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Sample records for acute volume load

  1. Acute volume loading and exercise capacity in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rocío A; Arnold, Amy C; Nwazue, Victor C; Okamoto, Luis E; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Black, Bonnie K; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Raj, Satish R; Gamboa, Alfredo

    2014-09-15

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with exercise intolerance, hypovolemia, and cardiac atrophy, which may contribute to reduced stroke volume and compensatory exaggerated heart rate (HR) increases. Acute volume loading with intravenous (iv) saline reduces HR and improves orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in POTS, but its effect on exercise capacity is unknown. In this study, we determined the effect of iv saline infusion on peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) in POTS. Nineteen patients with POTS participated in a sequential study. VO2peak was measured on two separate study days, following administration of placebo or 1 liter of i.v. saline (NaCl 0.9%). Patients exercised on a semirecumbent bicycle with resistance increased by 25 W every 2 min until maximal effort was achieved. Patients exhibited blood volume deficits (-13.4 ± 1.4% ideal volume), consistent with mild to moderate hypovolemia. At baseline, saline significantly increased stroke volume (saline 80 ± 8 ml vs. placebo 64 ± 4 ml; P = 0.010), increased cardiac output (saline 6.9 ± 0.5 liter/min vs. placebo 5.7 ± 0.2 liter/min; P = 0.021), and reduced systemic vascular resistance (saline 992.6 ± 70.0 dyn-s/cm(5) vs. placebo 1,184.0 ± 50.8 dyn-s/cm(5); P = 0.011), with no effect on HR or blood pressure. During exercise, saline did not produce differences in VO2peak (saline 26.3 ± 1.2 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. placebo 27.7 ± 1.8 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1); P = 0.615), peak HR [saline 174 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) vs. placebo 175 ± 3 bpm; P = 0.672] or other cardiovascular parameters. These findings suggest that acute volume loading with saline does not improve VO2peak or cardiovascular responses to exercise in POTS, despite improvements in resting hemodynamic function.

  2. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

  3. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p < 0.01) more energy (484 ± 29 kcal) than the 10,000 kg lift (247 ± 18 kcal). After the 20,000 kg lift, 12 hours postexercise, CK (1,159 ± 729 U·L) was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) as compared with baseline (272 ± 280 U·L) and immediately postexercise (490 ± 402 U·L). No significant time or trial differences were found in RMR between the 10,000 and 20,000 kg trials. In conclusion, high-intensity RT with load-volumes of up to 20,000 kg using resistance-trained men does not significantly increase EPOC above baseline RMR.

  4. sup 1 H NMR study of renal trimethylamine responses to dehydration and acute volume loading in man

    SciTech Connect

    Avison, M.J.; Rothman, D.L.; Nixon, T.W.; Long, W.S.; Siegel, N.J. )

    1991-07-15

    The authors have used volume-localized {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy to detect and measure changes in medullary trimethylamines (TMAs) in the human kidney in vivo. Localized water-suppressed {sup 1}H spectra were collected from a volume of interest located within the renal medulla by using a stimulated echo-based localization scheme. The principal resonances in the medullary {sup 1}H spectrum were residual water, lipid, and TMAs. The TMA line width was 7-15 Hz before filtering, and the signal-to-noise ratio was 40:1. In four normal volunteers, 15 hr of dehydration led to a significant increase in urine ismolality and decrease in body weight and an increase in medullary TMAs. A subsequent water load caused a transient water diuresis, a return to euvolemic body weight, and a significant reduction in medullary TMAs within 4 hr. These results suggest that TMAs may play an osmoregulatory role in the medulla of the normal human kidney.

  5. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  6. Endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones and renal electrolyte handling: effects of an acute sodium load on plasma volume at rest.

    PubMed

    Sims, Stacy T; Rehrer, Nancy J; Bell, Melanie L; Cotter, James D

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of an acute sodium load on resting plasma volume (PV) and renal mechanisms across the menstrual cycle of endurance-trained women with natural (NAT) or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) controlled cycles. Twelve women were assigned to one of two groups, according to their usage status: 1) OCP [n = 6, 29 yr (SD 6), 59.4 kg (SD 3.2)], or 2) NAT [n = 6, 24 yr (SD 5), 61.3 kg (SD 3.6)]. The sodium load was administered as a concentrated sodium chloride/citrate beverage (164 mmol Na(+)/l, 253 mosmol/kgH(2)O, 10 ml/kg body mass) during the last high-hormone week of the OCP cycle (OCP(high)) or late luteal phase of the NAT cycle (NAT(high)) and during the low-hormone sugar pill week of OCP (OCP(low)) or early follicular phase of the NAT cycle (NAT(low)). The beverage ( approximately 628 ml) was ingested in seven portions across 60 min. Over the next 4 h, PV expanded more in the low-hormone phase for both groups (time-averaged change): OCP(low) 6.1% (SD 1.1) and NAT(low) 5.4% (SD 1.2) vs. OCP(high) 3.9% (SD 0.9) and NAT(high) 3.5% (SD 0.8) (P = 0.02). The arginine vasopressin increased less in the low-hormone phase [1.63 (SD 0.2) and 1.30 pg/ml (SD 0.2) vs. 1.82 (SD 0.3) and 1.57 pg/ml (SD 0.5), P = 0.0001], as did plasma aldosterone concentration ( approximately 64% lower, P = 0.0001). Thus PV increased more and renal hormone sensitivity was decreased in the low-hormone menstrual phase following sodium/fluid ingestion, irrespective of OCP usage.

  7. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  8. Dynamic Training Volume: A Construct of Both Time Under Tension and Volume Load

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Quan T.; Docherty, David

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different weight training protocols, that varied in the way training volume was measured, on acute muscular fatigue. Ten resistance-trained males performed all three protocols which involved dynamic constant resistance exercise of the elbow flexors. Protocol A provided a standard for the time the muscle group was under tension (TUT) and volume load (VL), expressed as the product of the total number of repetitions and the load that was lifted. Protocol B involved 40% of the TUT but the same VL compared to protocol A; protocol C was equated with protocol A for TUT but only involved 50% of the VL. Fatigue was assessed by changes in maximum voluntary isometric force and integrated electromyography (iEMG) between the pre- and post-training protocols. The results of the study showed that, when equated for VL, greater TUT produced greater overall muscular fatigue (p ≤ 0.001) as reflected by the reduction in the force generating capability of the muscle. When the protocols were equated for TUT, greater VL (p ≤ 0.01) resulted in greater overall muscular fatigue. All three protocols resulted in significant decreases in iEMG (p ≤ 0.05) but they were not significantly different from each other. It was concluded that, because of the importance of training volume to neuromuscular adaptation, the training volume needs to be clearly described when designing resistance training programs. Key PointsIncrease in either time under tension (TUT) or volume load (VL) increases the acute fatigue response, despite being equated for volume (by another method).A potential discrepancy in training volume may be present with training parameters that fail to control for either TUT or VL.Neural fatigue may be a contributing factor to the development of muscular fatigue but is not influenced by various methods of calculating volume such as TUT or VL. PMID:24357968

  9. Mean platelet volume in acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Sert, Ahmet; Aypar, Ebru; Odabas, Dursun

    2013-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is still an endemic disease, especially among school-aged children in developing countries. Mean platelet volume (MPV), which is commonly used as a measure of platelet size, indicates the rate of platelet production and platelet activation. We aimed to investigate MPV in children with ARF. The study population consisted of 40 children with ARF (32 patients with carditis and 8 patients without carditis) and 40 healthy control subjects. White blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were significantly higher and MPV values were significantly lower in patients with ARF during the acute stage when compared to controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein values significantly decreased in patients with ARF after the treatment when compared to baseline, whereas MPV values increased. MPV values were negatively correlated with ESR and WBC, and platelet counts. In conclusion, during the acute stage of ARF, MPV values were lower when compared to controls.

  10. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  11. Durability of Polymeric Coatings: Cyclic Loading and Free Volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmin; Peng, Qinghua; Wu, Yichu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junjie; Sandreczki, T. C.; Zhang, Renwu; Jean, Y. C.; Richardson, J. R.

    2002-03-01

    The mechanical durability of seven commercially polymeric coatings is investigated using slow positron beam techniques to monitor changes in sub nanometer defects during the cyclic loading process. Doppler broadened energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed as a function of the slow positron energy at different periods of cycling loading. The positron annihilation dada show that both S-defect parameter and ortho-positronium intensity decrease as the loading cycles increase. The results indicate a loss of free volumes due to mechanical loading and cycling. A direct correlation between the loss of free-volume parameter and of loading cycle is observed. This is interpreted as that durability of polymeric coatings is controlled by the atomic level defects. It is shown that the slow positron beam is very successful probe in detecting the very early stages of coating degradation due to mechanical processes. Supported by NSF-CMS-9812717

  12. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  13. Baroreflex Responses to Acute Changes in Blood Volume in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Cynthia A.; Tatro, Dana L.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acute changes in plasma volume affect the stimulus-response relations of high- and low- pressure baroreflexes, eight men (27-44 yr old) underwent measurements for carotid-cardiac and cardiopulmonary baro- reflex responses under the following three volemic conditions: hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic. The stimulus- response relation of the carotid-cardiac response curve was generated using a neck cuff device, which delivered pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg in continuous steps of 15 mmHg. The stimulus-response relationships of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex were studied by measurements of Forearm Vascular Resistance (FVR) and Peripheral Venotis Pressure (PVP) during low levels of lower body negative pressure (O to -20 mmHg). Altered vascular volume had no effect on response relations of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex but did alter the gain of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex (-7.93 q 1.71, -4.36 q 1.38, and -2.56 q 1.59 peripheral resistance units/mmHg for hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic, respectively) independent of shifts in baseline FVR and PVP. These results indicate greater demand for vasoconstriction for equal reductions in venous pressure during progressive hypovolemia; this condition may compromise the capacity to provide adequate peripheral resistance during severe orthostatic stress. Fluid loading before reentry after spaceflight may act to restore vasoconstrictive capacity of the cardiopulnionary baroreflex but may not be an effective countermeasure against potential post- flight impairment of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  14. Internet traffic load balancing using dynamic hashing with flow volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Yoohwan; Chao, H. Jonathan; Merat, Francis L.

    2002-07-01

    Sending IP packets over multiple parallel links is in extensive use in today's Internet and its use is growing due to its scalability, reliability and cost-effectiveness. To maximize the efficiency of parallel links, load balancing is necessary among the links, but it may cause the problem of packet reordering. Since packet reordering impairs TCP performance, it is important to reduce the amount of reordering. Hashing offers a simple solution to keep the packet order by sending a flow over a unique link, but static hashing does not guarantee an even distribution of the traffic amount among the links, which could lead to packet loss under heavy load. Dynamic hashing offers some degree of load balancing but suffers from load fluctuations and excessive packet reordering. To overcome these shortcomings, we have enhanced the dynamic hashing algorithm to utilize the flow volume information in order to reassign only the appropriate flows. This new method, called dynamic hashing with flow volume (DHFV), eliminates unnecessary flow reassignments of small flows and achieves load balancing very quickly without load fluctuation by accurately predicting the amount of transferred load between the links. In this paper we provide the general framework of DHFV and address the challenges in implementing DHFV. We then introduce two algorithms of DHFV with different flow selection strategies and show their performances through simulation.

  15. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity with volume loading in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatner, S. F.; Boettcher, D. H.; Heyndrickx, G. R.; Mcritchie, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Results of studies of the Bainbridge reflex in intact conscious dogs are presented. They indicate that arterial baroreflex sensitivity is reduced progressively as atrial pressure is raised by volume loading; this observation explains how heart rate can rise markedly in the presence of an elevated arterial blood pressure.

  16. Function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II in volume load-induced diuresis.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Andrea; Schinner, Elisabeth; Huettner, Johannes P; Kees, Frieder; Tauber, Philipp; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/cGMPs cause diuresis and natriuresis. Their downstream effectors beyond cGMP remain unclear. To elucidate a probable function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII), we investigated renal parameters in different conditions (basal, salt diets, starving, water load) using a genetically modified mouse model (cGKII-KO), but did not detect any striking differences between WT and cGKII-KO. Thus, cGKII is proposed to play only a marginal role in the adjustment of renal concentration ability to varying salt loads without water restriction or starving conditions. When WT mice were subjected to a volume load (performed by application of a 10-mM glucose solution (3% of BW) via feeding needle), they exhibited a potent diuresis. In contrast, urine volume was decreased significantly in cGKII-KO. We showed that AQP2 plasma membrane (PM) abundance was reduced for about 50% in WT upon volume load, therefore, this might be a main cause for the enhanced diuresis. In contrast, cGKII-KO mice almost completely failed to decrease AQP2-PM distribution. This significant difference between both genotypes is not induced by an altered p-Ser256-AQP2 phosphorylation, as phosphorylation at this site decreases similarly in WT and KO. Furthermore, sodium excretion was lowered in cGKII-KO mice during volume load. In summary, cGKII is only involved to a minor extent in the regulation of basal renal concentration ability. By contrast, cGKII-KO mice are not able to handle an acute volume load. Our results suggest that membrane insertion of AQP2 is inhibited by cGMP/cGKII.

  17. Baroreflex Responses to Acute Changes in Blood Volume in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Cynthia A.; Tatro, Dana L.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that acute changes in plasma volume affect the stimulus-response relations of high- and low- pressure baroreflexes, eight men (27-44 yr old) underwent measurements for carotid-cardiac and cardiopulmonary baro-reflex responses under the following three volemic conditions: hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic. The stimulus- response relation of the carotid-cardiac response curve was generated using a neck cuff device, which delivered pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg in continuous steps of 15 mmHg. The stimulus-response relationship, of the cardio-pulmonary baroreflex were studied by measurements of Forearm Vascular Resistance (FVR) and Peripheral Venous Pressure (PVP) during low levels of lower body negative pressure (O to -20 mmHg). The results indicate greater demand for vasoconstriction for equal reductions in venous pressure during progressive hypovolemia; this condition may compromise the capacity to provide adequate peripheral resistance during severe orthostatic stress. Fluid loading before reentry after spaceflight may act to restore vasoconstrictive capacity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex but may not be an effective countermeasure against potential post- flight impairment of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  18. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Patients Without Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weibing; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life threatening respiratory condition characterized by breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier, leading to flooding of the alveolar space producing the classical chest radiograph of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. In this study, we employed lung protective ventilation strategies in patients without acute lung injury (ALI) to determine whether mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volume would provide more clinical benefits to patients without ALI.

  19. Study of inducer load and stress, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication and testing has been conducted to develop computer programs for predicting rocket engine turbopump inducer hydrodynamic loading, stress magnitude and distribution, and vibration characteristics. Methods of predicting blade loading, stress, and vibration characteristics were selected from a literature search and used as a basis for the computer programs. An inducer, representative of typical rocket engine inducers, was designed, fabricated, and tested with special instrumentation selected to provide measurements of blade surface pressures and stresses. Data from the tests were compared with predicted values and the computer programs were revised as required to improve correlation. For Volume 1 see N71-20403. For Volume 2 see N71-20404.

  20. Cardiopulmonary responses to acute hypoxia, head-down tilt and fluid loading in anesthetized dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Scotto, P.; Riedel, C.; Avasthi, P.; Koshukosky, V.; Chick, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary responses to acute hypoxia (HY), fluid loading by saline infusion (FL), and head-down tilt (HD) of mechanically ventilated anesthetized dogs were investigated by measuring thermodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange. It was found that HD decreased the total respiratory compliance both during HY and normoxia (NO) and that the reduction in compliance by FL was twice as large as by HD. Superimposing HD on HY doubled the increase in vascular resistance due to HY alone. In the systemic circulation, HD lowered the resistance to below NO levels. There was a significant positive correlation between the changes in blood volume and in pulmonary artery pressure for experimental transitions, suggesting that a shift in blood volume from systemic to pulmonary circulations and changes in the total blood volume may contribute substantially to these apparent changes in resistance.

  1. Baroreflex sensitivity in acute hypoxia and carbohydrate loading.

    PubMed

    Klemenc, Matjaž; Golja, Petra

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia decreases baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and can be a sufficient cause for syncope in healthy individuals. Carbohydrate loading enhances efferent sympathetic activity, which affects cardiac contractility, heart rate and vascular resistance, the main determinants of blood pressure. Thus, in both normoxia and hypoxia, carbohydrate loading may be more than simply metabolically beneficial, as it may affect blood pressure regulation. We hypothesised that carbohydrate loading will, in both normoxia and hypoxia, alter the regulation of blood pressure, as reflected in a change in baroreflex sensitivity. Fourteen subjects participated in two experiments, composed of a 15-min normoxic period, after which the subjects ingested water or an equal amount of water with carbohydrates. A 30-min rest period was then followed by a 10-min second normoxic and a 30-min hypoxic period. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously during the experiment to determine BRS. Despite an increased sympathetic activation, reflected in increased heart rate (P < 0.001) BRS was lower (P < 0.01) after carbohydrate loading, as compared to the water experiment, in both normoxic [23.7 (12.4) versus 28.8 (13.8) ms/mmHg] and hypoxic [16.8 (11.0) versus 24.3 (12.3) ms/mmHg] phases of the present study. As BRS was decreased in acute hypoxic exposure, the results confirm that hypoxia interferes with blood pressure regulation. However, although oral carbohydrate loading induced sympathoexcitation, it did not improve blood pressure regulation in hypoxia, as evident from the BRS data. Baroreflex effects of other forms of carbohydrate loading, not causing postprandial blood shifts to digestive system, should therefore be investigated.

  2. The effectiveness of session rating of perceived exertion to monitor resistance training load in acute burns patients.

    PubMed

    Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Gittings, Paul M; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2017-02-01

    Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a method frequently utilised in exercise and sports science to quantify training load of an entire aerobic exercise session. It has also been demonstrated that session-RPE is a valid and reliable method to quantify training load during resistance exercise, in healthy and athletic populations. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of session-RPE as a method to quantify exercise intensity during resistance training in patients with acute burns. Twenty burns patients (mean age=31.65 (±10.09) years), with a mean TBSA of 16.4% (range=6-40%) were recruited for this study. Patients were randomly allocated to the resistance training (n=10) or control group (n=10). All patients completed a four week resistance training programme. Training load (session-RPE×session duration), resistance training session-volume and pre-exercise pain were recorded for each exercise session. The influence of; age, gender, %TBSA, exercise group (resistance training vs. control), pre-exercise pain, resistance training history and session-volume on training load were analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Session-volume did not influence training load in the final regression model, however training load was significantly greater in the resistance training group, compared with the control group (p<0.001). Pre-exercise pain significantly influenced training load, where increasing pain was associated with a higher session-RPE (p=0.004). Further research is indicated to determine the exact relationship between pain, resistance training history, exercise intensity and session-RPE and training load before it can be used as a method to monitor and prescribe resistance training load in acute burns patients.

  3. [Volume assessment in the acute heart and renal failure].

    PubMed

    Vujicić, Bozidar; Ruzić, Alen; Zaputović, Luka; Racki, Sanjin

    2012-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue, especially in the setting of critical care. It has been shown in multiple studies to be a key independent risk factor for mortality, even after adjustment for demographics and severity of illness. There is wide agreement that a generally applicable classification system is required for AKI which helps to standardize estimation of severity of renal disfunction and to predict outcome associated with this condition. That's how RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-End-stage renal disease), and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications for AKI were found in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In the clinical setting of heart failure, a positive fluid balance (often expressed in the literature as weight gain) is used by disease management programs as a marker of heart failure decompensation. Oliguria is defined as urine output less than 0,3 ml/kg/h for at least 24 h. Since any delay in treatment can lead to a dangerous progression of the AKI, early recognition of oliguria appears to be crucial. Critically ill patients with oliguric AKI are at increased risk for fluid imbalance due to widespread systemic inflammation, reduced plasma oncotic pressure and increased capillary leak. These patients are particulary at risk of fluid overload and therefore restrictive strategy of fluid administration should be used. Objective, rapid and accurate volume assessment is important in undiagnosed patients presenting with critical illness, as errors may result in interventions with fatal outcomes. The historical tools such as physical exam, and chest radiography suffer from significant limitations. As gold standard, radioisolopic measurement of volume is impractical in the acute care enviroment. Newer technologies offer the promise of both rapid and accurate bedside estimation of volume status with the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Blood assessment with bioimpendance vector analysis, and bedside ultrasound seem to be

  4. Progression of volume load and muscular adaptation during resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Pistilli, Emidio; Haff, G. Gregory; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Volume load (VL) is suggested to influence the adaptation of muscle to resistance exercise (RE). We sought to examine the independent association between total VL and hypertrophy and strength following a progressive RE protocol of equated sets and intensity. Total VL was calculated in 83 subjects (n = 43 males, n = 40 females; age = 25.12 ± 5.5 years) who participated in unilateral arm RE for 12 weeks. Subjects were tested for biceps muscle volume (MRI of the upper arm), isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and dynamic biceps strength (1RM), at baseline and following RE. Linear regression analysis revealed that sex was a significant predictor of hypertrophy (β = 0.06; p = 0.01) and strength (β = 0.14; p = 0.04), and that males had greater increases. Total VL was independently associated with hypertrophy only among females (β = 0.12; p < 0.01). For males, only baseline strength was (inversely) related to hypertrophy (β = −0.12; p = 0.04). VL was strongly associated with changes in 1RM strength improvement for both males (β = 0.66; p < 0.01) and females (β = 0.26; p = 0.02), but only related to MVC among females (β = 0.20; p = 0.02). Findings reveal that VL was independently associated with hypertrophy only among females. For males baseline strength was independently and inversely related to changes in muscle mass. Conversely, VL was found to be strongly associated with changes in 1RM for both males and females, controlling for age, body mass, and baseline strength. PMID:21113614

  5. Influence of Parasite Load on Renal Function in Mice Acutely Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Miguel, Renata Botelho; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the vast number of studies evaluating the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, the influence of parasite burden on kidney lesions remains unclear. Thus, the main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of T. cruzi infection on renal function and determine whether there was a correlation between parasite load and renal injury using an acute experimental model of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Low, medium and high parasite loads were generated by infecting C57BL/6 mice with 300 (low), 3,000 (medium) or 30,000 (high) numbers of “Y” strain trypomastigotes. We found that mice infected with T. cruzi trypomastigotes show increased renal injury. The infection resulted in reduced urinary excretion and creatinine clearance. We also observed a marked elevation in the ratio of urine volume to kidney and body weight, blood urea nitrogen, chloride ion, nitric oxide, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the number of leukocytes in the blood and/or renal tissues of infected mice. Additionally, we observed the presence of the parasite in the cortical/medullary and peri-renal region, an increase of inflammatory infiltrate and of vascular permeability of the kidney. Overall, most renal changes occurred mainly in animals infected with high parasitic loads. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that T. cruzi impairs kidney function, and this impairment is more evident in mice infected with high parasitic loads. Moreover, these data suggest that, in addition to the extensively studied cardiovascular effects, renal injury should be regarded as an important indicator for better understanding the pan-infectivity of the parasite and consequently for understanding the disease in experimental models. PMID:23951243

  6. Relationship of radionuclide indexes of cardiac function during interventions: volume loading, afterload stress, exercise, and pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    We compared three radionuclide index of cardiac function: 1) the ejection fraction (EF), 2) the mean ejection rate (ER), and 3) the mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (MVCF) during volume loading, phenylephrine hydrochloride stress, exercise, and atrial pacing. All behaved in a similar (linear) fashion, allowing appropriate hemodynamic conclusions to be drawn using either index. During atrial pacing, the ejection fraction declined when velocity indexes increased, suggesting that the ejection fraction may not be a suitable index to characterize alterations in inotropic state during rapid alterations in heart rate, particular in the absence of angina pectoris. This may result from the reductions in cardiac volume for the duration of pacing, where the velocity index is preserved. In most circumstances excluding atrial pacing, ejection fraction during interventions is an adequate index of the change of myocardial contractile state. Overall, radionuclide angiography is an excellent technique to characterize acute hemodynamic interventions, with ejection fraction, in general, the simplest and most reliable of cardiac indexes during stress interventions.

  7. How a patent ductus arteriosus effects the premature lamb's ability to handle additional volume loads.

    PubMed

    Clyman, R I; Roman, C; Heymann, M A; Mauray, F

    1987-11-01

    A model of patent ductus arteriosus in premature lambs was created to examine the lamb's ability to handle the volume load imposed by a patent ductus arteriosus and to determine the lamb's ability to handle any additional volume load. Fifteen preterm lambs [133 +/- 2 (+/- SD) days gestation, term 145 days], whose ductal diameter could be regulated with a mechanical occluder, were studied to determine the independent effects of ductus patency and a saline volume load (50 ml/kg over 3 min) on left ventricular output and its distribution. During a saline infusion, preterm lambs with a closed ductus could only increase their stroke volume by 40% above baseline stroke volume. When challenged with a saline infusion, lambs with an open ductus still were able to increase their stroke volume significantly; the maximal increase in stroke volume during the saline load with the ductus open was 70% above baseline stroke volume. We hypothesize that the associated reduced left ventricular afterload plays a significant role in the preterm lamb's ability to increase its stroke volume when challenged with a patent ductus arteriosus. Even with a patent ductus arteriosus, the lamb still has the ability to handle additional volume loads.

  8. Difference in kinematics and kinetics between high- and low-velocity resistance loading equated by volume: implications for hypertrophy training.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nur Ikhwan; Cronin, John B; Nosaka, Ken K

    2012-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that a high load is necessary for muscle hypertrophy, it is possible that a low load with a high velocity results in greater kinematics and kinetics than does a high load with a slow velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine if 2 training loads (35 and 70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) equated by volume, differed in terms of their session kinematic and kinetic characteristics. Twelve subjects were recruited in this acute randomized within-subject crossover design study. Two bouts of a half-squat exercise were performed 1 week apart, one with high load-low velocity (HLLV = 3 sets of 12 reps at 70% 1RM) and the other with low-load high-velocity (LLHV = 6 sets of 12 reps at 35% 1RM). Time under tension (TUT), average force, peak force (PF), average power (AP), peak power (PP), work (TW), and total impulse (TI) were calculated and compared between loads for the eccentric and concentric phases. For average eccentric and concentric single repetition values, significantly (p < 0.05) greater (∼15-22%) PP outputs were associated with the LLHV loading, whereas significantly greater (∼7-61%) values were associated with the HLLV condition for most other variables of interest. However, in terms of total session kinematics and kinetics, the LLHV protocol resulted in significantly greater (∼16-61%) eccentric and concentric TUT, PF, AP, PP, and TW. The only variable that was significantly greater for the HLLV protocol than for the LLHV protocol was TI (∼20-24%). From these results, it seems that the LLHV protocol may offer an equal if not better training stimulus for muscular adaptation than the HLLV protocol, because of the greater time under tension, power, force, and work output when the total volume of the exercise is equated.

  9. Load research manual. Volume 2: Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    This manual will assist electric utilities and state regulatory authorities in investigating customer electricity demand as part of cost-of-service studies, rate design, marketing research, system design, load forecasting, rate reform analysis, and load management research. Load research procedures are described in detail. Research programs at three utilities are compared: Carolina Power and Light Company, Long Island Lighting Company, and Southern California Edison Company. A load research bibliography and glossaries of load research and statistical terms are also included.

  10. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-11-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection.

  11. Dynamic arterial elastance to predict arterial pressure response to volume loading in preload-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hemodynamic resuscitation should be aimed at achieving not only adequate cardiac output but also sufficient mean arterial pressure (MAP) to guarantee adequate tissue perfusion pressure. Since the arterial pressure response to volume expansion (VE) depends on arterial tone, knowing whether a patient is preload-dependent provides only a partial solution to the problem. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a functional evaluation of arterial tone by dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn), defined as the pulse pressure variation (PPV) to stroke volume variation (SVV) ratio, to predict the hemodynamic response in MAP to fluid administration in hypotensive, preload-dependent patients with acute circulatory failure. Methods We performed a prospective clinical study in an adult medical/surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital, including 25 patients with controlled mechanical ventilation who were monitored with the Vigileo® monitor, for whom the decision to give fluids was made because of the presence of acute circulatory failure, including arterial hypotension (MAP ≤65 mmHg or systolic arterial pressure <90 mmHg) and preserved preload responsiveness condition, defined as a SVV value ≥10%. Results Before fluid infusion, Eadyn was significantly different between MAP responders (MAP increase ≥15% after VE) and MAP nonresponders. VE-induced increases in MAP were strongly correlated with baseline Eadyn (r2 = 0.83; P < 0.0001). The only predictor of MAP increase was Eadyn (area under the curve, 0.986 ± 0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-1). A baseline Eadyn value >0.89 predicted a MAP increase after fluid administration with a sensitivity of 93.75% (95% CI, 69.8%-99.8%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 66.4%-100%). Conclusions Functional assessment of arterial tone by Eadyn, measured as the PVV to SVV ratio, predicted arterial pressure response after volume loading in hypotensive, preload-dependent patients

  12. Airloads research study. Volume 1: Flight test loads acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, M. D.; Feltz, T. F.; Olsen, A. D., Jr.; Smith, D. B.; Wildermuth, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The acquisition of B-1 aircraft flight loads data for use in subsequent tasks of the Airloads Research Study is described. The basic intent is to utilize data acquired during B-1 aircraft tests, analyze these data beyond the scope of Air Force requirements, and prepare research reports that will add to the technology base for future large flexible aircraft. Flight test data obtained during the airloads survey program included condition-describing parameters, surface pressures, strain gage outputs, and loads derived from pressure and strain gauges. Descriptions of the instrumentation, data processing, and flight load survey program are included. Data from windup-turn and steady yaw maneuvers cover a Mach number range from 0.7 to 2.0 for a wing sweep position of 67.5 deg.

  13. Cognitive reserve and brain volumes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koovakkattu, Della

    2011-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with long-term, progressive cognitive deficits and white matter injury. We measured global and regional white and gray matter as well as cognitive function and examined relationships between these variables and cognitive reserve, as indicated by maternal education level, in 28 young survivors of ALL and 31 healthy controls. Results indicated significantly reduced white matter volumes and cognitive testing scores in the ALL group compared to controls. Maternal education was inversely related to both global and regional white matter and directly related to gray matter in ALL and was directly related to both gray and white matter in controls, consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis. Cognitive performance was associated with different brain regions in ALL compared to controls. Maternal education was significantly positively correlated with working and verbal memory in ALL as well as processing speed and verbal memory in controls, improving models of cognitive outcome over medical and/or demographic predictors. Our findings suggest that cognitive reserve may be an important factor in brain injury and cognitive outcome in ALL. Additionally, children with ALL may experience some neural reorganization related to cognitive outcome. PMID:20814845

  14. Analysis and design of residential load centers. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Lamders, R.; Obrien, G.; Tully, G. F.; Parker, J.

    1982-03-01

    These three appendices present information on residential load center classification information. Emphasis is given to: residential development trends and residential housing classifications; detached house site layout alternatives; and legal and institional issues, including condominium ownership, commercial ownership of photovoltaic systems in mobile homes, and utility ownership of photovoltaic systems.

  15. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  16. Dust-metal Loadings and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Ward, Mary H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Dahl, Gary; Ducore, Jonathan; Reinier, Kyndaron; Gunier, Robert B.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and levels of metals in carpet dust. A dust sample was collected from the homes of 142 ALL cases and 187 controls participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study using a high volume small surface sampler (2001–2006). Samples were analyzed using microwave-assisted acid digestion in combination with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Eight metals were detected in at least 85% of the case and control homes; tungsten was detected in less than 15% of homes. Relationships between dust-metal loadings (μg metal per m2 carpet) and ALL risk were modeled using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the child’s age, sex, and race/ethnicity and confounders, including household annual income. A doubling of dust-metal loadings was not associated with significant changes in ALL risk [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): arsenic: 0.94 (0.83, 1.05), cadmium: 0.91 (0.80, 1.04), chromium: 0.99 (0.87, 1.12), copper: 0.96 (0.90, 1.03), lead: 1.01 (0.93, 1.10), nickel: 0.92 (0.80, 1.07), tin: 0.93 (0.82, 1.05), and zinc: 0.91 (0.81, 1.02)]. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that metals in carpet dust are risk factors for childhood ALL. PMID:25736162

  17. Dust metal loadings and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Ward, Mary H; Colt, Joanne S; Dahl, Gary; Ducore, Jonathan; Reinier, Kyndaron; Gunier, Robert B; Katharine Hammond, S; Rappaport, Stephen M; Metayer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the levels of metals in carpet dust. A dust sample was collected from the homes of 142 ALL cases and 187 controls participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study using a high volume small surface sampler (2001-2006). Samples were analyzed using microwave-assisted acid digestion in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Eight metals were detected in at least 85% of the case and control homes; tungsten was detected in <15% of homes. Relationships between dust metal loadings (μg metal per m(2) carpet) and ALL risk were modeled using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the child's age, sex, and race/ethnicity and confounders, including household annual income. A doubling of dust metal loadings was not associated with significant changes in ALL risk (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): arsenic: 0.96 (0.86, 1.07), cadmium: 0.92 (0.81, 1.05), chromium: 1.01 (0.90, 1.14), copper: 0.97 (0.91, 1.03), lead: 1.01 (0.93, 1.10), nickel: 0.95 (0.82, 1.09), tin: 0.96 (0.86, 1.08), and zinc: 0.94 (0.84, 1.05)). Our findings do not support the hypothesis that metals in carpet dust are risk factors for childhood ALL.

  18. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-08

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. This report contains seven appendices: Technical basis for evaluation of thermal goals below the potential nuclear was repository at Yucca Mountain; Thermal-mechanical evaluation of the 200 C drift-wall temperature goal; Evaluation of ground stability and support; Coupled ventilation and hydrothermal evaluations; Heat flow and temperature calculations for continuously ventilated emplacement drifts; Thermal management using aging and/or waste package selection; and Waste stream evaluations.

  19. Mean platelet volume and cardiovascular outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. Methods We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. Results A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Conclusions Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. Trial registration number http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222. PMID:27326224

  20. Study of induced load and stress, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coons, L. L.; Reddecliff, J. M.; Wemmell, A. E.; Young, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation into the effects of blade tip clearance on inducer performance and of leading edge sweepback on both blade pressure loading and performance was performed. Tip clearance flow was represented with a vortex flow model and measured data from previous inducer tests at three clearances were correlated with model predictions. A leading edge model was added to an existing inducer internal flow analysis, tests with two sweepbacks were conducted, and blade pressure and performance predictions were correlated with measured data.

  1. Acute neuromuscular and hormonal responses during contrast loading: effect of 11 weeks of contrast training.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Ahtiainen, J P; Häkkinen, K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (1) acute neuromuscular and endocrine responses during a contrast loading protocol and (2) how these acute responses are possibly influenced by 11 weeks of contrast training. Contrast loading tests consisting of 4 sets of 80% 1 RM back squat and 4 sets of squat jump (SJ) were performed before and after training. Bilateral isometric leg extension (LE) assessed the impact of loading on isometric variables pre-, mid-, and post-loading. Potentiated SJ performance was observed in set 2 (4.6%, P<0.05), before training only. Greater indications of fatigue were observed in SJ, isometric force, and vastus lateralis (VL) activation after training (P<0.05). Training-induced improvements in SJ height, 80% 1 RM squat load, and maximum isometric LE force were observed (12%, 10%, and 7.7%, P<0.05). In conclusion, potentiated SJ performance occurred during a typical contrast loading protocol before the training period. However, potentiated SJ performance may alter through training, and therefore, the responsiveness of the individual should be periodically monitored and training protocols updated when necessary.

  2. Influence of loading volume of mefenamic acid on granules and tablet characteristics using a compaction simulator.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Go; Betz, Gabriele; Leuenberger, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Mefenamic acid (MA), a poorly water-soluble drug, was used as a model substance to investigate granules and tablet characteristics to be optimized for the loading volume of MA (0-74.1% v/v) in the formulation including lactose monohydrate/maize starch (7/3) as excipients. The compactibility of granules increased with loading volume of MA. This was related to the brittle behavior of MA during compression and the increase of intragranular pore volume of granules. The minimum disintegration time (266 +/- 8.3 s) was found in the tablet that was composed of 55.1% v/v MA and 13.6% v/v maize starch. The determination of the critical concentration of disintegrant (% v/v) required for a minimum disintegration time may be useful for solid dosage form design.

  3. Acute leg volume changes in weightlessness and its simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Hedge, Vickie; Coleman, Eugen; Moore, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Leg volume changes were studied in six subjects during 150 min of horizontal, 6 deg headdown tilt and supine immersion. Results were compared to previously obtained space flight data. It is found that, at equivalent study times, the magnitude of the leg volume changes during the simulations was less than one half that seen during space flight. Relative and absolute losses from the upper leg were greater during space flight, while relative losses were greater from the lower leg during simulations.

  4. FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Thomson, B.H.

    1994-08-29

    The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ``too hot`` and the loading regime that is ``too cold``, to (2) ``grade`` or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 1 contains the Introduction; Performance requirements; Input and assumptions; Near-field thermal analysis; Far-field thermal analysis; Cost analysis; Other considerations; System analysis; Additional thermal analysis; and Conclusions and recommendations. 71 refs., 54 figs.

  5. Constant load and constant volume response of municipal solid waste in simple shear.

    PubMed

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Fei, Xunchang

    2016-09-28

    Constant load and constant volume simple shear testing was conducted on relatively fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) from two landfills in the United States, one in Michigan and a second in Texas, at respective natural moisture content below field capacity. The results were assessed in terms of two failure strain criteria, at 10% and 30% shear strain, and two interpretations of effective friction angle. Overall, friction angle obtained assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and at 10% shear strain resulted in a conservative estimation of shear strength of MSW. Comparisons between constant volume and constant load simple shear testing results indicated significant differences in the shear response of MSW with the shear resistance in constant volume being lower than the shear resistance in constant load. The majority of specimens were nearly uncompacted during specimen preparation to reproduce the state of MSW in bioreactor landfills or in uncontrolled waste dumps. The specimens had identical percentage of <20mm material but the type of <20mm material was different. The <20mm fraction from Texas was finer and of high plasticity. MSW from Texas was overall weaker in both constant load and constant volume conditions compared to Michigan waste. The results of these tests suggest the possibility of significantly lower shear strength of MSW in bioreactor landfills where waste is placed with low compaction effort and constant volume, i.e., "undrained", conditions may occur. Compacted MSW specimens resulted in shear strength parameters that are higher than uncompacted specimens and closer to values reported in the literature. However, the normalized undrained shear strength in simple shear for uncompacted and compacted MSW was still higher than the normalized undrained shear strength reported in the literature for clayey and silty soils.

  6. Are acute effects of maximal dynamic contractions on upper-body ballistic performance load specific?

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Simek, Sanja; Bradic, Asim

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of upper-body maximal dynamic contractions on maximal throwing speed with 0.55- and 4-kg medicine balls. It was hypothesized that heavy preloading would transiently improve throwing performance only when overcoming the heavier of the two loads. Twenty-three male volunteers were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. Both groups performed initial and final seated medicine ball throws from the chest, and the maximal medicine ball speed was measured by means of a radar gun. Between the two measurements, the control group rested passively for 15 minutes, and the experimental group performed three sets of three-repetition maximum bench presses. For the 0.55-kg load, a 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant effect of time x group interaction (p = 0.22), as well as no significant time (p = 0.22) or group (p = 0.72) effects. In contrast, for the 4-kg load, a significant time x group interaction (p = 0.004) and a significant time (p = 0.035) but not group (p = 0.77) effect were observed. Analysis of simple main effects revealed that the experimental group significantly (8.3%; p < 0.01) improved maximal throwing speed with the 4-kg load. These results support our research hypothesis and suggest that the acute effects of heavy preloading on upper-body ballistic performance might be load specific. In a practical sense, our findings suggest that the use of upper-body heavy resistance exercise before ballistic throwing movements against moderate external loads might be an efficient training strategy for improving an athlete's upper-body explosive performance.

  7. The role of volume-load in strength and absolute endurance adaptations in adolescent's performing high- or low-load resistance training.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Fisher, James P; Assunção, Ari R; Bottaro, Martim; Gentil, Paulo

    2017-02-01

    This study compared high- (HL) and low-load (LL) resistance training (RT) on strength, absolute endurance, volume-load, and their relationships in untrained adolescents. Thirty-three untrained adolescents of both sexes (males, n = 17; females, n = 16; 14 ± 1 years) were randomly assigned into either (i) HL (n = 17): performing 3 sets of 4-6 repetitions to momentary concentric failure; or (ii) LL (n = 16): performing 2 sets of 12-15 repetitions to momentary concentric failure. RT was performed for 2×/week for 9 weeks. Change in maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) and absolute muscular endurance for barbell bench press was assessed. Weekly volume-load was calculated as sets (n) × repetitions (n) × load (kg). Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that both groups significantly increased in strength and absolute endurance with large effect sizes (d = 1.51-1.66). There were no between-group differences for change in strength or absolute endurance. Ninety-five percent CIs revealed that both groups significantly increased in weekly volume-load with large effect sizes (HL = 1.66, LL = 1.02). There were no between-group differences for change in volume-load though average weekly volume-load was significantly greater for LL (p < 0.001). Significant Pearson's correlations were found for the HL group between average weekly volume-load and both strength (r = 0.650, p = 0.005) and absolute endurance (r = 0.552, p = 0.022) increases. Strength and absolute endurance increases do not differ between HL and LL conditions in adolescents when performed to momentary concentric failure. Under HL conditions greater weekly volume-load is associated with greater strength and absolute endurance increases.

  8. Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-01-21

    We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

  9. Change in plasma volume and prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sarah R; Chan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop an inexpensive, readily available prognostic indicator in acute decompensated heart failure patients to guide management and improve outcome. Prognostic biomarkers for heart failure exist but are expensive and not routinely performed. Increasing plasma volume has been associated with worse outcomes. Setting UK University Teaching Hospital. Design Observational Cohort study. Participants 967 patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Methods Haemoglobin and haematocrit were measured at admission and discharge and were used to calculate the plasma volume change using the Strauss-Davis-Rosenbaum formula. Main outcome measures Endpoints were death and the composite of death and/or heart failure hospitalisation. Change in plasma volume was added to ADHERE scoring to determine predictive value. Results During follow-up, 536 died and 626 died or were hospitalised with heart failure. Multivariable Cox models showed change in plasma volume was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.150 [1.031–1.283], p = 0.012) and death or heart failure hospitalisation (HR: 1.138 [1.029–1.259], p = 0.012). Kaplan–Meier analysis of change in plasma volume tertiles for outcome measures showed significant difference for the top tertile compared to the lower two. Multivariable analysis of change in plasma volume with ADHERE scoring showed change in plasma volume change remained an independent predictor of death (HR: 1.138 [1.026–1.261], p = 0.015) and death or heart failure hospitalisation (HR: 1.129 [1.025–1.243], p = 0.014). Conclusions Change in plasma volume over an admission can be used for prognostication and adds value to the ADHERE score. Change in plasma volume can be easily and inexpensively calculated from routine blood tests. Clinically, this may facilitate targeted treatment of acute decompensated heart failure patients at greatest risk. PMID:27609799

  10. Lack of association between viral load and severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Ana Paula Duarte; Leitão, Lidiane Alves de Azeredo; Luisi, Fernanda; Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; Coutinho, Sandra Eugênia; da Silva, Jaqueline Ramos; Mattiello, Rita; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio Condessa; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Pinto, Leonardo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. Methods: This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period) by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study) by quantitative real-time PCR. We screened for three human viruses: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Results: Of 110 samples evaluated by direct immunofluorescence, 56 (50.9%) were positive for a single virus, and 16 (14.5%) were positive for two or more viruses. Among those 72 samples, the most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus, followed by influenza. Of 56 samples evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, 24 (42.8%) were positive for a single virus, and 1 (1.7%) was positive for two viruses. Among those 25 samples, the most prevalent virus was again respiratory syncytial virus, followed by human rhinovirus. Coinfection did not influence the length of the hospital stay or other outcome s. In addition, there was no association between respiratory syncytial virus load and the length of hospitalization. Conclusions: Neither coinfection nor respiratory syncytial viral load appears to influence the outcomes of acute bronchiolitis in infants. PMID:27832233

  11. Dietary Soy May Not Confound Acute Experimental Stroke Infarct Volume Outcomes In Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prongay, Kamm D.; Lewis, Anne D.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Murphy, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen administration can alter experimental stroke outcomes. Soy as a source of phytoestrogens may therefore modulate responses in “estrogen-sensitive” stroke models, thus potentially confounding results. We evaluated the effects of dietary soy on acute infarct volumes in a pilot study using a rat focal stroke model. We hypothesized that ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a soy-rich diet would have smaller acute infarct volumes than rats fed a soy-free diet. OVX rats were randomly assigned to a soy-free (n=6) or a soy-rich (n=6) diet for 4 weeks and weighed weekly. Following the dietary trial, rats underwent 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mean arterial blood pressure, rectal and temporalis muscle temperatures, arterial blood gases, and blood glucose were recorded peri-ischemia. Rats were euthanized 22 hours following 2 hours of MCAO. Brains were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride for acute infarct volume analysis. Uterine weight and histology were also evaluated as additional internal estrogen-sensitive controls. Rats on the soy-free diet had greater gains in body weight (259±6% baseline body weight) than rats on the soy-rich diet (238±4% baseline body weight). No differences were seen in uterine weight and histology, peri-ischemic physiological parameters, and infarct volumes between the treatment groups. Results of this pilot study suggest that the dietary soy level tested may not alter acute infarct volumes in ischemic female rat brain. More studies addressing the potential confounding effects of dietary soy in “estrogen-sensitive” stroke models are needed if investigators are to make informed choices regarding diets used in experimental stroke research. PMID:20147341

  12. Hormonal and electrolyte responses to acute isohemic volume expansion in unanesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. M.; Morris, M.; Lynch, C. D.; Maultsby, S. J.; Hutchins, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the time course of the metabolic response to isohemic blood volume expansion (30%) in normotensive, unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole blood, drawn from a femoral artery catheter of conscious donor rats, was infused into the jugular vein of recipient rats. Blood samples were drawn from a carotid artery of recipient rats at time points beginning immediately post-volume expansion (IPVE) up through 5 days post-volume expansion (PVE). To characterize the attendant compensatory mechanisms, the plasma concentrations of electrolytes and fluid regulatory hormones were determined. Hematocrit began to raise IPVE and was significantly elevated above control IPVE 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr PVE. Consistent with our current understanding of the hormonal response to excess volume, atrial natriuretic factor was significantly increased above the prevolume expansion (control) values 0-30 min PVE. Surprisingly, plasma aldosterone levels were significantly increased above control at 20 and 30 min and 6 hr PVE, whereas plasma renin activity was significantly decreased 30-40 min PVE. Plasma sodium was not changed from control values except for a significant increase at 6 hr post-volume expansion. Plasma potassium, osmolality, and arginine vasopressin levels were not altered by the volume expansion. These studies delineate the physiologic time scheme operative in the regulation of fluid volume during acute ischemic volume expansion.

  13. Effects of acute hypoxia at moderate altitude on stroke volume and cardiac output during exercise.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Taira; Maegawa, Taketeru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Komatsu, Yutaka; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Nagai, Ryozo; Kawahara, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    It has been unclear how acute hypoxia at moderate altitude affects stroke volume (SV), an index of cardiac function, during exercise. The present study was conducted to reveal whether acute normobaric hypoxia might alter SV during exercise.Nine healthy male subjects performed maximal exercise testing under normobaric normoxic, and normobaric hypoxic conditions (O(2): 14.4%) in a randomized order. A novel thoracic impedance method was used to continuously measure SV and cardiac output (CO) during exercise. Acute hypoxia decreased maximal work rate (hypoxia; 247 + or - 6 [SE] versus normoxia; 267 + or - 8 W, P < 0.005) and VO(2) max (hypoxia; 2761 + or - 99 versus normoxia; 3039 + or - 133 mL/min, P < 0.005). Under hypoxic conditions, SV and CO at maximal exercise decreased (SV: hypoxia; 145 + or - 11 versus normoxia; 163 + or - 11 mL, P < 0.05, CO: hypoxia; 26.7 + or - 2.1 versus normoxia; 30.2 + or - 1.8 L/min, P < 0.05). In acute hypoxia, SV during submaximal exercise at identical work rate decreased. Furthermore, in hypoxia, 4 of 9 subjects attained their highest SV at maximal exercise, while in normoxia, 8 of 9 subjects did.Acute normobaric hypoxia attenuated the increment of SV and CO during exercise, and SV reached a plateau earlier under hypoxia than in normoxia. Cardiac function during exercise at this level of acute normobaric hypoxia might be attenuated.

  14. Effect of Surface Impulsive Thermal Loads on Fatigue Behavior of Constant Volume Propulsion Engine Combustor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh

    2004-01-01

    The development of advanced high performance constant-volume-combustion-cycle engines (CVCCE) requires robust design of the engine components that are capable of enduring harsh combustion environments under high frequency thermal and mechanical fatigue conditions. In this study, a simulated engine test rig has been established to evaluate thermal fatigue behavior of a candidate engine combustor material, Haynes 188, under superimposed CO2 laser surface impulsive thermal loads (30 to 100 Hz) in conjunction with the mechanical fatigue loads (10 Hz). The mechanical high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing of some laser pre-exposed specimens has also been conducted under a frequency of 100 Hz to determine the laser surface damage effect. The test results have indicated that material surface oxidation and creep-enhanced fatigue is an important mechanism for the surface crack initiation and propagation under the simulated CVCCE engine conditions.

  15. A Comparative Study of Pituitary Volume Variations in MRI in Acute Onset of Psychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Joish, Upendra Kumar; Sahni, Hirdesh; George, Raju A; Sivasankar, Rajeev; Aggarwal, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The growing belief that endocrine abnormalities may underlie many mental conditions has led to increased use of imaging and hormonal assays in patients attending to psychiatric OPDs. People who are in an acute phase of a psychiatric disorder show Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the precise underlying central mechanisms are unclear. Aim To assess the pituitary gland volume variations in patients presenting with new onset acute psychiatric illness in comparison with age and gender matched controls by using MRI. Materials and Methods The study included 50 patients, with symptoms of acute psychiatric illness presenting within one month of onset of illness and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls. Both patients and controls were made to undergo MRI of the Brain. A 0.9 mm slices of entire brain were obtained by 3 dimensional T1 weighted sequence. Pituitary gland was traced in all sagittal slices. Anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary bright spot were measured separately in each slice. Volume of the pituitary (in cubic centimetre- cm3) was calculated by summing areas. Significance of variations in pituitary gland volumes was compared between the cases and controls using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA). Results There were significantly larger pituitary gland volumes in the cases than the controls, irrespective of psychiatric diagnosis (ANOVA, f=15.56; p=0.0002). Pituitary volumes in cases were 15.36% (0.73 cm3) higher than in controls. Conclusion There is a strong likelihood of HPA axis overactivity during initial phase of all mental disorders along with increased pituitary gland volumes. Further studies including hormonal assays and correlation with imaging are likely to provide further insight into neuroanatomical and pathological basis of psychiatric disorders. PMID:28384955

  16. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  17. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system. Materials and methods After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11) or normal saline (Saline group, n=11) for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups. Results SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001). LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001), whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05). Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01) but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05). Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05), whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L/min, P>0.05). Conclusion Administration of colloid and crystalloid induced similar responses in SVV. A higher plasma-expanding effect of HES compared to normal saline was demonstrated by the significant increase in LVEDV. PMID:26491368

  18. Right ventricular infarction: identification by hemodynamic measurements before and after volume loading and correlation with noninvasive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Italia, L.J.; Starling, M.R.; Crawford, M.H.; Boros, B.L.; Chaudhuri, T.K.; O'Rourke, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    To evaluate the potential occurrence of right ventricular infarction, 53 patients with acute inferior transmural myocardial infarction were studied within 36 hours of symptoms by right heart catheterization, equilibrium radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy was performed 3 days after the onset of symptoms. The hemodynamic standard for right ventricular infarction was defined as both a right atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and a right atrial/pulmonary artery wedge pressure ratio of 0.8 or more. Eight (15%) of the 53 patients had hemodynamic measurements at rest characteristic of right ventricular infarction, and 6 (11%) additional patients met these criteria after volume loading. Nineteen (37%) of the 51 patients who had radionuclide angiography had right ventricular dysfunction manifested by both a reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and right ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (akinesia or dyskinesia). An abnormal radionuclide angiogram was observed in 12 of 13 patients with hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction. In 12 patients with an abnormal radionuclide angiographic study, right ventricular ejection fraction improved 6 to 12 weeks after infarction. Twenty-two (49%) of the 45 patients with adequate two-dimensional echocardiograms had a right ventricular regional wall motion abnormality. An abnormal two-dimensional echocardiogram was seen in 9 of 11 patients with hemodynamic measurements characteristic of right ventricular infarction. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was positive for right ventricular infarction in 3 of 12 patients who had hemodynamic measurements indicating right ventricular infarction.

  19. Evaluation of mean platelet volume as a diagnostic biomarker in acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Hasan; Aktimur, Recep; Cetinkunar, Suleyman; Reyhan, Enver; Gokler, Cihan; Irkorucu, Oktay; Sozen, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of acute appendicitis remains to be challenging with up to 30% negative exploration rates. In addition to careful clinical history and physical examination, we still need easily applicable, cheap and effective biomarker. Patients and methods: A retrospective case-controlled study was designed in two groups, both containing 100 patients, acute appendicitis and control. Leukocyte count, neutrophil percentage, platelet count and meal platelet volume (MPV) were compared. Results: MPV values for acute appendicitis and control groups were 7.4 ± 0.9 fL (5.6-10.6) and 9.1 ± 1.6 fL (5.1-13.1). For the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, ROC analysis revealed 74% sensitivity and 75% specificity for a cut-off value of 7.95 fL of MPV, however, the diagnostic value of leukocyte count and/or neutrophil ratio was superior. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, MPV value is an important parameter in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, but in terms of sensitivity and specificity, leukocyte count and/or neutrophil percentage is superior. PMID:25785128

  20. Volume Exercise in Older Athletes Influences Inflammatory and Redox Responses to Acute Exercise.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Andre L; Zaparte, Aline; da Silva, Jefferson D; Moreira, José C; Turner, James E; Bauer, Moisés E

    2017-02-09

    To examine whether the volume of previous exercise training in older athletes influences inflammatory, redox and hormonal profiles, forty trained marathon runners were divided into higher-volume (HVG, ~480 min/week) and lower-volume groups (LVG, ~240 min/week). Plasma inflammatory proteins, redox biomarkers and salivary testosterone and cortisol, were assessed at rest and following two maximal acute exercise bouts. At rest, the LVG exhibited higher CRP, higher protein carbonyls and lower SOD activity compared to the HVG (p's<0.05). In response to exercise, TNF- declined similarly in both groups whereas CRP increased differentially (+60% LVG; +24% HVG; p's<0.05). Protein carbonyls decreased and thiols increased similarly in both groups, but SOD declined differentially between groups (-14% LVG; -20% HVG; p's<0.05). Salivary testosterone decreased similarly in both groups, whereas cortisol did not change. Higher-volume of training is associated with favorable inflammatory and redox profiles at rest, perhaps mediated by small inflammatory responses to acute exercise.

  1. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Marlies; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  2. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  3. Acute coronal plane scaphoid fracture and scapholunate dissociation from an axial load: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shin, Alexander Y; Horton, Todd; Bishop, Allen T

    2005-03-01

    Coronal fractures of the scaphoid are rare and can be difficult to diagnose. Axial load injuries that result in a complete coronal fracture of the scaphoid associated with an acute scapholunate dissociation are exceedingly rare. In our patient the radiographic finding of wide scapholunate dissociation was obvious; however, the coronal scaphoid fracture was not recognized initially nor suspected. During surgery the coronal scaphoid fracture was identified, reduced anatomically, and fixed with a compression screw. The scapholunate ligament also was repaired. A good result was obtained with return to sports with extension of 60 degrees and flexion of 70 degrees , grip strength equal to that of the uninjured wrist, and no radiographic problems (arthrosis, avascular necrosis, nonunion).

  4. Mechanical durability of polymeric coatings studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy: correlation between cyclic loading and free volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Peng, Q.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, R.; Mallon, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Richardson, J. R.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Jean, Y. C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.

    2002-06-01

    The mechanical durability of seven commercially polymeric coatings is investigated using slow positron beam techniques to monitor changes in sub-nanometer defects during the process of cyclic loading. Doppler broadened energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were performed as a function of the slow positron energy at different periods of cycling loading. The positron annihilation dada show that both S-defect parameter and o-positronium (Ps) lifetime decrease as the loading cycle increases. The results indicate a loss of free volumes due to the loss of mechanical durability by cyclic loading. A direct correlation between the loss of S-defect parameter and the period of loading cycle is observed. This is interpreted as that durability of polymeric coatings is controlled by the atomic level free volumes. It is shown that the slow positron beam is a very successful probe in detecting the very early stages of coating degradation due to mechanical processes.

  5. Chest wall regional volume in heart failure patients during inspiratory loaded breathing.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Lage, Susan Martins; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Parreira, Verônica Franco; de Oliveira, Wilson Alves; Martins, Sílvia Marinho; Aliverti, Andrea; de Andrade Carvalho, Larissa; do Nascimento Junior, Jasiel Frutuoso; Alcoforado, Luciana; Remígio, Inês; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas

    2012-03-15

    Were evaluated individuals divided into two groups: we studied chronic heart failure (CHF) (19 patients with CHF plus cardiomegaly) and control (12 healthy volunteers) during performance of inspiratory loaded breathing (ILB). We evaluated: spirometry, functional capacity through the six-minute walk test (6MWT), and distribution of thoracoabdominal volumes via optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP), namely volume variations of pulmonary rib cage (Vrc,p), abdominal rib cage (Vrc,a), and abdomen (Vab). In each compartment, the percentage contributions of right and left sides were also calculated. During ILB, patients with heart failure were characterized by a significant reduction of the Vrc,a volume variations compared to the control group. Correlations were found between left %Vrc,a on the left side measured during ILB and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=0.468; p=0.049), and dyspnea after the 6MWT (r=-0.878; p<0.01).Then, patients with CHF and cardiomegaly are characterized by a reduced mobility in left part of the lower part of the rib cage, that contributes leading to increased perception of dyspnea during submaximal exercise.

  6. Functional Loads of the Tongue and Consequences of the Volume Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was to examine functional loads of the tongue on its surrunding bones and how tongue volume reduction affects these loads. Materials and Methods Masticatory bone strains and pressures on facial bones directly contacted by the tongue were measured in twelve 12-week-old Yucantan minipigs (6 slibing pairs). One of a sibling pair received surgery to reduce the tongue volume by 23–25% (reduction group), the other had identical tongue incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Rosette strain gauges were bonded to the palatal surface of premaxilla (PM), the lingual surface of mandibular alveolar bones between the 2nd and 3rd decidious incisors (MI) and below the 3rd decidious molar (MM). Single-element stain gauges were placed across the palatal surface of premaxillary stuture (PMS) and the lingual surface of mandibular symphysis (MSP). Pressure tranducers were placed on the hard palatal surface of maxillary (PAL) and the lingual surface of mandible (MAN) posterior to the deciduous canine. Animals were allowed to feed unrestrainedly after surgery and device placement. Data from bone strain, pressure and electromyographic activity (EMG) of bilateral masseter muscles were recorded during natural mastication (pig chow). Results In sham animals, principal bone surface strains were less than 100με in all measures. Principal strains showed larger compressive than tensile strains at the PM, and larger tensile than compressive strains at the MI and MM. Tensile strains at the MM were significantly larger than that at the PM (p < 0.01). Strains were tensile and compresive at the PMS and MPS, respectively, with sigificantly higher magnitude (> 100με) at the PMS (p < 0.05). Pressures ranged 2.12–8.04 kPa with the larger readings at the MSP than the PAL (p < 0.05). Tongue volume reduction did not affect strain polarity at any site, but did diminish principal strain magnitudes, significnatly at the MI (p < 0.05). At the PM and MI, the principal tensile

  7. Dynamic functional cerebral blood volume responses to normobaric hyperoxia in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ona; Lu, Jie; Mandeville, Joseph B; Murata, Yoshihiro; Egi, Yasu; Dai, Guangping; Marota, John J; Diwan, Izzuddin; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Kwong, Kenneth K; Lo, Eng H; Singhal, Aneesh B

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that neuroprotective effects of normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy in acute stroke are partly mediated by hemodynamic alterations. We investigated cerebral hemodynamic effects of repeated NBO exposures. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in Wistar rats subjected to focal ischemic stroke. Normobaric oxygen-induced functional cerebral blood volume (fCBV) responses were analyzed. All rats had diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) lesions within larger perfusion deficits, with DWI lesion expansion after 3 hours. Functional cerebral blood volume responses to NBO were spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Contralateral healthy tissue responded consistently with vasoconstriction that increased with time. No significant responses were evident in the acute DWI lesion. In hypoperfused regions surrounding the acute DWI lesion, tissue that remained viable until the end of the experiment showed relative preservation of mean fCBV at early time points, with some rats showing increased fCBV (vasodilation); however, these regions later exhibited significantly decreased fCBV (vasoconstriction). Tissue that became DWI abnormal by study-end initially showed marginal fCBV changes that later became moderate fCBV reductions. Our results suggest that a reverse-steal hemodynamic effect may occur in peripheral ischemic zones during NBO treatment of focal stroke. In addition, CBV responses to NBO challenge may have potential as an imaging marker to distinguish ischemic core from salvageable tissues. PMID:22739619

  8. Acute Effects of Elastic Bands on Kinetic Characteristics During the Deadlift at Moderate and Heavy Loads.

    PubMed

    Galpin, Andrew J; Malyszek, Kylie K; Davis, Kyle A; Record, Shaina M; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Harmon, RoQue A; Steele, Jeff M; Manolovitz, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    Loading a barbell with variable resistance positively alters kinetic characteristics during the back squat and bench press but has never been studied during the deadlift. The purpose of this project was to examine the acute effects of combining elastic bands and free weights during the deadlift at moderate and heavy loads. Twelve trained men (age: 24.08 ± 2.35 years, height: 175.94 ± 5.38 cm, mass: 85.58 ± 12.49 kg, deadlift 1 repetition maximum (RM): 188.64 ± 16.13 kg) completed 2 variable resistance (B1 and B2) and 1 traditional free-weight (NB) condition at both 60 and 85% 1RM on a force plate. B1 had 15% resistance from bands, with the remaining 85% from free weights. B2 had 35% bands and 65% free weights. NB used free weights only. Average resistance was equated for all conditions. Power and velocity generally increased, whereas force decreased with the addition of bands. The amount of band tension (B1 or B2) had little impact on power when lifting at 60% 1RM. However, greater resistance from bands resulted in greater peak and relative power when lifting at 85% 1RM. Adding elastic bands decreased time to peak force (PF), time between PF and peak power (PP), and time between PF and peak velocity (PV) when compared with NB at 60% 1RM (NB > B1 > B2). These differences only reached significance for NB > B2 when lifting at 85% 1RM. These same differences existed for time between PP and PV. Thus, the amount of tension from bands has less impact on interpeak variables at heavier absolute loads. Practitioners should consider using heavy bands when prescribing the deadlift for speed or power, but not maximal force.

  9. Higher HIV RNA Viral Load in Recent Patients with Symptomatic Acute HIV Infection in Lyon University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Girerd-Genessay, Isabelle; Baratin, Dominique; Ferry, Tristan; Chidiac, Christian; Ronin, Vincent; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial. Methods Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models. Results Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006–2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01). Conclusion Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years. PMID:26799390

  10. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  11. Neutron spectrometry with large volume, heavy-loaded superheated droplet detectors: a simple spin-off.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A R; Giuliani, F; Felizardo, M; Girard, T A; Morlat, T; Marques, J G; Oliveira, C; Limagne, D; Waysand, G; Fernandes, A C

    2005-01-01

    SIMPLE is a superheated droplet detector (SDD) experiment designed to search for the evidence of spin-dependent weakly interacting neutralino dark matter (WIMPs). SDDs, a type of emulsion detector, consist of a uniform suspension of superheated liquid droplets in a compliant material such as a polymeric or aqueous gel. We report on the first neutron spectrometry experiments with SIMPLE SDDs, a spin-off of the neutron detector calibrations performed at the Portuguese Research Reactor. SIMPLE SDDs differ from most SDDs available commercially as they have a 10 times higher loading factor, containing 10(3) times more freon than their commercial counterparts and a 100 times larger volume. We have analysed the response of SIMPLE SDDs to two quasi-monochromatic neutron beams of energies 54 and 144 keV obtained with passive filters. Results show that the characteristic peaks in the fluence distribution of both filters could be determined and their energy position obtained using a simple thermodynamic relation.

  12. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.

  13. Protective effect of magnolol-loaded polyketal microparticles on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsuimin; Kao, Chen-Yu; Chou, Chun-Liang; Liu, Lu-Chun; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2016-08-01

    Magnolol has shown inhibitory effects on NO production and TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages and LPS-induced acute lung injury; however, the poor solubility of magnolol has hindered its clinical success. In this study, magnolol-loaded microparticles were prepared via single emulsion method from a polyketal polymer, termed PK3. The particle sizes of magnolol-loaded PK3 microparticle is 3.73 ± 0.41 μm, and was suitable for phagocytosis by macrophages and pulmonary drug delivery. PK3 microparticles exhibited excellent biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, intratracheal delivery of these magnolol-loaded microparticles significantly reduced the lung inflammatory responses at low dosage of magnolol (0.5 mg/kg), and have great clinical potential in treating acute lung injury.

  14. Vital capacities in acute and chronic airway obstruction: dependence on flow and volume histories.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, V; Pellegrino, R; Rodarte, J R

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether measurements of vital capacity (VC) are affected by the direction of the manoeuvre (inspiratory vs expiratory) and by the rate of expiratory flow. The study was performed on 25 individuals with chronic airway obstruction (CAO) and a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (expressed in standardized residuals (SR)) of -2.0+/-1.4 SD (CAO group), and 10 asthmatic subjects with methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction (FEV1 -23+/-1.02 SR) (MCh group). VCs were measured during fast inspiration following both slow (FIVCse) and forced (FIVCfe) expiration from end-tidal inspiration to residual volume (RV), and during slow (EVC) or forced (FVC) expiration from total lung capacity (TLC). In the CAO group, FVC was the smallest volume (3.75+/-1.03 L) and significantly different from the other three estimates of VC; FIVCse (4.03+/-0.91 L) was the largest volume and significantly different from FVC and FIVCfe (3.83+/-0.98 L). In the MCh group, FVC (4.16+/-0.94 L) and EVC (4.19+/-0.89 L) were the largest volumes, although only the difference between FVC and FIVCfe (3.76+/-0.81 L) reached statistical significance. These data suggest that both flow and volume histories contribute to decreased vital capacities during bronchoconstriction. However, whereas increasing expiratory flow always tends to decrease vital capacity, the volume history of full inflation has different effects in chronic and acute bronchoconstriction, probably due to different effects on airway calibre. These results stress the importance of using standardized manoeuvres in order to obtain comparable values of vital capacity.

  15. Stroke volume-to-wall stress ratio as a load-adjusted and stiffness-adjusted indicator of ventricular systolic performance in chronic loading

    PubMed Central

    Chemaly, Elie R.; Chaanine, Antoine H.; Sakata, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Load-adjusted measures of left ventricle (LV) systolic performance are limited by dependence on LV stiffness and afterload. To our knowledge, no stiffness-adjusted and afterload-adjusted indicator was tested in models of pressure (POH) and volume overload hypertrophy (VOH). We hypothesized that wall stress reflects changes in loading, incorporating chamber stiffness and afterload; therefore, stroke volume-to-wall stress ratio more accurately reflects systolic performance. We used rat models of POH (ascending aortic banding) and VOH (aorto-cava shunt). Animals underwent echocardiography and pressure-volume analysis at baseline and dobutamine challenge. We achieved extreme bidirectional alterations in LV systolic performance, end-systolic elastance (Ees), passive stiffness, and arterial elastance (Ea). In POH with LV dilatation and failure, some load-independent indicators of systolic performance remained elevated compared with controls, while some others failed to decrease with wide variability. In VOH, most, but not all indicators, including LV ejection fraction, were significantly reduced compared with controls, despite hyperdynamic circulation, lack of heart failure, and preserved contractile reserve. We related systolic performance to Ees adjusted for Ea and LV passive stiffness in multivariate models. Calculated residual Ees was not reduced in POH with heart failure and was reduced in VOH, while it positively correlated to dobutamine dose. Conversely, stroke volume-to-wall stress ratio was normal in compensated POH, markedly decreased in POH with heart failure, and, in contrast with LV ejection fraction, normal in VOH. Our results support stroke volume-to-wall stress ratio as a load-adjusted and stiffness-adjusted indicator of systolic function in models of POH and VOH. PMID:22923502

  16. Endoscopic lung volume reduction effectively treats acute respiratory failure secondary to bullous emphysema.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Paul; Garrett, Jeffrey E; Rankin, Nigel; Anderson, Graeme

    2010-10-01

    Emphysema often affects the lungs in a heterogeneous fashion, and collapse or removal of severely hyperinflated portions of lung can improve overall lung function and symptoms. The role of lung volume reduction (LVR) surgery in selected patients is well established, but that of non-surgical LVR is still being defined. In particular, use of endobronchial LVR is still under development. This case report describes a 48-year-old non-smoker with severe bullous emphysema complicated by acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, who was successfully treated by endobronchial valve placement while intubated in an intensive care unit.

  17. Negative Associations between Perceived Training Load, Volume and Changes in Physical Fitness in Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Arcos, Asier Los; Martínez-Santos, Raul; Yanci, Javier; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Méndez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the rating of perceived exertion training load for monitoring changes in several aerobic fitness and neuromuscular performance variables during 9 weeks of soccer training in young professional players. Nineteen male soccer players (20.2 ± 1.9 years) belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga Club participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ arm swing, single leg CMJ, a sprint running test (i.e., 5 m and 15 m times) and an aerobic fitness running test were performed at the start of the pre-season (Test 1) and 9 weeks later (Test 2). During 9 weeks, after each training session and match, players reported their rating of perceived exertion (RPE) separately for respiratory (RPEres) and leg musculature (RPEmus) effort. The training load (TL) was calculated by multiplying the RPE value by the duration in minutes of each training session or match. Accumulated RPEmus, and associated TL, as well as accumulated training volume were negatively correlated with the changes in most physical fitness attributes after 9 weeks of training (r = -0.51 to -0.64). Present results suggest that a high perception of leg muscular effort associated with training sessions and matches, as well as an excessive accumulation of training volume (time), can impair the improvement in several physical fitness variables believed to be relevant for on-field soccer performance. Therefore, the independent assessment of leg muscular effort to quantify TL can be an interesting additional monitoring measure in soccer training. Key points The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the perceived exertion-derived TL for monitoring changes in several aerobic fitness and neuromuscular parameters during 9 weeks of soccer training in young professional players. A high perception of leg muscular effort associated with training and matches, as well as an excessive accumulation of training volume (time), can impair

  18. Contractile function and sarcolemmal permeability after acute low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Paulsen, Gøran; Nilsen, Tormod S; Hisdal, Jonny; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding muscle damage with low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) by pressure cuffs. This study investigated muscle function and muscle fibre morphology after a single bout of low-intensity resistance exercise with and without BFR. Twelve physically active subjects performed unilateral knee extensions at 30% of their one repetition maximum (1RM), with partial BFR on one leg and the other leg without occlusion. With the BFR leg, five sets were performed to concentric torque failure, and the free-flow leg repeated the exact same number of repetitions and sets. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis before and 1, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Maximum isometric torque (MVC) and resting tension were measured before and after exercise and at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h post-exercise. The results demonstrated significant decrements in MVC (lasting ≥48 h) and delayed onset muscle soreness in both legs, and increased resting tension for the occluded leg both acutely and at 24 h post-exercise. The percentage of muscle fibres showing elevated intracellular staining of the plasma protein tetranectin, a marker for sarcolemmal permeability, was significantly increased from 9% before exercise to 27-38% at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for the BFR leg. The changes in the free-flow leg were significant only at 24 h (19%). We conclude that an acute bout of low-load resistance exercise with BFR resulted in changes suggesting muscle damage, which may have implications both for safety aspects and for the training stimulus with BFR exercise.

  19. The effect of a complex agonist and antagonist resistance training protocol on volume load, power output, electromyographic responses, and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W; Young, Warren B; Behm, David G; Payne, Warren R

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of performing traditional set (TS) vs. complex set (CS) agonist-antagonist training over 3 consecutive sets, on bench press throw (BPT) throw height (TH), peak velocity (PV), peak power (PP), bench pull volume load (VL), and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Eighteen trained men performed 2 testing protocols: TS comprising 3 sets of Bpull followed by 3 sets of BPT performed in approximately 20 minutes or CS comprising 3 sets of both Bpull and BPT performed in an alternating manner in approximately 10 minutes. Throw height, PV, PP, and EMG activity were not different within, or between, the 2 conditions. Bench pull VL decreased significantly from set 1 to sets 2 and 3, under both conditions. Decreases from set 1 to set 2 were 14.55 +/- 26.11 and 9.07 +/- 13.89% and from set 1 to set 3 were 16.87 +/- 29.90 and 14.17 +/- 18.37% under CS and TS, respectively. There was no difference in VL per set, or session, between the conditions. Although there was no augmentation of the power measures, CS was determined to have approximately twice the efficiency (ouput/time) as compared to TS. Efficiency calculations for VL, TH, PV, and PP are 103.47 kg.min, 26.25 cm.min, 1.98 m.s.min, 890.39 W.min under CS and 54.71 kg.min, 13.02 cm.min, 0.99 m.s.min, 459.28 W.min under TS. Comparison of EMG activity between the protocols suggests the level of neuromuscular fatigue did not differ under the 2 conditions. Complex set training would appear to be an effective method of exercise with respect to efficiency and the maintenance of TH, PV, PP, and VL.

  20. Investigation of prediction methods for the loads and stresses of Apollo type spacecraft parachutes. Volume 1: Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickey, F. E.; Mcewan, A. J.; Ewing, E. G.; Huyler, W. C., Jr.; Khajeh-Nouri, B.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis was conducted with the objective of upgrading and improving the loads, stress, and performance prediction methods for Apollo spacecraft parachutes. The subjects considered were: (1) methods for a new theoretical approach to the parachute opening process, (2) new experimental-analytical techniques to improve the measurement of pressures, stresses, and strains in inflight parachutes, and (3) a numerical method for analyzing the dynamical behavior of rapidly loaded pilot chute risers.

  1. Increased tubuloglomerular feed-back mediated suppression of glomerular filtration during acute volume expansion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Häberle, D A; Kawata, T; Schmitt, E; Takabatake, T; Wohlfeil, S

    1988-01-01

    1. Volume expansion is currently believed to change the intrinsic properties of the juxtaglomerular apparatus such that the sensitivity of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism is reduced, thus allowing glomerular filtration rate, and hence salt and water excretion, to rise. Recent studies conflict with this view and indeed the older literature reveals that the rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under these conditions is far more modest than would be expected if TGF control were eliminated. 2. To investigate this problem, TGF control of filtration rate was examined by measuring single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) during loop of Henle perfusion at varying rates in rats under control conditions, after acute, moderate (4% of body weight), iso-oncotic volume expansion and in rats treated with antibodies to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) prior to the acute volume expansion. 3. With TGF control of filtration interrupted by filtrate collection from the proximal tubule, SNGFR in the expanded rats was massively increased compared with controls, although SNGFR measured in the distal tubule, and hence with TGF control intact, was only modestly increased, as was whole-kidney filtration rate. Loop perfusion at increasing rates up to 30 nl min-1 progressively decreased SNGFR in controls, and in the expanded rats the range over which control was exerted extended up to 60-80 nl min-1. For changes in loop flow around the spontaneous operating point, the sensitivity of the TGF mechanism, defined as delta SNGFR/delta loop flow, was similar in both groups. Treatment of rats with ANP antibodies prior to volume expansion substantially blunted the changes in renal salt and water excretion and the increase in SNGFR seen in the absence of loop perfusion. 4. These results are not consistent with a diminution of TGF function after volume expansion, rather with an enhancement. The latter is best accounted for by vasodilation of preglomerular resistance vessels on

  2. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Namvar, Farideh; Abdul Samad, Nozlena; Andas, Reena Joys; Ng, Kuan Beng; How, Chee Wun

    2014-01-01

    Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration. PMID:25276798

  3. Triclosan and triclosan-loaded liposomal nanoparticles in the treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

    2015-02-01

    Efficacy of triclosan (TS) and TS-loaded liposomes against the virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) was evaluated. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10(4) tachyzoites of RH HXGPRT(-) strain of T. gondii, then were orally treated with 150 mg/kg TS or 100 mg/kg TS liposomes twice daily for 4 days. Mice mortality, peritoneal and liver parasite burdens, viability, infectivity and ultrastructural changes of peritoneal tachyzoites of infected treated mice were studied, in comparison with those of infected non-treated controls. Drug safety was biochemically assessed by measuring liver enzymes and thyroxin. Both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, parasite burden, viability and infectivity of tachyzoites harvested from infected treated mice. Scanning electron microscopy of treated tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that treated tachyzoites were intracellularly distorted, had cytoplasmic vacuolation, discontinuous plasma membranes, nuclear abnormalities and disrupted internal structures. Besides, in TS liposomes-treated subgroup, most tachyzoites were seen intracellularly with complete disintegration of the parasite plasma and nuclear membranes, with complete destruction of the internal structures. Biochemical safety of TS and TS liposomes was proven. Accordingly, TS can be considered as a promising alternative to the standard therapy for treating acute murine toxoplasmosis. Liposomal formulation of TS enhanced its efficacy and allowed its use in a lower dose.

  4. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  5. Core-shell hybrid liposomal vesicles loaded with panax notoginsenoside: preparation, characterization and protective effects on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and acute myocardial ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Han, Xizhen; Li, Xiang; Luo, Yun; Zhao, Haiping; Yang, Ming; Ni, Bin; Liao, Zhenggen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Novel panax notoginsenoside-loaded core-shell hybrid liposomal vesicles (PNS-HLV) were developed to resolve the restricted bioavailability of PNS and to enhance its protective effects in vivo on oral administration. Methods: Physicochemical characterizations of PNS-HLV included assessment of morphology, particle size and zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE%), stability and in vitro release study. In addition, to evaluate its oral treatment potential, we compared the effect of PNS-HLV on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and acute myocardial ischemia injury with those of PNS solution, conventional PNS-loaded nanoparticles, and liposomes. Results: In comparison with PNS solution, conventional PNS-loaded nanoparticles and liposomes, PNS-HLV was stable for at least 12 months at 4°C. Satisfactory improvements in the EE% of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were shown with the differences in EE% shortened and the greater controlled drug release profiles were exhibited from PNS-HLV. The improvements in the physicochemical properties of HLV contributed to the results that PNS-HLV was able to significantly inhibit the edema of brain and reduce the infarct volume, while it could markedly inhibit H2O2, modified Dixon agar, and serum lactate dehydrogenase, and increase superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that HLV has promising prospects for improving free drug bioactivity on oral administration. PMID:22915851

  6. Effects of reduced tidal volume ventilation on pulmonary function in mice before and after acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Thammanomai, Apiradee; Majumdar, Arnab; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the influence of load impedance on ventilator performance and the resulting effects of reduced tidal volume (Vt) on lung physiology during a 30-min ventilation of normal mice and 10 min of additional ventilation following lavage-induced injury at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels. Respiratory mechanics were regularly monitored, and the lavage fluid was tested for the soluble E-cadherin, an epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and surfactant protein (SP) B. The results showed that, due to the load dependence of the delivered Vt from the small-animal ventilator: 1) uncontrolled ventilation in normal mice resulted in a lower delivered Vt (6 ml/kg at 3-cmH(2)O PEEP and 7 ml/kg at 6-cmH(2)O PEEP) than the prescribed Vt (8 ml/kg); 2) at 3-cmH(2)O PEEP, uncontrolled ventilation in normal mice led to an increase in lung parenchymal functional heterogeneity, a reduction of SP-B, and an increase in E-cadherin; 3) at 6-cmH(2)O PEEP, ventilation mode had less influence on these parameters; and 4) in a lavage model of acute respiratory distress syndrome, delivered Vt decreased to 4 ml/kg from the prescribed 8 ml/kg, which resulted in severely compromised lung function characterized by increases in lung elastance, airway resistance, and alveolar tissue heterogeneity. Furthermore, the low Vt ventilation also resulted in poor survival rate independent of PEEP. These results highlight the importance of delivering appropriate Vt to both the normal and injured lungs. By leaving the Vt uncompensated, it can significantly alter physiological and biological responses in mice.

  7. Effect of volume loading on the Frank–Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    PubMed Central

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank–Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank–Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature ∼1°C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 ± 30 ml; mean ±s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 ± 20 ml; P= 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 ± 29 ml (P= 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 ± 1.9 ml mmHg−1) compared to normothermia (4.5 ± 3.0 ml mmHg−1, P= 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 ± 2.3 ml mmHg−1; P= 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank–Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank–Starling curve. PMID:20603336

  8. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-09-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 +/- 2.3 ml mmHg(1); P = 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank-Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve.

  9. The Impact of Hospital/Surgeon Volume on Acute Renal Failure and Mortality in Liver Transplantation: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Liu, Fu-Chao; Lin, Jr-Rung; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the case volume of surgeons and hospitals affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2938 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. They were divided into two groups, according to the cumulative case volume of their operating surgeons and the case volume of their hospitals. The duration of intensive care unit stay and post-transplantation hospitalization, postoperative complications, and mortality were analyzed. The results showed that, in the low and high case volume surgeons groups, respectively, acute renal failure occurred at the rate of 14.11% and 5.86% (p<0.0001), and the overall mortality rates were 19.61% and 12.44% (p<0.0001). In the low and high case volume hospital groups, respectively, acute renal failure occurred in 11% and 7.11% of the recipients (p = 0.0004), and the overall mortality was 18.44% and 12.86% (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that liver transplantation recipients operated on higher case volume surgeons or in higher case volume hospitals have a lower rate of acute renal failure and mortality. PMID:27706183

  10. Techniques for estimation of storm-runoff loads, volumes, and selected constituent concentrations in urban watersheds in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, Nancy E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Urban planners and managers need information on the quantity of precipitation and the quality and quantity of run off in their cities and towns if they are to adequately plan for the effects of storm runoff from urban areas. As a result of this need, four sets of linear regression models were developed for estimating storm-runoff constituent loads, storm-runoff volumes, storm-runoff mean concentrations of constituents, and mean seasonal or mean annual constituent loads from physical, land-use, and climatic characteristics of urban watersheds in the United States. Thirty-four regression models of storm-runoff constituent loads and storm-runoff volumes were developed, and 31 models of storm-runoff mean concentrations were developed . Ten models of mean seasonal or mean annual constituent loads were developed by analyzing long-term storm-rainfall records using at-site linear regression models. Three statistically different regions, delineated on the basis of mean annual rainfall, were used to improve linear regression models where adequate data were available . Multiple regression analyses, including ordinary least squares and generalized least squares, were used to determine the optimum linear regression models . These models can be used to estimate storm-runoff constituent loads, storm-runoff volumes, storm-runoff mean concentrations of constituents, and mean seasonal or mean annual constituent loads at gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The most significant explanatory variables in all linear regression models were total storm rainfall and total contributing drainage area. Impervious area, land-use, and mean annual climatic characteristics also were significant in some models. Models for estimating loads of dissolved solids, total nitrogen, and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen generally were the most accurate, whereas models for suspended solids were the least accurate. The most accurate models were those for application in the more arid Western

  11. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg∙kg⁻¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress.

  12. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, A S; Cooke, C B; King, R F; Hood, C; Denison, T; Wainwright, B G; Havenetidis, K

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an acute creatine loading (25 g per day for 4 days) and longer-term creatine supplementation (5 g of creatine or 5 g of placebo per day for 2 months) on the performance of 22 elite swimmers during maximal interval sessions. After the acute creatine loading, the mean of the average interval swim times for all swimmers (n = 22) improved (44.3+/-16.5 s before vs. 43.7+/-16.3 s after supplementation; P<0.01). Three of the 22 swimmers did not respond positively to supplementation. After 2 months of longer-term creatine supplementation or placebo, neither group showed a significant change in swimming performance (38.7+/-13.5 s before vs. 38.7+/-14.1 s after for the creatine group; 48.7+/-18.0 s before vs. 48.7+/-18.1 s after for the placebo group). We conclude that, in elite swimmers, 4 days of acute creatine loading improves swimming performance significantly when assessed by maximal interval sessions. However, longer-term supplementation for 2 months (5 g of creatine per day) did not benefit significantly the creatine group compared with the placebo group.

  13. Brain volume and cognitive function in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Krull, Kevin R

    2013-10-01

    The survival rate for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is greater than 80%. However, many of these survivors develop long-term chronic health conditions, with a relatively common late effect being neurocognitive dysfunction. Although neurocognitive impairments have decreased in frequency and severity as treatment has evolved, there is a subset of survivors in the current treatment era that are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of ALL and its treatment. Additionally, little is known about long-term brain development as survivors mature into adulthood. A recent study by Zeller et al. compared neurocognitive function and brain volume in 130 adult survivors of childhood ALL to 130 healthy adults matched on age and sex. They identified the caudate as particularly sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. We discuss the implications and limitations of this study, including how their findings support the concept of individual vulnerability to ALL and its treatment.

  14. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    PubMed Central

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Hannan, Liam M.; Dominelli, Paolo B.; Peters, Carli M.; Fougere, Renee J.; McKim, Douglas A.; Sheel, A. William

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR) acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs) in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW). Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p<0.001). Immediately after LVR, Crs increased by 39.5±9.8% to 50±7 mL·cmH2O−1 in individuals with RMW (p<0.05), while no significant change occurred in controls (p=0.23). At 1 h and 2 h post-treatment, there were no within-group differences in Crs compared to baseline (all p>0.05). LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05). During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05). LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique. PMID:28326313

  15. Validation of Noninvasive Indices Of Global Systolic Function in Patients with Normal and Abnormal Loading Conditions: A Simultaneous Echocardiography Pressure-Volume Catheterization Study

    PubMed Central

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Péerez del Villar, Candela; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background Noninvasive indices based on Doppler-echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate LV global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were 1) to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and 2) to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Methods and Results Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction [EF], and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax) was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values was observed for LV systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8 ± 1.0 mmHg/ml), preload, and afterload. Amongst the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference (peak-EIVPD) showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for EF (R=0.41), mid-wall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain(R=−0.53), and strain-rate (R=−0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain-rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak-EIVPD was less sensitive to load, whereas EF and longitudinal strain and strain-rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Conclusions Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global LV systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak-EIVPD should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load. PMID:24173273

  16. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Apostolos S; Havenetidis, Konstantinos; Zanker, Cathy L; O'Hara, John P; King, Roderick F G J; Hood, Colin; Paradisis, Giorgios; Cooke, Carlton B

    2005-05-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) to an acute creatine (Cr) loading regimen has been shown to increase muscle total creatine content significantly beyond that achieved through creatine loading alone. However, the potential ergogenic effects of combined Cr and CHO loading have not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare swimming performance, assessed as mean swimming velocity over repeated maximal intervals, in high-performance swimmers before and after an acute loading regimen of either creatine alone (Cr) or combined creatine and carbohydrate (Cr + CHO). Ten swimmers (mean +/- SD of age and body mass: 17.8 +/- 1.8 years and 72.3 +/- 6.8 kg, respectively) of international caliber were recruited and were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. Each swimmer ingested five 5 g doses of creatine for 4 days, with the Cr + CHO group also ingesting approximately 100 g of simple CHO 30 minutes after each dose of creatine. Performance was measured on 5 separate occasions: twice at "baseline" (prior to intervention, to assess the repeatability of the performance test), within 48 hours after intervention, and then 2 and 4 weeks later. All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p < 0.01, both regimens); however, there was no difference in the extent of improvement of performance between groups. In addition, all swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.

  17. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+).

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Younes, Magdy

    2016-09-01

    The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure), respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy "Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?" [1].

  18. Correlation between bone marrow dose volumes and acute hematological toxicity in postoperative gynecological cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Jiang, Ming-Hua; Chen, Jing; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Bi-Qing; Lu, E-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between radiation dose volume and acute hematological toxicity (HT) in postoperative gynecological cancer patients receiving whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), a principal component regression model was used to calculate HT. Methods: Women (n=100) receiving with or without chemotherapy RT were retrospectively analyzed, 52 of whom received chemotherapy (paclitaxel and nedaplatin). The pelvis and lumbar vertebrae, defined as the prolong-pelvic bone marrow, were divided into the (1) combined ilium, ischium and pubis and the (2) lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum. The V5-V40 of subsides was calculated. The complete blood counts were recorded weekly. The principal component analysis was performed on volumes which generated the principal components (PCs), followed by using a logistic regression model. Results: Forty-seven patients presented with grade 2-3 HT during RT. Chemotherapy increased the incidence of HT compared with RT alone (70.21% vs. 29.79%; p=0.001). Fifty-three patients with persistent HT developed more serious HT at an earlier stage of RT. The chemotherapy cycles and three PCs associated with grade 2-3 HT was identified to form the resulting principal logistic regression model. Conclusion: A new method to calculate the NTCP was achieved by PCs logistic regression. PMID:28083062

  19. Acute effects of a loaded warm-up protocol on change of direction speed in professional badminton players.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Sean J; Turner, Anthony N; Miller, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P < .05). Post warm-up vertical jump performance was not different between conditions (P = .430). Post warm-up CODS was significantly faster following the 5% (P = .02) and 10% (P < .001) loaded conditions compared with the control condition. In addition, peak CODS test performances, independent of recovery time, were faster than the control condition following the 10% loaded condition (P = .012). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a loaded warm-up augmented CODS, but not vertical jump performance, in elite badminton players.

  20. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  1. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  2. Effects of different accentuated eccentric loads on acute neuromuscular, growth hormone, and blood lactate responses during a hypertrophic protocol.

    PubMed

    Ojasto, Timo; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2009-05-01

    This study monitored acute neuromuscular responses and growth hormone (GH) and blood lactate (La) concentrations in the eccentric-concentric (ECC-CON) hypertrophic protocol by using various dynamic accentuated external resistance (DAER) loads in the bench press exercise. Male subjects (age = 32 +/- 4 years; n = 11) performed 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 2 minutes of recovery between the sets. The loads were 70, 80, 90, and 100% of 1 repetition maximum (RM) for the ECC phase, whereas 70% RM was constantly used for the CON phase. Electromyographic activity (EMG), ECC, CON, and isometric (ISOM) forces, serum GH and blood La, were measured at pre- and postloading. Significant reductions occurred in ISOM and CON pre- to postforces in all loading conditions (p < 0.01 - 0.001). Pre- to postchange in blood La in the 90/70% condition (9.5 +/- 2.3 mmolxL) was greater (p < 0.05) than in the control 70/70% condition (7.7 +/- 1.1 mmolxL). The highest individual pre- to postchange in blood La was larger after the 90/70% (p < 0.001) condition compared with the 70/70% condition. The post-GH concentration in the 90/70% loading was 8.7 +/- 1.9 microgxL and in the abstract. --> 3.5 +/- 1.5 microgxL in the control condition, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. ECC EMG of the agonists increased with the increase in load but significantly only in the deltoid anterior (p < 0.01). A significant relationship was observed between the "optimal" ECC load and 1RM per body mass (BM)-ratio (r = 0.85; p < 0.05). The findings suggest that the acute metabolic and GH responses in the 90/70% condition were more favourable compared with the 70/70% condition, and a significant correlation between the optimal ECC load and 1RM per BM-ratio was observed. The findings can be applied into practice in designing exercise protocols in training for muscle hypertrophy and suggest the importance of individualized load selection for DAER exercises.

  3. Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in systemic responses to acute isotonic volume expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Hargens, Alan R.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that a temporal relationship exists between increases in cardiac filling pressure and plasma artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration and also between ANP elevation and vasodilation, fluid movement from plasma to interstitium, and increased urine volume (UV). To test the hypothesis, 30 ml/kg isotonic saline were infused in supine male subjects over 24 min and responses were monitored for 3 h postinfusion. Results show that at end infusion, mean arterial pressure (RAP), heart rate and plasma volume exhibited peak increases of 146, 23, and 27 percent, respectively. Mean plasma ANP and UV peaked (45 and 390 percent, respectively) at 30 min postinfusion. Most cardiovascular variables had returned toward control levels by 1 h postinfusion, and net reabsorption of extravascular fluid ensued. It is concluded that since ANP was not significantly increased until 30 min postinfusion, factors other than ANP initiate responses to intravascular fluid loading. These factors include increased vascular pressures, baroreceptor-mediated vasolidation, and hemodilution of plasma proteins. ANP is suggested to mediate, in part, the renal response to saline infusion.

  4. Acute Response of Circulating Vascular Regulating MicroRNAs during and after High-Intensity and High-Volume Cycling in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Yvonne; Wehmeier, Udo F.; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim; Hilberg, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze the response of vascular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) and the VEGF mRNA following an acute bout of HIIT and HVT in children. Methods:Twelve healthy competitive young male cyclists (14.4 ± 0.8 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 ml·min−1·kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of high intensity 4 × 4 min intervals (HIIT) at 90–95% peak power output (PPO), each interval separated by 3 min of active recovery, and one high volume session (HVT) consisting of a constant load exercise for 90 min at 60% PPO. Capillary blood from the earlobe was collected under resting conditions, during exercise (d1 = 20 min, d2 = 30 min, d3 = 60 min), and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after the exercise to determine miR-16, -21, -126, and VEGF mRNA. Results: HVT significantly increased miR-16 and miR-126 during and after the exercise compared to pre-values, whereas HIIT showed no significant influence on the miRNAs compared to pre-values. VEGF mRNA significantly increased during and after HIIT (d1, 30′, 60′, 180′) and HVT (d3, 0′, 60′). Conclusion: Results of the present investigation suggest a volume dependent exercise regulation of vascular regulating miRNAs (miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) in children. In line with previous data, our data show that acute exercise can alter circulating miRNAs profiles that might be used as novel biomarkers to monitor acute and chronic changes due to exercise in various tissues. PMID:27014090

  5. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  7. Acute Stress and Perceptual Load Consume the Same Attentional Resources: A Behavioral-ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiferet-Dweck, Chen; Hensel, Michael; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Tzelgov, Joseph; Friedman, Alon; Salti, Moti

    2016-01-01

    Stress and perceptual load affect selective attention in a paradoxical manner. They can facilitate selectivity or disrupt it. This EEG study was designed to examine the reciprocal relations between stress, load and attention. Two groups of subjects, one that performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and a control group, were asked to respond to a target letter under low and high perceptual load in the absence or presence of a distractor. In the control group, the distractor increased response times (RTs) for high and low load. In the TSST group, distractor increased RTs under low load only. ERPs showed that distractor’s presentation attenuated early visual P1 component and shortened its latency. In the TSST group, distractor reduced P1 component under high load but did not affect its latency. Source localization demonstrated reduced activation in V1 in response to distractors presence in the P1 time window for the TSST group compared to the control group. A behavioral replication revealed that in the TSST group distractors were less perceived under high load. Taken together, our results show that stress and perceptual load affect selectivity through the early stages of visual processing and might increase selectivity in a manner that would block conscious perception of irrelevant stimuli. PMID:27196027

  8. Acute effects of different volumes of dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance, flexibility and muscular endurance.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eric D; Everett, Kenneth L; Smith, Doug B; Pollner, Christie; Thompson, Brennan J; Sobolewski, Eric J; Fiddler, Ryan E

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different volumes of a dynamic stretching routine on vertical jump (VJ) performance, flexibility and muscular endurance (ME). Twenty-six males (age 22.2 ± 1.3 years) performed three separate randomized conditions: (i) a control (CON) condition (5-min jog + 12 min of resting), (ii) a 5-min jog + a dynamic stretching routine (DS1; 6.7 ± 1.3 min) and (iii) a 5-min jog + a dynamic stretching routine with twice the volume (DS2; 12.1 ± 1.6 min). The dynamic stretching routine included 11 exercises targeting the hip and thigh musculature. VJ performance (jump height and velocity) and flexibility were measured prior to and following all conditions, while ME was measured following all conditions. The DS1 and DS2 conditions increased VJ height and velocity (P<0.01), while the CON condition did not change (P>0.05). When compared to the CON condition, the DS1 condition did not improve ME (P>0.05), whereas the DS2 condition resulted in a significant (15.6%) decrease in the number of repetitions completed (P<0.05). Flexibility increased following all conditions (P<0.01), while the DS1 condition was significantly greater (P<0.01) than the CON condition at post-testing. These results suggest that dynamic stretching routines lasting approximately 6-12 min performed following a 5-min jog resulted in similar increases in VJ performance and flexibility. However, longer durations of dynamic stretching routines may impair repetitive high-intensity activities.

  9. Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-1997; Volume 2, Interpretation of metal loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2000-01-01

    Metals transport in the Sacramento River, northern California, from July 1996 to June 1997 was evaluated in terms of metal loads from samples of water and suspended colloids that were collected on up to six occasions at 13 sites in the Sacramento River Basin. Four of the sampling periods (July, September, and November 1996; and May-June 1997) took place during relatively low-flow conditions and two sampling periods (December 1996 and January 1997) took place during high-flow and flooding conditions, respectively. This study focused primarily on loads of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, with secondary emphasis on loads of aluminum, iron, and mercury. Trace metals in acid mine drainage from abandoned and inactive base-metal mines, in the East and West Shasta mining districts, enter the Sacramento River system in predominantly dissolved form into both Shasta Lake and Keswick Reservoir. The proportion of trace metals that was dissolved (as opposed to colloidal) in samples collected at Shasta and Keswick dams decreased in the order zinc ? cadmium > copper > lead. At four sampling sites on the Sacramento River--71, 256, 360, and 412 kilometers downstream of Keswick Dam--trace-metal loads were predominantly colloidal during both high- and low-flow conditions. The proportion of total cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc loads transported to San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta estuary (referred to as the Bay-Delta) that is associated with mineralized areas was estimated by dividing loads at Keswick Dam by loads 412 kilometers downstream at Freeport and the Yolo Bypass. During moderately high flows in December 1996, mineralization-related total (dissolved + colloidal) trace-metal loads to the Bay-Delta (as a percentage of total loads measured downstream) were cadmium, 87 percent; copper, 35 percent; lead, 10 percent; and zinc, 51 percent. During flood conditions in January 1997 loads were cadmium, 22 percent; copper, 11 percent; lead, 2 percent; and zinc, 15

  10. Changes in MR Relaxation Times of the Meniscus With Acute Loading: An In Vivo Pilot Study in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Souza, Richard B.; Wyman, Bradley T.; Le Graverand-Gastineau, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate changes in T1ρ and T2 relaxation times in the meniscal body with acute loading using MRI in osteoarthritic knees and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods Female subjects above 40 years of age with (N1 = 20) and without osteoarthritis (OA) (N2 = 10) were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a custom made loading device. MR images were acquired, with the knee flexed at 20°, with and without a compressive load of 50% of the subject's bodyweight. The subjects were categorized based on the radiographic evidence of OA. Three different zones (outer, middle, and inner) of meniscus body were defined (each occupying 1/3rd the width). After adjusting for age and body mass index in the general linear regression model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to detect significant differences in T1ρ and T2 with and without loading. Results In the unloaded condition, the average T1ρ and T2 times were elevated in the outer and middle zones of the medial meniscus in OA subjects compared with the controls. In the loaded condition, T1ρ and T2 times of the outer zone of the medial meniscus was significantly elevated in OA subjects compared with controls. Finally the change (from unloaded to loaded) was significantly higher in controls than OA subjects (15.1% versus 8.3%; P = 0.039 for ΔT1ρ, and 11.5% versus 6.9%, P = 0.049 for ΔT2). Conclusion These findings suggest that while the OA process appears to affect the relaxation times of all regions within the meniscus, it may affect some regions sooner or to a greater degree. Furthermore, the differences in the change in relaxation times between unloaded and loaded conditions may reveal evidence about load transmission failure of the outer zone of the medial meniscus in subjects with knee OA. It is possible that these metrics (ΔT1ρ and ΔT2) may be valuable as an early biomechanical biomarker, which could be used to predict load

  11. Role of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during acute simulated weightlessness in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes, designed to induce central blood volume shifts in ten cardiac and one heart-lung transplant recipients, to assess the contribution of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during the initial acute phase of exposure to weightlessness. Each subject underwent 15 min of a sitting-control period (C) followed by 30 min of 6 deg headdown tilt (T) and 30 min of resumed sitting (S). Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions were taken at 0 and 15 min of C; 5, 15, and 30 min of T; and 5, 15, and 30 min of S. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every two min. Plasma osmolality was not altered by posture changes. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased (P less than 0.05) from 90 ml in C to 106 ml in T and returned to 87 ml in S. Plasma ADH was reduced by 20 percent (P less than 0.05) with T, and returned to control levels with S. These responses were similar in six normal cardiac-innervated control subjects. These data may suggest that cardiac volume receptors are not the primary mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute central volume shifts in man.

  12. Rectal planning risk volume correlation with acute and late toxicity in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dias, R S; Giordani, A J; Souhami, L; Segreto, R A; Segreto, H R C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rectum motion during 3-Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients, to derive a planning volume at risk (PRV) and to correlate the PRV dose-volume histograms (DVH) with treatment complications.This study was conducted in two phases. Initially, the PRV was defined prospectively in 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients (Group 1) who received a radical course of 3-D CRT. Then, the obtained PRV was used in the radiotherapy planning of these same 50 patients plus another 59 prostate cancer patients (Group 2) previously treated between 2004 and 2008. All these patients' data, including the rectum and PRV DVHs, were correlated to acute and late complications, according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v4.0.The largest displacement occurred in the anterior axis. Long-term gastrointestinal (GI) complications grade ≥ 2 were seen in 9.2% of the cases. Factors that influenced acute GI reactions were: doses at 25% (p 5 0.011) and 40% (p 5 0.005) of the rectum volume and at 40% of the PRV (p 5 0.012). The dose at 25% of the rectum volume (p 5 0.033) and acute complications ≥ grade 2 (p 5 0.018) were prognostic factors for long-term complications. The PRV DVH did not correlate with late toxicity. The rectum showed a significant inter-fraction motion during 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. PRV dose correlated with acute gastrointestinal complications and may be a useful tool to predict and reduce their occurrence.

  13. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  14. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width as Markers in the Diagnosis of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhe; Pan, Jiyong; Zhang, Yingyi; Wang, Ziyi; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Baoshun; Shi, Lei; Jing, Huirong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Acute gangrenous appendicitis (AGA) is a common medical condition; however, the grade of appendicitis usually cannot be established preoperatively. We have attempted to identify some indicators, such as the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the platelet distribution width (PDW), to diagnose AGA. Aims. To evaluate whether or not the MPV and PDW are suitable markers to diagnose AGA. Methods. A retrospective study of 160 patients with AGA and 160 healthy patients was undertaken. Disease diagnosis was confirmed based on the pathologic examination of surgical specimens. Patient white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil ratio (NR), platelet (PLT) count, MPV, PDW, and hematocrit (HCT) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these indices in AGA. Results. There were no significant differences between the AGA and control groups in age and gender. Compared to the control group, the WBC count, NR, and PDW were significantly higher (P < 0.001, resp.) and the MPV and HCT were significantly lower (P < 0.001, resp.) in the AGA group. The diagnostic specificities of the WBC count, NR, PLT count, MPV, PDW, and HCT were 86.3%, 92.5%, 58.1%, 81.7%, 83.9%, and 66.3%, respectively. Therefore, the NR had the highest diagnostic specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. Conclusions. This is the first study to assess the MPV and PDW in patients with AGA. Our present study showed that the MPV is reduced and the PDW is increased in patients with AGA; the sensitivity of PDW was superior to the MPV. A decreased MPV value and an increased PDW could serve as two markers to diagnose AGA. The NR had the highest specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. PMID:26688600

  15. Theoretical Investigation of Loads on Buried Structures. Volume I. Results of Discussion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Normalized Overpressure, h = D/2 in Sand Loading Functions for Underground Cylinders Representation of Underground Iso -impulse Curves Approximate...Underground Iso -impulse Curves (High Impulse Region) Approximate Underground Iso -impulse Curves (Low Impulse Region) Representation of Underground...that is applied to the ground sur- face must be propagated without diminution through the underlying soil medium. Hence, the iso -impulse curves

  16. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  17. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 2: Program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program was implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. Volume 1 (NASA CR-2110) contains the theoretical formulation and analysis of results. Volume 2 contains the computer program listing.

  18. Acute Effects of Low-Load/High-Repetition Single-Limb Resistance Training in COPD.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, André; Saey, Didier; Martin, Mickaël; Maltais, François

    2016-12-01

    Exercising small muscle groups at a time allows higher muscle specific workloads compared with whole body aerobic exercises in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether similar effects also occur with partitioning exercise during low load/high-repetition resistance exercises is uncertain.

  19. Load and dynamic assessment of B-52B-008 carrier aircraft for finned configuration 1 space shuttle solid rocket booster deceleration subsystem drop test vehicle. Volume 4: Pylon load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The pylon loading at the drop test vehicle and wing interface attack points is presented. The loads shown are determined using a stiffness method, which assumes the side stiffness of the forward hook guide and the fore and aft stiffness of each drag pin to be equal. The net effect of this assumption is that the forward hook guide reacts approximately 96% of the drop test vehicle yawing moment. For a comparison of these loads to previous X-15 analysis design loadings, see Volume 1 of this document.

  20. JAK2 mediates the acute response to decreased cell volume in mouse preimplantation embryos by activating NHE1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenxi; Baltz, Jay M

    2013-02-01

    Preimplantation mouse embryos are particularly sensitive to increased osmolarity within their normal physiological range. The detrimental effects can be alleviated by organic osmolytes such as glycine transported into early embryos, an effect thought to be due to the organic osmolyte replacing a portion of intracellular inorganic ions accumulated during acute cell volume regulation. However, no mechanism of cell volume regulation dependent on inorganic ions has been identified in preimplantation embryos. We found that decreased cell volume rapidly activated Na(+)/H(+) exchange in preimplantation mouse embryos. This activity was likely mediated by the NHE1 (Slc9a1) isoform, since it was blocked by the highly selective NHE1 inhibitor, cariporide, which also inhibited the ability of the 1-cell embryo to maintain cell volume. How NHE1 is activated by decreased cell volume is not generally well understood. Full activation of NHE1 by decreased cell volume in 2-cell mouse embryos required the activity of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (Jak2), since NHE1 activation was inhibited by the general tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, several selective inhibitors of Jak2, and dominant negative Jak2 expressed in 2-cell embryos. Decreased cell volume furthermore resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in 2-cell embryos detected both by anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and an antibody directed against active phospho-Jak2. Thus, Jak2 apparently serves as a cell volume sensor in embryos. Evidence from pharmacological inhibitors further indicated that NHE1 activation by decreased cell volume was dependent on calmodulin activity, likely downstream of Jak2, and required active phospholipase C.

  1. Ventricular Volume Load Reveals the Mechanoelastic Impact of Communicating Hydrocephalus on Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Haubrich, Christina; Czosnyka, Marek; Diehl, Rolf; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the progression of communicating hydrocephalus is associated with diminished cerebral perfusion and microangiopathy. If communicating hydrocephalus similarly alters the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and cerebral blood flow, both may be related to intracranial mechanoelastic properties as, for instance, the volume pressure compliance. Twenty-three shunted patients with communicating hydrocephalus underwent intraventricular constant-flow infusion with Hartmann’s solution. The monitoring included transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocities (FV) in the middle (MCA) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA), intracranial pressure (ICP), and systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP). The analysis covered cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), the index of pressure-volume compensatory reserve (RAP), and phase shift angles between Mayer waves (3 to 9 cpm) in ABP and MCA-FV or PCA-FV. Due to intraventricular infusion, the pressure-volume reserve was exhausted (RAP) 0.84+/-0.1 and ICP was increased from baseline 11.5+/-5.6 to plateau levels of 20.7+/-6.4 mmHg. The ratio dRAP/dICP distinguished patients with large 0.1+/-0.01, medium 0.05+/-0.02, and small 0.02+/-0.01 intracranial volume compliances. Both M wave phase shift angles (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and CPP (r = 0.36; p<0.05) displayed a gradual decline with decreasing dRAP/dICP gradients. This study showed that in communicating hydrocephalus, CPP and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in particular, depend on the volume-pressure compliance. The results suggested that the alteration of mechanoelastic characteristics contributes to a reduced cerebral perfusion and a loss of autonomy of cerebral blood flow regulation. Results warrant a prospective TCD follow-up to verify whether the alteration of dynamic cerebral autoregulation may indicate a progression of communicating hydrocephalus. PMID:27415784

  2. Increase in volume of lignocaine/adrenaline-containing local anaesthetic solution causes increase in acute postoperative pain after gingivectomy.

    PubMed

    Jorkjend, L; Skoglund, L A

    2000-06-01

    A randomized, single-blind, within-patient, crossover study was done in 44 patients (27 women and 17 men mean age 47 years, range 29-63) who had bilateral 'identical' gingivectomies. On one occasion a standard volume of local anaesthetic containing lignocaine 2% and adrenaline (1/80 000) was infiltrated into the mucosal tissue before operation. On the other occasion double the standard volume was infiltrated. The intensity of pain postoperatively was recorded by the patients on 100 mm visual analogue scale every hour for an 11-hour observation period. The intensity of pain when double volume had been given was significantly higher than that after the standard volume from 2 to 8 hours postoperatively (P < 0.04), the median (range) being 52.0 mm (0.0-434.0) compared with 30.5 mm (0.0-359.0) after the standard volume (P < 0.005). Doubling the volume of local anaesthetic containing adrenaline that was infiltrated increased the intensity of acute pain after gingivectomy.

  3. [Effect of different volume loading of aerobic/anaerobic zone on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biofilm and granular sludge coupling process].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang; Liu, Chang; Gao, Hui; Gao, Da-Wen

    2014-05-01

    The effect of different aerobic/anaerobic zone volume loading on nitrogen and phosphorus removal by biological film and granular coupling process was investigated using a self-designed Biofilm/Granular sludge coupling reactor. Three operating modes were conducted in the experiment. In operating mode I ,the volume of aerobic zone was 9. 66 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 15. 34 L. In operating mode II , the volume of aerobic zone was 12. 56 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 12. 44 L. In operating mode III , the volume of aerobic zone was 15.42 L, and the volume of anaerobic zone was 9.58 L. Three operating modes expressed different volume loading of the reactor because of different aerobic/anaerobic zone. The results showed that the performance of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus removal was a bit poor in operating mode I , the effluent nitrate nitrogen was higher in operating mode III compared with other modes, which brought the total nitrogen removal efficiency lower. The operating mode II was optimal for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In operating mode II , the ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency was about 80. 63% , the volume loading rate of nitrogen removal was about 150. 27 g(m3 d)-1, and the COD removal efficiency was higher than 83.24%; the amounts of phosphorus release and uptake under anaerobic conditions were 7. 23 mg L-1 and 11. 93 mg L-1.

  4. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  5. Effects of Gender and Load on Combative Movement Performance. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Discuss ion 49 References 51 Appendices A Clothing and Equipment Used in This Study 53 B ANOVA Summary Tables 63 b3 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1...Performance Introduction This is the first of four studies on the biomechanics of load carrying behavior being carried out in the Biomechanics Laboratory at...were taken on each subject and the weights of their utility clothes , boots, and sneakers were determined and recorded. Direct measurements were made of

  6. Improved Methods for Predicting Spectrum Loading Effects. Volume 1. Technical Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    prediction, 2219 -T851 aluminum , compres- 4 siv load acceleration, preliminary design, individual aircraft tracking 20. AOS 1W (Continue an revere side It...Recomnendations 80 REFERENCES 199 vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Title Page 1 Wide-Range Fatigue Crack-Growth-Rate Data of 2219 -T851 Aluminum Alloy at...Various Stress Ratios ............ ... 82 2 Coefficients Al (R) and A2 (R) in the Three-Component Model for 2219 -T851 Aluminum . ................. 82 3

  7. Prompt increases in retinol-binding protein 4 and endothelial progenitor cells during acute exercise load in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Atsushi; Murata, Miho; Asano, Tomoko; Ikoma, Aki; Sasaki, Masami; Saito, Tomoyuki; Otani, Taeko; Jinbo, Sachimi; Ikeda, Nahoko; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether acute exercise load alters serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in diabetic subjects. Sixty-two subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the present study. They were 50 males and 12 females with the ages of 65.1±8.1 (mean ± SD) years. Cardio-pulmonary exercise stress test (CPX) was carried out, and the numbers of EPC and serum RBP4 levels before and after the CPX were measured. RBP4 is a cytokine synthesized in hepatocytes, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, and serum RBP4 was determined by ELISA. EPC was determined as CD34(+)/133(+) cells by FACS. The subjects were subgrouped into two groups with or without nephropathy. Serum RBP4 levels promptly increased from 48.2±4.3 (mean±SEM) to 54.3±4.2 μg/mL after the CPX (mean exercise time of 8 min) in the diabetic subjects without nephropathy (p=0.0006), but did not in those with nephropathy. There was a positive correlation between changes in serum RBP4 during the exercise and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=0.30, p=0.018). Also, an acute exercise load promptly increased the number of EPCs in the diabetic subjects with and without nephropathy. These findings suggest that a prompt increase in exercise-induced RBP4 is retarded by progression of nephropathy, and that an exercise-induced mobilization of EPCs could maintain endothelial cells in diabetic subjects.

  8. Stress Intensity Factors for Cracking Metal Structures under Rapid Thermal Loading. Volume 2. Theoretical Background

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    actual value, and that a coarse mesh comparable to the mesh used in this study 5-23 would yield K1 values which are in error by about 10%. To check...8217. Ar Figure~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 7-5 :iieEeit.-,e o etica no I a - c. ; cIý*s l.e u f c ___ I I _____57 -MENNE- z R Figure 7-16. Finite Element Mesh at the...the full capacity. The full rated capacity of the spot heater is 0.711 BTU/sec (750 W). Due to radiation losses, the actual thermal loading applied on

  9. Acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses to combined strength and endurance loadings: the "order effect" in recreationally endurance trained runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Schumann, Moritz; Mikkola, Jussi; Nyman, Kai; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses and recovery (24 and 48 h) to combined strength and endurance sessions (SEs). Recreationally endurance trained men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed: endurance running followed immediately by a strength loading (combined endurance and strength session (ES)) and the reverse order (SE). Maximal strength (MVC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-, mid-, post-loading and at 24 and 48 h of recovery. MVC and CMJ were decreased (P < 0.05) at post-ES and SE sessions in men. Only MVC decreased in ES and SE women (P < 0.05). During recovery, no order differences in MVC were observed between sessions in men, but MVC and CMJ remained decreased. During recovery in women, a delayed decrease in CMJ was observed in ES but not in SE (P < 0.01), while MVC returned to baseline at 24 h. Creatine kinase increased (P < 0.05) during both ES and SE and peaked in all groups at 24 h. The present combined ES and SE sessions induced greater neuromuscular fatigue at post in men than in women. The delayed fatigue response in ES women may be an order effect related to muscle damage.

  10. Acute Effects of Loaded Half-Squat Jumps on Sprint Running Speed in Track and Field Athletes and Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Vanderka, Marián; Krčmár, Matúš; Longová, Katarína; Walker, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the acute responses to a jump squat protocol designed to induce postactivation potentiation on sprint running performance in experienced track and field athletes and soccer players. Twenty-five regional level athletes (12 track and field: ∼17 years; ∼177 cm; ∼73 kg and 13 soccer: ∼18 years; ∼175 cm; ∼72 kg) performed 2 test sessions assessing 40-m sprint running performance in a balanced, crossover design. Dual-beam light timing gates measured 0-20 and 20-40 m sprint times before and after either 9 minutes of sitting (control) or 2 sets of 6 repetition half-squat jump with the load eliciting maximum power (experimental) conditions. Sprint performance was significantly enhanced over both 0-20 m (3.09 ± 0.07 to 3.04 ± 0.08 seconds; Δ ∼1.5%; p ≤ 0.05) and 20-40 m (2.42 ± 0.09 to 2.39 ± 0.09 seconds; Δ ∼1%; p ≤ 0.05) in track and field athletes only. Also, the magnitude of enhanced sprint performance was related to baseline 0-20 m sprint performance (r = 0.44; p = 0.028; n = 25). It seems that using loaded half-squat jumps to enhance sprint performance could be used in training of high-level young athletes.

  11. Prolonged Treadmill Load Carriage: Acute Injuries and Changes in Foot Anthropometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    associated with load carriage include upper and lower back strain, metatarsalgia, plantar fasciitis , knee and ankle pain (2,3), stress fractures (5) and...and foot powder was applied to their feet on a daily basis to minimize blistering. All subjects wore the standard plastic mesh ve ,dlating insert ... Fasciitis (feet) 3 3.6% Tendonitis (knee) 3 3.6% Toenail Injury 3 3.6% Groin Strain 2 2.5% Low Back Strain 1 1.2% Hip Pain 1 1.2% Ankle Sprain 1 1.2% Foot

  12. Acute effects of heavy- and light-load squat exercise on the kinetic measures of vertical jumping.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Erik D; Leigh, Steve; Mynark, Richard G

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the acute performance enhancing effects of a single light-load, high-velocity or heavy-load, low-velocity squat intervention set (SIS) on stimulating activity-dependent postactivation potentiation and thereby increasing vertical jumping performance. Jump performance was assessed using 4 dependent variables: net impulse, time of ground contact, and normalized peak and normalized minimum vertical ground reaction force. Resistance-trained subjects (n = 30) attended 3 independent sessions separated by 3 to 7 days. The first session served for familiarization and to determine each subject's 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the squat. In the 2 testing sessions, subjects performed 2 countermovement jump (CMJ) sets, followed by a single SIS and then a final CMJ set. A CMJ set consisted of 3 maximal effort jumps. The testing sessions were identical except for SIS intensity, which was 40% of 1RM for 1 session and 80% of 1RM for the other. The order of the 2 testing sessions was counterbalanced within subjects. The 4 dependent variables were reduced for every jump. No significant changes were observed from pre- to post-testing in either SIS condition, nor were there any differences between the heavy and light SIS loading condition. Reasons for the lack of performance enhancement can be attributed to postactivation potentiation stimulated by the SIS being insufficient in magnitude or dissipating before post-testing. This may have been due to a submaximal workload of 50% during the SIS, insufficient movement pattern specificity between the squat exercise and a CMJ, or rest intervals of excess duration. A single SIS provides no benefit to a warm-up protocol under the current conditions.

  13. Acute effect of Snus on physical performance and perceived cognitive load on amateur footballers.

    PubMed

    Morente-Sánchez, J; Zandonai, T; Mateo-March, M; Sanabria, D; Sánchez-Muñoz, C; Chiamulera, C; Zabala Díaz, M

    2015-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco (Snus) is a substance that contains nicotine, which has been placed on World Anti-Doping Agency's 2014 Monitoring Program. A proliferation of nicotine use in sport has been observed in recent years, but little is known regarding its effects, especially on football players' performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of Snus on physical performance, heart rate variability, subjective activation, mental fatigue, and perceived readiness before a physical test in non-smoker, non-Snus user, amateur football players. Participants were administered either Snus or placebo 40 min prior to a fitness test battery (handgrip test, countermovement jump, agility test, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test). Results showed that Snus intake (compared with placebo) increased perceived mental fatigue level and mental load, and reduced perceived readiness level and heart rate variability. No significant differences between the two experimental conditions were found in either performance in the physical tests or perceived physical fatigue levels. In light of these results, Snus could not be considered an ergogenic substance. On the contrary, based on the extant evidence linking mental load and fatigue with physical performance, we argue that the observed negative effects on mental fatigue, perceived readiness, and heart rate variability should be considered.

  14. NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Volume 1.0; Computerized Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1986-01-01

    This booklet and the accompanying diskette contain the materials necessary to collect subjective workload assessments with the NASA Task Load Index on IBM PC compatible microcomputers. This procedure for collecting workload ratings was developed by the Human Performance Group at NASA Ames Research Center during a three year research effort that involved more than 40 laboratory, simulation, and inflight experiments Although the technique is still undergoing evaluation, this package is being distributed to allow other researchers to use it in their own experiments Comments or suggestions about the procedure would be greatly appreciated This package is intended to fill a "nuts and bolts" function of describing the procedure. A bibliography provides background information about previous empirical findings and the logic that supports the procedure.

  15. NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Volume 1.0; Paper and Pencil Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the materials necessary to collect subjective workload assessments with the NASA Task Load Index. This procedure for collecting workload ratings was developed by the Human Performance Group at NASA Ames Research Center during a three year research effort that involved more than 40 laboratory. simulation. and inflight experiments. Although the technique is still undergoing evaluation. this booklet is being distributed to allow other researchers to use it in their own experiments. Comments or suggestions about the procedure would be greatly appreciated. This package is intended to fill a "nuts and bolts" function of describing the procedure. A bibliography provides background information about previous empirical findings and the logic that supports the procedure.

  16. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P K; Singh, S K; Sanyasi, A K; Awasthi, L M; Mattoo, S K

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  17. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  18. Electromagnetic characterization of an MR volume coil with multilayered cylindrical load using a 2-D analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Gianluigi; Costagli, Mauro; Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco; Tropp, James; Tosetti, Michela

    2013-05-01

    We present an analytical method for the analysis of Radio Frequency (RF) volume coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), using a 2-D full wave solution with loading by multilayered cylinders. This allows the characterization of radio-frequency E, H, B1, B1(+) fields. Comparisons are provided with experimental data obtained at 7.0 T. The procedure permits us to clearly separate the solution to single line source problem (which we call the primordial solution) and the composite solution (i.e. full coil, i.e. the summations of primordial solutions according to the resonator drive configuration). The capability of separating the primordial solution and the composite one is fundamental for a thorough analysis of the phenomena of dielectric resonance, and of standing wave and multi-source interference. We show that dielectric resonance can be identified only by looking at the electromagnetic field from a single line source.

  19. In vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor during acute SIV infection leads to significant increases in viral load during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Albrecht, Christina; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Russo, Robert; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Tara; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-03-01

    The studies reported herein are the first to document the effect of the in vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor for defining the potential role of NK cells during acute SIV infection of a group of 15 rhesus macaques (RM). An additional group of 16 MHC/KIR typed RM was included as controls. The previously optimized in vivo dose regimen (20 mg/kg daily for 35 days) led to a marked depletion of each of the major NK cell subsets both in the blood and gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) during acute infection. While such depletion had no detectable effects on plasma viral loads during acute infection, there was a significant sustained increase in plasma viral loads during chronic infection. While the potential mechanisms that lead to such increased plasma viral loads during chronic infection remain unclear, several correlates were documented. Thus, during acute infection, the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor besides depleting all NK cell subsets also decreased some CD8⁺ T cells and inhibited the mobilization of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the blood and their localization to the GIT. Of interest is the finding that the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor during acute infection also resulted in the sustained maintenance during chronic infection of a high number of naïve and central memory CD4⁺ T cells, increases in B cells in the blood, but decreases in the frequencies and function of NKG2a⁺ NK cells within the GIT and blood, respectively. These data identify a unique role for JAK3 inhibitor sensitive cells, that includes NK cells during acute infection that in concert lead to high viral loads in SIV infected RM during chronic infection without affecting detectable changes in antiviral humoral/cellular responses. Identifying the precise mechanisms by which JAK3 sensitive cells exert their influence is critical with important implications for vaccine design against lentiviruses.

  20. Relationships between static foot alignment and dynamic plantar loads in runners with acute and chronic stages of plantar fasciitis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana P.; Sacco, Isabel C. N.; Dinato, Roberto C.; João, Silvia M. A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for the development of plantar fasciitis (PF) have been associated with the medial longitudinal arch (MLA), rearfoot alignment and calcaneal overload. However, the relationships between the biomechanical variables have yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between the MLA, rearfoot alignment, and dynamic plantar loads in runners with unilateral PF in acute and chronic phases. METHOD: Cross-sectional study which thirty-five runners with unilateral PF were evaluated: 20 in the acute phase (with pain) and 15 with previous chronic PF (without pain). The MLA index and rearfoot alignment were calculated using digital images. The contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, and force-time integral over three plantar areas were acquired with Pedar X insoles while running at 12 km/h, and the loading rates were calculated from the vertical forces. RESULTS: The multiple regression analyses indicated that both the force-time integral (R 2=0.15 for acute phase PF; R 2=0.17 for chronic PF) and maximum force (R 2=0.35 for chronic PF) over the forefoot were predicted by an elevated MLA index. The rearfoot valgus alignment predicted the maximum force over the rearfoot in both PF groups: acute (R 2=0.18) and chronic (R 2=0.45). The rearfoot valgus alignment also predicted higher loading rates in the PF groups: acute (R 2=0.19) and chronic (R 2=0.40). CONCLUSION: The MLA index and the rearfoot alignment were good predictors of plantar loads over the forefoot and rearfoot areas in runners with PF. However, rearfoot valgus was demonstrated to be an important clinical measure, since it was able to predict the maximum force and both loading rates over the rearfoot. PMID:26786073

  1. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences.

  2. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  3. Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

  4. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    PubMed

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p < 0.05). The RPE and acute pain ratings were similar, but DOMS was higher in the nonoccluded leg (p < 0.05). We conclude that blood flow restriction during low-intensity dynamic knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  5. Effects of volume loading and pressor agents in idiopathic orthostatic tachycardia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic orthostatic tachycardia (IOT) is characterized by an increase in heart rate (HR) with standing of > or = 30 bpm that is associated with elevated catecholamine levels and orthostatic symptoms. A dynamic orthostatic hypovolemia and alpha1-adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity have been demonstrated in IOT patients. There is evidence of an autonomic neuropathy affecting the lower-extremity blood vessels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effects of placebo, the alpha1-adrenoreceptor agonist midodrine (5 to 10 mg), the alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine (0.1 mg), and I.V. saline (1 L) in 13 patients with IOT. Supine and upright blood pressure (BP) and HR were measured before and at 1 and 2 hours after intervention. Midodrine decreased both supine and upright HR (all HR values are given as bpm) at 2 hours (from 78+/-2 supine to 108+/-5 upright before treatment and from 69+/-2 supine to 95+/-5 upright after treatment, P<.005 for supine and P<.01 for upright). Saline decreased both supine and upright HR (from 80+/-3 supine to 112+/-5 upright before infusion and from 77+/-3 supine to 91+/-3 upright 1 hour after infusion, P<.005 for supine and P<.001 for upright). Clonidine decreased supine HR (from 78+/-2 to 74+/-2, P<.03) but did not affect the HR increase with standing. Clonidine very significantly decreased supine systolic BP (from 109+/-3 at baseline to 99+/-2 mm Hg at 2 hours, P<.001), and midodrine decreased supine systolic BP mildly. CONCLUSIONS: IOT responds best acutely to saline infusion to correct the underlying hypovolemia. Chronically, this can be accomplished with increased salt and water intake in conjunction with fludrocortisone. The response of patients to the alpha1-agonist midodrine supports the hypothesis of partial dysautonomia and indicates that the use of alpha1-agonists to pharmacologically replace lower-extremity postganglionic sympathetics is an appropriate overall goal of therapy. These findings are consistent with our

  6. Acute and subacute toxicity profiles of thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Yong Sze; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Ng, Wei Keat; Noordin, Mustapha M; Sapuan, Sarah; Foo, Jhi Biau; Tor, Yin Sim

    2016-01-01

    Background Thymoquinone (TQ), the predominant active lipophilic component in Nigella sativa seed oil, has a variety of pharmacological properties such as anticancer activities. However, translation of TQ to clinical phase is still not possible due to its hydrophobic properties. This problem can be solved by encapsulating it in nanoformulations to enhance its pharmacological properties. In our previous study, TQ has been successfully encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (hereinafter referred to as TQNLC) with excellent physiochemical properties such as high encapsulation efficiency, high drug-loading capacity, particle diameter less than 100 nm, and stability up to 2 years. In vitro studies also proved that TQNLC exhibited antiproliferative activity toward breast and cervical cancer cell lines. However, no toxicity profile related to this formulation has been reported. In this study, we determine and compare the in vivo toxicity of both TQNLC and TQ. Materials and methods The in vivo toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity) study was carried out by oral administration of TQNLC and TQ to BALB/c mice. Animal survival, body weight, organ weight-to-body weight ratio, hematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed. Results In acute toxicity, TQ that is loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was found to be less toxic than pure TQ. It can be concluded that encapsulation of TQ in lipid carrier minimizes the toxicity of the compound. In the subacute toxicity study, oral administration of 100 mg/kg of TQNLC and TQ did not cause mortality to either male or female but resulted in toxicity to the liver. It is postulated that long-term consumption of TQNLC and TQ may cause toxicity to the liver but not to the extent of altering the functions of the organ. For both treatments, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was found to be 10 mg/kg/d for mice in both sexes. Conclusion For long-term oral consumption, TQ and

  7. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. R.; Miller, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS computer program L218 which calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: (1) translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; (2) panel aerodynamic forces; (3) net panel forces; and (4) shears, bending moments, and torsions.

  8. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Wilder, Richard B.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and Methods One hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results Median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions Dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. PMID:26200536

  9. Acute and long-term effects after single loading of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes into zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Jinping; Chan, C.M.; Veca, L. Monica; Poon, W.L.; Chan, P.K.; Qu Liangwei; Sun Yaping Cheng, S.H.

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely explored for biomedical applications, but there is very limited information regarding their in vivo biodistribution and biocompatibility. Here, we report the in vivo biodistribution and long-term effects of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in developing zebrafish. The fluorescent-labeled MWCNTs were introduced into zebrafish embryos at 1-cell stage and at 72 h post fertilization through microinjection. After single injection, both acute and long-term interactions between zebrafish and functionalized MWCNTs were studied. The injected FITC-BSA-MWCNTs (at 1-cell stage) were allocated to all blastoderm cells of the embryos through proliferation, and were distinctively excluded from the yolk cell. When introduced into the circulation system, FITC-BSA-MWCNTs moved easily in the compartments and finally were cleaned out by the body at 96 h after the loading. At early stages, the treated zebrafish embryos generated immune response by accumulating circulating white blood cells at the trunk region. Under transmission electron microscope, many lysosome-like vesicles were observed in the blastoderm cells of the treated embryos. The zebrafish loaded with MWCNTs had normal primordial germ cells at early stage and produced second generation later on. However, the larvae of the second generation had obviously lower survival rates as compared to the untreated groups, suggesting a negative effect on the reproduction potential. These results suggest that extensive purification and functionalization processes can help improve the biocompatibility of CNTs. This study also indicates that purified CNTs may have long-term toxicity effects when they were delivered into the body.

  10. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tho, Lye Mun . E-mail: l.tho@beatson.gla.ac.uk; Glegg, Martin; Paterson, Jennifer; Yap, Christina; MacLeod, Alice; McCabe, Marie; McDonald, Alexander C.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V{sub 5}, V{sub 1}, etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p < 0.03), with strongest correlation at lowest doses. Median VSB differed significantly between patients experiencing Grade 0-1 and Grade 2-4 diarrhea (p {<=} 0.05). No correlation was found with anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, age, body mass index, sex, tumor position, or number of fields. Analysis of 8 patients showed that inverse planning reduced median dose to small bowel by 5.1 Gy (p = 0.008) and calculated late normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) by 67% (p = 0.016). We constructed a model using mathematical analysis to predict for acute diarrhea occurring at V{sub 5} and V{sub 15}. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further

  11. Meta-Analysis of Ultrafiltration versus Diuretics Treatment Option for Overload Volume Reduction in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Barkoudah, Ebrahim; Kodali, Sindhura; Okoroh, Juliet; Sethi, Rosh; Hulten, Edward; Suemoto, Claudia; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although diuretics are mainly used for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), inadequate responses and complications have led to the use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF) as an alternative strategy for reducing volume overloads in patients with ADHF. Objective The aim of our study is to perform meta-analysis of the results obtained from studies on extracorporeal venous ultrafiltration and compare them with those of standard diuretic treatment for overload volume reduction in acute decompensated heart failure. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were systematically searched using a pre‑specified criterion. Pooled estimates of outcomes after 48 h (weight change, serum creatinine level, and all-cause mortality) were computed using random effect models. Pooled weighted mean differences were calculated for weight loss and change in creatinine level, whereas a pooled risk ratio was used for the analysis of binary all-cause mortality outcome. Results A total of nine studies, involving 613 patients, met the eligibility criteria. The mean weight loss in patients who underwent UF therapy was 1.78 kg [95% Confidence Interval (CI): −2.65 to −0.91 kg; p < 0.001) more than those who received standard diuretic therapy. The post-intervention creatinine level, however, was not significantly different (mean change = −0.25 mg/dL; 95% CI: −0.56 to 0.06 mg/dL; p = 0.112). The risk of all-cause mortality persisted in patients treated with UF compared with patients treated with standard diuretics (Pooled RR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.64–1.56; p = 0.993). Conclusion Compared with standard diuretic therapy, UF treatment for overload volume reduction in individuals suffering from ADHF, resulted in significant reduction of body weight within 48 h. However, no significant decrease of serum creatinine level or reduction of all-cause mortality was observed. PMID:25626761

  12. Residential end-use load-shape estimation. Volume 1. Methodology and results of statistical disaggregation from whole-house metered loads. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Usoro, P.B.; Schick, I.C.

    1986-05-01

    End-use load shapes are important for the development of improved load forecasting techniques, analysis of load management and costing/rate making. A methodology for estimating end-use load shapes using hourly whole-house metered load data, household demographic survey data, and weather data (temperature) is presented. Although the focus of the project was on the residential sector, the techniques developed can also be applied to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the present approach, the coupling of lifestyle and weather in load demand is clearly modeled. Weather-independent load is modeled with Fourier-like terms (sine and cosine functions) and dummy variables, and weather-dependent load is represented by a thermodynamics-based nonlinear dynamic model exhibiting heat build-up effect, thermostat set-point variation, and appliance saturation. Automatic data pre-processing is incorporated to eliminate anomalous data using pattern recognition techniques. The overall methodology provides an effective means for end-use load shape modeling. In particular, the effect of weather on electricity demand, which concerns power system forecasters and planners, is accurately represented.

  13. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    PubMed

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reduced defense of central blood volume during acute lower body negative pressure-induced hypovolemic circulatory stress in aging women.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2012-06-01

    Elderly humans are more vulnerable to trauma and hemorrhage than young and elderly men and respond with decreased defense of central blood volume during acute experimental hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). However, these defense mechanisms have not been evaluated in elderly women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of compensatory responses to defend central blood volume during experimental hypovolemia in elderly and young women. Cardiovascular responses in 34 women, 12 elderly (66 ± 1 years) and 22 young women (23 ± 0.4 years), were studied during experimental hypovolemia induced by LBNP of 11 to 44 mmHg. Air plethysmography was used to assess the capacitance response (redistribution of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation) as well as net capillary fluid transfer from tissue to blood in the arm. Lower body negative pressure seemed to create comparable hypovolemia measured as total calf volume increase in elderly and young women. Heart rate increased less in elderly women (LBNP of 44 mmHg: 20 ± 2 vs. 37 ± 4%; P < 0.01) but with similar (%) increase in forearm vascular resistance. Mobilization of capacitance blood from the peripheral circulation was both slower and decreased by ∼60% in elderly women (P < 0.001), and net capillary fluid absorption from surrounding tissues was reduced by ∼40% (P < 0.01, LBNP of 44 mmHg). Elderly women responded with less increase in heart rate but with equal forearm vascular resistance (%) response during LBNP. Furthermore, the compensatory capacitance response was both slower and substantially decreased, and net capillary fluid absorption considerably reduced, collectively indicating less efficiency to defend central blood volume in elderly than in young women.

  15. Pressure-volume curves in acute respiratory failure: automated low flow inflation versus occlusion.

    PubMed

    Servillo, G; Svantesson, C; Beydon, L; Roupie, E; Brochard, L; Lemaire, F; Jonson, B

    1997-05-01

    Pressure-volume (P-V) curves of the respiratory system allow determination of compliance and lower and upper inflection points (LIP and UIP, respectively). To minimize lung trauma in mechanical ventilation the tidal volume should be limited to the P-V range between LIP and UIP. An automated low flow inflation (ALFI) technique, using a computer-controlled Servo Ventilator 900C, was compared with a more conventional technique using a series of about 20 different inflated volumes (Pst-V curve). The pressure in the distal lung (Pdist) was calculated by subtraction of resistive pressure drop in connecting tubes and airways. Compliance (Cdist), Pdist(LIP), and Pdist(UIP) were derived from the Pdist-V curve and compared with Cst, Pst(LIP), and Pst(UIP) derived from the Pst-V curve. Nineteen sedated, paralyzed patients (10 with ARDS and 9 with ARF) were studied. We found: Cdist = 2.3 + 0.98 x Cst ml/cm H2O (r = 0.98); Pdist(LIP) = 0.013 + 1.09 x Pst(LIP) cm H2O (r = 0.96). In patients with ARDS: Pdist(UIP) = 4.71 + 0.84 x Pst(UIP) cm H2O (r = 0.94). In ARF, we found differences in UIP between the methods, but discrepancies occurred above tidal volumes and had little practical importance. They may reflect that Pdist comprises dynamic phenomena contributing to pressure in the distal lung at large volumes. Compliance, but not LIP and UIP, could be accurately determined without subtraction of resistive pressure from the pressure measured in the ventilator. We conclude that ALFI, which is fully automated and needing no ventilator disconnection, gives useful clinical information.

  16. Dose-Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ronald C.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Killoran, Joseph H.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Ryan, David P.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose-volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman's correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU-based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  17. Determinants of acute mortality of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to ultra-low volume permethrin used for mosquito management

    PubMed Central

    Preftakes, Collin J.; Bodin, Jennifer L.; Brown, Christopher R.; Piccolomini, Alyssa M.; Schleier, Jerome J.

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few experimental studies and risk assessments of the effects on non-target insects from ultra-low volume (ULV) insecticides used for management of adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we evaluated factors that may influence the ability of an insect to intercept the insecticide at the time of application by using Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in field bioassay experiments in 2011 and 2015. Treatment factors included different distances, two cage heights (ground-level and 1.5 m above ground) to the point of the application, and covered vs. uncovered cage faces (2015 only). Insecticides used included a water-based formulation (Aqua-Reslin®) and an oil-based formulation (Permanone® 30-30) of permethrin. Cage height was highly significant both years, with much less acute (i.e., short-term exposure) mortality at ground-level compared with 1.5 m. In 2011, acute mortality was less at ground-level (mean = 3.2%, median = 0%) compared to 1.5 m (mean = 85.2%, median = 100%). Cage type also was highly significant, with less mortality in covered cages compared to uncovered cages. Mortality by cage height and cage type was as follows: ground level, covered cage (mean = 2.8%, median = 0.1%); ground level, uncovered cage (mean = 41.9%, median = 9.6%); 1.5 m, covered cage (mean = 6.8%, median = 0%); 1.5 m, uncovered cage (mean = 83.7%, median = 100%). Results suggest that acute mortality to non-target insects may vary considerably based on their height and their ability to directly intercept the insecticide as the aerosol passes through the area being sprayed. PMID:27366655

  18. Acute retroviral syndrome and high baseline viral load are predictors of rapid HIV progression among untreated Argentinean seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of primary HIV infection (PHI) has important clinical and public health implications. HAART initiation at this stage remains controversial. Methods Our objective was to identify predictors of disease progression among Argentinean seroconverters during the first year of infection, within a multicentre registry of PHI-patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Cox regression was used to analyze predictors of progression (LT-CD4 < 350 cells/mm3, B, C events or death) at 12 months among untreated patients. Results Among 134 subjects, 74% presented with acute retroviral syndrome (ARS). Seven opportunistic infections (one death), nine B events, and 10 non-AIDS defining serious events were observed. Among the 92 untreated patients, 24 (26%) progressed at 12 months versus three (7%) in the treated group (p = 0.01). The 12-month progression rate among untreated patients with ARS was 34% (95% CI 22.5-46.3) versus 13% (95% CI 1.1-24.7) in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.04). In univariate analysis, ARS, baseline LT-CD4 < 350 cells/mm3, and baseline and six-month viral load (VL) > 100,000 copies/mL were associated with progression. In multivariate analysis, only ARS and baseline VL > 100,000 copies/mL remained independently associated; HR: 8.44 (95% CI 0.97-73.42) and 9.44 (95% CI 1.38-64.68), respectively. Conclusions In Argentina, PHI is associated with significant morbidity. HAART should be considered in PHI patients with ARS and high baseline VL to prevent disease progression. PMID:21831310

  19. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SELF‐MASSAGE VOLUMES ON THE FMS™ OVERHEAD DEEP SQUAT PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Škarabot, Jakob; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Brown, Amanda Fernandes; Gomes, Thiago Matassoli; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Background The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) is a battery of tests designed to assess movement competency; the overhead deep squat test, specifically, has been shown to be an accurate predictor of overall FMS™ scores. Self‐massage (SM) is a ubiquitous warm‐up utilized to increase joint range of motion and, therefore, may be effective for improving performance of the overhead deep squat test. Purpose To examine how different doses (30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds) of SM of different areas of the body (plantar fascia, latissimus dorsi, and lateral thigh) affects the score obtained on an overhead deep squat test. Methods Twenty recreationally active females were recruited to be tested on four occasions: sessions one and two consisted of baseline testing, session three consisted of SM applied to the lateral thigh, and session four consisted of SM applied to the lateral torso and plantar fascia. Results In all SM conditions, at least 90 seconds was required for a change in deep squat score from baseline; therefore, it is concluded that SM the lateral torso, plantar fascia, and lateral thigh for 90 seconds or more are effective interventions for acutely improving overhead deep squat scores. Conclusion Self‐massage appears to be an effective modality for inducing acute improvements in the performance of the FMS™ overhead deep squat in all conditions tested. Level of evidence 2b PMID:28217420

  20. Involvement of catecholaminergic medullary pathways in cardiovascular responses to acute changes in circulating volume.

    PubMed

    Cravo, S L; Lopes, O U; Pedrino, G R

    2011-09-01

    Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic responses to circulating volume changes, and some of the findings obtained in the last 12 years by our laboratory. We review data on neural pathways that start with afferents in the carotid body that project to medullary relays in the nucleus tractus solitarii and caudal ventrolateral medulla, which in turn project to the median preoptic nucleus in the forebrain. We also review data suggesting that noradrenergic A1 cells in the caudal ventrolateral medulla represent an essential link in neural pathways controlling extracellular fluid volume and renal sodium excretion. Finally, recent data from our laboratory suggest that these structures may also be involved in the beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline on recovery from hemorrhagic shock.

  1. USE OF FRACTIONAL DOSE-VOLUME HISTOGRAMS TO MODEL RISK OF ACUTE RECTAL TOXICITY AMONG PATIENTS TREATED ON RTOG 94-06

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Susan L.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei; Winter, Kathryn; Purdy, James A.; Cox, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose For toxicities occurring during the course of radiotherapy, it is conceptually inaccurate to perform normal-tissue complication probability analyses using the complete dose-volume histogram. The goal of this study was to analyze acute rectal toxicity using a novel approach in which the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model is based on the fractional rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH). Materials and Methods Grade ≥2 acute rectal toxicity was analyzed in 509 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06. These patients had no field reductions or treatment-plan revisions during therapy, allowing the fractional rectal DVH to be estimated from the complete rectal DVH based on the total number of dose fractions delivered. Results The majority of patients experiencing Grade ≥2 acute rectal toxicity did so before completion of radiotherapy (70/80=88%). Acute rectal toxicity depends on fractional mean rectal dose, with no significant improvement in the LKB model fit when the volume parameter differs from n=1. The incidence of toxicity was significantly lower for patients who received hormone therapy (P=0.024). Conclusions Variations in fractional mean dose explain the differences in incidence of acute rectal toxicity, with no detectable effect seen here for differences in numbers of dose fractions delivered. PMID:22673726

  2. Complete blood count using VCS (volume, conductivity, light scatter) technology is affected by hyperlipidemia in a child with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gokcebay, D G; Azik, F M; Isik, P; Bozkaya, I O; Kara, A; Tavil, E B; Yarali, N; Tunc, B

    2011-12-01

    Asparaginase, an effective drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has become an important component of most childhood ALL regimens during the remission induction or intensification phases of treatment. The incidence range of asparaginase-associated lipid abnormalities that are seen in children is 67-72%. Lipemia causes erroneous results, which uses photometric methods to analyze blood samples. We describe a case of l-asparaginase-associated severe hyperlipidemia with complete blood count abnormalities. Complete blood count analysis was performed with Beckman COULTER(®) GEN·S™ system, which uses the Coulter Volume, Conductivity, Scatter technology to probe hydrodynamically focused cells. Although an expected significant inaccuracy in hemoglobin determination occurred starting from a lipid value of 3450 mg/dl, we observed that triglyceride level was 1466 mg/dl. Complete blood count analysis revealed that exceptionally high hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels vs. discordant with red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, and hematocrit levels. Total leukocyte count altered spontaneously in a wide range, and was checked with blood smear. Platelet count was in expected range (Table 1). Thus, we thought it was a laboratory error, and the patient's follow-up especially for red cell parameters was made by red blood cell and hematocrit values.

  3. Effect of meal volume and calorie load on postprandial gastric function and emptying: studies under physiological conditions by combined fiber-optic pressure measurement and MRI.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Monika A; Menne, Dieter; Steingoetter, Andreas; Goetze, Oliver; Forras-Kaufman, Zsofia; Kaufman, Elad; Fruehauf, Heiko; Boesiger, Peter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark R

    2009-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of meal volume (MV) and calorie load (CL) on gastric function. MRI and a minimally invasive fiber-optic recording system (FORS) provided simultaneous measurement of gastric volume and pressure changes during gastric filling and emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in physiological conditions. The gastric response to 12 iso-osmolar MV-CL combinations of a multinutrient drink (MV: 200, 400, 600, 800 ml; CL: 200, 300, 400 kcal) was tested in 16 healthy subjects according to a factorial design. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV = MV + secretion) were measured by MRI during nasogastric meal infusion and gastric emptying over 60 min. Intragastric pressure was assessed at 1 Hz by FORS. The dynamic change in postprandial gastric volumes was described by a validated three-component linear exponential model. The stomach expanded with MV, but the ratio of GCV:MV at t(0) diminished with increasing MV (P < 0.01). Postprandial changes in TGV followed those of GCV. Intragastric pressure increased with MV, and this effect was augmented further by CL (P = 0.02); however, the absolute pressure rise was <4 mmHg. A further postprandial increase of gastric volumes was observed early on before any subsequent volume decrease. This "early" increase in GCV was greater for smaller than larger MV (P < 0.01), indicating faster initial gastric emptying of larger MV. In contrast, volume change during filling and in the early postprandial period were unaffected by CL. In the later postprandial period, gastric emptying rate continued to be more rapid with high MVs (P < 0.001); however, at any given volume, gastric emptying was slowed by higher CL (P < 0.001). GCV half-emptying time decreased with CL at 18 +/- 6 min for each additional 100-kcal load (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that gastric wall stress (passive strain and active tone) provides the driving force for gastric emptying, but distal resistance to gastric outflow regulates

  4. Lung recruitment maneuver during volume guarantee ventilation of preterm infants with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Francesca; Daniele, Irene; Fontana, Paola; Cavigioli, Francesco; Lupo, Enrica; Lista, Gianluca

    2011-08-01

    Preterm infants need the achievement of adequate lung volume. Lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) is applied during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. We investigated the effect of an LRM with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on oxygenation and outcomes in infants conventionally ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Preterm infants in assisted controlled ventilation+volume guarantee for RDS after surfactant randomly received an LRM (group A) or did not (group B). LRM entailed increments of 0.2 cm H (2)O PEEP every 5 minutes, until fraction of inspired oxygen (Fi O(2))=0.25. Then PEEP was reduced and the lung volume was set on the deflation limb of the pressure/volume curve. When saturation of peripheral oxygen fell and Fi O(2) rose, we reincremented PEEP until Sp O(2) became stable. Group A ( N=10) and group B ( N=10) infants were similar: gestational age 25 ± 2 versus 25 ± 2 weeks; body weight 747 ± 233 versus 737 ± 219 g; clinical risk index for babies 9.8 versus 8.1; initial Fi O(2) 56 ± 24 versus 52 ± 21, respectively. LRM began at 86 ± 69 minutes of age and lasted for 61 ± 18 minutes. Groups A and B showed different max PEEP during the first 12 hours of life (6.1 ± 0.3 versus 5.3 ± 0.3 cm H (2)O, P=0.00), time to lowest Fi O(2) (94 ± 24 versus 435 ± 221 minutes; P=0.000) and O(2) dependency (29 ± 12 versus 45 ± 17 days; P=0.04). No adverse events and no differences in the outcomes were observed. LRM led to the earlier lowest Fi O(2) of the first 12 hours of life and a shorter O (2) dependency.

  5. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  6. Alteration of LV end-diastolic volume by controlling the power of the continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with cardiac beat: development of a native heart load control system (NHLCS).

    PubMed

    Umeki, Akihide; Nishimura, Takashi; Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-06-01

    There are many reports comparing pulsatile and continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). But continuous-flow LVAD with the pulsatile driving technique had not been tried or discussed before our group's report. We have previously developed and introduced a power-control unit for a centrifugal LVAD (EVAHEART®; Sun Medical), which can change the speed of rotation so it is synchronized with the heart beat. By use of this unit we analyzed the end-diastolic volume (EDV) to determine whether it is possible to change the native heart load. We studied 5 goats with normal hearts and 5 goats with acute LV dysfunction because of micro-embolization of the coronary artery. We used 4 modes, "circuit-clamp", "continuous", "counter-pulse", and "co-pulse", with the bypass rate (BR) 100%. We raised the speed of rotation of the LVAD in the diastolic phase with the counter-pulse mode, and raised it in the systolic phase with the co-pulse mode. As a result, the EDV decreased in the counter-pulse mode and increased in the co-pulse mode, compared with the continuous mode (p < 0.05), in both the normal and acute-heart-failure models. This result means it may be possible to achieve favorable EDV and native heart load by controlling the rotation of continuous-flow LVAD, so it is synchronized with the cardiac beat. This novel driving system may be of great benefit to patients with end-stage heart failure, especially those with ischemic etiology.

  7. A multi-scale cardiovascular system model can account for the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship is often considered as a load-independent property of the heart and, for this reason, is widely used as an index of ventricular contractility. However, many criticisms have been expressed against this index and the underlying time-varying elastance theory: first, it does not consider the phenomena underlying contraction and second, the end-systolic pressure volume relationship has been experimentally shown to be load-dependent. Methods In place of the time-varying elastance theory, a microscopic model of sarcomere contraction is used to infer the pressure generated by the contraction of the left ventricle, considered as a spherical assembling of sarcomere units. The left ventricle model is inserted into a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Finally, parameters of the modified cardiovascular system model are identified to reproduce the hemodynamics of a normal dog. Results Experiments that have proven the limitations of the time-varying elastance theory are reproduced with our model: (1) preload reductions, (2) afterload increases, (3) the same experiments with increased ventricular contractility, (4) isovolumic contractions and (5) flow-clamps. All experiments simulated with the model generate different end-systolic pressure-volume relationships, showing that this relationship is actually load-dependent. Furthermore, we show that the results of our simulations are in good agreement with experiments. Conclusions We implemented a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system, in which ventricular contraction is described by a detailed sarcomere model. Using this model, we successfully reproduced a number of experiments that have shown the failing points of the time-varying elastance theory. In particular, the developed multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system can capture the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. PMID:23363818

  8. Blood volume of nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats before and after acute hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Breznock, E.M.; Strack, D.

    1982-10-01

    Blood volume (BV) was determined in awake, nonsplenectomized (NSPX) and splenectomized (SPX) cats before and after hemorrhage (6 ml/kg). Each NSPX cat had a determined BV at least 10 ml/kg greater than the same cat after splenectomy. The mean BV of SPX cats was 43.4 +/- 8.94. ml kg (4.3% of body weight). The calculated RBC masses of NSPX and SPX cats were 17.0 +/- 4.07 and 12.2 +/- 1.12 ml/kg, respectively. Each NSPX cat had apparent RBC masses of 5 ml/kg greater than that of the same cat after splenectomy was done. At 1 hour after a hemorrhage, the BV and RBC masses determined in SPX cats were 46.7 +/- 12.1 and 9.7 +/- 1.90 ml/kg, respectively. Extravascular-to-intravascular fluid flux (calculated from RBC masses and plasma protein dilution) was approximately 0.80% of body weight. The indirect method with /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC for BV determination was accurate and precise in awake, SPX cats; in awake, NSPX cats, the /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC dilution method was precise, but not accurate. The spleen in the cat resulted in marked overestimations of BV and RBC masses.

  9. Does targeted pre-load optimisation by stroke volume variation attenuate a reduction in cardiac output in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Lee, T-S; Chan, K-C; Jeng, C-S; Cheng, Y-J

    2012-07-01

    The prone position can reduce cardiac output by up to 25% due to reduced preload. We hypothesised that preload optimisation targeted to stroke volume variation before turning prone might alleviate this. A supine threshold stroke volume variation of 14% in a preliminary study identified patients whose cardiac outputs would decline when turned prone. In 45 patients, cardiac output declined only in the group whose supine stroke volume variation was high (mean (SD) 5.1 (2.0) to 3.9 (1.9) l.min(-1) ; p < 0.001), but not in patients in whom it was low, or in those in whom stroke volume variation was high, but who received volume preload (p = 0.525 and 0.941, respectively). We conclude that targeted preload optimisation using a supine stroke volume variation value < 14% is effective in preventing falls in cardiac output induced by the prone position.

  10. Comparison of acute and chronic traumatic brain injury using semi-automatic multimodal segmentation of MR volumes.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C; Alger, Jeffry R; Filippou, Maria; Prastawa, Marcel W; Wang, Bo; Hovda, David A; Gerig, Guido; Toga, Arthur W; Kikinis, Ron; Vespa, Paul M; Van Horn, John D

    2011-11-01

    Although neuroimaging is essential for prompt and proper management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is a regrettable and acute lack of robust methods for the visualization and assessment of TBI pathophysiology, especially for of the purpose of improving clinical outcome metrics. Until now, the application of automatic segmentation algorithms to TBI in a clinical setting has remained an elusive goal because existing methods have, for the most part, been insufficiently robust to faithfully capture TBI-related changes in brain anatomy. This article introduces and illustrates the combined use of multimodal TBI segmentation and time point comparison using 3D Slicer, a widely-used software environment whose TBI data processing solutions are openly available. For three representative TBI cases, semi-automatic tissue classification and 3D model generation are performed to perform intra-patient time point comparison of TBI using multimodal volumetrics and clinical atrophy measures. Identification and quantitative assessment of extra- and intra-cortical bleeding, lesions, edema, and diffuse axonal injury are demonstrated. The proposed tools allow cross-correlation of multimodal metrics from structural imaging (e.g., structural volume, atrophy measurements) with clinical outcome variables and other potential factors predictive of recovery. In addition, the workflows described are suitable for TBI clinical practice and patient monitoring, particularly for assessing damage extent and for the measurement of neuroanatomical change over time. With knowledge of general location, extent, and degree of change, such metrics can be associated with clinical measures and subsequently used to suggest viable treatment options.

  11. Increase in volume of dental local anaesthetic solution while maintaining the tissue lidocaine and adrenaline concentration does not increase acute postoperative pain after gingivectomy.

    PubMed

    Hanvold, K I; Vigen, E C; Jorkjend, L; Aass, A M; Skoglund, L A

    2008-04-01

    A randomised, single-blind, within-patient, crossover study was done in 45 patients (29 women and 16 men, mean age 49 years, range 37-71) who had bilateral "identical" gingivectomies. On one occasion a standard volume of local anaesthetic containing 2% lidocaine and 1/80,000 adrenaline was infiltrated into the mucosal tissue before operation. On the other, double the standard volume with 1% lidocaine and 1/160,000 adrenaline was infiltrated. The intensity of postoperative pain was recorded by the patients on a 100 mm visual analogue scale every hour for an 11-hour observation period. The time courses and the sum of pain intensity after injection of the double and standard volumes did not differ significantly. Doubling the volume of local anaesthetic while maintaining the total lidocaine and adrenaline concentration that was infiltrated does not influence the intensity of acute pain after gingivectomy.

  12. Acute responses of circulating microRNAs to low-volume sprint interval cycling

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shu Fang; Li, Wei; Niu, Jie; Zhang, Chen Yu; Chen, Xi; Ma, Ji Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training is an efficient and practical method of inducing physiological responses in various tissues to develop physical fitness and may also change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether miRNAs for muscle, heart, somatic tissue and metabolism were affected by 30-s intervals of intensive sprint cycling. We also examined the relationship of these miRNAs to conventional biochemical and performance indices. Eighteen healthy young males performed sprint interval cycling. Circulating miRNAs in plasma were detected using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR and normalized to Let-7d/g/i. In addition, we determined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone and cortisol, and anaerobic capacity. Compared to plasma levels before exercise muscle-specific miR-1 (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.02), miR-133a (0.46 ± 0.10 vs. 0.31 ± 0.06), and miR-133b (0.19 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01) decreased (all P < 0.05), while miR-206 and miR-499 remained unchanged. The levels of metabolism related miR-122 (0.62 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.03) and somatic tissues related miR-16 (1.74 ± 0.27 vs. 0.94 ± 0.12) also decreased (both P < 0.05). The post-exercise IGF-1 and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased, while testosterone concentrations did not. Plasma levels of miR-133b correlated to peak power (r = 0.712, P = 0.001) and miR-122 correlated to peak power ratio (r = 0.665, P = 0.003). In conclusion sprint exercise provokes genetic changes for RNA related to specific muscle or metabolism related miRNAs suggesting that miR-133b and miR-122 may be potential useful biomarkers for actual physiological strain or anaerobic capacity. Together, our findings on the circulating miRNAs may provide new insight into the physiological responses that are being performed during exercise and delineate mechanisms by which exercise confers distinct phenotypes and improves performance. PMID

  13. In vivo and in vitro 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of the hepatic response of healthy rats and rats with acute hepatic damage to fructose loading.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Locke, S J; Brauer, M

    1994-05-01

    The hepatic response to a fructose challenge for control rats, and rats subjected to an acute sublethal dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or bromobenzene (BB), was compared using dynamic in vivo 31P MRS. Fructose loading conditions were used in which control rats showed only a modest increase in hepatic phosphomonoester (PME), and a small decrease in ATP, Pi, and intracellular pH after fructose administration. Both CCl4 and BB-treated rats showed a much greater fructose-induced accumulation of PME than did controls. Trolox C, a free radical scavenger, prevented most of this PME increase. BB-treated rats, given sufficient time to recover from the hepatotoxic insult, responded to the fructose load similarly to controls. Liver aldolase activities of control, toxicant-treated rats, and toxicant plus Trolox C-treated rats correlated inversely with PME accumulation after fructose loading (correlation coefficient: -0.834, P < 0.05). Perchloric acid extracts of rat livers studied by in vitro 31P MRS confirmed that the PME accumulation after fructose loading is mainly due to an increase in fructose 1-phosphate. These studies are consistent with the aldolase-catalyzed cleavage of fructose 1-phosphate being rate-limiting in hepatic fructose metabolism, and that the CCl4 and BB treatment modify and inactivate the aldolase enzyme.

  14. [Effect of intracoronary and intravenous administration of tirofiban loading dose in patients underwent percutaneous coronary interventions because of acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Turkmen, S; Fettser, D V; Kagliian, K É; Serchelik, A; Arystanova, A Zh; Tekin, K; Balli, M; Batyraliev, T A; Samko, A N; Sidorenko, B A

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this multicenter retrospective study was assessment of effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose in troponin positive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We analyzed multicenter data base of patients subjected to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) because of ST-elevation or non-ST elevation ACS from October 2010 to October 2011. Patients who received loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) before PCI and tirofiban (10 mg/kg bolus with subsequent infusion 0.15 mg/kg/min for 24 h) were selected for the study (n=133, 89 with intravenous and 44 - intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose). We assessed hospital mortality, myocardial reinfarctions (reMI), necessity of target vessel revascularization (TVR) and pronounced bleedings. There were no significant differences in mortality, reMI, and TVR between two groups. However major adverse cardiac events was significantly less in patients who received intracoronary tirofiban (6.8 vs. 21.3% in i.v. group; p=0.046). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in intracoronary compared with i.v. group (3.84+/-0.96 vs. 4.55+/-1.11 days; p=0.001). Rates of bleedings did not differ significantly between groups. Thus compared with i.v. intracoronary administration of tirofiban loading dose allows lower rate of major adverse cardiac events as well as to shorten length of hospital stay of patients with ACS.

  15. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Pacific Northwest Economic and Electricity Use Forecast. Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    This publication documents the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used to prepare BPA's Whitebook. It is divided into: intoduction, summary of 1993 Whitebook electricity demand forecast, conservation in the load forecast, projection of medium case electricity sales and underlying drivers, residential sector forecast, commercial sector forecast, industrial sector forecast, non-DSI industrial forecast, direct service industry forecast, and irrigation forecast. Four appendices are included: long-term forecasts, LTOUT forecast, rates and fuel price forecasts, and forecast ranges-calculations.

  16. Effects of acute heat exposure on prosencephalic c-Fos expression in normohydrated, water-deprived and salt-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Santana, Rejane; de De Castro E Silva, Emilio; Reis de Oliveira, Irismar; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2007-04-13

    In the present study, the distribution pattern of c-Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in prosencephalic areas of the brain involved in thermoregulatory and osmoregulatory responses was investigated, in rats exposed or not exposed to a hyperthermic environment, under three different conditions: normohydration, dehydration induced by water deprivation and hyperosmolarity induced by an acute intragastric salt load. Normohydrated, water-deprived or salt-loaded male Wistar rats (270+/-30 g) were submitted or not to acute heat exposure (33 degrees C for 45 min). A separate group of animals was submitted to the same experimental protocol and had blood samples collected before and after the heating period to measure serum osmolarity and sodium. The brains were processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry using the avidin-biotin peroxidase method. After analyzing Fos-IR in the brains of animals in the present study, three different types of prosencephalic areas were identified: (1) those that respond to hydrational and to heat conditions, with an interaction between these two factors (PaMP and SON); (2) those that respond to hydrational and to heat conditions, but with no interaction between these factors (MnPO, LSV and OVLT); and (3) those that respond only to hydrational status (SFO and PaLM).

  17. PACER -- A fast running computer code for the calculation of short-term containment/confinement loads following coolant boundary failure. Volume 1: Code models and correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. Flashing from coolant release, condensation heat transfer, intercompartment transport, and engineered safety features are described using best estimate models and correlations often based upon experiment analyses. Two notable capabilities of PACER that differ from most other containment loads codes are the modeling of the rates of steam and water formation accompanying coolant release as well as the correlations for steam condensation upon structure.

  18. Global and regional assessment of sustained inflation pressure-volume curves in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Becher, Tobias; Rostalski, Philipp; Kott, Matthias; Adler, Andy; Schadler, Dirk; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inez

    2017-03-24

    Static or quasi-static pressure-volume (P-V) curves can be used to determine the lung mechanical properties of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). According to the traditional interpretation, lung recruitment occurs mainly below the lower point of maximum curvature (LPMC) of the inflation P-V curve. Although some studies have questioned this assumption, setting of positive end-expiratory pressure 2 cmH2O above the LPMC was part of a "lung-protective" ventilation strategy successfully applied in several clinical trials. The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of unrecruited lung at different clinically relevant points of the P-V curve. P-V curves and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data from 30 ARDS patients were analysed. We determined the regional opening pressures for every EIT image pixel and fitted the global P-V curves to five sigmoid model equations to determine the LPMC, inflection point (IP) and upper point of maximal curvature (UPMC). Points of maximal curvature and IP were compared between the models by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The percentages of lung pixels remaining closed ("unrecruited lung") at LPMC, IP and UPMC were calculated from the number of lung pixels exhibiting regional opening pressures higher than LPMC, IP and UPMC and were also compared by one-way ANOVA. As results, we found a high variability of LPMC values among the models, a smaller variability of IP and UPMC values. We found a high percentage of unrecruited lung at LPMC, a small percentage of unrecruited lung at IP and no unrecruited lung at UPMC. Our results confirm the notion of ongoing lung recruitment at pressure levels above LPMC for all investigated model equations and highlight the importance of a regional assessment of lung recruitment in patients with ARDS.

  19. Challenges of Designing a 13-Hz High-Load Vibration Isolation System with Tight Volume Constraints: Lessons Learned and Path Forward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearing, Stella; Ruebsamen, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a passive isolation system using D-struts (Registered TradeMark) to isolate an optical payload from aircraft-borne jitter with challenging stroke per volume requirements. It discusses the use of viscoelastic-coated D-struts® that meet the customer performance and outgassing specification, NASA-1124. The result was a relatively soft isolation system, (where the first mode was 13 Hz), with each individual strut capable of withstanding loads on the order of magnitude of 623 N (140 lbf), weighing less than 910 g (2 lbm), fitting in a volume 5.1 cm (2 inches) in diameter and 12-cm (4.7-inches) long and capable of performing up to 1000 Hz without nonlinearities.

  20. Estimating Summer Nutrient Concentrations in Northeastern Lakes from SPARROW Load Predictions and Modeled Lake Depth and Volume

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global nutrient cycles have been altered by use of fossil fuels and fertilizers resulting in increases in nutrient loads to aquatic systems. In the United States, excess nutrients have been repeatedly reported as the primary cause of lake water quality impairments. Setting nutr...

  1. The influence of sweep on the aerodynamic loading of an oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.hilaire, A. O.; Carta, F. O.; Fink, M. R.; Jepson, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic experiments were performed on an oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil utilizing a tunnel-spanning wing in both unswept and 30 degree swept configurations. The airfoil was tested in steady state and in oscillatory pitch about the quarter chord. The unsteady aerodynamic loading was measured using pressure transducers along the chord. Numerical integrations of the unsteady pressure transducer responses were used to compute the normal force, chord force, and moment components of the induced loading. The effects of sweep on the induced aerodynamic load response was examined. For the range of parameters tested, it was found that sweeping the airfoil tends to delay the onset of dynamic stall. Sweeping was also found to reduce the magnitude of the unsteady load variation about the mean response. It was determined that at mean incidence angles greater than 9 degrees, sweep tends to reduce the stability margin of the NACA 0012 airfoil; however, for all cases tested, the airfoil was found to be stable in pure pitch. Turbulent eddies were found to convect downstream above the upper surface and generate forward-moving acoustic waves at the trailing edge which move upstream along the lower surface.

  2. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Load and Demand-Side Management submodule. Volume 2, Model code listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    Volume II of the documentation contains the actual source code of the LDSM submodule, and the cross reference table of its variables. The code is divided into two parts. The first part contains the main part of the source code. The second part lists the INCLUDE files referenced inside the main part of the code.

  3. Accuracy of the new radiographic sign of fecal loading in the cecum for differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in comparison with other inflammatory diseases of right abdomen: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Petroianu, A; Alberti, LR

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: To assess the importance of the new radiographic sign of faecal loading in the cecum for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in comparison with other inflammatory diseases, and to verify the maintenance of this radiographic sign after surgical treatment of appendicitis. Methods: 470 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital due to acute abdomen were prospectively studied: Group 1 [n=170] – diagnosed with acute appendicitis, subdivided into: Subgroup 1A – [n=100] – submitted to an abdominal radiographic study before surgical treatment, Subgroup 1B – [n=70] – patients who had plain abdominal X-rays done before the surgical procedure and also the following day; Group 2 [n=100] – right nephrolithiasis; Group 3 [n=100] – right acute inflammatory pelvic disease; Group 4 [n=100] – acute cholecystitis. The patients of Groups 2,3 and 4 were submitted to abdominal radiography during the pain episode. Results: The sign of faecal loading in the cecum, characterized by hypo transparency interspersed with multiple small foci of hyper transparent images, was present in 97 patients of Subgroup 1A, in 68 patients of Subgroup 1B, in 19 patients of Group 2, in 12 patients of Group 3 and in 13 patients of Group 4. During the postoperative period the radiographic sign disappeared in 66 of the 68 cases that had presented with the sign. The sensitivity of the radiographic sign for acute appendicitis was 97.05% and its specificity was 85.33%. The positive predictive value for acute appendicitis was 78.94% and its negative predictive value was 98. 08%. Discussion: The radiographic image of faecal loading in the cecum is associated with acute appendicitis and disappears after appendectomy. This sign is uncommon in other acute inflammatory diseases of the right side of the abdomen. PMID:22574093

  4. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0: Data loading manual. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    VanHorn, R.L.; Wolfram, L.M.; Fowler, R.D.; Beck, S.T.; Smith, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) suite of programs can be used to organize and standardize in an electronic format information from probabilistic risk assessments or individual plant examinations. The Models and Results Database (MAR-D) program of the SAPHIRE suite serves as the repository for probabilistic risk assessment and individual plant examination data and information. This report demonstrates by examples the common electronic and manual methods used to load these types of data. It is not a stand alone document but references documents that contribute information relative to the data loading process. This document provides a more detailed discussion and instructions for using SAPHIRE 5.0 only when enough information on a specific topic is not provided by another available source.

  5. Pressure loads and aerodynamic force information for the -89A space shuttle orbiter configuration, volume 2. [for structural strength analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.0405 scale representation of the Rockwell -89A Light Weight Space Shuttle Orbiter. The test purpose was to obtain pressure loads data in the presence of the ground for orbiter structural strength analysis. Aerodynamic force data was also recorded to allow correlation with all pressure loads information. Angles of attack from minus 3 deg to 18 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg, plus or minus 50 deg, and plus or minus 10 deg were tested in the presence of the NAAL ground plane. Static pressure bugs were used to obtain a pressure loads survey of the basic configuration, elevon deflections of 5 deg, 10 deg, 15 deg, and minus 20 deg and a rudder deflection of minus 15 deg, at a tunnel dynamic pressure of 40 psi. The test procedure was to locate a maximum of 30 static pressure bugs on the model surface at various locations calculated to prevent aerodynamic and physical interference. Then by various combinations of location the pressure bugs output was to define a complete pressure survey for the fuselages, wing, vertical tail, and main landing gear door.

  6. Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with mesopore size and pore volume influence hMSC behaviors by load and sustained release of rhBMP-2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenhua; Li, Xiangde; Qian, Jun; Lv, Guoyu; Yan, Yonggang; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm3/g were synthesized by using 1,3,5-mesitylene (TMB) as the pore-expanding agent. The MCS-15 exhibited good degradability with the weight loss of 50 wt% after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for 56 days, which was higher than the 30 wt% loss shown by mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 4 nm (MCS-4). The pore size and pore volume of MCS-15 had significant influences on load and release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The MCS-15 had a higher capacity to encapsulate a large amount of rhBMP-2; it could adsorb 45 mg/g of rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered saline after 24 hours, which was more than twice that with MCS-4 (20 mg/g). Moreover, the MCS-15 system exhibited sustained release of rhBMP-2 as compared with MCS-4 system (showing a burst release). The MCS-15/rhBMP-2 system could promote the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, showing good cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The results indicated that MCS-15, with larger mesopore size and higher pore volume, might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which could be used as bone repair material with built-in osteoinduction function in bone reconstruction. PMID:25784801

  7. AnSBBR applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment: effects of fill time, volume treated per cycle, and organic load.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 °C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system, as it resulted in indirect control over the conversion of substrate into intermediates that would negatively interfere with the biochemical reactions regarding the degradation of organic matter. As a result, the average substrate consumption increased, leading to higher organic removal efficiencies in the fed-batch operations.

  8. Acute Delayed or Late Infection of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Treated with Debridement/Antibiotic-loaded Cement Beads and Retention of the Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jun-Dong; Kim, In-Sung; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The treatment of infected revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is very challenging due to retained revision prosthesis, poor bone stock and soft tissue condition derived from previous revision surgeries, and comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and short-term outcomes of aggressive debridement and use of antibiotic-loaded cement beads with retention of the prosthesis for acute delayed or late infection of revision THAs. Materials and Methods Ten consecutive patients with symptoms or signs of less than one-week evolution and well-fixed prostheses, were treated with this procedure and a postoperative course of organism-specific antibiotics for a minimum of 6 weeks. All hips presented with acute delayed or late infection of revision THAs. Patients with a mean age of 68.1 years (range, 59-78 years) underwent an average of 1.9 previous revision THAs (1-4) before the index surgery. The minimal follow-up was 2 years with a mean of 46.2 months (range, 24-64 months). Results There were 8 cures (80.0%) and 2 failures with no mortality during the study period. The 2 failures involved the same and resistant bacteria implicated in the primary infection (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Prevotella oralis, respectively). The mean Harris hip score was 65.2 (range, 26-83) and the mean visual analogue scale was 2.6 (range, 1-4) at final follow-up. Conclusion With a favorable success rate and no mortality, our procedure may be considered a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of acute delayed or late infection of revision THAs with well-fixed prostheses. PMID:28316961

  9. Estimating Summer Nutrient Concentrations in Northeastern Lakes from SPARROW Load Predictions and Modeled Lake Depth and Volume

    PubMed Central

    Milstead, W. Bryan; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Moore, Richard B.; Walker, Henry A.

    2013-01-01

    Global nutrient cycles have been altered by the use of fossil fuels and fertilizers resulting in increases in nutrient loads to aquatic systems. In the United States, excess nutrients have been repeatedly reported as the primary cause of lake water quality impairments. Setting nutrient criteria that are protective of a lakes ecological condition is one common solution; however, the data required to do this are not always easily available. A useful solution for this is to combine available field data (i.e., The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Lake Assessment (NLA)) with average annual nutrient load models (i.e., USGS SPARROW model) to estimate summer concentrations across a large number of lakes. In this paper we use this combined approach and compare the observed total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TN) concentrations in Northeastern lakes from the 2007 National Lake Assessment to those predicted by the Northeast SPARROW model. We successfully adjusted the SPARROW predictions to the NLA observations with the use of Vollenweider equations, simple input-output models that predict nutrient concentrations in lakes based on nutrient loads and hydraulic residence time. This allows us to better predict summer concentrations of TN and TP in Northeastern lakes and ponds. On average we improved our predicted concentrations of TN and TP with Vollenweider models by 18.7% for nitrogen and 19.0% for phosphorus. These improved predictions are being used in other studies to model ecosystem services (e.g., aesthetics) and dis-services (e.g. cyanobacterial blooms) for ~18,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States. PMID:24260579

  10. Estimating summer nutrient concentrations in Northeastern lakes from SPARROW load predictions and modeled lake depth and volume.

    PubMed

    Milstead, W Bryan; Hollister, Jeffrey W; Moore, Richard B; Walker, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Global nutrient cycles have been altered by the use of fossil fuels and fertilizers resulting in increases in nutrient loads to aquatic systems. In the United States, excess nutrients have been repeatedly reported as the primary cause of lake water quality impairments. Setting nutrient criteria that are protective of a lakes ecological condition is one common solution; however, the data required to do this are not always easily available. A useful solution for this is to combine available field data (i.e., The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Lake Assessment (NLA)) with average annual nutrient load models (i.e., USGS SPARROW model) to estimate summer concentrations across a large number of lakes. In this paper we use this combined approach and compare the observed total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TN) concentrations in Northeastern lakes from the 2007 National Lake Assessment to those predicted by the Northeast SPARROW model. We successfully adjusted the SPARROW predictions to the NLA observations with the use of Vollenweider equations, simple input-output models that predict nutrient concentrations in lakes based on nutrient loads and hydraulic residence time. This allows us to better predict summer concentrations of TN and TP in Northeastern lakes and ponds. On average we improved our predicted concentrations of TN and TP with Vollenweider models by 18.7% for nitrogen and 19.0% for phosphorus. These improved predictions are being used in other studies to model ecosystem services (e.g., aesthetics) and dis-services (e.g. cyanobacterial blooms) for ~18,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States.

  11. Renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, ( 51 Cr)EDTA, and 24 Na in man during acute renal failure after shock. Implications for the pathogenesis of anuria.

    PubMed

    Reubi, F C; Vorburger, C; Tuckman, J

    1973-02-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [(51)Cr]EDTA, and (24)Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of (24)Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase.

  12. Renal Distribution Volumes of Indocyanine Green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na in Man during Acute Renal Failure after Shock. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANURIA

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, F. C.; Vorburger, C.; Tuckman, J.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of 24Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase. PMID:4630601

  13. Zonisamide-loaded triblock copolymer nanomicelles as a novel drug delivery system for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, JingLun; Deng, JiaoJiao; Yuan, JinXian; Fu, Jie; Li, XiaoLing; Tong, AiPing; Wang, YueLong; Chen, YangMei; Guo, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly leads to lifelong disability due to the limited regenerative capacity of the adult central nervous system. Nanomicelles can be used as therapeutic systems to provide effective treatments for SCI. In this study, a novel triblock monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactide)-poly(trimethylene carbonate) copolymer was successfully synthesized. Next, polymeric nanomicelles loaded with zonisamide (ZNS), a Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drug, were prepared and characterized. The ZNS-loaded micelles (ZNS-M) were further utilized for the treatment of SCI in vitro and in vivo. The obtained ZNS-M were ~50 nm in diameter with good solubility and dispersibility. Additionally, these controlled-release micelles showed significant antioxidative and neuron-protective effects in vitro. Finally, our results indicated that ZNS-M treatment could promote motor function recovery and could increase neuron and axon density in a hemisection SCI model. In summary, these results may provide an experimental basis for the use of ZNS-M as a clinically applicable therapeutic drug for the treatment of SCI in the future.

  14. High-volume hemofiltration and prone ventilation in subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Rodrigo; Romero, Carlos; Ugalde, Diego; Bustos, Patricio; Diaz, Gonzalo; Galvez, Ricardo; Llanos, Osvaldo; Tobar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of two patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe respiratory failure and refractory septic shock using simultaneous prone position ventilation and high-volume hemofiltration. These rescue therapies allowed the patients to overcome the critical situation without associated complications and with no detrimental effects on the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Prone position ventilation is now an accepted therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and high-volume hemofiltration is a non-conventional hemodynamic support that has several potential mechanisms for improving septic shock. In this manuscript, we briefly review these therapies and the related evidence. When other conventional treatments are insufficient for providing safe limits of oxygenation and perfusion as part of basic neuroprotective care in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, these rescue therapies should be considered on a case-by-case basis by an experienced critical care team. PMID:25028955

  15. The Sensitivity of Arctic Ozone Loss to Polar Stratospheric Cloud Volume and Chlorine and Bromine Loading in a Chemistry and Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Polansky, B. C.

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of Arctic ozone loss to polar stratospheric cloud volume (V(sub PSC)) and chlorine and bromine loading is explored using chemistry and transport models (CTMs). A simulation using multi-decadal output from a general circulation model (GCM) in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) CTM complements one recycling a single year s GCM output in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM. Winter polar ozone loss in the GSFC CTM depends on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) and polar vortex characteristics (temperatures, descent, isolation, polar stratospheric cloud amount). Polar ozone loss in the GMI CTM depends only on changes in EESC as the dynamics repeat annually. The GSFC CTM simulation reproduces a linear relationship between ozone loss and Vpsc derived from observations for 1992 - 2003 which holds for EESC within approx.85% of its maximum (approx.1990 - 2020). The GMI simulation shows that ozone loss varies linearly with EESC for constant, high V(sub PSC).

  16. Determination of selected polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter: a validation study of an agitation extraction method for samples with low mass loadings using reduced volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alonso, S.; Pérez-Pastor, R. M.; Archilla-Prat, V.; Rodríguez-Maroto, J.; Izquierdo-Díaz, M.; Rojas, E.; Sanz, D.

    2015-12-01

    A simple analytical method using low volumes of solvent for determining selected PAHs and NPAHs in PM samples is presented. The proposed extraction method was compared with pressurized fluid (PFE) and microwave (MC) extraction techniques and intermediate precision associated to analytical measurements were estimated. Extraction by agitation with 8 mL of dichloromethane yielded recoveries above 80% compared to those obtained from PFE extraction. Regarding intermediate precision results, values between 10-20% were reached showing increases of dispersion for compounds with high volatility and low levels of concentration. Within the framework of the INTA/CIEMAT research agreement for the PM characterization in gas turbine exhaust, the method was applied for analysis of aluminum foil substrates and quartz filters with mass loading ranged from 0.02 to 2 mg per sample.

  17. [Influence of breathing at negative pressure on redistribution of local blood volumes in anti-orthostatic load in cats].

    PubMed

    Baranov, V M; Tikhonov, M A; Kotov, A N; Donina, Zh A; Pogodin, M A; Lavrova, I N

    2000-01-01

    To improve methods of offsetting the hemodynamic shifts in microgravity, applicability of breathing at negative pressure (BNP, pressure relief by -5.0 cm of water column) during inspiration and expiration was assessed in acute experiments with unconscious cats tilted head-down (-30 degrees). Direct measurement of pressure in v. cava superior and v. jugularis externa using a catheter revealed a concurrent significant (p < 0.05) growth of the parameter which should be considered a sign of impeded venous outflow from the craniocervical vessels. BNP added to the sucking effect of the thoracic cavity (the siphoning effect) and led to more massive venous outflow from cephalic vessels as evidenced by pressure drop in the jugular vein and v. cava superior to the values determined in the basic horizontal position. However, BNP did not significantly alter arterial hemodynamics, respiration pattern or gas exchange. Data of the investigation attest effectiveness of this method of moderating blood flow to the cat's head during HDT and possibility to apply it in the zero-g environment.

  18. Effect of high-dose rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention in Chinese patients with acute coronary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiang; Guo, Wenqin; Dai, Weiran; Li, Hongqing; Yang, Huafeng; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an important disease threatening human life and health. Many studies have shown that the loading dose of atorvastatin can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with ACS, and reduce the mortality. However, this conclusion is not consistent. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of high-dose rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Chinese patients with ACS using a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of published articles. Methods We systematically reviewed published studies, evaluating the effect of high-dose rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention in Chinese patients with ACS. The retrieval time is limited from inception to 2 November 2016, and the retrieved databases included PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, the VIP database and the Wang Fang database. Two researchers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and then extracted the data. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Results In total, 11 articles, which included 802 patients, were included in our meta-analysis. Among these patients, 398 patients were in the high-dose group (20 mg/day) and 404 patients were in the conventional dose group (10 mg/day). Meta-analysis results showed that compared with the conventional dose group: 1) The loading dose of rosuvastatin can significantly reduce the hs-CRP level after PCI, including at 24 hours (SMD = -0.65, 95%CI -0.84 ~ -0.47, P = 0.000), 48 hours (SMD = -0.40, 95%CI -0.68 ~ -0.11, P = 0.006), and four weeks (SMD = -1.64, 95%CI -2.01 ~ -1.26, P = 0.000). 2) The loading dose of rosuvastatin can significantly reduce the levels of LDL-C and cTnT, including the level of LDL-C at 30 d after PCI (SMD = -0.89, 95%CI -1.10 ~ -0.69, P = 0.000), and the level of cTnT at 24 h after PCI (SMD = -1.93, 95%CI -2.28 ~ -1.59, P = 0.000), and increase the level of HDL-C at 48 h after PCI (SMD = 0.61, 95%CI 0.34 ~ 0.88, P

  19. Effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise on maximal voluntary strength, total volume of load lifted, and perceptual and metabolic responses

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, A; Cavalcanti, B; Krinski, K; Aoki, MS

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise (RE) on maximal voluntary strength, total volume of load lifted (TVLL), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration of resistance-trained males. Twelve healthy men were assessed for the leg extension one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength using bilateral and unilateral contractions. Following this assessment, an RE session (3 sets of repetitions to failure) was conducted with bilateral and unilateral (both limbs) contractions using a load of 50% 1RM. The TVLL was calculated by the product of the number of repetitions and the load lifted per repetition. RPE and blood lactate were measured before, during and after each set. Session RPE was measured 30 minutes after RE sessions. There was a significant difference in the bilateral (120.0±11.9) and unilateral (135.0±20.2 kg) 1RM strength (p < 0.05). The TVLL was similar between both RE sessions. Although the repetitions decreased with each successive set, the total number of repetitions completed in the bilateral protocol (48) was superior to the unilateral (40) protocol (p < 0.05). In both bouts, RPE increased with each subsequent set whilst blood lactate increased after set 1 and thereafter remained stable (p < 0.05). The RPE and lactate responses were not significantly different between both sessions. In conclusion, a bilateral deficit in leg extension strength was confirmed, but the TVLL was similar between both RE sessions when exercising to voluntary fatigue. This outcome could be attributed to the number of repetitions completed in the unilateral RE bout. The equal TVLL would also explain the similar perceptual and metabolic responses across each RE session. PMID:25729148

  20. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  1. Weaving hypothesis of cardiomyocyte sarcomeres: discovery of periodic broadening and narrowing of intercalated disk during volume-load change.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Makoto; Sho, Eiketsu; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masato; Kobayashi, Mikio; Kawamura, Kouiti; Honma, Makiko; Komatsu, Masayo; Sugita, Akihiro; Yamauchi, Misa; Hosoi, Takahiro; Ito, Yukinobu; Masuda, Hirotake

    2010-02-01

    To investigate how cardiomyocytes change their length, echocardiographic and morphological studies were performed on rabbit hearts that were subjected to volume overload, overload removal, and repeated cycles of overload and overload removal. These conditions were created by arterio-venous fistula between the carotid artery and jugular vein, closure of the fistula, and cycles of repeatedly forming and closing fistula, respectively. After overload, hearts dilated and myocytes elongated. Intercalated disks repeatedly broadened and narrowed with a 2-day cycle, which continued for 8 weeks in many animals. The cycle consisted of shifts between five modes characterized by two interdigitation elongation-and-shortenings as follows: (I) flat with short ( approximately 1/4 to approximately 1/3 sarcomere long) interdigitations; (II) flat with long (one sarcomere long) interdigitations; (III) grooved with short interdigitations; (IV) grooved with long interdigitations; (V) flat with short interdigitations intermingled by sporadic long interdigitations; and return to (I). After overload removal, hearts contracted and myocytes shortened with similar 2-day broadening and narrowing cycle of intercalated disks, in which the five modes were reversed. Repeated overload and overload removal resulted in the repetition of myocyte elongation and shortening. We hypothesize that a single elongation-and-shortening event creates or disposes one sarcomere layer, and the two consecutive elongation-and-shortenings occur complementarily to each other so that the disks return to their original state after each cycle. Our hypothesis predicts that intercalated disks weave and unravel one sarcomere per myocyte per day.

  2. Influence of training volume and acute physical exercise on the homocysteine levels in endurance-trained men: interactions with plasma folate and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    König, D; Bissé, E; Deibert, P; Müller, H-M; Wieland, H; Berg, A

    2003-01-01

    The interrelation between physical exercise and plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B(12), and folic acid has not been examined. Therefore, we investigated the influence of extensive endurance training and acute intense exercise on plasma concentrations of total Hcy, vitamin B(12), and folic acid in 42 well-trained male triathletes. Examinations and blood sampling took place before and after a 30-day endurance training period as well as before and 1 and 24 h after a competitive exercise (sprint triathlon). Following the training period, no significant change in Hcy levels could be detected for the whole group. Subgroup analysis in quartiles of training volume revealed that - as compared with the lowest quartile (low-training group: 9.1 h training/week) - athletes in the highest training quartile (high-training group: 14.9 h training/week) exhibited a significant decrease in Hcy levels (from 12.7 +/- 2.3 to 11.7 +/- 2.4 micromol/l as compared with levels of 12.5 +/- 1.5 and 12.86 +/- 1.5 micromol/l in the low-training group; p < 0.05). The plasma folate levels were significantly higher in the high-training group at all points of examination (p < 0.05). 1 h and 24 h after competition, the Hcy concentration increased in all athletes independent of the previous training volume (24 h: 12.3 +/- 1.8 vs. 13.5 +/- 2.6 micromol/l; p < 0.001), although the increase was decisively stronger in the low-training group. 1 h after competition, the plasma folate concentration increased (7.03 +/- 2.1 vs. 8.33 +/- 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.05) in all athletes. Multivariate analysis showed that the exercise-induced increase in the Hcy levels was dependent on baselines levels of folate and training volume, but not on the vitamin B(12) levels. In conclusion, although intense exercise acutely increased the Hcy levels, chronic endurance exercise was not associated with higher Hcy concentrations. Moreover, athletes with the highest training volume, exhibiting also the highest plasma folate

  3. In Acute Stroke, Can CT Perfusion-Derived Cerebral Blood Volume Maps Substitute for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Identifying the Ischemic Core?

    PubMed Central

    Copen, William A.; Morais, Livia T.; Wu, Ona; Schwamm, Lee H.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; González, R. Gilberto; Yoo, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In the treatment of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, increasing evidence suggests the importance of measuring the volume of the irreversibly injured “ischemic core.” The gold standard method for doing this in the clinical setting is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), but many authors suggest that maps of regional cerebral blood volume (CBV) derived from computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) can substitute for DWI. We sought to determine whether DWI and CTP-derived CBV maps are equivalent in measuring core volume. Methods 58 patients with suspected stroke underwent CTP and DWI within 6 hours of symptom onset. We measured low-CBV lesion volumes using three methods: “objective absolute,” i.e. the volume of tissue with CBV below each of six published absolute thresholds (0.9–2.5 mL/100 g), “objective relative,” whose six thresholds (51%-60%) were fractions of mean contralateral CBV, and “subjective,” in which two radiologists (R1, R2) outlined lesions subjectively. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each method, threshold, and radiologist in detecting infarction, and the degree to which each over- or underestimated the DWI core volume. Additionally, in the subset of 32 patients for whom follow-up CT or MRI was available, we measured the proportion of CBV- or DWI-defined core lesions that exceeded the follow-up infarct volume, and the maximum amount by which this occurred. Results DWI was positive in 72% (42/58) of patients. CBV maps’ sensitivity/specificity in identifying DWI-positive patients were 100%/0% for both objective methods with all thresholds, 43%/94% for R1, and 83%/44% for R2. Mean core overestimation was 156–699 mL for objective absolute thresholds, and 127–200 mL for objective relative thresholds. For R1 and R2, respectively, mean±SD subjective overestimation were -11±26 mL and -11±23 mL, but subjective volumes differed from DWI volumes by up to 117 and 124

  4. Interleukin-6 and associated cytokine responses to an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise: the effect of exercise intensity and volume.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Tom; Thomas, Andrew W; Webb, Richard; Hughes, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Acute increases in interleukin (IL)-6 following prolonged exercise are associated with the induction of a transient anti-inflammatory state (e.g., increases in IL-10) that is partly responsible for the health benefits of regular exercise. The purposes of this study were to investigate the IL-6-related inflammatory response to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and to determine the impact of exercise intensity and volume on this response. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed 3 exercise bouts of contrasting intensity and volume (LOW, MOD, and HIGH). The HIGH protocol was based upon standard HIIE protocols, while the MOD and LOW protocols were designed to enable a comparison of exercise intensity and volume with a fixed duration. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured in plasma (IL-6, IL-10) and also determined the level of gene expression (IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4R) in peripheral blood. The plasma IL-6 response to exercise (reported as fold changes) was significantly greater in HIGH (2.70 ± 1.51) than LOW (1.40 ± 0.32) (P = 0.04) and was also positively correlated to the mean exercise oxygen uptake (r = 0.54, P < 0.01). However, there was no change in anti-inflammatory IL-10 or IL-4R responses in plasma or at the level of gene expression. HIIE caused a significant increase in IL-6 and was greater than that seen in low-intensity exercise of the same duration. The increases in IL-6 were relatively small in magnitude, and appear to have been insufficient to induce the acute systemic anti-inflammatory effects, which are evident following longer duration exercise.

  5. Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Trunk and Neck Muscle Activity in Consideration of Different Vibration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Perchthaler, Dennis; Hauser, Simon; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian; Hein, Tobias; Grau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to systematically analyze the impact of biomechanical parameters in terms of different peak-to-peak displacements and knee angles on trunk and neck muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV). 28 healthy men and women (age 23 ± 3 years) performed four static squat positions (2 peak-to-peak displacements x 2 knee angles) on a side alternating vibration platform with and without vibration stimulus. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the neuromuscular activity of the erector spinae muscle, the rectus abdominis muscle, and of the splenius muscle. EMG levels normalized to maximal voluntary contractions ranged between 3.2 – 27.2 % MVC during WBV. The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significant, particularly for the back muscles, which was up to 19.0 % MVC. The impact of the factor ‘condition’ (F-values ranged from 13.4 to 132.0, p ≤ 0.001) and of the factor ‘peak-to-peak displacement’ (F-values ranged from 6.4 to 69.0 and p-values from < 0.001 to 0.01) were statistically significant for each muscle tested. However, the factor ‘knee angle’ only affected the back muscles (F-value 10.3 and 7.3, p ≤ 0.01). The results of this study should give more information for developing effective and safe training protocols for WBV treatment of the upper body. Key points The maximum levels of muscle activity were significantly reached at high amplitudes at a vibration frequency of 30 Hz. WBV leads to a higher muscle activation of the lower back muscles than of the abdominal muscles. Both knee angles of 30° and 45° have similar effects on the vibration load and represent safe positions to prevent any actual harm. Certain combinations of the biomechanical variables have similar effects on the level of muscle activity. PMID:25729303

  6. PLGA‐PNIPAM Microspheres Loaded with the Gastrointestinal Nutrient NaB Ameliorate Cardiac Dysfunction by Activating Sirt3 in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Panke; Zeng, Wen; Li, Li; Huo, Da; Zeng, Lingqing; Tan, Ju; Zhou, Jingting; Sun, Jiansen; Liu, Ge; Li, Yanzhao; Guan, Ge; Wang, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the death of cardiomyocytes caused by a lack of energy due to ischemia. Nutrients supplied by the blood are the main source of cellular energy for cardiomyocytes. Sodium butyrate (NaB), a gastrointestinal nutrient, is a short‐chain fatty acid (butyric acid) that may act as an energy source in AMI therapy. Poly(lactic‐co‐glycolic acid)‐Poly (N‐isopropylacrylamide) microspheres loaded with NaB (PP‐N) are synthesized to prolong the release of NaB and are injected into ischemic zones in a Sprague–Dawley rat AMI model. Here, this study shows that PP‐N can significantly ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in AMI, and NaB can specially bind to Sirt3 structure, activating its deacetylation ability and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species, autophagy, and angiogenesis promotion. The results indicate that NaB, acting as a nutrient, can protect cardiomyocytes in AMI. These results suggest that the gastrointestinal nutrient NaB may be a new therapy for AMI treatment, and PP‐N may be the ideal therapeutic regimen. PMID:27981013

  7. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    used to assess the adequacy of current pollution abatement technologies and thus influence research and development in this area. This report...wastewater samples, was defined as a 1.6-to-I mixture o! TNT and RDX. "The results of flow-through acute toxicity terzs with the inverte - brate Daphniamagna...The "unadjusted" confidence interval for the LCSO is derived by inverting the likelihood ratio test for determining whether any specified

  8. Acute Modifications of Circulating Volume and Respiratory Maneuvers in the Cardiovascular Assessment of Long-Duration Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, V. V.; Alferova, I. V.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Garcia, K. M.; Martin, D. S.; Melton, S. L.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Hamilton, D. R.; Duncan, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    This U.S. - Russian project is aimed at improved assessment of cardiac and vascular parameters associated with circulating volume and its distribution in long-duration space flight. Objective responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound before, during, and after temporary volume redistribution by means of Braslet-M thigh occlusion cuffs (Russia). Braslet-M cuffs are custom fitted to each crewmember prior to launch on the Soyuz as a Russian countermeasure for space adaptation fluid shifts

  9. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group.

  10. Effect of Increased Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Decreased Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) Values on Inflammation in Acute Mania

    PubMed Central

    MAYDA, Hasan; AHSEN, Ahmet; BAĞCIOĞLU, Erman; ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; BAHÇECİ, Bülent; SOYUÇOK, Etem; BAŞPINAR, Erol; ULU, Memnune Sena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are simple, low-cost, and useful inflammatory markers detected in routine complete blood count (CBC), and their use has recently become widespread. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of an inflammatory state in manic patients on the basis of NLR and MPV values. Methods This retrospective study was performed on 76 patients with acute mania who were admitted to the Inpatients Psychiatry Clinic of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital in Turkey. Diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental disorder (DSM-IV). The control group consisted of 74 healthy individuals recruited from the community. They were age- and sex-matched with the study group. Results NLR values of the manic patient group were 2.2±1.4 and those of the control group were 1.6±0.5. NLR values were significantly higher (p=0.004) and MPV values were significantly lower in the manic patient group than in the control group (10.0±1.2 vs. 10.9±2.3, p=0.027). Conclusion Increased NLR and decreased MPV levels may reflect inflammation in manic patients, and inflammation may play a role in the complex pathophysiology of acute mania. PMID:28360805

  11. Variable volume loading method: a convenient and rapid method for measuring the initial emittable concentration and partition coefficient of formaldehyde and other aldehydes in building materials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Yinping

    2011-12-01

    The initial emittable formaldehyde and VOC concentration in building materials (C(0)) is a key parameter for characterizing and classifying these materials. Various methods have been developed to measure this parameter, but these generally require a long test time. In this paper we develop a convenient and rapid method, the variable volume loading (VVL) method, to simultaneously measure C(0) and the material/air partition coefficient (K). This method has the following features: (a) it requires a relatively short experimental time (less than 24 h for the cases studied); and (b) is convenient for routine measurement. Using this method, we determined C(0) and K of formaldehyde, propanal and hexanal in one kind of medium density fiberboard, and repeated experiments were performed to reduce measurement error. In addition, an extended-C-history method is proposed to determine the diffusion coefficient and the convective mass transfer coefficient. The VVL method is validated by comparing model predicted results based on the determined parameters with experimental data. The determined C(0) of formaldehyde obtained via this method is less than 10% of the total concentration using the perforator method recommended by the Chinese National Standard, suggesting that the total concentration may not be appropriate to predict emission characteristics, nor for material classification.

  12. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  13. Monitoring instream turbidity to estimate continuous suspended-sediment loads and yields and clay-water volumes in the upper North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2003-01-01

    Three real-time, instream water-quality and turbidity-monitoring sites were established in October 1998 in the upper North Santiam River Basin on the North Santiam River, the Breitenbush River, and Blowout Creek, the main tributary inputs to Detroit Lake, a large, controlled reservoir that extends from river mile 61 to 70. Suspended-sediment samples were collected biweekly to monthly at each station. Rating curves provided estimated suspended-sediment concentration in 30-minute increments from log transformations of the instream turbidity monitoring data. Turbidity was found to be a better surrogate than discharge for estimating suspended-sediment concentration. Daily and annual mean suspended-sediment loads were estimated using the estimated suspended-sediment concentrations and corresponding streamflow data. A laboratory method for estimating persistent (residual) turbidity from separate turbidity samples was developed. Turbidity was measured over time for each sample. Turbidity decay curves were derived as the suspended sediment settled. Each curve was used to estimate a turbidity value for a given settling time. Medium to fine clay particle (< 0.002 mm [millimeter] diameter) settling times of 8.5 hours were computed using Stokes Law. An average of 30 persistent turbidity samples was collected from each of the 3 sites. These samples were used to estimate the 0.002-mm-size clay particle persistent turbidity for each site. The monitored instream 30-minute turbidity values were converted to a calculated persistent turbidity value that would have resulted after 8.5 hours of settling in the laboratory. Persistent turbidities of 10 NTU and above were tabulated for each site. (Water of 10 NTU and above can interfere with or damage treatment filters and result in intake closures at drinking-water facilities.) A method was developed that used the persistent turbidity experiments, turbidity decay curves, and stream discharge to estimate the volume of water containing

  14. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers.

    PubMed

    Dallas, G; Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of

  15. Increased Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress and Salt-Loading in Adult Male Offspring of Fat Fed Non-Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J.; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  16. High Epstein-Barr Virus Load and Genomic Diversity Are Associated with Generation of gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Eric R; Alter, Galit; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Henderson, Jennifer L; Tabak, Barbara; Bakiş, Yasin; Somasundaran, Mohan; Garber, Manuel; Selin, Liisa; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and the evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]) and again 6 months later (during convalescence [CONV]). EBV gp350-specific IgG was detected in the sera of 17 (71%) of 24 individuals at the time of AIM and all 24 (100%) individuals during CONV; binding antibody titers increased from AIM through CONV, reaching levels equivalent to those in age-matched, chronically infected individuals. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) was rarely detected during AIM (4 of 24 individuals; 17%) but was commonly detected during CONV (19 of 24 individuals; 79%). The majority (83%) of samples taken during AIM neutralized infection of primary B cells; all samples obtained at 6 months postdiagnosis neutralized EBV infection of cultured and primary target cells. Deep sequencing revealed interpatient gp350 sequence variation but conservation of the CR2-binding site. The levels of gp350-specific neutralizing activity directly correlated with higher peripheral blood EBV DNA levels during AIM and a greater evolution of diversity in gp350 nucleotide sequences from AIM to CONV. In summary, we conclude that the viral load and EBV gp350 diversity during early infection are associated with the development of neutralizing antibody responses following AIM.

  17. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both); after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05). Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while other variables were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining

  18. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Padroni, Marina; Bernardoni, Andrea; Tamborino, Carmine; Roversi, Gloria; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Borgatti, Luca; Marcello, Onofrio; d’Esterre, Christopher; Ceruti, Stefano; Casetta, Ilaria; Lee, Ting-Yim; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The capability of CT perfusion (CTP) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients is still questioned. Methods 62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after onset were recorded. Results Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001). CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS≤2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001). CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02) only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome. Conclusions Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size. PMID:26824672

  19. Comparison of epicardial fat volume by computed tomography in black versus white patients with acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Schindler, Andreas; Schoepf, U Joseph; Nance, John W; Tricarico, Francesco; Ebersberger, Ullrich; McQuiston, Andrew D; Meyer, Mathias; Henzler, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Bamberg, Fabian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2014-02-01

    Disparities in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) between races may be influenced by differences in the thoracic adipose tissue. We compared computed tomography (CT)-derived volumes of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT), and pericoronary fat thickness (PFT) and correlations with CAD between black and white patients. This institutional review board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study included 372 age- and gender-matched black versus white patients (186 black, 54 ± 11 years, 50% men; 186 white, 54 ± 11 years, 50% men) who underwent CT for chest pain evaluation. EAT, MAT, and PFT were measured. The amount of coronary calcium was quantified as calcium score. CAD was defined as ≥50% coronary artery narrowing. EAT and MAT volumes were significantly lower in black than white patients (59 [twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentile 39 to 84] vs 97 [67 to 132] cm(3) and 44 [27 to 77] vs 87 [52 to 157] cm(3), for both p <0.001). Mean PFT in black patients was slightly lower than white patients (17.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.1 ± 3.4 mm, p <0.01). The relation between race and extent of adipose tissue remained significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Significant correlations were observed between EAT and MAT volumes and calcium score in black and white patients (r = 0.19 to 0.26, p <0.01). For both races, the level of thoracic fat measurements was higher in present versus absent coronary calcification. A greater amount of thoracic fat was found with obstructive CAD only in white patients. In conclusion, CT-derived measurements of thoracic fat differ between symptomatic black and white patients, suggesting a differential relation between thoracic adipose tissue and CAD pathophysiology by race.

  20. Human albumin solution for patients with cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure: Beyond simple volume expansion

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Christopher; Theocharidou, Eleni; Davenport, Andrew; Agarwal, Banwari

    2016-01-01

    To provide an overview of the properties of human serum albumin (HSA), and to review the evidence for the use of human albumin solution (HAS) in critical illness, sepsis and cirrhosis. A MEDLINE search was performed using the terms “human albumin”, “critical illness”, “sepsis” and “cirrhosis”. The references of retrieved articles were reviewed manually. Studies published between 1980 and 2014 were selected based on quality criteria. Data extraction was performed by all authors. HSA is the main plasma protein contributing greatly to its oncotic pressure. HSA demonstrates important binding properties for endogenous and exogenous toxins, drugs and drug metabolites that account for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In disease states, hypoalbuminaemia is secondary to decreased HSA production, increased loss or transcapillary leakage into the interstitial space. HSA function can be also altered in disease with reduced albumin binding capacity and increased production of modified isoforms. HAS has been used as volume expander in critical illness, but received criticism due to cost and concerns regarding safety. More recent studies confirmed the safety of HAS, but failed to show any survival benefit compared to the cheaper crystalloid fluids, therefore limiting its use. On the contrary, in cirrhosis there is robust data to support the efficacy of HAS for the prevention of circulatory dysfunction post-large volume paracentesis and in the context of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and for the treatment of hepato-renal syndrome and hypervolaemic hyponatraemia. It is likely that not only the oncotic properties of HAS are beneficial in cirrhosis, but also its functional properties, as HAS replaces the dysfunctional HSA. The role of HAS as the resuscitation fluid of choice in critically ill patients with cirrhosis, beyond the established indications for HAS use, should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26981172

  1. Clinical Evaluation of High-Volume Hemofiltration with Hemoperfusion Followed by Intermittent Hemodialysis in the Treatment of Acute Wasp Stings Complicated by Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xiaoyun; Li, Jingjing; Bi, Xiaohong; Wu, Lan; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a rare complication of wasp stings. Currently, there is no standardized treatment for MODS secondary to multiple wasp stings, although blood purification techniques are often used. This study aimed to analyze our experiences of using intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) with or without high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) for treating acute wasp stings complicated by MODS. In this retrospective study, 36 patients with wasp stings complicated by MODS received either IHD combined with hemoperfusion, or HVHF (ultrafiltration flow rate, 70 mL/kg/h) combined with hemoperfusion for 5 days followed by IHD. Clinical symptoms, blood biochemical parameters, duration of mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive agents, duration of hospital stay and survival rate were recorded, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) scores estimated. Patients treated with HVHF followed by IHD appeared to exhibit a faster recovery than those receiving IHD alone, as evidenced by superior improvements in MOD (4.29±1.08 vs. 2.27±1.07) and APACHE II (7.09±2.62 vs. 4.20±1.69) scores (P < 0.05). Patients treated with HVHF had significantly lower myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin and creatinine levels than patients treated with IHD alone. In addition, the durations of hospital stay (13.15±2.77 vs. 27.92±3.18 days), vasopressor use (1.76±0.24 vs. 3.43 ± 1.01 days), mechanical ventilation (3.02±1.63 vs. 5.94 ± 2.11 days) and oliguria (6.57±2.45 vs. 15.29 ± 3.51 days) were reduced, and renal function more often recovered (85.1% vs. 53.1%), in the HVHF group compared with the IHD group (P < 0.05). These results raise the possibility that HVHF plus IHD may be superior to IHD alone for the treatment of acute wasp stings complicated by MODS; additional prospective studies are merited to explore this further. PMID:26207371

  2. Validity of Acute Stroke Lesion Volume Estimation by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging–Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score Depends on Lesion Location in 496 Patients With Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S.; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Campbell, Bruce; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score (ASPECTS) has been used to estimate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume in acute stroke. We aimed to assess correlations of DWI-ASPECTS with lesion volume in different middle cerebral artery (MCA) subregions and reproduce existing ASPECTS thresholds of a malignant profile defined by lesion volume ≥100 mL. Methods We analyzed data of patients with MCA stroke from a prospective observational study of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in acute stroke. DWI-ASPECTS and lesion volume were calculated. The population was divided into subgroups based on lesion localization (superficial MCA territory, deep MCA territory, or both). Correlation of ASPECTS and infarct volume was calculated, and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal ASPECTS threshold for ≥100-mL lesion volume. Results A total of 496 patients were included. There was a significant negative correlation between ASPECTS and DWI lesion volume (r=−0.78; P<0.0001). With regards to lesion localization, correlation was weaker in deep MCA region (r=−0.19; P=0.038) when compared with superficial (r=−0.72; P<0.001) or combined superficial and deep MCA lesions (r=−0.72; P<0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed ASPECTS≤6 as best cutoff to identify ≥100-mL DWI lesion volume; however, positive predictive value was low (0.35). Conclusions ASPECTS has limitations when lesion location is not considered. Identification of patients with malignant profile by DWI-ASPECTS may be unreliable. ASPECTS may be a useful tool for the evaluation of noncontrast computed tomography. However, if MRI is used, ASPECTS seems dispensable because lesion volume can easily be quantified on DWI maps. PMID:25316278

  3. Accelerated development and flight evaluation of active controls concepts for subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Load alleviation/extended span development and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Active wing load alleviation to extend the wing span by 5.8 percent, giving a 3 percent reduction in cruise drag is covered. The active wing load alleviation used symmetric motions of the outboard ailerons for maneuver load control (MLC) and elastic mode suppression (EMS), and stabilizer motions for gust load alleviation (GLA). Slow maneuvers verified the MLC, and open and closed-loop flight frequency response tests verified the aircraft dynamic response to symmetric aileron and stabilizer drives as well as the active system performance. Flight tests in turbulence verified the effectiveness of the active controls in reducing gust-induced wing loads. It is concluded that active wing load alleviation/extended span is proven in the L-1011 and is ready for application to airline service; it is a very practical way to obtain the increased efficiency of a higher aspect ratio wing with minimum structural impact.

  4. Improved arterial oxygenation with biologically variable or fractal ventilation using low tidal volumes in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boker, Abdulaziz; Graham, M Ruth; Walley, Keith R; McManus, Bruce M; Girling, Linda G; Walker, Elizabeth; Lefevre, Gerald R; Mutch, W Alan C

    2002-02-15

    We compared biologically variable ventilation (V (bv); n = 9) with control mode ventilation (V (c); n = 8) at low tidal volume (VT)--initial 6 ml/kg--in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hemodynamics, respiratory gases, airway pressures, and VT data were measured. Static P-V curves were generated at 5 h. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 were measured in serum and tracheal aspirate. By 5 h, higher Pa(O(2)) (173 +/- 30 mm Hg versus 119 +/- 23 mm Hg; mean +/- SD; p < 0.0001 group x time interaction [G x T]), lower shunt fraction (6 +/- 1% versus 9 +/- 3%; p = 0.0026, G x T) at lower peak airway pressure (21 +/- 2 versus 24 +/- 1 cm H(2)O; p = 0.0342; G x T) occurred with V (bv). IL-8 concentrations in tracheal aspirate and wet:dry weight ratios were inversely related; p = 0.011. With V (c), IL-8 concentrations were 3.75-fold greater at wet:dry weight ratio of 10. IL-10 concentrations did not differ between groups. In both groups, ventilation was on the linear portion of the P-V curve. With V (bv), VT variability demonstrated an inverse power law indicating fractal behavior. In this model of ARDS, V (bv) improved Pa(O(2)) at lower peak airway pressure and IL-8 levels compared with V (c).

  5. Association Between Contrast Media Volume-Glomerular Filtration Rate Ratio and Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CI-AKI were low left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .018, odds ratio [OR] = 0.966), e-GFR <60 mL/min (P = .012, OR = 2.558), and CV-e-GFR >2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI.

  6. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  7. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  8. Role of renal sympathetic nerves in mediating hypoperfusion of renal cortical microcirculation in experimental congestive heart failure and acute extracellular fluid volume depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Kon, V; Yared, A; Ichikawa, I

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the pathophysiologic importance of renal nerves in regulating the renal vasomotor tone, we measured several parameters of renal cortical microcirculation before and after acute renal denervation (DNx) in the following three groups of anesthetized Munich-Wistar rats: (group 1) congestive heart failure after surgically induced myocardial infarction (n = 10), (group 2) acute extracellular fluid volume depletion after deprivation of drinking water for 48 h (n = 8), and (group 3) sham or nontreated controls (n = 6). In the myocardial-infarcted rats, DNx led to a uniform increase in glomerular plasma flow rate of, on average, 36%. Single nephron glomerular filtration rate of myocardial-infarcted rats also increased despite a reduction in glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure. These changes were associated with a fall in arteriolar resistances, particularly in the efferent arteriole. The glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient rose in all but one myocardial-infarcted animal. A similar hemodynamic pattern was seen after DNx in water-deprived animals. In every water-deprived animal, glomerular plasma flow rate and single nephron GFR increased on average by 28 and 14%, respectively. Again, afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances decreased significantly. Furthermore, the ultrafiltration coefficient increased uniformly and substantially with DNx. To ascertain the potential importance of the interaction between the renal nerves and angiotensin II in these circumstances, we compared the renal cortical hemodynamics in additional groups of water-deprived rats (group 4) after DNx (n = 15), (group 5) during inhibition of angiotensin II with saralasin (n = 15), and (group 6) during treatment with both saralasin and DNx (n = 15). No appreciable difference was detected between group 4 vs. 6. In contrast, substantial differences were noted between group 5 vs. 6: on average, the glomerular plasma flow rate was 26% higher and the afferent and efferent

  9. Unified Aeroacoustics Analysis for High Speed Turboprop Aerodynamics and Noise. Volume 1; Development of Theory for Blade Loading, Wakes, and Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.

  10. Effect of Extended CT Perfusion Acquisition Time on Ischemic Core and Penumbra Volume Estimation in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke due to a Large Vessel Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Jordi; Marquering, Henk A.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Riordan, Alan J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been suggested that CT Perfusion acquisition times <60 seconds are too short to capture the complete in and out-wash of contrast in the tissue, resulting in incomplete time attenuation curves. Yet, these short acquisitions times are not uncommon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of time attenuation curve truncation in 48 seconds CT Perfusion acquisition and to quantify its effect on ischemic core and penumbra estimation in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion of the anterior circulation. Materials and Methods We analyzed CT Perfusion data with 48 seconds and extended acquisition times, assuring full time attenuation curves, of 36 patients. Time attenuation curves were classified as complete or truncated. Ischemic core and penumbra volumes resulting from both data sets were compared by median paired differences and interquartile ranges. Controlled experiments were performed using a digital CT Perfusion phantom to investigate the effect of time attenuation curve truncation on ischemic core and penumbra estimation. Results In 48 seconds acquisition data, truncation was observed in 24 (67%) cases for the time attenuation curves in the ischemic core, in 2 cases for the arterial input function and in 5 cases for the venous output function. Analysis of extended data resulted in smaller ischemic cores and larger penumbras with a median difference of 13.2 (IQR: 4.3–26.0)ml (P<0.001) and; 12.4 (IQR: 4.1–25.7)ml (P<0.001), respectively. The phantom data showed increasing ischemic core overestimation with increasing tissue time attenuation curve truncation. Conclusions Truncation is common in patients with large vessel occlusion and results in repartitioning of the area of hypoperfusion into larger ischemic core and smaller penumbra estimations. Phantom experiments confirmed that truncation results in overestimation of the ischemic core. PMID

  11. Assessment of the Human Kynurenine Pathway: Comparisons and Clinical Implications of Ethnic and Gender Differences in Plasma Tryptophan, Kynurenine Metabolites, and Enzyme Expressions at Baseline and After Acute Tryptophan Loading and Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Abdulla A.-B.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) was assessed in normal healthy US volunteers at baseline and after acute Trp depletion (ATD) and acute Trp loading (ATL) using amino acid formulations. The hepatic KP accounts for ~90% of overall Trp degradation. Liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) contributes ~70% toward Trp oxidation, with the remainder achieved by subsequent rate-limiting enzymes in the KP. TDO is not influenced by a 1.15 g Trp load, but is maximally activated by a 5.15 g dose. We recommend a 30 mg/kg dose for future ATL studies. ATD activates TDO and enhances the Trp flux down the KP via its leucine component. Higher plasma free [Trp] and lower total [Trp] are observed in women, with no gender differences in kynurenines. Kynurenic acid is lower in female Caucasians, which may explain their lower incidence of schizophrenia. African-American and Hispanic women have a lower TDO and Trp oxidation relative to free Trp than the corresponding men. African-American women have a potentially higher 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid/anthranilic acid ratio, which may protect them against osteoporosis. Future studies of the KP in relation to health and disease should focus on gender and ethnic differences. PMID:27547036

  12. The effect of an acute antioxidant supplementation compared with placebo on performance and hormonal response during a high volume resistance training session

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant supplementation is known to increase human endogenous antioxidant (AOX) capacity providing a means of blunting exercise induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a single acute dose of an AOX (vs blinded placebo) on muscle contractile performance and hormonal responses to a single bout of lower limb ‘hypertrophic’ resistance training (RT). Fifteen resistance trained subjects (age 23 ± 4 years: body mass 86 ± 6 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Each subject attended the laboratory on three occasions, firstly to determine three repetition maximum (3-RM) isotonic strength in the back squat and perform a familiarisation of the experimental task. On the second/third visits subjects completed the hypertrophic training session (HTS) which consisted of six sets of 10 repetitions of 70% of a predicted 1 RM load (kg). Four hours prior to the HTS the subjects consumed 2 ml#x2219;kg−1 total body mass of either the placebo mixture or AOX supplement in a randomised order. Work completed during the strength training session was completed with equipment that had an integrated linear force transducer (Gymaware system, Kinetic Performance Technology, Canberra, Australia). During the placebo trials concentric mean power significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from sets 1–6. Accumulated power output during the AOX HTS was 6746 ± 5.9 W which was significantly greater compared to the placebo HTS of 6493 ± 17.1 W (p < 0.05, ES’r = 0.99). Plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration was significantly less immediately following AOX supplementation (6.65 ± 1.84 vs 16.08 ± 2.78 ng#x2219;ml−1; p < 0.05, ES’r = 0.89). This study demonstrates ingestion of an AOX cocktail prior to a single bout of resistance training improved muscle contractile performance and modulated the GH response following completion of the resistance exercise. Future studies should

  13. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 3: Application of theory for blade loading, wakes, noise, and wing shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Klatte, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the program for the generation of a computer prediction code for noise of advanced single rotation, turboprops (prop-fans) such as the SR3 model are presented. The code is based on a linearized theory developed at Hamilton Standard in which aerodynamics and acoustics are treated as a unified process. Both steady and unsteady blade loading are treated. Capabilities include prediction of steady airload distributions and associated aerodynamic performance, unsteady blade pressure response to gust interaction or blade vibration, noise fields associated with thickness and steady and unsteady loading, and wake velocity fields associated with steady loading. The code was developed on the Hamilton Standard IBM computer and has now been installed on the Cray XMP at NASA-Lewis. The work had its genesis in the frequency domain acoustic theory developed at Hamilton Standard in the late 1970s. It was found that the method used for near field noise predictions could be adapted as a lifting surface theory for aerodynamic work via the pressure potential technique that was used for both wings and ducted turbomachinery. In the first realization of the theory for propellers, the blade loading was represented in a quasi-vortex lattice form. This was upgraded to true lifting surface loading. Originally, it was believed that a purely linear approach for both aerodynamics and noise would be adequate. However, two sources of nonlinearity in the steady aerodynamics became apparent and were found to be a significant factor at takeoff conditions. The first is related to the fact that the steady axial induced velocity may be of the same order of magnitude as the flight speed and the second is the formation of leading edge vortices which increases lift and redistribute loading. Discovery and properties of prop-fan leading edge vortices were reported in two papers. The Unified AeroAcoustic Program (UAAP) capabilites are demonstrated and the theory verified by comparison with the

  14. Waste/soil treatability studies for four complex industrial wastes: methodologies and results. Volume 2. Waste loading impacts on soil degradation, transformation, and immobilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, R.C.; Sorensen, D.L.; Doucette, W.J.; Hastings, L.L.; Sims, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The two-volume report presents information pertaining to quantitative evaluation of the soil-treatment potential resulting from waste-soil interaction studies for four specific wastes listed under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Volume 2 contains results from bench-scale waste-soil interaction studies; degradation, transformation, and immobilization data are presented for four specific wastes: API separator sludge, slop oil emulsion solids, pentachlorophenol wood preserving waste, and creosote wood-preserving waste. The scope of the study involved assessment of the potential for treatment of these hazardous wastes using soil as the treatment medium.

  15. Pharmacological blockade of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels by ICA reduces arrhythmic load in rats with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hundahl, Laura A; Sattler, Stefan M; Skibsbye, Lasse; Diness, Jonas G; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-03-11

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with development of ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD). At present, no pharmacological treatment has successfully been able to prevent VF in the acute stage of AMI. This study investigates the antiarrhythmic effect of inhibiting small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels using the pore blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in AMI rats. Acute coronary ligation was performed in 26 anesthetized rats, and ECG, monophasic action potentials (MAPs), and ventricular effective refractory period (vERP) were recorded. Rats were randomized into four groups: (i) 3 mg/kg i.v. ICA with AMI (AMI-ICA-group, n = 9), (ii) vehicle with AMI (AMI-vehicle-group, n = 9), (iii) vehicle with sham operation (sham-vehicle-group, n = 8), and (iv) 3 mg/kg i.v. ICA with sham operation (sham-ICA-group, n = 6). At the end of experiments, hearts were stained for the non-perfused area at risk (AAR). AMI resulted in the development of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in all AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats; however, ICA significantly decreased VT duration. VF occurred in 44% of AMI-vehicle rats but not in AMI-ICA rats. Monophasic action potential duration at 80% repolarization (MAPD80) in the ischemic area decreased rapidly in both AMI-vehicle and AMI-ICA rats. However, 5 min after occlusion, MAPD80 returned to baseline in AMI-ICA rats but not in AMI-vehicle rats. The vERP was prolonged in the AMI-ICA group compared to AMI-vehicle after ligation. AAR was similar between the AMI-vehicle group and the AMI-ICA group. In rats with AMI, ICA reduces the burden of arrhythmia.

  16. Survivability of Affordable Aircraft Composite Structures. Volume 3: Characterization of Affordable Woven Carbon/Epoxy Composites Under Low-Velocity Impact Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    ultimate tensile strength of RTM and VARTM panels are comparable if the volume of the fibers is the same. The fatigue performance depends on the resin...content, and with the same amount of resin, the performance was comparable for both the above RTM and VARTM methods. 2.4.1 SC-15 Epoxy Resin...relative humidity RTM resin transfer molding SEM scanning electron micrograph (or microscope or microscopy) VARIM vacuum assisted resin infusion molding VARTM vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

  17. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  18. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  19. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  20. A Young Adult with Unintended Acute Intravenous Iron Intoxication Treated with Oral Chelation: The Use of Liver Ferriscan for Diagnosing and Monitoring Tissue Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Mohamed; Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Moustafa, Abbas; Samaan, Sandra Abou; Nashwan, Abdulqadir

    2017-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication (FeI) in humans has not been adequately studied. The manifestation of FeI, defined as a serum iron concentration >300 μg/dL (55 μmol/L) within 12 hours of ingestion, include various symptoms appearing in progressive stages. Systemic toxicity is expected with an intake of 60 mg/kg. A 27-year-old female nurse presented with unintended acute intravenous iron intoxication (FeI) a week after self-injecting herself with 20 ampoules of IV iron (4,000 mg elemental iron, 60 mg/kg). She had stable vital signs and mild hepatic tenderness. Hepatic MRI (Ferriscan®) showed a moderate/severe liver iron content (LIC: 9 mg/g dry tissue). Her hemogram, electrolytes, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Based on the high dose of iron received and her elevated LIC, chelation therapy was advised. She accepted only oral therapy and was started on deferasirox at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily. This oral chelation proved to be effective in clearing her hepatic iron overload after six months (LIC: 2 mg/g dry tissue), without side effects. This case also proved the value of Ferriscan® in diagnosing the degree of hepatic FeI and monitoring therapy to achieve a safe level of LIC. PMID:28101313

  1. Single-stage experimental evaluation of low aspect ratio, highly loaded blading for compressors. Part 9: Stage F and stage G, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, J. G.; Smith, J. D.; Wright, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Two single-stage, 0.77 hub/tip ratio axial-flow compressors were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of low aspect ratio blading as a means of obtaining higher stage loadings. One compressor, designated Stage F, was comprised of circular arc blading with an aspect ratio of 0.9 for both the rotor and stator. This compressor was tested with uniform inlet flow, hub radial, tip radial, and 180 deg arc circumferential inlet distortion. The second compressor, designated Stage G, was comprised of multiple circular arc blading with an aspect ratio of 1.0 for both the rotor and stator. This compressor was tested with uniform inlet flow only. Design rotor tip speeds for Rotor F and Rotor G were 285 m/sec (934 ft/sec) and 327 m/sec (1,074 ft/sec) respectively. Both stages operated at high loading levels with adequate efficiency and operating range. The peak efficiencies and corresponding average stage diffusion factors for Stages F and G at design rotor speed were 86.4% and 84.1% and 0.59 and 0.55 respectively. The surge margin at peak efficiency for Stage F was 12.6% and the corresponding value for Stage G was 16.5%. Both stages experienced a loss in efficiency with increasing rotor speed; however, the multiple circular arc rotor delayed the characteristic loss in efficiency within increasing Mach number to higher Mach number.

  2. Effect of setting high APRV guided by expiratory inflection point of pressure-volume curve on oxygen delivery in canine models of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Qiong; Xu, Hong-Yang; Li, Mao-Qin; Chen, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of setting high airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) pressure guided by an expiratory inflection point of pressure-volume (PV) curve following lung recruitment maneuver (RM) on oxygen delivery (DO2) in canine models of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was examined. Canine models of severe ARDS were established by intravenous injection of oleic acid. After injection of sedative muscle relaxants, a PV curve plotted using the super-syringe technique, and the pressure at lower inflection point (LIP) at the inhale branch and the pressure at the point of maximum curvature (PMC) at the exhale branch were measured. The ventilation mode was biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP), an inspiration to expiration ratio of 1:2, and Phigh 40 cm H2O, Plow 25 cm H2O. Phigh was decreased to 30 cm H2O after 90 sec. The dogs were randomized into 3 groups after RM, i.e., Blip group, BiPAP Plow = LIP+2 cm H2O; Bpmc group, BiPAP Plow = PMC; and Apmc group. In the APRV group, Phigh was set as PMC, with an inspiratory duration of 4 sec and expiratory duration of 0.4 sec. PMC was 18±1.4 cm H2O, and LIP was 11±1.3 cm H2O. Thirty seconds after RM was stabilized, it was set as 0 h. Hemodynamics, oxygenation and DO2 were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h after RM in ARDS dogs. The results demonstrated: i) cardiac index (CI) in the 3 groups, where CI was significantly decreased in the Bpmc group at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h after RM compared to prior to RM (P<0.05) as well as in the Blip and Apmc groups (P<0.05). CI in the Blip and Apmc groups was not significantly altered prior to and after RM. ii) Oxygenation at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h in the 3 groups was improved after RM and the oxygenation indices for the 3 groups at 1 and 2 h were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the oxygenation index in the Blip group at 4 h was significantly lower than those at 0 h for the Apmc and Bpmc groups (P<0.05). Oxygenation for the Apmc group at 4 h was higher

  3. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p < 0.05), but at MS, it was no different either during the SM or the LM. Total kcal intake did not differ at MS after any of the beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (13.8 ± 3.3 ng/ml/min) during SM following B-CO2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1). No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms

  4. Acute hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ti, L K; Kang, S C; Cheong, K F

    1998-08-01

    A 30-year-old HIV-positive man presented with acute hydrocephalus secondary to tuberculous meningitis, for which an external ventricular drain was inserted. He developed marked natriuresis in the postoperative period, which resulted in acute hyponatraemia (131 to 122 mmol/l) and a contraction of his intravascular volume. A diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made, and he responded to sodium and fluid loading. This case highlights the differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome from the more commonly occurring syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion as the aetiology of the hyponatraemia.

  5. A microfluidic method to synthesize transferrin-lipid nanoparticles loaded with siRNA LOR-1284 for therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaogang; Yu, Bo; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jing; Xu, Songlin; Yang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xinmei; Yung, Bryant C.; Lee, L. James; Lee, Robert J.; Teng, Lesheng

    2014-07-01

    The siRNA LOR-1284 targets the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2) and has shown promise in cancer therapy. In this study, transferrin (Tf) conjugated lipid nanoparticles (Tf-NP-LOR-1284) were synthesized by microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing (MHF) and evaluated for the targeted delivery of LOR-1284 siRNA into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The in vitro study showed that Tf-NP-LOR-1284 can protect LOR-1284 from serum nuclease degradation. Selective uptake of Tf-NP-LOR-1284 was observed in MV4-11 cells. In addition, qRT-PCR and Western blot results revealed that Tf-NP-LOR-1284 was more effective than the free LOR-1284 in reducing the R2 mRNA and protein levels. The Tf-NP-LOR-1284 showed prolonged circulation time and increased AUC after i.v. administration relative to the free LOR-1284. Furthermore, Tf-NP-LOR-1284 facilitated increased accumulation at the tumor site along with the decreased R2 mRNA and protein expression in a murine xenograft model. These results suggest that Tf-conjugated NPs prepared by MHF provide a suitable platform for efficient and specific therapeutic delivery of LOR-1284 into AML cells.

  6. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-06-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 +/- 81 to 350 +/- 77 ml and from 52 +/- 26 to 43 +/- 20 volume units, respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 +/- 10 to 17 +/- 9 mm Hg and 10 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 5 mm Hg. Although stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 +/- 6% to 22+/- 5% and from 25 +/- 9% to 29 +/- 11%, respectively. During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. This, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured.

  7. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-06-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 + 81 to 350 + 77 ml (p < 0.01) and from 52 + 26 to 43 + 20 volume units (p < 0.01), respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 + 10 to 17 + 9 mm Hg and 10 + 5 to and + 5 mm Hg (both p < 0.01). Altough stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 + 6% to 22 + 5% and from 25 + 9% to 29 + 11%, respectively (both p < 0.01). During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. Thus, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured.

  8. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  9. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 5. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Load Combination Program Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Load Combination Program covered in this report is to estimate the probability of a seismic induced LOCA in the primary piping of a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR). Best estimates, rather than upper bound results are desired. This was accomplished by use of a fracture mechanics model that employs a random distribution of initial cracks in the piping welds. Estimates of the probability of cracks of various sizes initially existing in the welds are combined with fracture mechanics calculations of how these cracks would grow during service. This then leads to direct estimates of the probability of failure as a function of time and location within the piping system. The influence of varying the stress history to which the piping is subjected is easily determined. Seismic events enter into the analysis through the stresses they impose on the pipes. Hence, the influence of various seismic events on the piping failure probability can be determined, thereby providing the desired information.

  10. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  11. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  12. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  13. Acute Effects of Caffeine on Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Tidal Volume in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared to Able-Bodied Individuals: A Randomized, Blinded Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Lienert, Martina; Schäfer Olstad, Daniela; Wilhelm, Matthias; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine increases sympathetic nerve activity in healthy individuals. Such modulation of nervous system activity can be tracked by assessing the heart rate variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of caffeine on time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters, blood pressure and tidal volume in paraplegic and tetraplegic compared to able-bodied participants. Heart rate variability was measured in supine and sitting position pre and post ingestion of either placebo or 6 mg caffeine in 12 able-bodied, 9 paraplegic and 7 tetraplegic participants in a placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind study design. Metronomic breathing was applied (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume was recorded during heart rate variability assessment. Blood pressure, plasma caffeine and epinephrine concentrations were analyzed pre and post ingestion. Most parameters of heart rate variability did not significantly change post caffeine ingestion compared to placebo. Tidal volume significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in able-bodied (p = 0.021) and paraplegic (p = 0.036) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.34). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly post caffeine in able-bodied (systolic: p = 0.003; diastolic: p = 0.021) and tetraplegic (systolic: p = 0.043; diastolic: p = 0.042) but not in paraplegic participants (systolic: p = 0.09; diastolic: p = 0.33). Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in all three groups of participants (p<0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased significantly in able-bodied (p = 0.002) and paraplegic (p = 0.032) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.63). The influence of caffeine on the autonomic nervous system seems to depend on the level of lesion and the extent of the impairment. Therefore, tetraplegic participants may be less influenced by caffeine ingestion. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02083328 PMID:27776149

  14. Structural Flight Loads Simulation Capability. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    MONI 7ORINr A5E-NC: NAME & ADDRESS(if difern, icor (orothria Off-. 15 SECJ-PrTY CLASS. (of lhj7 n-,, - Unclassified IS, OE.AeTIATIN OWNGRADIN, is...3o -1. 411 -217. 23 -22:?. 1010 -2265. 1768. 2017 . -4.60 3502 Figure 3.14. (continued). 96 31 - 140 -27 17 -25, 32 - 016 -3 19 -. 33 082 15 92 .0 1011

  15. Relation between acute and late irradiation impairment of four basic tastes and irradiated tongue volume in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hideomi . E-mail: yamachan07291973@yahoo.co.jp; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Nakamura, Naoki; Abe, Keiko; Asakage, Takahiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hosoi, Yoshio; Sasano, Nakashi; Yamakawa, Sen; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: Taste loss is a major cause of morbidity in patients undergoing head-and-neck irradiation. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied in both acute and late phases. Methods and Materials: Taste ability was measured by the taste threshold for the four basic tastes using a filter paper disc method in patients before, during, and after radiotherapy. The subjects were divided into two groups. In Group A, Radiation fields included most of the tongue (n = 100), and in Group B Radiation fields did not include the tip of the tongue (n = 18). Results: In Group A, there was a significant impairment of the threshold of all four basic tastes at 3 weeks after starting radiotherapy (RT), and this impairment remained at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). This was not seen in Group B. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the patterns of taste sensitivity change between the high-dose (>20 Gy) and low-dose ({<=}20 Gy) groups. In the late phase, recovery of taste loss was seen in both groups since 4 months after completing RT. Conclusions: Unless the anterior part of the tongue was irradiated, taste loss was not observed during RT. When the anterior part of the tongue was irradiated, a difference by radiation dose was not observed in the taste loss pattern. Additionally, radiation-induced taste dysfunction appears to be a temporal effect.

  16. Continuous peritoneal dialysis in acute renal failure from severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Indraprasit, S; Charoenpan, P; Suvachittanont, O; Mavichak, V; Kiatboonsri, S; Tanomsup, S

    1988-03-01

    Severe falciparum malaria complicated by acute renal failure resulted in very high mortality. Ten patients with acute renal failure from falciparum malaria (infected rbc up to 80%) were continuously dialysed using Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter. Five were oliguric and BUN was maintained between 60 to 80 mg/dl (21.4 to 28.6 mmol/l) by hourly 1 to 1.5 liter dialysate exchange during the acute phase. The peritoneal urea clearance (mean +/- SD) was 12.1 +/- 1.2 ml/min with urea nitrogen removal of 13.4 +/- 2.3 g/day. In nonoliguric cases dialysis was also needed for additional removal of waste products since the remaining renal function could not cope with the hypercatabolic state. Peritoneal glucose absorption (135 to 565 g/day) gave considerable caloric supply without volume load and also contributed to the prevention of hypoglycemia. Varying degree of acute respiratory failure developed in all patients with 5 cases (2 oliguric and 3 nonoliguric) progressing to pulmonary edema. Swan-Ganz catheterization and hemodynamic study suggested the role of increased capillary permeability and volume overload from endogenous water formation in the development of pulmonary complication. Continuous removal of fluid and waste products minimized these problems and may prevent the progression of respiratory failure. One patient died of severe sepsis and the other nine survived. This study showed the beneficial contribution of continuous peritoneal dialysis in the management of acute renal failure from severe falciparum malaria.

  17. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m(-2); mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (-6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: -33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: -25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (-37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (-8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (-9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese

  18. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m−2; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (−6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: −33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: −25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (−5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (−37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (−8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (−9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in

  19. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  20. Plasma volume in isosmotic hypervolaemia.

    PubMed

    Kishegyi, J; Horváth, G; Kövér, G

    1978-01-01

    The Evans-blue distribution volume, haematocrit, and plasma protein concentration were investigated in non-hydrated (control), hydrated, and acutely nephrectomized hydrated, anaesthetized dogs. In control anaesthetized dogs a decrease of the plasma protein level was observed as part of the plasma proteins was lost into the extravascular space and did not return into the circulating plasma during the experimental period. Under the effect of hydration, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased significantly, while the haematocrit and plasma volume did not change. The phenomenon was ascribed to an increase in capillary permeability. During hydration following acute nephrectomy, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased but the haematocrit disecreased and the circulating plasma volume increased. It is concluded that a material (or materials) orginating from the kidney may influence capillary permeability.

  1. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  3. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  4. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  5. Advantages and disadvantages of fludrocortisone or saline load in preventing post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Convertino, Victor A.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of saline load to fludrocortisone (florinef) as countermeasures for reduced plasma volume and orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. Eleven males (ages 30-50 yr) underwent a 3-day ambulatory baseline period followed by 7 days of 6° head-down bedrest, during which cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflex sensitivity and plasma volume (PV) were determined. During pre-bedrest and 2.5 h after treatment on day 8, PV was also measured and subjects underwent a 15-min unsupported stand test. Treatments consisted of 8 salt tablets (1 g NaCl per tablet) and 960 ml of water in 5 subjects and 0.6 mg (0.2 mg × 3) over 24 h in the other 6 subjects. PV decreased by 12% on day 7 of bedrest. This was restored on day 8 by florinef but not by saline load. The effect of florinef on PV was paralleled by decreases in urine volume and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. Reduced PV was associated with greater vascular resistance for the same drop in central venous pressure, suggesting less vasoconstriction reserve after bedrest. Carotid baroreflex control of heart rate was attenuated after 7 days of bedrest. Both baroreflex functions were restored by florinef but not saline load. Only 1 of 6 subjects showed syncopal symptoms in the florinef-treated group, whereas 4 of 5 subjects did so in the saline-load group. Acute florinef treatment appears to have distinct advantages as a protective measure for post-bedrest orthostatic intolerance, not only through its salt retaining, volume-expanding mineralcorticoid effect, but possibly through its actions on baroreflex and sympathetic functions.

  6. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm(3) absolute mean difference; p < 0.001) and higher chance of good functional outcome (OR 4.58, p < 0.001). Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p < 0.001) and lateral (+19.2%; p = 0.016) MCA territory compared to pretreatment during MCA occlusion. Safety indicators were treatment-related mortality and cardiorespiratory effects. The highest efficacy and safety profile was observed for HDT. Our findings suggest that acute modulation of cerebral collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  7. Validation of dilution of plasma samples with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate the problem of small volumes associated with children infected with HIV-1 for viral load testing using Cobas AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0).

    PubMed

    Mine, Madisa; Nkoane, Tapologo; Sebetso, Gaseene; Sakyi, Bright; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Gaolathe, Tendani

    2013-12-01

    The sample requirement of 1 mL for the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0) limits its utility in measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for small volume samples from children infected with HIV-1. Viral load monitoring is the standard of care for HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. The study aimed to validate the dilution of small volume samples with phosphate buffered saline (1× PBS) when quantifying HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma. HIV RNA concentrations were determined in undiluted and diluted pairs of samples comprising panels of quality assessment standards (n=52) as well as patient samples (n=325). There was strong correlation (R(2)) of 0.98 and 0.95 within the dynamic range of the CAP CTM HIV v2.0 test between undiluted and diluted samples from quality assessment standards and patients, respectively. The difference between viral load measurements of diluted and undiluted pairs of quality assessment standards and patient samples using the Altman-Bland test showed that the 95% limits of agreement were between -0.40 Log 10 and 0.49 Log 10. This difference was within the 0.5 Log 10 which is generally considered as normal assay variation of plasma RNA levels. Dilution of samples with 1× PBS produced comparable viral load measurements to undiluted samples.

  8. Results of tests 0A12 and IA9 in the Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030 scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 2A to determine aerodynamic loads, volume 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA/ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels on an 0.030 scale replica of the space shuttle vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.

  9. Calcium is not required for triggering volume restoration in hypotonically challenged A549 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ponomarchuk, Olga; Boudreault, Francis; Orlov, Sergei N; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2016-11-01

    Maintenance of cell volume is a fundamental housekeeping function in eukaryotic cells. Acute cell swelling activates a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process with poorly defined volume sensing and intermediate signaling mechanisms. Here, we analyzed the putative role of Ca(2+) signaling in RVD in single substrate-adherent human lung epithelial A549 cells. Acute cell swelling was induced by perfusion of the flow-through imaging chamber with 50 % hypotonic solution at a defined fluid turnover rate. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and cell volume were monitored simultaneously with ratiometric Fura-2 fluorescence and 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic single-cell images, respectively. Hypotonic challenge caused a progressive swelling peaking at ∼20 min and followed, during the next 20 min, by RVD of 60 ± 7 % of the peak volume increase. However, at the rate of swelling used in our experiments, these processes were not accompanied by a measurable increment of [Ca(2+)]i. Loading with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA slightly delayed peak of swelling but did not prevent RVD in 82 % of cells. Further, electrophysiology whole-cell patch-clamp experiments showed that BAPTA did not block activation of volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) measured as swelling-induced outwardly rectifying 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid sensitive current. Together, our data suggest that intracellular Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is not essential for VRAC activation and subsequent volume restoration in A549 cells.

  10. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  11. Space Shuttle main engine powerhead structural modeling, stress and fatigue life analysis. Volume 3: Stress summay of blades and nozzles at FPL and 115 percent RPL loads. SSME HPFTP and HPOTP blades and nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammett, J. C.; Hayes, C. H.; Price, J. M.; Robinson, J. K.; Teal, G. A.; Thomson, J. M.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    Gasdynamic environments applied to the turbine blades and nozzles of the HPFTP and HPOTP were analyzed. Centrifugal loads were applied to blades to account for the pump rotation of FPL and 115 percent RPL. The computer models used in the blade analysis with results presented in the form of temperature and stress contour plots are described. Similar information is given for the nozzles.

  12. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  13. Impact of arterial load on the agreement between pulse pressure analysis and esophageal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The reliability of pulse pressure analysis to estimate cardiac output is known to be affected by arterial load changes. However, the contribution of each aspect of arterial load could be substantially different. In this study, we evaluated the agreement of eight non-commercial algorithms of pulse pressure analysis for estimating cardiac output (PPCO) with esophageal Doppler cardiac output (EDCO) during acute changes of arterial load. In addition, we aimed to determine the optimal arterial load parameter that could detect a clinically significant difference between PPCO and the EDCO. Methods We included mechanically ventilated patients monitored with a prototype esophageal Doppler (CardioQ-Combi™, Deltex Medical, Chichester, UK) and an indwelling arterial catheter who received a fluid challenge or in whom the vasoactive medication was introduced or modified. Initial calibration of PPCO was made with the baseline value of EDCO. We evaluated several aspects of arterial load: total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR = mean arterial pressure [MAP]/EDCO * 80), net arterial compliance (C = EDCO-derived stroke volume/pulse pressure), and effective arterial elastance (Ea = 0.9 * systolic blood pressure/EDCO-derived stroke volume). We compared CO values with Bland-Altman analysis, four-quadrant plot and a modified polar plot (with least significant change analysis). Results A total of 16,964-paired measurements in 53 patients were performed (median 271; interquartile range: 180-415). Agreement of all PPCO algorithms with EDCO was significantly affected by changes in arterial load, although the impact was more pronounced during changes in vasopressor therapy. When looking at different parameters of arterial load, the predictive abilities of Ea and C were superior to TSVR and MAP changes to detect a PPCO-EDCO discrepancy ≥ 10% in all PPCO algorithms. An absolute Ea change > 8.9 ± 1.7% was associated with a PPCO-EDCO discrepancy ≥ 10% in most algorithms

  14. [Acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Mayer, K; Askevold, I; Collet, P; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Padberg, W; Hecker, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with individually differing expression of systemic involvement. For this reason early diagnosis with subsequent risk stratification is essential in the clinical management of this frequent gastroenterological disorder. Severe forms of acute pancreatitis occur in approximately 20 % of cases often requiring intensive care monitoring and interdisciplinary therapeutic approaches. In the acute phase adequate fluid replacement and sufficient analgesic therapy is of major therapeutic importance. Concerning the administration of antibiotics and the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis a change in paradigms could be observed in recent years. Furthermore, endoscopic, radiological or surgical interventions can be necessary depending on the severity of the disease and potential complications.

  15. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a cough and coughing up mucus. Acute means the symptoms ... diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus on most days for at least ...

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...

  17. Results of Tests OA12 and IA9 in the Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030-scale model of the Space Shuttle Vehicle 2A to determine aerodynamic loads, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted in wind tunnels during April and May 1973, on an 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from minus 8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from minus 15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from minus 10 degrees to +10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.

  18. Results of tests OA12 and IA9 in the Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 2A to determine aerodynamic loads, volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in wind tunnels during April and May 1973, on a 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 deg to +8 deg. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 deg to +40 deg and angles of sideslip from -10 deg to +10 deg as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated. Tabulated pressure data are given for the following components: orbiter fuselage and base; OMS and upper MPS nozzles; body flap; and OMS pod outside.

  19. Results of tests OA12 and IA9 in the Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030 scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 2A to determine aerodynamic loads, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted in wind tunnels during April and May 1973, on an 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and on the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 deg. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 deg to +40 deg and angles of sideslip from -10 deg to +10 deg as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated.

  20. Results of tests OA12 and IA9 in the Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 2A to determine aerodynamic loads, volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted in wind tunnels during April and May 1973, on a 0.030-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Configuration 2A. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The investigation included tests on the integrated (launch) configuration and the isolated orbiter (entry configuration). The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -8 degrees to +8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from -15 degrees to +40 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were also investigated. Tabulated pressure data were obtained for upper and lower wing surfaces and left and right vertical tail surfaces.

  1. Results of a landing gear loads test using a 0.0405-scale model (16-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL wind tunnel (OA163), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter configuration in the low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to define the orbiter landing gear system pressure loading and to record landing gear door and strut hingemoment levels. Secondary objectives included recording the aerodynamic influence of various landing gear configurations on orbiter force data as well as investigating 40 x 80 ft. Ames Wind Tunnel strut simulation effects on both orbiter landing gear loads and aerodynamic characteristics. Testing was conducted at a Mach number of 0.17, free stream dynamic pressure of 42.5 PSF, and Reynolds number per unit length of 1.2 million per foot. Angle of attack variation was 0 to 20 while yaw angles ranged from -10 to 10 deg.

  2. Increased digitalis-like activity in human cerebrospinal fluid after expansion of the extracellular fluid volume

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, J.A.; Martin, A.M.; Malave, S.

    1985-08-12

    The present study was designed to determine whether acute expansion of the extracellular fluid volume influenced the digitalis-like activity of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), previously described. Human CSF samples, drawn before and 30 minutes after the intravenous infusion of 1 liter of either saline or glucose solutions, were assayed for digitalis-like activity by inhibition of either the /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake into human erythrocytes or by the activity of a purified Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ ATPase. The CSF inhibitory activity on both systems significantly increased after the infusion of sodium solutions but did not change after the infusion of glucose. These results indicate that the digitalis-like factor of human CSF might be involved in the regulation of the extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte content and thereby in some of the physiological responses to sodium loading. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Landing pressure loads of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter (model 43-0) determined in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA69), volume 1. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405 scale model of the -1404A/B configuration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Orbiter are presented. Pressure loads data were obtained from the orbiter in the landing configuration in the presence of the ground for structural strength analysis. This was accomplished by locating as many as 30 static pressure bugs at various locations on external model surfaces as each configuration was tested. A complete pressure loads survey was generated for each configuration by combining data from all bug locations, and these loads are described for the fuselage, wing, vertical tail, and landing gear doors. Aerodynamic force data was measured by a six component internal strain gage balance. This data was recorded to correct model angles of attack and sideslip for sting and balance deflections and to determine the aerodynamic effects of landing gear extension. All testing was conducted at a Mach number of 0.165 and a Reynolds number of 1.2 million per foot. Photographs of test configurations are shown.

  4. Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

    In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

  5. A Compilation of Static Stability and Fin Loads Data for Slender Body Missile Models with and without Tail Fins and Wings. Volume 4. Appendix G. Test Number 7, Parts 2 through 105

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    referred to Air Force Armament Laboratory, ATTN: AFATL/DLMA, Eglin AFB, FL 32543. Document partially illegible. USADTC ltr dtd 10 Dec 1979 AEDC-TR-75-125...VOLUME IV (APPENDIX G) (TEST NUMBER 7, PARTS 2 THROUGH 105) PROPULSION WIND TUNNEL FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER AIR FORCE SYSTEMS...referred to Air Force Armament Laboratory (AFATL/DLMA), Eglin Air Force Base, Florida 32543. £.\\. ," , Prepared for AIR FORCE ARMAMENT LABORATORY

  6. Results of tests OA12 and IA9 in the Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnels on an 0.030-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 2A to determine aerodynamic loads, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted in Unitary Plan wind tunnels on a 0.30 scale model of the space shuttle. Tests were conducted on the integrated configuration and on the isolated orbiter. The integrated vehicle was tested at angles of attack and sideslip from minus 8 degrees to plus 8 degrees. The isolated orbiter was tested at angles of attack from minus 15 degrees to plus 40 degrees and angles of sideslip from minus 10 degrees to plus 10 degrees as dictated by trajectory considerations. The effects of orbiter/external tank incidence angle and deflected control surfaces on aerodynamic loads were investigated.

  7. Impedance matching between ventricle and load.

    PubMed

    Piene, H

    1984-01-01

    Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed.

  8. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors. A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996–2000), T2 (2001–2005), and T3 (2006–2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate. Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high

  9. [Volume replenishment in haemorrhage: caution advised].

    PubMed

    Kooter, Albertus J; Zweegman, Sonja; Smulders, Yvo M

    2011-01-01

    Acute haemorrhage is a frequent problem in medicine. Patients with acute bleeding may present with signs of hypotension and reduced organ perfusion. The physician's reflex action is often to treat such patients with intravenous volume replenishment using colloid or cristalloid liquids. Intravenous volume replenishment has, however, a downside: it increases the tendency to bleed and therefore can increase blood loss. Previous clinical observations and experimental animal and human studies addressing volume replenishment in haemorrhagic shock have repeatedly shown that accepting hypotension favourably affects prognosis. However, relevant practice guidelines, such as for gastrointestinal bleeding, usually advise liberal intravenous volume replenishment if hypotension is present. In this article we advocate caution when considering intravenous blood volume adjustment in haemorrhage.

  10. Chesapeake Bay Hypoxic Volume Forecasts and Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Given the average Jan-May 2013 total nitrogen load of 162,028 kg/day, this summer's hypoxia volume forecast is 6.1 km3, slightly smaller than average size for the period of record and almost the same as 2012. The late July 2013 measured volume was 6.92 km3.

  11. Chesapeake Bay hypoxic volume forecasts and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Forecast - Given the average Jan-May 2013 total nitrogen load of 162,028 kg/day, this summer’s hypoxia volume forecast is 6.1 km3, slightly smaller than average size for the period of record and almost the same as 2012. The late July 2013 measured volume was 6.92 km3.

  12. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  13. Cardiac function after acute support with direct mechanical ventricular actuation in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Patrick I; Anstadt, Mark P; Del Rio, Carlos L; Preston, Thomas J; Ueyama, Yukie; Youngblood, Brad L

    2014-01-01

    Direct mechanical ventricular actuation (DMVA) exerts direct cardiac compression/decompression and does not require blood contact. The safety and effects of DMVA support in chronically dysfunctional beating hearts in vivo have not been established. This study evaluated hemodynamics and load-independent systolic/diastolic cardiac function before/after acute support (2 hours) using DMVA in small hearts with induced chronic failure. Chronic heart failure was created in seven small dogs (15 ± 2 kg) via either serial coronary microembolizations or right-ventricular overdrive pacing. Dogs were instrumented to measure cardiac output, hemodynamic pressures, left ventricular volumes for pressure-volume analysis via preload reduction. Temporary cardiac support using a DMVA device was instituted for 2 hours. Hemodynamic and mechanical assessments, including dobutamine dose-responses, were compared both before and after support. Hemodynamic indices were preserved with support. Both left-ventricular systolic and diastolic function were improved postsupport, as the slopes of the preload-recruitable stroke work (+29 ± 7%, p < 0.05) and the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR: -28 ± 9%, p < 0.05) improved post-DMVA support. Diastolic/systolic myocardial reserve, as assessed by responsiveness to dobutamine challenges, was preserved after DMVA support. Short-term DMVA support can safely and effectively sustain hemodynamics, whereas triggering favorable effects on cardiac function in the setting of chronic heart failure. In particular, DMVA support preserved load-independent diastolic function and reserve.

  14. Viral load distribution in SARS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chung-Ming; Cheng, Vincent C C; Hung, Ivan F N; Chan, Kin-Sang; Tang, Bone S F; Tsang, Thomas H F; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2005-12-01

    An unprecedented community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens, a high-rise residential complex in Hong Kong. Droplet, air, contaminated fomites, and rodent pests have been proposed to be mechanisms for transmitting SARS in a short period. We studied nasopharyngeal viral load of SARS patients on admission and their geographic distribution. Higher nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living in adjacent units of the same block inhabited by the index patient, while a lower but detectable nasopharyngeal viral load was found in patients living further away from the index patient. This pattern of nasopharyngeal viral load suggested that airborne transmission played an important part in this outbreak in Hong Kong. Contaminated fomites and rodent pests may have also played a role.

  15. Lung stress, strain, and energy load: engineering concepts to understand the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).

    PubMed

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2016-12-01

    It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung tissue using engineering methods in normal pigs ventilated for 54 h. They used these methods to assess the impact of a mechanical breath on dynamic and static global lung strain and energy load. Strain is the change in lung volume in response to an applied stress (i.e., Tidal Volume-Vt). This study has yielded a number of exciting new concepts including the following: (1) Individual mechanical breath parameters (e.g., Vt or Plateau Pressure) are not directly correlated with VILI but rather any combination of parameters that subject the lung to excessive dynamic strain and energy/power load will cause VILI; (2) all strain is not equal; dynamic strain resulting in a dynamic energy load (i.e., kinetic energy) is more damaging to lung tissue than static strain and energy load (i.e., potential energy); and (3) a critical consideration is not just the size of the Vt but the size of the lung that is being ventilated by this Vt. This key concept merits attention since our current protective ventilation strategies are fixated on the priority of keeping the Vt low. If the lung is fully inflated, a large Vt is not necessarily injurious. In conclusion, using engineering concepts to analyze the impact of the mechanical breath on the lung is a novel new approach to investigate VILI mechanisms and to help design the optimally protective breath. Data generated using these methods have challenged some of the current dogma surrounding the mechanisms of VILI and of the components in the mechanical breath necessary for lung protection.

  16. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  17. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  18. Acute Blindness.

    PubMed

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed.

  19. Results of Experimental Investigations to Determine External Tank Protuberance Loads Using a 0.03-Scale Model of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration (Model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA19OA/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA19OA) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA19OB). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline; (2) GO2 pressure line; (3) LO2 antigeyser line; (4) GH2 pressure line; (5) LH2 tank cable tray; (6) LO2 tank cable tray; (7) Bipod; (8) ET/SRB cable tray; and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above; 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements; Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures; and Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  20. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0.03-scale model of the Space Shuttle launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC unitary plan wind tunnel, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA190A/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA190A) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA190B). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline, (2) GO2 pressure line, (3) LO2 antigeyser line, (4) GH2 pressure line, (5) LH2 tank cable tray, (6) LO2 tank cable tray, (7) Bipod, (8) ET/SRB cable tray, and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: (1) Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above. (2) 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements. (3) Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures. (4) Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  1. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exercise on erythrocyte membrane stability and various blood indices in a population consisting of five national-level male swimmers, over 18 weeks of training. The evaluations were made at the beginning and end of the 1st, 7th, 13th and 18th weeks, when volume and training intensity have changed. The effects manifested at the beginning of those weeks were considered due to chronic adaptations, while the effects observed at the end of the weeks were considered due to acute manifestations of the exercise load of that week. Acute changes resulting from the exercise comprised increases in creatine kinase activity (CK) and leukocyte count (Leu), and decrease in hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), at the end of the first week; increase in the activities of CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in the uric acid (UA) concentration and Leu count, at the end of the seventh week; increases in CK and LDH activities and in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), at the end of the 13th week; and decrease in the value of the osmotic stability index 1/H50 and increases in the CK activity and platelets (Plt) count, at the end of the 18th week. Chronic changes due to training comprised increase in the values of 1/H50, CK, LDH, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum iron (Fe), MCV and Plt. Although acute training has resulted in decrease in the osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly associated with exacerbation of the oxidative processes during intense exercise, chronic training over 18 weeks resulted in increased osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly by modulation in the membrane cholesterol content by low and high density lipoproteins. PMID:28151958

  2. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Paraiso, Lara Ferreira; Gonçalves-E-Oliveira, Ana Flávia Mayrink; Cunha, Lucas Moreira; de Almeida Neto, Omar Pereira; Pacheco, Adriana Garcia; Araújo, Karinne Beatriz Gonçalves; Garrote-Filho, Mário da Silva; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exercise on erythrocyte membrane stability and various blood indices in a population consisting of five national-level male swimmers, over 18 weeks of training. The evaluations were made at the beginning and end of the 1st, 7th, 13th and 18th weeks, when volume and training intensity have changed. The effects manifested at the beginning of those weeks were considered due to chronic adaptations, while the effects observed at the end of the weeks were considered due to acute manifestations of the exercise load of that week. Acute changes resulting from the exercise comprised increases in creatine kinase activity (CK) and leukocyte count (Leu), and decrease in hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), at the end of the first week; increase in the activities of CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in the uric acid (UA) concentration and Leu count, at the end of the seventh week; increases in CK and LDH activities and in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), at the end of the 13th week; and decrease in the value of the osmotic stability index 1/H50 and increases in the CK activity and platelets (Plt) count, at the end of the 18th week. Chronic changes due to training comprised increase in the values of 1/H50, CK, LDH, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum iron (Fe), MCV and Plt. Although acute training has resulted in decrease in the osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly associated with exacerbation of the oxidative processes during intense exercise, chronic training over 18 weeks resulted in increased osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly by modulation in the membrane cholesterol content by low and high density lipoproteins.

  3. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; West, Daniel W. D.; Burd, Nicholas A.; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that the acute postexercise increases in muscle protein synthesis rates, with differing nutritional support, are predictive of longer-term training-induced muscle hypertrophy. Here, we aimed to test whether the same was true with acute exercise-mediated changes in muscle protein synthesis. Eighteen men (21 ± 1 yr, 22.6 ± 2.1 kg/m2; means ± SE) had their legs randomly assigned to two of three training conditions that differed in contraction intensity [% of maximal strength (1 repetition maximum)] or contraction volume (1 or 3 sets of repetitions): 30%-3, 80%-1, and 80%-3. Subjects trained each leg with their assigned regime for a period of 10 wk, 3 times/wk. We made pre- and posttraining measures of strength, muscle volume by magnetic resonance (MR) scans, as well as pre- and posttraining biopsies of the vastus lateralis, and a single postexercise (1 h) biopsy following the first bout of exercise, to measure signaling proteins. Training-induced increases in MR-measured muscle volume were significant (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups: 30%-3 = 6.8 ± 1.8%, 80%-1 = 3.2 ± 0.8%, and 80%-3= 7.2 ± 1.9%, P = 0.18. Isotonic maximal strength gains were not different between 80%-1 and 80%-3, but were greater than 30%-3 (P = 0.04), whereas training-induced isometric strength gains were significant but not different between conditions (P = 0.92). Biopsies taken 1 h following the initial resistance exercise bout showed increased phosphorylation (P < 0.05) of p70S6K only in the 80%-1 and 80%-3 conditions. There was no correlation between phosphorylation of any signaling protein and hypertrophy. In accordance with our previous acute measurements of muscle protein synthetic rates a lower load lifted to failure resulted in similar hypertrophy as a heavy load lifted to failure. PMID:22518835

  4. Exploring interactions between force, repetition and posture on intervertebral disc height loss and bulging in isolated porcine cervical functional spinal units from sub-acute-failure magnitudes of cyclic compressive loading.

    PubMed

    Gooyers, Chad E; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-10-15

    Most in vitro studies are limited in the ability to partition intervertebral disc (IVD) height loss from total specimen height loss since the net changes in the actuator position of the materials testing system simply reflect net changes to functional spinal units (FSUs) used for testing. Three levels of peak compressive force, three cycle rates and two dynamic postural conditions were examined using a full-factorial design. Cyclic compressive force was applied using a time-varying waveform with synchronous flexion/extension for 5000 cycles. Surface scans from the anterior aspect of the IVD were recorded in a neutral and flexed posture before and after the cyclic loading protocol using a 3D laser scanner to characterise changes in IVD height loss and bulging. A significant three-way interaction (p=0.0092) between the magnitude of peak compressive force, cycle rate and degree of postural deviation was observed in cycle-varying specimen height loss data. A significant main effect of peak compressive force (p=0.0003) was also observed in IVD height loss calculated from the surface profiles of the IVD. The relative contribution of IVD height loss (measured on the anterior surface) to total specimen height loss across experimental conditions varied considerably, ranging from 19% to 58%. Postural deviation was the only factor that significantly affected the magnitude of peak AF bulge (p=0.0016). This investigation provides evidence that total specimen height loss is not an accurate depiction of cycle-varying changes in the IVD across a range of in vivo scenarios that were replicated with in vitro testing.

  5. Normotensive sodium loading in normal man: regulation of renin secretion during beta-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Mølstrøm, Simon; Larsen, Nils H; Simonsen, Jane A; Washington, Remon; Bie, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Saline administration may change renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity and sodium excretion at constant mean arterial pressure (MAP). We hypothesized that such responses are elicited mainly by renal sympathetic nerve activity by beta1-receptors (beta1-RSNA), and tested the hypothesis by studying RAAS and renal excretion during slow saline loading at constant plasma sodium concentration (Na+ loading; 12 micromol Na+.kg(-1).min(-1) for 4 h). Normal subjects were studied on low-sodium intake with and without beta1-adrenergic blockade by metoprolol. Metoprolol per se reduced RAAS activity as expected. Na+ loading decreased plasma renin concentration (PRC) by one-third, plasma ANG II by one-half, and plasma aldosterone by two-thirds (all P < 0.05); surprisingly, these changes were found without, as well as during, acute metoprolol administration. Concomitantly, sodium excretion increased indistinguishably with and without metoprolol (16 +/- 2 to 71 +/- 14 micromol/min; 13 +/- 2 to 55 +/- 13 micromol/min, respectively). Na+ loading did not increase plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, glomerular filtration rate (GFR by 51Cr-EDTA), MAP, or cardiac output (CO by impedance cardiography), but increased central venous pressure (CVP) by approximately 2.0 mmHg (P < 0.05). During Na+ loading, sodium excretion increased with CVP at an average slope of 7 micromol.min(-1).mmHg(-1). Concomitantly, plasma vasopressin decreased by 30-40% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, beta1-adrenoceptor blockade affects neither the acute saline-mediated deactivation of RAAS nor the associated natriuretic response, and the RAAS response to modest saline loading seems independent of changes in MAP, CO, GFR, beta1-mediated effects of norepinephrine, and ANP. Unexpectedly, the results do not allow assessment of the relative importance of RAAS-dependent and -independent regulation of renal sodium excretion. The results are compatible with the notion that at constant arterial pressure, a volume

  6. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  7. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  8. Does Stroke Volume Increase During an Incremental Exercise? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Stella S.; Lemes, Brunno; de T. C. de Carvalho, Paulo; N. de Lima, Rafael; S. Bocalini, Danilo; A. S. Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A. Casarin, Cezar; L. Andrade, Erinaldo; J. Serra, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library’s, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. Results: The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. Conclusion: The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load. PMID:27347221

  9. Left ventricular pressure-volume diagrams and end-systolic pressure-volume relations in human beings.

    PubMed

    McKay, R G; Aroesty, J M; Heller, G V; Royal, H; Parker, J A; Silverman, K J; Kolodny, G M; Grossman, W

    1984-02-01

    Assessment of left ventricular pressure-volume relations serially in response to altered loading conditions and heart rate has been difficult to achieve with contrast ventriculography. Accordingly, to study changing pressure-volume relations during altered loading and heart rate, left ventricular pressure and radionuclide absolute volume curves (obtained using a counts-based method with attenuation factor corrections) were recorded in 20 patients. Ventricular pressure and radionuclide volume curves were digitized and synchronized to end-diastole, and pressure-volume plots were subsequently constructed from 32 pressure-volume coordinates throughout the cardiac cycle. In all patients, the correlation between radionuclide absolute volumes and angiographic ventricular volumes was r = 0.92. In 10 patients in whom both radionuclide and angiographic pressure-volume diagrams were constructed, the agreement between the two methods was excellent. With this method, end-systolic pressure-volume relations were examined during altered left ventricular loading conditions, pacing-induced incremental increases in heart rate and pacing-induced ischemia. Using pharmacologically induced changes in left ventricular loading conditions, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated as a means of assessing basal contractility. During pacing-induced tachycardia, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated to quantify the Treppe effect and assess negative inotropic changes secondary to ischemia. This study supports the validity of using serial recordings of left ventricular pressure and radionuclide volumes to assess left ventricular pressure-volume relations, and indicates that this approach may be useful in the analysis of end-systolic pressure-volume relations in patients.

  10. Left ventricular pressure-volume diagrams and end-systolic pressure-volume relations in human beings

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Royal, H.; Parker, J.A.; Silverman, K.J.; Kolodny, G.M.; Grossman, W.

    1984-02-01

    Assessment of left ventricular pressure-volume relations serially in response to altered loading conditions and heart rate has been difficult to achieve with contrast ventriculography. Accordingly, to study changing pressure-volume relations during altered loading and heart rate, left ventricular pressure and radionuclide absolute volume curves (obtained using a counts-based method with attenuation factor corrections) were recorded in 20 patients. Ventricular pressure and radionuclide volume curves were digitized and synchronized to end-diastole, and pressure-volume plots were subsequently constructed from 32 pressure-volume coordinates throughout the cardiac cycle. In all patients, the correlation between radionuclide absolute volumes and angiographic ventricular volumes was r . 0.92. In 10 patients in whom both radionuclide and angiographic pressure-volume diagrams were constructed, the agreement between the two methods was excellent. With this method, end-systolic pressure-volume relations were examined during altered left ventricular loading conditions, pacing-induced incremental increases in heart rate and pacing-induced ischemia. Using pharmacologically induced changes in left ventricular loading conditions, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated as a means of assessing basal contractility. During pacing-induced tachycardia, the slope and volume intercept of the end-systolic pressure-volume line could be calculated to quantify the Treppe effect and assess negative inotropic changes secondary to ischemia. This study supports the validity of using serial recordings of left ventricular pressure and radionuclide volumes to assess left ventricular pressure-volume relations, and indicates that this approach may be useful in the analysis of end-systolic pressure-volume relations in patients.

  11. Characterization of cephalexin loaded nonionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Fanun, Monzer; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Xenakis, Aristotelis

    2011-09-01

    Water/propylene glycol/sucrose laurate/ethoxylated mono-di-glyceride/isopropyl myristate/peppermint oil U-type microemulsions were used to solubilize cephalexin. Microemulsion dilution and interfacial factors contributing to the cephalexin solubilization were evaluated. Cephalexin solubilization capacity increases with the increase in the aqueous phase volume fraction (φ) up to 0.4 then decreases. Electrical conductivity of drug loaded and drug free microemulsions increases with φ. The hydrodynamic radius measured by dynamic light scattering of the oil-in-water loaded microemulsions decreases with temperature. The microemulsions were characterized by the volumetric parameters, density, excess volume, ultrasonic velocity and isentropic compressibility. The microemulsion densities increase with φ up to 0.8 then decrease. The excess volume decreases with φ up to 0.8 then stabilizes. Ultrasonic velocities increase with the increase in φ while isentropic compressibility decreases. Analysis of the volumetric parameters enabled the characterization of structural transition along the microemulsion phase region. The presence of water-in-oil, bicontinuous and oil-in-water microemulsions, at aqueous phase volume fractions below 0.2, between 0.3 and 0.7 and above 0.8, respectively were found. Interfacial properties and dynamic structure of the monolayer for drug loaded and drug free microemulsions, were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy employing the nitroxide spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid. The rigidity of the interface was affected by the water content and also the presence of cephalexin.

  12. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  13. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  14. Temporal pattern of left ventricular structural and functional remodeling following reversal of volume overload heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Kirk R.; Guggilam, Anuradha; Cismowski, Mary J.; Galantowicz, Maarten L.; West, Thomas A.; Stewart, James A.; Zhang, Xiaojin; Lord, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Current surgical management of volume overload-induced heart failure (HF) leads to variable recovery of left ventricular (LV) function despite a return of LV geometry. The mechanisms that prevent restoration of function are unknown but may be related to the timing of intervention and the degree of LV contractile impairment. This study determined whether reduction of aortocaval fistula (ACF)-induced LV volume overload during the compensatory stage of HF results in beneficial LV structural remodeling and restoration of pump function. Rats were subjected to ACF for 4 wk; a subset then received a load-reversal procedure by closing the shunt using a custom-made stent graft approach. Echocardiography or in vivo pressure-volume analysis was used to assess LV morphology and function in sham rats; rats subjected to 4-, 8-, or 15-wk ACF; and rats subjected to 4-wk ACF followed by 4- or 11-wk reversal. Structural and functional changes were correlated to LV collagen content, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and hypertrophic markers. ACF-induced volume overload led to progressive LV chamber dilation and contractile dysfunction. Rats subjected to short-term reversal (4-wk ACF + 4-wk reversal) exhibited improved chamber dimensions (LV diastolic dimension) and LV compliance that were associated with ECM remodeling and normalization of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides. Load-independent parameters indicated LV systolic (preload recruitable stroke work, Ees) and diastolic dysfunction (tau, arterial elastance). These changes were associated with an altered α/β-myosin heavy chain ratio. However, these changes were normalized to sham levels in long-term reversal rats (4-wk ACF + 11-wk reversal). Acute hemodynamic changes following ACF reversal improve LV geometry, but LV dysfunction persists. Gradual restoration of function was related to normalization of eccentric hypertrophy, LV wall stress, and ECM remodeling. These results suggest that mild to moderate LV systolic

  15. Acute laminitis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M

    1994-12-01

    Laminitis is an inflammation of the sensitive laminae along the dorsal aspect of the digit and is considered to be a secondary complication of several predisposing or primary factors. Affected horses are usually very lame, have increased digital pulses, are painful to hoof testers along the toe of the foot, and have evidence of downward rotation or distal displacement of the distal phalanx present on radiographs. Treatments for acute laminitis include anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-endotoxin therapy, vasodilators, antithrombotic therapy, corrective trimming and shoeing, and surgical procedures. Treatment regimens are very controversial and the true efficacy of these treatments is unknown. The quality of laminae damage that occurs with laminitis, however, probably has greater influence on the success of treatment and outcome of the horse than the treatment regimen itself.

  16. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of materials: Second volume

    SciTech Connect

    Verrilli, M.J.; Castelli, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Virtually all high-temperature components experience service cycles that include simultaneous temperature and load cycling, or thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). Materials testing and characterization are required to capture the often unique synergistic effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading. This information can make possible the proper formulation of models used for component lifetime prediction and design, and can guide materials development. The papers included in this volume were written in conjunction with a symposium organized to disseminate current research in the area of TMF behavior of materials. The materials covered here are high-temperature structural alloys and titanium matrix composites. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  17. Transfusion related acute lung injury presenting with acute dyspnoea: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Haji, Altaf Gauhar; Sharma, Shekhar; Vijaykumar, DK; Paul, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion-related acute lung injury is emerging as a common cause of transfusion-related adverse events. However, awareness about this entity in the medical fraternity is low and it, consequently, remains a very under-reported and often an under-diagnosed complication of transfusion therapy. Case presentation We report a case of a 46-year old woman who developed acute respiratory and hemodynamic instability following a single unit blood transfusion in the postoperative period. Investigation results were non-specific and a diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury was made after excluding other possible causes of acute lung injury. She responded to symptomatic management with ventilatory and vasopressor support and recovered completely over the next 72 hours. Conclusion The diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury relies on excluding other causes of acute pulmonary edema following transfusion, such as sepsis, volume overload, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. All plasma containing blood products have been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury, with the majority being linked to whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma. The pathogenesis of transfusion-related acute lung injury may be explained by a "two-hit" hypothesis, involving priming of the inflammatory machinery and then activation of this primed mechanism. Treatment is supportive, with prognosis being substantially better than for most other causes of acute lung injury. PMID:18957111

  18. High Dielectric Dummy Loads for ITER ICRH Antenna Laboratory Testing: Numerical Simulation of One Triplet Loading by Ferroelectric Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Champeaux, S.; Gouard, Ph.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V.; Messiaen, A.

    2011-12-23

    Up to now, classical 'water' loads have been used for low power testing of ITER ICRH prototype or mock-up antennas . A fair description of the antenna frequency response is obtained excepted for the phasing (0 {pi} 0 {pi}). High dielectric loads are requested to improve the antenna response in the low frequency band. In view of laboratory testing, dummy loads are also required to have efficient wave spatial attenuation to avoid standing waves and to minimize load volume. In this paper, barium titanate ceramic powders mixed with water are shown to exhibit very attractive electromagnetic properties. Coupling performance of one triplet of the ITER ICRH antenna to such kind of loads is numerically investigated. The radiated wave attenuation into the load is also characterized. In spite of its frequency dispersion, 'barium titanate' loads are shown to allow the characterization of the full scale triplet frequency response on a scaled-down mock-up.

  19. High Dielectric Dummy Loads for ITER ICRH Antenna Laboratory Testing: Numerical Simulation of One Triplet Loading by Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champeaux, S.; Gouard, Ph.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V.; Messiaen, A.

    2011-12-01

    Up to now, classical "water" loads have been used for low power testing of ITER ICRH prototype or mock-up antennas . A fair description of the antenna frequency response is obtained excepted for the phasing (0 π 0 π). High dielectric loads are requested to improve the antenna response in the low frequency band [1]. In view of laboratory testing, dummy loads are also required to have efficient wave spatial attenuation to avoid standing waves and to minimize load volume. In this paper, barium titanate ceramic powders mixed with water are shown to exhibit very attractive electromagnetic properties. Coupling performance of one triplet of the ITER ICRH antenna to such kind of loads is numerically investigated. The radiated wave attenuation into the load is also characterized. In spite of its frequency dispersion, "barium titanate" loads are shown to allow the characterization of the full scale triplet frequency response on a scaled-down mock-up.

  20. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  1. [Clinico-tomographic correlations in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Lese, M; Pop, C; Brânduşe, M; Achim, V; Grigorescu, D; Nemeş, S

    1998-01-01

    In the surgery ward from Baia Mare, in the period 1989-1997 have been operated yearly, on an average, 16-17 acute pancreatitis, out of which 8-9 were necrotic-haemorrhagic acute pancreatitis. The possibility of carrying out the computerized tomography allowed a more precise pre-surgery diagnosis and after surgery was improved observation of evolution of the inflammatory phenomena from the pancreatic zone so that the volume, the structure and the outline of the pancreas, the abdominal or pleural liquid collections and the aspect of the neighboring tissues have been correlated in dynamics, with the clinic aspect of the acute pancreatitis and the prognostic indexes. Even if the computerized tomography allowed a more correct evaluation of the patients suffering of acute pancreatitis, there have been 4-6 decreases due to this affection and its complications, the post-surgery death rate remaining at 17-21%.

  2. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  5. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  6. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  7. Effective Drug Delivery, in vitro and in vivo, By Carbon-Based Nanovectors Non-Covalently Loaded With Unmodified Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Jacob M.; Leonard, Ashley D.; Pham, Tam T.; Sano, Daisuke; Marcano, Daniela C.; Yan, Shayou; Fiorentino, Stefania; Milas, Zvonimir L.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Katherine Price, B.; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca M.; Wen, XiaoXia; Gabriela Raso, M.; Craig, Suzanne L.; Tran, Hai T.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Tour, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Many new drugs have low aqueous solubility and high therapeutic efficacy. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a classic example of this type of compound. Here we show that extremely small (<40 nm) hydrophilic carbon clusters (HCCs) that are PEGylated (PEG-HCCs) are effective drug delivery vehicles when simply mixed with paclitaxel. This formulation of PTX sequestered in PEG-HCCs (PTX/PEG-HCCs) is stable for at least twenty weeks. The PTX/PEG-HCCs formulation was as effective as PTX in a clinical formulation in reducing tumor volumes in an orthotopic murine model of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Preliminary toxicity and biodistribution studies suggest that the PEG-HCCs are not acutely toxic and, like many other nanomaterials, are primarily accumulated in the liver and spleen. This work demonstrates that carbon nanomaterials are effective drug delivery vehicles in vivo when non-covalently loaded with an unmodified drug. PMID:20681596

  8. The influence of acute unloading on left ventricular strain and strain rate by speckle tracking echocardiography in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Geir Olav; Stangeland, Lodve; Moen, Christian Arvei; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil

    2016-05-15

    Noninvasive measurements of myocardial strain and strain rate by speckle tracking echocardiography correlate to cardiac contractile state but also to load, which may weaken their value as indices of inotropy. In a porcine model, we investigated the influence of acute dynamic preload reductions on left ventricular strain and strain rate and their relation to the pressure-conductance catheter-derived preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and peak positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure (LV-dP/dtmax). Speckle tracking strain and strain rate in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial directions were measured during acute dynamic reductions of end-diastolic volume during three different myocardial inotropic states. Both strain and strain rate were sensitive to unloading of the left ventricle (P < 0.001), but the load dependency for strain rate was modest compared with strain. Changes in longitudinal and circumferential strain correlated more strongly to changes in end-diastolic volume (r = -0.86 and r = -0.72) than did radial strain (r = 0.35). Longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain significantly correlated with LV-dP/dtmax (r = -0.53, r = -0.46, and r = 0.86), whereas only radial strain correlated with PRSW (r = 0.55). Strain rate in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial direction significantly correlated with both PRSW (r = -0.64, r = -0.58, and r = 0.74) and LV-dP/dtmax (r = -0.95, r = -0.70, and r = 0.85). In conclusion, the speckle tracking echocardiography-derived strain rate is more robust to dynamic ventricular unloading than strain. Longitudinal and circumferential strain could not predict load-independent contractility. Strain rates, and especially in the radial direction, are good predictors of preload-independent inotropic markers derived from conductance catheter.

  9. Anaphylaxis: acute treatment and management.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes; Grosber, Martine; Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Brockow, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is the maximal variant of an acute life-threatening immediate-type allergy. Due to its often dramatic onset and clinical course, practical knowledge in the management of these reactions is mandatory both for physicians and patients. It has to be distinguished between acute treatment modalities and general recommendations for management of patients who have suffered from an anaphylactic reaction. Acute treatment comprises general procedures like positioning, applying an intravenous catheter, call for help, comfort of the patient as well as the application of medication. The acute treatment modalities are selected depending upon the intensity of the clinical symptomatology as they are categorized in 'severity grades'. First of all it is important to diagnose anaphylaxis early and consider several differential diagnoses. This diagnosis is purely clinical and laboratory tests are of no help in the acute situation. Epinephrine is the essential antianaphylactic drug in the pharmacologic treatment. It should be first applied intramuscularly, only in very severe cases or under conditions of surgical interventions intravenous application can be tried. Furthermore, glucocorticosteroids are given in order to prevent protracted or biphasic courses of anaphylaxis; they are of little help in the acute treatment. Epinephrine autoinjectors can be used by the patient him/herself. Histamine H(1)-antagonists are valuable in mild anaphylactic reactions; they should be given intravenously if possible. The replacement of volume is crucial in antianaphylactic treatment. Crystalloids can be used in the beginning, in severe shock colloid volume substitutes have to be applied. Patients suffering from an anaphylactic episode should be observed over a period of 4-10 h according to the severity of the symptomatology. It is crucial to be aware or recognize risk patients as for example patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, or under beta-adrenergic blockade. When bronchial

  10. Load compensating responses of human abdominal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lansing, R. W.; Meyerink, L.

    1981-01-01

    1. We studied abdominal muscle responses to positive pressure loads applied suddenly to the external airway while subjects held a constant lung volume against steady pressure. The pre-loading holding pressure was 6 cm H2O, and the loading pressures were 6 or 12 cm H2O lasting for 2 sec. 2. Surface electromyograms (e.m.g.) were recorded over the internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. The latency and pattern of the e.m.g. reactions were studied by measuring the raw record for each loading trial, and by averaging the rectified e.m.g. for many trials. 3. No responses were obtained if subjects were instructed not to respond to the loads. When instructed and trained to maintain their pre-load position in spite of the load, a two-phase compensatory response was found. The initial response (phase I) was 100-300 msec in duration; it was followed by a continuous e.m.g. discharge (phase II) which continued to the offset of the pressure load. Subjects were also trained to make a single respiratory effort as quickly as possible after the load onset or after just an auditory stimulus. These were simple reaction time tasks of a traditional kind and the e.m.g. responses elicited were single, brief bursts. 4. For all subjects and experimental conditions the e.m.g. response of the internal oblique occurred first, followed by the external oblique and then the rectus abdominis. For the `maintain position' task, phase I latencies (internal oblique) averaged 66-90 msec for individual subjects, but for single trials with optimal conditions of practice and preparatory intervals these ranged from 42 to 110 msec with a third of the reactions occurring within 50-60 msec. 5. The latencies for reaction time responses to loading were about 6 msec shorter than the phase I latencies. The latency distributions for the two types of responses were similar, and both were affected to the same degree by practice, and changing the length and variability of the preparatory

  11. Vibration and loads in hingeless rotors. Volume 2: Experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, G. A.; London, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Descriptions, geometry, and technical data covering three rotor systems are presented. Tables of experimental data gathered during wind tunnel testing of two of the systems are included. Both analyzed experimental data, ready for comparison with theory, and the basic reduced data from which they were obtained are reported.

  12. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  13. Intravenous administration of xenogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosomes markedly reduced brain infarct volume and preserved neurological function in rat after acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Yuen, Chun-Man; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shao, Pei-Lin; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chai, Han-Tan; Lin, Kun-Chen; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Mel S.; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that combined xenogenic (from mini-pig) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosome therapy could reduce brain-infarct zone (BIZ) and enhance neurological recovery in rat after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) induced by 50-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were divided equally into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (AIS), group 3 [AIS-ADMSC (1.2×106 cells)], group 4 [AIS-exosome (100μg)], and group 5 (AIS-exosome-ADMSC). All therapies were provided intravenously at 3h after AIS procedure. BIZ determined by histopathology (by day-60) and brain MRI (by day-28) were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, higher in groups 3 and 4 than in group 5, but they showed no difference between groups 3 and 4 (all p < 0.0001). By day-28, sensorimotor functional results exhibited an opposite pattern to BIZ among the five groups (p < 0.005). Protein expressions of inflammatory (inducible nitric oxide synthase/tumor necrosis factor-α/nuclear factor-κB/interleukin-1β/matrix metalloproteinase-9/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1/RANTES), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/ Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase), and fibrotic (Smad3/transforming growth factor-β) biomarkers, and cellular expressions of brain-damaged (γ-H2AX+/ XRCC1-CD90+/p53BP1-CD90+), inflammatory (CD11+/CD68+/glial fibrillary acid protein+) and brain-edema (aquaporin-4+) markers showed a similar pattern of BIZ among the groups (all n < 0.0001). In conclusion, xenogenic ADMSC/ADMSC-derived exosome therapy was safe and offered the additional benefit of reducing BIZ and improving neurological function in rat AIS. PMID:27793019

  14. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  15. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  16. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  17. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  18. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  19. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  20. Convection enhanced delivery of panobinostat (LBH589)-loaded pluronic nano-micelles prolongs survival in the F98 rat glioma model

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, WG; Collins, AM; Bienemann, AS; Killick-Cole, CL; Haynes, HR; Asby, DJ; Butts, CP; Wyatt, MJ; Barua, NU; Gill, SS

    2017-01-01

    Background The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is a potential therapy for malignant glioma, but it is water insoluble and does not cross the blood–brain barrier when administered systemically. In this article, we describe the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel water-soluble nano-micellar formulation of panobinostat designed for administration by convection enhanced delivery (CED). Materials and methods The in vitro efficacy of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles against rat F98, human U87-MG and M059K glioma cells and against patient-derived glioma stem cells was measured using a cell viability assay. Nano-micelle distribution in rat brain was analyzed following acute CED using rhodamine-labeled nano-micelles, and toxicity was assayed using immunofluorescent microscopy and synaptophysin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared the survival of the bioluminescent syngenic F98/Fischer344 rat glioblastoma model treated by acute CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles with that of untreated and vehicle-only-treated controls. Results Nano-micellar panobinostat is cytotoxic to rat and human glioma cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner following short-time exposure to drug. Fluorescent rhodamine-labelled nano-micelles distribute with a volume of infusion/volume of distribution (Vi/Vd) ratio of four and five respectively after administration by CED. Administration was not associated with any toxicity when compared to controls. CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles was associated with significantly improved survival when compared to controls (n=8 per group; log-rank test, P<0.001). One hundred percent of treated animals survived the 60-day experimental period and had tumour response on post-mortem histological examination. Conclusion CED of nano-micellar panobinostat represents a potential novel therapeutic option for malignant glioma and warrants translation into the clinic. PMID:28260886

  1. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  2. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and generate runoff and pollutant loads. The routing portion of SWMM transports this runoff through a system of pipes, channels, storage/treatment devices, pumps, and regulators. SWMM tracks the quantity and quality of runoff generated within each subcatchment, and the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. The reference manual for this edition of SWMM is comprised of three volumes. Volume I describes SWMM’s hydrologic models, Volume II its hydraulic models, and Volume III its water quality and low impact development models. Reference manual presenting underlying mathematics of the Storm Water Management Model - Volume III Water Quality Modules

  3. A Statistical Survey of the UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagarakis, George; Collin, Adam; Kiprakis, Aristides

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used appliances in the UK residential load sector, as well as a comprehensive technology and market survey conducted by the authors. The article focuses on the individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, which is particularly important for implementing load-use statistics in power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability density functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information that provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  4. Cognitive correlates of white matter lesion load and brain atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chuanhui; Nabizadeh, Nooshin; Caunca, Michelle; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; DeCarli, Charles; Sacco, Ralph L.; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated white matter lesion load and global and regional brain volumes in relation to domain-specific cognitive performance in the stroke-free Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) population. Methods: We quantified white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), total cerebral volume (TCV), and total lateral ventricular (TLV) volume, as well as hippocampal and cortical gray matter (GM) lobar volumes in a subgroup. We used general linear models to examine MRI markers in relation to domain-specific cognitive performance, adjusting for key covariates. Results: MRI and cognitive data were available for 1,163 participants (mean age 70 ± 9 years; 60% women; 66% Hispanic, 17% black, 15% white). Across the entire sample, those with greater WMHV had worse processing speed. Those with larger TLV volume did worse on episodic memory, processing speed, and semantic memory tasks, and TCV did not explain domain-specific variability in cognitive performance independent of other measures. Age was an effect modifier, and stratified analysis showed that TCV and WMHV explained variability in some domains above age 70. Smaller hippocampal volume was associated with worse performance across domains, even after adjusting for APOE ε4 and vascular risk factors, whereas smaller frontal lobe volumes were only associated with worse executive function. Conclusions: In this racially/ethnically diverse, community-based sample, white matter lesion load was inversely associated with cognitive performance, independent of brain atrophy. Lateral ventricular, hippocampal, and lobar GM volumes explained domain-specific variability in cognitive performance. PMID:26156514

  5. Activation energy of the low-load NaCl transition from nanoindentation loading curves.

    PubMed

    Kaupp, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Access to activation energies E(a) of phase transitions is opened by unprecedented analyses of temperature dependent nanoindentation loading curves. It is based on kinks in linearized loading curves, with additional support by coincidence of kink and electrical conductivity of silicon loading curves. Physical properties of B1, B2, NaCl and further phases are discussed. The normalized low-load transition energy of NaCl (Wtrans/µN) increases with temperature and slightly decreases with load. Its semi-logarithmic plot versus T obtains activation energy E(a)/µN for calculation of the transition work for all interesting temperatures and pressures. Arrhenius-type activation energy (kJ/mol) is unavailable for indentation phase transitions. The E(a) per load normalization proves insensitive to creep-on-load, which excludes normalization to depth or volume for large temperature ranges. Such phase transition E(a)/µN is unprecedented material's property and will be of practical importance for the compatibility of composite materials under impact and further shearing interactions at elevated temperatures.

  6. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  7. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  8. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  9. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  10. Haemodilution for acute ischaemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Timothy S; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischaemic stroke interrupts the flow of blood to part of the brain. Haemodilution is thought to improve the flow of blood to the affected areas of the brain and thus reduce infarct size. Objectives To assess the effects of haemodilution in acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to October 2013) and EMBASE (January 2008 to October 2013). We also searched trials registers, scanned reference lists and contacted authors. For the previous version of the review, the authors contacted manufacturers and investigators in the field. Selection criteria Randomised trials of haemodilution treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. We included only trials in which treatment was started within 72 hours of stroke onset. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trial quality and one review author extracted the data. Main results We included 21 trials involving 4174 participants. Nine trials used a combination of venesection and plasma volume expander. Twelve trials used plasma volume expander alone. The plasma volume expander was plasma alone in one trial, dextran 40 in 12 trials, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in five trials and albumin in three trials. Two trials tested haemodilution in combination with another therapy. Evaluation was blinded in 14 trials. Five trials probably included some participants with intracerebral haemorrhage. Haemodilution did not significantly reduce deaths within the first four weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.34). Similarly, haemodilution did not influence deaths within three to six months (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.20), or death and dependency or institutionalisation (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07). The results were similar in confounded and unconfounded trials, and in trials of isovolaemic and hypervolaemic haemodilution. No

  11. A general theory of acute and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Dayer, Mark J; Harrison, Andrew J I

    2013-04-30

    Current concepts of heart failure propose multiple heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms. Recently a theoretical framework for understanding chronic heart failure was suggested. This paper develops this framework to include acute heart failure syndromes. We propose that all acute heart failure syndromes may be understood in terms of a relative fall in left ventricular stroke volume. The initial compensatory mechanism is frequently a tachycardia often resulting in a near normal cardiac output. In more severe forms a fall in cardiac output causes hypotension or cardiogenic shock. In chronic heart failure the stroke volume and cardiac output is returned to normal predominantly through ventricular remodeling or dilatation. Ejection fraction is simply the ratio of stroke volume and end-diastolic volume. The resting stroke volume is predetermined by the tissue's needs; therefore, if the ejection fraction changes, the end-diastolic volume must change in a reciprocal manner. The potential role of the right heart in influencing the presentation of left heart disease is examined. We propose that acute pulmonary edema occurs when the right ventricular stroke volume exceeds left ventricular stroke volume leading to fluid accumulation in the alveoli. The possible role of the right heart in determining pulmonary hypertension and raised filling pressures in left-sided heart disease are discussed. Different clinical scenarios are presented to help clarify these proposed mechanisms and the clinical implications of these theories are discussed. Finally an alternative definition of heart failure is proposed.

  12. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  13. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  14. Cardiorenal-endocrine dynamics during and following volume expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.S.; Edwards, B.S.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Burnett, J.C. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    The relationship between atrial pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and renal hemodynamic and excretory function was examined during and following acute 10% body weight saline volume expansion and measurements were made at 3.3, 6.6, and 10% body weight volume expansion in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fractional excretion of Na (FE/sub Na/), and ANP all increased in parallel during volume expansion. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone decreased in parallel during 10% volume expansion. ANP, PRA and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Following 10% volume expansion, saline was infused at the peak urine flow rate to maintain peak volume expansion. Despite continued saline infusion, RAP, PCWP, and ANP decreased in parallel. In contrast, FE/sub Na/ remained increased, and aldosterone and PRA remained depressed. These studies demonstrate that atrial pressures, ANP, and FE/sub Na/ increase in parallel during volume expansion; this suggests a role for ANP in modulating acute atrial volume overload. During stable volume expansion periods, however, despite a decrease in ANP levels, Na excretion remains elevated, suggesting that non-ANP mechanisms may be important in maintaining natriuresis during stable volume expansion.

  15. Acute bacterial parotitis following acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, V K; Kimbrough, D J; Jarquin-Valdivia, A A

    2009-06-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis (ABP) is a relatively uncommon condition that tends to occur in debilitated older patients. We report a case of an older woman that presented with an acute intracerebral hemorrhage who developed ABP. This morbidity led to endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy and gastrostomy, all of which were not initially needed. We discuss the proposed physiopathology and etiopathogenesis of ABP in adults.

  16. Quantitative estimation of a ratio of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume to brain volume based on segmentation of CT images in patients with extra-axial hematoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Kurpad, Shekar; Mueller, Wade

    2017-02-01

    Background Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. Objective The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma. Patients and methods In our retrospective study, we reviewed 113 patients with surgical extra-axial hematomas. We included 28 patients (age 61.7 +/- 17.7 years; 19 males, nine females) with an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) ( n = 5) and subacute/chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) ( n = 23). We excluded 85 patients, in order, due to acute SDH ( n = 76), concurrent intraparenchymal pathology ( n = 6), and bilateral pathology ( n = 3). Noncontrast CT images of the head were obtained using a CT scanner (2004 GE LightSpeed VCT CT system, tube voltage 140 kVp, tube current 310 mA, 5 mm section thickness) preoperatively, postoperatively (3.8 ± 5.8 hours from surgery), and at follow-up clinic visit (48.2 ± 27.7 days after surgery). Each CT scan was loaded into an OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) workstation to segment pixels based on radiodensity properties measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Based on HU values from -30 to 100, brain, CSF spaces, vascular structures, hematoma, and/or postsurgical fluid were segregated from bony structures, and subsequently hematoma and/or postsurgical fluid were manually selected and removed from the images. The remaining images represented overall brain volume-containing only CSF spaces, vascular structures, and brain parenchyma. Thereafter, the ratio between the total number of voxels representing CSF volume (based on values between 0 and 15 HU) to the total number of voxels

  17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  18. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  19. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  20. Acute phosphate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza

    2014-05-01

    We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as the sudden inflammation ... the incidence of recurrent attacks minimized. Timothy Gardner, MD is Director of Pancreatic Disorders at Dartmouth-Hitchcock ...

  2. Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Up; Kim, Jin Kyeung; Won, Jong Ho; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Hee Sook; Park, Kyeung Kyu

    1993-01-01

    The decision to operate for abdominal pain in patients with leukopenia can be exceedingly difficult. Surgical exploration may be the only effective way to differentiate acute appendicitis from other causes, but it involves considerable risk of infectious complications due to immunesuppression. Leukemic patients, who presented significant RLQ pain, had been indicated for operation, despite having advanced disease or having had received chemotherapy or steroids. Four adult leukemia patients, complicated by acute appendictis, were reviewed. Two patients were in induction chemotherapy, one receiving salvage chemotheapy due to relapse and the other was in conservative treatment. Two patients were acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), one had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the other had aleukemic leukemia. All patients underwent appendectomy and recovered without complication. Our experience supports the theory that the surgical management of appendicitis in acute leukemia is the most effective way, in spite of leukopenia. PMID:8268146

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Hypoperfusion in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nael, Kambiz; Meshksar, Arash; Liebeskind, David S.; Coull, Bruce M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Villablanca, J. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study compares the concordance between arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) for the identification of regional hypoperfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch tissue classification using a quantitative method. Methods The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were as follows: patients with acute ischemic syndrome with symptom onset <24 hours and acquisition of both ASL and DSC MR perfusion. The volumes of infarction and hypoperfused lesions were calculated on ASL and DSC multi-parametric maps. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups using time to maximum >6 sec as the reference. In a subset of patients who were successfully recanalized, the identical analysis was performed and the infarction and hypoperfused lesion volumes were used for paired pre- and posttreatment comparisons. Results Forty-one patients met our inclusion criteria. Twenty patients underwent successful endovascular revascularization (TICI>2a), resulting in a total of 61 ASL-DSC data pairs for comparison. The hypoperfusion volume on ASL-cerebral blood flow best approximated the DSC-time to peak volume (r=0.83) in pretreatment group and time to maximum (r=0.46) after recanalization. Both ASL-cerebral blood flow and DSC-TTP overestimated the hypoperfusion volume compared with time to maximum volume in pretreatment (F=27.41, P<0.0001) and recanalized patients (F=8.78, P<0.0001). Conclusions ASL-cerebral blood flow overestimates the DSC time to maximum hypoperfusion volume and mismatch classification in patients with acute ischemic syndrome. Continued overestimation of hypoperfused volume after recanalization suggests flow pattern and velocity changes in addition to arterial transit delay can affects the performance of ASL. PMID:23988646

  4. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  5. In vivo dynamic stiffness of the porcine lumbar spine exposed to cyclic loading: influence of load and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kaigle, A; Ekström, L; Holm, S; Rostedt, M; Hansson, T

    1998-02-01

    The dynamic axial stiffness of the L2-3 motion segment subjected to vibratory loading under intact and injured states of the intervertebral disc was studied using an in vivo porcine model. Three groups of animals with the following states of the intervertebral discs were studied: intact disc, acutely injured disc, and degenerated disc. A miniaturized servo-hydraulic exciter was used to sinusoidally vibrate the motion segment from 0.05 to 25 Hz under a compressive load with a peak value of either 100 or 200 N. The dynamic axial stiffness of the intervertebral disc was calculated at 1-Hz intervals over the frequency range. The results showed that the dynamic axial stiffness was frequency dependent. A positive relationship was found between an increase in mean dynamic stiffness and load magnitude. An increase in mean stiffness with successive exposures at the same load magnitude was observed, despite the allowance of a recovery period between loading. The greatest difference was noted between the first and second load sets. No significant change in stiffness was found due to an acute disc injury, whereas a significant increase in mean stiffness was found for the degenerated disc group as compared with the intact group. The form of the frequency response curve, however, remained relatively unaltered regardless of the degenerated state of the disc. With heavier loads, repeated loading, and/or disc degeneration, the stiffness of the intervertebral disc increases. An increase in stiffness can mean a reduction in the amount of allowable motion within the motion segment or a potentially harmful increase in force to obtain the desired motion. This may locally result in greater stresses due to an altered ability of the disc to distribute loads.

  6. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  7. Influence of resistance load on neuromuscular response to vibration training.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Clarke, Michael; McNamara, Brian; Moran, Kieran

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of resistance load on the acute and acute residual effects of vibration training, with vibration applied directly to the bicep tendon in a maximal-effort dynamic resistance exercise (3 sets of maximal-effort bicep curls). Eleven participants were exposed to 4 training conditions in random order: exercise with 1 of 2 different loads (40% 1-repetition maximum [RM] or 70% 1RM load) combined with 1 of 2 vibration conditions (vibration [1.2 mm, 65 Hz] or sham vibration). Five minutes before and after the exercise, a set of maximal-effort bicep curls with a load of either 40 or 70% 1RM was performed as the pre- and posttraining test. Concentric elbow joint angular velocity, moment and power, and bicep root mean square electromyography (EMGrms) were measured during training and in the pre- and posttraining tests. The results show that during training (acute effect) and at 5 minutes after training (acute residual effect), vibration did not induce a significant change in EMGrms, mean and peak angular velocities, moment and power, time to peak power, and initial power at 100 milliseconds after the start of the concentric phase for either resistance load. Therefore, in aiming to train neuromuscular output using maximal-effort dynamic contractions (40 and 70% 1RM), there is no benefit in employing direct vibration, at least with a 1.2-mm amplitude and 65-Hz frequency. However, the amplitude of 1.2 mm may be too high to effectively stimulate neuromuscular output in maximal-effort dynamic contractions per se.

  8. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  9. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    PubMed Central

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  10. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality.

    PubMed

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate

  11. Prediction of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in intervertebral disc under mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong

    2016-09-06

    The loss of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content is a major biochemical change during intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Abnormal mechanical loading is one of the major factors causing disc degeneration. In this study, a multiscale mathematical model was developed to quantify the effect of mechanical loading on GAG synthesis. This model was based on a recently developed cell volume dependent GAG synthesis theory that predicts the variation of GAG synthesis rate of a cell under the influence of mechanical stimuli, and the biphasic theory that describes the deformation of IVD under mechanical loading. The GAG synthesis (at the cell level) was coupled with the mechanical loading (at the tissue level) via a cell-matrix unit approach which established a relationship between the variation of cell dilatation and the local tissue dilatation. This multiscale mathematical model was used to predict the effect of static load (creep load) on GAG synthesis in bovine tail discs. The predicted results are in the range of experimental results. This model was also used to investigate the effect of static (0.2MPa) and diurnal loads (0.1/0.3MPa and 0.15/0.25MPa in 12/12 hours shift with an average of 0.2MPa over a cycle) on GAG synthesis. It was found that static load and diurnal loads have different effects on GAG synthesis in a diurnal cycle, and the diurnal load effects depend on the amplitude of the load. The model is important to understand the effect of mechanical loading at the tissue level on GAG synthesis at the cellular level, as well as to optimize the mechanical loading in growing engineered tissue.

  12. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.

  13. Quantifying loading, toxic concentrations, and systemic persistence of chloride in a contemporary mixed-land-use watershed using an experimental watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Hubbart, J A; Kellner, E; Hooper, L W; Zeiger, S

    2017-03-01

    A nested-scale experimental watershed study was implemented to quantify loading and persistence of chloride in an urbanizing, mixed-land-use watershed. A Midwest USA (Missouri) watershed was partitioned into five sub-basins with contrasting dominant land use. Streamwater was tested for chloride concentration four days per week from October 2009 through May 2014 at each site. Monitoring sites included co-located gauging and climate stations recording variables at 30-minute intervals. Results indicate significant (p<0.01) differences in chloride concentrations and loading between sites. Loading consistently increased from the forested headwaters (average=507kgday(-1)) to primarily urban watershed terminus (average=7501kgday(-1)). Chloride concentrations were highest (average=83.9mgL(-1)) with the greatest frequency of acutely toxic conditions (i.e. 860mgL(-1)) mid-watershed. This finding is in-part attributable to the ratio of chloride application to streamflow volume (i.e. increasing flow volume with stream distance resulted in chloride dilution, offsetting increased percent urban land use with stream distance). Results highlight the important, yet often confounding, interactions between pollutant loading and flow dynamics. Chloride peaks occurred during late winter/early spring melting periods, implicating road salt application as the primary contributor to the chloride regime. Floodplain groundwater analysis indicated seasonal sink/source relationships between the stream and floodplain, which could contribute to chronic toxicity and persistent low Cl(-) concentrations in streamwater year-round. Results hold important implications for resource managers wishing to mitigate water quality and aquatic habitat degradation, and suggest important water quality limitations to stream restoration success in complex urban aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Chondrocyte intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression responses to dynamic osmotic loading.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; West, Alan C; Hung, Clark T

    2006-10-01

    While chondrocytes in articular cartilage experience dynamic stimuli from joint loading activities, few studies have examined the effects of dynamic osmotic loading on their signaling and biosynthetic activities. We hypothesize that dynamic osmotic loading modulates chondrocyte signaling and gene expression differently than static osmotic loading. With the use of a novel microfluidic device developed in our laboratory, dynamic hypotonic loading (-200 mosM) was applied up to 0.1 Hz and chondrocyte calcium signaling, cytoskeleton organization, and gene expression responses were examined. Chondrocytes exhibited decreasing volume and calcium responses with increasing loading frequency. Phalloidin staining showed osmotic loading-induced changes to the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocytes. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a stimulatory effect of dynamic osmotic loading compared with static osmotic loading. These studies illustrate the utility of the microfluidic device in cell signaling investigations, and their potential role in helping to elucidate mechanisms that mediate chondrocyte mechanotransduction to dynamic stimuli.

  15. Truck loading rack blending

    SciTech Connect

    Boubenider, E.

    1995-12-01

    Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

  16. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  17. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  18. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  19. Global Ice-loading History Reconstructed Over Five Glacial Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, F. H.; Grant, K. M.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Rohling, E. J.; Hibbert, F. D.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution ice-loading reconstructions are a vital tool not only for palaeoclimate studies, but also for providing a palaeoenvironmental context to human development. Here we present a global ice-loading history developed using the high resolution, Red Sea relative sea-level (RSL) record. (Siddall et al. 2003, Rohling et al. 2009, Grant et al. in submission) We use glacial isostatic adjustment modelling to determine a set of corrections to the Red Sea RSL record, which is then translated into a global mean sea level. This global mean sea level allows us to calculate a global ice volume. Global ice volume is geographically distributed within our ice-loading history according to currently available data regarding ice margins, their timing, and constraints on maximum ice load. Where constraints are sparse we use a combination of ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the de Boer coupled ice sheet model (de Boer et al, 2014) as a template for ice distribution. Although an ice-loading history for the past 5 Myr exists, this is the first time that geographic constraints have been applied to global ice volumes over 5 glacial cycles. Our ice-loading reconstruction is further supported by the high resolution of our source RSL data. Our ice-loading history is tested against a global compilation of coral sea-level indicators (Hibbert et al., in prep.), and compared with ice histories developed from alternate ice volume reconstructions or RSL records, including a global ice history based on that developed by de Boer et al. (2014), the sea-level record of Waelbroeck et al. (2002) and a simple ice history based on the δ18O stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (2005).

  20. The Effects of Load Distribution and Gradient on Load Carriage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Postural adjustments while standing with two types of loaded backpack. Ergonomics, 30(10), 1425–1430. Bobet, J. & Norman, R. W. (1984). Effects of...Danise, B., Milanese, S., Pirunsan, U., & Trott, P. (2002). Adolescent standing postural response to backpack loads: a randomized controlled...loads are authorized. Numerous studies conclude that backpack loads have a huge impact on soldiers’ load carrying ability. The platoon’s combat

  1. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  3. Identification of alternating renewal electric load models from energy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ferik, Sami; Malhame, Roland P.

    1994-06-01

    In statistical load modeling methodologies, aggregate electric load behavior is derived by propagating the ensemble statistics of an individual load process which is representative of the loads in the aggregate. Such a modeling philosophy tends to yield models whereby if physical meaning is present at the elemental level, it is preserved at the aggregate level. This property is essential for applications involving direct control of power system loads (for peak load shaving purposes, for example). The potential applicability of statistical load models is a strong function of one's ability to limit the volume of unusual data required to build those. An identification algorithm for a previously proposed stochastic hybrid-state Markov model of individual heating-cooling loads is presented. It relies only on data routinely gathered in power systems (device energy consumption over constant time intervals). It exploits an alternating renewal viewpoint of the load dynamics. After deriving some general results on the occupation statistics of time homogeneous alternating renewal processes, the analysis is focused on the specific model. In the process, however, some intriguing features likely to be shared by a wide class of alternating renewal processes are revealed.

  4. Control emissions from marine vessel loading

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.N.; Cross, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    Regulations set by the US Coast Guard require safety measures during the loading of marine vessels connected to vapor collection systems. These regulations (which were promulgated in July 1990) immediately impacted all companies involved with the loading of benzene, due to previously enacted US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing benzene transfer. In addition, regulations issued by the states of California, New Jersey, and Louisiana impose additional marine emission control requirements. These regulations effectively work together--the federal or state environmental rule first requires the collection of the vapors generate from vessel loading, and then the Coast Guard regulation governs the safety features that must be applied to the system. Depending on the vapor pressure of the chemical, a 10,000-barrel barge may emit over one ton of chemical to the atmosphere. Such large volumes make marine loading a prime target for the push to further reduce atmospheric pollution, and its is a good be that many more companies will be asked to look at the recovery of vapors during the loading of marine vessels. This article will aid the engineer who may be asked to evaluate the various methods of controlling emissions from vessel loading. It provides some guidance on the requirements of the Coast Guard regulations and briefly outlines some of the technologies that have been used to process the collected vapors. Some important design considerations unique to marine systems are discussed to help engineers avoid some of the potential pitfalls. Finally, some estimated costs are provided for two common types of marine vapor control systems.

  5. Transfer Mechanisms for Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1986-01-01

    Soft hydraulic system gently maneuvers loads. Upper and lower load-transfer mechanisms attach through mounting holes in vertical beam adjustable or gross positioning. Fine positioning of load accomplished by hydraulic cylinders that move trunnion support and trunnion clamp through short distances. Useful in transferring large loads in railroads, agriculture, shipping, manufacturing, and even precision assembly of large items.

  6. Normotensive sodium loading in conscious dogs: regulation of renin secretion during beta-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bie, Peter; Mølstrøm, Simon; Wamberg, Søren

    2009-02-01

    Renin secretion is regulated in part by renal nerves operating through beta1-receptors of the renal juxtaglomerular cells. Slow sodium loading may decrease plasma renin concentration (PRC) and cause natriuresis at constant mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We hypothesized that in this setting, renin secretion and renin-dependent sodium excretion are controlled by via the renal nerves and therefore are eliminated or reduced by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the juxtaglomerular cells with the beta1-receptor antagonist metoprolol. This was tested in conscious dogs by infusion of NaCl (20 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) for 180 min, NaLoad) during regular or low-sodium diet (0.03 mmol.kg(-1).day(-1), LowNa) with and without metoprolol (2 mg/kg plus 0.9 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)). Vasopressin V2 receptors were blocked by Otsuka compound OPC31260 to facilitate clearance measurements. Body fluid volume was maintained by servocontrolled fluid infusion. Metoprolol per se did not affect MAP, heart rate, or sodium excretion significantly, but reduced PRC and ANG II by 30-40%, increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and tripled potassium excretion. LowNa per se increased PRC (+53%), ANG II (+93%), and aldosterone (+660%), and shifted the vasopressin function curve to the left. NaLoad elevated plasma [Na+] by 4.5% and vasopressin by threefold, but MAP and plasma ANP remained unchanged. NaLoad decreased PRC by approximately 30%, ANG II by approximately 40%, and aldosterone by approximately 60%, regardless of diet and metoprolol. The natriuretic response to NaLoad was augmented during metoprolol regardless of diet. In conclusion, PRC depended on dietary sodium and beta1-adrenergic control as expected; however, the acute sodium-driven decrease in PRC at constant MAP and GFR was unaffected by beta1-receptor blockade demonstrating that renin may be regulated without changes in MAP, GFR, or beta1-mediated effects of norepinephrine. Low

  7. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  8. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  9. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  10. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  11. Micropollutant loads in the urban water cycle.

    PubMed

    Musolff, Andreas; Leschik, Sebastian; Reinstorf, Frido; Strauch, Gerhard; Schirmer, Mario

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of micropollutants in the urban aquatic environment is a challenging task since both the water balance and the contaminant concentrations are characterized by a pronounced variability in time and space. In this study the water balance of a central European urban drainage catchment is quantified for a period of one year. On the basis of a concentration monitoring of several micropollutants, a contaminant mass balance for the study area's wastewater, surface water, and groundwater is derived. The release of micropollutants from the catchment was mainly driven by the discharge of the wastewater treatment plant. However, combined sewer overflows (CSO) released significant loads of caffeine, bisphenol A, and technical 4-nonylphenol. Since an estimated fraction of 9.9-13.0% of the wastewater's dry weather flow was lost as sewer leakages to the groundwater, considerable loads of bisphenol A and technical 4-nonylphenol were also released by the groundwater pathway. The different temporal dynamics of release loads by CSO as an intermittent source and groundwater as well as treated wastewater as continuous pathways may induce acute as well as chronic effects on the receiving aquatic ecosystem. This study points out the importance of the pollution pathway CSO and groundwater for the contamination assessments of urban water resources.

  12. Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases: volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of ''Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases'' comprises chapters devoted to: general remarks and considerations, radiopharmaceuticals, Paget disease, osteomyelitis, trauma, benign bone tumors, chronic renal dialysis, acute renal failure, osteomalacia and rickets, and osteoporosis. Although published in 1981, the most recent references in the book were 1978 and most are 1977 or earlier. One of the strongest aspects of the volume are tables which categorize diseases, pathophysiology of disease, and image abnormalities. (JMT)

  13. Astronautic Structures Manual, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This document (Volumes I, II, and III) presents a compilation of industry-wide methods in aerospace strength analysis that can be carried out by hand, that are general enough in scope to cover most structures encountered, and that are sophisticated enough to give accurate estimates of the actual strength expected. It provides analysis techniques for the elastic and inelastic stress ranges. It serves not only as a catalog of methods not usually available, but also as a reference source for the background of the methods themselves. An overview of the manual is as follows: Section A is a general introduction of methods used and includes sections on loads, combined stresses, and interaction curves; Section B is devoted to methods of strength analysis; Section C is devoted to the topic of structural stability; Section D is on thermal stresses; Section E is on fatigue and fracture mechanics; Section F is on composites; Section G is on rotating machinery; and Section H is on statistics. These three volumes supersede Volumes I and II, NASA TM X-60041 and NASA TM X-60042, respectively.

  14. Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Baumert, Jan-H.; Roehl, Anna B.; Funcke, Sandra; Hein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion) was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation) and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work) were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning. PMID:27867480

  15. Effect of acute inflation on the mechanics of the inspiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2009-07-01

    When the lung is inflated acutely, the capacity of the diaphragm to generate pressure, in particular pleural pressure (Ppl), is impaired because the muscle during contraction is shorter and generates less force. At very high lung volumes, the pressure-generating capacity of the diaphragm may be further reduced by an increase in the muscle radius of curvature. Lung inflation similarly impairs the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory intercostal muscles, both the parasternal intercostals and the external intercostals. In contrast to the diaphragm, however, this adverse effect is largely related to the orientation and motion of the ribs, rather than the ability of the muscles to generate force. During combined activation of the two sets of muscles, the change in Ppl is larger than during isolated diaphragm activation, and this added load on the diaphragm reduces the shortening of the muscle and increases muscle force. In addition, activation of the diaphragm suppresses the cranial displacement of the passive diaphragm that occurs during isolated intercostal contraction and increases the respiratory effect of the intercostals. As a result, the change in Ppl generated during combined diaphragm-intercostal activation is greater than the sum of the pressures generated during separate muscle activation. Although this synergistic interaction becomes particularly prominent at high lung volumes, lung inflation, either bilateral or unilateral, places a substantial stress on the inspiratory muscle pump.

  16. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  17. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  18. [Acute rheumatic fever].

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexander; Kommer, Vera

    2016-03-01

    We report on a young women with acute rheumatic fever. Acute rheumatic fever has become a rare disease in Germany, especially in adults. This carries the risk that it can be missed in the differential diagnostic considerations of acute rheumatic disorders and febrile status. If rheumatic fever is not diagnosed and treated correctly, there is a considerable risk for rheumatic valvular heart disease. In this article diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic fever are discussed extensively.

  19. Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Nuzzo, James L; Cavill, Michael J; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare 4 different methods of calculating volume when comparing resistance exercise protocols of varying intensities. Ten Appalachian State University students experienced in resistance exercise completed 3 different resistance exercise protocols on different days using a randomized, crossover design, with 1 week of rest between each protocol. The protocols included 1) hypertrophy: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (90-second rest periods); 2) strength: 11 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM (5-minute rest periods); and 3) power: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% 1RM (3-minute rest periods). The volume of resistance exercise completed during each protocol was determined with 4 different methods: 1) volume load (VL) (repetitions [no.] x external load [kg]); 2) maximum dynamic strength volume load (MDSVL) (repetitions [no.] x [body mass--shank mass (kg) + external load (kg)]); 3) time under tension (TUT) (eccentric time +milliseconds] + concentric time +milliseconds]); and 4) total work (TW) (force [N] x displacement [m]). The volumes differed significantly (p , 0.05) between hypertrophy and strength in comparison with the power protocol when VL and MDSVL were used to determine the volume of resistance exercise completed. Furthermore, significant differences in TUT existed between all 3 resistance exercise protocols. The TW calculated was not significantly different between the 3 protocols. These data imply that each method examined results in substantially different values when comparing various resistance exercise protocols involving different levels of intensity.

  20. Load measurement system with load cell lock-out mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty; Liu, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    In the frame work of the project Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), a Load Measurement System was developed and fabricated to measure the impingement force of Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) jets. The Load Measurement System is a force sensing system that measures any combination of normal and shear forces up to 40 N (9 lbf) in the normal direction and 22 N (5 lbf) in the shear direction with an accuracy of +/- 0.04 N (+/- 0.01 lbf) Since high resolution is required for the force measurement, the Load Measurement System is built with highly sensitive load cells. To protect these fragile load cells in the non-operational mode from being damaged due to flight loads such as launch and landing loads of the Shuttle vehicle, a motor driven device known as the Load Cell Lock-Out Mechanism was built. This Lock-Out Mechanism isolates the load cells from flight loads and re-engages the load cells for the force measurement experiment once in space. With this highly effective protection system, the SPIFEX load measurement experiment was successfully conducted on STS-44 in September 1994 with all load cells operating properly and reading impingement forces as expected.

  1. Acute Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Responses to Resistance Exercise in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Volaklis, Konstantinos A.; Smilios, Ilias; Spassis, Apostolos T.; Zois, Christos E.; Douda, Helen T.; Halle, Martin; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the inflammatory effects of resistance exercise in healthy and even less in diseased individuals such as cardiac patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute pro- and anti-inflammatory responses during resistance exercise (RE) in patients with coronary artery disease. Eight low risk patients completed two acute RE protocols at low (50% of 1 RM; 2x18 rps) and moderate intensity (75% of 1 RM; 3x8 rps) in random order. Both protocols included six exercises and had the same total load volume. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after and 60 minutes after each protocol for the determination of lactate, TNFα, INF-γ, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, and hsCRP concentrations. IL-6 and IL-10 levels increased (p < 0.05) immediately after both RE protocols with no differences between protocols. INF-γ was significantly lower (p < 0.05) 60 min after the low intensity protocol, whereas TGF-β1 increased (p < 0.05) immediately after the low intensity protocol. There were no differences in TNF-& and hs-CRP after both RE protocols or between protocols. The above data indicate that acute resistance exercise performed at low to moderate intensity in low risk, trained CAD patients is safe and does not exacerbate the inflammation associated with their disease. Key points Acute resistance exercise is safe without exacerbating inflammation in patients with CAD. Both exercise intensities (50 and 75% of 1 RM) elicit desirable pro-and anti-inflammatory responses. With both exercise intensities (50 and 75% of 1 RM) acceptable clinical hemodynamic alterations were observed. PMID:25729295

  2. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  3. How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness.

    PubMed

    Schwellnus, Martin; Soligard, Torbjørn; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim J; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse Van Rensburg, Christa; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-09-01

    The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport. This paper summarises the results linking load to risk of illness and overtraining in athletes, and provides athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines for appropriate load management to reduce the risk of illness and overtraining in sport. These include guidelines for prescription of training and competition load, as well as for monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and illness. In the process, urgent research priorities were identified.

  4. Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail

    2014-12-01

    Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically "Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage" (RIFLE), "Acute Kidney Injury Netwok" (AKIN) and "The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also "cell cycle arrest" molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated.

  5. Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically “Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage” (RIFLE), “Acute Kidney Injury Netwok” (AKIN) and “The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes” (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also “cell cycle arrest” molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated. PMID:27366441

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES ON KNEE EXTENSION FATIGUE

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Victor Gonçalves Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Foam rolling (FR) is a common intervention utilized for the purpose of acutely increasing range-of-motion without subsequent decreases in performance. FR is characterized as an active technique which subject performs upon themselves. Thus, it is believed that the accumulated fatigue can influence whether the task can be continued. Purpose To analyze the effect of different foam rolling volumes on fatigue of the knee extensors. Methods Twenty-five recreationally active females (age 27.7 ± 3.56 y, height 168.4 ± 7.1 cm, weight 69.1 ± 10.2 kg) were recruited for the study. The experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre-determined 10 repetition maximum load to concentric failure. Then, subjects performed the control (CONT) and foam rolling (FR) conditions. FR conditions consisted of different anterior thigh rolling volumes (60-, 90-, and 120-seconds) which were performed during the inter-set rest period. After that, the fatigue index was calculated and compared between each experimental condition. Fatigue index indicates how much (%) resistance the subjects experienced, calculated by the equation: (thidset/firstset) x 100. Results Fatigue index was statistically significantly greater (greater fatigue resistance) for CONT compared to FR90 (p = 0.001) and FR120 (p = 0.001). Similarly, higher fatigue resistance was observed for FR60 when compared to FR120 (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences between the other conditions (p > 0.005). Conclusion The finding of foam rolling fatigue index decline (less fatigue resistance) as compared to control conditions may have implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. For the purposes of maximum repetition performance, foam rolling should not be applied to the agonist muscle group between sets of knee extensions. Moreover, it seems that volumes greater than 90-seconds are detrimental to the

  7. Infant acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569

  8. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  9. 32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER SLAB AND UNDERSIDE OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  11. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  12. Load regulating latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A load regulating mechanical latch is described that has a pivotally mounted latch element having a hook-shaped end with a strike roller-engaging laterally open hook for engaging a stationary strike roller. The latch element or hook is pivotally mounted in a clevis end of an elongated latch stem that is adapted for axial movement through an opening in a support plate or bracket mounted to a structural member. A coil spring is disposed over and around the extending latch stem and the lower end of the coil spring engages the support bracket. A thrust washer is removably attached to the other end of the latch stem and engages the other end of the coil spring and compresses the coil spring thereby preloading the spring and the latch element carried by the latch stem. The hook-shaped latch element has a limited degree of axial travel for loading caused by structural distortion which may change the relative positions of the latch element hook and the strike roller. Means are also provided to permit limited tilt of the latch element due to loading of the hook.

  13. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  14. Comparative haemodynamic effects of intravenous lignocaine, disopyramide and flecainide in uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Silke, B; Frais, M A; Verma, S P; Reynolds, G W; Hafizullah, M; Kalra, P A; Jackson, N C; Taylor, S H

    1986-01-01

    A prospective study evaluated the comparative haemodynamic effects of three Class I antiarrhythmics (lignocaine Class 1B, disopyramide Class 1A and flecainide Class 1C) in 30 patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Three groups, each of 10 patients, were allocated to lignocaine (Group I) 1.5 mg kg-1 i.v. loading dose over 10 min followed by infusion at 3 mg kg-1 h-1, disopyramide (Group II) or flecainide (Group III), both administered as a 1.0 mg kg-1 i.v. loading bolus over 10 min followed by a 1.6 mg kg-1 h-1 infusion for 120 min. The plasma levels of each drug were in the described therapeutic range. Lignocaine decreased cardiac index (-0.3 l min-1 m-2 (9%); P less than 0.05) and stroke volume index (-5 ml m-2 (11%); P less than 0.01). Systemic blood pressure, heart rate and systemic vascular resistance index were unchanged. There was a small increase (+3 mm Hg (30%); P less than 0.01) in pulmonary artery occluded pressure (PAOP). Both disopyramide and flecainide increased systemic blood pressure; the maximum increases for mean blood pressure were +10 mm Hg (11%) and +4 mm Hg (4%) respectively. Both drugs reduced cardiac index (-0.5 l min-1 m-2 (16%): -0.4 l min-1 m-2 (11%)) and stroke volume index (-11 ml m-2 (25%): -5 ml m-2 (11%)). There were increases in heart rate (+13: +5 beats min-1) pulmonary artery occluded pressure (+2: +3 mm Hg) and systemic vascular resistance index (+696: +275 dyn s cm-5 m2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3105568

  15. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  16. The Effect of Altered Loading on Mandibular Condylar Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Raman; O’Brien, Mara H.; Dutra, Eliane; Lima, Alexandro; Utreja, Achint; Yadav, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to delineate the cellular, mechanical and morphometric effects of altered loading on the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and subchondral bone. We hypothesized that altered loading will induce differentiation of cells by accelerating the lineage progression of the MCC. Materials and Methods Four-week-old male Dkk3 XCol2A1XCol10A1 mice were randomly divided into two groups: (1) Loaded-Altered loading of MCC was induced by forced mouth opening using a custom-made spring; (2) Control-served as an unloaded group. Mice were euthanized and flow cytometery based cell analysis, micro-CT, gene expression analysis, histology and morphometric measurements were done to assess the response. Results Our flow cytometery data showed that altered loading resulted in a significant increase in a number of Col2a1-positive (blue) and Col10a1-positive (red) expressing cells. The gene expression analysis showed significant increase in expression of BMP2, Col10a1 and Sox 9 in the altered loading group. There was a significant increase in the bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, but a decrease in the trabecular spacing of the subchondral bone with the altered loading. Morphometric measurements revealed increased mandibular length, increased condylar length and increased cartilage width with altered loading. Our histology showed increased mineralization/calcification of the MCC with 5 days of loading. An unexpected observation was an increase in expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity in the fibrocartilaginous region with loading. Conclusion Altered loading leads to mineralization of fibrocartilage and drives the lineage towards differentiation/maturation. PMID:27472059

  17. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-07-18

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    PubMed

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  19. Low reflectance high power RF load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  20. Adult Acute Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K.; Wells, D. G.; Clink, H. McD.; Kay, H. E. M.; Powles, R.; McElwain, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Seventy-eight adult patients with acute leukaemia were classified cytologically into 3 categories: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) or acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL). The periodic acid-Schiff stain was of little value in differentiating the 3 groups. The treatment response in each group was different: 94% of patients with ALL (16/17) achieved complete remission with prednisone, vincristine and other drugs in standard use in childhood ALL; 59% of patients with AML (27/46) achieved complete remission with cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin (22 patients), or 6-thioguanine and cyclophosphamide (2 patients), 6-thioguanine, cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin (1 patient), and cytosine and Adriamycin (1 patient); only 2 out of 14 patients (14%) with acute undifferentiated leukaemia achieved complete remission using cytosine and daunorubicin after an initial trial of prednisone and vincristine had failed. Prednisone and vincristine would seem to be of no value in acute undifferentiated leukaemia. It would seem also that no benefit is obtained by classifying all patients with acute leukaemia over 20 years of age as “adult acute leukaemia” and treating them with the same polypharmaceutical regimen. The problems posed by each disease are different and such a policy serves only to obscure them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4141625

  1. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew Philip; Gorelick, Marc H

    2016-06-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a primarily pediatric, immune-mediated disease characterized by demyelination and polyfocal neurologic symptoms that typically occur after a preceding viral infection or recent immunization. This article presents the pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We also present evaluation and management strategies.

  2. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  3. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Giovanna; Constine, Louis S.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J.; Allen, Aaron M.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

  4. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acute toxicity of chemical substances and mixtures (“chemicals”) subject to environmental effects test... per volume of nutrient medium or test solution in a specified period of time. (5) Static system means a test container in which the test solution is not renewed during the period of the test. (c)...

  5. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Alper, Gulay

    2012-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, commonly preceded by an infection. It principally involves the white matter tracts of the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mainly affects children. Clinically, patients present with multifocal neurologic abnormalities reflecting the widespread involvement in central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid may be normal or may show a mild pleocytosis with or without elevated protein levels. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis typically has a monophasic course with a favorable prognosis. Multiphasic forms have been reported, resulting in diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis. In addition, many inflammatory disorders may have a similar presentation with frequent occurrence of encephalopathy and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  7. Treatment of acute and remote symptomatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Barbara S

    2009-07-01

    In principle, the use of anticonvulsant drugs does not differ between acute and remote symptomatic seizures, but control of acute symptomatic seizures requires simultaneous treatment of the underlying etiology. Prevention of remote seizures when the risk is known to be high has been the subject of intense efforts at antiepileptogenesis, but the optimal duration of treatment after an injury is not yet known. Appropriate evaluation of a seizure depends on individual circumstances, but findings on examination, laboratory tests (serum electrolytes, magnesium, glucose, assessment of hepatic and renal function), and brain imaging (CT scan or MRI) are necessary to determine the most likely cause. Lumbar puncture is always required when there is suspicion of meningitis or encephalitis. Preferred medications for treatment of acute symptomatic seizures or status epilepticus are those available for intravenous use, such as benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin or phenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, and phenobarbital. Diazepam is also available as a gel for rectal administration. Seizures that occur in patients with epilepsy because of missed antiepileptic drugs or inadequate serum levels should be treated with additional doses of their regular medications; loading doses can be administered with minimal toxicity in tolerant patients. Surgery is rarely necessary in the acute setting except for intracerebral lesions with rapidly rising intracranial pressure and impending herniation. After seizures are controlled, the provoking condition must also be determined and treated.

  8. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  9. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  10. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  11. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  12. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  13. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  14. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  15. Effect of volume expansion on renal citrate and ammonia metabolism in KCl-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, S; Zett, B; Anderson, B; Fraley, D S

    1975-01-01

    When rats with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced potassium chloride deficiency are given sodium chloride there is simultaneously a partial correction of metabolic alkalosis and a marked reduction in urinary citrate excretion and renal citrate content. To examine DOCA's role in this phenomenon and to determine how sodium chloride alters renal metabolism, rats were made KC1 deficient using furosemide and a KC1-deficient diet. Renal citrate and ammonia metabolism were then studied after chronic oral sodium chloride administration or acute volume expansion with isotonic mannitol. Although both maneuvers partially corrected metabolic alkalosis, sodium chloride raised serum chloride concentration while mannitol significantly decreased it. Urinary citrate excretion decreased to 10% of control in rats given NaCl and to 50% of control in rats infused with mannitol. The filtered load of citrate was constant or increased indicating increased tubular citrate reabsorption. Renal cortical citrate content also decreased approximately 50%. Renal cortical slices from KCl-deficient rats incubated in low or normal chloride media produced equal amounts of 14CO2 from (1, 5-14C) citrate. In addition, urinary ammonia excretion increased by over 300% in both groups. This occurred in the mannitol group despite increased urinary pH and flow rate indicating a rise in renal ammonia production. It seems that neither DOCA nor an increase in serum chloride concentration explains the experimental results. Rather, it appears that volume expansion is responsible for increased renal tubular citrate reabsorption and renal ammonia production. As these renal metabolic responses ordinarily occur in response to acidosis, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that volume expansion reduces renal cell pH in 3KCl-deficient rats. PMID:239022

  16. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  17. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Treating Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia In recent years, new drugs that target specific ... Typical Treatment of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  18. Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia Early diagnosis and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia ( ... Comes Back After Treatment? More In Acute Myeloid Leukemia About Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  20. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  1. Acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-10-01

    Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way

  2. Cortical and trabecular bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model.

    PubMed

    Weatherholt, Alyssa M; Fuchs, Robyn K; Warden, Stuart J

    2013-01-01

    The mouse tibial axial compression loading model has recently been described to allow simultaneous exploration of cortical and trabecular bone adaptation within the same loaded element. However, the model frequently induces cortical woven bone formation and has produced inconsistent results with regards to trabecular bone adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate bone adaptation to incremental load magnitudes using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model, with the ultimate goal of revealing a load that simultaneously induced lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation. Adult (16 weeks old) female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three load magnitude groups (5, 7 and 9N), and had their right tibia axially loaded using a continuous 2-Hz haversine waveform for 360 cycles/day, 3 days/week for 4 consecutive weeks. In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to longitudinally assess midshaft tibia cortical bone adaptation, while ex vivo micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry were used to assess both midshaft tibia cortical and proximal tibia trabecular bone adaptation. A dose response to loading magnitude was observed within cortical bone, with increasing load magnitude inducing increasing levels of lamellar cortical bone adaptation within the upper two thirds of the tibial diaphysis. Greatest cortical bone adaptation was observed at the midshaft where there was a 42% increase in estimated mechanical properties (polar moment of inertia) in the highest (9N) load group. A dose response to load magnitude was not clearly evident within trabecular bone, with only the highest load (9N) being able to induce measureable adaptation (31% increase in trabecular bone volume fraction at the proximal tibia). The ultimate finding was that a load of 9N (engendering a tensile strain of 1833 με on medial surface of the midshaft tibia) was able to simultaneously induce measurable lamellar cortical and trabecular bone adaptation

  3. Radiobiology of the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macià I Garau, Miquel; Lucas Calduch, Anna; López, Enric Casanovas

    2011-07-06

    ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME OR ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS IS CLASSICALLY SUBDIVIDED INTO THREE SUBSYNDROMES: the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular syndrome but many other tissues can be damaged. The time course and severity of clinical signs and symptoms are a function of the overall body volume irradiated, the inhomogeneity of dose exposure, the particle type, the absorbed dose and the dose rate. Classical pathophysiology explain the failure of each of these organs and the timing of appearance of their signs and symptoms due to radiation-induced cytocidal effects of a great number of parenchymal cells of hierarchically organized tissues. Contemporaneously, many other radiation-induced effects has been described and all of them may lead to tissue injury with their corresponding signs and symptoms that can be expressed after short or long period of time. Radiation-induced multi-organ involvement is thought to be due to radiation-induced systemic inflammatory response mediated by released pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Radiobiology of the acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Macià i Garau, Miquel; Lucas Calduch, Anna; López, Enric Casanovas

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome or acute radiation sickness is classically subdivided into three subsyndromes: the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular syndrome but many other tissues can be damaged. The time course and severity of clinical signs and symptoms are a function of the overall body volume irradiated, the inhomogeneity of dose exposure, the particle type, the absorbed dose and the dose rate. Classical pathophysiology explain the failure of each of these organs and the timing of appearance of their signs and symptoms due to radiation-induced cytocidal effects of a great number of parenchymal cells of hierarchically organized tissues. Contemporaneously, many other radiation-induced effects has been described and all of them may lead to tissue injury with their corresponding signs and symptoms that can be expressed after short or long period of time. Radiation-induced multi-organ involvement is thought to be due to radiation-induced systemic inflammatory response mediated by released pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24376969

  5. Acute pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jessica; Graham, David; O'Reilly, Sarah; Punton, Gillian

    2016-02-03

    Acute pulmonary oedema is a distressing and life-threatening illness that is associated with a sudden onset of symptoms. For the best possible patient outcomes, it is essential that nurses in all clinical areas are equipped to accurately recognise, assess and manage patients with acute pulmonary oedema. This article outlines the pathophysiology of acute cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and suggests a systematic approach to the recognition and management of its most serious manifestations. Long-term care and symptom recognition are discussed and suggestions for ongoing patient self-management are provided.

  6. Acute porphyric disorders.

    PubMed

    Moore, A W; Coke, J M

    2000-09-01

    Acute porphyrias are classified into 3 distinct groups of rare genetic disorders of metabolic enzyme biosynthesis. Acute porphyrias can significantly impact multiple organ systems, which often provides a challenge to the dentist presented with such a patient. A case of hereditary coproporphyria is reported in a patient with many of the classical signs and symptoms. The patient also had complex dental needs that required special medical and pharmacotherapeutic modifications. The acute porphyrias are reviewed by the authors with presentation of this challenging case. Recommendations for other dental health care professionals encountering these patients are then presented.

  7. How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness

    PubMed Central

    Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim J; Gleeson, Michael; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse Van Rensburg, Christa; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load—including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel—and health outcomes in sport. This paper summarises the results linking load to risk of illness and overtraining in athletes, and provides athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines for appropriate load management to reduce the risk of illness and overtraining in sport. These include guidelines for prescription of training and competition load, as well as for monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and illness. In the process, urgent research priorities were identified. PMID:27535991

  8. [Positive end-expiratory pressure : adjustment in acute lung injury].

    PubMed

    Bruells, C S; Dembinski, R

    2012-04-01

    Treatment of patients suffering from acute lung injury is a challenge for the treating physician. In recent years ventilation of patients with acute hypoxic lung injury has changed fundamentally. Besides the use of low tidal volumes, the most beneficial setting of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been in the focus of researchers. The findings allow adaption of treatment to milder forms of acute lung injury and severe forms. Additionally computed tomography techniques to assess the pulmonary situation and recruitment potential as well as bed-side techniques to adjust PEEP on the ward have been modified and improved. This review gives an outline of recent developments in PEEP adjustment for patients suffering from acute hypoxic and hypercapnic lung injury and explains the fundamental pathophysiology necessary as a basis for correct treatment.

  9. Acute pandysautonomia--restitutio ad integrum by high prednisolone therapy.

    PubMed

    Struhal, Walter; Hödl, Stephanie; Mazhar, Samy; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Acute pandysautonomia is a rare disease defined as acute widespread and severe sympathetic and parasympathetic failure and sparing of somatic nerve fibers. The causes of this syndrome are often an autoimmune disease leading to autonomic ganglionopathy. The majority of cases have a poor prognosis with a chronic debilitating course. We present a previously healthy 24-year-old female patient, who developed a loss of accommodation, pupillotonia, lacrimation, swallowing disturbances, gastrointestinal symptoms and an atonic bladder with 750 ml residual volume. The Ewing battery showed signs of parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction leading to the diagnosis of acute pandysautonomia. Further tests failed to find a cause of acute neuropathy especially where there was no evidence for paraneoplastic or infectious etiology. The patient was treated with high dose intravenous prednisolone and completely recovered.

  10. Dynamic Patterns of Forces and Loading Rate in Runners with Unilateral Plantar Fasciitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula; João, Silvia Maria Amado; Dinato, Roberto Casanova; Tessutti, Vitor Daniel; Sacco, Isabel Camargo Neves

    2015-01-01

    Aim/Hypothesis The etiology of plantar fasciitis (PF) has been related to several risk factors, but the magnitude of the plantar load is the most commonly described factor. Although PF is the third most-common injury in runners, only two studies have investigated this factor in runners, and their results are still inconclusive regarding the injury stage. Objective Analyze and compare the plantar loads and vertical loading rate during running of runners in the acute stage of PF to those in the chronic stage of the injury in relation to healthy runners. Methods Forty-five runners with unilateral PF (30 acute and 15 chronic) and 30 healthy control runners were evaluated while running at 12 km/h for 40 meters wearing standardized running shoes and Pedar-X insoles. The contact area and time, maximum force, and force-time integral over the rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot were recorded and the loading rate (20–80% of the first vertical peak) was calculated. Groups were compared by ANOVAs (p<0.05). Results Maximum force and force-time integral over the rearfoot and the loading rate was higher in runners with PF (acute and chronic) compared with controls (p<0.01). Runners with PF in the acute stage showed lower loading rate and maximum force over the rearfoot compared to runners in the chronic stage (p<0.01). Conclusion Runners with PF showed different dynamic patterns of plantar loads during running over the rearfoot area depending on the injury stage (acute or chronic). In the acute stage of PF, runners presented lower loading rate and forces over the rearfoot, possibly due to dynamic mechanisms related to pain protection of the calcaneal area. PMID:26375815

  11. Low-grade toxicity after conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer-impact of bladder volume

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkawa, Michael . E-mail: mpinkawa@ukaachen.de; Fischedick, Karin; Asadpour, Branka; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Eble, Michael J.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of dose-volume histogram parameters on low-grade toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients have been surveyed prospectively before (time A), at the last day (B), 2 months after (C), and 16 months (median) after (D) radiotherapy (70.2 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Dose-volume histograms were correlated with urinary and bowel function/bother scores. Results: The initial bladder volume and the percentage of the bladder volume receiving 10%-90% of the prescription dose significantly correlated with urinary function/bother scores (significant cutoff levels found for all dose levels). Pain with urination proved to be mainly an acute problem, subsiding faster for patients with larger bladder volumes and smaller volumes inside particular isodose lines. At time D, persisting problems with smaller initial bladder volumes were a weak stream and an increased frequency of urination. Though bladder volume and planning target volume both independently have an influence on dose-volume histogram parameters for the bladder, bladder volume plays the decisive role for urinary toxicity. Conclusions: The patient's ability to fill the bladder has a major impact on the dose-volume histogram and both acute and late urinary toxicity.

  12. Features of structural response of mechanically loaded crystallites to irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.

    2015-10-27

    A molecular dynamics method is employed to investigate the origin and evolution of plastic deformation in elastically deformed iron and vanadium crystallites due to atomic displacement cascades. Elastic stress states of crystallites result from different degrees of specimen deformation. Crystallites are deformed under constant-volume conditions. Atomic displacement cascades with the primary knock-on atom energy up to 50 keV are generated in loaded specimens. It is shown that irradiation may cause not only the Frenkel pair formation but also large-scale structural rearrangements outside the irradiated area, which prove to be similar to rearrangements proceeding by the twinning mechanism in mechanically loaded specimens.

  13. Cooling loads in laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.K.; Cook, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for a laboratory must be designed with consideration for safety, air cleanliness, and space temperature. The primary safety concern is to ensure proper coordination between fume hood exhaust and makeup air supply. Air cleanliness is maintained by properly filtering supply air, by delivering adequate room air changes, and by ensuring proper pressure relationships between the laboratory and adjacent spaces. Space temperature is maintained by supplying enough cooling air to offset the amount of heat generated in the room. Each of these factors must be considered, and the one that results in the largest ventilation rate is used to establish the supply and exhaust airflows. The project described in this paper illustrates a case where cooling load is the determining factor in the sizing of the air systems.

  14. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 Apr 05, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week! Mar 23, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week is ONE ... 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week (NPAW) 2017 date: Mar 1, 2017 FDA Meeting for Acute Porphyrias is ...

  15. [Acute radiation injury].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    Cell death due to DNA damage by ionizing radiation causes acute radiation injury of tissues and organs. Frequency and severity of the injuries increase according to dose increase, when the dose becomes more than threshold dose. The threshold dose of acute human radiation death is 1 Gy and LD50 of human is 4 Gy. Human dies due to the cerebrovascular syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome or the hematopoetic syndrome, when he received more than 20 Gy, 10-20 Gy or 3-8 Gy to his total body, respectively. Any tissue or organ, including embryo and fetus, does not show the acute injury, when it received less than 100 mSv. Acute injuries are usually reversible, and late injuries are sometimes irreversible.

  16. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... angina? This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ... Recovery FAQs • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support Network Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  17. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  18. Offshore tanker loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Baan, J. de; Heijst, W.J. van.

    1994-01-04

    The present invention relates to an improved flexible loading system which provides fluid communication between a subsea pipeline and a surface vessel including a hose extending from the subsea pipeline to a first buoyancy tank, a second hose extending from the first buoyancy tank to a central buoyancy tank, a second buoyancy tank, means connecting said second buoyancy tank to the sea floor and to the central buoyancy tank whereby the forces exerted on said central buoyant tank by said second hose and said connecting means are balanced to cause said central buoyancy tank to maintain a preselected position, a riser section extending upwardly from said central buoyancy tank and means on the upper termination for engagement by a vessel on the surface to raise said upper termination onto the vessel to complete the communication for moving fluids between the subsea pipeline and the vessel. In one form the means for connecting between the sea floor to the second buoyancy tank includes an anchor on the sea floor and lines extending from the anchor to the second buoyancy tank and from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. In another form of the invention the means for connecting is a third hose extending from a second subsea pipeline to the second buoyancy tank and a fourth hose extending from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. The central buoyancy tank is preferred to be maintained at a level below the water surface which allows full movement of the vessel while connected to the riser section. A swivel may be positioned in the riser section and a pressure relief system may be included in the loading system to protect it from sudden excess pressures. 17 figs.

  19. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  20. [Acute Kidney Injury].

    PubMed

    Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.

  1. Slave finite elements for nonlinear analysis of engine structures, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellin, S.

    1991-01-01

    A 336 degrees of freedom slave finite element processing capability to analyze engine structures under severe thermomechanical loading is presented. Description of the theoretical development and demonstration of that element is presented in this volume.

  2. Pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; Wong, Fei Ling; Cao, Yang; Lau, Hon Yen; Huang, Jiali; Puneet, Padmam; Chevali, Lakshmi

    2005-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical condition. It is a disease of variable severity in which some patients experience mild, self-limited attacks while others manifest a severe, highly morbid, and frequently lethal attack. The exact mechanisms by which diverse etiological factors induce an attack are still unclear. It is generally believed that the earliest events in acute pancreatitis occur within acinar cells. Acinar cell injury early in acute pancreatitis leads to a local inflammatory reaction. If this inflammatory reaction is marked, it leads to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). An excessive SIRS leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS associated with acute pancreatitis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Recent studies have established the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and the resultant MODS. At the same time, recent research has demonstrated the importance of acinar cell death in the form of apoptosis and necrosis as a determinant of pancreatitis severity. In this review, we will discuss about our current understanding of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.

  3. Variable response load limiting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, Dwight D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An energy absorbing device used as a load limiting member in a structure to control its response to applied loads is described. It functions by utilizing a spool assembly having flanged ends and an interior cavity of sufficiently large diameter to cause it to deform plastically at a prescribed load. In application, the spool is utilized as a pivot point for the legs of an airplane seat. When properly designed and integrated into the seat arrangement the spool will twist about its axis, deforming plastically when the impact load exceeds the spool yield value. Through this deformation, the spool absorbs the kinetic energy of the movement of the seat at a substantially constant rate, thereby controlling the level of loads transmitted to the seat occupant. By proper sizing and collection of materials, it is possible to control load response in a predictable manner.

  4. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  5. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  6. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.

  7. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We describe a pediatric patient who presented with acute pancreatitis that revealed acute HIV infection. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis as a primary manifestation of HIV infection is very rare. It may represent an uncommon aspect of primary HIV infection. We suggest that acute HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis at all ages. PMID:23569476

  8. Acute cerebellar ataxia, acute cerebellitis, and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jay; Mitchell, Wendy G

    2012-11-01

    Acute cerebellar ataxia and acute cerebellitis represent a process characterized by parainfectious, postinfectious, or postvaccination cerebellar inflammation. There is considerable overlap between these entities. The mildest cases of acute cerebellar ataxia represent a benign condition that is characterized by acute truncal and gait ataxia, variably with appendicular ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, and hypotonia. It occurs mostly in young children, presents abruptly, and recovers over weeks. Neuroimaging is normal. Severe cases of cerebellitis represent the other end of the spectrum, presenting with acute cerebellar signs often overshadowed by alteration of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, raised intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and even herniation. Neuroimaging is abnormal and the prognosis is less favorable than in acute cerebellar ataxia. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may be confused with acute cerebellitis when the clinical findings are predominantly cerebellar, but lesions on neuroimaging are usually widespread. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is often initially misdiagnosed as acute cerebellar ataxia, but has very specific features, course, and etiopathogensis.

  9. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  10. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  11. In vitro loading of apoferritin.

    PubMed

    de Silva, D; Miller, D M; Reif, D W; Aust, S D

    1992-03-01

    This study compared the effect of loading apoferritin either with ferrous ammonium sulfate in various buffers or with ceruloplasmin and chelated ferrous iron. It was shown that loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate was dependent on buffer and pH, and was directly related to the rate of iron autoxidation. The ceruloplasmin-dependent loading of apoferritin, however, was unaffected by these factors. Isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis of the differently loaded ferritins showed that ferrous ammonium sulfate loading of apoferritin resulted in the depletion of the basic amino acids, lysine and histidine, probably as a result of protein oxidation. No significant differences in amino acid composition was noted for ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin. Furthermore, ferritin loaded with ferrous ammonium sulfate released more iron than either native or ceruloplasmin-loaded ferritin when either paraquat or EDTA was used as an iron mobilizing agent. We suggest that the loading of apoferritin with ferrous ammonium sulfate occurred as a result of iron autoxidation and may result in oxidation of amino acids and loss of integrity of the protein, and that ceruloplasmin may act as a catalyst for the incorporation of iron into apoferritin in a manner more closely related to that occurring in vivo.

  12. High-Power Rf Load

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Vlieks, Arnold E.

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  13. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  14. [Plasma osmolarity and cerebral volume].

    PubMed

    Boulard, G

    2001-02-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Furthermore, isotonicity is present on both sides of the blood-brain barrier. In the event of systemic osmolarity disorders, water transport subject to osmosis laws occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier. In the case of plasmatic hyperosmolarity cerebral dehydration is observed, while cerebral edema occurs in the contrary case. However, plasmatic osmolarity disorders have less effect on the cerebral volume when their introduction is slow. Experimentation in acute conditions shows that measured variations of the cerebral water content are lower than calculated variations, thus suggesting the existence of an adaptive mechanism, that is, the cerebral osmoregulation which limits the variation of the volume of brain cells by modulating their osmoactive molecule content. These osmoactive molecules are, on the one hand, the electrolytes, which are early and rapidly mobilized, and, on the other hand, the organic osmoles (amino acids, etc.), whose secretion is slower and delayed. This phenomenon should be taken into account in the treatment of osmolarity disorders. Thus, the related-risk of treatment for natremia disorders is therapeutic reversal of the osmotic gradient at the level of the blood-brain barrier. This reversal, which corresponds to a second osmotic stress, requires the implementation of a new procedure of cerebral osmoregulation in the opposite direction of the preceding one. As successive osmotic stresses decrease the effectiveness of brain osmoregulation, the risk for cerebral dehydration and pontine myelinolysis increases when the treatment

  15. Effects of tryptophan loading on human cognition, mood, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Silber, B Y; Schmitt, J A J

    2010-03-01

    Modulating central serotonergic function by acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) has provided the fundamental insights into which cognitive functions are influenced by serotonin. It may be expected that serotonergic stimulation by tryptophan (Trp) loading could evoke beneficial behavioural changes that mirror those of ATD. The current review examines the evidence for such effects, notably those on cognition, mood and sleep. Reports vary considerably across different cognitive domains, study designs, and populations. It is hypothesised that the effects of Trp loading on performance may be dependent on the initial state of the serotonergic system of the subject. Memory improvements following Trp loading have generally been shown in clinical and sub-clinical populations where initial serotonergic disturbances are known. Similarly, Trp loading appears to be most effective for improving mood in vulnerable subjects, and improves sleep in adults with some sleep disturbances. Research has consistently shown Trp loading impairs psychomotor and reaction time performance, however, this is likely to be attributed to its mild sedative effects.

  16. Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...

  17. Cellular pressure and volume regulation and implications for cell mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongyuan; Sun, Sean

    2013-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, small changes in cell volume can serve as important signals for cell proliferation, death and migration. Volume and shape regulation also directly impacts the mechanics of the cell and multi-cellular tissues. Recent experiments found that during mitosis, eukaryotic cells establish a preferred steady volume and pressure, and the steady volume and pressure can robustly adapt to large osmotic shocks. Here we develop a mathematical model of cellular pressure and volume regulation, incorporating essential elements such as water permeation, mechano-sensitive channels, active ion pumps and active stresses in the actomyosin cortex. The model can fully explain the available experimental data, and predicts the cellular volume and pressure for several models of cell cortical mechanics. Furthermore, we show that when cells are subjected to an externally applied load, such as in an AFM indentation experiment, active regulation of volume and pressure leads to complex cellular response. We found the cell stiffness highly depends on the loading rate, which indicates the transport of water and ions might contribute to the observed viscoelasticity of cells.

  18. Characterization and regulation of mechanical loading-induced compensatory muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gregory R; Bamman, Marcas M

    2012-10-01

    In mammalian systems, skeletal muscle exists in a dynamic state that monitors and regulates the physiological investment in muscle size to meet the current level of functional demand. This review attempts to consolidate current knowledge concerning development of the compensatory hypertrophy that occurs in response to a sustained increase in the mechanical loading of skeletal muscle. Topics covered include: defining and measuring compensatory hypertrophy, experimental models, loading stimulus parameters, acute responses to increased loading, hyperplasia, myofiber-type adaptations, the involvement of satellite cells, mRNA translational control, mechanotransduction, and endocrinology. The authors conclude with their impressions of current knowledge gaps in the field that are ripe for future study.

  19. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  20. Vortex wake of tip loaded rotors at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Omer; Bilgi, Onur

    2016-11-01

    The effect of tip tabs on the flow characteristics of a three bladed rotor is investigated using strain gauge thrust measurements, flow visualization and particle image velocimetry at chord Reynolds numbers of 0 . 4 - 2 . 9 ×105 . The tab angles of attack of 0 , -/+3° & -/+5° with respect to the rotation of the rotor are used to vary the tip loading. The rotor wakes and thrust characteristics at positive angles of attack, when the tip loading is outward, are qualitatively similar to those with no-tabs. In contrast, when the tip loading is inward at zero and negative angles of attack, the vortex wake is radically altered; the thrust nearly vanishes, even reverses with increasing inward loading. The key factors influencing the behavior of the wake are the vortex system off the tabs and their associated downwash, which is inward for the outward tab loading and causes increased volume and momentum flux and outward for the inward tab loading and causes expansion of the wake and nearly complete loss of thrust. At negative angles of attack, the flow fields exhibit a quasi-steady bound ring vortex system around at the edge of the rotor disk and the flow direction on the pressure side of the rotor disk reverses: it flows toward the rotor disk.

  1. Engine System Loads Analysis Compared to Hot-Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Jennings, John M.; Mims, Katherine; Brunty, Joseph; Christensen, Eric R.; McConnaughey, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Early implementation of structural dynamics finite element analyses for calculation of design loads is considered common design practice for high volume manufacturing industries such as automotive and aeronautical industries. However with the rarity of rocket engine development programs starts, these tools are relatively new to the design of rocket engines. In the NASA MC-1 engine program, the focus was to reduce the cost-to-weight ratio. The techniques for structural dynamics analysis practices, were tailored in this program to meet both production and structural design goals. Perturbation of rocket engine design parameters resulted in a number of MC-1 load cycles necessary to characterize the impact due to mass and stiffness changes. Evolution of loads and load extraction methodologies, parametric considerations and a discussion of load path sensitivities are important during the design and integration of a new engine system. During the final stages of development, it is important to verify the results of an engine system model to determine the validity of the results. During the final stages of the MC-1 program, hot-fire test results were obtained and compared to the structural design loads calculated by the engine system model. These comparisons are presented in this paper.

  2. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Early Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers.

  4. Krypton-81m ventilation scanning: acute respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.P.; Irving, H.; Armstrong, J.D. II

    1981-02-01

    From experience with 700 patients undergoing ventilation and perfusion lung scanning with krypton-81m/technetium-99m technique, 34 patients suffering from nonembolic acute respiratory disease were selected for review. In 16 patients with pneumonia, all had defects of ventilation corresponding to, or larger than, the radiologic consolidation. In 13 patients there was some preservation of perfusion in the consolidated region. In two of the three patients with matched defects, the pneumonia was of long standing. In seven patients with collapse or atelectasis and in 11 patients with acute reversible bronchial obstruction and normal volume lungs, a similar pattern or ventillation and perfusion was observed.

  5. Pulmonary oedema during treatment of acute water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, D.; Champion, M.; Trash, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Acute water intoxication with deepening coma and uncontrolled epileptiform seizures in a 25-year-old previously fit male schizophrenic was treated with hypertonic (2 N) saline and a 20% mannitol solution. This improved his neurological state but precipitated severe pulmonary oedema. Intravenous frusemide increased his urinary output sufficiently to clear the pulmonary oedema. In acute water intoxication the use of hypertonic solutions may thus precipitate left heart failure by expanding the intra-pulmonary blood volume beyond the capacity of even a healthy left ventricle to compensate. Simple water restriction will produce a slower but perhaps safer improvement. Images Fig. 1 PMID:981097

  6. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  7. Mechanical load-assisted dissolution of metallic implant surfaces: influence of contact loads and surface stress state.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Shrotriya, Pranav

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical load-assisted dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing material removal in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. In the current study, material removal on a stressed surface of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) subjected to single asperity contact is investigated in order to identify the influence of contact loads and in-plane stress state on surface damage mechanisms. The tip of an atomic force microscope is used as a well-characterized "asperity" to apply controlled contact forces and mechanically stimulate the loaded specimen surface in different aqueous environments from passivating to corroding. The volume of the material removed is measured to determine the influence of contact loads, in-plane stresses and the environment on the material dissolution rate. Experimental results indicate that surface damage is initiated at all the contact loads studied and as expected in a wear situation, removal rate increases with increase in contact loads. Removal rates display a complex dependence on residual stresses and the environment. In a passivating environment, the material removal rate is linearly dependent on the stress state such that surface damage is accelerated under compressive stresses and suppressed under tensile stresses. In a corrosive environment, the dissolution rate demonstrates a quadratic dependence on stress, with both compressive and tensile stresses accelerating material dissolution. A surface damage mechanism based on stress-assisted dissolution is proposed to elucidate the experimental observations.

  8. The molecular basis for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, George R; West, Daniel W D; Baar, Keith

    2015-03-01

    In a mature (weight neutral) animal, an increase in muscle mass only occurs when the muscle is loaded sufficiently to cause an increase in myofibrillar protein balance. A tight relationship between muscle hypertrophy, acute increases in protein balance, and the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was demonstrated 15 years ago. Since then, our understanding of the signals that regulate load-induced hypertrophy has evolved considerably. For example, we now know that mechanical load activates mTORC1 in the same way as growth factors, by moving TSC2 (a primary inhibitor of mTORC1) away from its target (the mTORC activator) Rheb. However, the kinase that phosphorylates and moves TSC2 is different in the two processes. Similarly, we have learned that a distinct pathway exists whereby amino acids activate mTORC1 by moving it to Rheb. While mTORC1 remains at the forefront of load-induced hypertrophy, the importance of other pathways that regulate muscle mass are becoming clearer. Myostatin, is best known for its control of developmental muscle size. However, new mechanisms to explain how loading regulates this process are suggesting that it could play an important role in hypertrophic muscle growth as well. Last, new mechanisms are highlighted for how β2 receptor agonists could be involved in load-induced muscle growth and why these agents are being developed as non-exercise-based therapies for muscle atrophy. Overall, the results highlight how studying the mechanism of load-induced skeletal muscle mass is leading the development of pharmaceutical interventions to promote muscle growth in those unwilling or unable to perform resistance exercise.

  9. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  10. Spring loaded locator pin assembly