using a modified fractionator method. BVD caused a large and significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive cells compared to sham animals (P≤0.0001); however, flight and all interactions were non-significant. These results indicate that BVD significantly decreased cell proliferation irrespective of the short exposure to altered/modified gravity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei of the squirrel monkey and their potential role in vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, C.; Igarashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Polyamine synthesis increases in response to injurious stimuli including axotomy and denervation. Reduced eye nystagmus and head-deviation have been observed in unilateral labyrinthectomized (UL) guinea pigs treated with an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). We quantified polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei (LVN) of control and UL squirrel monkeys during the phase of vestibular compensation (VC) and performed an experiment to determine if DFMO reduces nystagmus previously observed in the guinea pig. Polyamines were detected in the LVN of control and UL squirrel monkeys. Putrescine and spermidine increased in the ipsilateral LVN 3 days after UL with no change in the contralateral LVN. No left-right differences were noted in the 5-day post-UL monkey. DFMO reduced nystagmus in a UL squirrel monkey. These findings suggest that polyamines are important in vestibular function and may contribute to nystagmus observed in VC.

  1. Plasticity of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in morphologically defined vestibular nuclei neurons during early vestibular compensation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Mei; Hirsch, June C.

    2012-01-01

    After unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions, the brain plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus offer a subset of morphologically defined vestibular nuclei neurons to study functional changes after vestibular lesions. Chickens show posture and balance deficits immediately after unilateral vestibular ganglionectomy (UVG), but by 3 days most subjects begin to recover, although some remain uncompensated. With the use of whole cell voltage-clamp, spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) and miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs) were recorded from principal cells in brain slices 1 and 3 days after UVG. One day after UVG, sEPSC frequency increased on the lesion side and remained elevated at 3 days in uncompensated chickens only. Also by 3 days, sIPSC frequency increased on the lesion side in all operated chickens due to major increases in GABAergic events. Significant change also occurred in decay time of the events. To determine whether fluctuations in frequency and kinetics influenced overall excitatory or inhibitory synaptic drive, synaptic charge transfer was calculated. Principal cells showed significant increase in excitatory synaptic charge transfer only on the lesion side of uncompensated chickens. Thus compensation continues when synaptic charge transfer is in balance bilaterally. Furthermore, excessive excitatory drive in principal cells on the lesion side may prevent vestibular compensation. Altogether, this work is important for it defines the time course and excitatory and inhibitory nature of changing spontaneous synaptic inputs to a morphologically defined subset of vestibular nuclei neurons during critical early stages of recovery after UVG. PMID:21957228

  2. The Role of Cervical and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials in the Assessment of Patients with Vestibular Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Darlington, Cynthia; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Lamas, Georges; de Waele, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical utility of VEMPs in patients suffering from unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS) and to determine the optimal stimulation parameter (air conducted sound, bone conducted vibration) for evaluating the function of the vestibular nerve. Methods Data were obtained in 63 patients with non-operated VS, and 20 patients operated on VS. Vestibular function was assessed by caloric, cervical and ocular VEMP testing. 37/63 patients with conclusive ACS ocular VEMPs responses were studied separately. Results In the 63 non-operated VS patients, cVEMPs were abnormal in 65.1% of patients in response to AC STB and in 49.2% of patients to AC clicks. In the 37/63 patients with positive responses from the unaffected side, oVEMPs were abnormal in 75.7% of patients with ACS, in 67.6% with AFz and in 56.8% with mastoid BCV stimulation. In 16% of the patients, VEMPs were the only abnormal test (normal caloric and normal hearing). Among the 26 patients who did not show oVEMP responses on either side with ACS, oVEMPs responses could be obtained with AFz (50%) and with mastoid stimulation (89%). Conclusions The VEMP test demonstrated significant clinical value as it yielded the only abnormal test results in some patients suffering from a unilateral vestibular schwannoma. For oVEMPs, we suggest that ACS stimulation should be the initial test. In patients who responded to ACS and who had normal responses, BCV was not required. In patients with abnormal responses on the affected side using ACS, BCV at AFz should be used to confirm abnormal function of the superior vestibular nerve. In patients who exhibited no responses on either side to ACS, BCV was the only approach allowing assessment of the function of the superior vestibular nerve. We favor using AFz stimulation first because it is easier to perform in clinical practice than mastoid stimulation. PMID:25137289

  3. Correlation of Fos expression and circling asymmetry during gerbil vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular compensation is a central nervous system process resulting in recovery of functional movement and control following a unilateral vestibular lesion. Small pressure injections of phosphorothioate 20mer oligonucleotides were used to probe the role of the Fos transcription protein during vestibular compensation in the gerbil brainstem. During isoflurane gas anesthesia, antisense probes against the c-fos mRNA sequence were injected into the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei unilaterally prior to a unilateral surgical labyrinthectomy. Anionic dyes, which did not interact with the oligonucleotides, were used to mark the injection site and help determine the extent of diffusion. The antiFos oligonucleotide injections reduced Fos expression at the injection site in neurons which normally express Fos after the lesion, and also affected circling behavior induced by hemilabyrinthectomy. With both ipsilateral and contralateral medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei injections, less ipsilateral and more contralateral circling was noted in animals injected with antiFos injections as compared to non-injected controls. The degree of change in these behaviors was dependent upon the side of the injection. Histologically, antiFos injections reduced the number of Fos immunolabeled neurons around the injection site, and increased Fos expression contralaterally. The correlation of the number of neurons with Fos expression to turning behavior was stronger for contralateral versus ipsilateral turns, and for neurons in the caudal and ipsilateral sub-regions of the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. The results are discussed in terms of neuronal firing activity versus translational activity based on the asymmetrical expression of the Fos inducible transcription factor in the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. Although ubiquitous in the brain, transcription factors like Fos can serve localized and specific roles in sensory-specific adaptive stimuli. Antisense

  4. A new saccadic indicator of peripheral vestibular function based on the video head impulse test

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Hamish G.; McGarvie, Leigh A.; Rogers, Stephen J.; Manzari, Leonardo; Burgess, Ann M.; Curthoys, Ian S.; Weber, Konrad P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While compensatory saccades indicate vestibular loss in the conventional head impulse test paradigm (HIMP), in which the participant fixates an earth-fixed target, we investigated a complementary suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP), in which the participant is fixating a head-fixed target to elicit anticompensatory saccades as a sign of vestibular function. Methods: HIMP and SHIMP eye movement responses were measured with the horizontal video head impulse test in patients with unilateral vestibular loss, patients with bilateral vestibular loss, and in healthy controls. Results: Vestibulo-ocular reflex gains showed close correlation (R2 = 0.97) with slightly lower SHIMP than HIMP gains (mean gain difference 0.06 ± 0.05 SD, p < 0.001). However, the 2 paradigms produced complementary catch-up saccade patterns: HIMP elicited compensatory saccades in patients but rarely in controls, whereas SHIMP elicited large anticompensatory saccades in controls, but smaller or no saccades in bilateral vestibular loss. Unilateral vestibular loss produced covert saccades in HIMP, but later and smaller saccades in SHIMP toward the affected side. Cumulative HIMP and SHIMP saccade amplitude differentiated patients from controls with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions: While compensatory saccades indicate vestibular loss in conventional HIMP, anticompensatory saccades in SHIMP using a head-fixed target indicate vestibular function. SHIMP saccades usually appear later than HIMP saccades, therefore being more salient to the naked eye and facilitating vestibulo-ocular reflex gain measurements. The new paradigm is intuitive and easy to explain to patients, and the SHIMP results complement those from the standard video head impulse test. Classification of evidence: This case-control study provides Class III evidence that SHIMP accurately identifies patients with unilateral or bilateral vestibulopathies. PMID:27251884

  5. Dyscalculia and vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, P F

    2012-10-01

    A few studies in humans suggest that changes in stimulation of the balance organs of the inner ear (the 'vestibular system') can disrupt numerical cognition, resulting in 'dyscalculia', the inability to manipulate numbers. Many studies have also demonstrated that patients with vestibular dysfunction exhibit deficits in spatial memory. It is suggested that there may be a connection between spatial memory deficits resulting from vestibular dysfunction and the occurrence of dyscalculia, given the evidence that numerosity is coupled to the processing of spatial information (e.g., the 'spatial numerical association of response codes ('SNARC') effect'). The evidence supporting this hypothesis is summarised and potential experiments to test it are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vertigo Perception and Quality of Life in Patients after Surgical Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma with Pretreatment Prehabituation by Chemical Vestibular Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Balatková, Zuzana; Chovanec, Martin; Čakrt, Ondřej; Hrubá, Silvie; Jeřábek, Jaroslav; Zvěřina, Eduard; Profant, Oliver; Fík, Zdeněk; Komarc, Martin; Kluh, Jan; Černý, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Surgical removal of vestibular schwannoma causes acute vestibular symptoms, including postoperative vertigo and oscillopsia due to nystagmus. In general, the dominant symptom postoperatively is vertigo. Preoperative chemical vestibular ablation can reduce vestibular symptoms postoperatively. We used 1.0 mL of 40 mg/mL nonbuffered gentamicin in three intratympanic installations over 2 days, 2 months preoperatively in 10 patients. Reduction of vestibular function was measured by the head impulse test and the caloric test. Reduction of vestibular function was found in all gentamicin patient groups. After gentamicin vestibular ablation, patients underwent home vestibular exercising for two months. The control group consisted of 10 patients who underwent only home vestibular training two months preoperatively. Postoperative rates of recovery and vertigo in both groups were evaluated with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI), the Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI), and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaires, as well as survey of visual symptoms by specific questionnaire developed by us. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups with regard to the results of questionnaires. Patients who received preoperative gentamicin were more resilient to optokinetic and optic flow stimulation (p < 0.05). This trial is registered with clinical study registration number NCT02963896. PMID:28053986

  7. Vertigo Perception and Quality of Life in Patients after Surgical Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma with Pretreatment Prehabituation by Chemical Vestibular Ablation.

    PubMed

    Čada, Zdeněk; Balatková, Zuzana; Chovanec, Martin; Čakrt, Ondřej; Hrubá, Silvie; Jeřábek, Jaroslav; Zvěřina, Eduard; Profant, Oliver; Fík, Zdeněk; Komarc, Martin; Betka, Jan; Kluh, Jan; Černý, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Surgical removal of vestibular schwannoma causes acute vestibular symptoms, including postoperative vertigo and oscillopsia due to nystagmus. In general, the dominant symptom postoperatively is vertigo. Preoperative chemical vestibular ablation can reduce vestibular symptoms postoperatively. We used 1.0 mL of 40 mg/mL nonbuffered gentamicin in three intratympanic installations over 2 days, 2 months preoperatively in 10 patients. Reduction of vestibular function was measured by the head impulse test and the caloric test. Reduction of vestibular function was found in all gentamicin patient groups. After gentamicin vestibular ablation, patients underwent home vestibular exercising for two months. The control group consisted of 10 patients who underwent only home vestibular training two months preoperatively. Postoperative rates of recovery and vertigo in both groups were evaluated with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI), the Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI), and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaires, as well as survey of visual symptoms by specific questionnaire developed by us. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups with regard to the results of questionnaires. Patients who received preoperative gentamicin were more resilient to optokinetic and optic flow stimulation ( p < 0.05). This trial is registered with clinical study registration number NCT02963896.

  8. Peripheral generators of the vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) in the chick.

    PubMed

    Weisleder, P; Jones, T A; Rubel, E W

    1990-10-01

    Electrophysiological activity in response to linear acceleration stimuli was recorded from young chickens by means of subcutaneous electrodes. This investigation had 2 purposes: (1) to establish the vestibular origin of the potentials; and (2) to investigate the contribution of each vestibular labyrinth to the response. The stimuli consisted of pulses of linear acceleration delivered by a mechanical vibrator (shaker). In the first set of experiments vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) were recorded prior to and 24 h after bilateral cochlea removal. In the second set of experiments responses were recorded before and after unilateral or bilateral intralabyrinthine injections of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Different groups of subjects were used for each experimental condition. The general morphology of the VsEPs was maintained after bilateral cochlea removal. Absolute latency of wave P2, the most prominent component of the response, was not significantly affected by the manipulation. Unilateral intralabyrinthine TTX injections consistently prolonged the latency and reduced the amplitude of wave P2. Following binaural TTX injections we were unable to elicit responses at the acceleration levels used in this study. The results from these experiments suggest that: (1) the activity recorded in response to linear acceleration stimuli is vestibular in origin; (2) when recorded from intact animals the evoked response is composed of activity from both vestibular systems; and (3) TTX consistently blocks the activity of the vestibular portion of the VIIIth cranial nerve.

  9. Head-shaking nystagmus predicts greater disability in unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Simon I; Velandia, Sandra; Snapp, Hillary

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of the bedside test of head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) with patients' self-perceived dizziness handicap as well as this test's sensitivity and specificity in unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction. A retrospective case-control study was performed. The study was held at an academic, tertiary referral center. Fifty-three adult patients with unilateral peripheral hypofunction defined by the caloric test of the videonystagmography with documented bedside HSN and who had completed questionnaires of self-perceived dizziness handicap were included. The sensitivity and specificity of the bedside HSN in patients and 10 healthy controls in diagnosing unilateral vestibular hypofunction defined by videonystagmographic caloric testing and by abnormal gain and symmetry of the vestibular-ocular reflex by rotary chair testing were determined. Scores of the screening test of the Dizziness Handicap Index and Functional Level Scale questionnaires were taken. When using the caloric irrigation test as the reference standard for unilateral vestibular hypofunction, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the bedside HSN were 31%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. When comparing with results of rotational chair testing (vestibular-ocular reflex gain and symmetry), the sensitivity of the HSN test increases to 71%. Patients with positive bedside HSN had higher scores (greater self-perceived dizziness handicap) of the Dizziness Handicap Index (P = .049) and higher (worse) scores of the Functional Level Scale (P = .0377) than those with negative bedside HSN (Wilcoxon rank test). Greater perceived handicap was correlated with a positive bedside HSN in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. The HSN has sufficient sensitivity to be used as screening test of uncompensated vestibulopathy in this series. However, a negative HSN alone does not rule out the diagnosis of peripheral vestibular dysfunction

  10. Consequences and assessment of human vestibular failure: implications for postural control.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, James G

    2002-01-01

    Labyrinthine afferents respond to both angular velocity (semicircular canals) and linear acceleration (otoliths), including gravity. Given their response to gravity, the otoliths are likely to have an important role in the postural functions of the vestibular apparatus. Unilateral vestibular ablation has dramatic effects on posture in many animals, but less so in primates. Nevertheless, bilateral vestibular lesions lead to disabling symptoms in man related to disturbed ocular and postural control and impaired perception of slopes and accelerations. While seimicircular canal function can be assessed through its effects on vestibular ocular reflexes, assessment of otolith function in man has traditionally been much more difficult. Recent definition of a short latency vestibulocollic reflex, activated by sound and appearing to arise from the saccule, shows promise as a new method of non-invasive assessment of otolith function.

  11. Vibration-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma: Characteristics and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Kim, Mi Joo; Kim, Jin Won; Shim, Dae Bo; Kim, Jinna; Kim, Sung Huhn

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) in unilateral vestibular asymmetry and vestibular schwannoma. Thirteen patients with vestibular schwannoma underwent the VIN test, in which stimulation was applied to the mastoid processes and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of lesions. Preoperative VIN was measured, and changes in VIN were followed up for 6months after tumor removal. Significance of VIN was determined by evaluation of its sensitivity, correlation with vestibular function tests and tumor volume, and postoperative changes. The overall pre and postoperative sensitivities of VIN were 92.3% and 100%, respectively, considering stimulation at all four sites. Maximum slow-phase velocity (MSPV) of VIN was linearly correlated with caloric weakness and tumor volume, especially when stimulation was applied to the SCM muscle. Postoperative MSPV of VIN exhibited stronger linear correlation with postoperative changes in canal paresis value and inverse correlation with tumor size upon stimulation of the ipsilateral SCM muscle than upon stimulation of other sites. During the 6-month follow-up period, persistence of VIN without changes in MSPV was observed even after vestibular compensation. Evoking VIN by stimulation of the mastoid processes and SCM muscles is effective for detecting vestibular asymmetry. It could also help determine the degree of vestibular asymmetry and volume of vestibular schwannoma if stimulation is applied to the SCM muscle. The results of this study could provide clues for the basic application of VIN in patients with vestibular loss and vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Celis-Aguilar, Erika; Hinojosa-González, Ramon; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Coutinho-Toledo, Heloisa

    Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset) delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30dB. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials). Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of intracranial vertebral artery asymmetry to vestibular neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Y M; Chern, C M; Liao, W H; Hsu, L C; Lien, C F; Lirng, J F; Shiao, A S; Ko, J S C

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) may affect the lateralisation of vestibular neuropathy (VN), probably through haemodynamic effect on the vestibular labyrinth. 69 patients with unilateral VN were examined with a magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) and caloric test. 50 healthy subjects served as controls. The diagnosis of intracranial VAH was based on MRA if <0.22 cm in VA diameter and a diameter asymmetry index >40%. The authors then correlated the canal paretic side with the VAH side. MRA study revealed 29 VAH (right/left: 23/6) in VN subjects and six VAH in controls (right/left: 5/1). The RR of VAH in VN subjects compared with controls was elevated (RR=2.2; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.8). There was a high accordance rate between the side of VAH and VN. Among 29 patients with unilateral VAH, 65.5% (N=19) had an ipsilateral VN, in which left VAH showed a higher accordance rate (83.3%) than the right side (60.9%). VN subjects with vascular risk factors also had a higher VAH accordance rate (81%) than those without (25%). VAH may serve as a regional haemodynamic negative contributor and impede blood supply to the ipsilateral vestibular labyrinth, contributing to the development of VN, which could be enhanced by atherosclerotic risk factors and the left-sided location.

  14. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective: The objective of this story of case is to describe an uncommon cause of associated peripheral Vestibulopathy to the unilateral auditory loss in aged patient after catheterization of urgency. Story of case: Patient of the masculine sort, 82 years, submitted to the correction of abdominal ragged aneurism of aorta, in the intra-operative suffered heart attack acute from the myocardium needing primary angioplasty. High after hospital it relates to complaint of accented hearing loss to the right and crippling vertigo, without focal neurological signals. To the otorhinolaryngological clinical examination it presented: Test of Weber lateralized for the left, spontaneous nystagmus for the left, marches rocking, has taken normal disbasia and ataxia, index-nose and diadochokinesia, Test of Romberg with oscillation without fall and Fukuda with lateral shunting line for the right. The audiometric examination evidenced deafness to the right and sensorineural loss to the left in sharps, areflexia initial to the right in caloric test e, the computerized tomography of the secular bones and brainstem, presence of metallic connecting rod crossing the right secular bone, from the vein internal jugular vein and bulb jugular vein, crossing the posterior, superior and vestibule semicircular canals, projecting itself in temporal lobe. The radiological diagnoses was traumatic injury for guide to endovascular metallic during catheterization of urgency and the behavior, considering that the patient had not compensated the balance, it was vestibular rehabilitation. Conclusion: Complaints of giddiness in the aged patient must be closely evaluated of its pathological clinical description because the antecedents of illnesses and previous treatments, in general, direct the diagnostic hypotheses however they can bring unexpected alterations. PMID:25991947

  15. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-04-01

     The objective of this story of case is to describe an uncommon cause of associated peripheral Vestibulopathy to the unilateral auditory loss in aged patient after catheterization of urgency. Story of case: Patient of the masculine sort, 82 years, submitted to the correction of abdominal ragged aneurism of aorta, in the intra-operative suffered heart attack acute from the myocardium needing primary angioplasty. High after hospital it relates to complaint of accented hearing loss to the right and crippling vertigo, without focal neurological signals. To the otorhinolaryngological clinical examination it presented: Test of Weber lateralized for the left, spontaneous nystagmus for the left, marches rocking, has taken normal disbasia and ataxia, index-nose and diadochokinesia, Test of Romberg with oscillation without fall and Fukuda with lateral shunting line for the right. The audiometric examination evidenced deafness to the right and sensorineural loss to the left in sharps, areflexia initial to the right in caloric test e, the computerized tomography of the secular bones and brainstem, presence of metallic connecting rod crossing the right secular bone, from the vein internal jugular vein and bulb jugular vein, crossing the posterior, superior and vestibule semicircular canals, projecting itself in temporal lobe. The radiological diagnoses was traumatic injury for guide to endovascular metallic during catheterization of urgency and the behavior, considering that the patient had not compensated the balance, it was vestibular rehabilitation.  Complaints of giddiness in the aged patient must be closely evaluated of its pathological clinical description because the antecedents of illnesses and previous treatments, in general, direct the diagnostic hypotheses however they can bring unexpected alterations.

  16. Neuronal detection thresholds during vestibular compensation: contributions of response variability and sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mohsen; Mitchell, Diana E; Dale, Alexis; Carriot, Jerome; Sadeghi, Soroush G; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2014-04-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for processing self-motion, allowing normal subjects to discriminate the direction of rotational movements as slow as 1-2 deg s(-1). After unilateral vestibular injury patients' direction-discrimination thresholds worsen to ∼20 deg s(-1), and despite some improvement thresholds remain substantially elevated following compensation. To date, however, the underlying neural mechanisms of this recovery have not been addressed. Here, we recorded from first-order central neurons in the macaque monkey that provide vestibular information to higher brain areas for self-motion perception. Immediately following unilateral labyrinthectomy, neuronal detection thresholds increased by more than two-fold (from 14 to 30 deg s(-1)). While thresholds showed slight improvement by week 3 (25 deg s(-1)), they never recovered to control values - a trend mirroring the time course of perceptual thresholds in patients. We further discovered that changes in neuronal response variability paralleled changes in sensitivity for vestibular stimulation during compensation, thereby causing detection thresholds to remain elevated over time. However, we found that in a subset of neurons, the emergence of neck proprioceptive responses combined with residual vestibular modulation during head-on-body motion led to better neuronal detection thresholds. Taken together, our results emphasize that increases in response variability to vestibular inputs ultimately constrain neural thresholds and provide evidence that sensory substitution with extravestibular (i.e. proprioceptive) inputs at the first central stage of vestibular processing is a neural substrate for improvements in self-motion perception following vestibular loss. Thus, our results provide a neural correlate for the patient benefits provided by rehabilitative strategies that take advantage of the convergence of these multisensory cues.

  17. Neuronal detection thresholds during vestibular compensation: contributions of response variability and sensory substitution

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Mohsen; Mitchell, Diana E; Dale, Alexis; Carriot, Jerome; Sadeghi, Soroush G; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for processing self-motion, allowing normal subjects to discriminate the direction of rotational movements as slow as 1–2 deg s−1. After unilateral vestibular injury patients’ direction–discrimination thresholds worsen to ∼20 deg s−1, and despite some improvement thresholds remain substantially elevated following compensation. To date, however, the underlying neural mechanisms of this recovery have not been addressed. Here, we recorded from first-order central neurons in the macaque monkey that provide vestibular information to higher brain areas for self-motion perception. Immediately following unilateral labyrinthectomy, neuronal detection thresholds increased by more than two-fold (from 14 to 30 deg s−1). While thresholds showed slight improvement by week 3 (25 deg s−1), they never recovered to control values – a trend mirroring the time course of perceptual thresholds in patients. We further discovered that changes in neuronal response variability paralleled changes in sensitivity for vestibular stimulation during compensation, thereby causing detection thresholds to remain elevated over time. However, we found that in a subset of neurons, the emergence of neck proprioceptive responses combined with residual vestibular modulation during head-on-body motion led to better neuronal detection thresholds. Taken together, our results emphasize that increases in response variability to vestibular inputs ultimately constrain neural thresholds and provide evidence that sensory substitution with extravestibular (i.e. proprioceptive) inputs at the first central stage of vestibular processing is a neural substrate for improvements in self-motion perception following vestibular loss. Thus, our results provide a neural correlate for the patient benefits provided by rehabilitative strategies that take advantage of the convergence of these multisensory cues. PMID:24366259

  18. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Califano, Luigi; Iorio, Giuseppina; Salafia, Francesca; Mazzone, Salvatore; Califano, Maria

    2015-02-01

    To determine the utility of the hyperventilation test (HVT) in the diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma (VS). A retrospective analysis of hyperventilation-induced nystagmus (HVIN) in 45 patients with unilateral VS. A tertiary referral center. Forty-five patients with VS; 30 patients with chronic vestibular neuritis; 20 healthy subjects with normal hearing and without symptoms or a history of vertigo, migraine, or neurological diseases (control group). Audiological and vestibular examination; "side-stream" measurement of end-tidal CO2 pressure (P(EtCO2)) to standardize the procedure; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) centered on the cerebellopontine angle. An analysis of HVIN, its patterns, and its appearance threshold via the measurement of P(EtCO2) correlations with the tumor size. HVIN was observed in 40 of 45 cases (88.9%) in the schwannoma group and in 12 of 30 cases (40%) in the chronic vestibular neuritis group; HVIN was not observed in the control group (0/20 cases) (p < 0.001). In the schwannoma group, HVIN was evoked at a mean P(EtCO2) value of 16.5 ± 1.15 mm Hg. The hypofunctional labyrinth was identified with high sensibility and specificity through caloric test, head shaking test, and head thrust test. The excitatory pattern, which included HVIN with slow phases that beat toward the hypofunctional side, and the paretic pattern, which included HVIN with slow phases that beat toward the hypofunctional side, were not significantly associated with VS size (19.04 ± 10.56 mm for the excitatory pattern and 19.06 ± 11.01 mm for the paretic pattern). The difference in the VS size in HVIN+ (19.05 ± 10.60 mm) and HVIN- (8.40 ± 2.19 mm) cases was significant (p = 0.009). A 60-second hyperventilation event causes metabolic changes in the vestibular system and reveals a latent vestibular asymmetry. The presence of an excitatory pattern is the major criterion that suggests VS in patients with signs of unilateral vestibular deficit.

  19. Significance of Vestibular Testing on Distinguishing the Nerve of Origin for Vestibular Schwannoma and Predicting the Preservation of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu-Bo; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Ji, Hong-Ming; Qu, Yan-Ming; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the nerve of origin for vestibular schwannoma (VS), as a method for predicting hearing prognosis, has not been systematically considered. The vestibular test can be used to investigate the function of the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) and the inferior vestibular nerve (IVN). This study aimed to preoperatively distinguish the nerve of origin for VS patients using the vestibular test, and determine if this correlated with hearing preservation. Methods: A total of 106 patients with unilateral VS were enrolled in this study prospectively. Each patient received a caloric test, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test, and cochlear nerve function test (hearing) before the operation and 1 week, 3, and 6 months, postoperatively. All patients underwent surgical removal of the VS using the suboccipital approach. During the operation, the nerve of tumor origin (SVN or IVN) was identified by the surgeon. Tumor size was measured by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The nerve of tumor origin could not be unequivocally identified in 38 patients (38/106, 35.80%). These patients were not subsequently evaluated. In 26 patients (nine females, seventeen males), tumors arose from the SVN and in 42 patients (18 females, 24 males), tumors arose from the IVN. Comparing with the nerve of origins (SVN and IVN) of tumors, the results of the caloric tests and VEMP tests were significantly different in tumors originating from the SVN and the IVN in our study. Hearing was preserved in 16 of 26 patients (61.54%) with SVN-originating tumors, whereas hearing was preserved in only seven of 42 patients (16.67%) with IVN-originating tumors. Conclusions: Our data suggest that caloric and VEMP tests might help to identify whether VS tumors originate from the SVN or IVN. These tests could also be used to evaluate the residual function of the nerves after surgery. Using this information, we might better predict the preservation of hearing for patients

  20. Predictors of vertigo in patients with untreated vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jan Fredrik; Nilsen, Kathrin Skorpa; Vassbotn, Flemming Slinning; Møller, Per; Myrseth, Erling; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Goplen, Frederik Kragerud

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that vertigo is the most powerful negative predictor of quality of life in patients with vestibular schwannomas, but the variability in vertigo symptom severity is still poorly understood. We wanted to find out whether vertigo could be related to objective parameters such as tumor size, location, vestibular nerve function, hearing, and postural stability in patients with untreated vestibular schwannomas. Baseline data from prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral center. Four hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with unilateral VS diagnosed on MRI. Mean age 56 years (range 16-84 yr). Fifty-three percent women. Diagnostic, with a medical history, otolaryngological examination, pure-tone and speech audiometry, MRI, posturography, and videonystagmography with bithermal caloric tests. Dizziness measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcome measures were canal paresis and postural imbalance (static and dynamic posturography). Three hundred three patients (70%) completed the VAS. Severe dizziness, defined as VAS 75 or greater, was reported by 9% of the patients. Larger tumors were associated with higher risk of postural instability and canal paresis. Moderate to severe dizziness was associated with postural imbalance and canal paresis, and possibly with small to medium-sized tumors. Postural instability was related to tumor size and canal paresis when measured by dynamic, but not with static, posturography. A minority of VS patients experience severe vestibular symptoms related to canal paresis and postural instability. A curvilinear relationship is hypothesized between tumor size and dizziness.

  1. Vestibular Function Measurement Devices

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Richard D.; Zapala, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular function laboratories utilize a multitude of diagnostic instruments to evaluate a dizzy patient. Caloric irrigators, oculomotor stimuli, and rotational chairs produce a stimulus whose accuracy is required for the patient response to be accurate. Careful attention to everything from cleanliness of equipment to threshold adjustments determine on a daily basis if patient data are going to be correct and useful. Instrumentation specifications that change with time such as speed and temperature must periodically be checked using calibrated instruments. PMID:27516710

  2. Early detection of secondary damage in ipsilateral thalamus after acute infarction at unilateral corona radiata by diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can identify abnormal changes in ipsilateral thalamus in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts. However, it is difficult to demonstrate these early changes quantitatively. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are potentially sensitive and quantitative methods of detection in examining changes of tissue microstructure and metabolism. In this study, We used both DTI and MRS to examine possible secondary damage of thalamus in patients with corona radiata infarction. Methods Twelve patients with unilateral corona radiata infarction underwent MR imaging including DTI and MRS at one week (W1), four weeks (W4), and twelve weeks (W12) after onset of stroke. Twelve age-matched controls were imaged. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline(Cho), and creatine(Cr) were measured in thalami. Results T1-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2-weighted, and T2-FLAIR imaging showed an infarct at unilateral corona radiate but no other lesion in each patient brain. In patients, MD was significantly increased at W12, compared to W1 and W4 (all P< 0.05). NAA was significantly decreased at W4 compared to W1, and at W12 compared to W4 (all P< 0.05) in the ipsilateral thalamus. There was no significant change in FA, Cho, or Cr in the ipsilateral thalamus from W1 to W12. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between MD and the peak area of NAA, Cho, and Cr at W1, W4, and W12 and a significant positive correlation of FA with NAA at W1. Conclusions These findings indicate that DTI and MRS can detect the early changes indicating secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus after unilateral corona radiata infarction. MRS may reveal the progressive course of damage in the ipsilateral thalamus over time. PMID:21542942

  3. Vestibular lesion-induced developmental plasticity in spinal locomotor networks during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Anna; Rao, Guillaume; Ladepeche, Laurent; Jacques, André; Simmers, John; Le Ray, Didier

    2013-01-01

    During frog metamorphosis, the vestibular sensory system remains unchanged, while spinal motor networks undergo a massive restructuring associated with the transition from the larval to adult biomechanical system. We investigated in Xenopus laevis the impact of a pre- (tadpole stage) or post-metamorphosis (juvenile stage) unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) on young adult swimming performance and underlying spinal locomotor circuitry. The acute disruptive effects on locomotion were similar in both tadpoles and juvenile frogs. However, animals that had metamorphosed with a preceding UL expressed restored swimming behavior at the juvenile stage, whereas animals lesioned after metamorphosis never recovered. Whilst kinematic and electrophysiological analyses of the propulsive system showed no significant differences in either juvenile group, a 3D biomechanical simulation suggested that an asymmetry in the dynamic control of posture during swimming could account for the behavioral restoration observed in animals that had been labyrinthectomized before metamorphosis. This hypothesis was subsequently supported by in vivo electromyography during free swimming and in vitro recordings from isolated brainstem/spinal cord preparations. Specifically, animals lesioned prior to metamorphosis at the larval stage exhibited an asymmetrical propulsion/posture coupling as a post-metamorphic young adult. This developmental alteration was accompanied by an ipsilesional decrease in propriospinal coordination that is normally established in strict left-right symmetry during metamorphosis in order to synchronize dorsal trunk muscle contractions with bilateral hindlimb extensions in the swimming adult. Our data thus suggest that a disequilibrium in descending vestibulospinal information during Xenopus metamorphosis leads to an altered assembly of adult spinal locomotor circuitry. This in turn enables an adaptive compensation for the dynamic postural asymmetry induced by the vestibular imbalance

  4. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) can detect asymptomatic saccular hydrops.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Yee; Timmer, Ferdinand C A; Oriel, Brad S; Zhou, Guangwei; Guinan, John J; Kujawa, Sharon G; Herrmann, Barbara S; Merchant, Saumil N; Rauch, Steven D

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the useful of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing for detecting endolymphatic hydrops, especially in the second ear of patients with unilateral Ménière disease (MD). This study was performed at a tertiary care academic medical center. Part I consisted of postmortem temporal bone specimens from the temporal bone collection of the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary; part II consisted of consecutive consenting adult patients (n = 82) with unilateral MD by American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria case histories. Outcome measures consisted of VEMP thresholds in patients and histologic saccular endolymphatic hydrops in postmortem temporal bones. Saccular hydrops was observed in the asymptomatic ear in six of 17 (35%) of temporal bones from donors with unilateral MD. Clinic patients with unilateral MD showed elevated mean VEMP thresholds and altered VEMP tuning in their symptomatic ears and, to a lesser degree, in their asymptomatic ears. Specific VEMP frequency and tuning criteria were used to define a "Ménière-like" response. This "Ménière-like" response was seen in 27% of asymptomatic ears of our patients with unilateral MD. Bilateral involvement is seen in approximately one third of MD cases. Saccular hydrops appears to precede symptoms in bilateral MD. Changes in VEMP threshold and tuning appear to be sensitive to these structural changes in the saccule. If so, then VEMP may be useful as a detector of asymptomatic saccular hydrops and as a predictor of evolving bilateral MD.

  5. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and health-related quality of life in patients with vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Viciana, David; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in subjects with vestibular neuritis (VN) and to determine the impact of the disease in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Case series. Tertiary referral center. Fifty patients with VN (episode of sudden onset of prolonged vertigo [>24 h] associated with peripheral vestibular hypofunction, imbalance in absence of hearing loss, or other neurologic symptoms). VEMPs were measured in 41 patients by using an air-conducted 500 Hz tone burst. HRQoL was evaluated in all cases by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory Short Form (DHI-S) instruments, after the acute episode was resolved. Latencies P1 or N1 peaks, corrected amplitude or the absence of response, for VEMPs; scores obtained in SF-36 and DHI-S instruments. VEMPs showed abnormal results in 21 (51%) of 41 cases, with an increase in ipsilateral latencies for P1 and N1 peaks being the most common finding. Three patients (7%) had ipsilateral abnormal VEMP response with normal caloric response, indicating isolated involvement of inferior vestibular nerve. The total score obtained for the DHI-S was 14.76 +/- 11.07 (range, 0-34/40), suggesting a variable impact among patients with VN. For the SF-36, scores in men with VN were worse than their age-matched controls for all dimensions, except for mental health. However, women only showed lower scores for general health and social function. Abnormal VEMP responses demonstrate the involvement of the inferior vestibular nerve in half of the patients with VN. Moreover, VN has a moderate impact in HRQoL, and it is perceived more disabling by men than women.

  6. A new vestibulo-ocular reflex recording system designed for routine vestibular clinical use.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, K; Naito, Y; Matsuda, K; Honjo, I

    1999-01-01

    A new vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) recording system was developed, which consists of an infrared eye camera, a small velocity sensor and a frequency modulator. Using this system, the head velocity signal was frequency modulated and simultaneously recorded as a sound signal on the audio track of a Hi8 video recorder with eye images. This device enabled recording of the VOR response in routine vestibular clinical practice. The reliability and effectiveness of this system were estimated by recording and analysing the VOR response against manually controlled rotation in normal subjects (n = 22) and in patients with unilateral severe vestibular hypofunction (n = 11). VOR gain on clockwise rotation viewed from the top was defined as R gain, and counterclockwise rotation as L gain. Directional preponderance (DP%) was also calculated. VOR gain towards the diseased side was significantly lower than that towards the intact side, and also significantly lower than that of normal subjects. DP% of unilateral vestibular hypofunction cases was significantly larger than that of normal subjects. These findings indicate that this VOR recording system reliably detects severe unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

  7. Vestibular pathways involved in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hitier, Martin; Besnard, Stephane; Smith, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries have emphasized the role of the vestibular system in cognitive processes such as memory, spatial navigation and bodily self-consciousness. A precise understanding of the vestibular pathways involved is essential to understand the consequences of vestibular diseases for cognition, as well as develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery. The knowledge of the “vestibular cortical projection areas”, defined as the cortical areas activated by vestibular stimulation, has dramatically increased over the last several years from both anatomical and functional points of view. Four major pathways have been hypothesized to transmit vestibular information to the vestibular cortex: (1) the vestibulo-thalamo-cortical pathway, which probably transmits spatial information about the environment via the parietal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices to the hippocampus and is associated with spatial representation and self-versus object motion distinctions; (2) the pathway from the dorsal tegmental nucleus via the lateral mammillary nucleus, the anterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to the entorhinal cortex, which transmits information for estimations of head direction; (3) the pathway via the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, the supramammillary nucleus and the medial septum to the hippocampus, which transmits information supporting hippocampal theta rhythm and memory; and (4) a possible pathway via the cerebellum, and the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus (perhaps to the parietal cortex), which transmits information for spatial learning. Finally a new pathway is hypothesized via the basal ganglia, potentially involved in spatial learning and spatial memory. From these pathways, progressively emerges the anatomical network of vestibular cognition. PMID:25100954

  8. The relationship between the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale and the Dynamic Gait Index in peripheral vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Legters, Kristine; Whitney, Susan L; Porter, Rebecca; Buczek, Frank

    2005-01-01

    People with vestibular dysfunction experience dizziness, vertigo and postural instability. The persistence of these symptoms may result in decreased balance confidence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between decreased balance confidence and gait dysfunction in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. A retrospective review of 137 charts with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale and the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) scores was completed. Spearman rank-order correlation analysis was performed of the total sample, by age group and by degree of vestibular weakness. A moderate correlation of r = 0.58 (p < 0.001) was found between the ABC Scale score and the DGI score in the total sample. Those with mild or moderate vestibular weakness had a correlation of r = 0.72 (p < 0.001) between the ABC Scale score and the DGI score, compared with a correlation of r = 0.48 in those with severe or total vestibular weakness. Decreased balance confidence and increased fall risk are critical issues for people with vestibular dysfunction. The effects of aging did not have a significant impact on the relationship. The correlation between balance confidence and gait dysfunction was stronger in those with mild or moderate vestibular weakness, although those with severe or total weakness were more disabled by their vestibular symptoms.

  9. Vestibular blueprint in early vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Straka, Hans; Baker, Robert

    2013-11-19

    Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei. The anatomical locations of vestibuloocular and vestibulospinal neurons correlate with genetically defined hindbrain compartments that are well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution though some variability exists in fossil and extant vertebrate species. The different vestibular subgroups exhibit a robust sensorimotor signal processing complemented with a high degree of vestibular and visual adaptive plasticity.

  10. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID AND MASTICATORY MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH VESTIBULAR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Barozzi, Stefania; Marin, Federico; Cesarani, Antonio; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the electromyographic characteristics of masticatory and neck muscles in subjects with vestibular lesions. Surface electromyography of the masseter, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles was performed in 19 patients with Ménière's disease, 12 patients with an acute peripheral vestibular lesion, and 19 control subjects matched for sex and age. During maximum voluntary clenching, patients with peripheral vestibular lesions had the highest co-contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (analysis of covariance, p=0.02), the control subjects had the smallest values, and the patients with Ménière's disease had intermediate values. The control subjects had larger standardized muscle activities than the other patient groups (p=0.001). In conclusion, during maximum voluntary tooth clenching, patients with vestibular alterations have both more active neck muscles, and less active masticatory muscles than normal controls. Results underline the importance of a more inclusive craniocervical assessment of patients with vestibular lesions. PMID:19082397

  11. Translabyrinthine surgery for disabling vertigo in vestibular schwannoma patients.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, W P; Hastan, D; van der Mey, A G L

    2007-06-01

    To determine the impact of translabyrinthine surgery on the quality of life in vestibular schwannoma patients with rotatory vertigo. Prospective study in 18 vestibular schwannoma patients. The study was conducted in a multispecialty tertiary care clinic. All 18 patients had a unilateral intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma, without serviceable hearing in the affected ear and severely handicapped by attacks of rotatory vertigo and constant dizziness. Despite an initial conservative treatment, extensive vestibular rehabilitation exercises, translabyrinthine surgery was performed because of the disabling character of the vertigo, which considerably continued to affect the patients' quality of life. Preoperative and postoperative quality of life using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (Short Form-36) scores and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) scores. A total of 17 patients (94%) completed the questionnaire preoperatively and 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All Short Form-36 scales of the studied patients scored significantly lower when compared with the healthy Dutch control sample (P < 0.05). There was a significant improvement of DHI total scores and Short Form-36 scales on physical and social functioning, role-physical functioning, role-emotional functioning, mental health and general health at 12 months after surgery when compared with preoperative scores (P < 0.05). Vestibular schwannoma patients with disabling vertigo, experience significant reduced quality of life when compared with a healthy Dutch population. Translabyrinthine tumour removal significantly improved the patients' quality of life. Surgical treatment should be considered in patients with small- or medium-sized tumours and persisting disabling vertigo resulting in a poor quality of life.

  12. Visuo-Vestibular Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA3 includes short reports covering: (1) Vestibulo-Oculomotor Interaction in Long-Term Microgravity; (2) Effects of Weightlessness on the Spatial Orientation of Visually Induced Eye Movements; (3) Adaptive Modification of the Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Prolonged Microgravity; (4) The Dynamic Change of Brain Potential Related to Selective Attention to Visual Signals from Left and Right Visual Fields; (5) Locomotor Errors Caused by Vestibular Suppression; and (6) A Novel, Image-Based Technique for Three-Dimensional Eye Measurement.

  13. Vestibular rehabilitation outcomes in the elderly with chronic vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Arash; Pourbakht, Akram; Saki, Nader; Zainun, Zuraida; Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Mirmomeni, Golshan

    2012-11-01

    Chronic vestibular dysfunction is a frustrating problem in the elderly and can have a tremendous impact on their life, but only a few studies are available. Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an important therapeutic option for the neuro-otologist in treating patients with significant balance deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vestibular rehabilitation on dizziness in elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction. A total of 33 patients older than 60 years with chronic vestibular dysfunction were studied. Clinical and objective vestibular tests including videonystagmography (VNG) and dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) were carried out at their first visit, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks post-VRT. The VRT exercises were performed according to Cawthorne and Cooksey protocols. Oculomotor assessments were within normal limits in all patients. Nineteen patients (57.57%) showed abnormal canal paralysis on caloric testing which at follow-up sessions; CP values were decreased remarkably after VRT exercises. We found a significant improvement between pre-VRT and post-VRT total DHI scores (P < 0.001). This improvement was most prominent in functional subscore. Our study demonstrated that VRT is an effective therapeutic method for elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction.

  14. Visual-vestibular processing deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wright, W G; Tierney, R T; McDevitt, J

    2017-01-01

    The search for reliable and valid signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly synonymous with concussion, has lead to a growing body of evidence that individuals with long-lasting, unremitting impairments often experience visual and vestibular symptoms, such as dizziness, postural and gait disturbances. Investigate the role of visual-vestibular processing deficits following concussion. A number of clinically accepted vestibular, oculomotor, and balance assessments as well as a novel virtual reality (VR)-based balance assessment device were used to assess adults with post-acute concussion (n = 14) in comparison to a healthy age-matched cohort (n = 58). Significant between-group differences were found with the VR-based balance device (p = 0.001), with dynamic visual motion emerging as the most discriminating balance condition. The symptom reports collected after performing the oculomotor and vestibular tests: rapid alternating horizontal eye saccades, optokinetic stimulation, and gaze stabilization, were all sensitive to health status (p < 0.05), despite the absence of oculomotor abnormalities being observed, except for near-point convergence. The BESS, King-Devick, and Dynamic Visual Acuity tests did not detect between-group differences. Postural and visual-vestibular tasks most closely linked to spatial and self-motion perception had the greatest discriminatory outcomes. The current findings suggest that mesencephalic and parieto-occipital centers and pathways may be involved in concussion.

  15. Evaluation of Vestibular Functions in Patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keishi; Morita, Shinya; Hoshino, Kimiko; Fukuda, Atsushi; Nakamaru, Yuji; Homma, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is an idiopathic, multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological manifestations. The purpose of this study is to investigate vestibular functions in patients with VKH disease. A total of 43 patients with VKH disease in Hokkaido University Hospital were enrolled in this study. Subjective symptoms such as dizziness or vertigo and the results of various vestibular examinations including nystagmus testing, caloric testing, and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing were investigated. Eight of 42 patients (19.0%) complained of subjective vestibular symptoms. On the other hand, 12 of 28 patients (42.9%) showed nystagmus, and 7 of 15 patients (46.7%) showed unilateral or bilateral weakness in the caloric test. VEMP testing was performed for 16 patients. Seven (43.8%) and 8 (50.0%) patients were evaluated as abnormal in cervical VEMP and ocular VEMP testing, respectively. The rate of detection of nystagmus was significantly higher than that of subjective symptoms. As vestibular dysfunction in patients with VKH disease cannot be detected through history taking alone, nystagmus testing, caloric testing, and VEMP testing should be performed to evaluate vestibular functions associated with VKH disease. It is considered that abnormal VEMP findings are associated with otolith organ dysfunction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Preoperative vestibular assessment protocol of cochlear implant surgery: an analytical descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Sato, Eduardo Setsuo; Ribeiro, Douglas Jósimo Silva; Tsuji, Robinson Koji

    Cochlear implants are undeniably an effective method for the recovery of hearing function in patients with hearing loss. To describe the preoperative vestibular assessment protocol in subjects who will be submitted to cochlear implants. Our institutional protocol provides the vestibular diagnosis through six simple tests: Romberg and Fukuda tests, assessment for spontaneous nystagmus, Head Impulse Test, evaluation for Head Shaking Nystagmus and caloric test. 21 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 42.75±14.38 years. Only 28% of the sample had all normal test results. The presence of asymmetric vestibular information was documented through the caloric test in 32% of the sample and spontaneous nystagmus was an important clue for the diagnosis. Bilateral vestibular areflexia was present in four subjects, unilateral arreflexia in three and bilateral hyporeflexia in two. The Head Impulse Test was a significant indicator for the diagnosis of areflexia in the tested ear (p=0.0001). The sensitized Romberg test using a foam pad was able to diagnose severe vestibular function impairment (p=0.003). The six clinical tests were able to identify the presence or absence of vestibular function and function asymmetry between the ears of the same individual. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Unilateral Acute Renal Artery Embolism: An Index Case of Successful Mechanical Aspiration Thrombectomy With Use of Penumbra Indigo Aspiration System and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Ali; Samannan, Rajesh; Abu-Fadel, Mazen

    2018-01-01

    Acute renal artery embolism (RAE) is a rare condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment strategy for RAE includes anticoagulation with or without thrombolysis or surgical or endovascular embolectomy. We describe here a case presentation of acute RAE secondary to atrial fibrillation treated successfully with Penumbra Indigo Aspiration System, a novel device in peripheral endovascular interventions. Our patient had ongoing symptoms and acute renal failure on presentation with contraindication to thrombolysis given hypertensive emergency. A 6F Penumbra Aspiration catheter was used to aspirate large amounts of thrombus from segmental renal arteries with restoration of flow. Patient's symptoms and renal function returned to baseline after intervention. Penumbra system is used routinely in cerebral endovascular intervention, yet here we describe its potential use in peripheral vascular interventions in addition to a literature review of all available evidence for the different treatment modalities of acute RAE.

  18. Analysis of vestibular testing in patients with vestibular schwannoma based on the nerve of origin, the localization, and the size of the tumor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuya; Yamada, Chikako; Inoue, Rika; Kashio, Akinori; Saito, Yuki; Nakanishi, Wakako

    2008-10-01

    We aimed to analyze the factors influencing caloric response and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in vestibular schwannoma. The subjects comprised 130 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma pathologically diagnosed by surgery. Caloric response and the amplitude and latency of VEMP were measured and analyzed based on the nerve of origin, localization, and size of the tumor. The tumors were classified into 3 types based on localization: intracanalicular, intermediate, and medial; and into 4 grades based on size: 9 mm or less, 10 to 19 mm, 20 to 29 mm, and 30 mm or greater. : Abnormal rates of caloric response and VEMP in patients with tumors arising from the superior vestibular nerve were not significantly different from those in patients with tumors of the inferior vestibular nerve. In the intermediate and medial type-but not in the intracanalicular type-a significant difference in tumor size was observed between patients with normal caloric response and those with canal paresis as also between patients with normal VEMP and those with abnormal VEMP. In patients with tumors that maximally measured 10 to 19 mm or of the intermediate type, the p- and n-wave latencies of VEMP were significantly prolonged compared with those in the normal opposite ear. 1) The nerve of origin of tumors cannot be predicted based on caloric response and VEMP. 2) In the intermediate and medial types, caloric response and the VEMP amplitude are significantly diminished in association with an increase in tumor size. 3) Prolonged VEMP latencies seem to be not only caused by tumor compression to the brainstem or vestibular spinal tract but also by tumor compression isolated to the inferior vestibular nerve.

  19. Vestibular reflexes of otolith origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Victor J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibular system and its role in the maintenance of posture and in motion sickness is investigated using cats as experimental subjects. The assumption is that better understanding of the physiology of vestibular pathways is not only of intrinsic value, but will help to explain and eventually alleviate the disturbances caused by vestibular malfunction, or by exposure to an unusual environment such as space. The first project deals with the influence on the spinal cord of stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth, particularly the otoliths. A second was concerned with the properties and neural basis of the tonic neck reflex. These two projects are related, because vestibulospinal and tonic neck reflexes interact in the maintenance of normal posture. The third project began with an interest in mechanisms of motion sickness, and eventually shifted to a study of central control of respiratory muscles involved in vomiting.

  20. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in a large series of vestibular patients.

    PubMed

    Califano, L; Melillo, M G; Vassallo, A; Mazzone, S

    2011-02-01

    The Hyperventilation Test is widely used in the "bed-side examination" of vestibular patients. It can either activate a latent nystagmus in central or peripheral vestibular diseases or it can interact with a spontaneous nystagmus, by reducing it or increasing it. Aims of this study were to determine the incidence, patterns and temporal characteristics of Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients suffering from vestibular diseases, as well as its contribution to the differential diagnosis between vestibular neuritis and neuroma of the 8(th) cranial nerve, and its behaviour in some central vestibular diseases. The present study includes 1202 patients featuring, at vestibular examination, at least one sign of vestibular system disorders or patients diagnosed with a "Migraine-related vertigo" or "Chronic subjective dizziness". The overall incidence of Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus was 21.9%. It was detected more frequently in retrocochlear vestibular diseases rather than in end-organ vestibular diseases: 5.3% in Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, 37.1% in Menière's disease, 37.6% in compensated vestibular neuritis, 77.2% in acute vestibular neuritis and 91.7% in neuroma of the 8(th) cranial nerve. In acute vestibular neuritis, three HVIN patterns were observed: Paretic pattern: temporary enhancement of the spontaneous nystagmus; Excitatory pattern: temporary inhibition of the spontaneous nystagmus; Strong excitatory pattern: temporary inversion of the spontaneous nystagmus. Excitatory patterns proved to be time-dependent in that they disappeared and were replaced by the paretic pattern over a period of maximum 18 days since the beginning of the disorder. In acoustic neuroma, Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus was frequently observed (91.7%), either in the form of an excitatory pattern (fast phases towards the affected site) or in the form of a paretic pattern (fast phases towards the healthy side). The direction of the nystagmus is only partially related to

  1. Sensory substitution in bilateral vestibular a-reflexic patients

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Bart B G T; Selen, Luc P J; Verhagen, Wim I M; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have balance problems in darkness, but maintain spatial orientation rather effectively in the light. It has been suggested that these patients compensate for vestibular cues by relying on extravestibular signals, including visual and somatosensory cues, and integrating them with internal beliefs. How this integration comes about is unknown, but recent literature suggests the healthy brain remaps the various signals into a task-dependent reference frame, thereby weighting them according to their reliability. In this paper, we examined this account in six patients with bilateral vestibular a-reflexia, and compared them to six age-matched healthy controls. Subjects had to report the orientation of their body relative to a reference orientation or the orientation of a flashed luminous line relative to the gravitational vertical, by means of a two-alternative-forced-choice response. We tested both groups psychometrically in upright position (0°) and 90° sideways roll tilt. Perception of body tilt was unbiased in both patients and controls. Response variability, which was larger for 90° tilt, did not differ between groups, indicating that body somatosensory cues have tilt-dependent uncertainty. Perception of the visual vertical was unbiased when upright, but showed systematic undercompensation at 90° tilt. Variability, which was larger for 90° tilt than upright, did not differ between patients and controls. Our results suggest that extravestibular signals substitute for vestibular input in patients’ perception of spatial orientation. This is in line with the current status of rehabilitation programs in acute vestibular patients, targeting at recognizing body somatosensory signals as a reliable replacement for vestibular loss. PMID:25975644

  2. Vertigo with sudden hearing loss: audio-vestibular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Jacob M; Taylor, Rachael L; Young, Allison S; McGarvie, Leigh A; Flanagan, Sean; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S

    2016-10-01

    Acute vertigo with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a rare clinical emergency. Here, we report the audio-vestibular test profiles of 27 subjects who presented with these symptoms. The vestibular test battery consisted of a three-dimensional video head impulse test (vHIT) of semicircular canal function and recording ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP, cVEMP) to test otolith dysfunction. Unlike vestibular neuritis, where the horizontal and anterior canals with utricular function are more frequently impaired, 74 % of subjects with vertigo and SSNHL demonstrated impairment of the posterior canal gain (0.45 ± 0.20). Only 41 % showed impairment of the horizontal canal gains (0.78 ± 0.27) and 30 % of the anterior canal gains (0.79 ± 0.26), while 38 % of oVEMPs [asymmetry ratio (AR) = 41.0 ± 41.3 %] and 33 % of cVEMPs (AR = 47.3 ± 41.2 %) were significantly asymmetrical. Twenty-three subjects were diagnosed with labyrinthitis/labyrinthine infarction in the absence of evidence for an underlying pathology. Four subjects had a definitive diagnosis [Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, vestibular schwannoma, anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction, and traction injury]. Ischemia involving the common-cochlear or vestibulo-cochlear branches of the labyrinthine artery could be the simplest explanation for vertigo with SSNHL. Audio-vestibular tests did not provide easy separation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic causes of vertigo with SSNHL.

  3. Vestibular Deficits Following Youth Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Daniel J.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Grady, Matthew F.; Robinson, Roni L.; Goodman, Arlene M.; Master, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence and recovery of pediatric patients with concussion who manifest clinical vestibular deficits, and to describe the correlation of these deficits with neurocognitive function, based on computerized neurocognitive testing, in a sample of pediatric patients with concussion. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients age 5–18 years old with concussion referred to a tertiary pediatric hospital-affiliated sports medicine clinic from 7/1/2010–12/31/2011. A random sample of all eligible patient visits was obtained, and all related visits for those patients were reviewed. Results 247 patients were chosen from 3740 eligible visits for detailed review and abstraction. 81% showed a vestibular abnormality on initial clinical exam. Those patients with vestibular signs on initial exam took a significantly longer time to return to school (median 59 days vs. 6 days, p=0.001) or to be fully cleared (median 106 days vs. 29 days, p=0.001). They additionally scored more poorly on initial computerized neurocognitive testing, and took longer for neurocognitive deficits to recover. Those patients with three or more prior concussions had a higher prevalence of vestibular deficits and took longer for those deficits to resolve. Conclusion Vestibular deficits in children and adolescents with a history of concussion are highly prevalent. These deficits appear to be associated with extended recovery times and poorer performance on neurocognitive testing. Further studies evaluating the effectiveness of vestibular therapy on improving such deficits are warranted. PMID:25748568

  4. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  5. Correlation between caloric and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential test results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Hsuan; Wang, Shou-Jen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2012-02-01

    The ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (o-VEMP) test results correlate significantly with caloric test results for patients with acoustic neuroma (AN), but not for patients with Meniere's disease (MD), indicating that the o-VEMP test may replace the caloric test for evaluating the vestibular nerve from which the AN arises. Conversely, the caloric, o-VEMP, and cervical VEMP (c-VEMP) tests should be performed to map lesion sites in the vestibular labyrinth. This study performed caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP tests on patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders to investigate their relationships. In all, 66 patients comprising 16 with unilateral AN and 50 with unilateral definite MD were enrolled. All patients underwent caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP tests. In the AN group, the caloric test identified canal paresis and caloric areflexia in 10 ears, while the o-VEMP and c-VEMP tests identified abnormal (absent or delayed) responses in 12 and 11 ears, respectively. A significant correlation existed between caloric and o-VEMP test results, but not between caloric and c-VEMP test results, or between o-VEMP and c-VEMP test results. For the MD group, abnormal caloric, o-VEMP, and c-VEMP test results were obtained for 24%, 44%, and 38% of hydropic ears, respectively. No correlation existed between any two test results.

  6. Aging of vestibular function evaluated using correlational vestibular autorotation test

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Li-Chun; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Guo-She

    2014-01-01

    Background Imbalance from degeneration of vestibular end organs is a common problem in the elderly. However, the decline of vestibular function with aging was revealed in few vestibular function tests such as vestibular autorotation test (VAT). In the current VAT, there are drawbacks of poor test–retest reliability, slippage of the sensor at high-speed rotations, and limited data about the effect of aging. We developed a correlational-VAT (cVAT) system that included a small, light sensor (less than 20 g) with wireless data transmission technique to evaluate the aging of vestibular function. Material and methods We enrolled 53 healthy participants aged between 25 and 75 years and divided them into five age groups. The test conditions were vertical and horizontal head autorotations of frequencies from 0 to 3 Hz with closed eyes or open eyes. The cross-correlation coefficient (CCC) between eye velocity and head velocity was obtained for the head autorotations between 1 Hz and 3 Hz. The mean of the CCCs was used to represent the vestibular function. Results Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the mean CCC for all test conditions, including horizontal or vertical autorotations with open eyes or closed eyes (P<0.05). The mean CCC with open eyes declined significantly at 55–65 years old and the mean CCC with closed eyes declined significantly at 65–75 years old. Conclusion Vestibular function evaluated using mean CCC revealed a decline with age, and the function of visual-vestibulo-ocular reflex declined 10 years earlier than the function of vestibulo-ocular reflex. PMID:25214774

  7. Vestibular sensory functional status of cochlear implanted ears versus non-implanted ears in bilateral profound deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Cozma, Romică Sebastian; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Rădulescu, Luminiţa Mihaela; Hera, Maria Cristina; Mârţu, Cristian; Olariu, Raluca; Cobzeanu, Bogdan Mihail; Bitere, Oana Roxana; Cobzeanu, Mihail Dan

    2018-01-01

    Patients with hearing loss who underwent cochlear implantation can present symptomatic or asymptomatic vestibular damages earlier or later after the surgery. The vestibular permanent lesions could be acute, produced by surgical trauma or could be progressive due to local morphological changes made by the presence of the portelectrode in the inner ear (fibrosis related, ossification, basilar membrane distortion, endolymphatic hydrops). Besides histopathological findings in inner ear of cochlear implanted patients, the vestibular permanent damages could be found by assessment of clinical vestibular status. This study reports the sensorial vestibular functional findings for adults in cochlear implanted ears related to the electrode insertion type (cochleostomy or round window approach) and comparing to non-implanted deaf ears. A total of 20 adult patients with 32 cochlear implanted ears (12 patients with binaural cochlear implant and eight with monoaural) were selected for postoperatory vestibular examination by cervical and ocular vestibular myogenic potentials and vestibular caloric tests. The same tests were made for a control group of 22 non-implanted deaf ears. Functional testing results were reported related to the electrode insertion approach. For the cochleostomy group, we found different deficits: in 40% for saccular function, 44% for utricular function, and 12% horizontal canal dysfunction. In round window group, the deficit was present in 14.29% for saccular function, 28.57% for utricular function, and 28.58% for horizontal canal. In 46.88% of implanted ears, the vestibular function was completely preserved on all tested sensors. In conclusion, the vestibular functional status after inner ear surgery presents sensorial damages in 53.12% ears compare with the vestibular dysfunction existing in 50% of deaf non-operated ears. Round window insertion allows for better conservation of the vestibular function.

  8. Severity of unilateral spatial neglect is an independent predictor of functional outcome after acute inpatient rehabilitation in individuals with right hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Marco; Schintu, Selene; Dotta, Manuela; Barba, Sonia; Tappero, Rosa; Gindri, Patrizia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between severity of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and functional recovery in activities of daily living after a right-hemisphere stroke. Observational study. Rehabilitation hospital in Italy. We investigated 107 of 131 inpatients with right-hemisphere stroke who were consecutively admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. Not applicable. To assess USN severity, conventional and nonconventional Behavioral Inattention Tests (BITs) were performed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation at a median of 19 days after stroke occurrence. FIM was performed both on admission to and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation to assess functional autonomy. FIM efficiency (improvement of FIM score per day of stay length) and FIM effectiveness (proportion of potential improvement achieved) were calculated. Fifty-four (50.5%) of the 107 patients were affected by USN. In these 54 patients, both conventional and nonconventional BIT scores were significantly correlated with FIM scores assessed at discharge from rehabilitation: ρ values were .385 (P=.004) and .396 (P=.003), respectively. After adjustment for 7 potential confounders, including FIM scores before rehabilitation, we found a significant positive association between either conventional or nonconventional BIT scores and FIM scores after rehabilitation (r=.276, P=.047 and r=.296, P=.033, respectively), FIM efficiency (r=.315, P=.022 and r=.307, P=.025, respectively), and FIM effectiveness (r=.371, P=.006 and r=.306, P=.026, respectively). Data support the independent prognostic role of USN severity assessed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation after a right-hemisphere stroke. Models aimed at predicting the functional outcome in stroke survivors may benefit from inclusion of USN severity. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dopaminergic stimulation in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Geminiani, G.; Bottini, G.; Sterzi, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To explore the hypothesis that dopaminergic circuits play a part in the premotor components of the unilateral neglect syndrome, the effects of acute dopaminergic stimulation in patients with neglect were studied.
METHODS—Two tasks were evaluated before and after subcutaneous administration of apomorphine and placebo: a circle crossing test and a test of target exploration (a modified version of the bell test), performed both in perceptual (counting) and in perceptual-motor (pointing) conditions.
SUBJECTS—Four patients with left neglect.
RESULTS—After dopaminergic stimulation, a significant improvement was found compared with placebo administration and baseline evaluation, in the performance of the two tests. Three of the patients had a more marked improvement in the perceptual-motor condition (pointing) of the task than the perceptual condition (counting).
CONCLUSIONS—The findings suggest that dopaminergic neuronal networks may mediate, in different ways, both perceptive and premotor components of the unilateral neglect syndrome. 

 PMID:9728946

  10. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) Can Detect Asymptomatic Saccular Hydrops

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Yee; Timmer, Ferdinand C. A.; Oriel, Brad S.; Zhou, Guangwei; Guinan, John J.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; Herrmann, Barbara S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rauch, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the useful of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing for detecting endolymphatic hydrops, especially in the second ear of patients with unilateral Ménière disease (MD). Methods This study was performed at a tertiary care academic medical center. Part I consisted of postmortem temporal bone specimens from the temporal bone collection of the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary; part II consisted of consecutive consenting adult patients (n = 82) with unilateral MD by American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria case histories. Out-come measures consisted of VEMP thresholds in patients and histologic saccular endolymphatic hydrops in postmortem temporal bones. Results Saccular hydrops was observed in the asymptomatic ear in six of 17 (35%) of temporal bones from donors with unilateral MD. Clinic patients with unilateral MD showed elevated mean VEMP thresholds and altered VEMP tuning in their symptomatic ears and, to a lesser degree, in their asymptomatic ears. Specific VEMP frequency and tuning criteria were used to define a “Ménière-like” response. This “Ménière-like” response was seen in 27% of asymptomatic ears of our patients with unilateral MD. Conclusions Bilateral involvement is seen in approximately one third of MD cases. Saccular hydrops appears to precede symptoms in bilateral MD. Changes in VEMP threshold and tuning appear to be sensitive to these structural changes in the saccule. If so, then VEMP may be useful as a detector of asymptomatic saccular hydrops and as a predictor of evolving bilateral MD. PMID:16735912

  11. Efferent-Mediated Responses in Vestibular Nerve Afferents of the Alert Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Goldberg, Jay M.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    The peripheral vestibular organs have long been known to receive a bilateral efferent innervation from the brain stem. However, the functional role of the efferent vestibular system has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated efferent-mediated responses in vestibular afferents of alert behaving primates (macaque monkey). We found that efferent-mediated rotational responses could be obtained from vestibular nerve fibers innervating the semicircular canals after conventional afferent responses were nulled by placing the corresponding canal plane orthogonal to the plane of motion. Responses were type III, i.e., excitatory for rotational velocity trapezoids (peak velocity, 320°/s) in both directions of rotation, consistent with those previously reported in the decerebrate chinchilla. Responses consisted of both fast and slow components and were larger in irregular (∼10 spikes/s) than in regular afferents (∼2 spikes/s). Following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) on the side opposite the recording site, similar responses were obtained. To confirm the vestibular source of the efferent-mediated responses, the ipsilateral horizontal and posterior canals were plugged following the UL. Responses to high-velocity rotations were drastically reduced when the superior canal (SC), the only intact canal, was in its null position, compared with when the SC was pitched 50° upward from the null position. Our findings show that vestibular afferents in alert primates show efferent-mediated responses that are related to the discharge regularity of the afferent, are of vestibular origin, and can be the result of both afferent excitation and inhibition. PMID:19091917

  12. Efferent-mediated responses in vestibular nerve afferents of the alert macaque.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Soroush G; Goldberg, Jay M; Minor, Lloyd B; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2009-02-01

    The peripheral vestibular organs have long been known to receive a bilateral efferent innervation from the brain stem. However, the functional role of the efferent vestibular system has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated efferent-mediated responses in vestibular afferents of alert behaving primates (macaque monkey). We found that efferent-mediated rotational responses could be obtained from vestibular nerve fibers innervating the semicircular canals after conventional afferent responses were nulled by placing the corresponding canal plane orthogonal to the plane of motion. Responses were type III, i.e., excitatory for rotational velocity trapezoids (peak velocity, 320 degrees/s) in both directions of rotation, consistent with those previously reported in the decerebrate chinchilla. Responses consisted of both fast and slow components and were larger in irregular (approximately 10 spikes/s) than in regular afferents (approximately 2 spikes/s). Following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) on the side opposite the recording site, similar responses were obtained. To confirm the vestibular source of the efferent-mediated responses, the ipsilateral horizontal and posterior canals were plugged following the UL. Responses to high-velocity rotations were drastically reduced when the superior canal (SC), the only intact canal, was in its null position, compared with when the SC was pitched 50 degrees upward from the null position. Our findings show that vestibular afferents in alert primates show efferent-mediated responses that are related to the discharge regularity of the afferent, are of vestibular origin, and can be the result of both afferent excitation and inhibition.

  13. Translabyrinthine vestibular neurectomy and simultaneous cochlear implant for Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Canzi, Pietro; Manfrin, Marco; Perotti, Marco; Aprile, Federico; Quaglieri, Silvia; Rebecchi, Elisabetta; Locatelli, Giulia; Benazzo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Surgical management of Ménière's disease (MD) is recommended in case of medical and intratympanic treatment failures. Translabyrinthine vestibular nerve section has been considered the gold standard for denervation procedures in order to control vertigo attacks, although at the cost of sacrificing residual hearing. To the best of our knowledge, no work has been published with regard to a group of patients submitted to translabyrinthine vestibular neurectomy and simultaneous cochlear implant for MD. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of translabyrinthine vestibular nerve section and simultaneous cochlear implant in a prospective study. All adult patients (over 18 years of age) with a diagnosis of intractable unilateral definite MD and useless residual hearing function were enrolled after medical and intratympanic treatment failures. Pre- and postoperative otoneurological evaluation concerned: frequency of vertigo attacks, head impulse test and caloric testing, pure tone average and speech perception audiometry in quiet conditions, tinnitus handicap inventory test, functional level scale and rate of vertigo control, dizziness handicap inventory test, and MD patient-oriented severity index. At least 6 months of follow-up were needed to be enrolled in the study. Four patients were included in the study. Translabyrinthine vestibular nerve section and simultaneous cochlear implant seemed to considerably improve the disabling effects of MD, achieving a good control of vestibular symptoms (mean pre/postoperative vertigo attacks per month: 16.5/0), resolving hearing loss (mean pre/postoperative pure tone average in the affected ear: 86.2/32.5 dB), improving the tinnitus (mean pre/postoperative tinnitus handicap inventory test: 77.2/6), and finally increasing the overall quality-of-life parameters. In our preliminary report, translabyrinthine vestibular nerve section and simultaneous cochlear implant showed encouraging results in order to

  14. Unilateral phrenic nerve lesion in Lyme neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among a variety of more common differential diagnoses, the aetiology of acute respiratory failure includes Lyme neuroborreliosis. Case presentation We report an 87-years old huntsman with unilateral phrenic nerve palsy as a consequence of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Conclusion Although Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare cause of diaphragmatic weakness, it should be considered in the differential workup because of its potentially treatable nature. PMID:23327473

  15. Sensitivity of caloric test and video head impulse as screening test for chronic vestibular complaints.

    PubMed

    Mezzalira, Raquel; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; do Carmo Bilécki-Stipsky, Marcia Maria; Brugnera, Cibele; Grasel, Signe Schuster

    2017-08-01

    This study compared the results of the caloric test with those of the video head impulse test obtained during the same session and evaluated whether the former can be used to screen for non-acute vestibular dysfunction. A total of 157 participants complaining of dizziness with vestibular characteristics of varying durations and clinical courses completed the caloric test and video head impulse test. Significantly more caloric test results than video head impulse test results were abnormal. The results of the caloric test and video head impulse test are distinct but complement each other. Within our sample, the caloric test was more sensitive for vestibular dysfunction. Therefore, the video head impulse test is not a suitable screening tool of the vestibular system in patients with chronic complaints.

  16. Gerstmann's syndrome and unilateral optic ataxia in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Breno José Alencar Pires; de Brito, Marcelo Houat; Rodrigues, Júlia Chartouni; Kubota, Gabriel Taricani; Parmera, Jacy Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. A 75-year-old right-handed woman presented to the emergency department with simultanagnosia and right unilateral optic ataxia. Moreover, the patient had agraphia, acalculia, digital agnosia and right-left disorientation, consistent with complete Gerstmann's syndrome. This case highlights the concurrence of Gerstmann's syndrome and unilateral optic ataxia in the acute phase of a left middle cerebral artery stroke. PMID:29354229

  17. Who is at risk for ongoing dizziness and psychological strain after a vestibular disorder?

    PubMed

    Best, C; Tschan, R; Eckhardt-Henn, A; Dieterich, M

    2009-12-29

    Patients with vestibular vertigo syndromes often suffer from anxiety and depression, whereas patients with psychiatric disorders often experience subjective unsteadiness, dizziness, or vertigo. Thus, it has been hypothesized that the vestibular system may be interlinked with the emotion processing systems. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this hypothesis by correlating vestibular and psychiatric symptoms with the course of the disease over 1 year. This interdisciplinary, prospective, longitudinal study included a total of 68 patients with acute vestibular vertigo syndromes. Four subgroups of patients with benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV, n=19), acute vestibular neuritis (VN, n=14), vestibular migraine (VM, n=27), or Menière's disease (MD, n=8) were compared. All patients underwent neurological and neuro-otological examinations and filled out standardized self-report inventories including the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire (VHQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90R (GSI, SCL-90R) at five different times (T0-T4) in the course of 1 year. VM patients experienced significantly more "vertigo and related symptoms" (VSS-VER), "somatic anxiety and autonomic arousal" (VSS-AA), and "vertigo induced handicap" (VHQ) than all other patients (P<0.001-P=0.006). Patients with a positive history of psychiatric disorders had significantly more emotional distress (GSI, SCL-90R), regardless of the specific phenomenology of the four diagnostic subgroups. Finally, fluctuations of vestibular excitability correlated positively with the extent of subjectively perceived vertigo. VM patients are significantly more handicapped by vertigo and related symptoms. They show significantly elevated fluctuations of vestibular excitability, which correlate with the (subjective) severity of vertigo symptoms.

  18. Climbing fibers mediate vestibular modulation of both "complex" and "simple spikes" in Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Barmack, N H; Yakhnitsa, V

    2015-10-01

    Climbing and mossy fibers comprise two distinct afferent paths to the cerebellum. Climbing fibers directly evoke a large multispiked action potential in Purkinje cells termed a "complex spike" (CS). By logical exclusion, the other class of Purkinje cell action potential, termed "simple spike" (SS), has often been attributed to activity conveyed by mossy fibers and relayed to Purkinje cells through granule cells. Here, we investigate the relative importance of climbing and mossy fiber pathways in modulating neuronal activity by recording extracellularly from Purkinje cells, as well as from mossy fiber terminals and interneurons in folia 8-10. Sinusoidal roll-tilt vestibular stimulation vigorously modulates the discharge of climbing and mossy fiber afferents, Purkinje cells, and interneurons in folia 9-10 in anesthetized mice. Roll-tilt onto the side ipsilateral to the recording site increases the discharge of both climbing fibers (CSs) and mossy fibers. However, the discharges of SSs decrease during ipsilateral roll-tilt. Unilateral microlesions of the beta nucleus (β-nucleus) of the inferior olive blocks vestibular modulation of both CSs and SSs in contralateral Purkinje cells. The blockage of SSs occurs even though primary and secondary vestibular mossy fibers remain intact. When mossy fiber afferents are damaged by a unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL), vestibular modulation of SSs in Purkinje cells ipsilateral to the UL remains intact. Two inhibitory interneurons, Golgi and stellate cells, could potentially contribute to climbing fiber-induced modulation of SSs. However, during sinusoidal roll-tilt, only stellate cells discharge appropriately out of phase with the discharge of SSs. Golgi cells discharge in phase with SSs. When the vestibularly modulated discharge is blocked by a microlesion of the inferior olive, the modulated discharge of CSs and SSs is also blocked. When the vestibular mossy fiber pathway is destroyed, vestibular modulation of ipsilateral CSs and

  19. Vestibular migraine: who is the patient?

    PubMed

    Colombo, Bruno; Teggi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Vestibular migraine has been classified as a specific entity in which vestibular symptomatology is defined as part of the migrainous disorder. New and appropriate diagnostic criteria have been proposed by the Barany and International Headache Societies. The diagnosis of vestibular migraine mainly depends on the patient history. The NIVE project is a prospectic multicentric study on vestibular migraine. The aim of this project is to evaluate demographics, epidemiology, clinical manifestations of migraine and vertigo in a large cohort of Caucasian patients affected by vestibular migraine.

  20. Unilateral optic disk edema with central retinal artery and vein occlusions as the presenting signs of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Salazar Méndez, R; Fonollá Gil, M

    2014-11-01

    A 39-year-old man with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (LAL Ph+) developed progressive vision loss to no light perception in his right eye. He had optic disk edema and later developed central artery and vein occlusions. Pan-photocoagulation, as well as radiotherapy of the whole brain were performed in several fractions. Unfortunately the patient died of hematological relapse 4 months later. Optic nerve infiltration may appear as an isolated sign of a leukemia relapse, even before a hematological relapse occurs. Leukemic optic neuropathy is a critical sign, not only for vision, but also for life, and radiotherapy should be immediately performed before irreversible optic nerve damage occurs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Bilateral Vestibular Deficiency: Quality of Life and Economic Implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daniel Q; Ward, Bryan K; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral vestibular deficiency (BVD) causes chronic imbalance and unsteady vision and greatly increases the risk of falls; however, its effects on quality of life and economic impact are not well defined. To quantify disease-specific and health-related quality of life, health care utilization, and economic impact on individuals with BVD in comparison with those with unilateral vestibular deficiency (UVD). Cross-sectional survey study of patients with BVD or UVD and healthy controls at an academic medical center. Vestibular dysfunction was diagnosed by means of caloric nystagmography. Survey questionnaire. Health status was measured using the Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI) and Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Economic burden was estimated using participant responses to questions on disease-specific health care utilization and lost productivity. Fifteen patients with BVD, 22 with UVD, and 23 healthy controls participated. In comparison with patients with UVD and controls, patients with BVD had significantly worse DHI (P < .001) and HUI3 scores. Statistically significant between-group differences were observed for overall HUI3 score (P < .001) and for specific attributes including vision, hearing, ambulation, emotion, and pain (P < .001 for all). Generalized linear model analysis of clinical variables associated with HUI3 scores after adjustment for other variables (including sex, race, education, age, and frequency of dizziness-related outpatient clinic visits) showed that the presence of UVD (P < .001) or BVD (P < .001), increased dizziness-related emergency room visits (P = .002), and increased dizziness-related missed work days (P < .001) were independently associated with worse HUI3 scores. Patients with BVD and UVD incurred estimated mean (range) annual economic burdens of $13,019 ($0-$48,830) and $3531 ($0-$48,442) per patient, respectively. Bilateral vestibular deficiency significantly decreases quality of life and imposes

  2. Towards a neuromorphic vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Federico; Zambrano, Davide; Raglianti, Marco; Passetti, Giovanni; Laschi, Cecilia; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the sense of balance and spatial orientation in mammals. It is a sensory system that detects both rotational and translational motion of the head, via its semicircular canals and otoliths respectively. In this work, we propose a real-time hardware model of an artificial vestibular system, implemented using a custom neuromorphic Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) multi-neuron chip interfaced to a commercial Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The artificial vestibular system is realized with spiking neurons that reproduce the responses of biological hair cells present in the real semicircular canals and otholitic organs. We demonstrate the real-time performance of the hybrid analog-digital system and characterize its response properties, presenting measurements of a successful encoding of angular velocities as well as linear accelerations. As an application, we realized a novel implementation of a recurrent integrator network capable of keeping track of the current angular position. The experimental results provided validate the hardware implementation via comparisons with a detailed computational neuroscience model. In addition to being an ideal tool for developing bio-inspired robotic technologies, this work provides a basis for developing a complete low-power neuromorphic vestibular system which integrates the hardware model of the neural signal processing pathway described with custom bio-mimetic gyroscopic sensors, exploiting neuromorphic principles in both mechanical and electronic aspects.

  3. Diagnostics and therapy of vestibular schwannomas – an interdisciplinary challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rosahl, Steffen; Bohr, Christopher; Lell, Michael; Hamm, Klaus; Iro, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    the case presentations. Important criteria for decision making are size and growth rate of the tumor, hearing of the patient and the probability of total tumor resection with preservation of hearing and facial nerve function, age and comorbidity of the patient, best possible control of vertigo and tinnitus and last but not least the patient’s preference and choice. In addition to this, the experience and the results of a given center with each treatment modality will figure in the decision making process. We will discuss findings that are reported in the literature regarding facial nerve function, hearing, vertigo, tinnitus, and headache and reflect on recent studies on their influence on the patient’s quality of life. Vertigo plays an essential role in this framework since it is an independent predictor of quality of life and a patient’s dependence on social welfare. Pathognomonic bilateral vestibular schwannomas that occur in patients suffering from neurofibromatosis typ-2 (NF2) differ from spontaneous unilateral tumors in their biologic behavior. Treatment of neurofibromatosis type-2 patients requires a multidisciplinary team, especially because of the multitude of separate intracranial and spinal lesions. Off-label chemotherapy with Bevacizumab can stabilize tumor size of vestibular schwannomas and even improve hearing over longer periods of time. Hearing rehabilitation in NF2 patients can be achieved with cochlear and auditory brainstem implants. PMID:29279723

  4. Unilateral Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma After Elective Lumbar Surgery Reveals Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms. A Case Report and Discussion on Workup of Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Storey, Christopher; Menger, Richard; Hefner, Matthew; Keating, Patrick; Ahmed, Osama; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our paper is to present a case of a rare complication of posterior lumbar surgery. Our patient presented for elective lumbar decompression, which was complicated by durotomy. She then developed sudden headache and right eye pain once upright on postoperative day 2. Then on postoperative day 3, she developed a dilated nonreactive pupil with extraocular movements intact. A computed tomography scan of the head was negative for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a possible right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. She was transferred to a tertiary center with a severe headache and a nonreactive pupil, raising concern for evolving third nerve palsy due to aneurysm. A cerebral angiogram was performed and showed multiple aneurysms. Aneurysm location did not explain the patient's symptoms, and ophthalmology was consulted. Elevated intraocular pressure was noted, and the patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG). Our patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent laser peripheral iridotomy. She has had improved vision and pupillary function at 1 month follow-up. The diagnosis is complicated by a durotomy, which led to cascade in the differential diagnosis to rule out intracranial pathology. Her age and home medications, which had sympathomimetic effects, placed her at increased risk, but lying prone in the dark under the drapes was likely the lead causative factor. In conclusion, a postoperative posterior spine patient with eye pain and changes in vision and pupils should be evaluated with AACG in mind due to the devastating consequences if left untreated or treatment is delayed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations. PMID:25992076

  6. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory does not correlate with vestibular function tests: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Chun Wai; Strupp, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is believed to quantitate the handicap related to the presence or severity of underlying vestibular dysfunction. However, patients with chronic vestibular diseases may manifest various degrees of behavioural and physiological adaptation resulting in variances of the DHI. Our primary study objective is to evaluate the correlation between the DHI and measurable vestibular parameters. Secondarily, we compared DHI among different vestibular disorders (central, peripheral and functional), and different types of anatomic deficits (semicircular canal vs otolithic). We also correlated the DHI and posturography. We prospectively evaluated 799 patients with precise vestibular diagnoses using video head impulse testing (vHIT), caloric irrigation, and cervical/ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (c/oVEMP). Posturography was done for 84 patients. All participants completed the DHI. No significant correlation was found between DHI and (1) vestibulo-ocular reflex parameters: unilateral weakness r = - 0.018, total calorics r = 0.055, vHIT right r = 0.007, vHIT left r = - 0.091, vHIT asymmetry r = 0.013; (2) otolith parameters: cVEMP amplitude right r = - 0.034, amplitude left r = - 0.004, asymmetry r = 0.016; oVEMP amplitude right r = 0.044, amplitude left r = - 0.007, asymmetry r = - 0.008. Patients with central vestibular disorders had higher DHI than those with peripheral (z = - 4.743, p = 0.001) or functional disorders (z = - 2.902, p = 0.004). DHI of patients with deficits of canal or otolith function did not differ significantly from those with no deficits (z = 2.153, p = 0.541). There was no significant correlation between DHI and postural sway on posturography. Therefore, the DHI does not correlate with vestibular tests, and neither reflects the presence nor severity of peripheral vestibular deficits.

  7. Perception of tilt and ocular torsion of vestibular patients during eccentric rotation.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Deguine, Olivier

    2010-01-04

    Four patients following unilateral vestibular loss and four patients complaining of otolith-dependent vertigo were tested during eccentric yaw rotation generating 1 x g centripetal acceleration directed along the interaural axis. Perception of body tilt in roll and in pitch was recorded in darkness using a somatosensory plate that the subjects maintained parallel to the perceived horizon. Ocular torsion was recorded by a video camera. Unilateral vestibular-defective patients underestimated the magnitude of the roll tilt and had a smaller torsion when the centrifugal force was towards the operated ear compared to the intact ear and healthy subjects. Patients with otolithic-dependent vertigo overestimated the magnitude of roll tilt in both directions of eccentric rotation relative to healthy subjects, and their ocular torsion was smaller than in healthy subjects. Eccentric rotation is a promising tool for the evaluation of vestibular dysfunction in patients. Eye torsion and perception of tilt during this stimulation are objective and subjective measurements, which could be used to determine alterations in spatial processing in the CNS.

  8. [Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. A review of 55 paediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Santos, Saturnino; Sgambatti, Luciano; Bueno, Antonio; Albi, Gustavo; Suárez, Alicia; Domínguez, Maria Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is the commonest congenital anomaly found with imaging techniques in paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Our aim was to describe clinical and audiological findings in paediatric hearing loss associated to EVA. Retrospective review of 55 children with imaging-technique EVA findings from 2000 to 2009. Subjective and/or objective audiological tests were analysed and audiological findings related to clinical features were described. Thirty-seven patients (67.27%) showed bilateral EVA and 18 (32.72%) were unilateral. Hearing loss was bilateral in 46 (83.63%) patients and unilateral in 9 (16.36%). Mean age at diagnosis was 3.78 years. Fifty-three (96.36%) children showed SNHL (28 bilateral and profound), while 2 (3.63%) patients had mixed hearing loss. There were 3 cases of hearing loss progression, 2 fluctuations, 2 of them were asymmetric and 2 patients suffered from vestibular symptoms. Concomitant image findings were 6 cochlear hypoplasia, 2 enlarged internal auditory canals, 1 enlarged vestibule and 1 hypoplastic lateral semicircular canal. Six clinical syndromes were found (2 cases of Down's, and 1 each of Jacobsen, Pendred, Waardenburg and branchio-oto-renal). One child was positive for GJB2 mutation. Familial hearing loss was demonstrated on 12 (21.8%) cases. The clinical picture of hearing loss associated to EVA is characterised by great variability. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained mixed hearing loss. Familial and syndromic findings have to be taken into consideration in the diagnostic evaluations of such patients. Knowledge about the natural history of this illness is needed so as to give parents prognostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptation to vestibular disorientation. XII, Habituation of vestibular responses : an overview.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-03-01

    Vestibular and visual mechanisms are critical sensing systems in spatial orientation and in spatial disorientation. In aviation or space environments in particular, the role of the vestibular system is central to the problems of spatial disorientatio...

  10. Morphological correlation between caloric tests and vestibular hydrops in Ménière's disease using intravenous Gd enhanced inner ear MRI.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Cho, Young Sang; Lee, Kieun; Park, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Chung, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that caloric response in Ménière's disease (MD) is reduced by hydropic expansion of the vestibular labyrinth, not by vestibular hypofunction, by evaluating the correlation morphologically using an intravenous Gadolinium (IV-Gd) inner ear MRI. In study I, the prevalence of abnormal video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) results among the patients with definite unilateral MD (n = 24) and vestibular neuritis (VN) (n = 22) were investigated. All patients showed abnormal canal paresis (CP) (> 26%) on caloric tests. The prevalence of abnormal vHIT in patients with abnormal CP was significantly lower in MD patients (12.5%) than that in VN patients (81.8%) (p < 0.001). In study II, morphological correlation between caloric tests and vestibular hydrops level was evaluated in unilateral MD patients (n = 16) who had normal vHIT results. Eleven patients (61%) had abnormal CP. After taking the images of IV-Gd inner ear MRI, the vestibular hydrops ratio (endolymph volume/total lymph volume = %VH) was measured. In addition, the relative vestibular hydrops ratio (%RVH = (%VHaffected ear-%VHunaffected ear) / (%VHaffected ear + %VHunaffected ear)) was calculated. Each ratio (%VH and %RVH) was compared with average peak slow phase velocity (PSPV) and CP, respectively. In the MD patients, %VH of the affected ear correlated significantly with mean PSPV on the same side (rs = -0.569, p = 0.024), while %RVH correlated significantly with CP (rs = 0.602, p = 0.014). In most MD patients (87.5%) compared to VN patients, vHIT results were normal even though the caloric function was reduced. In addition, the reduced caloric function with normal vHIT was related to the severity of the vestibular hydrops measured by the IV-Gd inner ear MRI. These findings concluded that the abnormal caloric tests with normal vHIT in MD indicated severe endolymphatic hydrops rather than vestibular hypofunction.

  11. The influence of unilateral saccular impairment on functional balance performance and self-report dizziness.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G; Verghese, Susha

    2011-09-01

    Postural stability in humans is largely maintained by vestibular, visual, and somatosensory inputs to the central nervous system. Recent clinical advances in the assessment of otolith function (e.g., cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials [cVEMPs and oVEMPs], subjective visual vertical [SVV] during eccentric rotation) have enabled investigators to identify patients with unilateral otolith impairments. This research has suggested that patients with unilateral otolith impairments perform worse than normal healthy controls on measures of postural stability. It is not yet known if patients with unilateral impairments of the saccule and/or inferior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilaterally abnormal cVEMP) perform differently on measures of postural stability than patients with unilateral impairments of the horizontal SCC (semicircular canal) and/or superior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilateral caloric weakness). Further, it is not known what relationship exists, if any, between otolith system impairment and self-report dizziness handicap. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which saccular impairments (defined by a unilaterally absent cVEMP) and impairments of the horizontal semicircular canal (as measured by the results of caloric testing) affect vestibulospinal function as measured through the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). A secondary objective of this investigation was to measure the effects, if any, that saccular impairment has on a modality-specific measure of health-related quality of life. A retrospective cohort study. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on results from balance function testing: Group 1 (abnormal cVEMP response only), Group 2 (abnormal caloric response only), Group 3 (abnormal cVEMP and abnormal caloric response), and Group 4 (normal control group). Subjects were 92 adult patients: 62 were seen for balance function testing due to complaints

  12. Interaction of somatoform and vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Best, C; Eckhardt‐Henn, A; Diener, G; Bense, S; Breuer, P; Dieterich, M

    2006-01-01

    Background The high coincidence of organic vestibular and somatoform vertigo syndromes has appeared to support pathogenic models showing a strong linkage between them. It was hypothesised that a persisting vestibular dysfunction causes the development of anxiety disorders. Objective To determine the relation between vestibular deficits and somatoform vertigo disorders in an interdisciplinary prospective study. Methods Participants were divided into eight diagnostic groups: healthy volunteers (n = 26) and patients with benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV, n = 11), vestibular neuritis (n = 11), Menière's disease (n = 7), vestibular migraine (n = 15), anxiety (n = 23), depression (n = 12), or somatoform disorders (n = 22). Neuro‐otological diagnostic procedures included electro‐oculography with rotatory and caloric testing, orthoptic examination with measurements of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and ocular torsion, and a neurological examination. Psychosomatic diagnostic procedures comprised interviews and psychometric instruments. Results Patients with BPPV (35.3%) and with vestibular neuritis (52.2%) had pathological test values on caloric irrigation (p<0.001). Otolith dysfunction with pathological tilts of SVV and ocular torsion was found only in patients with vestibular neuritis (p<0.001). Patients with Menière's disease, vestibular migraine, and psychiatric disorders showed normal parameters for vestibular testing but pathological values for psychometric measures. There was no correlation between pathological neurological and pathological psychometric parameters. Conclusions High anxiety scores are not a result of vestibular deficits or dysfunction. Patients with Menière's disease and vestibular migraine but not vestibular deficits showed the highest psychiatric comorbidity. Thus the course of vertigo syndromes and the possibility of a pre‐existing psychopathological personality should be considered pathogenic

  13. Vestibular signals in the parasolitary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Barmack, N H; Yakhnitsa, V

    2000-06-01

    Vestibular primary afferents project to secondary vestibular neurons located in the vestibular complex. Vestibular primary afferents also project to the uvula-nodulus of the cerebellum where they terminate on granule cells. In this report we describe the physiological properties of neurons in a "new" vestibular nucleus, the parasolitary nucleus (Psol). This nucleus consists of 2,300 GABAergic neurons that project onto the ipsilateral inferior olive (beta-nucleus and dorsomedial cell column) as well as the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis. These olivary neurons are the exclusive source of vestibularly modulated climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellum. We recorded the activity of Psol neurons during natural vestibular stimulation in anesthetized rabbits. The rabbits were placed in a three-axis rate table at the center of a large sphere, permitting vestibular and optokinetic stimulation. We recorded from 74 neurons in the Psol and from 23 neurons in the regions bordering Psol. The activity of 72/74 Psol neurons and 4/23 non-Psol neurons was modulated by vestibular stimulation in either the pitch or roll planes but not the horizontal plane. Psol neurons responded in phase with ipsilateral side-down head position or velocity during sinusoidal stimulation. Approximately 80% of the recorded Psol neurons responded to static roll-tilt. The optimal response planes of evoked vestibular responses were inferred from measurement of null planes. Optimal response planes usually were aligned with the anatomical orientation of one of the two ipsilateral vertical semicircular canals. The frequency dependence of null plane measurements indicated a convergence of vestibular information from otoliths and semicircular canals. None of the recorded neurons evinced optokinetic sensitivity. These results are consistent with the view that Psol neurons provide the vestibular signals to the inferior olive that eventually reached the cerebellum in the form of modulated climbing fiber

  14. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  15. A vestibular phenotype for Waardenburg syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Allen, K.; Gianna, C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate vestibular abnormalities in subjects with Waardenburg syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective record review. SETTING: Tertiary referral neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two adult white subjects with clinical diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (10 type I and 12 type II). INTERVENTIONS: Evaluation for Waardenburg phenotype, history of vestibular and auditory symptoms, tests of vestibular and auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of phenotyping, results of vestibular and auditory symptom review (history), results of vestibular and auditory function testing. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were women, and 5 were men. Their ages ranged from 21 to 58 years (mean, 38 years). Sixteen of the 22 subjects sought treatment for vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance. For subjects with vestibular symptoms, the results of vestibuloocular tests (calorics, vestibular autorotation, and/or pseudorandom rotation) were abnormal in 77%, and the results of vestibulospinal function tests (computerized dynamic posturography, EquiTest) were abnormal in 57%, but there were no specific patterns of abnormality. Six had objective sensorineural hearing loss. Thirteen had an elevated summating/action potential (>0.40) on electrocochleography. All subjects except those with severe hearing loss (n = 3) had normal auditory brainstem response results. CONCLUSION: Patients with Waardenburg syndrome may experience primarily vestibular symptoms without hearing loss. Electrocochleography and vestibular function tests appear to be the most sensitive measures of otologic abnormalities in such patients.

  16. Mobile phones: influence on auditory and vestibular systems.

    PubMed

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2008-01-01

    Telecommunications systems emit radiofrequency, which is an invisible electromagnetic radiation. Mobile phones operate with microwaves (450900 MHz in the analog service, and 1,82,2 GHz in the digital service) very close to the users ear. The skin, inner ear, cochlear nerve and the temporal lobe surface absorb the radiofrequency energy. literature review on the influence of cellular phones on hearing and balance. systematic review. We reviewed papers on the influence of mobile phones on auditory and vestibular systems from Lilacs and Medline databases, published from 2000 to 2005, and also materials available in the Internet. Studies concerning mobile phone radiation and risk of developing an acoustic neuroma have controversial results. Some authors did not see evidences of a higher risk of tumor development in mobile phone users, while others report that usage of analog cellular phones for ten or more years increase the risk of developing the tumor. Acute exposure to mobile phone microwaves do not influence the cochlear outer hair cells function in vivo and in vitro, the cochlear nerve electrical properties nor the vestibular system physiology in humans. Analog hearing aids are more susceptible to the electromagnetic interference caused by digital mobile phones. there is no evidence of cochleo-vestibular lesion caused by cellular phones.

  17. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, J T; Saxton, J; Hoffman, G

    1976-01-01

    A patient presented with unilateral findings of night blindness shown by impaired rod function and dark adaptation, constricted visual fields with good central acuity, a barely recordable electro-retinographic b-wave, and a unilaterally impaired electro-oculogram. There were none of the pigmentary changes usually associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected right eye was normal in all respects. Therefore the case is most probably one of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento. Images PMID:952804

  18. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, J T; Saxton, J; Hoffman, G

    1976-05-01

    A patient presented with unilateral findings of night blindness shown by impaired rod function and dark adaptation, constricted visual fields with good central acuity, a barely recordable electro-retinographic b-wave, and a unilaterally impaired electro-oculogram. There were none of the pigmentary changes usually associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected right eye was normal in all respects. Therefore the case is most probably one of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

  19. Effect of Carbon Dioxide Laser on Increasing Vestibular Depth in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients.

    PubMed

    Yassaei, Sogra; Aghili, Hossein; Azam, Alireza Navab; Moghadam, Mahjobeh Gholdani; Safari, Isa

    2017-09-01

    Shallow upper buccal sulcus deformity in cleft lip and palate patients is one of the common secondary deformities after primary cleft lip and palate repair; this deformity may prevent or complicate orthodontic and prosthodontic procedures causing aesthetic and functional problems. A number of methods are described to increase the anterior maxillary sulcus in these patients. This study assessed the use of a carbon dioxide laser (CO 2 ) to increase the sulcus depth. Fifteen patients with cleft lip and palate (eight unilateral and seven bilateral) were studied. The surgical procedure was performed using CO 2 laser. The vestibular depth and lip length were measured at three time points namely before surgery (T0), 1 week following surgery (T1), and 4 months following surgery (T2). After data collection, statistical analyses were done using PASW ® version 18 SPSS. The mean values of vestibular depth were 9.46 ± 1.92, 13.83 ± 1.88, and 13.23 ± 1.76 mm for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. The vestibular depth significantly increased after 4 months of follow-up (p = 0.001). The mean amount of vestibular depth gain was not significantly different in unilateral and bilateral cleft groups (p = 0.908). The mean value of upper lip length increased by a mean of 1.23 mm and was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Upper buccal sulcus reconstruction with CO 2 laser provides successful and stable results. CO 2 laser application is suggested as an alternative to conventional vestibuloplasty.

  20. Vestibular-visual interactions in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1977-01-01

    The following research work is reported: (1) vestibular-visual interactions; (2) flight management and crew system interactions; (3) peripheral cue utilization in simulation technology; (4) control of signs and symptoms of motion sickness; (5) auditory cue utilization in flight simulators, and (6) vestibular function: Animal experiments.

  1. Vision and Vestibular System Dysfunction Predicts Prolonged Concussion Recovery in Children.

    PubMed

    Master, Christina L; Master, Stephen R; Wiebe, Douglas J; Storey, Eileen P; Lockyer, Julia E; Podolak, Olivia E; Grady, Matthew F

    2018-03-01

    Up to one-third of children with concussion have prolonged symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Vision and vestibular dysfunction is common after concussion. It is unknown whether such dysfunction predicts prolonged recovery. We sought to determine which vision or vestibular problems predict prolonged recovery in children. A retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with concussion. A subspecialty pediatric concussion program. Four hundred thirty-two patient records were abstracted. Presence of vision or vestibular dysfunction upon presentation to the subspecialty concussion program. The main outcome of interest was time to clinical recovery, defined by discharge from clinical follow-up, including resolution of acute symptoms, resumption of normal physical and cognitive activity, and normalization of physical examination findings to functional levels. Study subjects were 5 to 18 years (median = 14). A total of 378 of 432 subjects (88%) presented with vision or vestibular problems. A history of motion sickness was associated with vestibular dysfunction. Younger age, public insurance, and presence of headache were associated with later presentation for subspecialty concussion care. Vision and vestibular problems were associated within distinct clusters. Provocable symptoms with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and smooth pursuits and abnormal balance and accommodative amplitude (AA) predicted prolonged recovery time. Vision and vestibular problems predict prolonged concussion recovery in children. A history of motion sickness may be an important premorbid factor. Public insurance status may represent problems with disparities in access to concussion care. Vision assessments in concussion must include smooth pursuits, saccades, near point of convergence (NPC), and accommodative amplitude (AA). A comprehensive, multidomain assessment is essential to predict prolonged recovery time and enable active intervention with specific school accommodations and targeted rehabilitation.

  2. Adjustment of the dynamic weight distribution as a sensitive parameter for diagnosis of postural alteration in a rodent model of vestibular deficit

    PubMed Central

    Tighilet, Brahim; Péricat, David; Frelat, Alais; Cazals, Yves; Rastoldo, Guillaume; Boyer, Florent; Dumas, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular disorders, by inducing significant posturo-locomotor and cognitive disorders, can significantly impair the most basic tasks of everyday life. Their precise diagnosis is essential to implement appropriate therapeutic countermeasures. Monitoring their evolution is also very important to validate or, on the contrary, to adapt the undertaken therapeutic actions. To date, the diagnosis methods of posturo-locomotor impairments are restricted to examinations that most often lack sensitivity and precision. In the present work we studied the alterations of the dynamic weight distribution in a rodent model of sudden and complete unilateral vestibular loss. We used a system of force sensors connected to a data analysis system to quantify in real time and in an automated way the weight bearing of the animal on the ground. We show here that sudden, unilateral, complete and permanent loss of the vestibular inputs causes a severe alteration of the dynamic ground weight distribution of vestibulo lesioned rodents. Characteristics of alterations in the dynamic weight distribution vary over time and follow the sequence of appearance and disappearance of the various symptoms that compose the vestibular syndrome. This study reveals for the first time that dynamic weight bearing is a very sensitive parameter for evaluating posturo-locomotor function impairment. Associated with more classical vestibular examinations, this paradigm can considerably enrich the methods for assessing and monitoring vestibular disorders. Systematic application of this type of evaluation to the dizzy or unstable patient could improve the detection of vestibular deficits and allow predicting better their impact on posture and walk. Thus it could also allow a better follow-up of the therapeutic approaches for rehabilitating gait and balance. PMID:29112981

  3. Adjustment of the dynamic weight distribution as a sensitive parameter for diagnosis of postural alteration in a rodent model of vestibular deficit.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Péricat, David; Frelat, Alais; Cazals, Yves; Rastoldo, Guillaume; Boyer, Florent; Dumas, Olivier; Chabbert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular disorders, by inducing significant posturo-locomotor and cognitive disorders, can significantly impair the most basic tasks of everyday life. Their precise diagnosis is essential to implement appropriate therapeutic countermeasures. Monitoring their evolution is also very important to validate or, on the contrary, to adapt the undertaken therapeutic actions. To date, the diagnosis methods of posturo-locomotor impairments are restricted to examinations that most often lack sensitivity and precision. In the present work we studied the alterations of the dynamic weight distribution in a rodent model of sudden and complete unilateral vestibular loss. We used a system of force sensors connected to a data analysis system to quantify in real time and in an automated way the weight bearing of the animal on the ground. We show here that sudden, unilateral, complete and permanent loss of the vestibular inputs causes a severe alteration of the dynamic ground weight distribution of vestibulo lesioned rodents. Characteristics of alterations in the dynamic weight distribution vary over time and follow the sequence of appearance and disappearance of the various symptoms that compose the vestibular syndrome. This study reveals for the first time that dynamic weight bearing is a very sensitive parameter for evaluating posturo-locomotor function impairment. Associated with more classical vestibular examinations, this paradigm can considerably enrich the methods for assessing and monitoring vestibular disorders. Systematic application of this type of evaluation to the dizzy or unstable patient could improve the detection of vestibular deficits and allow predicting better their impact on posture and walk. Thus it could also allow a better follow-up of the therapeutic approaches for rehabilitating gait and balance.

  4. Effects of droperidol in management of vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W H; Fenton, R S; Evans, A

    1976-07-01

    The chemo-therapy of vestibular disease has involved a wide spectrum of pharmacological agents insofar as their mode of action is concerned. In our experience, however, droperidol is one pharmaceutical agent which is remarkably effective in depressing vestibular disturbance regardless of etiology. This medication (also called Inapsine) belongs to a relatively new class of compounds known as butyrophenones and its pharmacological action can best be described as a dopa blocking agent. The activity of droperidol on the nervous system first became evident when it was used in combination with the potent analgesic fentanyl citrate in order to produce an anesthetic condition that has been termed neuroleptanalgesia. This mixture (also called Innovar) is rapid in action and results in complete suppression of vestibular activity of both normal subjects and those with Ménière's disease as described by Dowdy, et al., in a preliminary report. These impressive results have prompted us to evaluate the effectiveness of this medication in the treatment of different disorders of the labyrinth. The patients chosen for evaluation were referred for vestibular examination at the Toronto General and St. Michael's Hospitals. Electronystagmography was used to record objectively the effects of the drugs being tested while subjective symptoms including side effects were also noted. These studies involved 20 patients receiving Innovar while 12 patients were tested with Inapsine. Innovar administered in a single dose (droperidol 5 mg, fentanyl 0.1 mg) to patients undergoing acute episodes of vestibular disease (vestibular neuronitis and Ménière's disease) was found effective in the following symptoms and/or signs: nausea, vertigo, nystagmus, the positive past-pointing test and the Romberg test. Innovar appeared to be effective in the amelioration of vomiting although the population was too small to demonstrate statistical significance in this regard. The drug mixture appeared to have no

  5. Interactive wiimote gaze stabilization exercise training system for patients with vestibular hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral vestibular hypofunction is a major cause of dizziness. When complicated with postural imbalance, this condition can lead to an increased incidence of falls. In traditional clinical practice, gaze stabilization exercise is commonly used to rehabilitate patients. In this study, we established a computer-aided vestibular rehabilitation system by coupling infrared LEDs to an infrared receiver. This system enabled the subjects’ head-turning actions to be quantified, and the training was performed using vestibular exercise combined with computer games and interactive video games that simulate daily life activities. Methods Three unilateral and one bilateral vestibular hypofunction patients volunteered to participate in this study. The participants received 30 minutes of computer-aided vestibular rehabilitation training 2 days per week for 6 weeks. Pre-training and post-training assessments were completed, and a follow-up assessment was completed 1 month after the end of the training period. Results After 6 weeks of training, significant improvements in balance and dynamic visual acuity (DVA) were observed in the four participants. Self-reports of dizziness, anxiety and depressed mood all decreased significantly. Significant improvements in self-confidence and physical performance were also observed. The effectiveness of this training was maintained for at least 1 month after the end of the training period. Conclusion Real-time monitoring of training performance can be achieved using this rehabilitation platform. Patients demonstrated a reduction in dizziness symptoms after 6 weeks of training with this short-term interactive game approach. This treatment paradigm also improved the patients’ balance function. This system could provide a convenient, safe and affordable treatment option for clinical practitioners. PMID:23043886

  6. Interactive wiimote gaze stabilization exercise training system for patients with vestibular hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yin; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2012-10-09

    Peripheral vestibular hypofunction is a major cause of dizziness. When complicated with postural imbalance, this condition can lead to an increased incidence of falls. In traditional clinical practice, gaze stabilization exercise is commonly used to rehabilitate patients. In this study, we established a computer-aided vestibular rehabilitation system by coupling infrared LEDs to an infrared receiver. This system enabled the subjects' head-turning actions to be quantified, and the training was performed using vestibular exercise combined with computer games and interactive video games that simulate daily life activities. Three unilateral and one bilateral vestibular hypofunction patients volunteered to participate in this study. The participants received 30 minutes of computer-aided vestibular rehabilitation training 2 days per week for 6 weeks. Pre-training and post-training assessments were completed, and a follow-up assessment was completed 1 month after the end of the training period. After 6 weeks of training, significant improvements in balance and dynamic visual acuity (DVA) were observed in the four participants. Self-reports of dizziness, anxiety and depressed mood all decreased significantly. Significant improvements in self-confidence and physical performance were also observed. The effectiveness of this training was maintained for at least 1 month after the end of the training period. Real-time monitoring of training performance can be achieved using this rehabilitation platform. Patients demonstrated a reduction in dizziness symptoms after 6 weeks of training with this short-term interactive game approach. This treatment paradigm also improved the patients' balance function. This system could provide a convenient, safe and affordable treatment option for clinical practitioners.

  7. [The significance of directional preponderance in the evaluation of vestibular function in patients with vertigo].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhou, Y J; Yu, J; Gu, J

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between directional preponderance (DP), spontaneous nystagmus(SN) and vestibular disorders, and to investigate the significance of DP in directing peripheral vestibular function in patients with vertigo. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 394 cases diagnosed with peripheral vestibular disease accompanied by vertigo from March 2012 to June 2014 in the Outpatient Department of the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Results of static and dynamic posture equilibrium tests, SN, unilateral weakness(UW), and DP in videonystagmography(VNG) were analyzed and compared. Results: The mean interval time between the last vertigo attack and examination in patients with SN or DP in caloric test were 4.4 d and 7.3 d respectively, and those without SN or DP were 18.3 d and 17.5 d respectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to DP results of caloric test. DP-normal group had 203 cases and DP-abnormal group had 191 cases. Spontaneous nystagmus was presented in 44 cases in the DP-normal group (21.67%) and four in the DP-abnormal group (2.09%). A significant difference was found between the two groups (χ 2 =35.27, P =0.000). Deficiency of vestibular function was noted in 165 cases in the DP-normal group (81.28%) and 123 (64.40%) in the DP-abnormal group in static and dynamic posture equilibrium tests. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (χ 2 =14.26, P =0.000). Conclusion: Compared with DP-normal patients, DP-abnormal patients are more likely to have spontaneous nystagmus and balance disorders due to vestibular dysfunction.

  8. Recovery from Spatial Neglect with Intra- and Transhemispheric Functional Connectivity Changes in Vestibular and Visual Cortex Areas-A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Julian; Boegle, Rainer; Ertl, Matthias; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    Vestibular signals are involved in higher cortical functions like spatial orientation and its disorders. Vestibular dysfunction contributes, for example, to spatial neglect which can be transiently improved by caloric stimulation. The exact roles and mechanisms of the vestibular and visual systems for the recovery of neglect are not yet known. Resting-state functional connectivity (fc) magnetic resonance imaging was recorded in a patient with hemispatial neglect during the acute phase and after recovery 6 months later following a right middle cerebral artery infarction before and after caloric vestibular stimulation. Seeds in the vestibular [parietal operculum (OP2)], the parietal [posterior parietal cortex (PPC); 7A, hIP3], and the visual cortex (VC) were used for the analysis. During the acute stage after caloric stimulation the fc of the right OP2 to the left OP2, the anterior cingulum, and the para/hippocampus was increased bilaterally (i.e., the vestibular network), while the interhemispheric fc was reduced between homologous regions in the VC. After 6 months, similar fc increases in the vestibular network were found without stimulation. In addition, fc increases of the OP2 to the PPC and the VC were seen; interhemispherically this was true for both PPCs and for the right PPC to both VCs. Improvement of neglect after caloric stimulation in the acute phase was associated with increased fc of vestibular cortex areas in both hemispheres to the para-hippocampus and the dorsal anterior cingulum, but simultaneously with reduced interhemispheric VC connectivity. This disclosed a, to some extent, similar but also distinct short-term mechanism (vestibular stimulation) of an improvement of spatial orientation compared to the long-term recovery of neglect.

  9. Visual and vestibular components of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Eyeson-Annan, M; Peterken, C; Brown, B; Atchison, D

    1996-10-01

    The relative importance of visual and vestibular information in the etiology of motion sickness (MS) is not well understood, but these factors can be manipulated by inducing Coriolis and pseudo-Coriolis effects in experimental subjects. We hypothesized that visual and vestibular information are equivalent in producing MS. The experiments reported here aim, in part, to examine the relative influence of Coriolis and pseudo-Coriolis effects in inducing MS. We induced MS symptoms by combinations of whole body rotation and tilt, and environment rotation and tilt, in 22 volunteer subjects. Subjects participated in all of the experiments with at least 2 d between each experiment to dissipate after-effects. We recorded MS signs and symptoms when only visual stimulation was applied, when only vestibular stimulation was applied, and when both visual and vestibular stimulation were applied under specific conditions of whole body and environmental tilt. Visual stimuli produced more symptoms of MS than vestibular stimuli when only visual or vestibular stimuli were used (ANOVA F = 7.94, df = 1, 21 p = 0.01), but there was no significant difference in MS production when combined visual and vestibular stimulation were used to produce the Coriolis effect or pseudo-Coriolis effect (ANOVA: F = 0.40, df = 1, 21 p = 0.53). This was further confirmed by examination of the order in which the symptoms occurred and the lack of a correlation between previous experience and visually induced MS. Visual information is more important than vestibular input in causing MS when these stimuli are presented in isolation. In conditions where both visual and vestibular information are present, cross-coupling appears to occur between the pseudo-Coriolis effect and the Coriolis effect, as these two conditions are not significantly different in producing MS symptoms.

  10. Progress Toward Development of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis for Treatment of Bilateral Vestibular Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    FRIDMAN, GENE Y.; DELLA SANTINA, CHARLES C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews vestibular pathology and the requirements and progress made in the design and construction of a vestibular prosthesis. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation is disabling. When vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications or other insults to the labyrinth, the resulting loss of sensory input disrupts vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body. Affected individuals suffer poor vision during head movement, postural instability, chronic disequilibrium, and cognitive distraction. Although most individuals with residual sensation compensate for their loss over time, others fail to do so and have no adequate treatment options. A vestibular prosthesis analogous to cochlear implants but designed to modulate vestibular nerve activity during head movement should improve quality of life for these chronically dizzy individuals. We describe the impact of bilateral loss of vestibular sensation, animal studies supporting feasibility of prosthetic vestibular stimulation, the current status of multichannel vestibular sensory replacement prosthesis development, and challenges to successfully realizing this approach in clinical practice. In bilaterally vestibular-deficient rodents and rhesus monkeys, the Johns Hopkins multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) partially restores the three-dimensional (3D) VOR for head rotations about any axis. Attempts at prosthetic vestibular stimulation of humans have not yet included the 3D eye movement assays necessary to accurately evaluate VOR alignment, but these initial forays have revealed responses that are otherwise comparable to observations in animals. Current efforts now focus on refining electrode design and surgical technique to enhance stimulus selectivity and preserve cochlear function, optimizing stimulus protocols to improve dynamic range and reduce excitation–inhibition asymmetry, and adapting laboratory MVP prototypes into devices

  11. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  12. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  13. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  14. The Association Between Vestibular Physical Examination, Vertigo Questionnaires, and the Electronystagmography in Patients With Vestibular Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gofrit, Shany G; Mayler, Yulia; Eliashar, Ron; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Ilan, Ophir; Gross, Menachem

    2017-04-01

    Dizziness makes up a diagnostic and treatment challenge. The diagnostic accuracy of the medical history and vestibular physical examination in cases of vestibular symptoms is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and electronystagmography (ENG) test in patients with vestibular symptoms. This is a prospective study of 135 adults with vestibular symptoms. The subjects underwent targeted physical examination and filled vestibular questionnaires, including the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), before ENG testing. The results of the physical examination and questionnaires were compared with the final ENG findings. Of patients who had normal ENG results, 32.1% (17/52) showed abnormal physical examination, and 48.8% (40/82) of the patient who had normal physical examination showed abnormal ENG results ( P = .46). Among patients with severe disability by DHI, 46.4% (13/28) had an abnormal ENG, and 42.9% (12/28) had a normal ENG ( P = .39). This study did not demonstrate association between vestibular physical examination, vestibular questionnaires, and ENG results. Although history (augmented by questionnaires) and physical examination are the initial steps in the evaluation of vertigo, the current study suggests that they should be complemented by objective testing for evaluation of inner ear origin of vertigo.

  15. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group with Vestibular Schawannoma.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Pourbakht, Akram; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Bassam, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC) stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients. We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants. In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025). In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87%) of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100%) displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS), 2 (50.00%) had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss.

  16. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Produced by Bone-Conducted Stimuli: A Study on its Basics and Clinical Applications in Patients with Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss and a Group with Vestibular Schawannoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Pourbakht, Akram; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Bassam, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has recently been broadly studied in vestibular disorders. As it is evoked by loud sound stimulation, even mild conductive hearing loss may affect VEMP results. Bone-conducted (BC) stimulus is an alternative stimulation for evoking this response. This study aims to assess the characteristics of BC-VEMP in different groups of patients. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross sectional analysis on 20 healthy volunteers with normal pure-tone audiometry as a control group; and on a group of patients consisted of 20 participants with conductive hearing loss, five with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and four with vestibular schawannoma. AC and BC-VEMP were performed in all participants. Results: In control group the VEMP responses to both kinds of stimuli had an acceptable morphology and consisted of p13 and n23 waves. Latency value of these main components in each type of stimulus was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the mean amplitude was larger in BC modality than AC stimulation (P=0.025). In the group with conductive hearing loss, the VEMP response was absent in fifteen (46.87%) of the 32 ears using the AC method, whereas all (100%) displayed positive elicitability of VEMP by BC method. Normal VEMP responses in both stimuli were evoked in all patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS), 2 (50.00%) had neither AC-VEMP nor BC-VEMP. Conclusion: Auditory stimuli delivered by bone conduction can evoke VEMP response. These responses are of vestibular origin and can be used in vestibular evaluation of patients with conductive hearing loss. PMID:24303434

  17. Eight indicators of unilateral pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Melchionne, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy often leads to undesirable outcomes for both mothers and children. However, the definition of unintended pregnancy in the sociology of family formation has been restricted to the intentions of mothers. The intentions of fathers--and, with them, the possible role of disagreement about pregnancy intention--remain outside most conceptual frameworks and research programs. This article draws together a number of indicators of unilateral pregnancy in research on contemporary family formation in the United States. Studies of pregnancy intendedness and contraceptive use consistently provide evidence suggesting a significant role for unilateral pregnancy in family formation. Working on the assumption that unilateral pregnancy presents great potential for social dislocation, this article argues for the integration of the concept of unilateral pregnancy into the theoretical framework informing research on family formation.

  18. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to vertex low frequency vibration as a diagnostic test for superior canal dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Verrecchia, Luca; Westin, Magnus; Duan, Maoli; Brantberg, Krister

    2016-04-01

    To explore ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) to low-frequency vertex vibration (125 Hz) as a diagnostic test for superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. The oVEMP using 125 Hz single cycle bone-conducted vertex vibration were tested in 15 patients with unilateral superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome, 15 healthy controls and in 20 patients with unilateral vestibular loss due to vestibular neuritis. Amplitude, amplitude asymmetry ratio, latency and interaural latency difference were parameters of interest. The oVEMP amplitude was significantly larger in SCD patients when affected sides (53 μVolts) were compared to non-affected (17.2 μVolts) or compared to healthy controls (13.6 μVolts). Amplitude larger than 33.8 μVolts separates effectively the SCD ears from the healthy ones with sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. The other three parameters showed an overlap between affected SCD ears and non-affected as well as between SCD ears and those in the two control groups. oVEMP amplitude distinguishes SCD ears from healthy ones using low-frequency vibration stimuli at vertex. Amplitude analysis of oVEMP evoked by low-frequency vertex bone vibration stimulation is an additional indicator of SCD syndrome and might serve for diagnosing SCD patients with coexistent conductive middle ear problems. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials Help Differentiate Ménière Disease from Vestibular Migraine?

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Janky, Kristen L.; Schubert, Michael C.; Carey, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize both cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP, oVEMP) responses to air-conducted sound (ACS) and midline taps in Ménière disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and controls, as well as to determine if cVEMP or oVEMP responses can differentiate MD from VM. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Unilateral definite MD patients (n = 20), VM patients (n = 21) by modified Neuhauser criteria, and age-matched controls (n = 28). cVEMP testing used ACS (clicks), and oVEMP testing used ACS (clicks and 500-Hz tone bursts) and midline tap stimuli (reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker). Outcome parameters were cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes and oVEMP n10 amplitudes. Results Relative to controls, MD and VM groups both showed reduced click-evoked cVEMP (P < .001) and oVEMP (P < .001) amplitudes. Only the MD group showed reduction in tone-evoked amplitudes for oVEMP. Tone-evoked oVEMPs differentiated MD from controls (P = .001) and from VM (P = .007). The oVEMPs in response to the reflex hammer and Mini-Shaker midline taps showed no differences between groups (P > .210). Conclusions Using these techniques, VM and MD behaved similarly on most of the VEMP test battery. A link in their pathophysiology may be responsible for these responses. The data suggest a difference in 500-Hz tone burst–evoked oVEMP responses between MD and MV as a group. However, no VEMP test that was investigated segregated individuals with MD from those with VM. PMID:22267492

  20. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  1. Vestibular development in marsupials and monotremes

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Shulruf, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    The young of marsupials and monotremes are all born in an immature state, followed by prolonged nurturing by maternal lactation in either a pouch or nest. Nevertheless, the level of locomotor ability required for newborn marsupials and monotremes to reach the safety of the pouch or nest varies considerably: some are transferred to the pouch or nest in an egg (monotremes); others are transferred passively by gravity (e.g. dasyurid marsupials); some have only a horizontal wriggle to make (e.g. peramelid and didelphid marsupials); and others must climb vertically for a long distance to reach the maternal pouch (e.g. diprotodontid marsupials). In the present study, archived sections of the inner ear and hindbrain held in the Bolk, Hill and Hubrecht collections at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, were used to test the relationship between structural maturity of the vestibular apparatus and the locomotor challenges that face the young of these different mammalian groups. A system for staging different levels of structural maturity of the vestibular apparatus was applied to the embryos, pouch young and hatchlings, and correlated with somatic size as indicated by greatest body length. Dasyurids are born at the most immature state, with the vestibular apparatus at little more than the otocyst stage. Peramelids are born with the vestibular apparatus at a more mature state (fully developed semicircular ducts and a ductus reuniens forming between the cochlear duct and saccule, but no semicircular canals). Diprotodontids and monotremes are born with the vestibular apparatus at the most mature state for the non-eutherians (semicircular canals formed, maculae present, but vestibular nuclei in the brainstem not yet differentiated). Monotremes and marsupials reach the later stages of vestibular apparatus development at mean body lengths that lie within the range of those found for laboratory rodents (mouse and rat) reaching the same vestibular stage. PMID:24298911

  2. Vestibular-visual interactions in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.

    1977-01-01

    All 139 research papers published under this ten-year program are listed. Experimental work was carried out at the Ames Research Center involving man's sensitivity to rotational acceleration, and psychophysical functioning of the semicircular canals; vestibular-visual interactions and effects of other sensory systems were studied in flight simulator environments. Experiments also dealt with the neurophysiological vestibular functions of animals, and flight management investigations of man-vehicle interactions.

  3. Outcome analysis of individualized vestibular rehabilitation protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Angel, C. R.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Gianna, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of vestibular rehabilitation protocols in subjects with peripheral vestibular disorders compared with normal and abnormal control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study using repeated measure, matched control design. Subjects were solicited consecutively according to these criteria: vestibular disorder subjects who had abnormal results of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) sensory organization tests (SOTs) 5 and 6 and underwent rehabilitation; vestibular disorder subjects who had abnormal results of SOTs 5 and 6 and did not undergo rehabilitation; and normal subjects (normal SOTs). SETTING: Tertiary neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Men and women over age 18 with chronic vestibular disorders and chief complaints of unsteadiness, imbalance, and/or motion intolerance, and normal subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Pre- and post-rehabilitation assessment included CDP, vestibular disability, and activities of daily living questionnaires. Individualized rehabilitation plans were designed and implemented to address the subject's specific complaints and functional deficits. Supervised sessions were held at weekly intervals, and self-administered programs were devised for daily home use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CDP composite and SOT scores, number of falls on CDP, and self-assessment questionnaire results. RESULTS: Subjects who underwent rehabilitation (Group A) showed statistically significant improvements in SOTs, overall composite score, and reduction in falls compared with abnormal (Group B) control groups. Group A's performances after rehabilitation were not significantly different from those of normal subjects (Group C) in SOTs 3 through 6, and close to normal on SOTs 1 and 2. Subjects in Group A also reported statistically significant symptomatic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome measures of vestibular protocol physical therapy confirmed objective and subjective improvement in subjects with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders. These

  4. [Effectiveness of Self-efficacy Promoting Vestibular Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Vestibular Hypofunction].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2016-10-01

    In this study an examination was done of the effect of self-efficacy promoting vestibular rehabilitation (S-VR) on dizziness, exercise selfefficacy, adherence to vestibular rehabilitation (VR), subjective and objective vestibular function, vestibular compensation and the recurrence of dizziness in patients with vestibular hypofunction. This was a randomized controlled study. Data were collected 3 times at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks after beginning the intervention. Outcome measures were level of dizziness, exercise self-efficacy, and level of adherence to VR. Subjective and objective vestibular function, vestibular compensation and the recurrence of dizziness were also obtained. Data were analyzed using Windows SPSS 21.0 program. After 4 weeks of S-VR, there was no difference between the groups for dizziness, subjective and objective vestibular functions. However, exercise self-efficacy and adherence to VR were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. After 8 weeks of S-VR, dizziness (p=.018) exercise self-efficacy (p<.001), adherence to VR (p<.001), total-dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) (p=.012), vision analysis ratio (p=.046) in the experimental group differ significantly from that of the control group. The number of patients with recurring dizziness were higher in the control group than in the experimental group (p<.001). The results indicate that continuous 8 weeks of S-VR is effective in reducing dizziness, and improving exercise self-efficacy, subjective vestibular function and adherence to VR. Objective vestibular function and vestibular compensation were also improved in the experimental group at the end of 8 weeks of S-VR.

  5. Vestibular function assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Michael C.; Whitney, Susan L.; Roberts, Dale; Redfern, Mark S.; Musolino, Mark C.; Roche, Jennica L.; Steed, Daniel P.; Corbin, Bree; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Marchetti, Greg F.; Beaumont, Jennifer; Carey, John P.; Shepard, Neil P.; Jacobson, Gary P.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Furman, Gabriel; Slotkin, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Development of an easy to administer, low-cost test of vestibular function. Methods: Members of the NIH Toolbox Sensory Domain Vestibular, Vision, and Motor subdomain teams collaborated to identify 2 tests: 1) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA), and 2) the Balance Accelerometry Measure (BAM). Extensive work was completed to identify and develop appropriate software and hardware. More than 300 subjects between the ages of 3 and 85 years, with and without vestibular dysfunction, were recruited and tested. Currently accepted gold standard measures of static visual acuity, vestibular function, dynamic visual acuity, and balance were performed to determine validity. Repeat testing was performed to examine reliability. Results: The DVA and BAM tests are affordable and appropriate for use for individuals 3 through 85 years of age. The DVA had fair to good reliability (0.41–0.94) and sensitivity and specificity (50%–73%), depending on age and optotype chosen. The BAM test was moderately correlated with center of pressure (r = 0.42–0.48) and dynamic posturography (r = −0.48), depending on age and test condition. Both tests differentiated those with and without vestibular impairment and the young from the old. Each test was reliable. Conclusion: The newly created DVA test provides a valid measure of visual acuity with the head still and moving quickly. The novel BAM is a valid measure of balance. Both tests are sensitive to age-related changes and are able to screen for impairment of the vestibular system. PMID:23479540

  6. Vestibular ontogeny: Measuring the influence of the dynamic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Timothy A.; Devries, Sherri M.; Dubois, Linda M.; Nelson, Rick C.

    1993-01-01

    In comparison to other special senses, we are only meagerly informed about the development of vestibular function and the mechanisms that may operate to control or influence the course of vestibular ontogeny. Perhaps one contributing factor to this disparity is the difficulty of evaluating vestibular sense organs directly and noninvasively. The present report describes a recently developed direct noninvasive vestibular function test that can be used to address many basic questions about the developing vestibular system. More particularly, the test can be used to examine the effects of the dynamic environment (e.g. gravitational field and vibration) on vestibular ontogeny.

  7. One-shot, low-dosage intratympanic gentamicin for Ménière's disease: Clinical, posturographic and vestibular test findings.

    PubMed

    Daneshi, Ahmad; Jahandideh, Hesam; Pousti, Seyed Behzad; Mohammadi, Shabahang

    2014-01-01

    Ménière's disease has been remained as a difficult therapeutic challenge. The present study aimed to determine the effects of one-shot low-dosage intratympanic gentamicin on vertigo control, auditory outcomes and findings of computerized dynamic posturography and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease. In a prospective clinical study, 30 patients with unilateral Ménière's disease were treated with one-shot intratympanic injection of 20 milligrams gentamicin. Main outcome measures included clinical, audiometric, postural and vestibular outcomes evaluated 1 and 9 months after the treatment. Mean vertigo attacks frequency, pure tone average threshold and functional level scale significantly decreased after the treatment (P < 0.05). Effective vertigo control (class A and B) obtained in 95.8% of the patients. In total, 75% of patients reported decrease in both aural fullness and tinnitus. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials became absent in all the patients but four of them. Posturographic scores were improved after the treatment. One-shot low-dosage gentamicin was effective in controlling vertigo attacks in Ménière's disease and has useful effects on aural fullness and tinnitus of patients as well. Postural and vestibular tests only have adjunctive role for monitoring therapeutic responses in intratympanic gentamicin-therapy.

  8. Top-down approach to vestibular compensation: translational lessons from vestibular rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Carey D.; Hoffer, Michael E.; Gottshall, Kim R.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines vestibular compensation and vestibular rehabilitation from a unified translational research perspective. Laboratory studies illustrate neurobiological principles of vestibular compensation at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in animal models that inform vestibular rehabilitation practice. However, basic research has been hampered by an emphasis on ‘naturalistic’ recovery, with time after insult and drug interventions as primary dependent variables. The vestibular rehabilitation literature, on the other hand, provides information on how the degree of compensation can be shaped by specific activity regimens. The milestones of the early spontaneous static compensation mark the re-establishment of static gaze stability, which provides a common coordinate frame for the brain to interpret residual vestibular information in the context of visual, somatosensory and visceral signals that convey gravitoinertial information. Stabilization of the head orientation and the eye orientation (suppression of spontaneous nystagmus) appear to be necessary by not sufficient conditions for successful rehabilitation, and define a baseline for initiating retraining. The lessons from vestibular rehabilitation in animal models offer the possibility of shaping the recovery trajectory to identify molecular and genetic factors that can improve vestibular compensation. PMID:22981400

  9. Vestibular schwannoma management: Part II. Failed radiosurgery and the role of delayed microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Bruce E; Lunsford, L Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Sekula, Raymond; Subach, Brian R; Foote, Robert L; Flickinger, John C

    2013-12-01

    The indications, operative findings, and outcomes of vestibular schwannoma microsurgery are controversial when it is performed after stereotactic radiosurgery. To address these issues, the authors reviewed the experience at two academic medical centers. During a 10-year interval, 452 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas underwent gamma knife radiosurgery. Thirteen patients (2.9%) underwent delayed microsurgery at a median of 27 months (range 7–72 months) after they had undergone radiosurgery. Six of the 13 patients had undergone one or more microsurgical procedures before they underwent radiosurgery. The indications for surgery were tumor enlargement with stable symptoms in five patients, tumor enlargement with new or increased symptoms in five patients, and increased symptoms without evidence of tumor growth in three patients. Gross-total resection was achieved in seven patients and near-gross-total resection in four patients. The surgery was described as more difficult than that typically performed for schwannoma in eight patients, no different in four patients, and easier in one patient. At the last follow-up evaluation, three patients had normal or near-normal facial function, three patients had moderate facial dysfunction, and seven had facial palsies. Three patients were incapable of caring for themselves, and one patient died of progression of a malignant triton tumor. Failed radiosurgery in cases of vestibular schwannoma was rare. No clear relationship was demonstrated between the use of radiosurgery and the subsequent ease or difficulty of delayed microsurgery. Because some patients have temporary enlargement of their tumor after radiosurgery, the need for surgical resection after radiosurgery should be reviewed with the neurosurgeon who performed the radiosurgery and should be delayed until sustained tumor growth is confirmed. A subtotal tumor resection should be considered for patients who require surgical resection of their tumor after

  10. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to lateral skull taps are dependent on two different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brantberg, Krister; Westin, Magnus; Löfqvist, Lennart; Verrecchia, Luca; Tribukait, Arne

    2009-05-01

    To explore the mechanisms for skull tap induced vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). The muscular responses were recorded over both sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles using skin electrodes. A skull tapper which provided a constant stimulus intensity was used to test cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in response to lateral skull taps in healthy subjects (n=10) and in patients with severe unilateral loss of vestibular function (n=10). Skull taps applied approximately 2 cm above the outer ear canal caused highly reproducible VEMP. There were differences in VEMP in both normals and patients depending on side of tapping. In normals, there was a positive-negative ("normal") VEMP on the side contra-lateral to the skull tapping, but no significant VEMP ipsi-laterally. In patients, skull taps above the lesioned ear caused a contra-lateral positive-negative VEMP (as it did in the normals), in addition there was an ipsi-lateral negative-positive ("inverted") VEMP. When skull taps were presented above the healthy ear there was only a small contra-lateral positive-negative VEMP but, similar to the normals, no VEMP ipsi-laterally. The present data, in conjunction with earlier findings, support a theory that skull-tap VEMP responses are mediated by two different mechanisms. It is suggested that skull tapping causes both a purely ipsi-lateral stimulus side independent SCM response and a bilateral and of opposite polarity SCM response that is stimulus side dependent. Possibly, the skull tap induced VEMP responses are the sum of a stimulation of two species of vestibular receptors, one excited by vibration (which is rather stimulus site independent) and one excited by translation (which is more stimulus site dependent). Skull-tap VEMP probably have two different mechanisms. Separation of the two components might reveal the status of different labyrinthine functions.

  11. Vestibular short latency responses to pulsed linear acceleration in unanesthetized animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Linear acceleration transients were used to elicit vestibular compound action potentials in non-invasively prepared, unanesthetized animals for the first time (chicks, Gallus domesticus, n = 33). Responses were composed of a series of up to 8 dominant peaks occurring within 8 msec of the stimulus. Response amplitudes for 1.0 g stimulus ranged from 1 to 10 microV. A late, slow, triphasic, anesthesia-labile component was identified as a dominant response feature in unanesthetized animals. Amplitudes increased and latencies decreased as stimulus intensity was increased (MANOVA P less than 0.05). Linear regression slope ranges were: amplitudes = 1.0-5.0 microV/g; latencies = -300 to -1100 microseconds/g. Thresholds for single polarity stimuli (0.035 +/- 0.022 g, n = 11) were significantly lower than those of alternating polarity (0.074 +/- 0.028 g, n = 18, P less than 0.001). Bilateral labyrinthectomy eliminated responses whereas bilateral extirpation of cochleae did not significantly change response thresholds. Intense acoustic masking (100/104 dB SL) produced no effect in 2 animals, but did produce small to moderate effects on response amplitudes in 7 others. Changes were attributed to effects on vestibular end organs. Results of unilateral labyrinth blockade (tetrodotoxin) suggest that P1 and N1 preferentially reflect ipsilateral eighth nerve compound action potentials whereas components beyond approximately 2 msec reflect activity from vestibular neurons that depend on both labyrinths. The results demonstrate that short latency vestibular compound action potentials can be measured in unanesthetized, non-invasively prepared animals.

  12. The Video Head Impulse Test to Assess the Efficacy of Vestibular Implants in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Guinand, Nils; Van de Berg, Raymond; Cavuscens, Samuel; Ranieri, Maurizio; Schneider, Erich; Lucieer, Floor; Kingma, Herman; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Pérez Fornos, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether it is possible to restore the high-frequency angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) in patients suffering from a severe bilateral vestibulopathy (BV) and implanted with a vestibular implant prototype. Three patients (S1–3) participated in the study. They received a prototype vestibular implant with one to three electrode branches implanted in the proximity of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Five electrodes were available for electrical stimulation: one implanted in proximity of the left posterior ampullary nerve in S1, one in the left lateral and another one in the superior ampullary nerves in S2, and one in the right lateral and another one in the superior ampullary nerves in S3. The high-frequency aVOR was assessed using the video head impulse test (EyeSeeCam; EyeSeeTec, Munich, Germany), while motion-modulated electrical stimulation was delivered via one of the implanted vestibular electrodes at a time. aVOR gains were compared to control measurements obtained in the same patients when the device was not activated. In three out of the five tested electrodes the aVOR gain increased monotonically with increased stimulation strength when head impulses were delivered in the plane of the implanted canal. In these cases, gains ranging from 0.4 to values above 1 were measured. A “reversed” aVOR could also be generated when inversed stimulation paradigms were used. In most cases, the gain for excitatory head impulses was superior to that recorded for inhibitory head impulses, consistent with unilateral vestibular stimulation. Improvements of aVOR gain were generally accompanied by a concomitant decrease of corrective saccades, providing additional evidence of an effective aVOR. High inter-electrode and inter-subject variability were observed. These results, together with previous research, demonstrate that it is possible to restore the aVOR in a broad frequency range using motion

  13. Neurotology symptoms at referral to vestibular evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness-vertigo is common in adults, but clinical providers may rarely diagnose vestibular impairment and referral could be delayed. To assess neurotology symptoms (including triggers) reported by patients with peripheral vestibular disease, during the year just before their referral to vestibular evaluation. Methods 282 patients with peripheral vestibular disease and 282 control subjects accepted to participate. They had no middle ear, retinal, neurological, psychiatric, autoimmune or autonomic disorders. They reported their symptoms by a standardized questionnaire along with their anxiety/depression symptoms. Results Patients were referred after months or years from the onset of their symptoms, 24% of them reported frequent falls with a long clinical evolution; 10% of them reported no vertigo but instability related to specific triggers; 86% patients and 12% control subjects reported instability when moving the head rapidly and 79% patients and 6% control subjects reported instability when changing posture. Seven out of the 9 symptoms explored by the questionnaire allowed the correct classification of circa 95% of the participants (Discriminant function analysis, p < 0.001). High blood pressure, dyslipidemia and anxiety/depression symptoms showed a mild correlation with the total score of symptoms (multiple R2 =0.18, p < 0.001). Conclusions Late referral to vestibular evaluation may underlie a history of frequent falls; some patients may not report vertigo, but instability related to specific triggers, which could be useful to prompt vestibular evaluation. High blood pressure, dyslipidemia and anxiety/depression symptoms may have a mild influence on the report of symptoms of vestibular disease in both, patients and control subjects. PMID:24279682

  14. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  15. Quality of life of individuals submitted to vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Patatas, Olívia Helena Gomes; Ganança, Cristina Freitas; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Balance disorders affect social, family and professional activities. Vestibular rehabilitation can reduce the impact of these disorders on the quality of life of individuals with vertigo. to study the influence of vestibular rehabilitation on the quality of life of individuals, correlating it with gender, age, results from computerized vectoelectronystagmography and vertigo. Retrospective. Twenty-two individuals were submitted to customized vestibular rehabilitation and the Brazilian Dizziness Handicap Inventory - DHI before and after vestibular rehabilitation. Results from this questionnaire were correlated with gender, age, vestibular assessment and the presence of vertigo. all the DHI scores reduced significantly after vestibular rehabilitation. There were no differences among genders; adults and elderly patients; irritative peripheral vestibular syndromes; deficiency syndromes and normal exams; the presence or absence of vertigo. all the individuals had improvements in their quality of life after customized vestibular rehabilitation.

  16. Standing balance tests for screening people with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2014-02-01

    To improve the test standards for a version of the Romberg test and to determine whether measuring kinematic variables improved its utility for screening. Healthy controls and patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, postoperative acoustic neuroma resection, and chronic peripheral unilateral weakness were compared. Subjects wore Bluetooth-enabled inertial motion units while standing on the floor or medium-density, compliant foam, with eyes open or closed, with head still or moving in pitch or yaw. Dependent measures were time to perform each test condition, number of head movements made, and kinematic variables. Patients and controls did not differ significantly with eyes open or with eyes closed while on the floor. With eyes closed, on foam, some significant differences were found between patients and controls, especially for subjects older than 59 years. Head movement conditions were more challenging than with the head still. Significantly fewer patients than controls could make enough head movements to obtain kinematic measures. Kinematics indicated that lateral balance control is significantly reduced in these patients compared to controls. Receiver operator characteristics and sensitivity/specificity analyses showed moderately good differences with older subjects. Tests on foam with eyes closed, with head still or moving, may be useful as part of a screening battery for vestibular impairments, especially for older people. 3b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with BPPV.

    PubMed

    Korres, Stavros; Gkoritsa, Eleni; Giannakakou-Razelou, Dimitra; Yiotakis, Ioannis; Riga, Maria; Nikolpoulos, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The probable cause of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a degeneration of the oto lithic organs (utricle and saccule). The aim of the study is to find possible alterations in Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) recordings in BPPV patients, because the saccule is part of the VEMP pathway. 27 BPPV patients (24 unilateral and 3 bilateral) aged 20 to 70 years and 30 healthy age matched controls. BPPV was diagnosed by the upbeating geotropic nystagmus found in the supine position with the head overextended towards one side. The subjects were investigated with pure tone audiometry, bi-thermal caloric test with electronystagmographic (ENG) recording, and VEMP recording. P1 latency and N1 latency did not present any statistical difference between control ears and affected ears of the BPPV population. The percentage of abnormal VEMP in the BPPV population was statistically higher than in the control ears (p < 0.005). No significant relationship could be shown between the occurrence of Canal Paresis and abnormal VEMP. No relationship was found between the side (right or left ear) where BPPV appeared clinically and the side where abnormal VEMP was registered. BPPV is a clinical entity associated with increased occurrence of abnormal VEMP recordings, possibly due to degeneration of the saccular macula, which is part of the neural VEMP pathway.

  18. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with BPPV

    PubMed Central

    Korres, Stavros; Gkoritsa, Eleni; Giannakakou-Razelou, Dimitra; Yiotakis, Ioannis; Riga, Maria; Nikolpoulos, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The probable cause of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a degeneration of the oto lithic organs (utricle and saccule). The aim of the study is to find possible alterations in Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) recordings in BPPV patients, because the saccule is part of the VEMP pathway. Material/Methods 27 BPPV patients (24 unilateral and 3 bilateral) aged 20 to 70 years and 30 healthy age matched controls. BPPV was diagnosed by the upbeating geotropic nystagmus found in the supine position with the head overextended towards one side. The subjects were investigated with pure tone audiometry, bi-thermal caloric test with electronystagmographic (ENG) recording, and VEMP recording. Results P1 latency and N1 latency did not present any statistical difference between control ears and affected ears of the BPPV population. The percentage of abnormal VEMP in the BPPV population was statistically higher than in the control ears (p<0.005). No significant relationship could be shown between the occurrence of Canal Paresis and abnormal VEMP. No relationship was found between the side (right or left ear) where BPPV appeared clinically and the side where abnormal VEMP was registered. Conclusions BPPV is a clinical entity associated with increased occurrence of abnormal VEMP recordings, possibly due to degeneration of the saccular macula, which is part of the neural VEMP pathway. PMID:21169909

  19. Auditory and Vestibular Issues Related to Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Richard W.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Human spaceflight provides unique opportunities to study human vestibular and auditory systems. This session will discuss 1) vestibular adaptive processes reflected by pronounced perceptual and motor coordination problems during, and after, space missions; 2) vestibular diagnostic and rehabilitative techniques (used to promote recovery after living in altered gravity environments) that may be relevant to treatment of vestibular disorders on earth; and 3) unique acoustical challenges to hearing loss prevention and crew performance during spaceflight missions.

  20. Neural correlates of motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex: dynamic regulation of multimodal integration in the macaque vestibular system

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Motor learning is required for the reacquisition of skills that have been compromised as a result of brain lesion or disease, as well as for the acquisition of new skills. Behaviors with well-characterized anatomy and physiology are required to yield significant insight into changes that occur in the brain during motor learning. The vestibulo-ocular-reflex (VOR) is well suited to establish connections between neurons, neural circuits, and motor performance during learning. Here we examined the linkage between neuronal and behavioural VOR responses in alert behaving monkeys (macaca mulatta) during the impressive recovery that occurs after unilateral vestibular loss. We show, for the first time, that motor learning is characterized by the dynamic reweighting of inputs from different modalities (i.e., vestibular versus extra-vestibular) at the level of the single neurons which constitute the first central stage of vestibular processing. Specifically, two types of information, which did not influence neuronal responses prior to the lesion, had an important role during compensation. First, unmasked neck proprioceptive inputs played a critical role in the early stages of this process demonstrated by faster and more substantial recovery of vestibular responses in proprioceptive sensitive neurons. Second, neuronal and VOR responses were significantly enhanced during active relative to passive head motion later in the compensation process (>3 weeks). Taken together, our findings provide evidence linking the dynamic regulation of multimodal integration at the level of single neurons and behavioural recovery, suggesting a role for homeostatic mechanisms in VOR motor learning. PMID:20668199

  1. Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Cullen, Kathleen E.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    By sensing three-dimensional (3D) head rotation and electrically stimulating the three ampullary branches of a vestibular nerve to encode head angular velocity, a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can restore vestibular sensation to individuals disabled by loss of vestibular hair cell function. However, current spread to afferent fibers innervating non-targeted canals and otolith endorgans can distort the vestibular nerve activation pattern, causing misalignment between the perceived and actual axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that over time, central neural mechanisms can adapt to correct this misalignment. To test this, we rendered five chinchillas vestibular-deficient via bilateral gentamicin treatment and unilaterally implanted them with a head mounted MVP. Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of one week of prosthetic stimulation. A comparable time course of improvement was also observed for head rotations about the other two semicircular canal axes and at every stimulus frequency examined (0.2–5 Hz). In addition, the extent of disconjugacy between the two eyes progressively improved during the same time window. These results indicate that the central nervous system rapidly adapts to multichannel prosthetic vestibular stimulation to markedly improve 3D aVOR alignment within the first week after activation. Similar adaptive improvements are likely to occur in other species, including humans. PMID:21374081

  2. Neural Correlates of Sensory Substitution in Vestibular Pathways Following Complete Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Minor, Lloyd B.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution is the term typically used in reference to sensory prosthetic devices designed to replace input from one defective modality with input from another modality. Such devices allow an alternative encoding of sensory information that is no longer directly provided by the defective modality in a purposeful and goal-directed manner. The behavioral recovery that follows complete vestibular loss is impressive and has long been thought to take advantage of a natural form of sensory substitution in which head motion information is no longer provided by vestibular inputs, but instead by extra-vestibular inputs such as proprioceptive and motor efference copy signals. Here we examined the neuronal correlates of this behavioral recovery after complete vestibular loss in alert behaving monkeys (Macaca mulata). We show for the first time that extra-vestibular inputs substitute for the vestibular inputs to stabilize gaze at the level of single neurons in the VOR premotor circuitry. The summed weighting of neck proprioceptive and efference copy information was sufficient to explain simultaneously observed behavioral improvements in gaze stability. Furthermore, by altering correspondence between intended and actual head movement we revealed a four-fold increase in the weight of neck motor efference copy signals consistent with the enhanced behavioral recovery observed when head movements are voluntary versus unexpected. Thus, taken together our results provide direct evidence that the substitution by extra-vestibular inputs in vestibular pathways provides a neural correlate for the improvements in gaze stability that are observed following the total loss of vestibular inputs. PMID:23077054

  3. The induction and compensation of asymmetric eye movements following unilateral blockage of a horizontal semicircular canal in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Barmack, N H; Pettorossi, V E

    1988-08-01

    The influence of unilateral plugs of the left horizontal semicircular canal (LHC plugs) of rabbits on the development and compensation of asymmetric eye movements evoked by horizontal vestibular stimulation was studied. LHC plugs caused an immediate reduction of 50-65% in the gain of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex (HVOR). This reduction in gain was achieved without altering the symmetry of the HVOR, and was accompanied by a change in the axial alignment of eye movements evoked by vestibular stimulation about the vertical (HVOR) and longitudinal (VVOR) axes. Postoperative asymmetry of eye movements developed 12-48 hr after the plugging operation. The development of asymmetry was reduced if the rabbit was restrained for 24 hr, thereby minimizing vestibular stimulation following the plugging operation. Over a 3-4 week period, the normal symmetry of eye movements was restored and the axial alignments of the HVOR and VVOR returned to the preoperative values. The gain of the HVOR did not recover. The horizontal cervicoocular reflex (HCOR) was examined before the plugging operation and after compensation of asymmetry was complete. The gain and phase of the HCOR were not altered. A relatively simple set of explanations at a cellular level is proposed to account for the induction and compensation of asymmetric eye movements following a unilateral plug of the horizontal semicircular canal.

  4. Role of otolith endorgans in the genesis of vestibular-visual conflict sickness (pitch) in the squirrel monkey (First report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, Makoto; Himi, Tetsuo; Kulecz, Walter B.; Kobayashi, Kazutoyo

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ablation of the macula utriculi and macula sacculi on vestibular-visual conflict emesis in squirrel monkeys are investigated. An optokinetic drum and a turntable were used for the direction conflict experiment. A significant difference between the preoperative condition and postunilateral and postbilateral utriculo-sacculectomy conditions is observed. It is detected that after unilateral sacculectomy the conflict sickness decreases and no emesis occurs; however, 4.5 months after sacculectomy, the animals regain their conflict sickness. The data reveal that macular afferents are important in the genesis of sensory conflict emesis and two submodalities may be needed to cause conflict sickness onset.

  5. A systems concept of the vestibular organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayne, R.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive model of vestibular organ function is presented. The model is based on an analogy with the inertial guidance systems used in navigation. Three distinct operations are investigated: angular motion sensing, linear motion sensing, and computation. These operations correspond to the semicircular canals, the otoliths, and central processing respectively. It is especially important for both an inertial guidance system and the vestibular organs to distinguish between attitude with respect to the vertical on the one hand, and linear velocity and displacement on the other. The model is applied to various experimental situations and found to be corroborated by them.

  6. Vestibular convergence patterns in vestibular nuclei neurons of alert primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory signal convergence is a fundamental and important aspect of brain function. Such convergence may often involve complex multidimensional interactions as those proposed for the processing of otolith and semicircular canal (SCC) information for the detection of translational head movements and the effective discrimination from physically congruent gravity signals. In the present study, we have examined the responses of primate rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) neurons that do not exhibit any eye movement-related activity using 0.5-Hz translational and three-dimensional (3D) rotational motion. Three distinct neural populations were identified. Approximately one-fourth of the cells exclusively encoded rotational movements (canal-only neurons) and were unresponsive to translation. The canal-only central neurons encoded head rotation in SCC coordinates, exhibited little orthogonal canal convergence, and were characterized with significantly higher sensitivities to rotation as compared to primary SCC afferents. Another fourth of the neurons modulated their firing rates during translation (otolith-only cells). During rotations, these neurons only responded when the axis of rotation was earth-horizontal and the head was changing orientation relative to gravity. The remaining one-half of VN neurons were sensitive to both rotations and translations (otolith + canal neurons). Unlike primary otolith afferents, however, central neurons often exhibited significant spatiotemporal (noncosine) tuning properties and a wide variety of response dynamics to translation. To characterize the pattern of SCC inputs to otolith + canal neurons, their rotational maximum sensitivity vectors were computed using exclusively responses during earth-vertical axis rotations (EVA). Maximum sensitivity vectors were distributed throughout the 3D space, suggesting strong convergence from multiple SCCs. These neurons were also tested with earth-horizontal axis rotations (EHA), which would activate

  7. Effects of sleep loss on vestibular response during simple and complex vestibular stimulation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-07-01

    Few data are available concerning the effects of sleep loss on vestibular responses although those responses are significant products of motion in aviation environments. This study assessed periodically throughout approx. 55 hrs. of sleep loss the oc...

  8. Adaptation to vestibular disorientation. VIII, "Coriolis" vestibular stimulation and the influence of different visual surrounds.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1967-08-01

    Disorientation caused by 'Coriolis' vestibular reactions has been cited frequently as a significant factor in flying safety. In addition, personnel who maintain rotating radar towers may also be adversely affected by 'Coriolis' problems. In the study...

  9. Adaptation to vestibular disorientation. X, Modification of vestibular nystagmus and "vertigo" by means of visual stimulation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1968-10-01

    A conflict among sensory signals frequently underlies problems of disorientation, vertigo, and motion sickness. In this study, visual information in conflict with vestibular signals was presented to groups of subjects by illuminating the test room fo...

  10. Physiological principles of vestibular function on earth and in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular function have important implications for our ability to understand, predict, and modify balance processes during and after spaceflight. The microgravity environment of space provides many unique opportunities for studying the effects of changes in gravitoinertial force on structure and function of the vestibular system. Investigations of basic vestibular physiology and of changes in reflexes occurring as a consequence of exposure to microgravity have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in human beings. This report reviews physiological principles underlying control of vestibular processes on earth and in space. Information is presented from a functional perspective with emphasis on signals arising from labyrinthine receptors. Changes induced by microgravity in linear acceleration detected by the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Alterations of the functional requirements for postural control in space are described. Areas of direct correlation between studies of vestibular reflexes in microgravity and vestibular disorders in human beings are discussed.

  11. Vesibulotoxicity and Management of Vestibular Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of certain aminoglycoside antibiotics for vestibular hair cells has been used to special advantage in the treatment of Meniere's disease. Intratympanic (middle ear) injections of these drugs are being increasingly used to control vertigo in this disorder when it has not responded to medical therapy. The mechanisms by which these drugs…

  12. Retinoic acid deficiency impairs the vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Romand, Raymond; Krezel, Wojciech; Beraneck, Mathieu; Cammas, Laura; Fraulob, Valérie; Messaddeq, Nadia; Kessler, Pascal; Hashino, Eri; Dollé, Pascal

    2013-03-27

    The retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (Raldh3) gene encodes a major retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme and is highly expressed in the inner ear during embryogenesis. We found that mice deficient in Raldh3 bear severe impairment in vestibular functions. These mutant mice exhibited spontaneous circling/tilted behaviors and performed poorly in several vestibular-motor function tests. In addition, video-oculography revealed a complete loss of the maculo-ocular reflex and a significant reduction in the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, indicating that detection of both linear acceleration and angular rotation were compromised in the mutants. Consistent with these behavioral and functional deficiencies, morphological anomalies, characterized by a smaller vestibular organ with thinner semicircular canals and a significant reduction in the number of otoconia in the saccule and the utricle, were consistently observed in the Raldh3 mutants. The loss of otoconia in the mutants may be attributed, at least in part, to significantly reduced expression of Otop1, which encodes a protein known to be involved in calcium regulation in the otolithic organs. Our data thus reveal a previously unrecognized role of Raldh3 in structural and functional development of the vestibular end organs.

  13. Peripheral vestibular pathology in Mondini dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Fatıma Kübra; Monsanto, Rafael DaCosta; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, our objective was to histopathologically analyze the peripheral vestibular system in patients with Mondini dysplasia. Comparative human temporal bone study. We assessed the sensory epithelium of the human vestibular system with a focus on the number of type I and type II hair cells, as well as the total number of hair cells. We compared those numbers in our Mondini dysplasia group versus our control group. The loss of type I and type II hair cells in the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as in the saccular and utricular macula, was significantly higher in our Mondini dysplasia group than in our control group. The total number of hair cells significantly decreased in the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as in the saccular and utricular macula, in our Mondini dysplasia group. Loss of vestibular hair cells can lead to vestibular dysfunction in patients with Mondini dysplasia. NA Laryngoscope, 127:206-209, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Vestibular stimulation leads to distinct hemodynamic patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; Emanuel, B. A.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that responses of a particular sympathetic nerve to vestibular stimulation depend on the type of tissue the nerve innervates as well as its anatomic location. In the present study, we sought to determine whether such precise patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes could lead to specific hemodynamic alterations in response to vestibular afferent activation. We simultaneously measured changes in systemic blood pressure and blood flow (with the use of Doppler flowmetry) to the hindlimb (femoral artery), forelimb (brachial artery), and kidney (renal artery) in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized, baroreceptor-denervated cats. Electrical vestibular stimulation led to depressor responses, 8 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- SE) in magnitude, that were accompanied by decreases in femoral vasoconstriction (23 +/- 4% decrease in vascular resistance or 36 +/- 7% increase in vascular conductance) and increases in brachial vascular tone (resistance increase of 10 +/- 6% and conductance decrease of 11 +/- 4%). Relatively small changes (<5%) in renal vascular tone were observed. In contrast, electrical stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents produced pressor responses (20 +/- 6 mmHg) that were accompanied by vasoconstriction in all three beds. These data suggest that vestibular inputs lead to a complex pattern of cardiovascular changes that is distinct from that which occurs in response to activation of other types of somatic afferents.

  15. Immunological Influences on the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warchol, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the influence of immune signaling molecules on the survival and replacement of sensory hair cells in the vestibular organs. We have made considerable progress toward that goal, particularly in the characterization of mechanisms that underlie hair cell death.

  16. Interhemispheric Control of Unilateral Movement

    PubMed Central

    Beaulé, Vincent; Tremblay, Sara; Théoret, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    To perform strictly unilateral movements, the brain relies on a large cortical and subcortical network. This network enables healthy adults to perform complex unimanual motor tasks without the activation of contralateral muscles. However, mirror movements (involuntary movements in ipsilateral muscles that can accompany intended movement) can be seen in healthy individuals if a task is complex or fatiguing, in childhood, and with increasing age. Lateralization of movement depends on complex interhemispheric communication between cortical (i.e., dorsal premotor cortex, supplementary motor area) and subcortical (i.e., basal ganglia) areas, probably coursing through the corpus callosum (CC). Here, we will focus on transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition (IHI), which facilitates complex unilateral movements and appears to play an important role in handedness, pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and stroke recovery. PMID:23304559

  17. Spironolactone-Induced Unilateral Gynecomastia

    PubMed Central

    Veeregowda, Sahana Hadihalli; Krishnamurthy, Jayakumar Jyothinagaram; Krishnaswamy, Bhuvana; Narayana, Sarala

    2018-01-01

    Gynecomastia is benign enlargement of male breast, drug-induced gynecomastia accounts for about 25%. We are reporting a case of spironolactone-induced unilateral gynecomastia. A 52-year-old male patient receiving multiple antihypertensives including hydrochlorothiazide presented with muscle weakness and easy fatigability. Investigations revealed hypokalemia; he was advised to stop hydrochlorothiazide and consume potassium-rich diet; since he did not respond to this, spironolactone was added. The patient improved symptomatically but developed painful swelling of the right breast after 12 months of treatment which was suspected to be spironolactone-induced gynecomastia. Within a month of stopping the drug, pain in the right breast subsided followed by decrease in size of swelling. Literature search indicates bilateral gynecomastia by spironolactone, but when clinician encounters unilateral presentation, they should consider the possibility of drug-induced etiology. Patients should be educated about this while prescribing, and eplerenone can be a safe alternative. PMID:29552536

  18. Spironolactone-Induced Unilateral Gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Veeregowda, Sahana Hadihalli; Krishnamurthy, Jayakumar Jyothinagaram; Krishnaswamy, Bhuvana; Narayana, Sarala

    2018-01-01

    Gynecomastia is benign enlargement of male breast, drug-induced gynecomastia accounts for about 25%. We are reporting a case of spironolactone-induced unilateral gynecomastia. A 52-year-old male patient receiving multiple antihypertensives including hydrochlorothiazide presented with muscle weakness and easy fatigability. Investigations revealed hypokalemia; he was advised to stop hydrochlorothiazide and consume potassium-rich diet; since he did not respond to this, spironolactone was added. The patient improved symptomatically but developed painful swelling of the right breast after 12 months of treatment which was suspected to be spironolactone-induced gynecomastia. Within a month of stopping the drug, pain in the right breast subsided followed by decrease in size of swelling. Literature search indicates bilateral gynecomastia by spironolactone, but when clinician encounters unilateral presentation, they should consider the possibility of drug-induced etiology. Patients should be educated about this while prescribing, and eplerenone can be a safe alternative.

  19. Combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses: a phenotypic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Sauerhammer, Tina M; Patel, Kamlesh; Oh, Albert K; Proctor, Mark R; Mulliken, John B; Rogers, Gary F

    2014-03-01

    Most types of craniosynostosis cause predictable changes in cranial shape. However, the phenotype of combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses is anomalous. The purpose of this observational study was to better clarify the clinical and radiographic features of this rare entity. A retrospective review of a craniofacial database was performed. Patients with combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses were included in this study. Data collected included demographic information, physical and radiographic findings, genetic evaluation, treatment, and operative outcomes. Of 687 patients treated between 1989 and 2010, only 3 patients had combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses. All patients were diagnosed through computed tomography on the first day of life. Phenotypic features included the following: (1) narrowed forehead with a prominent midline ridge, (2) severe bilateral brow retrusion with an acute indentation on the side of the patient coronal suture, (3) facial and nasal angulation similar to isolated unilateral coronal synostosis, and (4) anterior displacement of the ear on the fused side. In addition, the cranial vertex was deviated toward the side of the open coronal suture. Two patients had a head circumference below the 25th percentile; 2 of the 3 had a TWIST gene mutation consistent with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. One patient was managed through fronto-orbital advancement and required a revision. The other 2 patients had early endoscopic release, followed by postoperative helmet therapy; one improved but still required open cranial remodeling. The other has near-normal phenotype, and no further surgery is planned. Combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses present a rare and unusual phenotype. Although early intervention improves the deformity, revisional procedures are usually required.

  20. Spinal hemianesthesia: Unilateral and posterior

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The injection of a non-isobaric local anesthetic should induce a unilateral spinal anesthesia in patients in a lateral decubitus position. The posterior spinal hemianesthesia only be obtained with hypobaric solutions injected in the jackknife position. The most important factors to be considered when performing a spinal hemianesthesia are: type and gauge of the needle, density of the local anesthetic relative to the CSF, position of the patient, speed of administration of the solution, time of stay in position, and dose/concentration/volume of the anesthetic solution. The distance between the spinal roots on the right-left sides and anterior-posterior is, approximately, 10-15 mm. This distance allows performing unilateral spinal anesthesia or posterior spinal anesthesia. The great advantage of obtaining spinal hemianesthesia is the reduction of cardiovascular changes. Likewise, both the dorsal and unilateral sensory block predominates in relation to the motor block. Because of the numerous advantages of producing spinal hemianesthesia, anesthesiologists should apply this technique more often. This review considers the factors which are relevant, plausible and proven to obtain spinal hemianesthesia. PMID:25886320

  1. Association between ambient particulate matter and disorders of vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals has been suggested to alter the physiologic state of the inner and middle ear. However, it is unknown if particulate matter exposure is associated with acute vestibular dysfunction. To estimate the effects of particulate matter exposure on the number of hospital visits related to three major diseases of vestibular dysfunction, Meniere's disease (MD), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and vestibular neuronitis (VN). Our study subject is from Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which is dynamic cohort consist of 1 million participants representing the Korean population. Among total cohort participants, we used the hospital visit data of 210,000 individuals who resided in Seoul from 2007 to 2010. Time series analysis using the Poisson generalized additive model and case-crossover analysis using conditional logistic regression were used to investigate the association between daily particulate matter levels (PM 2.5 , particulate matter <2.5μg/m 3 ; PM 10 , particulate matter <10μg/m 3 ; PM 10-2.5 , PM 10 - PM 2.5 ) and number of MD, BPPV, and VN hospital visits. Time series analysis showed that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 10 and PM 10-2.5 on lag day 1 was associated with an increased risk of MD hospital visits [relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), PM 10 : 1.09 (1.02-1.15); PM 10-2.5 : 1.06 (1.02-1.10)]. In addition, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) showed an increased risk of MD hospital visits after particulate matter exposure when compared to younger individuals. An IQR increase in particulate matter on lag day 1 was associated with a marginally significant increase in VN hospital visits [RR (95%CI), PM 2.5 : 1.11 (0.98-1.25); PM 10 : 1.07 (0.99-1.15); PM 10-2.5 : 1.04 (0.99-1.09)]. However, no association between particulate matter exposure and BPPV hospital visits was noted. Case-crossover analyses showed similar results to the time-series analysis across

  2. Vestibular function in families with inherited autosomal dominant hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Street, Valerie A.; Kallman, Jeremy C.; Strombom, Paul D.; Bramhall, Naomi F.; Phillips, James O.

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear contains the developmentally related cochlea and peripheral vestibular labyrinth. Given the similar physiology between these two organs, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction may be expected to occur simultaneously in individuals segregating mutations in inner ear genes. Twenty-two different genes have been discovered that when mutated lead to non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. A review of the literature indicates that families segregating mutations in 13 of these 22 genes have undergone formal clinical vestibular testing. Formal assessment revealed vestibular dysfunction in families with mutations in ten of these 13 genes. Remarkably, only families with mutations in the COCH and MYO7A genes self-report considerable vestibular challenges. Families segregating mutations in the other eight genes do not self-report significant balance problems and appear to compensate well in everyday life for vestibular deficits discovered during formal clinical vestibular assessment. An example of a family (referred to as the HL1 family) with progressive hearing loss and clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction that does not report vestibular symptoms is described in this review. Notably, one member of the HL1 family with clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction reached the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. PMID:18776598

  3. Vestibular schwannomas occur in schwannomatosis and should not be considered an exclusion criterion for clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Miriam J; Kulkarni, Anjana; Rustad, Cecilie; Bowers, Naomi L; Wallace, Andrew J; Holder, Susan E; Heiberg, Arvid; Ramsden, Richard T; Evans, D Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomatosis is a recently delineated inherited condition that has clinical overlap with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Diagnostic criteria have been developed to distinguish schwannomatosis from NF2, but the existence of mosaic NF2, which may closely mimic schwannomatosis, makes even these criteria problematic. In particular, it is not clear why there is a relative sparing of the cranial nerves from schwannomas in schwannomatosis. We have identified two individuals with schwannomatosis and a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS), where a diagnosis of NF2 has been excluded. A third case with an identified SMARCB1 mutation was reported by two radiologists to have a VS, but this was later confirmed as a jugular schwannoma. These cases question whether the current exclusion of a VS from the clinical diagnosis of schwannomatosis is justified. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  5. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Using Head Striker Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Kofman, I. S.; Peters, B. T.; Reschke, M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Noohibezanjani, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Seidler, R. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last two decades, several studies have been published on the impact of long-duration (i.e., 22 days or longer) spaceflight on the central nervous system (CNS). In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers in flight and post-flight, we are conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effects of spaceflight on the vestibular system. One of the supporting tests conducted in this protocol is the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP) test that provides a unilateral measure of otolith (saccule and utricle) function. A different approach was taken for ocular VEMP (oVEMP) testing using a head striker system (Wackym et al. 2012). The oVEMP is generally considered to be a measure of utricle function. The the otolithic input to the inferior oblique muscle is predominately from the utricular macula. Thus, quantitatively, oVEMP tests utricular function. Another practical extension of these relationships is that the oVEMP reflects the superior vestibular nerve function. Methods: Ground testing was administered on 16 control subjects and for 8 subjects over four repeated sessions spanning 70 days. The oVEMP was elicitied via a hand held striker by a vibrotactile pulse presented at the rate of 1 Hz for 24 seconds on the side of the head as subjects lay supine on a gurney. Subjects were directed to gaze approximately 25 degrees above straight ahead in semi-darkness. For the oVEMP electromyograms will be recorded with active bipolar electrodes (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA) on the infra-orbital ridge 1 cm below the eyelid with a reference electrode on the below the knee cap. The EMG potentials were amplified; band-pass filtered using a BagnoliTM Desktop EMG System (Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). This EMG signal is sampled at 10 kHz and the data stimulus onset to

  6. Prognostic significance of electrophysiological tests for facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    PubMed

    van Dinther, J J S; Van Rompaey, V; Somers, T; Zarowski, A; Offeciers, F E

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prognostic significance of pre-operative electrophysiological tests for facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Retrospective study design in a tertiary referral neurology unit. We studied a total of 123 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma who underwent microsurgical removal of the lesion. Nine patients were excluded because they had clinically abnormal pre-operative facial function. Pre-operative electrophysiological facial nerve function testing (EPhT) was performed. Short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) post-operative clinical facial nerve function were assessed. When pre-operative facial nerve function, evaluated by EPhT, was normal, the outcome from clinical follow-up at 1-month post-operatively was excellent in 78% (i.e. HB I-II) of patients, moderate in 11% (i.e. HB III-IV), and bad in 11% (i.e. HB V-VI). After 1 year, 86% had excellent outcomes, 13% had moderate outcomes, and 1% had bad outcomes. Of all patients with normal clinical facial nerve function, 22% had an abnormal EPhT result and 78% had a normal result. No statistically significant differences could be observed in short-term and long-term post-operative facial function between the groups. In this study, electrophysiological tests were not able to predict facial nerve outcome after vestibular schwannoma surgery. Tumour size remains the best pre-operative prognostic indicator of facial nerve function outcome, i.e. a better outcome in smaller lesions.

  7. Conservative management of vestibular schwannoma--a prospective cohort study: treatment, symptoms, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Cathrine Nansdal; Varughese, Jobin K; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Vassbotn, Flemming; Lund-Johansen, Morten

    2012-05-01

    One hundred ninety-three patients with sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannoma given conservative management were enrolled in a prospective study. To evaluate the efficacy of conservative management and to determine the effect of an initial conservative management on the quality of life (QOL) and severity of audio vestibular symptoms. The patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans, clinical examination, and QOL assessment by 2 validated questionnaires, the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI). Using regression analysis of clustered data, we analyzed possible associations between tumor growth and symptoms and tested whether our earlier finding that vertigo is associated with reduced QOL could be verified. The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 9-115 months; SD, 21.48 months). Results are based on 703 clinical controls and 642 (SF-36) and 638 (GBI) questionnaires. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. Approximately 40% of patients were in need of treatment during follow-up. We found a statistically significant association between tinnitus and vertigo and tumor growth. Vertigo was found to significantly reduce QOL. There was a significant drop in the Social Function subscales of both SF-36 and GBI, possibly attributable to progressive hearing loss. Otherwise, there was no overall trend toward any change in QOL during the observation period. In addition, QOL seemed to be little affected by treatment. There was a small but statistically significant improvement in vestibular complaints and no change in the occurrence of tinnitus. Except for hearing loss caused by surgery, treatment did not affect symptoms or QOL significantly. Growth was associated with the occurrence of tinnitus and balance problems.

  8. Newly Diagnosed Meniere's Disease: Clinical Course With Initiation of Noninvasive Treatment Including an Accounting of Vestibular Migraine.

    PubMed

    Sbeih, Firas; Christov, Florian; Gluth, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the course of Meniere's disease with noninvasive treatment during the first few years after initial diagnosis. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with newly diagnosed definite Meniere's disease between 2013 and 2016 and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients received a written plan for low sodium, water therapy, and treatment with a diuretic and/or betahistine. Subjects were screened and treated for vestibular migraine as needed. Vertigo control and hearing status at most recent follow-up were assessed. Forty-four subjects had an average follow up of 24.3 months. Thirty-four percent had Meniere's disease and vestibular migraine, and 84% had unilateral Meniere's disease. Seventy-five percent had vertigo well controlled at most recent follow-up, with only noninvasive treatments. Age, gender, body mass index, presence of vestibular migraine, bilateral disease, and duration of follow-up did not predict noninvasive treatment failure. Worse hearing threshold at 250 Hz and lower pure tone average (PTA) at the time of diagnosis did predict failure. Fifty-two percent of ears had improved PTA at most recent visit, 20% had no change, and 28% were worse Conclusions: Encountering excellent vertigo control and stable hearing after a new diagnosis of Meniere's disease is possible with noninvasive treatments. Worse hearing status at diagnosis predicted treatment failure.

  9. Effects of unilateral selective hypergravity stimulation on gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazerges, M.; Bessou, P.

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the neural mechanisms of human motor perturbations induced by dynamic changes in gravity. A unilateral selective hypergravity stimulation (USHS) was produced by stretching an elastic band between the right shoulder and foot. The consequences of the extensor muscle tone change due to the positioning (increased muscular loading) and to its removal (decreased muscular loading) by the elastic band were observed on motor gait skill. Gait spatio-temporal parameters (horizontal displacement of both feet) and lower limb functional length variations (efficiency of flexion and extension movements of the lower limbs) were measured. The latter measure was performed using a device specially designed for that purpose. The main results were: (1) during and after USHS, gait perturbations appeared on the left—the body side not directly stimulated, (2) just after the end of USHS, perturbations were present on the right (homolateral) side evidencing a post treatment effect which caused a decrease in functional shortening of the lower limb during extension and an increase of functional shortening of the lower limb during stance (opposite in sense to the modification observed during swing). Such results afford evidence that, in addition to vestibular receptors, the mechanoreceptors of extensor muscles are involved in determining the changes in motor skills observed at the beginning and at the end of space flights.

  10. Choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the human vestibular end-organs.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, A; Lopez, I; Wackym, P A

    1994-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to play a major role in the efferent vestibular system in several animal models, however no information regarding the role of ACh in the human efferent vestibular system has been published. Post-embedding immunohistochemistry in a hydrophilic resin was used to investigate the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity (ChATi) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry in human vestibular end-organs. ChATi and AChE activity was found in numerous bouton-type terminals at the basal area of the vestibular hair cells. These terminals were found to contact type II vestibular hair cells and the afferent chalices surrounding type I hair cells. This study provides the first evidence that the human efferent vestibular axons and terminals are cholinergic.

  11. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  12. Vestibular system: the many facets of a multimodal sense.

    PubMed

    Angelaki, Dora E; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2008-01-01

    Elegant sensory structures in the inner ear have evolved to measure head motion. These vestibular receptors consist of highly conserved semicircular canals and otolith organs. Unlike other senses, vestibular information in the central nervous system becomes immediately multisensory and multimodal. There is no overt, readily recognizable conscious sensation from these organs, yet vestibular signals contribute to a surprising range of brain functions, from the most automatic reflexes to spatial perception and motor coordination. Critical to these diverse, multimodal functions are multiple computationally intriguing levels of processing. For example, the need for multisensory integration necessitates vestibular representations in multiple reference frames. Proprioceptive-vestibular interactions, coupled with corollary discharge of a motor plan, allow the brain to distinguish actively generated from passive head movements. Finally, nonlinear interactions between otolith and canal signals allow the vestibular system to function as an inertial sensor and contribute critically to both navigation and spatial orientation.

  13. A novel v- silicone vestibular stent: preventing vestibular stenosis and preserving nasal valves.

    PubMed

    Bassam, Wameedh Al; Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Abri, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a novel style of placing nasal stents. Patients undergoing surgical procedures in the region of nasal vestibule and nasal valves are at risk of developing vestibular stenosis and lifelong problems with the external and internal nasal valves; sequels of the repair. The objective of the report is to demonstrate a simple and successful method of an inverted V- Stent placement to prevent potential complication of vestibular stenosis and nasal valve compromise later in life. Following a fall on a sharp edge of a metallic bed, a sixteen month old child with a deep lacerated nasal wound extending from the collumellar base toward the tip of the nose underwent surgical exploration and repair of the nasal vestibule and nasal cavity. A soft silicone stent fashioned as inverted V was placed bilaterally. The child made a remarkable recovery with no evidence of vestibular stenosis or nasal valve abnormalities. In patients with nasal trauma involving the nasal vestibule and internal and external nasal valves stent placement avoids sequels, adhesions, contractures, synechia vestibular stenosis and fibrosis involving these anatomical structures. The advantages of the described V- stents over the traditional readymade ridged nasal stents, tubing's and composite aural grafts are: a) technical simplicity of use, b) safety, c) less morbidity, d) more comfortable, and e) economical. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a stent for prevention of vestibular stenosis and preserving nasal valves.

  14. A Novel V- Silicone Vestibular Stent: Preventing Vestibular Stenosis and Preserving Nasal Valves

    PubMed Central

    Bassam, Wameedh AL; Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Abri, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a novel style of placing nasal stents. Patients undergoing surgical procedures in the region of nasal vestibule and nasal valves are at risk of developing vestibular stenosis and lifelong problems with the external and internal nasal valves; sequels of the repair. The objective of the report is to demonstrate a simple and successful method of an inverted V- Stent placement to prevent potential complication of vestibular stenosis and nasal valve compromise later in life. Following a fall on a sharp edge of a metallic bed, a sixteen month old child with a deep lacerated nasal wound extending from the collumellar base toward the tip of the nose underwent surgical exploration and repair of the nasal vestibule and nasal cavity. A soft silicone stent fashioned as inverted V was placed bilaterally. The child made a remarkable recovery with no evidence of vestibular stenosis or nasal valve abnormalities. In patients with nasal trauma involving the nasal vestibule and internal and external nasal valves stent placement avoids sequels, adhesions, contractures, synechia vestibular stenosis and fibrosis involving these anatomical structures. The advantages of the described V- stents over the traditional readymade ridged nasal stents, tubing’s and composite aural grafts are: a) technical simplicity of use, b) safety, c) less morbidity, d) more comfortable, and e) economical. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a stent for prevention of vestibular stenosis and preserving nasal valves. PMID:22359729

  15. Failure of gamma-aminobutyrate acid-beta agonist baclofen to improve balance, gait, and postural control after vestibular schwannoma resection.

    PubMed

    De Valck, Claudia F J; Vereeck, Luc; Wuyts, Floris L; Van de Heyning, Paul H

    2009-04-01

    Incomplete postural control often occurs after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Customized vestibular rehabilitation in man improves and speeds up this process. Animal experiments have shown an improved and faster vestibular compensation after administration of the gamma-aminobutyrate acid (GABA)-beta agonist baclofen. To examine whether medical treatment with baclofen provides an improvement of the compensation process after VS surgery. A time-series study with historical control. Tertiary referral center. Thirteen patients who underwent VS resection were included and compared with a matched group of patients. In addition to an individualized vestibular rehabilitation protocol, the study group received medical treatment with 30 mg baclofen (a GABA-beta agonist) daily during the first 6 weeks after surgery. Clinical gait and balance tests (Romberg maneuver, standing on foam, tandem Romberg, single-leg stance, Timed Up & Go test, tandem gait, Dynamic Gait Index) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Follow-up until 24 weeks after surgery. When examining the postoperative test results, the group treated with baclofen did not perform better when compared with the matched (historical control) group. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effect, but a significant time effect for almost all balance tests during the acute recovery period was found. An interaction effect between time and intervention was seen concerning single-leg stance and Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores for the acute recovery period. Medical therapy with baclofen did not seem to be beneficial in the process of central vestibular compensation.

  16. Hearing outcome after concurrent endolymphatic shunt and vestibular nerve section.

    PubMed

    Moody-Antonio, Stephanie; House, John W

    2003-05-01

    To determine if endolymphatic shunt surgery concurrent with vestibular nerve section improves hearing outcome compared with vestibular nerve section alone. Retrospective observational study with cross-sectional survey. Tertiary otologic private practice. Thirty-five patients who underwent vestibular nerve section and endolymphatic shunt surgery and 17 patients who had vestibular nerve section alone between 1985 and 2000. Chart review and correspondence for audiogram results and survey. Hearing at last follow-up. Hearing Handicap Inventory, Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, and SF-36. Eight patients in the vestibular nerve section and 15 in the vestibular nerve section and endolymphatic shunt surgery group had an audiogram at more than 16 months after surgery available for review. In the vestibular nerve section group, three patients had same hearing whereas five were worse. In the vestibular nerve section and endolymphatic shunt surgery group, 2 patients showed improvement, 2 were the same, and 11 were worse. There was no significant difference in the change from preoperative pure tone average or Word Discrimination Score to postoperative levels between the surgical groups. Eighteen patients had serviceable hearing preoperatively. Five of 8 in the vestibular nerve section and 4 of 10 in the vestibular nerve section and endolymphatic shunt surgery groups maintained serviceable hearing postoperatively. Of the 52 patients, 33 responded to the survey (63%). There were no significant differences between the groups for Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Hearing Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, or SF-36, suggesting that patient-oriented outcomes are the same in both groups. Concurrent endolymphatic shunt surgery and vestibular nerve section does not improve hearing or tinnitus outcome over vestibular nerve section alone.

  17. Experiment M131. Human vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Miller, E. F., II; Homick, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The lower susceptibility to vestibular stimulation aloft, compared with that on ground under experimental conditions, is attributed to a precondition, namely, either there is no need to adapt, or, as exemplified by the Skylab 3 pilot, adaptation to weightlessness is achieved. Findings in some of the astronauts emphasize the distinction between two categories of vestibular side effects: immediate reflex phenomena (illusions, sensations of turning, etc.), and delayed epiphenomena that include the constellation of symptoms and syndromes comprising motion sickness. The drug combinations 1-scopolamine and d-amphetamine and promethazine hydrochloride and ephedrine sulfate are effective in prevention and treatment of motion sickness. It is concluded that prevention of motion sickness in any stressful motion environment involves selection, adaptation, and the use of drugs.

  18. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  19. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  20. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man.

    PubMed

    Clark, B R; Randle, R J; Stewart, J D

    1975-11-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present study was designed to study a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 s of rotation. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 s under two conditions; while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  1. The vestibular system of the owl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.; Correia, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Five owls were given vestibular examinations, and two of them were sacrificed to provide serial histological sections of the temporal bones. The owls exhibited a curious variability in the postrotatory head nystagmus following abrupt deceleration; sometimes a brisk nystagnus with direction opposite to that appropriate to the stimulus would occur promptly after deceleration. It was found also that owls can exhibit a remarkable head stability during angular movement of the body about any axis passing through the skull. The vestibular apparatus in the owl is larger than in man, and a prominent crista neglecta is present. The tectorial membrane, the cupula, and the otolithic membranes of the utricle, saccule, and lagena are all attached to surfaces in addition to the surfaces hearing hair cells. These attachments are very substantial in the utricular otolithic membrane and in the cupula.

  2. The History and Evolution of Surgery on the Vestibular Labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Naples, James G; Eisen, Marc D

    2016-11-01

    The history of surgery on the vestibular labyrinth is rich but sparsely documented in the literature. The story begins over a century ago with the labyrinthectomy in an era that consisted exclusively of ablative surgery for infection or vertigo. Improved understanding of vestibular physiology and pathology produced an era of selective ablation and hearing preservation that includes semicircular canal occlusion for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. An era of restoration began with a discovery of superior semicircular canal dehiscence and its repair. The final era of vestibular replacement is upon us as the possibility of successful prosthetic vestibular implantation becomes reality. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  3. Vestibular involvement in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Barbara M; Vinck, Bart M; Hofmeyr, Louis M; Swanepoel, De Wet

    2014-04-01

    HIV/AIDS is responsible for widespread clinical manifestations involving the head, and neck. The prevalence and nature of vestibular involvement is still largely unknown. This study, aimed to describe and compare the occurrence and nature of vestibular involvement among a group of, adults infected with HIV compared to a control group. It also aimed to compare the vestibular function, of symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV positive adults who receive antiretroviral (ARV) therapies to, subjects not receiving ARV. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 53 adults (29 male, 24 female, aged 23-49 years, mean=38.5, SD=4.4) infected with HIV, compared to a control group of 38 HIV negative adults (18, male, 20 female, aged 20-49 years, mean=36.9, SD=8.2). A structured interview probed the subjective, perception of vestibular symptoms. Medical records were reviewed for CD4+ cell counts and the use of, ARV medication. An otologic assessment and a comprehensive vestibular assessment (bedside, assessments, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, ocular motor and positional tests and bithermal, caloric irrigation) were conducted. Vestibular involvement occurred in 79.2% of subjects with HIV in all categories of disease, progression, compared to 18.4% in those without HIV. Vestibular involvement increased from 18.9% in CDC category 1 to 30.2% in category 2. Vestibular involvement was 30.1% in category 3. There were, vestibular involvement in 35.9% of symptomatic HIV positive subjects, and 41.5% in asymptomatic, HIV positive subjects. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of vestibular involvement, in subjects receiving ARV therapies compared to those not receiving ARV therapies (p=.914; chi-square, test). The odds ratio indicates that individuals with HIV have a 16.61 times higher risk of developing, vestibular involvement during their lifetime of living with the disease and that it may occur despite, being asymptomatic. Vestibular involvement was significantly more

  4. Clinical application of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP).

    PubMed

    Murofushi, Toshihisa

    2016-08-01

    The author reviewed clinical aspects of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Now two types of VEMPs are available. The first one is cervical VEMP, which is recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle and predominantly reflects sacculo-collic reflex. The other is ocular VEMP, which is usually recorded below the lower eye lid and predominantly reflects utriculo-ocular reflex. VEMPs play important roles not only for assessment of common vestibular diseases but also for establishment of new clinical entities. Clinical application in Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular migraine, idiopathic otolithic vertigo, and central vertigo/dizziness was reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for vestibular dysfunction in orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Sakaida, Yuzuru; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Mizuta, Keisuke; Ito, Yatsuji

    2012-03-01

    There is little definitive evidence of the clinical significance of the vestibular-cardiovascular reflex in humans, despite the fact that the vestibular system is known to contribute to cardiovascular control in animals. The present study involved 248 dizzy patients (127 male patients and 121 female patients) aged 65 years and younger. We classified all participants into three groups based on their vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses; absent VEMP, asymmetry VEMP and normal VEMP. To investigate the effect of the otolith disorder, which was estimated by the VEMP, on the orthostatic blood pressure responses, the subjects' systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate were monitored during the orthostatic test after they actively stood up. The male patients in the absent VEMP group had a significant drop in their DBP at 1 min after active standing up (P < 0.05) without any change in their SBP. Conversely, male patients in the asymmetry VEMP and normal VEMP groups showed a significant increase in the SBP at 1 min after active standing up (P < 0.05). Female patients in the absent VEMP group did not show any significant drop in their blood pressure after standing up (P > 0.05). In the entire group of participants, a total of 19.6% of the patients in the absent VEMP group fulfilled the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH), which was significantly > the 8.6% of patients in the normal VEMP group and the 7.2% in the asymmetry VEMP group (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that vestibular disorders due to the dysfunction of otolith organs provoke OH.

  6. Advances in Oculomotor and Vestibular Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-24

    and nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis in serving as an input to the flocculus and in mediating visual-vestibular interactions. Karten showed direct...demonstrated that the region in an around the Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal is important for the generation of torsional or rolling eye movements. 3...demonstrated that activity related to full field motion reaches the flocculus of mammals over mossy fiber Lnpits that arise from cells in nucleus

  7. Disequilibrium After Traumatic Brain Injury: Vestibular Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    of otolith signal processing, including the integration of head acceleration26 and the disambiguation of linear ac- celeration signals related to tilt ...Foveal versus full-field visual stabilization strategies for translational and rotational head movements. J. Neurosci. 23: 1104–1108. 14. Walker, M.F., M...in the vestibular reflexes that compensate for linear movements of the head and body during standing and walking. The experimental protocol has two

  8. Estimation of Optimum Stimulus Amplitude for Balance Training using Electrical Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; Rosenberg, M. J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    at different stimulation levels. Results from the balance task suggest that there are inter-individual differences and the minimum SVS amplitude was found to be in the range of 1 mA to 2.5 mA across subjects. SVS resulted in an average decrement of balance task performance in the range of 62%-73% across different measured variables at the minimum SVS amplitude in comparison to the control trial (no stimulus). Training using supra-threshold SVS stimulation is one of the sensory challenges used for preflight SA training designed to improve adaptability to novel gravitational environments. Inter-individual differences in response to SVS can help customize the SA training paradigms using minimal dosage required. Another application of using SVS is to simulate acute deterioration of vestibular sensory inputs in the evaluation of tests for assessing vestibular function.

  9. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Erin S., E-mail: murphye3@ccf.or; Suh, John H.

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation tomore » >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.« less

  10. The Frog Vestibular System as a Model for Lesion-Induced Plasticity: Basic Neural Principles and Implications for Posture Control

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, François M.; Straka, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the central nervous system (CNS) to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the CNS include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims toward a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of vestibular function

  11. Unilateral posterior crossbite and mastication.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; da Silva, José Luis; Mora, María Jesús; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Santana, Urbano

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to characterize masticatory-cycle morphology, and distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke, in adult subjects with uncorrected unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB), comparing the results obtained with those obtained in a parallel group of normal subjects. Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) during unilateral chewing of a piece of gum. Traces were recorded on the crossbite and non-crossbite sides in the crossbite group, and likewise on both sides in the non-crossbite group. Mean contact glide distance on the crossbite side in the UPXB group was significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001), and mean contact glide distance on the non-crossbite side in the UPXB group was significantly lower than in the control group (p=0.042). Cycle morphology was abnormal during chewing on the crossbite side, with the frequency distribution of cycle types differing significantly from that for the noncrossbite side and that for the control group (p<0.001). Patients with crossbite showed alterations in both contact glide distances and masticatory cycle morphology. These alterations are probably adaptive responses allowing maintenance of adequate masticatory function despite the crossbite.

  12. Integration of vestibular and head movement signals in the vestibular nuclei during whole-body rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdowski, G. T.; McCrea, R. A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Single-unit recordings were obtained from 107 horizontal semicircular canal-related central vestibular neurons in three alert squirrel monkeys during passive sinusoidal whole-body rotation (WBR) while the head was free to move in the yaw plane (2.3 Hz, 20 degrees /s). Most of the units were identified as secondary vestibular neurons by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral vestibular nerve (61/80 tested). Both non-eye-movement (n = 52) and eye-movement-related (n = 55) units were studied. Unit responses recorded when the head was free to move were compared with responses recorded when the head was restrained from moving. WBR in the absence of a visual target evoked a compensatory vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) that effectively reduced the head velocity in space by an average of 33 +/- 14%. In 73 units, the compensatory head movements were sufficiently large to permit the effect of the VCR on vestibular signal processing to be assessed quantitatively. The VCR affected the rotational responses of different vestibular neurons in different ways. Approximately one-half of the units (34/73, 47%) had responses that decreased as head velocity decreased. However, the responses of many other units (24/73) showed little change. These cells had signals that were better correlated with trunk velocity than with head velocity. The remaining units had responses that were significantly larger (15/73, 21%) when the VCR produced a decrease in head velocity. Eye-movement-related units tended to have rotational responses that were correlated with head velocity. On the other hand, non-eye-movement units tended to have rotational responses that were better correlated with trunk velocity. We conclude that sensory vestibular signals are transformed from head-in-space coordinates to trunk-in-space coordinates on many secondary vestibular neurons in the vestibular nuclei by the addition of inputs related to head rotation on the trunk. This coordinate transformation is presumably important

  13. International survey of vestibular rehabilitation therapists by the Barany Society Ad Hoc Committee on Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Gottshall, Kim R; Graziano, Mariella; Malmstrom, Eva-Maj; Sharpe, Margaret H

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how occupational and physical therapists learn about vestibular rehabilitation therapy, their educational backgrounds, referral patterns, and their ideas about entry-level and advanced continuing education in vestibular rehabilitation therapy. The Barany Society Ad Hoc Committee for Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy invited therapists around the world to complete an E-mail survey. Participants were either known to committee members or other Barany Society members, known to other participants, identified from their self-listings on the Internet, or volunteered after reading notices published in publications read by therapists. Responses were received from 133 therapists in 19 countries. They had a range of educational backgrounds, practice settings, and referral patterns. Few respondents had had any training about vestibular rehabilitation during their professional entry-level education. Most respondents learned about vestibular rehabilitation from continuing education courses, interactions with their colleagues, and reading. All of them endorsed the concept of developing standards and educating therapists about vestibular anatomy and physiology, vestibular diagnostic testing, vestibular disorders and current intervention strategies. Therefore, the Committee recommends the development of international standards for education and practice in vestibular rehabilitation therapy.

  14. Acute encephalopathy with unilateral cortical-subcortical lesions in two unrelated kindreds treated with glucocorticoids prenatally for congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: established facts and novel insight.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Sebastian; Steinlin, Maja; Weisstanner, Christian; Schöning, Martin; Mullis, Primus E; Flück, Christa E

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) treatment of the female fetus with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) may prevent genital virilization and androgen effects on the brain, but prenatal GC therapy is controversial because of possible adverse effects on fetal programming, the cardiovascular system and the brain. We report 2 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-OHD who were treated prenatally with dexamethasone, suffered from an acute encephalopathy and showed focal and multifocal cortical and subcortical diffusion restrictions in early MRI and signs of permanent alterations in the follow-up neuroimaging studies. Both patients recovered from the acute episode. Whereas the first patient recovered without neurological sequelae the second patient showed hemianopsia and spastic hemiplegia in the neurological follow-up examination. These are 2 children with CAH, both treated prenatally with high doses of dexamethasone to prevent virilization. The question arises whether prenatal high-dose GC treatment in patients with CAH might represent a risk factor for brain lesions in later life. Adverse effects/events should be reported systematically in patients undergoing prenatal GC treatment and long-term follow-up studies involving risk factors for cerebrovascular disease should be performed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Vestibular control of standing balance is enhanced with increased cognitive load.

    PubMed

    McGeehan, Michael A; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Participants either stood quietly or executed a cognitive task (double-digit arithmetic). Surface electromyography (EMG) and anterior-posterior ground-body forces (APF) were measured in order to evaluate vestibular-evoked balance responses in the frequency (coherence and gain) and time (cumulant density) domains. Total distance traveled for anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) was assessed as a metric of balance variability. Despite similar distances traveled for COP, EVS-medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG and EVS-APF coherence and EVS-TA EMG and EVS-MG EMG gain were elevated for multiple frequencies when standing with increased cognitive load. For the time domain, medium-latency peak amplitudes increased by 13-54% for EVS-APF and EVS-EMG relationships with the cognitive task compared to without. Peak short-latency amplitudes were unchanged. These results indicate that reliance on vestibular control of balance is enhanced when cognitive load is elevated. This augmented neural strategy may act to supplement divided cortical processing resources within the balance system and compensate for the acute neuromuscular modifications associated with increased cognitive demand.

  16. Auditory adaptation testing as a tool for investigating tinnitus origin: two patients with vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Carol A; Silman, Shlomo; Emmer, Michele B

    2017-06-01

    To enhance the understanding of tinnitus origin by disseminating two case studies of vestibular schwannoma (VS) involving behavioural auditory adaptation testing (AAT). Retrospective case study. Two adults who presented with unilateral, non-pulsatile subjective tinnitus and bilateral normal-hearing sensitivity. At the initial evaluation, the otolaryngologic and audiologic findings were unremarkable, bilaterally. Upon retest, years later, VS was identified. At retest, the tinnitus disappeared in one patient and was slightly attenuated in the other patient. In the former, the results of AAT were positive for left retrocochlear pathology; in the latter, the results were negative for the left ear although a moderate degree of auditory adaptation was present despite bilateral normal-hearing sensitivity. Imaging revealed a small VS in both patients, confirmed surgically. Behavioural AAT in patients with tinnitus furnishes a useful tool for exploring tinnitus origin. Decrease or disappearance of tinnitus in patients with auditory adaptation suggests that the tinnitus generator is the cochlea or the cochlear nerve adjacent to the cochlea. Patients with unilateral tinnitus and bilateral, symmetric, normal-hearing thresholds, absent other audiovestibular symptoms, should be routinely monitored through otolaryngologic and audiologic re-evaluations. Tinnitus decrease or disappearance may constitute a red flag for retrocochlear pathology.

  17. Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar

  18. Vestibular and oculomotor findings in neurologically-normal, non-concussed children.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Daniel J; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Wiebe, Douglas J; Master, Christina L; Grady, Matthew F; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2018-01-01

    To determine the proportion of non-concussed, neurologically normal children with failures on a vestibular and oculomotor examination for concussion performed in an acute setting. This was a cross-sectional study of subjects 6-18 years old presenting to a paediatric emergency department with non-neurologic chief complaints. The examination was administered by a paediatric emergency medicine physician, and includes assessments of dysmetria, nystagmus, smooth pursuits, saccades, gaze stability, near-point of convergence, and gait/balance testing. Of the 295 subjects enrolled, 24% failed at least one element of testing. About 13% had >1 failed element and 5% had >2 failed elements. About 29% of females and 19% of males had failed examinations. By age, 15% of subjects 6-8 years old, 32% 9-11 years, 32% 12-14 years, and 26% 15-18 years had failed examinations. Overall, 10% were unable to complete the exam due to developmental age. The provider should be aware that a proportion of non-concussed children may demonstrate failure on a single element of the vestibular and oculomotor exam. While this testing is of benefit to the acute care provider in diagnosing paediatric concussion, its utility is greatest in the context of an injury history with acute onset of concussion symptoms.

  19. Importance of unilateral examination in olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, M; Kamide, M; Miwa, T; Umeda, R

    1988-01-01

    Hyposmia, the decreased sense of smell, and anosmia, the loss of sense of smell, may be unilateral or bilateral. If the olfactory acuity examined by means of bilateral test is normal, olfactory disorders are not found; unilateral examination is therefore necessary for definite evaluation of olfactory acuity. As evidence, 7 cases out of 94 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 6 cases out of 12 patients who received the surgery of anterior cranial fossa showed definite different olfactory threshold between nasal cavities, and there were no patients who recognized the diminished sense of smell in spite of unilateral high olfactory threshold. Additionally, we have experienced that a patient with brain tumor was diagnosed by the help of unilateral olfactory test. We thus strongly recommend the unilateral olfactometry as a method for simple and reliable test in clinical measurement of the sense of smell.

  20. Effect of meprobamate on the vestibulosensory and vestibular somatic reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khinchikashvili, N. V.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meprobamate on the vestibular illusion of counter-rotation, movement coordination and vertical writing was investigated by a double blind trial method and placebo. The results confirm the possibility of the meprobamate application for prophylaxis and correction of vestibular disturbances.

  1. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  2. Sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei during active head movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdowski, G. T.; Boyle, R.; McCrea, R. A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Many secondary vestibular neurons are sensitive to head on trunk rotation during reflex-induced and voluntary head movements. During passive whole body rotation the interaction of head on trunk signals related to the vestibulo-collic reflex with vestibular signals increases the rotational gain of many secondary vestibular neurons, including many that project to the spinal cord. In some units, the sensitivity to head on trunk and vestibular input is matched and the resulting interaction produces an output that is related to the trunk velocity in space. In other units the head on trunk inputs are stronger and the resulting interaction produces an output that is larger during the reflex. During voluntary head movements, inputs related to head on trunk movement combine destructively with vestibular signals, and often cancel the sensory reafferent consequences of self-generated movements. Cancellation of sensory vestibular signals was observed in all of the antidromically identified secondary vestibulospinal units, even though many of these units were not significantly affected by reflexive head on trunk movements. The results imply that the inputs to vestibular neurons related to head on trunk rotation during reflexive and voluntary movements arise from different sources. We suggest that the relative strength of reflexive head on trunk input to different vestibular neurons might reflect the different functional roles they have in controlling the posture of the neck and body.

  3. Vestibular receptors contribute to cortical auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil P M; Paillard, Aurore C; Kluk, Karolina; Whittle, Elizabeth; Colebatch, James G

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus is well-established, but the contribution of vestibular receptors to the late auditory evoked potentials of cortical origin is unknown. Evoked potentials from 500 Hz tone pips were recorded using 70 channel EEG at several intensities below and above the vestibular acoustic threshold, as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In healthy subjects both auditory mid- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), consisting of Na, Pa, N1 and P2 waves, were observed in the sub-threshold conditions. However, in passing through the vestibular threshold, systematic changes were observed in the morphology of the potentials and in the intensity dependence of their amplitude and latency. These changes were absent in a patient without functioning vestibular receptors. In particular, for the healthy subjects there was a fronto-central negativity, which appeared at about 42 ms, referred to as an N42, prior to the AEP N1. Source analysis of both the N42 and N1 indicated involvement of cingulate cortex, as well as bilateral superior temporal cortex. Our findings are best explained by vestibular receptors contributing to what were hitherto considered as purely auditory evoked potentials and in addition tentatively identify a new component that appears to be primarily of vestibular origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal Models, Vestibular Cognition, and Mental Imagery: Conceptual Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Ellis, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular cognition has recently gained attention. Despite numerous experimental and clinical demonstrations, it is not yet clear what vestibular cognition really is. For future research in vestibular cognition, adopting a computational approach will make it easier to explore the underlying mechanisms. Indeed, most modeling approaches in vestibular science include a top-down or a priori component. We review recent Bayesian optimal observer models, and discuss in detail the conceptual value of prior assumptions, likelihood and posterior estimates for research in vestibular cognition. We then consider forward models in vestibular processing, which are required in order to distinguish between sensory input that is induced by active self-motion, and sensory input that is due to passive self-motion. We suggest that forward models are used not only in the service of estimating sensory states but they can also be drawn upon in an offline mode (e.g., spatial perspective transformations), in which interaction with sensory input is not desired. A computational approach to vestibular cognition will help to discover connections across studies, and it will provide a more coherent framework for investigating vestibular cognition.

  5. Vestibular morphology in the German Waltzing guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Sachie; Hultcrantz, Malou; Jin, Zhe; Ulfendahl, Mats; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-04-01

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a special strain of animal with a recessively inherited inner ear defect, resulting in deafness and a severe vestibular dysfunction. The hearing loss in the cochlea of the German strain is a result of a collapse of the Reissner membrane and the absence of scala media. The vestibular organ has not yet been described. German waltzing guinea pigs (homozygote and heterozygote) of different ages ranging from embryologic age 25 days to adulthood were investigated. The living animals were tested with four different vestibular tests, and the fetuses were controlled according to breeding. The morphology of the vestibular parts (ampulla, saccule, and utricle) was observed by using the light and transmission electron microscopy. Collapse of the membranous labyrinth was found already at embryologic age 50 days and progressed over time. Vestibular dysfunction was noted already from birth. Vestibular atelectasis has been shown to have the same morphology as the reported vestibular dysfunction in the German waltzing guinea pig. Owing to this similarity, this animal can be a good model for vestibular research.

  6. Interventions for unilateral refractive amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Shotton, Kate; Powell, Christine; Voros, Gerasimos; Hatt, Sarah R

    2008-10-08

    Unilateral refractive amblyopia is a common cause of reduced visual acuity in childhood, but optimal treatment is not well defined. This review examined the treatment effect from spectacles and conventional occlusion. Evaluation of the evidence of the effectiveness of spectacles and or occlusion in the treatment of unilateral refractive amblyopia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. Relevant conference proceedings were manually searched. There were no date or language restrictions. The searches were last run on 7 July 2008. Randomised controlled trials of treatment for unilateral refractive amblyopia by spectacles, with or without occlusion were eligible. We included studies with participants of any age. Two authors independently assessed abstracts identified by the searches. We obtained full text copies and contacted study authors where necessary. Eight trials were eligible for inclusion. Data were extracted from seven. No meta-analysis was performed. For all studies mean acuity (standard deviation (SD)) in the amblyopic eye post treatment is reported.Comparison: Spectacles only versus no treatment (Clarke 2003). Mean (SD) visual acuity: spectacles group 0.31 (0.17); no treatment group 0.42 (0.19). Mean difference (MD) between groups -0.11 (borderline statistical significance: 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.22 to 0.00).Comparison: Spectacles plus occlusion versus no treatment (Clarke 2003). Mean (SD) visual acuity: full treatment 0.22 (0.13); no treatment 0.42 (0.19). Mean difference between the groups -0.20 (statistically significant: 95% CI -0.30 to -0.10).Comparison: Spectacles plus occlusion versus spectacles only: Clarke 2003 MD -0.09 (borderline statistical significance 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.00); PEDIG 2005b; MD -0.15 (not statistically significant 95% CI -0.32 to 0.02); PEDIG 2006a; MD 0.01 (not statistically significant 95% CI -0.08 to 0.10).Comparison: Occlusion regimes. PEDIG 2003a: 2 hours

  7. Increased independence and decreased vertigo after vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Kimball, Kay T

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effectiveness in decreasing some symptoms, such as vertigo, and increasing performance of daily life skills after vestibular rehabilitation. Patients who had chronic vertigo due to peripheral vestibular impairments were seen at a tertiary care center. They were referred for vestibular rehabilitation and were assessed on vertigo intensity and frequency with the use of the Vertigo Symptom Scale, the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire, the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 home program treatment groups. Vertigo decreased and independence in activities of daily living improved significantly. Improvement was not affected by age, gender, or history of vertigo. For many patients a simple home program of vestibular habituation head movement exercises is related to reduction in symptoms and increasing independence in activities of daily living.

  8. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  9. Development and regeneration of vestibular hair cells in mammals.

    PubMed

    Burns, Joseph C; Stone, Jennifer S

    2017-05-01

    Vestibular sensation is essential for gaze stabilization, balance, and perception of gravity. The vestibular receptors in mammals, Type I and Type II hair cells, are located in five small organs in the inner ear. Damage to hair cells and their innervating neurons can cause crippling symptoms such as vertigo, visual field oscillation, and imbalance. In adult rodents, some Type II hair cells are regenerated and become re-innervated after damage, presenting opportunities for restoring vestibular function after hair cell damage. This article reviews features of vestibular sensory cells in mammals, including their basic properties, how they develop, and how they are replaced after damage. We discuss molecules that control vestibular hair cell regeneration and highlight areas in which our understanding of development and regeneration needs to be deepened. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure results in an adaptive central reinterpretation of information from multiple sensory sources to produce a sensorimotor state appropriate for motor actions in this unique environment, but this new adaptive state is no longer appropriate for the 1-g gravitational environment on Earth. During these gravitational transitions, astronauts experience deficits in both perceptual and motor functions including impaired postural control, disruption in spatial orientation, impaired control of locomotion that include alterations in muscle activation variability, modified lower limb kinematics, alterations in head-trunk coordination as well as reduced dynamic visual acuity. Post-flight changes in postural and locomotor control might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress was required following a long-duration mission, where support personnel may not be available to aid crewmembers. The act of emergency egress includes, but is not limited to standing, walking, climbing a ladder, jumping down, monitoring displays, actuating discrete controls, operating auxiliary equipment, and communicating with Mission Control and recovery teams while maintaining spatial orientation, mobility and postural stability in order to escape safely. The average time to recover impaired postural control and functional mobility to preflight levels of performance has been shown to be approximately two weeks after long-duration spaceflight. The postflight alterations are due in part to central reinterpretation of vestibular information caused by exposure to microgravity. In this study we will use a commonly used technique of transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied across the vestibular end organs (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS) to disrupt vestibular function as a simulation of post-flight disturbances. The goal of this project is an engineering human-in-the-loop evaluation of a device that can degrade performance of functional tasks (e.g. to maintain upright balance

  11. Oculo-vestibular recoupling using galvanic vestibular stimulation to mitigate simulator sickness.

    PubMed

    Cevette, Michael J; Stepanek, Jan; Cocco, Daniela; Galea, Anna M; Pradhan, Gaurav N; Wagner, Linsey S; Oakley, Sarah R; Smith, Benn E; Zapala, David A; Brookler, Kenneth H

    2012-06-01

    Despite improvement in the computational capabilities of visual displays in flight simulators, intersensory visual-vestibular conflict remains the leading cause of simulator sickness (SS). By using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), the vestibular system can be synchronized with a moving visual field in order to lessen the mismatch of sensory inputs thought to result in SS. A multisite electrode array was used to deliver combinations of GVS in 21 normal subjects. Optimal electrode combinations were identified and used to establish GVS dose-response predictions for the perception of roll, pitch, and yaw. Based on these data, an algorithm was then implemented in flight simulator hardware in order to synchronize visual and GVS-induced vestibular sensations (oculo-vestibular-recoupled or OVR simulation). Subjects were then randomly exposed to flight simulation either with or without OVR simulation. A self-report SS checklist was administered to all subjects after each session. An overall SS score was calculated for each category of symptoms for both groups. The analysis of GVS stimulation data yielded six unique combinations of electrode positions inducing motion perceptions in the three rotational axes. This provided the algorithm used for OVR simulation. The overall SS scores for gastrointestinal, central, and peripheral categories were 17%, 22.4%, and 20% for the Control group and 6.3%, 20%, and 8% for the OVR group, respectively. When virtual head signals produced by GVS are synchronized to the speed and direction of a moving visual field, manifestations of induced SS in a cockpit flight simulator are significantly reduced.

  12. The role of the vestibular system in manual target localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Susan R.; Mueller, S. Alyssa

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts experience perceptual and sensory-motor disturbances during spaceflight and immediately after return to the 1-g environment of Earth. During spaceflight, sensory information from the eyes, limbs and vestibular organs is reinterpreted by the central nervous system so that astronauts can produce appropriate body movements in microgravity. Alterations in sensory-motor function may affect eye-head-hand coordination and, thus, the crewmember's ability to manually locate objects in extrapersonal space. Previous reports have demonstrated that crewmembers have difficulty in estimating joint and limb position and in pointing to memorized target positions on orbit and immediately postflight. One set of internal cues that may assist in the manual localization of objects is information from the vestibular system. This system contributes to our sense of the body's position in space by providing information on head position and movement and the orientation of the body with respect to gravity. Research on the vestibular system has concentrated on its role in oculo-motor control. Little is known about the role that vestibular information plays in manual motor control, such as reaching and pointing movements. Since central interpretation of vestibular information is altered in microgravity, it is important to determine its role in this process. This summer, we determined the importance of vestibular information in a subject's ability to point accurately toward a target in extrapersonal space. Subjects were passively rotated across the earth-vertical axis and then asked to point back to a previously-seen target. In the first paradigm, the subjects used both visual and vestibular cues for the pointing response, while, in the second paradigm, subjects used only vestibular information. Subjects were able to point with 85 percent accuracy to a target using vestibular information alone. We infer from this result that vestibular input plays a role in the spatial programming of

  13. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Johannes; Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc P J

    2017-07-01

    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is unknown whether vestibular feedback is specifically processed dependent on the behavioral goal. Here, we studied whether vestibular signals evoke fixed responses with the aim to preserve the hand trajectory in space or are processed more flexibly, correcting trajectories only in task-relevant spatial dimensions. We used galvanic vestibular stimulation to perturb reaching movements toward a narrow or a wide target. Results show that the same vestibular stimulation led to smaller trajectory corrections to the wide than the narrow target. We interpret this reduced compensation as a task-dependent modulation of vestibular feedback responses, tuned to minimally intervene with the task-irrelevant dimension of the reach. These task-dependent vestibular feedback corrections are in accordance with a central prediction of optimal feedback control theory and mirror the sophistication seen in feedback responses to mechanical and visual perturbations of the upper limb. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Correcting limb movements for external perturbations is a hallmark of flexible sensorimotor behavior. While visual and mechanical perturbations are corrected in a task-dependent manner, it is unclear whether a vestibular perturbation, naturally arising when the body moves, is selectively processed in reach control. We show, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, that reach corrections to vestibular perturbations are task dependent, consistent with a prediction of optimal feedback control theory. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Vestibular vertigo is associated with abnormal sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Albathi, Monirah; Agrawal, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Several small studies in animals and humans have suggested a relationship between vestibular function and sleep. In this study, we evaluate the association between vestibular vertigo and sleep duration in a large, representative sample of US adults. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey, which administered a Balance Supplement in 2008 in a sample of 20,950 adult respondents. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between vestibular vertigo (based on a well-validated definition) and sleep duration (defined as short <6 hours, normal 6-8 hours, and long >8 hours). We performed multiple and multinomial logistic regression analyses to estimate the odds ratio and relative risk ratio (RRR) of impaired sleep duration compared to normal sleep duration associated with vestibular vertigo. Analyses were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and health behavior characteristics as well as relevant comorbid conditions. Thirty percent of individuals with vestibular vertigo reported abnormal sleep duration (15.5% short duration and 14.8% long duration). In adjusted analyses, individuals with vestibular vertigo had a 1.75 (95% CI 1.45-2.11) RRR of having short sleep duration compared to individuals without vestibular vertigo, and a 1.55 (95% CI 1.26-1.91) RRR of having long sleep duration compared to individuals without vestibular vertigo. This study presents epidemiologic evidence to support the association between vestibular function and sleep duration. Individuals with vestibular vertigo had a higher RRR for abnormally short or long sleep duration. Further work is needed to evaluate the causal direction(s) of this association.

  15. Electric Current Transmission Through Tissues of the Vestibular Labyrinth of a Patient: Perfection of the Vestibular Implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. P.; Shchetinin, P. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.; Kingma, H.; Van de Berg, R.; Pleshkov, M. O.; Starkov, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    An electric model of current transmission through tissues of the vestibular labyrinth of a patient is suggested. To stimulate directly the vestibular nerve in surgical operation, terminations of the electrodes are implanted through the bone tissue of the labyrinth into the perilymph in the vicinity of the vestibular nerve. The biological tissue of the vestibular labyrinth surrounding the electrodes and having heterogeneous composition possesses conductive and dielectric properties. Thus, when a current pulse from the vestibular implant is applied to one of the electrodes, conductive disturbance currents may arise between the electrodes and the vestibular nerves that can significantly deteriorate the direct signal quality. To study such signals and to compensate for the conductive disturbance currents, an equivalent electric circuit with actual electric impedance properties of tissues of the vestibular system is suggested, and the time parameters of the conductive disturbance current transmission are calculated. It is demonstrated that these parameters can reach large values. The suggested electric model and the results of calculations can be used for perfection of the vestibular implant.

  16. The diagnostic value of earlier and later components of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, A; Deftereos, S N; Zarikas, V; Panagopoulos, G; Sfetsos, S; Karageorgiou, C L; Ferekidou, E; Kandiloros, D; Korres, S

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of VEMP to disclose spatial dissemination of Multiple Sclerosis. Forty-six MS patients with auditory and/or vestibular symptoms were studied. Patients were divided in two groups. Group 1 included 24 patients with brainstem MRI findings, and Group 2 included 22 patients without MRI findings. VEMP and BAEP have been recorded and assessed. Abnormal p13n23 wave was observed in 50%, while unilateral absence or bilateral delay of the n34p44 in 43% of the patients. The overall diagnostic value considering abnormal cases suggested by both first and second VEMP waves was increased to 71%. Statistically significant differences revealed between patients and controls for p13 latency (p=0.018). The p13n23 was abnormal in 7 patients, although MRI scanning did not reveal brainstem lesions. In 9 out of 18 MS patients suffering from unilateral hearing loss, n34p44 was present in the unaffected ears and absent in the affected side, although p13n23 was normal. Abnormal VEMP imply the presence of lesions undetected by MRI neuroimaging, which verifies the diagnostic value of the method. Unilateral absence of n34p44 complex was related with sensorineural hearing loss, supporting the hypothesis that n34p44 is of cochlear origin.

  17. Disability rank in vestibular older adults.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Mayra Cristina; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Caovilla, Heloísa Helena; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ganança, Mauricio Malavasi; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the hierarchical structure of activities of daily living (ADL) among vestibular older adults, according to its power to discriminate disability. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted comprising 235 elderly, aged 65 years and older, with chronic vestibular dysfunction. Functional capacity was assessed through the Brazilian version of OARS Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire which consists of 15 activities of daily living (ADL). The sample was classified in each ADL according to the difficulty level in performing the activity. A multiple correlation analysis technique and discriminant analysis was used to analyze the hierarchical structure of ADL. The sample consisted of 75.3% women, with an average age of 73.55±5.94 years. The ADL and their respective discrimination measurements were: getting into and out of bed (0.293); eating (0.129); combing hair (0.150); walking on flat surfaces (0.270); having a bath/shower (0.512); getting dressed (0.325); getting to the toilet in time (0.107); climbing stairs (0.338); taking medicines on time (0.035); walking close to home (0.529); shopping (0.503); preparing meals (0.398); cutting toenails (0.242); getting off buses (0.452); and cleaning the house (0.408). The tasks that reflect a higher demand upon the vestibular system were the most impaired, in the following order: walking close to home, having a bath/shower, shopping, getting off buses, cleaning the house, preparing meals, climbing stairs, getting dressed, getting into and out of bed, walking on flat surfaces, cutting toenails, combing hair, eating, getting to the toilet in time, taking medicines on time. © 2010 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Vestibular Dysfunction after Subconcussive Head Impact

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lei; Kawata, Keisuke; Tierney, Ryan; Jeka, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Current thinking views mild head impact (i.e., subconcussion) as an underrecognized phenomenon that has the ability to cause significant current and future detrimental neurological effects. Repeated mild impacts to the head, however, often display no observable behavioral deficits based on standard clinical tests, which may lack sensitivity. The current study investigates the effects of subconcussive impacts from soccer heading with innovative measures of vestibular function and walking stability in a pre- 0–2 h, post- 24 h post-heading repeated measures design. The heading group (n = 10) executed 10 headers with soccer balls projected at a velocity of 25 mph (11.2 m/sec) over 10 min. Subjects were evaluated 24 h before, immediately after, and 24 h after soccer heading with: the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS); a walking stability task with visual feedback of trunk movement; and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) while standing with eyes closed on foam. A control group (n = 10) followed the same protocol with no heading. The results showed significant decrease in trunk angle, leg angle gain, and center of mass gain relative to GVS for the heading group compared with controls. Medial-lateral trunk orientation displacement and velocity during treadmill walking increased immediately after mild head impact for the heading group compared with controls. Controls showed an improvement in mBESS scores over time, indicating a learning effect, which was not observed with the heading group. These results suggest that mild head impact leads to a transient dysfunction in vestibular processing, which deters walking stability during task performance. PMID:26885560

  19. Vestibular Dysfunction after Subconcussive Head Impact.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjae; Ma, Lei; Kawata, Keisuke; Tierney, Ryan; Jeka, John J

    2017-01-01

    Current thinking views mild head impact (i.e., subconcussion) as an underrecognized phenomenon that has the ability to cause significant current and future detrimental neurological effects. Repeated mild impacts to the head, however, often display no observable behavioral deficits based on standard clinical tests, which may lack sensitivity. The current study investigates the effects of subconcussive impacts from soccer heading with innovative measures of vestibular function and walking stability in a pre- 0-2 h, post- 24 h post-heading repeated measures design. The heading group (n = 10) executed 10 headers with soccer balls projected at a velocity of 25 mph (11.2 m/sec) over 10 min. Subjects were evaluated 24 h before, immediately after, and 24 h after soccer heading with: the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS); a walking stability task with visual feedback of trunk movement; and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) while standing with eyes closed on foam. A control group (n = 10) followed the same protocol with no heading. The results showed significant decrease in trunk angle, leg angle gain, and center of mass gain relative to GVS for the heading group compared with controls. Medial-lateral trunk orientation displacement and velocity during treadmill walking increased immediately after mild head impact for the heading group compared with controls. Controls showed an improvement in mBESS scores over time, indicating a learning effect, which was not observed with the heading group. These results suggest that mild head impact leads to a transient dysfunction in vestibular processing, which deters walking stability during task performance.

  20. Changes in Listing plane thickness caused by vestibular schwannoma: a parameter for evaluating the accuracy of the gravity-oriented internal model.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takuo; Watanabe, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Shigeru

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional analysis of video-oculograms can be used to calculate Listing plane for patients and experimental subjects. Listing plane reflects the head's orientation with respect to gravity, which suggests that the plane is derived from otolithic vestibular input, itself, or from a gravity-oriented internal model constructed through integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory inputs. The goal of this study was to determine whether the Listing plane can serve as a parameter for evaluating static (peripheral or central) vestibular function. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Healthy subjects and patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma without any previous treatment. Diagnostic. Video-oculograms were recorded from healthy subjects (aged 36.8 ± 6.3 yr) and from patients (aged 60.3 ± 7.5 yr) during voluntary gaze with the head in an upright or each-side-down orientation, and the thicknesses of the calculated Listing planes were then compared. Results revealed thickening of the Listing plane in patients only when the head was in an impaired-side-down orientation (1.250 ± 0.795 and 1.074 ± 0.759 degrees in the right- and left-side-down head orientations in healthy subjects versus 2.222 ± 1.237 degrees in the impaired-side-down orientation in patients), and this thickening correlated with caloric weakness. By contrast, neither the sensation of postural instability nor postural disturbance in force platform recordings contributed to the thickness of Listing plane. The thickness of the Listing plane could be a novel parameter for quantitatively evaluating static vestibular (otolithic) function, although central compensation might exist.

  1. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Colnaghi, Silvia; Rezzani, Cristiana; Gnesi, Marco; Manfrin, Marco; Quaglieri, Silvia; Nuti, Daniele; Mandalà, Marco; Monti, Maria Cristina; Versino, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients' self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ), and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach's coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test-retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  2. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Colnaghi, Silvia; Rezzani, Cristiana; Gnesi, Marco; Manfrin, Marco; Quaglieri, Silvia; Nuti, Daniele; Mandalà, Marco; Monti, Maria Cristina; Versino, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ), and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit. PMID:29066999

  3. Model-based Vestibular Afferent Stimulation: Modular Workflow for Analyzing Stimulation Scenarios in Patient Specific and Statistical Vestibular Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Handler, Michael; Schier, Peter P; Fritscher, Karl D; Raudaschl, Patrik; Johnson Chacko, Lejo; Glueckert, Rudolf; Saba, Rami; Schubert, Rainer; Baumgarten, Daniel; Baumgartner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Our sense of balance and spatial orientation strongly depends on the correct functionality of our vestibular system. Vestibular dysfunction can lead to blurred vision and impaired balance and spatial orientation, causing a significant decrease in quality of life. Recent studies have shown that vestibular implants offer a possible treatment for patients with vestibular dysfunction. The close proximity of the vestibular nerve bundles, the facial nerve and the cochlear nerve poses a major challenge to targeted stimulation of the vestibular system. Modeling the electrical stimulation of the vestibular system allows for an efficient analysis of stimulation scenarios previous to time and cost intensive in vivo experiments. Current models are based on animal data or CAD models of human anatomy. In this work, a (semi-)automatic modular workflow is presented for the stepwise transformation of segmented vestibular anatomy data of human vestibular specimens to an electrical model and subsequently analyzed. The steps of this workflow include (i) the transformation of labeled datasets to a tetrahedra mesh, (ii) nerve fiber anisotropy and fiber computation as a basis for neuron models, (iii) inclusion of arbitrary electrode designs, (iv) simulation of quasistationary potential distributions, and (v) analysis of stimulus waveforms on the stimulation outcome. Results obtained by the workflow based on human datasets and the average shape of a statistical model revealed a high qualitative agreement and a quantitatively comparable range compared to data from literature, respectively. Based on our workflow, a detailed analysis of intra- and extra-labyrinthine electrode configurations with various stimulation waveforms and electrode designs can be performed on patient specific anatomy, making this framework a valuable tool for current optimization questions concerning vestibular implants in humans.

  4. Effectiveness of Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy for Treatment of Concussed Adolescents With Persistent Symptoms of Dizziness and Imbalance.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoungyoun; Ksiazek, Thomas; Olson, Bernadette

    2018-05-04

    Adolescents who suffer sport concussion typically respond to a prescription of cognitive and physical rest in the acute phases of healing; however, some adolescents do not respond to rest alone. Dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance are impairments, which may linger longer than 30 days, leading to a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome (PCS). Vestibular assessment and therapy may benefit adolescents suffering from these persistent symptoms. Does vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) rather than continued prescription of rest (cognitive and physical) reduce recovery time and persistent symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance in adolescents (12-18 y) who suffer PCS following a sports-related concussion? Summary of Key Findings: All 4 studies selected included adolescents suffering from PCS, specifically continued dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance. VRT was an effective intervention for this population. Adolescents presenting with this cluster of symptoms may also demonstrate verbal and visual memory loss linked to changes in the vestibular system postconcussion. Improved screening tools can help better understand vestibular system changes, identify adolescents who may benefit from VRT sooner, and decrease long-term impairments. Clinical Bottom Line: Moderate evidence supports that adolescents who suffer from persistent symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance following sport concussion should be evaluated more specifically and earlier for vestibular dysfunction and can benefit from participation in individualized VRT. Early evaluation and treatment may result in a reduction of time lost from sport as well as a return to their premorbid condition. For these adolescents, VRT may be more beneficial than continued physical and cognitive rest when an adolescent's symptoms last longer than 30 days. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support that VRT is more effective than continued cognitive and physical rest in reducing

  5. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Bacak, Gökhan; Baran, Rıza Taner; Avcı, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayşenur; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up.

  6. Prepubertal Unilateral Gynecomastia: Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Bacak, Gökhan; Baran, Rıza Taner; Avcı, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayşenur; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up. PMID:25541897

  7. Altered vestibular function in fetal and newborn rats gestated in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers evaluated vestibular development and function in rat pups flown during gestation on the NASA-NIH R1 and R2 missions. Fetal and postnatal vestibular function were examined. Altered vestibular-mediated responses in the experimental fetal pups are attributed to either direct effect of gravity on the vestibular system or indirect effects of microgravity transduced through the mother. The postnatal tests confirmed the hypothesis that the vestibular system continually adapts and responds to tonic stimulation.

  8. Vestibular thalamus: Two distinct graviceptive pathways.

    PubMed

    Baier, Bernhard; Conrad, Julian; Stephan, Thomas; Kirsch, Valerie; Vogt, Thomas; Wilting, Janine; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Dieterich, Marianne

    2016-01-12

    To determine whether there are distinct thalamic regions statistically associated with either contraversive or ipsiversive disturbance of verticality perception measured by subjective visual vertical (SVV). We used modern statistical lesion behavior mapping on a sample of 37 stroke patients with isolated thalamic lesions to clarify which thalamic regions are involved in graviceptive otolith processing and whether there are distinct regions associated with contraversive or ipsiversive SVV deviation. We found 2 distinct systems of graviceptive processing within the thalamus. Contraversive tilt of SVV was associated with lesions to the nuclei dorsomedialis, intralamellaris, centrales thalami, posterior thalami, ventrooralis internus, ventrointermedii, ventrocaudales and superior parts of the nuclei parafascicularis thalami. The regions associated with ipsiversive tilt of SVV were located in more inferior regions, involving structures such as the nuclei endymalis thalami, inferior parts of the nuclei parafascicularis thalami, and also small parts of the junction zone of the nuclei ruber tegmenti and brachium conjunctivum. Our data indicate that there are 2 anatomically distinct graviceptive signal processing mechanisms within the vestibular network in humans that lead, when damaged, to a vestibular tone imbalance either to the contraversive or to the ipsiversive side. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Recent surgical options for vestibular vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Dazert, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Vertigo is not a well-defined disease but a symptom that can occur in heterogeneous entities diagnosed and treated mainly by otolaryngologists, neurologists, internal medicine, and primary care physicians. Most vertigo syndromes have a good prognosis and management is predominantly conservative, whereas the need for surgical therapy is rare, but for a subset of patients often the only remaining option. In this paper, we describe and discuss different surgical therapy options for hydropic inner ear diseases, Menière’s disease, dehiscence syndromes, perilymph fistulas, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. At the end, we shortly introduce the most recent developments in regard to vestibular implants. Surgical therapy is still indicated for vestibular disease in selected patients nowadays when conservative options did not reduce symptoms and patients are still suffering. Success depends on the correct diagnosis and choosing among different procedures the ones going along with an adequate patient selection. With regard to the invasiveness and the possible risks due to surgery, in depth individual counseling is absolutely necessary. Ablative and destructive surgical procedures usually achieve a successful vertigo control, but are associated with a high risk for hearing loss. Therefore, residual hearing has to be included in the decision making process for surgical therapy. PMID:29279721

  10. Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; Nicholls, Sophie; Pattenden, Charlotte; Kilduff, Patrick; Milberg, William

    2008-08-01

    The experiments of Alessandro Volta were amongst the first to indicate that visuo-spatial function can be altered by stimulating the vestibular nerves with galvanic current. Until recently, the beneficial effects of the procedure were masked by the high levels of electrical current applied, which induced nystagmus-related gaze deviation and spatial disorientation. However, several neuropsychological studies have shown that much weaker, imperceptible currents that do not elicit unpleasant side-effects can help overcome visual loss after stroke. Here, we show that visual processing in neurologically healthy individuals can also benefit from galvanic vestibular stimulation. Participants first learnt the names of eight unfamiliar faces and then after a short delay, answered questions from memory about how pairs of these faces differed. Mean correct reaction times were significantly shorter when sub-sensory, noise-enhanced anodal stimulation was administered to the left mastoid, compared to when no stimulation was administered at all. This advantage occurred with no loss in response accuracy, and raises the possibility that the procedure may constitute a more general form of cognitive enhancement.

  11. Clinical applications of correlational vestibular autorotation test.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Li-Chun; Lin, Te-Ming; Chang, Yu-Min; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Gho-She

    2015-06-01

    The correlational vestibular autorotation test (VAT) system has the advantages of good test-retest reliability and calibrations of absolute degrees of eye movement are unnecessary when acquiring a cross correlation coefficient (CCC). The approach is able to efficiently detect peripheral vestibulopathies. A VAT has some drawbacks including poor test-retest reliability and slippage of sensor. This study aimed to develop a correlational VAT system and to evaluate the reliability and applicability of this system. Twenty healthy participants and 10 vertiginous patients were enrolled. Vertical and horizontal autorotations from 0 to 3 Hz with either closed or open eyes were performed. A small sensor and a wireless transmission technique were used to acquire the electro-ocular graph and head velocity signals. The two signals were analyzed using CCCs to assess the functioning of the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR). The results showed a significantly greater CCC for open-eye versus closed-eye of head autorotations. The CCCs also increased significantly with head rotational frequencies. Moreover, the CCCs significantly correlated with the VOR gains at autorotation frequencies ≥1.0 Hz. The test-retest reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.85). The vertiginous participants had significantly lower individual CCCs and overall average CCC than age- and-gender matched controls.

  12. Modelling the vestibular head tilt response.

    PubMed

    Heibert, D; Lithgow, B

    2005-03-01

    This paper attempts to verify the existence of potentially diagnostically significant periodic signals thought to exist in recordings of neural activity originating from the vestibular nerve, following a single tilt of the head. It then attempts to find the physiological basis of this signal, in particular focusing on the mechanical response of the vestibular system. Simple mechanical models of the semi circular canals having angular velocities applied to them were looked at. A simple single canal model was simulated using CFX software. Finally, a simple model of all three canals with elastic duct walls and a moving cupula was constructed. Pressure waves within the canals were simulated using water hammer or pressure transient theory. In particular, it was investigated whether pressure waves within the utricle following a square pulse angular velocity applied to the canal(s) may be responsible for quasi-periodic oscillatory signals. The simulations showed that there are no pressure waves resonating within the canals following a square pulse angular velocity applied to the canal(s). The results show that the oscillatory signals are most likely not mechanical in origin. It was concluded that further investigation is required.

  13. Treatment of peripheral vestibular dysfunction using photobiomodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Young; Hyun, Jai-Hwan; Suh, Myung-Whan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae Yun; Rhee, Chung Ku

    2017-08-01

    Gentamicin, which is still used in modern medicine, is a known vestibular toxic agent, and various degrees of balance problems have been observed after exposure to this pharmacologic agent. Photobiomodulation is a candidate therapy for vertigo due to its ability to reach deep inner ear organs such as the cochlea. Previous reports have suggested that photobiomodulation can improve hearing and cochlea function. However, few studies have examined the effect of photobiomodulation on balance dysfunction. We used a rat model to mimic human vestibulopathy resulting from gentamicin treatment and evaluated the effect of photobiomodulation on vestibular toxicity. Slow harmonic acceleration (SHA) rotating platform testing was used for functional evaluation and both qualitative and quantitative epifluorescence analyses of cupula histopathology were performed. Animals were divided into gentamicin only and gentamicin plus laser treatment groups. Laser treatment was applied to one ear, and function and histopathology were evaluated in both ears. Decreased function was observed in both ears after gentamicin treatment, demonstrated by low gain and no SHA asymmetry. Laser treatment minimized the damage resulting from gentamicin treatment as shown by SHA asymmetry and recovered gain in the treated ear. Histology results reflected the functional results, showing increased hair cell density and epifluorescence intensity in laser-treated cupulae.

  14. The clinical manifestations of vestibular migraine: A review.

    PubMed

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Priesol, Adrian J; Isildak, Huseyin

    2017-06-01

    To provide an overview of vestibular migraines presentation, pathology, and diagnosis, as well as an update on current diagnostic criteria. A review of the most recent literature on vestibular migraines was performed. Vestibular migraine is a process with significant impact on the quality of life for those afflicted with the disease, with attacks of spontaneous or positional vertigo and migraine symptoms lasting several minutes to 72h. Inner ear disease can co-exist with migraine and the vestibular symptoms occurring with vestibular migraine can mimic inner ear disorders providing a challenge for clinicians in establishing diagnosis. Recent diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine proposed by a joint committee of the Bárány Society and the International Headache Society provide an important standard for clinical diagnosis and research endeavor. Vestibular migraine is a challenging disease process to both diagnose and treat. Proper diagnosis and treatment requires a thorough understanding of the current literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive plasticity in vestibular influences on cardiovascular control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, B. J.; Holmes, M. J.; Jian, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected in both human subjects and animal models indicate that the vestibular system influences the control of blood pressure. In animals, peripheral vestibular lesions diminish the capacity to rapidly and accurately make cardiovascular adjustments to changes in posture. Thus, one role of vestibulo-cardiovascular influences is to elicit changes in blood distribution in the body so that stable blood pressure is maintained during movement. However, deficits in correcting blood pressure following vestibular lesions diminish over time, and are less severe when non-labyrinthine sensory cues regarding body position in space are provided. These observations show that pathways that mediate vestibulo-sympathetic reflexes can be subject to plastic changes. This review considers the adaptive plasticity in cardiovascular responses elicited by the central vestibular system. Recent data indicate that the posterior cerebellar vermis may play an important role in adaptation of these responses, such that ablation of the posterior vermis impairs recovery of orthostatic tolerance following subsequent vestibular lesions. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that non-labyrinthine inputs to the central vestibular system may be important in controlling blood pressure during movement, particularly following vestibular dysfunction. A number of sensory inputs appear to be integrated to produce cardiovascular adjustments during changes in posture. Although loss of any one of these inputs does not induce lability in blood pressure, it is likely that maximal blood pressure stability is achieved by the integration of a variety of sensory cues signaling body position in space.

  16. Immediate postoperative nystagmus and vestibular symptoms after stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Aalto, Heikki

    2013-08-01

    Vestibular disturbance is frequent, but mild even immediately after stapes surgery. Vestibular symptoms improved or disappeared quickly, and they did not correlate with nystagmus. Outpatient stapes surgery performed under local anaesthesia is a feasible approach. Vestibular symptoms are common and may prevent outpatient surgery. The time course of vestibular disturbance is unclear, and we aimed to evaluate it immediately after the operation in the recovery room. Twenty patients with otosclerosis undergoing stapedotomy were prospectively included in the study. Postoperative symptoms were collected and nystagmus was recorded with video-oculography (VOG) on average 29 min after the surgery. None of the patients had spontaneous nystagmus with gaze fixation. Nine patients (45%) had slow spontaneous horizontal nystagmus (mean slow phase velocity of 1.1°/s) in the primary position without gaze fixation. In seven of these, the nystagmus obeyed Alexander's law. Nine patients (45%) had vestibular symptoms at the end of the surgery, and four patients at the time of VOG recording. Vertigo was experienced immediately after the operation in five, floating sensation in two, and unspecific dizziness in two patients. Vestibular symptoms were mild or moderate in most patients. The occurrence of nystagmus did not correlate with vestibular symptoms (p > 0.05).

  17. Cognitive Rehabilitation in Bilateral Vestibular Patients: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Andrew W; Schöne, Corina G; Vibert, Dominique; Caversaccio, Marco D; Mast, Fred W

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence that vestibular sensory processing affects, and is affected by, higher cognitive processes. This is highly relevant from a clinical perspective, where there is evidence for cognitive impairments in patients with peripheral vestibular deficits. The vestibular system performs complex probabilistic computations, and we claim that understanding these is important for investigating interactions between vestibular processing and cognition. Furthermore, this will aid our understanding of patients' self-motion perception and will provide useful information for clinical interventions. We propose that cognitive training is a promising way to alleviate the debilitating symptoms of patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss (BVP), who often fail to show improvement when relying solely on conventional treatment methods. We present a probabilistic model capable of processing vestibular sensory data during both passive and active self-motion. Crucially, in our model, knowledge from multiple sources, including higher-level cognition, can be used to predict head motion. This is the entry point for cognitive interventions. Despite the loss of sensory input, the processing circuitry in BVP patients is still intact, and they can still perceive self-motion when the movement is self-generated. We provide computer simulations illustrating self-motion perception of BVP patients. Cognitive training may lead to more accurate and confident predictions, which result in decreased weighting of sensory input, and thus improved self-motion perception. Using our model, we show the possible impact of cognitive interventions to help vestibular rehabilitation in patients with BVP.

  18. Diversity of vestibular nuclei neurons targeted by cerebellar nodulus inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hui; Blázquez, Pablo M; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A functional role of the cerebellar nodulus and ventral uvula (lobules X and IXc,d of the vermis) for vestibular processing has been strongly suggested by direct reciprocal connections with the vestibular nuclei, as well as direct vestibular afferent inputs as mossy fibres. Here we have explored the types of neurons in the macaque vestibular nuclei targeted by nodulus/ventral uvula inhibition using orthodromic identification from the caudal vermis. We found that all nodulus-target neurons are tuned to vestibular stimuli, and most are insensitive to eye movements. Such non-eye-movement neurons are thought to project to vestibulo-spinal and/or thalamo-cortical pathways. Less than 20% of nodulus-target neurons were sensitive to eye movements, suggesting that the caudal vermis can also directly influence vestibulo-ocular pathways. In general, response properties of nodulus-target neurons were diverse, spanning the whole continuum previously described in the vestibular nuclei. Most nodulus-target cells responded to both rotation and translation stimuli and only a few were selectively tuned to translation motion only. Other neurons were sensitive to net linear acceleration, similar to otolith afferents. These results demonstrate that, unlike the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus which target a particular cell group, nodulus/ventral uvula inhibition targets a large diversity of cell types in the vestibular nuclei, consistent with a broad functional significance contributing to vestibulo-ocular, vestibulo-thalamic and vestibulo-spinal pathways. PMID:24127616

  19. Vestibular rehabilitation therapy: review of indications, mechanisms, and key exercises.

    PubMed

    Han, Byung In; Song, Hyun Seok; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-12-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an exercise-based treatment program designed to promote vestibular adaptation and substitution. The goals of VRT are 1) to enhance gaze stability, 2) to enhance postural stability, 3) to improve vertigo, and 4) to improve activities of daily living. VRT facilitates vestibular recovery mechanisms: vestibular adaptation, substitution by the other eye-movement systems, substitution by vision, somatosensory cues, other postural strategies, and habituation. The key exercises for VRT are head-eye movements with various body postures and activities, and maintaining balance with a reduced support base with various orientations of the head and trunk, while performing various upper-extremity tasks, repeating the movements provoking vertigo, and exposing patients gradually to various sensory and motor environments. VRT is indicated for any stable but poorly compensated vestibular lesion, regardless of the patient's age, the cause, and symptom duration and intensity. Vestibular suppressants, visual and somatosensory deprivation, immobilization, old age, concurrent central lesions, and long recovery from symptoms, but there is no difference in the final outcome. As long as exercises are performed several times every day, even brief periods of exercise are sufficient to facilitate vestibular recovery. Here the authors review the mechanisms and the key exercises for each of the VRT goals.

  20. Assessment of Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy Training and Practice Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Dougherty, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) can benefit patients with a variety of balance and vestibular disorders. This expanding field requires knowledgeable and experienced therapists; however, the practice and experience of those providing this care may vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to analyze variations in training and practice patterns among practicing vestibular rehabilitation therapists. Study Design Case-controlled cohort study Setting Investigation of outpatient physical therapy and audiology practices that offer vestibular rehabilitation conducted by a tertiary academic referral center. Main Outcome Measure Questionnaire-based investigation of level of training in vestibular disorders and therapy, practice patterns of vestibular rehabilitation, and referral sources for VRT patients. Results We identified 27 subjects within the state of Kentucky who practice vestibular rehabilitation and the questionnaire response rate was 63%. Responses indicated that 53% of respondents had no training in VRT during their professional degree program. Attendance of a course requiring demonstration of competence and techniques was 24% of participants. The development of VRT certification was significantly more favored by those who attended such courses compared with those who did not (p=0.01). 50% of therapists have direct access to patients without physician referrals. Conclusions There is a wide range of educational background and training among those practicing VRT. This variability in experience may affect care provided within some communities. Certification is not necessary for the practice of VRT but the development of certification is favored among some therapists to improve standardization of practice of this important specialty. PMID:25700790

  1. Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: Review of Indications, Mechanisms, and Key Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Seok; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an exercise-based treatment program designed to promote vestibular adaptation and substitution. The goals of VRT are 1) to enhance gaze stability, 2) to enhance postural stability, 3) to improve vertigo, and 4) to improve activities of daily living. VRT facilitates vestibular recovery mechanisms: vestibular adaptation, substitution by the other eye-movement systems, substitution by vision, somatosensory cues, other postural strategies, and habituation. The key exercises for VRT are head-eye movements with various body postures and activities, and maintaining balance with a reduced support base with various orientations of the head and trunk, while performing various upper-extremity tasks, repeating the movements provoking vertigo, and exposing patients gradually to various sensory and motor environments. VRT is indicated for any stable but poorly compensated vestibular lesion, regardless of the patient's age, the cause, and symptom duration and intensity. Vestibular suppressants, visual and somatosensory deprivation, immobilization, old age, concurrent central lesions, and long recovery from symptoms, but there is no difference in the final outcome. As long as exercises are performed several times every day, even brief periods of exercise are sufficient to facilitate vestibular recovery. Here the authors review the mechanisms and the key exercises for each of the VRT goals. PMID:22259614

  2. Assessment of Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy Training and Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Bush, Matthew L; Dougherty, William

    2015-08-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) can benefit patients with a variety of balance and vestibular disorders. This expanding field requires knowledgeable and experienced therapists; however, the practice and experience of those providing this care may vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to analyze variations in training and practice patterns among practicing vestibular rehabilitation therapists. Case-controlled cohort study. Investigation of outpatient physical therapy and audiology practices that offer vestibular rehabilitation conducted by a tertiary academic referral center. Questionnaire-based investigation of level of training in vestibular disorders and therapy, practice patterns of vestibular rehabilitation, and referral sources for VRT patients. We identified 27 subjects within the state of Kentucky who practice vestibular rehabilitation and the questionnaire response rate was 63%. Responses indicated that 53% of respondents had no training in VRT during their professional degree program. Attendance of a course requiring demonstration of competence and techniques was 24% of participants. The development of VRT certification was significantly more favored by those who attended such courses compared with those who did not (p = 0.01). 50% of therapists have direct access to patients without physician referrals. There is a wide range of educational background and training among those practicing VRT. This variability in experience may affect care provided within some communities. Certification is not necessary for the practice of VRT but the development of certification is favored among some therapists to improve standardization of practice of this important specialty.

  3. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life. In particular, we highlight the contributions of different animal models and the advantage of using a comparative research approach. Cross-species comparisons have established that the morpho-physiological properties underlying vestibular signal processing are evolutionarily inherent, thereby disclosing general principles. Based on the documented success of this approach, we suggest that future research employing a balanced spectrum of standard animal models such as fish/frog, mouse and primate will optimize our progress in understanding vestibular processing in health and disease. Moreover, we propose that this should be further supplemented by research employing more "exotic" species that offer unique experimental access and/or have specific vestibular adaptations due to unusual locomotor capabilities or lifestyles. Taken together this strategy will expedite our understanding of the basic principles underlying vestibular computations to reveal relevant translational aspects. Accordingly, studies employing animal models are indispensible and even mandatory for the development of new treatments, medication and technical aids (implants) for patients with vestibular pathologies.

  4. Improving Sensorimotor Function Using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transition phases. Post flight sensorimotor changes may include postural and gait instability, spatial disorientation, and visual performance decrements, all of which can degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. Crewmember safety would be improved if these detrimental effects of spaceflight could be mitigated by a sensorimotor countermeasure and even further if adaptation to baseline could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through stochastic resonance (SR). The SR phenomenon occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. Two studies have been initiated to investigate the beneficial effects and potential practical usage of SVS. In both studies, electrical vestibular stimulation is applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes using a constant current stimulator. The first study aims to determine the repeatability of the effect of vestibular stimulation on sensorimotor performance and perception in order to better understand the practical use of SVS. The beneficial effect of low levels of SVS on balance performance has been shown in the past. This research uses the same balance task repeated multiple times within a day and across days to study the repeatability of the stimulation effects. The balance test consists of 50 sec trials in which the subject stands with his or her feet together, arms crossed, and eyes closed on compliant foam. Varying levels of SVS, ranging from 0-700 micro A, are applied across different trials. The subject-specific optimal SVS level is that which results in the best balance performance as measured by inertial

  5. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa. A case report.

    PubMed

    Nazar, C; Feldman, M; González, R; Espinoza, R

    2017-06-01

    A 27-year-old woman with a history of nyctalopia and constriction of visual field of the right eye. The ophthalmological examination showed a visual field and electroretinogram that were compatible with unilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP). After a one year follow-up, the unilateral condition remained. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa is a rare condition, with a frequency between 0.2%-5% of the RP. It mainly affects women and older age groups than bilateral RP. For a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to have a funduscopy and electroretinogram (ERG) altered unilaterally, and exclude infectious, inflammatory, and vascular causes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The Development of the Vestibular Apparatus Under Conditions of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Lychakov, D. V.; Palmbakh, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on the effect of space flight conditions on morphogenesis and the structure of the vestibular apparatus in amphibian and fish larvae. Larval development proceeded in weightlessness without serious morphological defects. The vestibular apparatus developed; its organization in the experimental animals did not differ qualitatively from that in the controls. The specific external stimulus (gravitation) appears not to be a necessary condition for the development of a gravitation receptor in ontogenesis although the appearance of the vestibular apparatus in phylogenesis was apparently related to this stimulus.

  7. Fluoxetine for vestibular dysfunction and anxiety: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Simon, Naomi M; Parker, Stephen W; Wernick-Robinson, Mara; Oppenheimer, Julia E; Hoge, Elizabeth A; Worthington, John J; Korbly, Nicole B; Pollack, Mark H

    2005-01-01

    Anxiety states and disorders amplify the symptoms and impairment associated with vestibular dysfunction. Five patients with inner ear vestibular dysfunction and anxiety were prospectively treated with fluoxetine, 20-60 mg/day, and received an extensive battery of assessments at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Fluoxetine led to significant or near significant reductions in anxiety measures and in impairment due to dizziness; improvements in clinical balance function and vestibular function were less clear. The data add to the literature suggesting a role for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of dizziness and anxiety.

  8. Gender comparisons between unilateral and bilateral landings.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Joshi, Mukta; O'Connor, Kristian M

    2010-11-01

    The increased number of women participating in sports has led to a higher knee injury rate in women compared with men. Among these injuries, those occurring to the ACL are commonly observed during landing maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to determine gender differences in landing strategies during unilateral and bilateral landings. Sixteen male and 17 female recreational athletes were recruited to perform unilateral and bilateral landings from a raised platform, scaled to match their individual jumping abilities. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of the dominant leg were calculated during the landing phase and reported as initial ground contact angle, ranges of motion (ROM) and peak moments. Lower extremity energy absorption was also calculated for the duration of the landing phase. Results showed that gender differences were only observed in sagittal plane hip and knee ROM, potentially due to the use of a relative drop height versus the commonly used absolute drop height. Unilateral landings were characterized by significant differences in hip and knee kinematics that have been linked to increased injury risk and would best be classified as "stiff" landings. The ankle musculature was used more for impact absorption during unilateral landing, which required increased joint extension at touchdown and may increase injury risk during an unbalanced landing. In addition, there was only an 11% increase in total energy absorption during unilateral landings, suggesting that there was a substantial amount of passive energy transfer during unilateral landings.

  9. Subclinical vestibular dysfunction in migraine patients: a preliminary study of ocular and rectified cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Jang, Min-Uk; Choi, Hui-Chul; Sohn, Jong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have identified various vestibular symptoms and laboratory abnormalities in migraineurs. Although the vestibular tests may be abnormal, the changes may exist without vestibular symptoms. To date, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has been the easiest and simplest test for measuring vestibular function in clinical practice. Cervical VEMP (cVEMP) represents a vestibulo-collic reflex, whereas ocular VEMP (oVEMP) reflects a vestibulo-ocular pathway. Therefore, we determined whether ocular and rectified cervical VEMPs differed in patients with migraine or tension type headache (TTH) and compared the results to controls with no accompanying vestibular symptoms. The present study included 38 females with migraine without aura, 30 with episodic TTH, and 50 healthy controls without vestibular symptoms. oVEMP and cVEMP using a blood pressure manometer were recorded during a headache-free period. From the VEMP graphs, latency and amplitude parameters were analyzed, especially following EMG rectification in cVEMP. With respect to oVEMP, the migraine group exhibited significantly longer mean latencies of bilateral n1 and left p1 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Amplitudes of n1-p1 were lower than in other groups, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In regards to cVEMP, p13 and n23 latencies and amplitudes after rectification did not differ significantly among groups. An abnormal interictal oVEMP profile was associated with subclinical vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs, suggesting pathology within the vestibulo-ocular reflex. oVEMP is a more reliable measure than cVEMP to evaluate vestibular function in migraineurs, although results from the two tests in patients with migraine are complementary.

  10. Postural stability in a population of dancers, healthy non-dancers, and vestibular neuritis patients.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Ortega Crespo, Isabel; Esteban-Sanchez, Jonathan; Sanz, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have indicated better balance control in dancers than in control participants, but some controversy remains. The aim of our study is to evaluate the postural stability in a cohort of dancers, non-dancers, compensated, and non-compensated unilateral vestibular neuritis (VN). This is a prospective study of control subjects, dancers, and VN patients between June 2009 and December 2015. Dancers from the Dance Conservatory of Madrid and VN patients were referred to our department for analysis. After the clinical history, neuro-otological examination, audiogram, and caloric tests, the diagnosis was done. Results from clinical examination were used for the categorization of compensation situation. A computerized dynamic posturography was performed to every subject. Forty dancers and 38 women formed both 'dancer' and 'normal' cohorts. Forty-two compensated and 39 uncompensated patients formed both 'compensated' and 'uncompensated' cohorts. Dancers had significantly greater antero-posterior (AP) body sway than controls during condition 5 and 6 in the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) (p < .05). When we compared the uncompensated cohort with both control and dancers groups, we found significant greater body sway in every SOT studied condition (p < .05). While mean AP body say in SOT 5 and 6, showed greater values in compensated patients than the control group, the mean analysis did not show any statistical difference between the compensated and dancer groups, in such SOT conditions. Dancers demonstrated greater sways than non-dancers when they relied their postural control on vestibular input alone. Compensated patients had a similar posturographic pattern that the dancers cohort, suggesting a similar shift from visual to somatosensory information.

  11. Optokinetic and Vestibular Responsiveness in the Macaque Rostral Vestibular and Fastigial Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Ayanna S.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2009-01-01

    We recorded from rostral vestibular (VN) and rostral fastigial nuclei (FN) neurons that did not respond to eye movements during three-dimensional (3D) vestibular and optokinetic stimulation (OKS). The majority of neurons in both areas (76 and 69% in VN and FN, respectively) responded during both rotational and translational motion. Preferred directions scattered throughout 3D space for translation but showed some preference for pitch/roll over yaw for rotation. VN/FN neurons were also tested during OKS while monkeys suppressed their optokinetic nystagmus by fixating a head-fixed target. Only a handful of cells (VN: 17%, FN: 6%) modulated during 0.5-Hz OKS suppression, but the number of responsive cells increased (VN: 40%, FN: 48%) during 0.02-Hz OKS. Preferred directions for rotation and OKS were not matched on individual neurons, and OKS gains were smaller than the respective gains during rotation. These results were generally similar for VN and FN neurons. We conclude that optokinetic-vestibular convergence might not be as prevalent as earlier studies have suggested. PMID:19073813

  12. Vestibular compensation after vestibular schwannoma surgery: normalization of the subjective visual vertical and disability.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Santacruz-Ruiz, Santiago; Muñoz-Herrera, Angel; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, Alvaro; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    The degree of caloric weakness before surgery influences faster or slower recovery of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is a good index to show the recovery of patients as it relates directly to an improvement or not of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). To evaluate the process of recovery of patients as measured by the SVV and the DHI after surgical removal of vestibular schwannoma. We studied 24 consecutive patients of the University Hospital of Salamanca who underwent vestibular schwannoma surgery. We assessed age, tumour size, degree of canalicular weakness and preoperative SVV, and their relationship with DHI and SVV at discharge and also at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Patients with lesser degrees of caloric weakness took longer to normalize SVV than those with a higher caloric weakness before surgery (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between DHI and improvements in SVV with time. The differences disappeared in 6 months where all patients, with greater or lesser degree of caloric weakness, had the same results.

  13. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M., E-mail: gchronowski@mdanderson.org; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n =more » 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  14. Multisensory effects on somatosensation: a trimodal visuo-vestibular-tactile interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kaliuzhna, Mariia; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information about self-motion is combined with other sensory signals. Previous research described both visuo-vestibular and vestibular-tactile bilateral interactions, but the simultaneous interaction between all three sensory modalities has not been explored. Here we exploit a previously reported visuo-vestibular integration to investigate multisensory effects on tactile sensitivity in humans. Tactile sensitivity was measured during passive whole body rotations alone or in conjunction with optic flow, creating either purely vestibular or visuo-vestibular sensations of self-motion. Our results demonstrate that tactile sensitivity is modulated by perceived self-motion, as provided by a combined visuo-vestibular percept, and not by the visual and vestibular cues independently. We propose a hierarchical multisensory interaction that underpins somatosensory modulation: visual and vestibular cues are first combined to produce a multisensory self-motion percept. Somatosensory processing is then enhanced according to the degree of perceived self-motion. PMID:27198907

  15. Surgical access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radkevich, L. A.; Ayzikov, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A posteroventral approach for access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve is presented which permits simultaneous surgical access to the ampullary and otolithic nerves. Surgical procedures are discussed.

  16. Vestibular signals in primate cortex for self-motion perception.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yong

    2018-04-21

    The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration. Combining psychophysics, computation, physiological recording and causal manipulation techniques, recent work has addressed both the encoding and decoding of vestibular signals for self-motion perception. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Anatomicopathological relation between facial nerve and large vestibular Schwannoma].

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Yu, C; Guo, E; Guan, S; Yan, C

    2001-05-10

    To study the anatomicopathological relation between facial nerve and large vestibular schwannoma. Operation by suboccipital retrosigmoid sinus approach was performed on 40 cases with large vestibular schwannoma, During the operation, the anatomicopathological relation between the facial nerve and the vestibular schwannoma was observed directly. The facial nerve was found to be located ventrally (deep under the tumor), dorsally (over the tumor), at the upper pole of the tumor (near the tentorium cerebelli), at the lower pole of the tumor (near the rear group cranial nerves), or aberrant (unable to be identified because of infiltration of tumor). In 31 cases, mainly with parenchymatous tumor, the facial nerve was flat in shape. In 9 cases, mainly with cystic tumor, the facial nerve was bandlike. The facial nerve varies greatly in neuroanatomy among patients with large vestibular schwannoma. Strengthening of operative monitoring can increase the safety of operation.

  18. Certain aspects of the vestibular problem in space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibulovegetative disorders on manned space flights are discussed. A study relating to the vestibular stimuli in respiration, diaphoresis cardiac rhythm and a broad complex of hemodynamic indices was conducted. Certain tests for astronaut candidates are discussed.

  19. Vestibular rehabilitation: clinical benefits to patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Klagenberg, Karlin Fabianne; Teive, Hélio A Ghizoni; Munhoz, Renato Puppi; Martins-Bassetto, Jackeline

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) exercises by means of an assessment before and after the application of the Brazilian version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) questionnaire. Twelve patients were studied, the following procedures were carried out: anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological and vestibular evaluation, and the application of the DHI before and after the VR. Clinically resting tremors and subjective postural instability were the motor complaints most frequently associated with complaints of vertigo in 12 cases (100%); in the vestibular exam, all the patients presented abnormalities, frequently from the uni and bilateral peripheral vestibular deficiency syndromes in 10 cases (83.3%); there was significant improvement in the physical, functional and emotional aspects of the DHI after the completion of the VR. The VR following the Cawthorne and Cooksey protocol were shown to be useful in managing subjective complaints of several aspects evaluated in this protocol.

  20. Design and performance characteristics of a mechanically driven vestibular stimulator.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1964-01-01

    In order to determine basic response characteristics of mammalian vestibular systems, the sytems so important for spatial orientation, a device to provide programs of controlled angular accelerations about the vertical axis was required. The small ro...

  1. Effect of gravity on vestibular neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Tomko, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The timing, molecular basis, and morphophysiological and behavioral consequences of the interaction between external environment and the internal genetic pool that shapes the nervous system over a lifetime remain important questions in basic neuroscientific research. Space station offers the opportunity to study this interaction over several life cycles in a variety of organisms. This short review considers past work in altered gravity, particularly on the vestibular system, as the basis for proposing future research on space station, and discusses the equipment necessary to achieve goals. It is stressed that, in keeping with the international investment being made in this research endeavor, both the questions asked and the technologies to be developed should be bold. Advantage must be taken of this unique research environment to expand the frontiers of neuroscience. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Vestibular ataxia and its measurement in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Methods involved in and results obtained with a new comprehensive ataxia test battery are described, and definitions of spontaneous and induced vestibular ataxia in man are given in terms of these findings. In addition, the topic of alcohol-induced ataxia in relation to labyrinth function is investigated. Items in the test battery comprise a sharpened Romberg test, in which the subject stands on the floor with eyes closed and arms folded against his chest, feet heel-to-toe, for 60 seconds; an eyes-open walking test; an eyes-open standing test; an eyes-closed standing test; an eyes-closed on-leg standing test; an eyes-closed walk a line test; an eyes-closed heel-to-toe walking test; and supplementary ataxia tests such as the classical Romberg test.

  3. A long-lasting improvement of tactile extinction after galvanic vestibular stimulation: two Sham-stimulation controlled case studies.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Georg; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Reinhart, Stefan; Kardinal, Mareike; Dimova, Violeta; Utz, Kathrin S

    2011-01-01

    Sensory extinction is frequent and often persistent after brain damage. Previous studies have shown the transient influence of sensory stimulation on tactile extinction. In the present two case studies we investigated whether subliminal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) modulates tactile extinction. GVS induces polarity-specific changes in cerebral excitability in the vestibular cortices and adjacent cortical areas in the temporo-parietal cortex via polarization of the vestibular nerves. Two patients (DL, CJ) with left-sided tactile extinction due to chronic (5 vs. 6 (1/2) years lesion age) right-hemisphere lesions (right fronto-parietal in DL, right frontal and discrete parietal in CJ) were examined. Both showed normal tactile sensitivity to light touch and yielded 90-100% correct identifications in unilateral tactile stimulations for both hands. In Baseline investigations without GVS and Sham-GVS both showed stable left-sided tactile extinction rates of 40-55% (DL) and 49-72% (CJ). In contrast, one session of right-cathodal GVS (intensity: 0.6 mA, duration: 20 min) permanently improved tactile identification of identical stimuli, while a second session with left-cathodal GVS significantly reduced left-sided extinction rates for different stimuli in DL. Patient CJ's left-sided tactile extinction was significantly improved by left-cathodal GVS (0.5 mA, 20 min) for different stimuli, while right-cathodal GVS induced a significant reduction for identical materials. In contrast, Sham-stimulation was ineffective. Improvements remained stable for at least 1 year (DL) resp. 3 weeks (CJ). Control experiments ruled out improvements in tactile extinction merely by retesting. In conclusion, chronic tactile extinction may be permanently improved by GVS in a polarity-specific way. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  5. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dai, M; Raphan, T; Kozlovskaya, I; Cohen, B

    1998-07-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  6. Timing of neuron development in the rodent vestibular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The timing of cell generation (onset and duration) in the developing rat vestibular and proprioceptive systems is investigated. The results clearly indicate a defined time-span for generation of all neurons in the central nervous system nuclei studied. This cytogenetic period in both vestibular and proprioceptive sensory nuclei is determined to occur during and immediately after placentation, a potentially critical period for spaceflight exposure due to alterations in maternal physiology.

  7. Vestibular stimulation, spatial hemineglect and dysphasia, selective effects.

    PubMed

    Vallar, G; Papagno, C; Rusconi, M L; Bisiach, E

    1995-09-01

    The selectivity of the effects of vestibular stimulation was investigated in a left brain-damaged patient suffering from right visuo-spatial hemineglect and severe dysplasia. Vestibular stimulation temporarily improved the former but not the latter disorder. These results support the view that this treatment improves hemineglect by a specific effect, running counter the rightward distortion of egocentric co-ordinates, rather than by a general hemispheric activation.

  8. Diversity of head shaking nystagmus in peripheral vestibular disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Beom; Huh, Se Hyung; Ban, Jae Ho

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of head shaking nystagmus in various peripheral vestibular diseases. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Data of 235 patients with peripheral vestibular diseases including vestibular neuritis, Ménière's disease, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, were retrospectively analyzed. All subjects presented between August 2009 and July 2010. Patients were tested for vestibular function including head shaking nystagmus and caloric information. Regarding vestibular neuritis, all tests were again performed during the 1-month follow-up. Head shaking nystagmus was classified as monophasic or biphasic and, according to the affected ear, was divided as ipsilesional or contralesional. Of the 235 patients, 87 patients revealed positive head shaking nystagmus. According to each disease, positive rates of head shaking nystagmus were as follows: 35 (100%) of 35 cases of vestibular neuritis, 11 (68.8%) of 16 cases of Ménière's disease, and 41 (22.2%) of 184 cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. All cases of vestibular neuritis initially presented as a monophasic, contralesional beating, head shaking nystagmus. However, 1 month after first visit, the direction of nystagmus was changed to biphasic (contralesional first then ipsilesional beating) in 25 cases (72.5%) but not in 10 cases (27.5%). There was a significant correlation between the degree of initial caloric weakness and the biphasic conversion of head shaking nystagmus (p = 0.02). In 72.5% of vestibular neuritis cases, head shaking nystagmus was converted to biphasic during the subacute period. The larger the initial canal paresis was present, the more frequent the biphasic conversion of head shaking nystagmus occurred. However, Ménière's disease and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo did not have specific patterns of head shaking nystagmus.

  9. Changes in the Vestibular System with Age: An Abstracted Bibliography,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-30

    group." COMMENT: Similar to other articles in this series, showing significant loss of afferents (and possibly efferents) in the vestibular nerve. k...marked dependence of postural stability on vision . In them, the disturbing optokinetic stimulus leads to a marked ipsilateral postural deviation or...SUBJECTS (Number-age): N/A EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Review FINDINGS: 1. No mention of vestibular functioning. 2. Review sections on vision , audition

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment of the most frequent vestibular syndromes].

    PubMed

    Kanashiro, Aline Mizuta Kozoroski; Pereira, Cristiana Borges; Melo, Antonio Carlos de Paiva; Scaff, Milberto

    2005-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the most common vestibular syndromes in a dizziness unit, and to observe their clinical aspects and response to treatment. Five hundred and fifteen patients were studied retrospectively in two institutions. Aspects of anamnesis, physical examination and the response to treatment were evaluated. The most frequent syndromes were: benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (VPPB) (28.5%), phobic postural vertigo (11.5%), central vertigo (10.1%), vestibular neuritis (9.7%), Meniere disease (8.5%), and migraine (6.4%). A good response to treatment was observed in most patients with migraine (78.8%), VPPB (64%), vestibular neuritis (62%), Meniere disease (54.5%) and vestibular paroxismia (54.5%). On the other hand, patients with downbeat nystagmus and bilateral vestibulopathy had poor response (52.6% and 42.8%, respectively). The diagnosis of these most frequent vestibular syndromes were established through anamnesis and physical examination (with specific clinical tests for evaluation of the vestibular function). The correct diagnosis and adequate treatment are important since these syndromes may have a good prognosis.

  11. Patterning of sympathetic nerve activity in response to vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; McAllen, R. M.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the vestibular system in regulation of autonomic outflow during postural adjustments. In the present paper we review evidence for the patterning of sympathetic nerve activity elicited by vestibular stimulation. In response to electrical activation of vestibular afferents, firing of sympathetic nerves located throughout the body is altered. However, activity of the renal nerve is most sensitive to vestibular inputs. In contrast, high-intensity simultaneous activation of cutaneous and muscle inputs elicits equivalent changes in firing of the renal, superior mesenteric and lumbar colonic nerves. Responses of muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) efferents to vestibular stimulation are either inhibitory (Type I) or are comprised of a combination of excitation and inhibition (Type II). Interestingly, single MVC units located in the hindlimb exhibited predominantly Type I responses while those located in the forelimb and face exhibited Type II responses. Furthermore, brachial and femoral arterial blood flows were dissociated in response to vestibular stimulation, such that brachial vascular resistance increased while femoral resistance decreased. These studies demonstrate that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned according to both the anatomical location and innervation target of a particular sympathetic nerve, and can lead to distinct changes in local blood flow.

  12. Auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: literature review.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Maysa Bastos; Corona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of auditory and vestibular dysfunction in individuals with systemic sclerosis (SS) and the hypotheses to explain these changes. We performed a systematic review without meta-analysis from PubMed, LILACS, Web of Science, SciELO and SCOPUS databases, using a combination of keywords "systemic sclerosis AND balance OR vestibular" and "systemic sclerosis AND hearing OR auditory." We included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, or English until December 2011 and reviews, letters, and editorials were excluded. We found 254 articles, out of which 10 were selected. The study design was described, and the characteristics and frequency of the auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in these individuals were listed. Afterwards, we investigated the hypothesis built by the authors to explain the auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in SS. Hearing loss was the most common finding, with prevalence ranging from 20 to 77%, being bilateral sensorineural the most frequent type. It is hypothesized that the hearing impairment in SS is due to vascular changes in the cochlea. The prevalence of vestibular disorders ranged from 11 to 63%, and the most frequent findings were changes in caloric testing, positional nystagmus, impaired oculocephalic response, changes in clinical tests of sensory interaction, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. High prevalence of auditory and vestibular dysfunctions in patients with SS was observed. Conducting further research can assist in early identification of these abnormalities, provide resources for professionals who work with these patients, and contribute to improving the quality of life of these individuals.

  13. Isolation and culture of adult mouse vestibular nucleus neurons

    PubMed

    Him, Aydın; Altuntaş, Serap; Öztürk, Gürkan; Erdoğan, Ender; Cengiz, Nureddin

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties.Materials and methods: Vestibular nucleus neurons were mechanically and enzymatically isolated and cultured using a defined medium with known growth factors. Cell survival was measured with propidium iodide, and electrophysiological properties were investigated with current-clamp recording.Results: Vestibular neurons grew neurites in cultures, gaining adult-like morphological properties, and stayed viable for 3 days in culture. Adding bovine calf serum, nerve growth factor, or insulin-like growth factor into the culture medium enhanced neuronal viability. Current-clamp recording of the cultured neurons revealed tonic and phasic-type neurons with similar input resistance, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and duration. Conclusion: Vestibular neurons from adult mice can be cultured, and regenerate axons in a medium containing appropriate growth factors. Culturing adult vestibular neurons provides a new method to study age-related pathologies of the vestibular system.

  14. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: evaluation of the vestibular system with cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Iannella, Giannicola; Manno, Alessandra; Libonati, Laura; Onesti, Emanuela; Vestri, Annarita; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Angeletti, Diletta; Pace, Annalisa; Gulotta, Giampiero; Gagliardi, Silvia; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the possibility of vestibular damage in a group of patients suffering from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) using a diagnostic protocol including the caloric test, C-VEMPs and O-VEMPs. Twenty patients suffering from CIDP (mean age 58.5 years, range 33-80 years; 4 women and 16 men) were investigated. To assess any eventual audio-vestibular involvement, all patients of the study underwent pure tone audiometry, Fitzgerald-Hallpike caloric vestibular test, C-VEMPs and O-VEMPs. In 11 patients with CIDP values of both O-VEMPs and C-VEMPs were either absent or abnormal. An absent trace at O-VEMPs testing occurred in 36% of these pathological patients, whereas an increase of n10 latency and amplitude was present in the other 64% . A specific diagnostic protocol including the caloric test, C-VEMPS, O-VEMPS, could be useful when employed for identifying vestibular damage in CIDP patients.

  15. Preservation of auditory and vestibular function after surgical removal of bilateral vestibular schwannomas in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Brackmann, D. E.; Hitselberger, W. E.; Purdy, J.

    1995-01-01

    The outcome of acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) surgery continues to improve rapidly. Advances can be attributed to several fields, but the most important contributions have arisen from the identification of the genes responsible for the dominant inheritance of neurofibromatosis types 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2) and the development of magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement for the early anatomic confirmation of the pathognomonic, bilateral vestibular schwannomas in NF2. These advances enable early diagnosis and treatment when the tumors are small in virtually all subjects at risk for NF2. The authors suggest that advising young NF2 patients to wait until complications develop, especially hearing loss, before diagnosing and operating for bilateral eighth nerve schwannomas may not always be in the best interest of the patient. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of preservation of both auditory and vestibular function in a patient after bilateral vestibular schwannoma excision.

  16. Association between unilateral or bilateral mastectomy and breast cancer death in patients with unilateral ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Pappas, Lisa; Agarwal, Jayant

    2017-01-01

    Background Utilization of bilateral mastectomy for unilateral breast cancer is increasing despite cost and surgical risks with conflicting reports of survival benefit. Current studies evaluating death after bilateral mastectomy have included patients treated both with breast conservation therapy and unilateral mastectomy. In this study, we directly compared breast cancer–specific death of patients who underwent bilateral or unilateral mastectomy for unilateral breast cancer using a matched cohort analysis. Methods This was an observational study of women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer from 1998 through 2002, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. A 4-to-1 matched cohort of patients was selected including 14,075 patients. Mortality of the groups was compared using Cox proportional hazards models for cause-specific death. Results A total of 41,510 patients diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were included. Unilateral mastectomy was performed in 93% of patients, while bilateral mastectomy was performed in the remaining 7% of patients. When 4-to-1 matching was performed, 11,260 unilateral mastectomy and 2,815 bilateral mastectomy patients were included. Patients with bilateral mastectomy did not have a significantly lower hazard of breast cancer–specific death when compared with patients with unilateral mastectomy (hazard ratio: 0.92 vs 1.00, p=0.11). Conclusion Bilateral mastectomy did not provide a clinically or statistically significant breast cancer–specific mortality benefit over unilateral mastectomy based on a matched cohort analysis of a nationwide population database. These findings should be interpreted in the context of patient preference and alternative benefits of bilateral mastectomy. PMID:29180900

  17. Association between unilateral or bilateral mastectomy and breast cancer death in patients with unilateral ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Pappas, Lisa; Agarwal, Jayant

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of bilateral mastectomy for unilateral breast cancer is increasing despite cost and surgical risks with conflicting reports of survival benefit. Current studies evaluating death after bilateral mastectomy have included patients treated both with breast conservation therapy and unilateral mastectomy. In this study, we directly compared breast cancer-specific death of patients who underwent bilateral or unilateral mastectomy for unilateral breast cancer using a matched cohort analysis. This was an observational study of women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer from 1998 through 2002, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. A 4-to-1 matched cohort of patients was selected including 14,075 patients. Mortality of the groups was compared using Cox proportional hazards models for cause-specific death. A total of 41,510 patients diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were included. Unilateral mastectomy was performed in 93% of patients, while bilateral mastectomy was performed in the remaining 7% of patients. When 4-to-1 matching was performed, 11,260 unilateral mastectomy and 2,815 bilateral mastectomy patients were included. Patients with bilateral mastectomy did not have a significantly lower hazard of breast cancer-specific death when compared with patients with unilateral mastectomy (hazard ratio: 0.92 vs 1.00, p =0.11). Bilateral mastectomy did not provide a clinically or statistically significant breast cancer-specific mortality benefit over unilateral mastectomy based on a matched cohort analysis of a nationwide population database. These findings should be interpreted in the context of patient preference and alternative benefits of bilateral mastectomy.

  18. Isolated unilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis: a rare long-term complication after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Squires, James E; Sisk, Robert A; Balistreri, William F; Kohli, Rohit

    2013-02-01

    To highlight the rare yet devastating complication of CMV retinitis in a minimally immunosuppressed patient eight yr after liver transplantation for biliary atresia. A 22-yr-old female status-post deceased donor liver transplant at age 13 secondary to biliary atresia receiving single agent immunosuppression presented with acute, unilateral, profound decrease in visual acuity. The patient was diagnosed to have acute onset unilateral CMV retinitis. Retinal examination uncovered classical appearance of retinal whitening and retinal hemorrhages with extensive macular involvement. CMV retinitis can occur as a late complication following liver transplantation. Additionally, CMV retinal disease can occur in the absence of laboratory evidence of CMV infection and independent of additional clinical features suggesting CMV disease. Currently, there is no standard of care regarding screening for CMV retinitis, and thus, further research is needed to define the need for potential changes in current clinical practices and post-transplant screening protocols. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Importance of spontaneous nystagmus detection in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo.

    PubMed

    Pavlin-Premrl, Davor; Waterston, John; McGuigan, Sean; Infeld, Bernard; Sultana, Ron; O'Sullivan, Richard; Gerraty, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Vertigo is a common cause of emergency department attendance. Detection of spontaneous nystagmus may be a useful sign in distinguishing vestibular neuritis from other vestibular diagnoses. We aimed to assess the contribution of spontaneous nystagmus in the diagnosis of acute vertigo. We enrolled consecutive consenting patients arriving at a single emergency department with acute vertigo. There was no declared protocol for the emergency department staff. A standardized history and examination was conducted by the investigators. Observation for spontaneous nystagmus, its response to visual fixation, and testing the vestibulo-ocular reflex with the horizontal head impulse test were the chief examination components. MRI was obtained within 24 hours. Clinical criteria and MRI were used to reach the final diagnosis. The investigators' physical findings and final neurological diagnosis were compared with the initial emergency department examination findings and the referral diagnosis. There were 28 patients, 15 with vestibular neuritis, six with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, one with stroke, suspected clinically, and three with migraine. In three the diagnosis remained uncertain. Spontaneous nystagmus was seen in all 15 patients with vestibular neuritis, fixation-suppressed in eight of 11 tested for this. The head impulse test was positive in 12 of 15 with vestibular neuritis. The emergency department referral diagnosis was correct in six of 23 patients. The ability to detect spontaneous nystagmus is useful in vestibular diagnosis, both in support of a diagnosis of vestibular neuritis and in avoiding false positive diagnoses of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic catatonic schizophrenia treated successfully with right unilateral ultrabrief pulse electroconvulsive therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Cupina, Denise; Patil, Sachin; Loo, Colleen

    2013-06-01

    Catatonia is a syndrome with prominent motor and behavioral symptoms commonly seen in acutely ill psychiatric patients. Catatonic symptoms have been considered as positive predictors of response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); however, few studies so far have addressed the role of ECT treatment technique in schizophrenia. We present the case of a 41-year-old woman with chronic catatonic schizophrenia who was treated successfully with a course of ultrabrief right unilateral ECT.

  1. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have difficulty maintaining balance without stepping when standing in tandem, on compliant surfaces, across narrow beams, or on one foot, especially with eyes closed. Normal individuals (with no sensory impairment) maintain balance in these tasks by employing quick, active hip rotation (a "hip strategy"). The absence of a hip strategy in vestibular patients responding to translations of a short support surface has previously been taken as evidence that the use of hip strategy requires an intact vestibular system. However, many tasks requiring hip strategy alter one or a combination of important system characteristics, such as initial state of the body (tandem stance), dynamics (compliant surfaces), or biomechanical limits of stability (narrow beams). Therefore, the balance deficit in these tasks may result from a failure to account for these support surface alterations when planning and executing sensorimotor responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular information is critical to trigger a hip strategy even on an unaltered support surface, which imposes no changes on the system characteristics. We recorded the postural responses of vestibular patients and control subjects with eyes closed to rearward support surface translations of varying velocity, in erect stance on a firm, flat surface. Subjects were instructed to maintain balance without stepping, if possible. Faster translation velocities (25 cm/s or more) produced a consistent pattern of early hip torque (first 400 ms) in control subjects (i.e., a hip strategy). Most of the patients with bilateral vestibular loss responded to the same translation velocities with similar torques. Contrary to our hypothesis, we conclude that vestibular function is not necessary to trigger a hip strategy. We postulate, therefore, that the balance deficit previously observed in vestibular patients during postural tasks that elicit a hip strategy may have been due to

  2. Passive motion reduces vestibular balance and perceptual responses

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Richard C; Watson, Shaun R D

    2015-01-01

    With the hypothesis that vestibular sensitivity is regulated to deal with a range of environmental motion conditions, we explored the effects of passive whole-body motion on vestibular perceptual and balance responses. In 10 subjects, vestibular responses were measured before and after a period of imposed passive motion. Vestibulospinal balance reflexes during standing evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) were measured as shear reaction forces. Perceptual tests measured thresholds for detecting angular motion, perceptions of suprathreshold rotation and perceptions of GVS-evoked illusory rotation. The imposed conditioning motion was 10 min of stochastic yaw rotation (0.5–2.5 Hz ≤ 300 deg s−2) with subjects seated. This conditioning markedly reduced reflexive and perceptual responses. The medium latency galvanic reflex (300–350 ms) was halved in amplitude (48%; P = 0.011) but the short latency response was unaffected. Thresholds for detecting imposed rotation more than doubled (248%; P < 0.001) and remained elevated after 30 min. Over-estimation of whole-body rotation (30–180 deg every 5 s) before conditioning was significantly reduced (41.1 to 21.5%; P = 0.033). Conditioning reduced illusory vestibular sensations of rotation evoked by GVS (mean 113 deg for 10 s at 1 mA) by 44% (P < 0.01) and the effect persisted for at least 1 h (24% reduction; P < 0.05). We conclude that a system of vestibular sensory autoregulation exists and that this probably involves central and peripheral mechanisms, possibly through vestibular efferent regulation. We propose that failure of these regulatory mechanisms at different levels could lead to disorders of movement perception and balance control during standing. Key points Human activity exposes the vestibular organs to a wide dynamic range of motion. We aimed to discover whether the CNS regulates sensitivity to vestibular afference during exposure to ambient motion. Balance and perceptual

  3. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F; Jandl, Nico M; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  4. Postural Control in Bilateral Vestibular Failure: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive, Vestibular, and Cognitive Input

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F.; Jandl, Nico M.; Helmchen, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance. Between-group analysis revealed larger postural sway in BVF patients on eye closure; but with the eyes open, BVF did not differ from healthy controls (HCs). Head tilts and horizontal head shaking increased sway but did not differ between groups. In the dual task condition, BVF patients maintained posture indistinguishable from controls. On foam and tandem stance, postural sway was larger in BVF, even with the eyes open. The best predictor for the severity of bilateral vestibulopathy was standing on foam with eyes closed. Postural control of our BVF was indistinguishable from HCs once visual and proprioceptive feedback is provided. This distinguishes them from patients with vestibulo-cerebellar disorders or functional dizziness. It confirms previous reports and explains that postural unsteadiness of BVF patients can be missed easily if not examined by conditions of visual and/or proprioceptive deprivation. In fact, the best predictor for vestibular hypofunction (VOR gain) was examining patients standing on foam with the eyes closed. Postural sway in that condition increased with the severity of vestibular impairment but not with disease duration. In the absence of visual control, impaired otolith input destabilizes BVF with head retroflexion. Stimulating deficient SSC does not distinguish patients from controls possibly reflecting a shift of intersensory weighing toward proprioceptive-guided postural control. Accordingly, proprioceptive

  5. Combined ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in patients with Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tatiana Rocha; de Resende, Luciana Macedo; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential is a potential of mean latency that measures the muscle response to auditory stimulation. This potential can be generated from the contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and also from the contraction of extraocular muscles in response to high-intensity sounds. This study presents a combined or simultaneous technique of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential in individuals with changes in the vestibular system, for use in otoneurologic diagnosis. To characterize the records and analyze the results of combined cervical and ocular VEMP in individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and in those with Ménière's disease. The study included 120 subjects: 30 subjects with vestibular hyporeflexia, 30 with Ménière's disease, and 60 individuals with normal hearing. Data collection was performed by simultaneously recording the cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. There were differences between the study groups (individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and individuals with Ménière's disease) and the control group for most of wave parameters in combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. For cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential, it was observed that the prolongation of latency of the P13 and N23 waves was the most frequent finding in the group with vestibular hyporeflexia and in the group with Ménière's disease. For ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential, prolonged latency of N10 and P15 waves was the most frequent finding in the study groups. Combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential presented relevant results for individuals with vestibular hyporeflexia and for those with Ménière's disease. There were differences between the study groups and the control group for most of the wave parameters in combined cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia

  6. Recurrent Unilateral Vulval Elephantiasis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    G., Sampath Kumar; Venkatesh, Shreedhar

    2014-01-01

    Genital elephantiasis is caused by a variety of infective and non infective causes leading to blockage of lymphatic. We are presenting a rare case of recurrent unilateral vulval elephantiasis which has recurred after initial reconstructive surgery. A 38 year old female presented with vulval swelling and on examination there was gross unilateral vulval enlargement. FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology) and biopsy were contributory for diagnosis. Patient was started with antibiotics and daily dressing was done till the infection was subsided and the patient was planned for reconstructive surgery. PMID:24971141

  7. Localized unilateral periorbital edema induced by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Price, K S; Thomson, D M

    1997-11-01

    Aspirin intolerance manifested as bronchospasm or urticaria/angioedema has been observed since the beginning of this century. To report a novel case of intolerance to aspirin ingestion. Case report; routine skin testing; pulmonary function testing; aspirin challenge. A 30-year-old man with a history of left ocular trauma at the age of 10 noted a 3-year history of left periorbital angioedema after aspirin but not other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Incremental oral aspirin challenge resulted in this unilateral symptomatology at a dose of 673 mg. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of unilateral periorbital edema following aspirin ingestion.

  8. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot. PMID:28768980

  9. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  10. [Bilateral vestibular loss as a post-infection complication of yersiniosis?].

    PubMed

    Bücheler, M; Löwenheim, H

    1997-08-01

    Yersinia infections other than plaque are caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Food and water contamination as well as animal-to-person and person-to-person contact are common pathways of transmission. Clinical manifestations include enteritis, enterocolitis, acute appendicitis, inflammation of the terminal ileum, and mesenteric adenitis. Y. enterocolitica may cause bacteremia with subsequent septicemia predominantly in patients with underlying illnesses such as diabetes mellitus or malignancy. More frequently enteritis is followed by immunological post-infectious syndromes such as arthritis and erythema nodosum. The present case report discusses bilateral vestibular loss possibly caused by an infection with Y. enterocolitica. A 27-year-old caucasian woman initially presented with the otologic symptom of spinning vertigo accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Physical exam revealed spontaneous nystagmus to the left. Bithermal caloric responses were absent. Pure tone audiometry showed a bilateral symmetric high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Neurologic exams did not reveal involvement of the central vestibular system. Perilymphatic fistula on the left side was excluded by tympanoscopy. Serology for rheumatoid factors and HLA B27 was negative. Lead or mercury intoxication was also excluded. In her medical history the patient reported intermittent watery diarrhea and stress dependent arthralgia that had commenced during a stay in Argentina three years ago. Serology was positive, revealing elevated titers for Y. enterocolitica type 3 (1:200) and type 9 (1:400). Bilateral vestibular loss is rare. The main cause is aminoglycoside ototoxicity or meningitis. Yersina infections have not yet been described as inducing disease of the labyrinth. Present pathophysiologic knowledge of yersinia infections is described as follows: After peroral infection, gastrointestinal permeability is increased. Low-molecular-weight substances may enter the

  11. Vestibular rehabilitation ameliorates chronic dizziness through the SIRT1 axis

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Dizziness is a common clinical symptom frequently referred to general neurologists and practitioners. Exercise intervention, in the form of vestibular rehabilitation, is known as an effective clinical management for dizziness. This intervention is reported to have a functional role in correcting dizziness, improving gaze stability, retraining balance and gait, and enhancing physical fitness. Dizziness is known to be highly related to inflammation and oxidative stress. SIRT1 is a major molecule for the regulation of inflammation and mitigation of oxidative stress in chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the bio-molecular roles of SIRT1 involved in the pathogenesis of dizziness are still largely unclear. In this study, a total of 30 subjects were recruited (15 patients with chronic dizziness, and 15 age/gender matched non-dizzy control subjects). The dizzy subjects group received 18 sessions of 30-min vestibular training. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT1 in the blood samples of chronic dizzy patients were repressed compared with those of healthy controls. After vestibular training, the dizzy patients had significant symptomatic improvements. The SIRT1 expression and its downstream genes (PPAR-γ and PGC-1α) were upregulated after vestibular exercises in dizzy subjects. Notably, the catalytic activity of SIRT1, NADPH and antioxidant enzyme activities were also activated in dizzy patients after vestibular training. Furthermore, vestibular exercise training reduced oxidative events and p53 expression in patients with dizziness. This study demonstrated that vestibular exercise training improved dizziness symptoms, and mechanisms for alleviation of chronic dizziness may partly involve the activation of the SIRT1 axis and the repression of redox status. PMID:24624081

  12. Enhancement of Otolith Specific Ocular Responses Using Vestibular Stochastic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Matthew; De Dios, Yiri E.; Esteves, Julie; Galvan, Raquel; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Our goal is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular stochastic resonance (SR) that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and mitigate these risks. SR is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. Methods: Eye movement data were collected from 10 subjects during variable radius centrifugation (VRC). Subjects performed 11 trials of VRC that provided equivalent tilt stimuli from otolith and other graviceptor input without the normal concordant canal cues. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation, in the range of 0-1500 microamperes, was applied to the vestibular system using a constant current stimulator through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. In the VRC paradigm, subjects were accelerated to 216 deg./s. After the subjects no longer sensed rotation, the chair oscillated along a track at 0.1 Hz to provide tilt stimuli of 10 deg. Eye movements were recorded for 6 cycles while subjects fixated on a target in darkness. Ocular counter roll (OCR) movement was calculated from the eye movement data during periods of chair oscillations. Results: Preliminary analysis of the data revealed that 9 of 10 subjects showed an average increase of 28% in the magnitude of OCR responses to the equivalent tilt stimuli while experiencing vestibular SR. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-900 microamperes. Discussion: These results indicate that stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system can improve otolith specific responses. This will have a

  13. Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Linda Josephine; Lappat, Annabelle; Neuhuber, Winfried; Scherer, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Hölzl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3D-trunk-excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment. PMID:28050208

  14. The Clinical and Service Outcomes of Unilateral and Bilateral ECT Electrode Placements in Australian Aged Psychiatry Services.

    PubMed

    D'Cunha, Craig; Plakiotis, Christos; Macfarlane, Stephen; Moss, Francine; Reddy, Murali; Singh, Dhiren; Tofler, David; White, Erica; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether depressed aged inpatients treated with brief pulse unilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) differed from those treated with bilateral (bitemporal or bifrontal) ECT with respect to numbers of treatments, length of hospital admission, changes in scores on depression and cognitive scales, and serious adverse effects. An audit of routinely collected data regarding 221 acute ECT courses in 7 public aged psychiatry services in Victoria, Australia. Patients given unilateral, bifrontal, and bitemporal treatments were similar with respect to personal, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Most treatments were administered in line with local clinical guidelines and were rated as effective. Psychiatrists preferred unilateral ECT in the first instance with stimulus dosing based on patients' seizure thresholds. Approximately a quarter of unilateral courses were switched later to bitemporal placement, most probably because of insufficient progress. Bilateral treatments were associated with a larger number of treatments, less improvement in scores on mood and cognitive scales, and more refusals to continue treatment than unilateral-only ECT. Brief pulse unilateral ECT proved more effective than bitemporal and bifrontal ECT for most aged patients, especially when coupled with stimulus dosing based on seizure threshold.

  15. Fifth Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Vestibular problems of manned space flight are investigated for weightlessness and reduced gravity conditions with emphasis on space station development. Intensive morphological studies on the vestibular system and its central nervous system connections are included.

  16. Association Between Vestibular Vertigo and Motor Vehicle Accidents: Data From the 2016 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Wei, Eric X; Agrawal, Yuri

    2018-05-18

    Recent evidence has shown that individuals with vestibular impairment have higher rates of self-reported driving difficulty compared with individuals without vestibular impairment. However, it is unknown whether individuals with vestibular impairment are more likely to be involved in motor vehicle accidents. We used data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey of U.S. adults to evaluate whether individuals with vestibular vertigo are more likely to experience motor vehicle accidents relative to individuals without vestibular vertigo. In multivariate analysis, vestibular vertigo was associated with an over threefold increased odds of motor vehicle accidents (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.3). This study supports an assciation between vestibular dysfunction and driving impairment, and provides a relative risk of motor vehicle accidents associated with vestibular vertigo that clinicians may utilize in counseling patients on the potential safety hazards of driving.

  17. Natural history of hearing loss in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tyler; Westerberg, Brian D; Atashband, Shahnaz; Kozak, Frederick K

    2008-02-01

    To determine the natural history of hearing loss in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome. (1) Retrospective cohort study and (2) systematic literature review. Tertiary pediatric centre. (1) Charts of children assessed by one physician between 1993 and 2000 were reviewed. (2) Source articles were identified by a search of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library of the English-language literature through January 2006, with manual review of references. The search was limited to English, human, and age less than 18 years. Pure-tone average. Hearing was classified as stable, progressive and fluctuating. (1) Twenty-one children (39 ears) with EVA were identified. Eighty-two percent of ears had stable hearing, and 18% of ears demonstrated progressive hearing loss. (2) Seven source articles were identified and combined with the present data for a total of 310 ears with a mean follow-up of 4 years. Bilateral EVA was found to be six times more common than unilateral EVA, and there was an equal male to female ratio. Stable hearing was found in 67% of ears and progressive hearing loss in 33% of ears. Subgroup analysis demonstrated hearing fluctuations in 50% of progressive hearing loss ears and 34% of stable ears. Stable hearing is observed in 67% of ears with EVA of which 34% will demonstrate fluctuations in hearing. Progression of hearing loss is seen in 33% of ears of which half will demonstrate fluctuations.

  18. Simultaneous cochlear implantation as a therapeutic option in vestibular schwannoma surgery: case report.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Neto, Pedro Helo; Zamponi, Johnni Oswaldo; Hamerschmidt, Rogério; Wiemes, Gislaine Richter Minhoto; Rassi, Marcio S; Borba, Luis A B

    2018-03-01

    Hearing loss is the most common symptom of vestibular schwannomas (VSs). The management of these lesions includes observation, radiosurgery, and microsurgical resection. Hearing preservation and rehabilitation are the major challenges after the tumor treatment. A 43-year-old man with previous left-sided profound hearing loss and tinnitus presented with a 2-mm left-sided intracanalicular VS. The decision was made to perform a simultaneous cochlear implantation (CI) and microsurgical resection of the tumor. The patient did well postoperatively, with significant improvement of tinnitus, sound localization, and speech recognition in noise. Previous reports of simultaneous CI and VS resection in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and sporadic VS in the only hearing ear have been described. The role of CI in patients with VS and normal contralateral hearing has been recently described, showing positive outcomes due to the binaural benefits. Tinnitus also can be treated by the implantation of the cochlear device. The simultaneous microsurgical removal of VS and implantation of a cochlear device is a feasible approach in patients with unilateral hearing loss and severe tinnitus.

  19. Adaptation of postural recovery responses to a vestibular sensory illusion in individuals with Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Lester, Mark E; Cavanaugh, James T; Foreman, K Bo; Shaffer, Scott W; Marcus, Robin; Dibble, Leland E

    2017-10-01

    The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance. Acutely, individuals with Parkinson disease demonstrated larger center of pressure coefficient of variation compared to controls. Unlike individuals with Parkinson disease and asymptomatic older adults, healthy young adults acutely demonstrated a reduction in Sample Entropy to the sensory illusion. Following a period of consolidation Sample Entropy increased in the healthy young group, which coincided with a decreased center of pressure coefficient of variation. Similar changes were not observed in the Parkinson disease or older adult groups. Taken together, these results suggest that young adults learn to adapt to vestibular illusion in a more robust manner than older adults or those with Parkinson disease. Further investigation into the nature of this adaptive difference is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of microgravity on vestibular ontogeny: direct physiological and anatomical measurements following space flight (STS-29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Fermin, C.; Hester, P. Y.; Vellinger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Does space flight change gravity receptor development? The present study measured vestibular form and function in birds flown as embryos for 5 days in earth orbit (STS-29). No major changes in vestibular gross morphology were found. Vestibular response mean amplitudes and latencies were unaffected by space flight. However, the results of measuring vestibular thresholds were mixed and abnormal responses in 3 of the 8 flight animals raise important questions.

  1. The intrinsic organization of the vestibular complex: evidence for internuclear connectivity.

    PubMed

    Rubertone, J A; Mehler, W R; Cox, G E

    1983-03-14

    The HRP anterograde and retrograde labeling techniques provide evidence for extensive internuclear connectivity within the vestibular complex. Specifically: (1) the superior vestibular nucleus is topographically and reciprocally related to the spinal (spr) and medial vestibular nuclei (mv); (2) the lateral vestibular nucleus (lv) is reciprocally related to the mv, and (3) the lv receives afferent fibers from the spv but does not reciprocate this input.

  2. The Effect of Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy Program on Sensory Organization of Deaf Children With Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Amir Abbas; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Movallali, Guita; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vestibular rehabilitation therapy program on the sensory organization of deaf children with bilateral vestibular dysfunction. This cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted on 24 students between the age of 7 and 12 years (6 girls and 18 boys) with the profound sensorineural hearing loss (PTA>90 dB). They were assessed through the balance subtest in Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP). For children which the total score of the balance subtest was 3 standard deviation lower than their peers with typical development, vestibular function testing was completed pre-intervention. Posturography Sensory organization testing (SOT) was completed pre- and post-intervention with SPS (Synapsys, Marseille, France). Children with bilateral vestibular impairment were randomly assigned to either the exercise or control group. Exercise intervention consisted of compensatory training, emphasizing enhancement of visual and somatosensory function, and balance training. The exercise group entered in vestibular rehabilitation therapy program for 8 weeks. The children initially participating in the control group were provided the exercise intervention following the post-test. Based on the results there was significant difference in condition 5 and 6, areas of limits of stability (LOS), vestibular ratio and global score in posturography at the end of the intervention, but there was no significant difference in the control group in posturography (P<0.05). The results indicated that testing of vestibular, and postural control function, as well as intervention for deficiencies identified, should be included in deaf children rehabilitation program.

  3. Microgravity vestibular investigations (10-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Our perception of how we are oriented in space is dependent on the interaction of virtually every sensory system. For example, to move about in our environment we integrate inputs in our brain from visual, haptic (kinesthetic, proprioceptive, and cutaneous), auditory systems, and labyrinths. In addition to this multimodal system for orientation, our expectations about the direction and speed of our chosen movement are also important. Changes in our environment and the way we interact with the new stimuli will result in a different interpretation by the nervous system of the incoming sensory information. We will adapt to the change in appropriate ways. Because our orientation system is adaptable and complex, it is often difficult to trace a response or change in behavior to any one source of information in this synergistic orientation system. However, with a carefully designed investigation, it is possible to measure signals at the appropriate level of response (both electrophysiological and perceptual) and determine the effect that stimulus rearrangement has on our sense of orientation. The environment of orbital flight represents the stimulus arrangement that is our immediate concern. The Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI) represent a group of experiments designed to investigate the effects of orbital flight and a return to Earth on our orientation system.

  4. Mapping the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP).

    PubMed

    Colebatch, James G

    2012-01-01

    Effects of different electrode placements and indifferent electrodes were investigated for the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). In 5 normal volunteers, the motor point of the left SCM was identified and an electrode placed there. A grid of 7 additional electrodes was laid out, along and across the SCM, based upon the location of the motor point. One reference electrode was placed over the sternoclavicular joint and another over C7. There were clear morphological changes with differing recording sites and for the two reference electrodes, but the earliest and largest responses were recorded from the motor point. The C7 reference affected the level of rectified EMG and was associated with an initial negativity in some electrodes. The latencies of the p13 potentials increased with distance from the motor point but the n23 latencies did not. Thus the p13 potential behaved as a travelling wave whereas the n23 behaved as a standing wave. The C7 reference may be contaminated by other evoked myogenic activity. Ideally recordings should be made with an active electrode over the motor point.

  5. Deconvolution of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd; Basel, Türker

    2012-02-07

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and the associated variance modulation can be understood by a convolution model. Two functions of time are incorporated into the model: the motor unit action potential (MUAP) of an average motor unit, and the temporal modulation of the MUAP rate of all contributing motor units, briefly called rate modulation. The latter is the function of interest, whereas the MUAP acts as a filter that distorts the information contained in the measured data. Here, it is shown how to recover the rate modulation by undoing the filtering using a deconvolution approach. The key aspects of our deconvolution algorithm are as follows: (1) the rate modulation is described in terms of just a few parameters; (2) the MUAP is calculated by Wiener deconvolution of the VEMP with the rate modulation; (3) the model parameters are optimized using a figure-of-merit function where the most important term quantifies the difference between measured and model-predicted variance modulation. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with simulated data. An analysis of real data confirms the view that there are basically two components, which roughly correspond to the waves p13-n23 and n34-p44 of the VEMP. The rate modulation corresponding to the first, inhibitory component is much stronger than that corresponding to the second, excitatory component. But the latter is more extended so that the two modulations have almost the same equivalent rectangular duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexity vs. unity in unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Rode, G; Fourtassi, M; Pagliari, C; Pisella, L; Rossetti, Y

    Unilateral spatial neglect constitutes a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by two main entangled components: a contralesional bias of spatial attention orientation; and impaired building and/or exploration of mental representations of space. These two components are present in different subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect (visual, auditory, somatosensory, motor, allocentric, egocentric, personal, representational and productive manifestations). Detailed anatomical and clinical analyses of these conditions and their underlying disorders show the complexity of spatial cognitive deficits and the difficulty of proposing just one explanation. This complexity is in contrast, however, to the widely acknowledged effectiveness of rehabilitation of the various symptoms and subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect, exemplified in the case of prism adaptation. These common effects are reflections of the unity of the physiotherapeutic mechanisms behind the higher brain functions related to multisensory integration and spatial representations, whereas the paradoxical aspects of unilateral spatial neglect emphasize the need for a greater understanding of spatial cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Unilateral Sympathectomy for Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Ravari, Hassan; Rajabnejad, Ataollah

    2015-12-01

    Primary palmar hyperhidrosis that arises mostly during puberty and early adolescence has a tremendous impact on the quality of life in patients. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of unilateral video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy for dominant hand in these patients. From July 2010 to June 2013, 52 patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis underwent unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy for dominant hand. We analyzed the outcomes regarding the resolution of symptoms, occurrence of complications, recurrence rate, and compensatory hyperhidrosis, and need of operation for opposite side. All patients were followed up from 6 to 42 months. Palmar hyperhidrosis was completely alleviated and absolute dryness was achieved in all patients at the same hand after the operation. Palmar hyperhidrosis in the opposite hand was cured to a complete dryness in 24 (46.15%) patients. No change happened in the opposite hand in 22 (42.3%) patients, but an increase was seen in 6 (11.53%) patients. Only seven (13.46%) patients needed to undergo contralateral sympathectomy. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 13 patients (25%) after unilateral sympathectomy. Another five patients (totally 18, 34.6%) were involved with compensatory hyperhidrosis after contralateral sympathectomy. It was mainly on the trunk in all 18 patients. Unilateral dominant side thoracoscopic sympathectomy for patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure. Only a small number of patients will eventually require a contralateral sympathectomy in nondominant hand. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Post-traumatic unilateral plantar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Eren, Y; Yavasoglu, N G; Comoglu, S S

    2016-02-01

    Localized unilateral hyperhidrosis is rare and poorly understood, sometimes stemming from trauma. Feet, quite vulnerable to trauma are affected by disease-mediated plantar hyperhidrosis, usually bilaterally. This report describes partial hyperhidrosis developing post-traumatically on the left plantar region of a 52-year-old male.

  9. 36 CFR 223.236 - Unilateral termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....236 Section 223.236 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE... sale or free use of special forest products for any of the following reasons: (1) Any of the reasons...) No compensation shall be provided if the unilateral termination is due in whole or in part to the...

  10. 36 CFR 223.236 - Unilateral termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....236 Section 223.236 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE..., permit, or other instrument authorizing the sale or free use of special forest products for any of the... if the unilateral termination is due in whole or in part to the reasons set forth at § 223.236(a)(2...

  11. Vestibular dysfunction in Turner syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Michael; Agrawal, Yuri

    2014-02-01

    Turner syndrome is a well-known cause of sensorineural hearing loss, and the lack of estrogen has been implicated in cochlear dysfunction. It has never been associated with vestibular dysfunction. We report a case of a patient with Turner syndrome who was found to have bilateral vestibular dysfunction based on video-oculography (VOG) testing. A single patient with a history of Turner syndrome who was found to have significant bilateral vestibular dysfunction. After noticing a deficit in the vestibulo-ocular reflexes on qualitative horizontal head impulse examination, the patient underwent VOG testing. VOG testing quantatively measures angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) gain in the horizontal semicircular canal plane. AVOR gain represents the eye movement response to a head movement; in normal individuals the eye movement is fully compensatory and gain values are close to unity. VOG results showed AVOR gains of 0.29 and 0.36 on the right and left sides, respectively. We have presented a case of a woman with Turner syndrome with asymptomatic vestibular dysfunction demonstrated with VOG testing. Although there is a documented relationship between Turner syndrome and sensorineural hearing loss, there are no previous studies or case reports linking Turner syndrome and vestibular dysfunction. Additional research and added vigilance in monitoring Turner syndrome patients may be warranted.

  12. Otolith-Canal Convergence In Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. David; Si, Xiao-Hong

    2002-01-01

    The current final report covers the period from June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2002. The primary objective of the investigation was to determine how information regarding head movements and head position relative to gravity is received and processed by central vestibular nuclei neurons in the brainstem. Specialized receptors in the vestibular labyrinths of the inner ear function to detect angular and linear accelerations of the head, with receptors located in the semicircular canals transducing rotational head movements and receptors located in the otolith organs transducing changes in head position relative to gravity or linear accelerations of the head. The information from these different receptors is then transmitted to central vestibular nuclei neurons which process the input signals, then project the appropriate output information to the eye, head, and body musculature motor neurons to control compensatory reflexes. Although a number of studies have reported on the responsiveness of vestibular nuclei neurons, it has not yet been possible to determine precisely how these cells combine the information from the different angular and linear acceleration receptors into a correct neural output signal. In the present project, rotational and linear motion stimuli were separately delivered while recording responses from vestibular nuclei neurons that were characterized according to direct input from the labyrinth and eye movement sensitivity. Responses from neurons receiving convergent input from the semicircular canals and otolith organs were quantified and compared to non-convergent neurons.

  13. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Terzi, Suat; Coşkun, Zerrin Özergin; Dursun, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Although sacroiliac joint involvement is the classic sign along with the formed immune mediators, it may result in immune-mediated inner ear disease and may cause damage to the audiovestibular system. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) is a clinical reflex test used in the diagnosis of vestibular diseases and is performed by recording and evaluating the muscle potentials resulting from the stimulation of the vestibular system with different stimuli. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cervical VEMP test results in AS patients without vestibular symptoms. Thirty-three patients with AS and a control group of 30 healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics were evaluated in the study. VEMP wave latency, P13-N23 wave amplitude, and VEMP asymmetry ratio (VAR) values were compared between the groups. The relationship between clinical and laboratory findings of the AS patients and VEMP data were also investigated. Compared with healthy people, this study shows the response rate of patients with ankylosing spondylitis was reduced in the VEMP test, and P13-N23 wave amplitude showed a decrease in AS patients who had VEMP response (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the clinical and laboratory findings and VEMP findings in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The data obtained from this study suggest that AS may lead to decreased sensitivity of the vestibular system.

  14. Sensory convergence in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shinder, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular signals are pervasive throughout the central nervous system, including the cortex, where they likely play different roles than they do in the better studied brainstem. Little is known about the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), an area of the cortex with prominent vestibular inputs. Neural activity was recorded in the PIVC of rhesus macaques during combinations of head, body, and visual target rotations. Activity of many PIVC neurons was correlated with the motion of the head in space (vestibular), the twist of the neck (proprioceptive), and the motion of a visual target, but was not associated with eye movement. PIVC neurons responded most commonly to more than one stimulus, and responses to combined movements could often be approximated by a combination of the individual sensitivities to head, neck, and target motion. The pattern of visual, vestibular, and somatic sensitivities on PIVC neurons displayed a continuous range, with some cells strongly responding to one or two of the stimulus modalities while other cells responded to any type of motion equivalently. The PIVC contains multisensory convergence of self-motion cues with external visual object motion information, such that neurons do not represent a specific transformation of any one sensory input. Instead, the PIVC neuron population may define the movement of head, body, and external visual objects in space and relative to one another. This comparison of self and external movement is consistent with insular cortex functions related to monitoring and explains many disparate findings of previous studies. PMID:24671533

  15. Extraterrestrial vestibular research, a new partial field of medical research into the human vestibular apparatus.

    PubMed

    Pichler, H J

    1967-01-01

    The first otologic professorial chair in the world was established by Politzer in Vienna as long ago as 1861. In 1914 an assistant of the 1st Vienna Ear Clinic with Politzer as its head, Barany, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his fundamental investigations into the organ of equilibration and for his discovery of the caloric sensitivity of the semicircular canals. Since that time Barany is regarded as the founder of the physiology of the vestibular apparatus. During the period 1959 to 1963 a new conception of fundamental research into the vestibule was demanded and elaborated in Vienna with the postulate that, in all theoretical deliberations and practical experience, one should take into consideration that our experiments into the vestibule do not take place on a static platform but rather on a diversely moving one, namely the surface of the earth. This led to new findings in the field of research into the otolith apparatus. In 1962 it was discovered that the gravitation of the sun at the distance of earth-sun represents a supraliminal stimulus, namely both in the aphelion as well as in the perihelion position of the earth. In 1965 it was suggested in Vienna that a new branch of research into the vestibule should be established on an international level, the so-called extraterrestrial vestibular research. The importance of this new branch of research is discussed for all problems of orientation of human beings in space.

  16. Mutation spectrum and differential gene expression in cystic and solid vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Zhaoyan; Sun, Lianhua; Li, Xiaohua; Huang, Qi; Yang, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2014-03-01

    We sought to characterize the mutation spectrum of NF2 and the differential gene expression in cystic and solid vestibular schwannomas. We collected tumor tissue and blood samples of 31 cystic vestibular schwannomas and 114 solid vestibular schwannomas. Mutation screening of NF2 was performed in both tumor and blood DNA samples of all patients. cDNA microarray was used to analyze the differential gene expression between 11 cystic vestibular schwannomas and 6 solid vestibular schwannomas. Expression levels of top candidate genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NF2 mutations were identified in 34.5% of sporadic vestibular schwannomas, with all mutations being exclusively somatic. No significant difference was found between the mutation detection rates of cystic vestibular schwannoma (35.5%) and solid vestibular schwannoma (34.2%). cDNA microarray analysis detected a total of 46 differentially expressed genes between the cystic vestibular schwannoma and solid vestibular schwannoma samples. The significantly decreased expression of four top candidate genes, C1orf130, CNTF, COL4A3, and COL4A4, was verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NF2 mutations are not directly involved in the cystic formation of vestibular schwannoma. In addition, the differential gene expression of cystic vestibular schwannoma reported in our study may provide useful insights into the molecular mechanism underlying this process.

  17. Association between vestibular function and motor performance in hearing-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-12-01

    The clinical balance performance of normal-hearing (NH) children was compared with the balance performance of hearing-impaired (HI) children with and without vestibular dysfunction to identify an association between vestibular function and motor performance. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six children (mean age, 7 yr 5 mo; range, 3 yr 8 mo-12 yr 11 mo) divided into three groups: NH children with normal vestibular responses, HI children with normal vestibular responses, and HI children with abnormal vestibular function. A vestibular test protocol (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing) in combination with three clinical balance tests (balance beam walking, one-leg hopping, one-leg stance). Clinical balance performance. HI children with abnormal vestibular test results obtained the lowest quotients of motor performance, which were significantly lower compared with the NH group (p < 0.001 for balance beam walking and one-leg stance; p = 0.003 for one-leg hopping). The balance performance of the HI group with normal vestibular responses was better in comparison with the vestibular impaired group but still significantly lower compared with the NH group (p = 0.020 for balance beam walking; p = 0.001 for one-leg stance; not significant for one-leg hopping). These results indicate an association between vestibular function and motor performance in HI children, with a more distinct motor deterioration if a vestibular impairment is superimposed to the auditory dysfunction.

  18. Bilateral tympanokeratomas (cholesteatomas) with bilateral otitis media, unilateral otitis interna and acoustic neuritis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Østevik, Liv; Rudlang, Kathrine; Holt Jahr, Tuva; Valheim, Mette; Njaa, Bradley Lyndon

    2018-05-22

    An aural cholesteatoma, more appropriately named tympanokeratoma, is an epidermoid cyst of the middle ear described in several species, including dogs, humans and Mongolian gerbils. The cyst lining consists of stratified, keratinizing squamous epithelium with central accumulation of a keratin debris. This case report describes vestibular ganglioneuritis and perineuritis in a dog with chronic otitis, bilateral tympanokeratomas and presumed extension of otic infection to the central nervous system. An 11-year-old intact male Dalmatian dog with chronic bilateral otitis externa and sudden development of symptoms of vestibular disease was examined. Due to the dog's old age the owner opted for euthanasia without any further examination or treatment and the dog was submitted for necropsy. Transection of the ears revealed grey soft material in the external ear canals and pearly white, dry material consistent with keratin in the tympanic bullae bilaterally. The brain and meninges were grossly unremarkable. Microscopical findings included bilateral otitis externa and media, unilateral otitis interna, ganglioneuritis and perineuritis of the spiral ganglion of the vestibulocochlear nerve and multifocal to coalescing, purulent meningitis. A keratinizing squamous epithelial layer continuous with the external acoustic meatus lined the middle ear compartments, consistent with bilateral tympanokeratomas. Focal bony erosion of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and squamous epithelium and Gram-positive bacterial cocci were evident in the left cochlea. The findings suggest that meningitis developed secondary to erosion of the temporal bone and ganglioneuritis and/or perineuritis of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Middle ear tympanokeratoma is an important and potentially life-threatening otic condition in the dog. Once a tympanokeratoma has developed expansion of the cyst can lead to erosion of bone and extension of otic infection to the inner ear, vestibulocochlear ganglion and

  19. Intrinsic Limitations to Unilateral Parathyroid Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Francis D.; Mannting, Finn; Tanasijevic, Milenko

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a method of limited parathyroid exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism. Summary Background Data Although preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas has become sensitive enough for clinical practice, it has not achieved success as the basis for limited parathyroid exploration, because multiglandular disease is routinely underdiagnosed. The rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay is sensitive for multiglandular disease, because hormone levels will not fall within 10 minutes of adenoma removal if additional abnormal tissue is present. A combination technique in which the exploration is limited according to the localization studies and the success is confirmed with the parathyroid hormone assay has promise for producing a high rate of curative limited parathyroid explorations. Methods Forty-eight consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and indications for surgery underwent preoperative localization. After tests, 45 patients underwent unilateral parathyroid exploration and confirmation of the success of unilateral exploration during surgery using the rapid parathyroid hormone assay. The intraoperative management of these patients and their follow-up to 3 months was recorded. Results Thirty-two of the 48 patients (67%) had successful unilateral exploration as gauged by a marked drop in parathyroid hormone levels during the procedure and by 3-month clinical follow-up. Of the 16 patients who ultimately underwent bilateral exploration, 7 had parathyroid hormone levels that did not fall after adenoma removal. Of these seven, five were found to have a second adenoma and two had slow metabolism of hormone with no additional abnormal tissue found. In 5 of the 16 patients, bilateral exploration was performed for erroneous localization. Four additional patients underwent bilateral exploration for improved exposure or negative results on localization tests. Conclusions These results show that unilateral parathyroid exploration

  20. Unilateral scrotal angiomas: An expression of underlying varicocele.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Elise E; Kouwenhoven, Stijn T P; Quint, Koen D; Gmelig Meijling, Kevin A; Genders, Roel E

    2016-01-01

    The current case report describes a 35-year-old man who presented with unilateral scrotal angiomas. The presence of unilateral scrotal angiomas was associated with an underlying varicocele on the ipsilateral side due to increased venous pressure. In case of unilateral scrotal angiomas further examination for underlying pathology is necessary.

  1. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in patients with Ménière's disease with drop attacks.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Ferdinand C A; Zhou, Guangwei; Guinan, John J; Kujawa, Sharon G; Herrmann, Barbara S; Rauch, Steven D

    2006-05-01

    In this retrospective study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) thresholds are more often elevated or absent in patients with Ménière's disease experiencing Tumarkin drop attacks than in other patients with Ménière's disease. Subjects included normal subjects (n = 14) and patients with unilateral Ménière's disease by AAO-HNS (1995) diagnostic criteria with (n = 12) and without (n = 82) Tumarkin drop attacks at a large specialty hospital otology service. VEMP threshold testing was conducted using 250, 500, and 1,000 Hz tone burst stimuli. VEMP responses were present in at all frequencies in both ears of all normal subjects. In unaffected ears of patients with unilateral Ménière's disease, VEMPs were undetectable in 13% of measurements attempted. This number rose to 18% in affected ears of patients with unilateral Ménière's disease and to 41% in Meniere ears with Tumarkin drop attacks. Frequency tuning of the VEMP response in normal subjects showed lowest thresholds at 500 Hz. In Meniere ears, the tuning was altered such that the 500-Hz thresholds were higher than the 1,000-Hz thresholds. There was a gradient of threshold elevation and altered tuning that corresponded to the gradient of worsening disease. Our findings support the hypothesis that Tumarkin drop attacks arise from advanced disease involving the saccule and that VEMP may be a clinically valuable metric of disease severity or progression in patients with Ménière's disease.

  2. The vestibular-related frontal cortex and its role in smooth-pursuit eye movements and vestibular-pursuit interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Junko; Akao, Teppei; Kurkin, Sergei; Kaneko, Chris R.S.; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2006-01-01

    In order to see clearly when a target is moving slowly, primates with high acuity foveae use smooth-pursuit and vergence eye movements. The former rotates both eyes in the same direction to track target motion in frontal planes, while the latter rotates left and right eyes in opposite directions to track target motion in depth. Together, these two systems pursue targets precisely and maintain their images on the foveae of both eyes. During head movements, both systems must interact with the vestibular system to minimize slip of the retinal images. The primate frontal cortex contains two pursuit-related areas; the caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) and supplementary eye fields (SEF). Evoked potential studies have demonstrated vestibular projections to both areas and pursuit neurons in both areas respond to vestibular stimulation. The majority of FEF pursuit neurons code parameters of pursuit such as pursuit and vergence eye velocity, gaze velocity, and retinal image motion for target velocity in frontal and depth planes. Moreover, vestibular inputs contribute to the predictive pursuit responses of FEF neurons. In contrast, the majority of SEF pursuit neurons do not code pursuit metrics and many SEF neurons are reported to be active in more complex tasks. These results suggest that FEF- and SEF-pursuit neurons are involved in different aspects of vestibular-pursuit interactions and that eye velocity coding of SEF pursuit neurons is specialized for the task condition. PMID:16917164

  3. The Effects of Aging on Clinical Vestibular Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Maheu, Maxime; Houde, Marie-Soleil; Landry, Simon P.; Champoux, François

    2015-01-01

    Balance disorders are common issues for aging populations due to the effects of normal aging on peripheral vestibular structures. These changes affect the results of vestibular function evaluations and make the interpretation of these results more difficult. The objective of this article is to review the current state of knowledge of clinically relevant vestibular measures. We will first focus on otolith function assessment methods cervical-VEMP (cVEMP) and ocular-VEMP (oVEMP), then the caloric and video-head impulse test (vHIT) methods for semicircular canals assessment. cVEMP and oVEMP are useful methods, though research on the effects of age for some parameters are still inconclusive. vHIT results are largely independent of age as compared to caloric stimulation and should therefore be preferred for the evaluation of the semicircular canals function. PMID:26441824

  4. Neuroactive substances in the human vestibular end organs.

    PubMed

    Usami, S; Matsubara, A; Shinkawa, H; Matsunaga, T; Kanzaki, J

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate the involvement of neuroactive substances in the human vestibular periphery, the immunocytochemical distribution of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was examined. SP-like immunoreactivity (LI) was present around and beneath sensory hair cells, probably corresponding to their afferent nerve endings. SP-LI was found predominantly in subpopulations of the primary afferents distributed in the peripheral region of the end organs. ChAT-LI and CGRP-LI were found throughout as small puncta below the hair cell layer, probably corresponding to efferent endings. The present re