Science.gov

Sample records for acute water quality

  1. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  2. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (p<0.0001) and turbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity. PMID:27499526

  3. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (p<0.0001) and turbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity.

  4. [Acute toxicity of three typical pollutants to aquatic organisms and their water quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Two species of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and a red worm Chironomidae larvae were selected as test organisms in determining the acute toxicity effects of Cr (VI), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and nitrobenzene. The results were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. The 96 h-EC50 values of Cr (VI), TCP and nitrobenzene on C. pyrenoidosa were 1.34 mg x L(-1, 4.55 mg x L(-1) and 86.58 mg x L(-1), respectively, while those of S. obliqnus were 19.52 mg x L(-1), 3.71 mg x L(-1) and 74.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The mortality of C. larvae was 15% when the concentration of Cr(VI) was increased to 1,500 mg x L(-1). The 48 h-LC50 values of TCP and nitrobenzene on C. larvae were 9.29 mg x L(-1) and 98.34 mg x L(-1), respectively. These results indicated that Cr( VI) showed higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa, while only moderate toxicity to S. obliqnus; TCP had higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa and S. oblignus; while nitrobenzene was only moderately toxic to both species of microalgae. The toxicity among the three pollutants to C. larvae was in the order of TCP > nitrobenzene > Cr (VI). PMID:24720216

  5. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  6. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  7. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  8. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  9. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  10. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  11. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  12. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  13. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  14. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  15. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

  16. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  17. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    PubMed

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

  18. Hemodialysis and Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

  19. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  20. Communicating water quality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, C.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience.

  1. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    PubMed

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  2. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  3. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  4. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  5. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  6. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... streams and ground water. After decades of use, pesticides are now widespread in streams and ground water, ... and guidelines established to protect human health. Some pesticides have not been used for 20 to 30 ...

  7. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  8. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  9. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  10. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

  11. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  12. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  13. Water quality for cattle.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sandra E

    2011-07-01

    Water is often considered the most important livestock nutrient. It can carry both nutrients and toxic materials and can be a source of poisoning, although death losses are not common. More likely are questions of low-level contaminants or nutrient interactions that affect productivity. This article characterizes the major contaminants of water, their expected effects, and means to evaluate their presence.

  14. Water Quality Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Nonpoint source pollution is both a relatively recent concern and a complex phenomenon with many unknowns. Knowing the extent to which agricultural sources contribute to the total pollutant load, the extent to which various control practices decrease this load, and the effect of reducing the pollutants delivered to a water body are basic to the…

  15. Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT) software is to provide a means for analyzing and producing useful remotely sensed data products for an entire estuary, a particular point or area of interest (AOI or POI) in estuaries, or water bodies of interest where pre-pro...

  16. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  17. Minnesota ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albin, D.R.; Bruemmer, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  18. Texas ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strause, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  19. Integrated water quality management for drinking water of good quality.

    PubMed

    Isaji, C

    2003-01-01

    The Nagoya Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau has developed original supporting tools for the systematic and cost-effective management of problem solving. An environmental information map and prediction of pollutant reaching are used for rapid and appropriate proper countermeasures against water quality accidents in the source area. In disinfection byproduct control a method for estimating trihalomethane (THM) contents was effective for the complement of their observations. Surrogate indicators such as turbidity and conductivity that could be measured continuously also could complement water quality items measured monthly. A processing tool of voluminous data was practical for rapid judgment of water quality. Systematic monitoring was established for stricter turbidity control for measures against Cryptosporidium and keeping residual chlorine stable in the service area.

  20. Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

  1. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  2. National Water Quality Laboratory Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Water Quality Laboratory determines organic and inorganic constituents in samples of surface and ground water, river and lake sediment, aquatic plant and animal material, and precipitation collected throughout the United States and its territories by the U.S. Geological Survey. In water year 1994, the Laboratory produced more than 900,000 analytical results for about 65,000 samples. The Laboratory also coordinates an extensive network of contract laboratories for the determination of radiochemical and stable isotopes and work for the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Contamination Hydrology Program. Heightened concerns about water quality and about the possible effects of toxic chemicals at trace and ultratrace levels have contributed to an increased demand for impartial, objective, and independent data.

  3. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  4. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  6. Water quality by photographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klooster, S. A.; Scherz, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Positive correlation exists between reflectance of water and the water quality parameter of turbidity. This relationship holds for all times for a particular waste. At particular times other parameters such as suspended solids correlate to turbidity and can also be mapped. To analyze aerial photos properly to obtain water reflectance, a standard reflectance panel is needed somewhere in the frame. For this study color and color-infrared film are used and analyzed with a color microdensitometer which, with certain modifications, is also used to analyze reflectance of water samples. Noise in the analysis includes bottom effects, reflection from the air-water interface, and path luminance, but these can all be dealt with by proper techniques.

  7. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  8. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  9. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  10. Optical water quality in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Powers, S. M.; Stanley, E. H.; Riggsbee, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Optical water quality (OWQ) governs the quantity and quality of light in aquatic ecosystems, and thus spatiotemporal changes in OWQ affect many biotic and abiotic processes. Despite the fundamental role of light in rivers, studies on riverine OWQ have been limited and mostly descriptive. Here we provide a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the controls and spatiotemporal dynamics of riverine OWQ, focusing on the inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are those that are only affected by water constituents and not by changes in the solar radiation field. First, we briefly review the constituents attenuating light in rivers. Second, we develop a new method for partitioning (light) beam attenuation into its constituent fractions. This method distinguishes between absorption and scattering by dissolved and particulate constituents, and further isolates particulates into mineral and organic components. Third, we compare base flow IOPs between four rivers with vastly different physical characteristics to illustrate intersite variability. Fourth, we analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of IOPs for the four rivers. Fifth, we quantify a longitudinal water clarity budget for one of the rivers. Finally, available data are synthesized to identify general spatial trends robust across broad geographic areas. Temporal trends in IOPs were largely dictated by storm frequency, while spatial trends were largely dictated by channel network configuration. Generally, water clarity decreased with increasing discharge primarily owing to greater scattering by particulates and secondarily to greater absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Water clarity also generally decreased longitudinally along the river owing to increased particulate inputs from tributaries; however, for pear-shaped, dendritic basins, water clarity reached a minimum at ˜70% of the channel length and then increased. By illustrating the controls and spatiotemporal variability of riverine OWQ

  11. Optical sensors for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in commercially available in situ sensors, data platforms, and new techniques for data analysis provide an opportunity to monitor water quality in rivers, lakes, and estuaries on the time scales in which changes occur. For example, measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances (such as fire and insect outbreaks) affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Transmitting these data in real-time also provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and provide sciencebased decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.

  12. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  13. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  14. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  15. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  16. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  17. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  18. Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

  19. Water quality in Lake Lanier

    SciTech Connect

    Callaham, M.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Thirteen water quality tests measuring five categories of pollution were conducted twice monthly from May, 1987 to April, 1990 at eight locations on Lake Sidney Lanier to establish baseline data and detect trends. Additionally, sediment and water samples were analyzed for ten toxic metals. Sampling stations were located at or near the point of entry of streams into the Lake. Oxygen demanding pollutants were highest in urban streams and phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were highest in streams having poultry processing operations within their watersheds. Indicators of siltation increased coincidentally with highway construction in one watershed. Fecal coliform bacteria counts decreased at Flat Creek and increased in the Chattahoochee River. Zinc and copper occurred in water samples at levels of detectability. Sediment samples from several locations contained metal concentrations which warrant further study.

  20. Dependence of silver availability on water quality parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, R.D.; Bills, T.; Forsythe, B.; Wenholz, M.; Klaine, S.; LaPoint, T.; Cobb, G.P.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of silver in varying water quality conditions such as chloride content, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon and pH was investigated during a test to measure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas. Water quality parameter treatments included four chloride concentrations (3, 10, 20, 40, mg/L), two hardness treatments (100, 200 Mg CaCO{sub 3}/L), four humic acid concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10 mg/L), a pH of 7.5, and alkalinity at 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} eq/L. Varying silver concentrations were added to,each treatment. Total silver concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analytical procedures to determine water quality conditions followed modified ASTM methods. Water quality effects on free and bound silver will be discussed.

  1. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality... certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto... establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey,...

  2. Channel incision and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, F. D.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p < 0.02). Physical aquatic habitat and fish populations in the nonincised urbanizing stream were

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  4. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  5. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  6. WATER QUALITY AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources. These can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality which can be used for health research. We developed a water quality index for all United States counties and assessed a...

  7. Water quality change detection: multivariate algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, Katherine A.; McKenna, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    In light of growing concern over the safety and security of our nation's drinking water, increased attention has been focused on advanced monitoring of water distribution systems. The key to these advanced monitoring systems lies in the combination of real time data and robust statistical analysis. Currently available data streams from sensors provide near real time information on water quality. Combining these data streams with change detection algorithms, this project aims to develop automated monitoring techniques that will classify real time data and denote anomalous water types. Here, water quality data in 1 hour increments over 3000 hours at 4 locations are used to test multivariate algorithms to detect anomalous water quality events. The algorithms use all available water quality sensors to measure deviation from expected water quality. Simulated anomalous water quality events are added to the measured data to test three approaches to measure this deviation. These approaches include multivariate distance measures to 1) the previous observation, 2) the closest observation in multivariate space, and 3) the closest cluster of previous water quality observations. Clusters are established using kmeans classification. Each approach uses a moving window of previous water quality measurements to classify the current measurement as normal or anomalous. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves test the ability of each approach to discriminate between normal and anomalous water quality using a variety of thresholds and simulated anomalous events. These analyses result in a better understanding of the deviation from normal water quality that is necessary to sound an alarm.

  8. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  9. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  10. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  11. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  12. METHODS FOR DETERMINING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the clean water act of 1972 was to restore and maintain physical, chemical & biological quality of waters in the U.S. Although great progress has been made in cleaning up lakes, rivers and coastal waters many still do not meet water quality standards. Most beaches ha...

  13. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  14. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  15. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  16. Do waterbody classifications predict water quality?

    PubMed

    Barclay, Janet R; Tripp, Hannah; Bellucci, Christopher J; Warner, Glenn; Helton, Ashley M

    2016-12-01

    Many states classify waterbodies according to groups of designated uses, which suggests that classifications may be correlated with water quality. The primary assessments of water quality in the United States (the Biennial Integrated Water Quality Reports) do not consider classification, so the relationship between classification and water quality is untested. Additionally, water quality has been shown to be influenced by watershed land use; however, land use is not typically part of waterbody classification systems. To determine the relationships between waterbody classification, water quality, watershed land cover, and forest fragmentation, we analyzed existing water quality data for the State of Connecticut from the United States Geological Survey and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset. Connecticut uses a unique classification system that includes separation of drinking water sources (Class AA) and waterbodies receiving waste water discharges (Class B). Using a comparison of multiple means, we found that Class B waters had higher levels of nitrogen, solids, chloride, sodium, dissolved copper, total iron, and dissolved manganese than Class AA waters. Watersheds upstream of Class B segments had less forest cover, more development and more impervious cover than watersheds upstream of Class AA segments. Class A sites had some similarities in water quality and land cover with Class AA sites and some with Class B sites. The subset of Class B waterbodies with "Class AA-like" water quality also had "Class AA-like" land cover. Based on this and a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that water quality is more closely related to watershed land cover and forest fragmentation than to waterbody classification. Our results suggest that watershed land cover likely is a better proxy for water quality than waterbody classification.

  17. Do waterbody classifications predict water quality?

    PubMed

    Barclay, Janet R; Tripp, Hannah; Bellucci, Christopher J; Warner, Glenn; Helton, Ashley M

    2016-12-01

    Many states classify waterbodies according to groups of designated uses, which suggests that classifications may be correlated with water quality. The primary assessments of water quality in the United States (the Biennial Integrated Water Quality Reports) do not consider classification, so the relationship between classification and water quality is untested. Additionally, water quality has been shown to be influenced by watershed land use; however, land use is not typically part of waterbody classification systems. To determine the relationships between waterbody classification, water quality, watershed land cover, and forest fragmentation, we analyzed existing water quality data for the State of Connecticut from the United States Geological Survey and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset. Connecticut uses a unique classification system that includes separation of drinking water sources (Class AA) and waterbodies receiving waste water discharges (Class B). Using a comparison of multiple means, we found that Class B waters had higher levels of nitrogen, solids, chloride, sodium, dissolved copper, total iron, and dissolved manganese than Class AA waters. Watersheds upstream of Class B segments had less forest cover, more development and more impervious cover than watersheds upstream of Class AA segments. Class A sites had some similarities in water quality and land cover with Class AA sites and some with Class B sites. The subset of Class B waterbodies with "Class AA-like" water quality also had "Class AA-like" land cover. Based on this and a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that water quality is more closely related to watershed land cover and forest fragmentation than to waterbody classification. Our results suggest that watershed land cover likely is a better proxy for water quality than waterbody classification. PMID:27621038

  18. Water Quality of a Micronesian Atoll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbett, Arthur N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, a water quality survey of the eastern end of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands was conducted to determine the water quality of selected lagoon and open ocean sites and provide guidance for the construction of a sewerage system. This study revealed that lagoon waters were moderately to severely contaminated. (BT)

  19. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  20. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  1. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  2. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  3. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  4. Texas Water Quality Board Teachers Workshop Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Water Quality Board, Austin.

    These materials are designed for teachers participating in an inservice workshop on water quality. Included in the materials are a workshop agenda, a water awareness pretest, and the various parameters and tests that are used to determine and measure water quality. The parameters are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact to…

  5. Effects of water quality parameters on boron toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Gail M; Stubblefield, William A; Schlekat, Christian E

    2009-07-01

    The potential modifying effects of certain water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, alkalinity, pH) on the acute toxicity of boron were tested using a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. By comparison, boron acute toxicity was less affected by water quality characteristics than some metals (e.g., copper and silver). Increases in alkalinity over the range tested did not alter toxicity. Increases in water hardness appeared to have an effect with very hard waters (>500 mg/L as CaCO(3)). Decreased pH had a limited influence on boron acute toxicity in laboratory waters. Increasing chloride concentration did not provide a protective effect. Boron acute toxicity was unaffected by sodium concentrations. Median acute lethal concentrations (LC(50)) in natural water samples collected from three field sites were all greater than in reconstituted laboratory waters that matched natural waters in all respects except for dissolved organic carbon. Water effect ratios in these waters ranged from 1.4 to 1.8. In subsequent studies using a commercially available source of natural organic matter, acute toxicity decreased with increased dissolved organic carbon, suggesting, along with the natural water studies, that dissolved organic carbon should be considered further as a modifier of boron toxicity in natural waters where it exceeds 2 mg/L.

  6. [Acute gastric lesions induced by drinking water, in rats].

    PubMed

    Laudano, O M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of certain beverages and drinking waters to induce acute gastric lesions was studied and the measurement of their pH was performed. 1) Saline; 2) tap water; 3) well-water; 4) well water plus puritabs; 5) saline plus 2 Cl drips; 6) saline plus 4 Cl drops; 7) saline plus 8 Cl drops; 8) boiled water after 30 min; 9) apartment deposit water; 10) WC bowl water; 11) ice water; 12) Paraná river water (Northern Rosario); 13) Paraná river water (Southern Rosario); 14) rain water (Rosario); 15) rain water) countryside); 16) carbonated mineral water; 17) non-carbonated mineral water; 18) soda; 19) flavored electrolytic water I; 20) flavored electrolytic water II; and 21) cola drink. We can conclude that: 1) a remarkable variance in saline and tap water pH is observed. 2) Rain water and Paraná river water were slightly acid, in contrast electrolytic carbonated beverages and cola drink were strongly acid (pH 2.5). 3) Saline, pH 6.68; saline plus 2 Cl drops; and non-carbonated mineral water were the only beverages that did not induce acute gastric lesions in rats.

  7. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  8. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  9. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  10. A Review of Surface Water Quality Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibei; Jia, Peng; Qi, Changjun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries. PMID:23853533

  11. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  12. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  13. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  14. Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

    2012-02-01

    Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families.

  15. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  16. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  17. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  18. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  19. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  20. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  1. Professional Development for Water Quality Control Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton Lewis

    This study investigated the availability of professional development opportunities for water quality control personnel in the midwest. The major objective of the study was to establish a listing of educational opportunities for the professional development of water quality control personnel and to compare these with the opportunities technicians…

  2. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system. PMID:21387171

  3. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system.

  4. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  5. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  6. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  7. Water quality as a predictor of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation.

    PubMed

    Dorevitch, Samuel; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Jones, Rachael M; Liu, Li

    2015-10-15

    Microbial measures of water quality are predictors of gastrointestinal illness among swimmers in some settings but not in others. Little is known whether water quality measures predict illness among people who engage in popular water recreation activities such as paddling, rowing, fishing, or boating ("incidental contact water recreation"). We sought to evaluate indicator microbes, protozoan pathogens, and turbidity as predictors of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation. A cohort study of incidental contact water recreation was conducted in the Chicago, USA area. Recreation took place on inland lakes, rivers, Lake Michigan, and an urban waterway heavily impacted by wastewater effluent. Water samples were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, F+ coliphages, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts, and for turbidity. Median enterococci concentrations were 71.0 and 199.8 colony forming units/100  mL at general use and effluent-dominated waters, respectively. Among 4694 study participants with complete covariate data, 193 (4.1%) developed gastrointestinal illness within three days of water recreation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, water quality metrics did not predict gastrointestinal illness among water recreators. Several variables other than water quality were associated acute gastrointestinal illness. The odds of such illness was increased by approximately two-fold by the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal condition, water exposure to the face, and by approximately 50% among those who fished (as opposed to other incidental contact activities). The odds of illness were reduced by approximately 50% among individuals who frequently used a water body for recreation. Unlike studies of swimmers at wastewater-impacted beaches that observed associations between water quality and illness incidence, this study did not. Public health protections for incidental contact recreation might

  8. Water quality as a predictor of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation.

    PubMed

    Dorevitch, Samuel; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Jones, Rachael M; Liu, Li

    2015-10-15

    Microbial measures of water quality are predictors of gastrointestinal illness among swimmers in some settings but not in others. Little is known whether water quality measures predict illness among people who engage in popular water recreation activities such as paddling, rowing, fishing, or boating ("incidental contact water recreation"). We sought to evaluate indicator microbes, protozoan pathogens, and turbidity as predictors of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation. A cohort study of incidental contact water recreation was conducted in the Chicago, USA area. Recreation took place on inland lakes, rivers, Lake Michigan, and an urban waterway heavily impacted by wastewater effluent. Water samples were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, F+ coliphages, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts, and for turbidity. Median enterococci concentrations were 71.0 and 199.8 colony forming units/100  mL at general use and effluent-dominated waters, respectively. Among 4694 study participants with complete covariate data, 193 (4.1%) developed gastrointestinal illness within three days of water recreation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, water quality metrics did not predict gastrointestinal illness among water recreators. Several variables other than water quality were associated acute gastrointestinal illness. The odds of such illness was increased by approximately two-fold by the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal condition, water exposure to the face, and by approximately 50% among those who fished (as opposed to other incidental contact activities). The odds of illness were reduced by approximately 50% among individuals who frequently used a water body for recreation. Unlike studies of swimmers at wastewater-impacted beaches that observed associations between water quality and illness incidence, this study did not. Public health protections for incidental contact recreation might

  9. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  10. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods.

  11. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods. PMID:26592651

  12. Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, B.M.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Young, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water systems and ground water systems are interrelated, farm-management practices need to focus on water quality in both systems. Modifying farm-management practices may raise production costs in some areas. Farmers can reduce runoff losses by reducing input use, implementing soil-conservation practices, and changing land use. Also at issue is who should pay for improving water quality.

  13. School on Alert over Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue on the quality of water in Seattle's school districts. Seattle's water woes became public when four little containers of rust-colored water from fountains in the city district's Wedgewood Elementary School, collected by concerned parents, were tested by a certified laboratory and found to exceed federal lead limits.…

  14. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  15. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  16. Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods.

    PubMed

    Boyacioglu, Hülya; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2007-08-01

    This environmetric study deals with the interpretation of river water monitoring data from the basin of the Buyuk Menderes River and its tributaries in Turkey. Eleven variables were measured to estimate water quality at 17 sampling sites. Factor analysis was applied to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of underlying factors. Results revealed that, water quality was strongly affected from agricultural uses. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations with similar properties and results distinguished three groups of stations. Water quality at downstream of the river was quite different from the other part. It is recommended to involve the environmetric data treatment as a substantial procedure in assessment of water quality data.

  17. Water quality in Lis river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Judite; Fonseca, André; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S

    2012-12-01

    In the past 30 years, the Lis river basin has been subjected to constant ecological disasters mainly due to piggery untreated wastewater discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of existing domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities on the water quality, and to propose a watershed plan to protect and manage surface water resources within the Lis river basin. For this purpose, 16 monitoring stations have been strategically selected along the Lis river stretch and its main tributaries to evaluate the water quality in six different sampling periods (2003–2006). All samples were characterized in terms of organic material, nutrients, chlorophyll, and pathogenic bacteria. Generally, the Lis river presents poor water quality, according to environmental quality standards for surface water, principally in terms of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform, which can be associated mainly with the contamination source from pig-breeding farms. PMID:22286837

  18. Universal optimization of water quality management strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unami, K.; Kawachi, T.

    Although many optimization models for water quality problems have been developed, methodology for judging the necessity of applying them is scarcely worked out. The universal optimization scheme presented here is to determine a management strategy for controlling water quality in a generic body of water. Dynamics of a water quality index is represented by an ordinary differential equation, and a linear system model is deduced. The H∞ control theory, which summarizes system stabilization and error minimization, is applied to a generalized water quality control problem including the linear system model. A class of H∞ controllers is identified, and a temporal discretization scheme for a controller is proposed. Three application examples demonstrate the conception of universal optimization and the validity of its implementation using an H∞ controller.

  19. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  20. Drinking water microbiology--new directions toward water quality enhancement.

    PubMed

    Geldreich, E E

    1989-12-01

    Drinking water microbiology has emerged from decades of relative complacency to recognize there can be major concerns with potable water quality. Many of these issues are a result of an explosion of information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems with raw-source water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems and specialized requirements in water quality unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst survival after some disinfection practices involving surface water impoundments and virus occurrence in poorly protected groundwaters have provided reasons for expanding minimum treatment of surface waters and for requiring disinfection of all groundwaters unless there is a demonstrative data base to support exceptions in treatment requirements. Official monitoring of small water supplies must be increased on a monthly basis and a rapid alert established to inform water plant operators of unsatisfactory water qualities. As an option, application of operational tests to analyse water quality in terms of chlorine residual, turbidity, total coliforms and heterotrophic bacterial counts in small water plant operations should be encouraged. This would provide the operator at remote locations with the opportunity to utilize the information to make necessary treatment adjustments or corrections in water distribution deficiencies promptly and be a supplement to the official regional monitoring program. Application of drinking water alternative sources (bottled water and water from point-of-use treatment devices) should be viewed by the health authorities as only a temporary solution, not as a permanent fix for a public water supply known to present some established health risk to consumers. The public must also recognize that bottled water is not frequently monitored by health laboratories for acceptable quality and the use of home treatment devices places the responsibility of proper maintenance on the user. Microbial quality improvements in

  1. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  2. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  3. National Water Quality Laboratory - A Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) is a full-service laboratory that specializes in environmental analytical chemistry. The NWQL's primary mission is to support USGS programs requiring environmental analyses that provide consistent methodology for national assessment and trends analysis. The NWQL provides the following: high-quality chemical data; consistent, published, state-of-the-art methodology; extremely low-detection levels; high-volume capability; biological unit for identifying benthic invertebrates; quality assurance for determining long-term water-quality trends; and a professional staff.

  4. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  5. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  6. A water quality monitoring system for HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Tinoco, S.; Iriarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), is a gamma ray (γ) large aperture observatory with high sensitivity that will be able to continuously monitor the sky for transient sources of photons with energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. HAWC is under construction in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico, which is located at a high altitude of 4100m. HAWC will be an array of 300 Cherenkov detectors each one with 200,000 liters of highly pure water. The sensitivity of the instrument depends strongly on the water quality. We present the design and construction of the HAWC water quality monitoring system. We seek monitor the transparency in violet-blue range to achieve and maintain the required water transparency quality in each detector. The system is robust and user friendly. The measurements are reproducible. Also we present some results from the monitoring the water from the VAMOS detector tanks and of the filtering system.

  7. Water quality for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, A.

    1991-09-01

    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings.

  8. Water shortages and implied water quality: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Margarita; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2006-12-01

    This paper analyses the extent to which households in an urban area are willing to pay to ensure a fully reliable water supply when the latter induces changes in drinking water quality. The water supply system in the city of Heraklion, Greece, is characterized by periodic water rationing, which is more pronounced in the summer months. The generalized use of cisterns and even water tanks helps residents cope with quantity shortages but has a negative effect on the quality of the water reaching their taps. The results of our contingent valuation show that respondents not affected by shortages and already drinking tap water have a smaller willingness to pay, while positive perceptions on quality have a positive effect.

  9. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  10. Enhancing water quality in hydropower system operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Donald F.; Labadie, John W.; Sanders, Thomas G.; Brown, Jackson K.

    1998-03-01

    The quality of impounded waters often degrades over time because of thermal stratification, sediment oxygen demands, and accumulation of pollutants. Consequently, reservoir releases impact water quality in tailwaters, channels, and other downstream water bodies. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Cumberland River below Old Hickory dam result from stratification of upstream reservoirs and seasonally low release rates. Operational changes in upstream hydropower reservoirs may be one method to increase DO levels without substantially impacting existing project purposes. A water quality model of the upper Cumberland basin is integrated into an optimal control algorithm to evaluate water quality improvement opportunities through operational modifications. The integrated water quantity/quality model maximizes hydropower revenues, subject to various flow and headwater operational restrictions for satisfying multiple project purposes, as well as maintenance of water quality targets. Optimal daily reservoir release policies are determined for the summer drawdown period which increase DO concentrations under stratification conditions with minimal impact on hydropower production and other project purposes. Appendixes A-D available with entire article on microfiche. Order by mail from AGU, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $2.50. Document W97-003. Payment must accompany order.

  11. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  12. Fecal contamination of drinking water supplies in and around Chandigarh and correlation with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Taneja; Malkit, Singh; Pooja, Rao; Manisha, Biswal; Shiva, Priya; Ram, Chander; Meera, Sharma

    2012-12-01

    corresponding with high level of contamination (33.4%). The highest level of water contamination was seen in rural areas (58.5%) but the number of acute gastroenteritis cases were lesser (33.9%) as ponds were infrequently used for drinking purpose. Safer household water storage and treatment is recommended to prevent acute gastroenteritis, together with point-of-use water quality monitoring.

  13. Quality of surface waters in Wilton, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    Water, bed material, and biological samples were collected and analyzed at 10 surface-water gaging sites on six streams in the town of Wilton, Connecticut over a 2-year period. The data indicate fair to excellent water quality. Fecal coliform bacteria, pH, alkalinity, iron, and manganese are the parameters that most often exceed recommended limits established by either the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency or the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. Data from sites on the Norwalk and East Branch Silvermine Rivers indicate little if any undesirable changes in water quality take place as they flow through the study area. (USGS)

  14. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  15. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  16. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  17. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  18. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  19. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  20. Instruments for Water Quality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations and Water, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The old system of licensing within the different sectors of the society in Norway is in the process of being incorporated into a system of total natural resource planning and regulation. This article outlines comprehensive physical and economic water pollution management plans for the municipality, the county, and the state. (Author/MA)

  1. Water availability, quality, and use in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Water Assessment, sponsored by the Water Resources Council, is a specific problem analysis for Alaska of the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources. The Alaska region has been divided into six hydrologic subregions and eighteen subareas. For each subarea, estimated mean annual runoff per square mile, suspended-sediment concentrations that can be expected during ' normal ' summer runoff, flood magnitudes and frequencies, and ground-water yields are illustrated on maps. Tables show water quality of both ground water and surface water from selected wells and streams. Water use according to the type of use is discussed, and estimates are given for the amounts used. Water-use categories include domestic, irrigation, livestock, seafood processing, oil and gas development, petrochemical processing, pulp mills, hydroelectric , coal processing, steam electric, mineral processing, sand and gravel mining, and fish-hatchery operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Baseline water quality of Iowa's coal region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, Larry J.

    1979-01-01

    To assist the Iowa Department of Environmental Quality in determining the effects that coal mining and attendant activities will have on the water quality of Iowa streams, the U.S. Geological Survey collected three sets of water-quality samples (representative of high, average, and low streamflow) in the White Breast, English,aand Cedar Creek basins in south-central Iowa. These samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey Central Laboratory at Denver, Colorado, and by the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory (Iowa City and Des Moines). The report presents the data collected from May to November 1978 at 15 stations in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. British Columbia water quality guidelines, criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This publication contains tables summarizing approved water quality guidelines for various contaminants that may be present in British Columbia water supplies. It begins with a section in question and answer format that explains certain aspects of the guidelines. Contaminants covered by the guidelines include particulate matter, nutrients and algae, aluminium, lead, mercury, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, copper, chlorine, fluoride, hydrocarbons, pH, and silver.

  4. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  5. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  6. SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ASSESSING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. EPA guidelines for monitoring recreatoinal water quality refer to the geometric mean density of indicator organisms, enterococci and E. coli in marine and fresh water, respectively, from at least five samples collected over a four-week period. In order to expand thi...

  7. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    SciTech Connect

    McSwane, D.Z. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-06-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

  8. Organoleptic water quality: Health and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Nelson, M.A.; Olivieri, A.W.; Cooper, R.C.; Danielson, R.E.; Bruvold, W.H.; Scofield, R.; Hsieh, D.P.H.; Schaub, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    Organoleptic properties of drinking water (i.e., characteristics perceptible to the senses) can affect the acceptance of water by the public. In this paper we present a risk-analysis methodology, along with supporting data, that can be used for assessing the relationship between the level of either (1) turbidity, color, and odor; or (2) total dissolved solids (TDS); or (3) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria in drinking water, and the fraction of an exposed population that could reject the water. We explain how this methodology can be used by public health authorities in developing nations as a rational approach for adopting pragmatic water-quality guidelines for these organoleptic constituents, and for accurately correlating concentrations of these organoleptic constituents with the need to commit manpower and resources to improve water quality in rural areas, small communities, and large cities.

  9. Fecal contamination of drinking water supplies in and around Chandigarh and correlation with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Singh, Malkit; Rao, Pooja; Biswal, Manisha; Priya, Shiva; Chander, Ram; Sharma, Meera

    2011-09-01

    gastroenteritis cases were lesser (33.9%) as ponds were infrequently used for drinking purpose. Safer household water storage and treatment is recommended to prevent acute gastroenteritis, together with point-of-use water quality monitoring.

  10. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  11. Storm water contamination and its effect on the quality of urban surface waters.

    PubMed

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Chudzińska, Maria; Szpakowska, Barbara; Świerk, Dariusz; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Dondajewska, Renata

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of storm water drained by the sewerage system and discharged into a river and a small reservoir, on the example of five catchments located within the boundaries of the city of Poznań (Poland). These catchments differed both in terms of their surface area and land use (single- and multi-family housing, industrial areas). The aim of the analyses was to explain to what extent pollutants found in storm water runoff from the studied catchments affected the quality of surface waters and whether it threatened the aquatic organisms. Only some of the 14 studied variables and 22 chemical elements were important for the water quality of the river, i.e., pH, TSS, rain intensity, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Ni, Se, and Tl. The most serious threat to biota in the receiver came from the copper contamination of storm water runoff. Of all samples below the sewerage outflow, 74% exceeded the mean acute value for Daphnia species. Some of them exceeded safe concentrations for other aquatic organisms. Only the outlet from the industrial area with the highest impervious surface had a substantial influence on the water quality of the river. A reservoir situated in the river course had an important influence on the elimination of storm water pollution, despite the very short residence time of its water.

  12. Storm water contamination and its effect on the quality of urban surface waters.

    PubMed

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Chudzińska, Maria; Szpakowska, Barbara; Świerk, Dariusz; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Dondajewska, Renata

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of storm water drained by the sewerage system and discharged into a river and a small reservoir, on the example of five catchments located within the boundaries of the city of Poznań (Poland). These catchments differed both in terms of their surface area and land use (single- and multi-family housing, industrial areas). The aim of the analyses was to explain to what extent pollutants found in storm water runoff from the studied catchments affected the quality of surface waters and whether it threatened the aquatic organisms. Only some of the 14 studied variables and 22 chemical elements were important for the water quality of the river, i.e., pH, TSS, rain intensity, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Ni, Se, and Tl. The most serious threat to biota in the receiver came from the copper contamination of storm water runoff. Of all samples below the sewerage outflow, 74% exceeded the mean acute value for Daphnia species. Some of them exceeded safe concentrations for other aquatic organisms. Only the outlet from the industrial area with the highest impervious surface had a substantial influence on the water quality of the river. A reservoir situated in the river course had an important influence on the elimination of storm water pollution, despite the very short residence time of its water. PMID:24981877

  13. Microcumpter computation of water quality discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    A fully prompted program (SEDQ) has been developed to calculate daily and instantaneous water quality (QW) discharges. It is written in a version of BASIC, and requires inputs of gage heights, discharge rating curve, shifts, and water quality concentration information. Concentration plots may be modified interactively using the display screen. Semi-logarithmic plots of concentration and water quality discharge are output to the display screen, and optionally to plotters. A summary table of data is also output. SEDQ could be a model program for micro and minicomputer systems likely to be in use within the Water Resources Division, USGS, in the near future. The daily discharge-weighted mean concentration is one output from SEDQ. It is defined in this report, differentiated from the currently used mean concentration, and designated the ' equivalent concentration. ' (USGS)

  14. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%.

  15. Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungs, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

  16. Time-averaging water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, L.S.; Ormsbee, L.E.; Wood, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    While reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act is pending, many water utilities are preparing to monitor and regulate levels of distribution system constituents that affect water quality. Most frequently, utilities are concerned about average concentrations rather than about tracing a particular constituent`s path. Mathematical and computer models, which provide a quick estimate of average concentrations, could play an important role in this effort. Most water quality models deal primarily with isolated events, such as tracing a particular constituent through a distribution system. This article proposes a simple, time-averaging model that obtains average, maximum, and minimum constituent concentrations and ages throughout the network. It also computes percentage flow contribution and percentage constituent concentration. The model is illustrated using two water distribution systems, and results are compared with those obtained using a dynamic water quality model. Both models predict average water quality parameters with no significant deviations; the time-averaging approach is a simple and efficient alternative to the dynamic model.

  17. Development of reclaimed potable water quality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Weir, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to minimize launch requirements necessary to meet the demands of long-term spaceflight, NASA will reuse water reclaimed from various on-board sources including urine, feces, wash water and humidity condensate. Development of reclamation systems requires the promulgation of water quality standards for potable reuse of the reclaimed water. Existing standards for domestic U.S. potable water consumption were developed, but do not consider the peculiar problems associated with the potable reuse of recycled water. An effort was made to: (1) define a protocol by which comprehensive reclaimed water potability/palatability criteria can be established and updated; and (2) continue the effort to characterize the organic content of reclaimed water in the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation.

  18. Water quality criteria for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Ryon, M G; Ross, R H

    1990-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in groundwater and surface water surrounding U.S. Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. TNT exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the hematologic system and liver, but it is also known to cause gastrointestinal effects and cataracts. Health effects data were analyzed for TNT and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to TNT, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism and toxicity of TNT in humans and animals. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 135 micrograms/liter is proposed when consumption of both contaminated water and fish is anticipated. For drinking water alone, the proposed criterion is 140 micrograms/liter.

  19. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  20. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  1. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  2. WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source waters of the U.S. are vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic factors affecting quality for use as both a drinking water and ecological media. Important factors include physical parameters such as increased turbidity, ecological cycles such as algal blooms, and episodic ...

  3. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  4. Development of site-specific water quality criteria for copper

    SciTech Connect

    Giere, M.A.; McIntyre, D.O.; DeGraeve, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Under its current operating system, the final effluent from a copper mining facility consistently meets its effluent limitation for copper. A change in mining practices to solution mining will result in a decrease in the hardness of the final effluent. The reduced hardness of the effluent will lower the effluent limit for copper to a concentration which cannot be achieved. The water-effect ratio (WER) procedure was selected to develop a site-specific criterion continuous concentration for copper for the effluent and it`s receiving stream. WER procedures followed those described in EPA`s ``Interim Guidance on Determination and Use of Water-Effect Ratios for Metals`` (1994). Three WER determinations were made using simulated downstream water as the site water. 48-hour acute Ceriodaphnia dubia and 96-hour acute fathead minnow toxicity tests were selected as the primary and secondary tests, respectively for use in the WER determinations. The results of the three WER determinations will be presented, as will the process used for predicting future effluent quality and permit compliance.

  5. Water-Quality Assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas--Surface-Water Quality, Shallow Ground-Water Quality, and Factors Affecting Water Quality in the Rincon Valley, South-Central New Mexico, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, surface-water and ground-water samples were collected in 1994 and 1995 for analysis of common constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, radioactivity, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides to characterize surface- water quality and shallow ground-water quality and to determine factors affecting water quality in the Rincon Valley, south-central New Mexico. Samples of surface water were collected from three sites on the Rio Grande and from sites on three agricultural drains in the Rincon Valley in January 1994 and 1995, April 1994, and October 1994. Ground-water samples were collected in late April and early May 1994 from 30 shallow wells that were installed during the investigation. Dissolved-solids concentrations in surface water ranged from 434 to 1,510 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Dissolved-solids concentrations were smallest in water from the Rio Grande below Caballo Dam and largest in the drains. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 3.3 mg/L as nitrogen, and ammonia concentrations ranged from less than 0.015 to 0.33 mg/L as nitrogen in surface-water samples. Trace-element concentrations in surface water were significantly smaller than the acute-fisheries standards. One or more pesticides were detected in 34 of 37 surface-water samples. DCPA (dacthal) and metolachlor were the most commonly detected pesticides. No standards have been established for the pesticides analyzed for in this study. Dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow ground water ranged from 481 to 3,630 mg/L. All but 2 of 30 samples exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level for dissolved solids of 500 mg/L. Water from about 73 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L for sulfate, and water from about 7 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 mg/L for chloride. Nitrite plus nitrate

  6. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  7. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  9. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  10. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  11. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  12. An evaluation of freshwater mussel toxicity data in the derivation of water quality guidance and standards for copper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    March, F.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Augspurger, T.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Mebane, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The state of Oklahoma has designated several areas as freshwater mussel sanctuaries in an attempt to provide freshwater mussel species a degree of protection and to facilitate their reproduction. We evaluated the protection afforded freshwater mussels by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) hardness-based 1996 ambient copper water quality criteria, the 2007 U.S. EPA water quality criteria based on the biotic ligand model and the 2005 state of Oklahoma copper water quality standards. Both the criterion maximum concentration and criterion continuous concentration were evaluated. Published acute and chronic copper toxicity data that met American Society for Testing and Materials guidance for test acceptability were obtained for exposures conducted with glochidia or juvenile freshwater mussels. We tabulated toxicity data for glochidia and juveniles to calculate 20 species mean acute values for freshwater mussels. Generally, freshwater mussel species mean acute values were similar to those of the more sensitive species included in the U.S. EPA water quality derivation database. When added to the database of genus mean acute values used in deriving 1996 copper water quality criteria, 14 freshwater mussel genus mean acute values included 10 of the lowest 15 genus mean acute values, with three mussel species having the lowest values. Chronic exposure and sublethal effects freshwater mussel data available for four species and acute to chronic ratios were used to evaluate the criterion continuous concentration. On the basis of the freshwater mussel toxicity data used in this assessment, the hardness-based 1996 U.S. EPA water quality criteria, the 2005 Oklahoma water quality standards, and the 2007 U.S. EPA water quality criteria based on the biotic ligand model might need to be revised to afford protection to freshwater mussels. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  13. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  14. Water-quality monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Sweetwater Authority is concerned with the quality of water it provides to its customers. Results from the water-quality monitoring study that the USGS is conducting in the Sweetwater watershed show that the contaminant concentrations in bed sediments, water, and air are reflected in increased urbanization. The bed sediments show the most dramatic evidence of this impact with a sharp increase of persistent organic chemical concentrations over the past 65 years. Water quality is also affected by urbanization in the form of chemicals in the runoff water and deposition of airborne chemicals. The concentrations of the detected organic chemicals in Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs are all well below the guidance limits set by State and Federal agencies to protect human health. Many of these compounds are detected only because of the sensitive analytical methods used. This monitoring program provides the Sweetwater Authority with information on what monitored chemicals are present in the reservoirs, and at what concentrations. With this information, the Authority can assess the associated risks, and consider future water treatment and remediation. These results also help focus and support future efforts by Sweetwater Authority to protect the watershed.

  15. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  16. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  17. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  18. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  19. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  20. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  1. Quality assurance and quality control for drinking water laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.A.; Budde, W.L. ); Novielli, F. )

    1993-09-01

    Soon after the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was formed in 1972, agency administrators realized that in order to make appropriate decisions for environmental regulation, they must be assured that data being generated by the agency and the 50 states were valid and legally defensible. Thus in 1979, USEPA established a mandatory quality assurance (QA) program for all data generated by or for the agency. QA responsibilities were assigned to the Office of Research and Development. QA guidance in water chemistry and microbiology was assigned to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL) in Cincinnati, Ohio, and QA guidance in water radiochemistry became the responsibility of the EMSL in Las Vegas, Nevada.

  2. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    PubMed

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  3. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  4. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  5. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY: AN ENERGETICS PERPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated measures of food web dynamics could serve as important supplemental indicators of water quality that are well related with ecological integrity and environmental well-being. When the concern is a well-characterized pollutant (posing an established risk to human health...

  6. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  7. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  8. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  9. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  10. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  11. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  12. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. PMID:26346804

  13. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Schneider, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2013 water year (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013), data were collected at 79 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 4 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 76 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  14. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2012 water year (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), data were collected at 81 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 6 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 78 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  15. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2007 water year (October 1, 2006 through September 30, 2007), data were collected at 67 stations including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrite plus nitrte, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations, which primarily have been classified in groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, main land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State during water year 2007 is presented.

  16. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  17. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  18. The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

    1993-12-01

    Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

  19. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  20. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  1. Linking biological and physicochemical water quality.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Waldemar; Weiss, Annett; Matschullat, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    To define water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands complex assessments through physicochemical, biological, and hydromorphological controls of water bodies. Since the biological assessment became the central focus with hydrochemistry playing a supporting role, an evaluation of the interrelationships within this approach deems necessary. This work identified and tested these relationships to help improve the quality and efficiency of related efforts. Data from the 384 km(2) Weisseritz catchment (eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany and northern Bohemia, Czech Republic) were used as a representative example for central European streams in mountainous areas. The data cover the time frame 1992 to 2003. To implement WFD demands, the analysis was based on accepted German methods and classifications, WFD quality standards, and novel German methods for the biological status assessment. Selected chemical parameters were compared with different versions of the German Saprobic Index, based on macroinvertebrate indicator taxa. Relevant dependencies applicable for integrated stream assessment were statistically tested. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships. The highest scores were found for nutrients (NO(2)(-), N(inorg), and total N), salinity (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), conductivity), and microelements (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). The Saprobic Index used in the Integrated Assessment System for the Ecological Quality of Streams and Rivers throughout Europe using Benthic Macro-invertebrates program seems to be the most sensitive indicator to correlate with chemical parameters.

  2. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  3. Water Resources Data - New Jersey, Water Year 1999, Volume 3, Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Romanok, K.M.; Riskin, M.L.; Mattes, G.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 1999 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 133 surface-water stations, 46 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 30 ground-water stations, 41 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 17 continuous-monitoring stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 11 and 17-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 29-32 and 34. These data represent the part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  4. Chapter 5: Surface water quality sampling in streams and canals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface water sampling and water quality assessments have greatly evolved in the United States since the 1970s establishment of the Clean Water Act. Traditionally, water quality referred to only the chemical characteristics of the water and its toxicological properties related to drinking water or ...

  5. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  6. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  7. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  8. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  9. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  10. Aquatic life water quality criteria derived via the UC Davis method: II. Pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Fojut, Tessa L; Palumbo, Amanda J; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic life water quality criteria were derived for five pyrethroids using a new methodology developed by the University of California, Davis (TenBrook et al.2010). This methodology was developed to provide an updated, flexible, and robust water quality criteria derivation methodology specifically for pesticides. To derive the acute criteria, log-logistic SSDs were fitted to the medium-sized bifenthrin,cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin acute toxicity data sets while the X-cyhalothrin and permethrin acute data sets were larger, and Burr Type III SSDs could be fitted to these data sets. A review of the cyfluthrin acute criterion revealed that it was not protective of the most sensitive species in the data set, H. azteca, so the acute value was adjusted downward to calculate a more protective criterion. Similarly, the cypermethrin criteria were adjusted downward to be protective of H. azteca.Criteria for bifenthrin, X-cyhalothrin, and permethrin were calculated using the median fifth percentile acute values while the cyfluthrin and cypermethrin criteria were calculated with the next lowest acute value (median first percentile). Chronic data sets were limited in all cases, so ACRs were used for chronic criteria calculations, instead of statistical distributions. Sufficient corresponding acute and chronic data were not available for bifenthrin, cypermethrin, or permethrin, so a default ACR was used to calculate these chronic criteria while measured ACRs were used for cyfluthrin and X-cyhalothrin. A numeric scoring system was used to sort the acute and chronic data, based on relevance and reliability, and the individual study scores are included in the Supporting Information.According to the USEPA (1985) method, the data sets gathered for these five pyrethroids would not be sufficient to calculate criteria because they were each missing at least one of the eight taxa required by that method. The USEPA (1985)method generates robust and reliable criteria, and the goal of

  11. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  12. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  13. Water resources data, Virginia, water year 2004 volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Roger K.; Powell, Eugene D.; Guyer, Joel R.; Owens, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 346 observation wells and water quality at 40 wells. Locations of these wells are shown on figures 4 through 9. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Virginia.

  14. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  15. Headwater Influences on Downstream Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of riparian and whole watershed land use as a function of stream size on surface water chemistry and assessed regional variation in these relationships. Sixty-eight watersheds in four level III U.S. EPA ecoregions in eastern Kansas were selected as study sites. Riparian land cover and watershed land use were quantified for the entire watershed, and by Strahler order. Multiple regression analyses using riparian land cover classifications as independent variables explained among-site variation in water chemistry parameters, particularly total nitrogen (41%), nitrate (61%), and total phosphorus (63%) concentrations. Whole watershed land use explained slightly less variance, but riparian and whole watershed land use were so tightly correlated that it was difficult to separate their effects. Water chemistry parameters sampled in downstream reaches were most closely correlated with riparian land cover adjacent to the smallest (first-order) streams of watersheds or land use in the entire watershed, with riparian zones immediately upstream of sampling sites offering less explanatory power as stream size increased. Interestingly, headwater effects were evident even at times when these small streams were unlikely to be flowing. Relationships were similar among ecoregions, indicating that land use characteristics were most responsible for water quality variation among watersheds. These findings suggest that nonpoint pollution control strategies should consider the influence of small upland streams and protection of downstream riparian zones alone is not sufficient to protect water quality. PMID:17999108

  16. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Briancesco, Rossella

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  17. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  18. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  19. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  20. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  1. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  2. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  3. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  4. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  5. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  6. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially...

  7. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  8. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  9. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  10. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  11. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  12. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  13. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  14. Water quality in Illinois, 1990-1991. Biennial report

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, C.

    1993-01-01

    The report is a summary of the 305(b) Illinois Water Quality Report. It highlights the 1990 - 1991 water quality conditions of Illinois rivers, streams, inland lakes, Lake Michigan, and groundwater. The report also outlines current water quality issues and the IEPA's water pollution control programs.

  15. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  16. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  17. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  18. Potable water quality in rural Georgetown County.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, S S; Nelson, P; Warren, W J

    1975-10-01

    Drinking water supplies of 161 rural communities, in Georgetown County, South Carolina, were randomly selected for sample collection. The analysis showed that most of the waters were slightly acidic. Low, but acceptable concentrations of chloride, copper, fluoride, sodium, cadmium, nitrate and phosphate were found. A few water samples showed higher then recommended levels of arsenic, mercury, zinc and lead. Although only 2% of the samples exceeded the mandatory limit of 0.05 ppm for arsenic, 72% exceeded the recommended level of 0.01 ppm. The mandatory limit for manganese was exceeded in 37% of the waters while 88% exceeded the limit for iron. The high iron content was generally responsible for the high turbidity found in 45% of the samples. The well depth and the consumer income had some bearing on water quality. Statistical evidence suggested that septic tank seepage was partially responsible for nitrate, phosphate, iron and arsenic contamination of shallow water supplies. Lead concentrations appear to vary according to the plumbing used and the pH of the waters. PMID:107

  19. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2015-12-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2014 water year (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  20. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011), data were collected at 75 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  1. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2010 water year (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010), data were collected at 75 stations-72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  2. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2009 water year (October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009), data were collected at 75 stations-69 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, and 3 stations sampled in cooperation with the Elk River Watershed Improvement Association. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  3. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  4. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses. PMID:27526046

  5. Temporal changes in water quality at a childhood leukemia cluster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997, 15 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia and one case of acute myelocytic leukemia have been diagnosed in children and teenagers who live, or have lived, in an area centered on the town of Fallon, Nevada. The expected rate for the population is about one case every five years. In 2001, 99 domestic and municipal wells and one industrial well were sampled in the Fallon area. Twenty-nine of these wells had been sampled previously in 1989. Statistical comparison of concentrations of major ions and trace elements in those 29 wells between 1989 and 2001 using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicate water quality did not substantially change over that period; however, short-term changes may have occurred that were not detected. Volatile organic compounds were seldom detected in ground water samples and those that are regulated were consistently found at concentrations less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL). The MCL for gross-alpha radioactivity and arsenic, radon, and uranium concentrations were commonly exceeded, and sometimes were greatly exceeded. Statistical comparisons using the nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test indicate gross-alpha and -beta radioactivity, arsenic, uranium, and radon concentrations in wells used by families having a child with leukemia did not statistically differ from the remainder of the domestic wells sampled during this investigation. Isotopic measurements indicate the uranium was natural and not the result of a 1963 underground nuclear bomb test near Fallon. In arid and semiarid areas where trace-element concentrations can greatly exceed the MCL, household reverse-osmosis units may not reduce their concentrations to safe levels. In parts of the world where radon concentrations are high, water consumed first thing in the morning may be appreciably more radioactive than water consumed a few minutes later after the pressure tank has been emptied because secular equilibrium between radon and its immediate daughter

  6. Statewide water-quality network for Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Steeves, Peter A.; Zimmerman, Marc James

    2001-01-01

    A water-quality monitoring program is proposed that would provide data to meet multiple information needs of Massachusetts agencies and other users concerned with the condition of the State's water resources. The program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Watershed Management, with input from many organizations involved in water-quality monitoring in the State, and focuses on inland surface waters (streams and lakes). The proposed monitoring program consists of several components, or tiers, which are defined in terms of specific monitoring objectives, and is intended to complement the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative (MWI) basin assessments. Several components were developed using the Neponset River Basin in eastern Massachusetts as a pilot area, or otherwise make use of data from and sampling approaches used in that basin as part of a MWI pilot assessment in 1994. To guide development of the monitoring program, reviews were conducted of general principles of network design, including monitoring objectives and approaches, and of ongoing monitoring activities of Massachusetts State agencies.Network tiers described in this report are primarily (1) a statewide, basin-based assessment of existing surface-water-quality conditions, and (2) a fixed-station network for determining contaminant loads carried by major rivers. Other components, including (3) targeted programs for hot-spot monitoring and other objectives, and (4) compliance monitoring, also are discussed. Monitoring programs for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads for specific water bodies, which would constitute another tier of the network, are being developed separately and are not described in this report. The basin-based assessment of existing conditions is designed to provide information on the status of surface waters with respect to State water-quality standards and designated uses in accordance with the

  7. Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems.

    PubMed

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers.

  8. Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems.

    PubMed

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers. PMID:26456839

  9. Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix 22: Interim marine and estuarine water quality guidelines for general variables

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared in response to the need for marine water quality guidelines for general water quality variables. It presents interim guidelines, summaries of existing guidelines if any, the rationale for the guidelines, and variable-specific background information, and notes gaps in data, for the following variables: Debris, including floating or submerged litter, and settleable matter; dissolved oxygen; pH; salinity; temperature; and suspended solids and turbidity. For the purpose of this document, the marine environment includes shorelines, estuaries up to the freshwater limit, and nearshore and offshore waters.

  10. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  11. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-02-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system.

  12. [Quality improvement in acute pain management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Meißner, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, different quality management approaches in postoperative pain management have been established. In this context, quality is distinguished into structure quality (e.g. personnel and equipment resources), process quality (e. g. standardized treatment schemes) and outcome quality (e.g. pain intensity, side effects, satisfaction). While guidelines and recommendations help to set up evidence based structures and processes and offer support for decision making, benchmark projects offer insights in real life conditions. By use of feedback and benchmarking tools, they can be used for outcome-oriented quality improvement. Certification projects assess compliance with or achievement of defined quality criteria on the basis of predefined structure, process, and outcome parameter.

  13. Determining regional water quality patterns and their ecological relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Tim W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Beauchamp, John J.

    1987-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method for analyzing spatial patterns of water quality in Georgia and Kansas was tested using data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's STORET data system. Water quality data for Georgia and Kansas were organized by watersheds. We evaluated three questions: (a) can distinctive regional water quality patterns be detected and predicted using only a few water quality variables, (b) are regional water quality patterns correlated with terrestrial biotic regions, and (c) are regional water quality patterns correlated with fish distributions? Using existing data, this method can distinguish regions with water quality very different from the average conditions (as in Georgia), but it does not discriminate well between regions that do not have diverse water quality conditions (as in Kansas). Data that are spatially and temporally adequate for representing large regions and for multivariate statistical analysis are available for only a few common water quality parameters. Regional climate, lithology, and biotic regimes all have the potential to affect water quality, and terrestrial biotic regions and fish distributions do compare with regional water quality patterns, especially in a state like Georgia, where watershed characteristics are diverse. Thus, identifiable relationships between watershed characteristics and water quality should allow the development of an integrated landaquatic classification system that would be a valuable tool for resource management. Because geographical distributions of species may be limited by Zoogeographic and environmental factors, the recognition of patterns in fish distributions that correlate with regional water quality patterns could influence management strategies and aid regional assessments.

  14. Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms (fourth edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.I.

    1991-09-01

    The manual describes methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater, estuarine, and marine macroinvertebrates and fish. The methods include single and multiple concentration static nonrenewal, static-renewal, and flow-through toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety; quality assurance; facilities and equipment; test species selection and handling; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing.

  15. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  16. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  17. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2000. Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Mattes, G.L.; Burns, H.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.; Doyle, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharage, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 2000 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 125 continuing-record surface-water stations, 62 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 73 ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 45 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 18-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 11 and 42-49. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  18. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (< or =50 mg/L as CaCO3). Hence, the objective of the present research was to evaluate the influences of water quality on acute Cu toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in low-hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p < 0.0001) and seasonal (p = 0.026) differences among LC50 values were determined for eight sites that had multiple toxicity results for one year. All modified WERs were greater than 1.0, suggesting that the site waters were more protective of Cu toxicity than the matched laboratory water. Some WERs generated using recommended methods were less than 1.0, suggesting limited site-specific protection. Based on these observations, extrapolation of the hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  19. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2005Volume 3 - Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Lewis, Jason M.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Feinson, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2005 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 30 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 9 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special studies that included 89 stream, 11 lake, and 29 ground-water sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 23-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 41-46. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  20. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003; Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Hoppe, Heidi L.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Melvin, Emma-Lynn; Liu, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2003 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 123 continuing-record surface-water stations, 35 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 20 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special-study sites consisting of 2 surface-water sites, 1 spring site, and 240 groundwater sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 21-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 49-53. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  1. MATERIALS SUPPORTING THE NEW RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing new, rapid methods for monitoring water quality at beaches to determine adequacy of water quality for swimming. The methods being developed rely upon quantitive polymerase chain reaction technology. They will permit real time decisions regarding beach closures...

  2. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  3. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  4. Cellular-enabled water quality measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Kerkez, B.

    2013-12-01

    While the past decade has seen significant improvements in our ability to measure nutrients and other water quality parameters, the use of these sensors has yet to gain traction due to their costprohibitive nature and deployment expertise required on the part of researchers. Furthermore, an extra burden is incurred when real-time data access becomes an experimental requirement. We present an open-source hardware design to facilitate the real-time, low-cost, and robust measurements of water quality across large urbanized areas. Our hardware platform interfaces an embedded, vastly configurable, high-precision, ultra-low power measurement system, with a low-power cellular module. Each sensor station is configured with an IP address, permitting reliable streaming of sensor data to off-site locations as measurements are made. We discuss the role of high-quality hardware components during extreme event scenarios, and present preliminary performance metrics that validate the ability of the platform to provide streaming access to sensor measurements.

  5. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  6. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  7. Confinement and water quality-induced stress in largemouth bass

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, G.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1984-11-01

    Plasma values of corticosteroids, glucose, chloride, and osmolality were determined in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides under various environmental conditions. No differences were observed in quiescent fish due to sex, size, time of day, or the types of holding facilities tested (tanks, raceways, ponds). Differences were observed in plasma glucose, chloride, and osmolality values among fish acclimated to 10, 16, and 23 C. Abrupt temperature changes caused elevations in plasma corticosteroid and glucose concentrations and reduced plasma chloride and osmolality. Confinement in a net, for up to 48 hours, caused elevated glucose and corticosteroids and reduced chloride and osmolality values. After 48 hours of confinement, fish required up to 14 days to recover normal plasma characters. Generally, short-term exposure to poor water quality (high concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen) altered plasma corticosteroids and glucose but had little effect on plasma chloride or osmolality. Net confinement plus poor water quality caused additional stress. Plasma glucose and corticosteroid values were good indicators of stress during application of acute stressors whereas chloride and osmolality were useful indicators of long-term stress and patterns of recovery after stressors were removed.

  8. Water quality monitoring in membrane filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Abogrean, Elhadi M; Boerlage, Siobhan F E; Kennedy, Maria D; El-Azizi, Ibrahim M; Galjaard, Gilbert; Schippers, Jan S

    2003-03-01

    We report on an experimental study of UF membrane fouling by colloidal particles. Deposition colloidal particles during membrane filtration causes a decline in permeate flux. Membrane flux is monitored on a laboratory scale, crossflow employing UF membranes. The existing modified fouling index (MFI) uses a microfilter membrane as a quick test of feed water quality. The MFI is based on cake filtration, and thus, a model can be developed for flux decline predication. However, this MFI is not sensitive to the presence of smaller particles. Therefore, more recently MFI using ultrafiltration membranes (MFI-UF) was developed. This research investigates various critical aspects of the MFI-UF test for use as a water quality indicator; stability of the MFI-UF over time, linearity of the index with particulate concentration, and reproducibility (1) of the test (reusability of a UF module) and (2) module manufacture. Pressure dependence of the MFI-UF was also examined. The aforementioned criteria were examined using a polyacrylonitrile module with 13,000 molecular weight cutoff for low fouling (tap and process water). The MFI-UF was stable over time and directly related to colloidal concentration. The MFI-UF test was reproducible for one module with repeated testing; reproducible module manufacture was found for 80% of the test modules.

  9. Reading Water Quality Variables with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Minkman, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Many relevant water quality variables can be measured cost-effectively with standard indicator strips. These are local measurements, although usually done within a larger water network. Only if these measurements can be made available in a central database, the entire network can benefit from the extra data point. This requires an analog data source to be converted to a digital data point. A tool that is equipped to do that and also communicate the value to a central system, is a smartphone. A water quality monitoring method is introduced that requires standard indicator strips attached to a reference card and an app with which a picture can be taken from this card. The color or other indication is automatically read with dedicated pattern recognition algorithms and, by using the gps-localization of the smartphone, is stored in the right location in the central database. The method is low-cost and very user-friendly, which makes it suitable for crowd sourcing.

  10. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Hoppe, H.L.; Heckathorn, H.A.; Gray, B.J.; Riskin, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Catskill/Delaware Water-Quality Network: Water-Quality Report Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates a 60-station streamgaging network in the New York City Catskill/Delaware Water Supply System. Water-quality samples were collected at 13 of the stations in the Catskill/Delaware streamgaging network to provide resource managers with water-quality and water-quantity data from the water-supply system that supplies about 85 percent of the water needed by the more than 9 million residents of New York City. This report summarizes water-quality data collected at those 13 stations plus one additional station operated as a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Long-Term Monitoring Network for the 2006 water year (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006). An average of 62 water-quality samples were collected at each station during the 2006 water year, including grab samples collected every other week and storm samples collected with automated samplers. On average, 8 storms were sampled at each station during the 2006 water year. The 2006 calendar year was the second warmest on record and the summer of 2006 was the wettest on record for the northeastern United States. A large storm on June 26-28, 2006, caused extensive flooding in the western part of the network where record peak flows were measured at several watersheds.

  12. Bacteriological Assessment of Spoon River Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shundar; Evans, Ralph L.; Beuscher, Davis B.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a study of five stations on the Spoon River, Ill., during June 1971 through May 1973 were analyzed for compliance with Illinois Pollution Control Board's water quality standards of a geometric mean limitation of 200 fecal coliforms per 100 ml. This bacterial limit was achieved about 20% of the time during June 1971 through May 1972, and was never achieved during June 1972 through May 1973. Ratios of fecal coliform to total coliform are presented. By using fecal coliform-to-fecal streptococcus ratios to sort out fecal pollution origins, it was evident that a concern must be expressed not only for municipal wastewater effluents to the receiving stream, but also for nonpoint sources of pollution in assessing the bacterial quality of a stream. PMID:4604145

  13. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  14. [PARTICULAR QUALITIES OF DIAGNOSTIC ACUTE LATERAL ANKLE LIGAMENT INJURIES].

    PubMed

    Krasnoperov, S N; Shishka, I V; Golovaha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Delayed diagnosis of acute lateral ankle ligaments injury and subsequent inadequate treatment leads to the development of chronic instability and rapid progression of degenerative processes in the joint. The aim of our work was to improve treatment results by developing an diagnostic algorithm and treatment strategy of acute lateral ankle ligament injuries. The study included 48 patients with history of acute inversion ankle injury mechanism. Diagnostic protocol included clinical and radiological examination during 48 hours and after 7-10 days after injury. According to the high rate of inaccurate clinical diagnosis in the first 48 hours of the injury a short course of conservative treatment for 7-10 days is needed with follow-up and controlling clinical and radiographic instability tests. Clinical symptoms of ankle inversion injury showed that the combination of local tenderness in the projection of damaged ligaments, the presence of severe periarticular hematoma in the lateral department and positive anterior drawer and talar tilt tests in 7-10 days after the injury in 87% of cases shows the presence of ligament rupture. An algorithm for diagnosis of acute lateral ankle ligament injury was developed, which allowed us to determine differential indications for surgical repair of the ligaments and conservative treatment of these patients.

  15. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  19. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  20. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  1. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the context of…

  2. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  4. Monitoring of recharge water quality under woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajenbrink, G. J. W.; Ronen, D.; Van Duijvenbooden, W.; Magaritz, M.; Wever, D.

    1988-03-01

    The study compares the quality of groundwater in the water table zone and soil moisture below the root zone, under woodland, with the quality of the regional precipitation. The water quality under forest shows evidence of the effect of atmospheric deposition of acidic components (e.g. SO 2) and ammonia volatilized from land and feed lots. Detailed chemical profiles of the upper meter of groundwater under different plots of forest, at varying distances from cultivated land, were obtained with a multilayer sampler, using the dialysis-cell method. Porous ceramic cups and a vacuum method were used to obtain soil moisture samples at 1.20 m depth under various types of trees, an open spot and arable land, for the period of a year. The investigation took place in the recharge area of a pumping station with mainly mixed forest, downwind of a vast agricultural area with high ammonia volatilization and underlain by an ice-deformed aquifer. Very high NO -3 concentrations were observed in soil moisture and groundwater (up to 21 mg Nl -1) under coniferous forest, especially in the border zone. This raises the question of the dilution capacity of recharge water under woodland in relation to the polluted groundwater under farming land. The buffering capacity of the unsaturated zone varies substantially and locally a low pH (4.5) was observed in groundwater. The large variability of leachate composition on different scales under a forest and the lesser but still significant concentration differences in the groundwater prove the importance of a monitoring system for the actual solute flux into the groundwater.

  5. Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Londres, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

  6. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  7. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  8. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  9. Infrared optical sensors for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mizaikoff, B

    2003-01-01

    In-situ monitoring of water quality with particular emphasis on organic pollutants is a global priority topic in water analysis. Recent developments in optical sensor technology provide advanced analytical tools for continuous assessment of pollution levels in the liquid phase and in the gas phase. Infrared sensing schemes are among the most promising concepts due to inherent molecular specificity provided by absorption patterns of fundamental molecular vibrations of organic molecules. The advent of mid-infrared transparent optical fibers and waveguides, appropriate light source technology, such as quantum cascade lasers, and the potential for the development of highly integrated analytical devices based on microfabrication technology substantiates the trend towards spectroscopic sensing techniques. Chemical modification of the waveguide surface leads to enhanced analyte recognition based on tunable properties of enrichment or (bio)chemical recognition layers. Discussion of fundamental sensing technology is complemented by recent examples, highlighting the state-of-the-art in this dynamic research field.

  10. Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    -manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

  11. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Selleck, R.E.; Ungun, Z.; Chesler, G.; Diyamandoglu, V.; Marinas, B. . Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health Research Lab.); Daniels, J.I. )

    1990-05-01

    A comparison is made between the performances of the 600-gph Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) operated in the bypass mode and the Mobile Water Purification Unit (MWPU, frequently referred to as an ERDLATOR because the equipment was developed at the Engineer Research and Development Laboratory at Fort Belvoir, VA.) Generally, the performance of the MWPU is significantly better than the pretreatment units of the ROWPU in terms of removing both turbidity and pathogenic organisms. It is recommended that the practice of bypassing the reverse osmosis (RO) components of the ROWPU be avoided unless it can be demonstrated clearly that the cartridge filters will remove the cysts of infectious organisms effectively and reliably. If the ROWPU must be operated in the bypass mode, it is recommended that the dose of disinfectant used be made equal to that currently employed in the field for untreated raw water. The analytical methods used to determine total dissolved solids (TDS) and residual free chlorine with the new Water-Quality Monitor (WQM) are also reviewed briefly. The limitations of the methods used to calibrate the TDS and free-chlorine probes of the new WQM are discussed. 98 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2008 water year (October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008), data were collected at 67 stations, including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  13. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  14. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  15. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  16. Assessing acute toxicity potential of persulfate ISCO treated water.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Wang, Chi-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Persulfate anion (S2O8(2-)), a widely used in situ chemical oxidation agent, is increasingly applied for environmental remediation. However, limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available for the evaluation of the environmental risk of exposure to S2O8(2-), particularly after its application. In this study, the acute toxic effects on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were employed as a model to investigate S2O8(2-), sulfate ion (decomposition product of S2O8(2-)), hydrogen/hydroxide ions and also the mixtures of these ion species. Acute toxicity test results showed 96h median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 540±23mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 4100±110mgL(-1) for SO4(2-). S2O8(2-) was considerably more toxic than its decomposition product SO4(2-). Additionally, solution pH was also an important factor influencing toxicity, and S2O8(2-) posed reduced acute toxicity when pH was in the range of 6-10. Water conductivity up to approximately 8000μScm(-1) did not appear to significantly increase fish mortality. In the mixture toxicity test (i.e., S2O8(2-)/OH(-)), LC50 values of 130±10mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 23±2mgL(-1) for OH(-) were lower than those obtained from the individual toxicity tests and therefore exhibited higher toxicity to fish. However, upon complete decomposition of S2O8(2-) in the mixture, a reduction in acute toxicity may be expected. The results of this study revealed that it may be necessary and/or desirable to control the residual S2O8(2-)and pH after S2O8(2-) addition when potential exposure to an aquatic system is a concern.

  17. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  19. Acute Exposure from RADON-222 and Aerosols in Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, George Paul, IV

    Radon-222 in water is released when the water is aerated, such as during showering. As a result, a temporary burst of radon-222 can appear as a short term, or acute, exposure. This study looked at homes with radon-222 concentrations in water from 800 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) to 53,000 pCi/l to determine the buildup of radon gas in a bathroom during showering. Samples from the tap and drain, compared to determine the percentage of radon-222 released, showed that between 58% and 88% of radon-222 in the water was released. The resultant radon-222 increase in air, measured with a flow-through detector, ranged from 2 pCi/l to 114 pCi/l in bathrooms due to a 10 to 15 minute shower with water flow rates ranging from 3 l/min to 6 l/min. Significantly, these rates did not fall rapidly but stayed approximately the same for up to 15 minutes after the water flow ceased. In examining exposures, the true danger is in the radon-222 progeny rather than the radon itself. The progeny can be inhaled and deposited in the tracheobronchial passages in the lung. Filter samples of bathroom air measured in a portable alpha spectrometer showed an increase in radon-222 progeny, notably polonium-218 and -214, in the air after showering. These increases were gradual and were on the order of 0.5 pCi/l at the highest level. Tap samples measured in a portable liquid scintillator showed that the progeny are present in the water but are not in true secular equilibrium with the radon-222 in the water. Therefore, the radon-222 does not have to decay to produce progeny since the progeny are already present in the water. A two stage sampler was used to examine the percentage of radiation available in aerosols smaller than 7 microns. Repeated trials showed that up to 85% of the radiation available in the aerosols is contained in the smaller, more respirable particles.

  20. Total quality in acute care hospitals: guidelines for hospital managers.

    PubMed

    Holthof, B

    1991-08-01

    Quality improvement can not focus exclusively on peer review and the scientific evaluation of medical care processes. These essential elements have to be complemented with a focus on individual patient needs and preferences. Only then will hospitals create the competitive advantage needed to survive in an increasingly market-driven hospital industry. Hospital managers can identify these patients' needs by 'living the patient experience' and should then set the hospital's quality objectives according to its target patients and their needs. Excellent quality program design, however, is not sufficient. Successful implementation of a quality improvement program further requires fundamental changes in pivotal jobholders' behavior and mindset and in the supporting organizational design elements.

  1. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  2. Chemometric characterization of river water quality.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, Smriti; Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B D

    2013-04-01

    Various industrial facilities in the city of Varanasi discharge their effluent mixed with municipal sewage into the River Ganges at different discharge points. In this study, chemometric tools such as cluster analysis and box-whisker plots were applied to interpret data obtained during examination of River Ganges water quality. Specifically, we investigated the temperature (T), pH, total alkalinity, total acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate nitrogen (N), phosphate (PO 4(2-) ), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from six sampling stations. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method. Proximity distance between EC and Cr was the smallest revealing a relationship between these parameters, which was confirmed by Pearson's correlation. Based on proximity distances, EC, Cr, Ni, Fe, N, COD, temperature, BOD, and total acidity comprised one group; Zn, Pb, Cd, total alkalinity, Cu, and phosphate (PO 4(2-) ) were in another group; and DO and pH formed a separate group. These groups were confirmed by Pearson's correlation (r) values that indicated significant and positive correlation between variables in the same group. Box-whisker plots revealed that as we go downstream, the pollutant concentration increases and maximum at the downstream station Raj Ghat and minimum at the upstream station Samane Ghat. Seasonal variations in water quality parameters signified that total alkalinity, total acidity, DO, BOD, COD, N, phosphate (PO 4(2-) ), Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn were the highest in summer (March-June) and the lowest during monsoon season (July-October). Temperature was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter (November-February). DO was the highest in winter and the lowest in summer season. pH was observed to be the highest in monsoon and the lowest in

  3. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  4. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, lampsilis siliquoidea) in natural and reconstituted waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Mebane, C.A.; Kunz, J.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.; May, T.W.; Arnold, W.R.; Santore, R.C.; Augspurger, T.; Dwyer, F.J.; Barniiart, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and water composition on the toxicity of copper to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) were evaluated in natural and reconstituted waters. Acute 96-h copper toxicity tests were conducted at four nominal DOC concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L as carbon [C]) in dilutions of natural waters and in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) reconstituted hard water. Toxicity tests also were conducted in ASTM soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard reconstituted waters (nominal hardness 45-300 mg/L as CaCO3). Three natural surface waters (9.5-11 mg/L DOC) were diluted to obtain a series of DOC concentrations with diluted well water, and an extract of natural organic matter and commercial humic acid was mixed with ASTM hard water to prepare a series of DOC concentrations for toxicity testing. Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved copper varied >40-fold (9.9 to >396 ??g Cu/L) over all 21 treatments in various DOC waters. Within a particular type of DOC water, EC50s increased 5- to 12-fold across DOC concentrations of 0.3 to up to 11 mg C/L. However, EC50s increased by only a factor of 1.4 (21 30 ??g Cu/L) in the four ASTM waters with wide range of water hardness (52-300 mg CaCO 3/L). Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper explained nearly 90% of the variability in EC50s. Nearly 70% of BLM-normalized EC50s for fatmucket tested in natural waters were below the final acute value used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute water quality criterion for copper, indicating that the criterion might not be protective of fatmucket and perhaps other mussel species. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  5. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.; Bartram, Jamie; Wade, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low- and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. PMID:27689546

  6. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... CFR Part 410 Incorporation by reference, Water audit, Water pollution control, Water reservoirs, Water... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria...

  7. Water quality of Rhode Island streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, J.C.; Feiffer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Water quality data collected from November 1979 through September 1983 at five stream stations within Rhode Island and one in Massachusetts show that concentrations of the common constituents were low. Mean water hardness at all sites was in the ' soft ' category. Sodium concentrations were less than 20 mg/L at two sites and less than 35 mg/L at the other sites. Mean nitrogen values for the two Blackstone River sites were in the range that could cause undesirable growths of aquatic plants. Mean phosphorus values exceeded the recommended limits for protection of aquatic life at four sites. Trace-element concentrations in the water were generally low. Those trace elements which were found in concentrations near or exceeding any standard or criterion include cadmium, chromium, lead, iron, and manganese. High concentrations of several trace elements were found in the bottom materials at several sites. The bottom materials also contained pesticides and organic chemicals including aldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldren, endosulfan , endrin, heptachlor, Mirex, and PCB. Results of trend analysis of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and specific conductance show a downward trend in phosphorus at two sites; an upward trend in nitrogen at one site; and one downward trend and one upward trend in specific conductance. (USGS)

  8. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. In addition, some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation are included. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality…

  9. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Presented is a compilation of over 3,000 abstracts on print and non-print materials related to water quality and water resources education. Entries are included from all levels of governmental sources, private concerns, and educational institutions. Each entry includes: title, author, cross references, descriptors, and availability. (CLS)

  10. Methods for comparing water-quality conditions among National Water-Quality Assessment Study Units, 1992-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment is based on intensive investigations of stream and ground-water quality in selected major hydrologic basins (study units) of the United States. One objective of the national assessment is to comparatively evaluate water-quality conditions within and among the different study units. Methods were developed to compare the water-quality conditions of 20 study units that were studied during 1992-1995. Two approaches were taken: (1) water-quality conditions for each study unit were ranked in relation to the findings for all study units, and (2) water-quality conditions for each study unit were compared to established criteria for the protection of human health and aquatic life. Separate rankings were developed for several major characteristics of water quality by using selected combinations of measured values for individual constituents or properties. The water-quality characteristics that were evaluated for streams were nutrients and pesticides in water, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bed sediment and tissue, semivolatile organic compounds and trace elements in bed sediment, fish community degradation, and stream habitat degradation. The water-quality characteristics that were evaluated for ground water were nitrate, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved solids, and radon. The water-quality rankings are relative strictly to the distribution of conditions measured at sampling sites included in developing the method. Sites in the first 20 National Water-Quality Assessment study units include a broad range of environmental settings, but are not a statistically representative sample of the Nation. > To supplement the relative rankings, established water-quality criteria were used to indicate where particular constituents may have adverse effects, and thus merit further investigation. Established water-quality criteria, which provide consistent benchmarks for national comparisons of individual

  11. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  12. MTBE ambient water quality criteria development: a public/private partnership.

    PubMed

    Mancini, E R; Steen, A; Rausina, G A; Wong, D C L; Arnold, W R; Gostomski, F E; Davies, T; Hockett, J R; Stubblefield, W A; Drottar, K R; Springer, T A; Errico, P

    2002-01-15

    A public/private partnership was established in 1997, under the administrative oversight of the American Petroleum Institute (API), to develop aquatic toxicity data sufficient to calculate ambient water quality criteria for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate. The MTBE Water Quality Criteria Work Group consisted of representatives from private companies, trade associations, and USEPA. Funding was provided by the private entities, while aquatic biological/toxicological expertise was provided by industry and USEPA scientists. This public/private partnership constituted a nonadversarial, cost-effective, and efficient process for generating the toxicity data necessary for deriving freshwater and marine ambient water quality criteria. Existing aquatic toxicity data were evaluated for acceptability, consistent with USEPA guidance, and nineteen freshwater and marine tests were conducted by commercial laboratories as part of this effort to satisfy the federal criteria database requirements. Definitive test data were developed and reported under the oversight of industry study monitors and Good Laboratory Practice standards auditors, and with USEPA scientists participating in advisory and critical review roles. Calculated, preliminary freshwater criteria for acute (Criterion Maximum Concentration) and chronic (Criterion Continuous Concentration) exposure effect protection are 151 and 51 mg MTBE/L, respectively. Calculated, preliminary marine criteria for acute and chronic exposure effect protection are 53 and 18 mg MTBE/L, respectively. These criteria values may be used for surface water quality management purposes, and they indicate that ambient MTBE concentrations documented in U. S. surface waters to date do not constitute a risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:11831214

  13. MTBE ambient water quality criteria development: a public/private partnership.

    PubMed

    Mancini, E R; Steen, A; Rausina, G A; Wong, D C L; Arnold, W R; Gostomski, F E; Davies, T; Hockett, J R; Stubblefield, W A; Drottar, K R; Springer, T A; Errico, P

    2002-01-15

    A public/private partnership was established in 1997, under the administrative oversight of the American Petroleum Institute (API), to develop aquatic toxicity data sufficient to calculate ambient water quality criteria for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate. The MTBE Water Quality Criteria Work Group consisted of representatives from private companies, trade associations, and USEPA. Funding was provided by the private entities, while aquatic biological/toxicological expertise was provided by industry and USEPA scientists. This public/private partnership constituted a nonadversarial, cost-effective, and efficient process for generating the toxicity data necessary for deriving freshwater and marine ambient water quality criteria. Existing aquatic toxicity data were evaluated for acceptability, consistent with USEPA guidance, and nineteen freshwater and marine tests were conducted by commercial laboratories as part of this effort to satisfy the federal criteria database requirements. Definitive test data were developed and reported under the oversight of industry study monitors and Good Laboratory Practice standards auditors, and with USEPA scientists participating in advisory and critical review roles. Calculated, preliminary freshwater criteria for acute (Criterion Maximum Concentration) and chronic (Criterion Continuous Concentration) exposure effect protection are 151 and 51 mg MTBE/L, respectively. Calculated, preliminary marine criteria for acute and chronic exposure effect protection are 53 and 18 mg MTBE/L, respectively. These criteria values may be used for surface water quality management purposes, and they indicate that ambient MTBE concentrations documented in U. S. surface waters to date do not constitute a risk to aquatic organisms.

  14. Water quality criteria/toxicological benchmarks for nitroaromatic munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Hovatter, P.S.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need to develop screening level and cleanup criteria for nitroaromatic compounds at US Army Superfund sites. Using available methodologies, Water Quality Criteria (WQC) for aquatic organisms and toxicological benchmarks for terrestrial plants and wildlife were developed for eight nitroaromatic munitions compounds and/or their degradation products: 2,4,6-trinitroluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 3,5-dinitroaniline, 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene, RDX, HMX, and tetryl. Depending on available data, acute and chronic WQC for aquatic species were developed based on US EPA Tier 1 or Tier 2 guidelines. Criteria for sediment-associated organisms were derived based on Equilibrium Partitioning. In the absence of criteria or guidance for effects on terrestrial wildlife, plants and soil processes, ecotoxicological benchmarks, i.e., NOAELs and LOECs for effects on these organisms were identified. Benchmarks for terrestrial wildlife species were derived from experimental data identifying toxicological endpoints for wildlife or laboratory species. NOAELs were based on endpoints of population growth and survival following oral exposures. These values were used as the basis for calculation of NOAELs or screening benchmarks for food and water intake for seven selected mammalian wildlife species: the short-tailed shrew, white footed mouse, meadow vole, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer. Equivalent NOAELs were calculated by scaling the test data on the basis of differences in body weight. Benchmarks for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates and heterotrophic processes were based on LOECs.

  15. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate <0.033mg/L; ammonia<0.23mg/L; turbidity<5.25FAU; DO>=4mg/L; fecal coliform<200MPN/100ml; E.Coli.<126MPN/100ml; enterococcus < 104MPN /100ml). The maximum values are: phosphate: 0.181mg/L; ammonia: 2.864mg/L; turbidity: 245 FAU& 882 FAU; fecal coliform>millions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DO<2.9 mg/L. Data showed that pathogen levels are higher than published data from riverkeepers (enterococcus) and USGS (fecal coliform). PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl, C12H8Cl2), an indicator of raw sewage and stormwater runoff, is analyzed. Fish caught from the Harlem River is banned from commercial. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggests that not to eat the fish because concerns of PCBs, dioxin and cadmium. How to reduce CSOs is critical on water quality improvement. Green wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  16. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 producing monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. The main water quality parameter measured was nitrate, an...

  17. Continuous quality improvement in acute health care: creating a holistic and integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Sewell, N

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the range of quality activity in a National Health Service hospital trust, using a staff questionnaire survey, self-assessment against the Baldrige Quality Award criteria, and the application of the SERVQUAL approach to service quality assessment. Reviews the acute health care quality programme literature. Finds that there are needs for greater integration of quality effort, to engage with patients in a more meaningful manner, and to achieve greater commitment and involvement from clinicians and managers. Identifies lack of time and resources as a major barrier to greater application of quality programmes. Explores ways of developing a more holistic and integrated programme of quality improvement. Describes the creation and implementation of a model for continuous improvement in health care quality.

  18. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  19. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  20. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  1. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Kerestes, John F.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  2. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical.

  3. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  4. Assessment of toxic metal exposure following the Camelford water pollution incident: evidence of acute mobilization of lead into drinking water.

    PubMed

    Powell, J J; Greenfield, S M; Thompson, R P; Cargnello, J A; Kendall, M D; Landsberg, J P; Watt, F; Delves, H T; House, I

    1995-03-01

    Following the incident of acidic pollution of water by aluminium sulfate centred around Camelford in July 1988, we have carried out a retrospective analysis of the mobilization of toxic metals to residents of the area. An advanced nuclear technique was used to measure trace levels of elements within hair, thus, avoiding surface contamination. In contrast to controls, lead, but no other toxic metals, was consistently found within sections of hair that dated to mid-1988 from four residents; they must, therefore, have consumed this metal around the time of the incident. The source of this lead was probably local water pipe residue, and this was found on analysis to have a matrix specific to such soft-water areas that, prior to the incident, had slowly accumulated certain toxic metals such as cadmium and uranium and particularly lead. Lead is mobilized from such residues by acidic water and could, therefore, have heavily contaminated mains water after the incident. However, analyses of residents' plasma and whole blood, and of urine following a lead-chelation test, showed no evidence of either long-term increased body burdens of toxic metals or depletion of essential elements. In addition, we found no evidence of continued poor water quality in the area. In conclusion, during a short period following the pollution, some residents who consumed mains water would have been acutely exposed to lead and other toxic metals. Prediction of the scale of metal exposure to individuals was not possible owing to heterogeneity of the water distribution network, but long-term effects to residents from lead are not anticipated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  12. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF HYPORHEIC PROCESSING IN A LARGE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality changes along hyporheic flow paths may have
    important effects on river water quality and aquatic habitat. Previous
    studies on the Willamette River, Oregon, showed that river water follows
    hyporheic flow paths through highly porous deposits created by river...

  13. National Water Quality Inventory, 1975 Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document summarizes state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as requested in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). This report provides the first opportunity for states to summarize their water quality and to report to EPA and Congress. Chapters of this report deal…

  14. Applications of spectroscopy to remote determination of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M. C.; Weiner, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote laser Raman and molecular spectroscopic techniques to measure water quality is examined. Measurements cover biological, chemical, and physical properties of the water. Experimental results show chemical properties are harder to obtain remotely than biological or physical properties and that molecular spectroscopy seems to be the best method for obtaining water quality data.

  15. The Water Quality Portal: a single point of access for water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) overseen by the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC). It was launched in April of 2012 as a single point of access for discrete water quality samples stored in the USGS NWIS and EPA STORET systems. Since launch thousands of users have visited the Water Quality Portal to download billions of results that are pertinent to their interests. Numerous tools have also been developed that use WQP web services as a source of data for further analysis. Since the launch of the Portal, the WQP development team at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics has worked with USGS and EPA stakeholders as well as the wider user community to add significant new features to the WQP. WQP users can now directly plot sites of interest on a web map based on any of the 164 WQP query parameters, and then download data of interest directly from that map. In addition, the WQP has expanded beyond just serving out NWIS and STORET data, and provides data from the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service STEWARDS system, the USGS BioData system and is working with others to bring in additional data. Finally, the WQP is linked to another NWQMC-supported project, the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), so WQP users can easily find the method behind the data that they are using. Future work is focused on incorporating additional biological data from the USGS BioData system, broadening the scope of discrete water quality sample types from STORET, and developing approaches to make the data in the WQP more visible and usable. The WQP team is also exploring ways to further integrate with other systems, such as those operated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and other federal agencies to facilitate the overarching goal of improving access to water quality data for all users.

  16. Water quality mapping using Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Wong, C. J.; Mustapha-Rosli, M. R.; Mohd Saleh, N.

    2009-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of Landsat TM imagery for total suspended solids (TSS) mapping using a newly developed algorithm over Penang Island. The study area is the seawater region around Penang Island, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during a 3-hour period simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory above the study area. The samples locations were determined using a handheld GPS. The satellite image was geometrically corrected using the second order polynomial transformation. The satellite image also was atmospheric corrected by using ATCOR2 image processing software. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into reflectance values for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. The generated algorithm was developed for three visible wavelenghts, red, green and blue for this study. Results indicate that the proposed developed algorithm was superior based on the correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviation (RMS) values. Finally the proposed algorithm was used for TSS mapping at Penang Island, Malaysia. The generated TSS map was colour-coded for visual interpretation and image smoothing was performed on the map to remove random noise. This preliminary study has produced a promising result. This study indicates that the empirical algorithm is suitable for TSS mapping around Penang Island by using satellite Landsat TM data.

  17. 76 FR 295 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive... (``Commission'') proposes to amend its Water Quality Regulations (``WQR''), Water Code and Comprehensive Plan by adding a new Article 7 to the WQR providing for the conservation and development of water resources...

  18. The Maladies of Water and War: Addressing Poor Water Quality in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  19. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  20. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  1. Water quality in south-central Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Fahlquist, Lynne; Ging, Patricia B.; Hornig, C. Evan; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes major findings about water quality in south-central Texas that emerged from an assessment conducted between 1996 and 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared to conditions found in all 36 NAWQA study areas, called Study Units, assessed to date. Findings also are explained in the context of selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. The NAWQA Program was not intended to assess the quality of the Nation’s drinking water, such as by monitoring water from household taps. Rather, the assessments focus on the quality of the resource itself, thereby complementing many ongoing Federal, State, and local drinking-water monitoring programs. The comparisons made in this report to drinking-water standards and guidelines are only in the context of the available untreated resource. Finally, this report includes information about the status of aquatic communities and the condition of instream habitats as elements of a complete water-quality assessment. Many topics covered in this report reflect the concerns of officials of State and Federal agencies, water-resource managers, and members of stakeholder groups who provided advice and input during the assessment. Residents who wish to know more about water quality in the areas where they live will find this report informative as well.

  2. Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban US Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton

    2004-01-01

    Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…

  3. Southwest Principal Aquifers Regional Ground-Water Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  4. [Influence of water source switching on water quality in drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Niu, Zhang-bin; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the regularity of the change on the physical and chemical water qualities in the distribution system during the process of water source switching in A city. Due to the water source switching, the water quality is chemical-astable. Because of the differences between the two water sources, pH reduced from 7.54 to 7.18, alkalinity reduced from 188 mg x L(-1) to 117 mg x L(-1), chloride (Cl(-)) reduced from 310 mg x L(-1) to 132 mg x L(-1), conductance reduced from 0.176 S x m(-1) to 0.087 S x m(-1) and the ions of calcium and magnesium reduced to 15 mg x L(-1) and 11 mg x L(-1) respectively. Residual chlorine changed while the increase of the chlorine demand and the water quantity decreasing at night, and the changes of pH, alkalinity and residual chlorine brought the iron increased to 0.4 mg x L(-1) at the tiptop, which was over the standard. The influence of the change of the water parameters on the water chemical-stability in the drinking water distribution system is analyzed, and the controlling countermeasure is advanced: increasing pH, using phosphate and enhancing the quality of the water in distribution system especially the residual chlorine.

  5. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  6. Water quality of hydrologic bench marks; an indicator of water quality in the natural environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biesecker, James E.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1974-01-01

    Water-quality data, collected at 57 hydrologic bench-mark stations in 37 States, allow the definition of water quality in the 'natural' environment and the comparison of 'natural' water quality with water quality of major streams draining similar water-resources regions. Results indicate that water quality in the 'natural' environment is generally very good. Streams draining hydrologic bench-mark basins generally contain low concentrations of dissolved constituents. Water collected at the hydrologic bench-mark stations was analyzed for the following minor metals: arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. Of 642 analyses, about 65 percent of the observed concentrations were zero. Only three samples contained metals in excess of U.S. Public Health Service recommended drinking-water standards--two selenium concentrations and one cadmium concentration. A total of 213 samples were analyzed for 11 pesticidal compounds. Widespread but very low-level occurrence of pesticide residues in the 'natural' environment was found--about 30 percent of all samples contained low-level concentrations of pesticidal compounds. The DDT family of pesticides occurred most commonly, accounting for 75 percent of the detected occurrences. The highest observed concentration of DDT was 0.06 microgram per litre, well below the recommended maximum permissible in drinking water. Nitrate concentrations in the 'natural' environment generally varied from 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per litre. The average concentration of nitrate in many major streams is as much as 10 times greater. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area in the 'natural' environment for the various physical divisions in the United States has been shown to be an applicable tool for approximating 'natural' water quality. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area is applicable in all the physical

  7. Land use/land cover water quality nexus: quantifying anthropogenic influences on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril O

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic forces widely influence the composition, configuration, and trend of land use and land cover (LULC) changes with potential implications for surface water quality. These changes have the likelihood of generating non-point source pollution with additional environmental implications for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring the scope and trajectory of LULC change is pivotal for region-wide planning, tracking the sustainability of natural resources, and meeting the information needs of policy makers. A good comprehension of the dynamics of anthropogenic drivers (proximate and underlying) that influence such changes in LULC is important because any potential adverse change in LULC that may be inimical to sustainable water quality might be addressed at the anthropogenic driver level rather than the LULC change stage. Using a dense time stack of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images, a hydrologic water quality and socio-geospatial modeling framework, this study quantifies the role of anthropogenic drivers of LULC change on total suspended solids and total phosphorus concentrations in the Lower Chippewa River Watershed, Wisconsin, at three time steps-1990, 2000, and 2010. Results of the study demonstrated that proximate drivers of LULC change accounted for between 32 and 59% of the concentration and spatial distribution of total suspended solids, while the extent of phosphorus impairment attributed to the proximate drivers ranged between 31 and 42%. PMID:26065891

  8. Land use/land cover water quality nexus: quantifying anthropogenic influences on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril O

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic forces widely influence the composition, configuration, and trend of land use and land cover (LULC) changes with potential implications for surface water quality. These changes have the likelihood of generating non-point source pollution with additional environmental implications for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring the scope and trajectory of LULC change is pivotal for region-wide planning, tracking the sustainability of natural resources, and meeting the information needs of policy makers. A good comprehension of the dynamics of anthropogenic drivers (proximate and underlying) that influence such changes in LULC is important because any potential adverse change in LULC that may be inimical to sustainable water quality might be addressed at the anthropogenic driver level rather than the LULC change stage. Using a dense time stack of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images, a hydrologic water quality and socio-geospatial modeling framework, this study quantifies the role of anthropogenic drivers of LULC change on total suspended solids and total phosphorus concentrations in the Lower Chippewa River Watershed, Wisconsin, at three time steps-1990, 2000, and 2010. Results of the study demonstrated that proximate drivers of LULC change accounted for between 32 and 59% of the concentration and spatial distribution of total suspended solids, while the extent of phosphorus impairment attributed to the proximate drivers ranged between 31 and 42%.

  9. Role and design of water quality monitoring on forested watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    The role of water quality monitoring is important for resolving issues related to the selection of Best Management Practices for silvicultural nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality monitoring provides direct information related to the suitability of various management options and to the simulation of water quality processes. In addition to the traditional physical and chemical parameters, the monitoring should focus on other environmental and biological indicators of ecosystem structure and function. A framework for designing water quality monitoring systems is presented that includes the special conditions exhibited by forested watersheds.

  10. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  11. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Water Quality in the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, N. E.

    2009-05-01

    dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. Water quality of one stream was highly affected by the dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum manufacturing plant in the watershed; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high concentrations of minor and trace metals. Several trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) exceed acute and chronic water-quality standards and the high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces.

  12. Water quality in Iowa during 1986 and 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the water-quality monitoring, assessment, and control programs conducted in Iowa during 1986 and 1987. It was prepared to satisfy Section 305(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) which requires biennial water-quality reporting by each state. Discussions in the report include the following topics: surface-water quality, public health and aquatic life concerns, ground-water quality, special state concerns, point-source control programs, lake pollution-control programs, nonpoint source control programs, state program costs, surface-water monitoring programs, intensive water surveys, and DNR recommendations to EPA. A new requirement of the CWA addresses impairment of water bodies due to toxic and conventional pollutants. The section is addressed in detail in the report.

  13. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  14. Water quality program elements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Ramanathan, Raghupathy; Straub, John E.; Schultz, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is outlined for the development of water-quality criteria and standards relevant to recycling and monitoring the in-flight water for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The water-reclamation subsystem of the SSF's ECLSS is described, and the objectives of the water-quality are set forth with attention to contaminants. Quality parameters are listed for potable and hygiene-related water including physical and organic parameters, inorganic constituents, bactericides, and microbial content. Comparisons are made to the quality parameters established for the Shuttle's potable water and to the EPA's current standards. Specific research is required to develop in-flight monitoring techniques for unique SSF contaminants, ECLSS microbial control, and on- and off-line monitoring. After discussing some of the in-flight water-monitoring hardware it is concluded that water reclamation and recycling are necessary and feasible for the SSF.

  15. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  16. National Water-Quality Inventory. 1988 Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This study is divided into four parts. Part one contains the introduction. Part two focuses on surface water quality (rivers and streams, lakes and reservoirs, the great lakes, estuaries and coastal waters, wetlands, public health/aquatic life concerns). Part three discusses ground-water quality (current ground-water use, ground-water protection programs). Lastly, part four describes water pollution control programs (point source control program, nonpoint source control program, surface water monitoring, costs and benefits of pollution control, and state recommendations).

  17. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  18. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  19. Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

    2001-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

  20. Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for hexachlorobenzene. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-31

    The Clean Water Act requires the EPA Administrator to publish water quality criteria that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare that might be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water. Pursuant to that end, the document proposes water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. These criteria do not involve consideration of effects on human health.

  1. Guidelines for use of water-quality monitors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, A. Brice; Katzenbach, Max S.

    1983-01-01

    This manual contains methods and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for collecting specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH data for ground water, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries by means of permanently installed, continuously recording, water quality monitors. The topics discussed include the selection of monitoring sites, selection and installation of shelters and equipment, and standard methods of calibration, operation and maintenance of water-quality monitors.

  2. Population and climate pressures on global river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    We present a global analysis of the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. In-stream Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) concentration is calculated along global river networks using past, current and future information on gridded population and river discharge. Our model accounts for the accumulation (from populated areas), transport, dilution, and degradation of BOD to reveal the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. From 1950 to 2000, our analysis indicates that rivers that flow through regions with increasing population undergo a prominent deterioration of water quality, especially in developing countries with a lack of treatment plants. By 2050, population growth and climate change have varying effects on degradation of river water quality, with their combined effect amplified in region undergoing both population growth (more pollutant loading) and decrease in discharge (less dilution capacity). Keywords: Population growth, Climate change, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Water management

  3. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, R; Grue, C E

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequently resulting in highly eutrophic conditions. Recent investigations suggest that these eutrophic conditions (elevated pH, water temperature, and un-ionized ammonia) may be associated with frog embryo mortality or malformations. However, water quality criteria for frogs and other amphibians do not currently exist. Here, we briefly review data that support the need to develop water quality parameters for frogs in agroecosystems and other habitats. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. PMID:7607135

  4. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Lopes, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The data-quality objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of chemical analyses of surface-water samples. The quality-control samples used to make these estimates include field blanks, field matrix spikes, and replicates. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples in National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey's national data base.

  5. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  6. National water-quality inventory: 1990 report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The contents of this report includes the following: executive summary; (rivers and streams, lakes and reservoirs, the great lakes, estuaries and coastal waters, wetlands, public health/aquatic life concerns, ground-water quality, state and federal ground-water protection programs); point source control program; nonpoint source control program; surface water monitoring; costs and benefits of pollution control; and state recommendations.

  7. Water quality criteria for white phosphorus: Final report. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Sigmon, C.F.

    1987-08-01

    Data obtained from a review of the literature concerning the environmental fate and aquatic and mammalian toxicity of white phosphorus are presented to derive Water Quality Criteria for the protection of humans and aquatic organisms and their uses. Laboratory and field studies indicate that white phosphorus is quite toxic to aquatic organisms, with fish being more sensitive than macroinvertebrates. Bioaccumulation is rapid and extensive, with the greatest uptake in the liver and muscle of fish and the hepatopancreas of lobster; however, depuration occurs within 7 days postexposure. Other toxic effects to aquatic organisms include cardiovascular and histological changes. Field studies indicate that effluents containing white phosphorus adversely affect receiving aquatic systems by decreasing diversity and increasing mortality of select species. Acute exposure to white phosphorus causes similar effects in laboratory animals and humans. In the absence of medical treatment, the estimated minimal lethal dose of white phosphorus in humans is 100 mg (1.4 mg/kg). Following ingestion, organs damaged by white phosphorus are the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, brain, and cardiovascular system. Chronic and subchronic exposure of laboratory animals to white phosphorus by oral or subcutaneous routes results in reduced growth, reduced survival at high does, increased survival at low doses, and bone pathology. Humans chronically exposed to white phosphorus in the occupational environment develop a specific lesion (different from that observed in laboratory animals) called phosphorus necrosis of the jawbone or ''phossy jaw.'' 139 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs.

  8. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source. PMID:21556204

  9. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-02-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  10. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  12. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials; related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and…

  13. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  15. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources, Supplement XIV (1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  1. Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care in Taiwan: The Breakthrough Collaborative in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Chang, Hang; LaBresh, Kenneth A.; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the management of acute ischemic stroke, guideline adherence is often suboptimal, particularly for intravenous thrombolysis or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. We sought to improve stroke care quality via a collaborative model, the Breakthrough Series (BTS)-Stroke activity, in a nationwide, multi-center activity in Taiwan. A BTS Collaborative, a short-term learning system for a large number of multidisciplinary teams from hospitals, was applied to enhance acute ischemic stroke care quality. Twenty-four hospitals participated in and submitted data for this stroke quality improvement campaign in 2010–2011. Totally, 14 stroke quality measures, adopted from the Get With The Guideline (GWTG)-Stroke program, were used to evaluate the performance and outcome of the ischemic stroke patients. Data for a one-year period from 24 hospitals with 13,181 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. In 14 hospitals, most stroke quality measures improved significantly during the BTS-activity compared with a pre-BTS-Stroke activity period (2006–08). The rate of intravenous thrombolysis increased from 1.2% to 4.6%, door-to-needle time ≤60 minutes improved from 7.1% to 50.8%, symptomatic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis decreased from 11.0% to 5.6%, and anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation increased from 32.1% to 64.1%. The yearly composite measures of five stroke quality measures revealed significant improvements from 2006 to 2011 (75% to 86.3%, p<0.001). The quarterly composite measures also improved significantly during the BTS-Stroke activity. In conclusion, a BTS collaborative model is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients with acute ischemic stroke. GWTG-Stroke recommendations can be successfully applied in countries besides the United States. PMID:27487190

  2. Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care in Taiwan: The Breakthrough Collaborative in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Fang-I; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Chang, Hang; LaBresh, Kenneth A; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the management of acute ischemic stroke, guideline adherence is often suboptimal, particularly for intravenous thrombolysis or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. We sought to improve stroke care quality via a collaborative model, the Breakthrough Series (BTS)-Stroke activity, in a nationwide, multi-center activity in Taiwan. A BTS Collaborative, a short-term learning system for a large number of multidisciplinary teams from hospitals, was applied to enhance acute ischemic stroke care quality. Twenty-four hospitals participated in and submitted data for this stroke quality improvement campaign in 2010-2011. Totally, 14 stroke quality measures, adopted from the Get With The Guideline (GWTG)-Stroke program, were used to evaluate the performance and outcome of the ischemic stroke patients. Data for a one-year period from 24 hospitals with 13,181 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. In 14 hospitals, most stroke quality measures improved significantly during the BTS-activity compared with a pre-BTS-Stroke activity period (2006-08). The rate of intravenous thrombolysis increased from 1.2% to 4.6%, door-to-needle time ≤60 minutes improved from 7.1% to 50.8%, symptomatic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis decreased from 11.0% to 5.6%, and anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation increased from 32.1% to 64.1%. The yearly composite measures of five stroke quality measures revealed significant improvements from 2006 to 2011 (75% to 86.3%, p<0.001). The quarterly composite measures also improved significantly during the BTS-Stroke activity. In conclusion, a BTS collaborative model is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients with acute ischemic stroke. GWTG-Stroke recommendations can be successfully applied in countries besides the United States. PMID:27487190

  3. Delivering quality care: what can emergency gynaecology learn from acute obstetrics?

    PubMed

    Bika, O H; Edozien, L C

    2014-08-01

    Emergency obstetric care in the UK has been systematically developed over the years to high quality standards. More recently, advances have been made in the organisation and delivery of care for women presenting with acute gynaecological problems, but a lot remains to be done, and emergency gynaecology has a lot to learn from the evolution of its sister special interest area: acute obstetric care. This paper highlights areas such as consultant presence, risk management, patient flow pathways, out-of-hours care, clinical guidelines and protocols, education and training and facilities, where lessons from obstetrics are transferrable to emergency gynaecology.

  4. Effects of outsourced nursing on quality outcomes in long-term acute-care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Raymond; Kerr, Bernard J; Burtner, Joan; Ledlow, Gerald; Fulton, Larry V

    2011-03-01

    Use of outsourced nurses is often a stop-gap measure for unplanned vacancies in smaller healthcare facilities such as long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs). However, the relationship of utilization levels (low, medium, or high percentages) of nonemployees covering staff schedules often is perceived to have negative relationships with quality outcomes. To assess this issue, the authors discuss the outcomes of their national study of LTACH hospitals that indicated no relationship existed between variations in percentage of staffing by contracted nurses and selected outcomes in this post-acute-care setting.

  5. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  6. Water quality status and trends in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.; Ahuja, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  7. Stagnant surface water bodies (SSWBs) as an alternative water resource for the Chittagong metropolitan area of Bangladesh: physicochemical characterization in terms of water quality indices.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ismail Md Mofizur; Islam, M Monirul; Hossain, M Mosharraf; Hossain, M Shahadat; Begum, Zinnat A; Chowdhury, Didarul A; Chakraborty, Milan K; Rahman, M Azizur; Nazimuddin, M; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The concern over ensuing freshwater scarcity has forced the developing countries to delve for alternative water resources. In this study, we examined the potential of stagnant surface water bodies (SSWBs) as alternative freshwater resources in the densely populated Chittagong metropolitan area (CMPA) of Bangladesh--where there is an acute shortage of urban freshwater supply. Water samples were collected at 1-month intervals for a period of 1 year from 12 stations distributed over the whole metropolis. Samples were analyzed for pH, water temperature (WTemp), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids, total solids, total hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride, orthophosphates, ammonia, total coliforms (TC), and trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, and Fe) concentrations. Based on these parameters, different types of water quality indices (WQIs) were deduced. WQIs showed most of CMPA-SSWBs as good or medium quality water bodies, while none were categorized as bad. Moreover, it was observed that the minimal water quality index (WQIm), computed using five parameters: WTemp, pH, DO, EC, and turbidity, gave a reliable estimate of water quality. The WQIm gave similar results in 72% of the cases compared with other WQIs that were based on larger set of parameters. Based on our finding, we suggest the wider use WQIm in developing countries for assessing health of SSWBs, as it will minimize the analytical cost to overcome the budget constraints involved in this kind of evaluations. It was observed that except turbidity and TC content, all other quality parameters fluctuated within the limit of the World Health Organization suggested standards for drinking water. From our findings, we concluded that if the turbidity and TC content of water from SSWBs in CMPA are taken care of, they will become good candidates as alternative water resources all round the year.

  8. ASSESSING WATER CLARITY AS A COMPONENT OF WATER QUALITY IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) uses water clarity as a water quality indicator for integrated assessments. After the publication of the first National Coastal Condition Report, the national water clarity reference v...

  9. Water-quality assessment of the Merced River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1982-01-01

    The Merced River and its major tributaries have been subject of water-quality and water-quantity studies by local, State, and Federal agencies since before 1900. Data have been compiled and analyzed, and even though water-quality problems exist in the basin, the water generally is of good quality for most of the beneficial uses defined by the California State Water Resources Control Board. Water-quality objectives for dissolved oxygen, pesticides, and pH were violated in some parts of the basin. The most likely cause of the dissolved-oxygen and pesticide violations is the return of agricultural irrigation water to the river in the lower 30 miles of the river. Violations of pH objectives occurred only in the upper drainage and were likely due to naturally occurring, poorly buffered water. Water quality is currently being monitored at three stations in the basin by California Department of Water Resources, at one station by the U.S. Geological Survey, and at several sites by the National Park Service. Modifications to the current water-quality monitoring program are proposed to gain further information on dissolved-oxygen fluctuations and pesticide concentrations in the lower river and to investigate nutrient input to Lake McClue. (USGS)

  10. Water Quality: Water Education for Teachers. A 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, G. Morgan; Kling, Emily B.

    This looseleaf notebook is a teacher resource package that is designed for enrichment program use. It contains five units dealing with water quality: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Our Water Supply; (3) Waste/Water Treatment; (4) Water Conservation; (5) Water Pollution. The units provide background information, experiments, stories, poems, plays, and…

  11. [Hygienic bases for management of bottled drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, D V; Mikhaĭlova, R I

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the existing normative requirements, by controlling the packaged drinking waters versus tap water; substantiates additions into a list, the regulated levels of a number of indices for this type of products, including those for the waters designed for babies, and the narrowed list of indices for state control. To assure the high quality of finished products, it is shown to be important to perform a sanitary-and-epidemiological study of raw water for pouring and finished products in full conformity with normative documents and to use current water conditioning technologies by the level of major biogenic elements to have physiologically adequate waters of high quality.

  12. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  13. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  14. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  15. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  16. How Can Remote Sensing Be Used for Water Quality Monitoring?

    EPA Science Inventory

    “How can remote sensing address information needs and gaps in water quality and quantity management?” was a workshop convened during the biennial National Water Quality Monitoring Conference 2014, held in Cincinnati, OH. The focus of this workshop was to provide an o...

  17. Long-term Trends in St. Louis River Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality impairments caused by sewage and industrial waste discharge into the St. Louis River have been a primary concern for clean-up efforts throughout the last century. Surveys dating back to 1928 reveal severely degraded water quality in much of the river below Fond du L...

  18. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  19. Techniques of trend analysis for monthly water quality data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Slack, J.R.; Smith, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the characteristics that complicate the analysis of water quality time series are non-normal distributions, seasonality, flow relatedness, missing values, values below the limit of detection, and serial correlation. Presented here are techniques that are suitable in the face of the complications listed above for the exploratory analysis of monthly water quality data for monotonic trends.-from Authors

  20. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  1. Estimating water-quality benefits: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.; Desvousges, W.H.; McGivney, M.P.

    1983-10-01

    This paper presents a generalized demand model for recreation sites that permits an evaluation of the recreation benefits associated with changes in the water-quality designations assigned to specific sites. This approach to modeling recreation demand may have important implications for the implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposed changes in water quality regulations. 35 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  2. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... management planning. (a) From funds reserved under § 35.2020(d) the Regional Administrator shall make grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  3. DEVELOPING WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SUSPENDED AND BEDDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Framework for Developing Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABS) Water Quality Criteria (SABS Framework) is a nationally-consistent process for developing ambient sediment quality criteria for surface waters. The SABS Framework accommodates natural variation among wa...

  4. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  5. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  6. Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

  7. Initial Influence of Fertilizer Nitrogen Types on Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using different sources of nitrogen as fertilizer in nursery ponds may affect water quality and plankton responses. We evaluated water quality variables and plankton population responses when using different nitrogen sources for catfish nursery pond fertilization. We compared calcium nitrate (12% ...

  8. Issues in water quality trading: Introduction to featured collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality trading is a type of market mechanism for water pollution control. Policy makers have discovered that market mechanisms can play important roles in protecting and improving environmental quality by changing the economic signals an individual or firm faces. Potenti...

  9. Chapter 12: Uncertainty in measured water quality data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality assessment, management, and regulation continue to rely on measured water quality data, in spite of advanced modeling capabilities. However, very little information is available on one very important component of the measured data - the inherent measurement uncertainty. Although all ...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water quality standards. After December 29, 1984, no grant can be awarded for projects that discharge...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water quality standards. After December 29, 1984, no grant can be awarded for projects that discharge...

  12. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  13. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023 Section 35.2023 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a) From...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35.2111 Section 35.2111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water quality standards. After December 29,...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section 35.2102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...

  16. Phosphorus Indices: What is the water quality goal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have collected water quality and land use data from plot- and field-scale studies throughout the South (AR, GA, MS, NC, OK, and TX). The water quality data provide information on runoff and P concentrations and loads. Land use data provide information on management practices, including the amount...

  17. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    PubMed

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) <90% baseline, high dissolved oxygen (DO) >400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the

  18. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    PubMed

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) <90% baseline, high dissolved oxygen (DO) >400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the

  19. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  20. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  1. Applications of MIDAS regression in analysing trends in water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, Spiridon; Leonte, Daniela; Lazarov, Zdravetz; Mann, Rob A.

    2014-04-01

    We discuss novel statistical methods in analysing trends in water quality. Such analysis uses complex data sets of different classes of variables, including water quality, hydrological and meteorological. We analyse the effect of rainfall and flow on trends in water quality utilising a flexible model called Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS). This model arises because of the mixed frequency in the data collection. Typically, water quality variables are sampled fortnightly, whereas the rain data is sampled daily. The advantage of using MIDAS regression is in the flexible and parsimonious modelling of the influence of the rain and flow on trends in water quality variables. We discuss the model and its implementation on a data set from the Shoalhaven Supply System and Catchments in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Information criteria indicate that MIDAS modelling improves upon simplistic approaches that do not utilise the mixed data sampling nature of the data.

  2. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  3. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle.

  4. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  5. Water quality in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Bonn, Bernadine A.; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Janet, Mary L.; Rinella, Frank A.; Uhrich, Mark A.; Waite, Ian R.; Laenen, Antonius; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1991 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Willamette Basin Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. The information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  6. [Special aspects of microbiological monitoring of drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Feuerpfeil, I; Hummel, A; Renner, P

    2007-03-01

    The new drinking water ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) entered into force in 2003. In this paper we report about experiences with monitoring microbiological quality of drinking water. Special problems, for instance requirements concerning the quality of raw water, new and "old" microbiological parameters, microbiological methods, assessment of parametric values, especially in the case of values higher than the imperative value, are also described. Possible developments in this field are discussed. The paper should support microbiological laboratories, public health officers and other public authorities in monitoring and assessment of drinking water quality.

  7. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  8. The quality of our nation's waters; nutrients and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of nontechnical publications, 'The quality of our nation's waters,' designed to describe major findings of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program regarding water-quality issues of regional and national concern. Sources, seasonal and geographic patterns of occurrence, and long-term trends are evaluated for nutrients and pesticides in streams and ground water and for pesticides in bed sediment and fish tissue from 20 major river basins and (or) aquifer systems across the conterminous United States. Implications of these national findings relative to water policies and strategies are presented. Issues discussed include relationships of nutrients and pesticides to natural features, land and chemical use, and resource-management practices; effects on human and aquatic health; considerations for development of water-quality standards; and approaches to modeling.

  9. Qualitative Uncertainty Assessment for Distributed Surface Water Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, T.; Bubb, K.; van Griensven, A.

    2006-12-01

    Water quality models are often used to aid water quality regulators in the United States and around the world make critical decisions about how to improve water quality. Basin scale water quality models generally simplify spatial complexity to some degree. This problem is especially relevant in water quality modeling since the sources of pollution as well as the hydrologic drivers vary spatially across the landscape. The spatial complexity problem also presents specific challenges for estimating model predictive uncertainty. Questions of how to integrate multiple sources of stream water and water quality data at multiple locations are likely to be even more daunting than they are for surface water hydrologic models. At this time, given the complexity of water quality models and the general lack of data available, true statistical techniques of integrating, multiple data sources and calculating uncertainty bounds are probably not reasonable approaches. For this reason, we propose evaluation methods that are not based on statistics in order to evaluate the fit-to- purpose of particular model applications. Within SWAT2005, both a statistical method for uncertainty analysis, ParaSol, and an evaluation method, SUNGLASSES, have been incorporated. Additionally weighted averages of prediction errors are integrated into a global objective function and used to evaluate the reasonableness of model assumptions. This integration occurs across multiple objective functions and multiple locations. These methods have been applied in the context of a hypothetical water quality control problem in the San Jacinto watershed in southern California. The analysis includes an extension of the uncertainty analysis into its economic implications. The economic impact of the uncertainty methods proposed here are compared to more traditional uncertainty methods. The economic implications of uncertainty are shown to be important but only under circumstances where water quality targets are close

  10. Effects of acute fresh water exposure on water flux rates and osmotic responses in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Patterson, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Byers, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Water flux rates and osmotic responses of Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) acutely exposed to fresh water were quantified. Salt-water adapted turtles were exposed to fresh water for 4 d before being returned to salt water. During the initial salt water phase, absolute and relative water flux rates were 1.2+/-0.1 l d(-1) and 123.0+/-6.8 ml kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. When turtles were exposed to fresh water, rates increased by approximately 30%. Upon return to salt water, rates decreased to original levels. Plasma osmolality, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) decreased during exposure to fresh water, and subsequently increased during the return to salt water. The Na(+):K(+) ratio was elevated during the fresh water phase and subsequently decreased upon return to salt water. Aldosterone and corticosterone were not altered during exposure to fresh water. Elevated water flux rates during fresh water exposure reflected an increase in water consumption, resulting in a decrease in ionic and osmotic concentrations. The lack of a change in adrenocorticoids to acute fresh water exposure suggests that adrenal responsiveness to an hypo-osmotic environment may be delayed in marine turtles when compared to marine mammals.

  11. Effects of acute fresh water exposure on water flux rates and osmotic responses in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Patterson, R M; Wade, C E; Byers, F M

    2000-09-01

    Water flux rates and osmotic responses of Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) acutely exposed to fresh water were quantified. Salt-water adapted turtles were exposed to fresh water for 4 d before being returned to salt water. During the initial salt water phase, absolute and relative water flux rates were 1.2+/-0.1 l d(-1) and 123.0+/-6.8 ml kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. When turtles were exposed to fresh water, rates increased by approximately 30%. Upon return to salt water, rates decreased to original levels. Plasma osmolality, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) decreased during exposure to fresh water, and subsequently increased during the return to salt water. The Na(+):K(+) ratio was elevated during the fresh water phase and subsequently decreased upon return to salt water. Aldosterone and corticosterone were not altered during exposure to fresh water. Elevated water flux rates during fresh water exposure reflected an increase in water consumption, resulting in a decrease in ionic and osmotic concentrations. The lack of a change in adrenocorticoids to acute fresh water exposure suggests that adrenal responsiveness to an hypo-osmotic environment may be delayed in marine turtles when compared to marine mammals.

  12. Pesticide mitigation strategies for surface water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide residues are being increasingly detected in surface water in agricultural and urban areas. In some cases water bodies are being listed under the Clean Water Act 303(d) as impaired and Total Maximum Daily Loads are required to address the impairments in agricultural areas. Pesticides in sur...

  13. Using Omics to Study Microbial Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is one of the most important resources of all natural ecosystems. Not only is water important to life, but it is also a habitat for a large diversity of microbial forms, in many cases carrying critical geochemical functions. In other instances, water is implicated in outbre...

  14. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  15. Uses and biases of volunteer water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, J.V.; Beyer, P.; Just, C.L.; Schnoor, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    State water quality monitoring has been augmented by volunteer monitoring programs throughout the United States. Although a significant effort has been put forth by volunteers, questions remain as to whether volunteer data are accurate and can be used by regulators. In this study, typical volunteer water quality measurements from laboratory and environmental samples in Iowa were analyzed for error and bias. Volunteer measurements of nitrate+nitrite were significantly lower (about 2-fold) than concentrations determined via standard methods in both laboratory-prepared and environmental samples. Total reactive phosphorus concentrations analyzed by volunteers were similar to measurements determined via standard methods in laboratory-prepared samples and environmental samples, but were statistically lower than the actual concentration in four of the five laboratory-prepared samples. Volunteer water quality measurements were successful in identifying and classifying most of the waters which violate United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria for total nitrogen (66%) and for total phosphorus (52%) with the accuracy improving when accounting for error and biases in the volunteer data. An understanding of the error and bias in volunteer water quality measurements can allow regulators to incorporate volunteer water quality data into total maximum daily load planning or state water quality reporting. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in the Niger River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Baney, O. N.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Kislik, E.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    An overarching goal of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) Anticipatory Analytics- -GEOnarrative program is to establish water linkages with energy, food, and climate and to understand how these linkages relate to national security and stability. Recognizing that geopolitical stability is tied to human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems' vitality, NGA partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to use satellite remote sensing to assess water quality in West Africa, specifically the Niger River Basin. Researchers from NASA Ames used MODIS and Landsat imagery to apply two water quality indices-- the Floating Algal Index (FAI) and the Turbidity Index (TI)--to large rivers, lakes and reservoirs within the Niger Basin. These indices were selected to evaluate which observations were most suitable for monitoring water quality in a region where coincident in situ measurements are not available. In addition, the FAI and TI indices were derived using data from the Hyperspectral Imagery for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) sensor for Lake Erie in the United States to determine how increased spectral resolution and in-situ measurements would improve the ability to measure the spatio-temporal variations in water quality. Results included the comparison of outputs from sensors with different spectral and spatial resolution characteristics for water quality monitoring. Approaches, such as the GEOnarrative, that incorporate water quality will enable analysts and decision-makers to recognize the current and potentially future impacts of changing water quality on regional security and stability.

  17. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  18. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  19. Water quality in the lower Puyallup River valley and adjacent uplands, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Fuste, L.A.; Prych, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of most ground and surface water within and adjacent to the lower Puyallup River valley is suitable for most typical uses; however, some degradation of shallow groundwater quality has occurred. High concentrations of iron and manganese were found in groundwater, sampled at depths of < 40 ft, from wells tapping alluvial aquifers and in a few wells tapping deeper aquifers. Volatile and acid- and base/neutral-extractable organic compounds were not detected in either shallow or deep groundwater samples. The quality of shallow groundwater was generally poorer than that of deep water. Deep ground water (wells set below 100 ft) appears suitable as a supplementary water supply for fish-hatchery needs. Some degradation of water quality, was observed downstream from river mile 1.7 where a municipal wastewater-treatment plant discharges into the river. In the Puyallup River, the highest concentrations of most trace elements were found in bed sediments collected downstream from river mile 1.7. Median concentrations of arsenic, lead, and zinc were higher in bed sediments from small streams compared with those from the Puyallup River, possibly because the small stream drainages, which are almost entirely within developed areas, receive more urban runoff as a percentage of total flow. Total-recoverable trace-element concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria for acute toxicity in the Puyallup River and in some of the small streams. In most cases, high concentrations of total-recoverable trace elements occurred when suspended-sediment concentrations were high. Temperatures in all streams except Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch were within limits (18 C) for Washington State class A water. Minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were relatively low at 5.6 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, for Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch. The poorest surface-water quality, which can be characterized as generally unsuitable for fish, was in Fife Dutch, a manmade channel and therefore

  20. Better understanding of water quality evolution in water distribution networks using data clustering.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Pierre; Maurel, Marie; Chenu, Damien

    2015-12-15

    The complexity of water distribution networks raises challenges in managing, monitoring and understanding their behavior. This article proposes a novel methodology applying data clustering to the results of hydraulic simulation to define quality zones, i.e. zones with the same dynamic water origin. The methodology is presented on an existing Water Distribution Network; a large dataset of conductivity measurements measured by 32 probes validates the definition of the quality zones. The results show how quality zones help better understanding the network operation and how they can be used to analyze water quality events. Moreover, a statistical comparison with 158,230 conductivity measurements validates the definition of the quality zones.

  1. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2000, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2000-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in one volume in a digital format on a CD-ROM. This volume contains discharge records of 125 gaging stations; stage for 20 gaging stations; information for 18 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 10 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 77 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 21 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  2. Surface water quality-assurance plan, U.S. Geological Survey, Kentucky Water Science Center, water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Kentucky Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  3. Drinking Water Quality and the Geospatial Distribution of Notified Gastro-Intestinal Infections

    PubMed Central

    GRILC, Eva; GALE, Ivanka; VERŠIČ, Aleš; ŽAGAR, Tina; SOČAN, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Even brief episodes of fecal contamination of drinking water can lead directly to illness in the consumers. In water-borne outbreaks, the connection between poor microbial water quality and disease can be quickly identified. The impact of non-compliant drinking water samples due to E. coli taken for regular monitoring on the incidence of notified acute gastrointestinal infections has not yet been studied. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the geographical distribution of notified acute gastrointestinal infections (AGI) in Slovenia in 2010, with hotspot identification. The second aim of the study was to correlate the fecal contamination of water supply system on the settlement level with the distribution of notified AGI cases. Spatial analysis using geo-information technology and other methods were used. Results Hot spots with the highest proportion of notified AGI cases were mainly identified in areas with small supply zones. The risk for getting AGI was drinking water contaminated with E. coli from supply zones with 50–1000 users: RR was 1.25 and significantly greater than one (p-value less than 0.001). Conclusion This study showed the correlation between the frequency of notified AGI cases and non-compliant results in drinking water monitoring. PMID:27646727

  4. Everglades restoration and water quality challenges in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Perry, William B

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides background information and a brief overview of water quality issues for the rest of the papers in this volume that are concerned with Everglades restoration. The Everglades of Florida have been diminished over 50% of their former extent. The Everglades are no longer a free-flowing wetland ecosystem, but are now subject to a complicated system of water management that is regulated primarily for flood control and consumptive use. Attempts to restore a more natural hydropattern to the remaining undeveloped Everglades are made more difficult by the natural extremes in rainfall, flat landscape, highly porous geology, and inaccessibility of the remaining natural areas. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) seeks ecosystem restoration by adding water storage capacity, reducing groundwater seepage, improving regulatory delivery and timing of water to avoid environmental damage, and where feasible, improving the quality of water to be used for Everglades restoration. Water quality issues that currently exist for south Florida include eutrophication (especially phosphorus), mercury, and contaminants from agricultural production and the urban environment. Lands once in agricultural production that will be converted back to wetlands or will become reservoirs may contribute to the water quality concerns. Stormwater runoff from managed lands that will be used for restoration purposes will also present water quality challenges. The state continues to seek water quality improvement with a number of pollution reduction programs, and CERP attempts to improve water quality without sacrificing even more natural areas; however providing water quality sufficient for use in recovery of remaining Everglades wetlands and estuaries will remain a daunting challenge.

  5. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  6. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO.

  7. Rural Water Quality Database: Educational Program to Collect Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemley, Ann; Wagenet, Linda

    1993-01-01

    A New York State project created a water quality database for private drinking water supplies, using the statewide educational program to collect the data. Another goal was to develop this program so rural residents could increase their knowledge of water supply management. (Author)

  8. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  10. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  11. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  12. National Water Quality Inventory, 1976 Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report summarizes the state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as required in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). Topics receiving the greatest coverage include toxic substances, quantitative assessments of the percentage of waters currently meeting the goals of…

  13. Using Scientific Inquiry to Teach Students about Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame

    2012-01-01

    This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…

  14. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  15. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients’ likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. Results 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. Conclusions On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making. PMID:25628892

  16. Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shulin; Liu, Kan; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Wenwu; Xu, Weigang; Denoble, Petar; Tao, Hengyi; Sun, Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to paraquat leads to acute lung injury and oxidative stress is widely accepted as a contributor to paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Recent studies have reported that consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water) prevents oxidative stress-induced diseases. Here, we investigated whether consumption of saturated hydrogen saline protects rats against paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group; hydrogen water-only group (HW group); paraquat-only group (PQ group); paraquat and hydrogen water group (PQ + HW group). The rats in control group and HW group drank pure water or hydrogen water; the rats in PQ group and PQ + HW group were intraperitonealy injected with paraquat (35 mg/kg) and then provided pure water or hydrogen water. Both biochemical and histological lung alterations were measured. The results showed that hydrogen water ameliorated these alterations, demonstrating that hydrogen water alleviated paraquat-induced acute lung injury possibly by inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:21318114

  17. Water quality assessment of the Rio Conchos, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, M.; Borrego, P.

    1999-07-01

    A baseline study was conducted to evaluate the overall quality of the Rio Conchos (Chihuahua, Mexico) and to identify those chemical parameters that can best represent the water quality in different segments of the river. Chemical analyses included the measurement of 62 elements at more than 100 sampling stations along the river, in addition to conventional field analyses (e.g., pH, conductivity). Concentrations of these elements are reported and water quality indicators were identified. Based on the element concentration patterns, the segment of the river in which the water quality is most endangered corresponds to that receiving irrigation drain returns near the confluence of the Rio San Pedro. Self-cleaning and dilution processes account for the improvement in water quality observed as the Rio Conchos approaches the Rio Grande.

  18. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  19. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  20. Switching between thienopyridines in patients with acute myocardial infarction and quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Francois; Puymirat, Etienne; Bonello, Laurent; Meneveau, Nicolas; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Motreff, Pascal; Ravan, Ramin; Leclercq, Florence; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Ferrières, Jean; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndromes, switching between thienopyridines is frequent. The aims of the study were to assess the association between switching practices and quality of care. Methods Registry study performed in 213 French public university, public non-academic and private hospitals. All consecutive patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (MI; <48 hours) between 1/10/2010 and 30/11/2010 were eligible. Clinical and biological data were recorded up to 12 months follow-up. Results Among 4101 patients receiving thienopyridines, a switch was performed in 868 (21.2%): 678 (16.5%) from clopidogrel to prasugrel and 190 (4.6%) from prasugrel to clopidogrel. Predictors of switch were ST segment elevation MI presentation, admission to a cardiology unit, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, younger age, body weight >60 kg, no history of stroke, cardiac arrest, anaemia or renal dysfunction. In patients with a switch, eligibility for prasugrel was >82% and appropriate use of a switch was 86% from clopidogrel to prasugrel and 20% from prasugrel to clopidogrel. Quality indicators scored higher in the group with a switch and also in centres where the switch rate was higher. Conclusions As applied in the French Registry on Acute ST-elevation and non ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) registry, switching from one P2Y12 inhibitor to another led to a more appropriate prescription and was associated with higher scores on indicators of quality of care. PMID:27252877

  1. National water summary 1990-91: Hydrologic events and stream water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Richard W.; Chase, Edith B.; Williams, John S.; Moody, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The following discussion is an overview of the three parts of this 1990-91 National Water Summary - "Hydrologic Conditions and Water-Related Events, Water Years 1990-91," "Hydrologic Perspectives on Water Issues," and "State Summaries of Stream Water Quality."

  2. The case for regime-based water quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, Geoffrey C.; Dunham, J.B.; Keenan, D.M.; Sauter, S.T.; McCullough, D.A.; Mebane, Christopher; Lockwood, Jeffrey C.; Essig, Don A.; Hicks, Mark P.; Sturdevant, Debra J.; Materna, E.J.; Spalding, M.; Risley, John; Deppman, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type of water quality standarda??a a??regime standarda??a??would describe desirable distributions of conditions over space and time within a stream network. By mandating the protection and restoration of the aquatic ecosystem dynamics that are required to support beneficial uses in streams, well-designed regime standards would facilitate more effective strategies for management of natural water quality parameters.

  3. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  4. Future directions in water quality regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 have imposed new requirements on the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish drinking water regulations. The regulatory process has been revised and now requires the use of sound science. Costs, benefits, and competing risks may also be considered. Current regulations for fluoride, volatile organic chemicals, total coliforms, surface water treatment, Phase 2 and Phase 5 synthetic organic and inorganic contaminants, and lead and copper remain basically unchanged. New deadlines are established for the regulation of arsenic, sulfate, radon, disinfectants and disinfection by-products, enhanced surface water treatment, and groundwater disinfection.

  5. WATER QUALITY IN SOURCE WATER, TREATMENT, AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most drinking water utilities practice the multiple-barrier concept as the guiding principle for providing safe water. This chapter discusses multiple barriers as they relate to the basic criteria for selecting and protecting source waters, including known and potential sources ...

  6. Environmental setting, water quality, and ecological indicators of surface-water quality in the Mermentau River Basin, southwestern Louisiana, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Mize, Scott V.; Demcheck, Dennis K.

    2004-01-01

    the samples at least 5 hydrophilic pesticides were detected, and in more than 70 percent of the samples at least 3 hydrophobic pesticides were detected. Although atrazine concentrations in three samples collected in the spring exceeded 3 micrograms per liter, the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level of 3 micrograms per liter was not exceeded because it is based on an annual average of quarterly samples. Concentrations larger than 3.0 micrograms per liter were not detected in samples collected during other times of the year. Tebuthiuron was detected at all surface-water sites; the largest concentration (6.33 micrograms per liter) was detected at a site on Bayou des Cannes, and was the only detection that exceeded the criterion (1.6 micrograms per liter) for the protection of aquatic life. Malathion was detected at 16 surface-water sites; the largest concentration (0.113 micrograms per liter) was detected at a site on Bayou Lacassine and was the only detection that exceeded the criterion (0.1 micrograms per liter) for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of fipronil exceeded numeric targets for acute total maximum daily loads (2.3 micrograms per liter) at 3 sites and chronic total maximum daily loads (4.6 micrograms per liter) at 14 sites. Maximum pesticide concentrations in surface water usually occurred in the spring at about the same time or shortly after ricefields were drained. Concentrations of DDE in bed sediment at two sites exceeded interim freshwater sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Fipronil sulfide and desulfinylpronil were detected at all 17 sites from which bed-sediment samples were collected, but there are no current (2002) guidelines with which to evaluate the environmental effects of fipronil and degradation products. Two methods were used to group the ecological data-collection sites: (1) Sites were grouped before data collection (according to the study design) using drainage area

  7. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  8. [Study of long-term water quality of stocked drinking water].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiromi; Kanaoka, Miki; Yamamura, Sayo; Mine, Takanori; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Semma, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    We examined changes in the quality of drinking water stockpiled under various conditions for emergency use. The results indicated that the change in the quality of the stocked water was influenced mainly by the preservation period and not by the amount of water in the bottle. To maintain water quality, the amount of residual chlorine is less important than using sufficiently sterilized water, bottles and caps in the bottling process. Washing the bottles with a small amount of boiling water was not sufficient to ensure complete inhibition of microbial growth.

  9. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  10. Illinois water-quality report, 1988-1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The State of Illinois report, prepared by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, addresses the water quality assessment efforts for 1988 and 1989 (the seventh in a series of biennial reports). The report follows USEPA guidance for reporting water quality conditions in terms of degree of use support or attainment. In addition to stream and lake water quality conditions, discussions of the State's wetland resources and groundwater protection programs are provided. Also included are the lake classification and lake information required by Section 314 and nonpoint source assessments required by Section 319.

  11. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... waste utilization and treatment technology. (3) Promote and encourage State and local governments and industry to plan for regional waste water treatment and management. (4) In cooperation with appropriate... interstate waters of the basin. Initially these standards will serve as the basis for the Commission's...

  12. Bibliography of Water Quality Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    Prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this bibliography of published reports covers information concerning the advancement of water pollution control technology and knowledge. The reports provide a central source of information on the research, development, and demonstration activities in the water research program of the EPA,…

  13. A systematic review and critical appraisal of quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sauser, Kori; Burke, James F; Reeves, Mathew J; Barsan, William G; Levine, Deborah A

    2014-09-01

    Acute stroke is an important focus of quality improvement efforts. There are many organizations involved in quality measurement for acute stroke, and a complex landscape of quality measures exists. Our objective is to describe and evaluate existing US quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke patients in the emergency department (ED) setting. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify the existing quality measures for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke. We then convened a panel of experts to appraise how well the measures satisfy the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) criteria for performance measure development (strength of the underlying evidence, clinical importance, magnitude of the relationship between performance and outcome, and cost-effectiveness). We identified 7 quality measures relevant to the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke that fall into 4 main categories: brain imaging, thrombolytic administration, dysphagia screening, and mortality. Three of the 7 measures met all 4 of the ACC/AHA evaluation criteria: brain imaging within 24 hours, thrombolytic therapy within 3 hours of symptom onset, and thrombolytic therapy within 60 minutes of hospital arrival. Measures not satisfying all evaluation criteria were brain imaging report within 45 minutes, consideration for thrombolytic therapy, dysphagia screening, and mortality rate. There remains room for improvement in the development and use of measures that reflect high-quality emergency care of acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States.

  14. Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

  15. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  16. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  17. Reduction of Waste Water in Erhai Lake Based on MIKE21 Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changjun; Liang, Qinag; Yan, Feng; Hao, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the ecological water environment in Erhai Lake, different monitoring sections were set to research the change of hydrodynamics and water quality. According to the measured data, MIKE21 Ecolab, the water quality simulation software developed by DHI, is applied to simulate the water quality in Erhai Lake. The hydrodynamics model coupled with water quality is established by MIKE21FM software to simulate the current situation of Erhai Lake. Then through the comparison with the monitoring data, the model parameters are calibrated and the simulation results are verified. Based on this, water quality is simulated by the two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality coupled model. The results indicate that the level of water quality in the north and south of lake is level III, while in the center of lake, the water quality is level II. Finally, the water environment capacity and total emmision reduction of pollutants are filtered to give some guidance for the water resources management and effective utilization in the Erhai Lake. PMID:23997684

  18. Quality of Life of Patients After an Acute Coronary Event: Hospital Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cristiane Maria Carvalho Costa; Macedo, Luciana Bilitario; Gomes, Lilian Tapioca Jones Cunha; de Oliveira, Paula Luzia Seixas Pereira; Albuquerque, Iana Verena Santana; Lemos, Amanda Queiroz; Brasil, Cristina Aires; Prado, Eloisa Pires Ferreira; Macedo, Pedro Santiago; de Oliveira, Francisco Tiago Oliveira; dos Reis, Helena Franca Correia; Darze, Eduardo Sahade; Guimaraes, Armenio Costa

    2014-01-01

    Background The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has a high morbi-mortality rate, including physical deficiencies and functional limitations with impact on quality of life. Cardiovascular rehabilitation 1 (CVR1) should begin as early as possible, to enable improvement in functional capacity and quality of life. Previous studies have shown association of cardiovascular diseases with quality of life, in which depression and anxiety are the domains most altered. The aim of the study is to verify the impact of an acute coronary event on quality of life at the moment of hospital discharge. Methodology This was a cross-sectional study, with ACS patients hospitalized in ICU of a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Brazil, submitted to CVR1. The quality of life questionnaire Euroqol-5D was applied on discharge from hospital. Patients included in the study were those with ACV, who had medical permission to walk, had not been submitted to acute surgical treatment, were time and space oriented, and over the age of 18 years. Patients excluded from the study were those with cognitive, orthopedic and neurological problems, who used orthesis on a lower limb, and were in any condition of risk at the time of beginning with CVR1. Data were collected by a previously trained ICU team. Results Data were collected of 63 patients who revealed compromise in the domains of pain/feeling ill (20.63%) and anxiety/depression (38.09%). Statistical significance was observed in the association between sex and pain/feeling ill (P < 0.01), sex and anxiety/depression (P < 0.01), diabetes and mobility (P < 0.01), hereditary factors and anxiety/depression (p < 0.01), BMI and pain/feeling ill (P < 0.01). Conclusion In this sample of patients, on discharge from hospital after ACS, the pain/feeling ill and anxiety/depression domains were shown to be compromised. PMID:25110540

  19. Iterative Reconstruction Improves Both Objective and Subjective Image Quality in Acute Stroke CTP

    PubMed Central

    Flottmann, Fabian; Kabath, Jan; Illies, Till; Schneider, Tanja; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik; Fiehler, Jens; Kemmling, André

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) suffers from measurement errors due to image noise. The purpose of this study was to investigate if iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms can be used to improve the diagnostic value of standard-dose CTP in AIS. Methods Twenty-three patients with AIS underwent CTP with standardized protocol and dose. Raw data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and IR with intensity levels 3, 4, 5. Image quality was objectively (quantitative perfusion values, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) and subjectively (overall image quality) assessed. Ischemic core and perfusion mismatch were visually rated. Discriminative power for tissue outcome prediction was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) resulting from the overlap between follow-up infarct lesions and stepwise thresholded CTP maps. Results With increasing levels of IR, objective image quality (SNR and CNR in white matter and gray matter, elimination of error voxels) and subjective image quality improved. Using IR, mean transit time (MTT) was higher in ischemic lesions, while there was no significant change of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Visual assessments of perfusion mismatch changed in 4 patients, while the ischemic core remained constant in all cases. Discriminative power for infarct prediction as represented by AUC was not significantly changed in CBV, but increased in CBF and MTT (mean (95% CI)): 0.72 (0.67–0.76) vs. 0.74 (0.70–0.78) and 0.65 (0.62–0.67) vs 0.67 (0.64–0.70). Conclusion In acute stroke patients, IR improves objective and subjective image quality when applied to standard-dose CTP. This adds to the overall confidence of CTP in acute stroke triage. PMID:26930290

  20. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the American River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shulters, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on an analysis of water-quality data from more than 168 sites, the American River was found to be of overall good quality and suitable for all beneficial uses specified by the State of California, even though its natural condition has been altered by man 's activities in the basin. Time trend analyses indicate an increase in specific conductance (dissolved solids), hardness, and alkalinity over the past 20 years in the lower American River near Sacramento downstream from treated effluent and urban runoff sources. Most violations of specific water quality objectives for the basin have occurred in this segment. Water-quality conditions in the segment are expected to improve in 1982 when sewage treatment facility discharges will be discontinued. Potential water-quality problems in the upper American River basin could result from recreational overuse, improper land-use or poorly managed mining operations. Recreational overuse and increased urban runoff are the principal threats to water quality in the lower American River. Proposed monitoring activities include low-flow investigations on the lower American to measure diurnal variations in water-quality characteristics and studies in the uppper basin to determine the impact of increasing recreation and development as well as the effects of mine discharge. (USGS)

  2. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy.

  3. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy. PMID:24517328

  4. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  5. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Delpla, I; Jung, A-V; Baures, E; Clement, M; Thomas, O

    2009-11-01

    Besides climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological risks, the consequences on water quality is just beginning to be studied. This review aims at proposing a synthesis of the most recent existing interdisciplinary literature on the topic. After a short presentation about the role of the main factors (warming and consequences of extreme events) explaining climate change effects on water quality, the focus will be on two main points. First, the impacts on water quality of resources (rivers and lakes) modifying parameters values (physico-chemical parameters, micropollutants and biological parameters) are considered. Then, the expected impacts on drinking water production and quality of supplied water are discussed. The main conclusion which can be drawn is that a degradation trend of drinking water quality in the context of climate change leads to an increase of at risk situations related to potential health impact.

  6. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  7. What can data assimilation do for water quality forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Riazi, H.; Seo, D. J.; Shin, C.; Kim, K.

    2014-12-01

    Proactive water quality management through preventive actions requires predictive information. Water quality forecasting can provide such information, e.g., to protect public health from harmful water quality conditions such as algal blooms or bacterial pollution and to allow the decision makers to respond more quickly to emergency situations such as oil spills for protection of water resources systems. Operational water quality forecasting is a large challenge due to the complexities and large uncertainties associated with various physiobiochemical processes involved. As such, there is an added impetus to utilize real-time observations effectively in the forecast process. In this work, we apply data assimilation (DA) to the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) model to improve accuracy of watershed water quality forecast. The DA technique used is based on maximum likelihood ensemble filter (MLEF).The resulting DA module, MLEF-HSPF, has been implemented in the Water Quality Forecast System at the National Institute of Environmental Research (WQFS-NIER) in Korea. In this presentation, we describe MLEF-HSPF, share multi-catchment evaluation results for the Nakdong River Basin in Korea, and identify science and operational challenges.

  8. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  9. The Quality of Drinking Water in North Carolina Farmworker Camps

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Maria; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.; Liebman, Amy K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to assess water quality in migrant farmworker camps in North Carolina and determine associations of water quality with migrant farmworker housing characteristics. Methods. We collected data from 181 farmworker camps in eastern North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. Water samples were tested using the Total Coliform Rule (TCR) and housing characteristics were assessed using North Carolina Department of Labor standards. Results. A total of 61 (34%) of 181 camps failed the TCR. Total coliform bacteria were found in all 61 camps, with Escherichia coli also being detected in 2. Water quality was not associated with farmworker housing characteristics or with access to registered public water supplies. Multiple official violations of water quality standards had been reported for the registered public water supplies. Conclusions. Water supplied to farmworker camps often does not comply with current standards and poses a great risk to the physical health of farmworkers and surrounding communities. Expansion of water monitoring to more camps and changes to the regulations such as testing during occupancy and stronger enforcement are needed to secure water safety. PMID:22897558

  10. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  11. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  12. Impact of Yangtze River Water Transfer on the Water Quality of the Lixia River Watershed, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lachun; Wu, Hao; Li, Na; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Chunfen; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), electrical conductivity (EC), and water transparency (WT)) were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi) and single-factor (Si) evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed. PMID:25835525

  13. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lachun; Wu, Hao; Li, Na; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Chunfen; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), electrical conductivity (EC), and water transparency (WT)) were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi) and single-factor (Si) evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  14. Streambank plants vital to water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, H.

    1989-08-01

    Studies of plants suitable for stabilizing streambanks are described. Sediments caused by soil erosion in Northern California's mountain meadows clog drinking water reservoirs, reduce fish populations, and block hydroelectric dams. Studies of the effect of seasonal climate change on root growth, photosynthesis, and water use of willows and grasses using a below-ground periscope and portable photosynthesis are described. In addition, studies to evaluate the seasonal effect of livestock grazing are in progress.

  15. Iowa ground-water-quality monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detroy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    More than 1,200 wells are available and acceptable for the network. From these and newly completed wells, 200 samples will be collected and analyzed annually. Analyses will be made for common anions and cations, trace metals, nutrients, and radionuclides. One out of ten samples will be analyzed for priority pollutants and pesticides. Data from this program will be published annually in Water Resources Data, Iowa, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report.

  16. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite. PMID:26680713

  17. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite.

  18. Quality of ground water in the Payette River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a study to obtain groundwater quality data in areas of Idaho were land- and water-resource development is expected to increase, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 74 wells in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho, from July to October 1982. Historical (pre-1982) data from 13 wells were compiled with more recent (1982) data to define, on a reconnaissance level, water quality conditions in major aquifers and to identify factors that may have affected groundwater quality. Water from the major aquifers generally contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate are the predominant ions in groundwater from 25% of the 1982 samples. Areally, groundwater from the upper Payette River basin has proportionately lower ion concentrations than water from the lower Payette River basin. Water samples from wells < 100 ft deep generally have lower ion concentrations than samples from wells > 100 ft deep. Variations in groundwater quality probably are most affected by differences in aquifer composition and proximity to source(s) of recharge. Groundwater in the study area is generally suitable for most uses. In localized areas, pH and concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, iron, or manganese exceed Federal drinking water limits and may restrict some uses of the water.

  19. Global analysis of population growth and river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Human-related pressures on river water quality are a concern of global proportions.. However, little is known about the more specific impact of increasing population on river water quality and how it provides a vital environmental reference for water management. Combining global gridded data on population and river discharge with digitized river networks, we conduct numerical simulations to demonstrate the direct impact of population growth on river water quality. Our model traces the transport, dilution, and degradation of anthropogenic organic matter (BOD) emissions into rivers. Spanning the period from the early 20th century to the present, our analysis indicates that the pressure on downstream river networks markedly increased since the population explosion starting in 1950, especially in developing countries. The ratio of population to river discharge reveals the link between impact severity and dilution capacity. In addition, a denser population is found to be correlated with higher impact severity. Consideration of direct population influences on global river water quality becomes limited as society develops and should be studied as a fundamental reference for human-related river water management. Keywords: Population growth, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Human activities, Water Management

  20. ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION FOR DERIVING NATIONAL HUMAN HEALTH WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is revising its methodology for deriving national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) to protect human health. A component of this guidance involves assessing the potential for chemical bioaccumulation in commonly consumed fish ...