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Sample records for acute whiplash patients

  1. Cervical muscle area measurements in acute whiplash patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Erika J; Anderson, Suzanne E; Busato, Andre; Abderhalden, Susanne; Boesch, Chris; Zimmermann, Heinz; Heini, Paul; Hodler, Juerg; Sturzenegger, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    To quantitatively compare the muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the cervical muscles in symptomatic acute whiplash patients versus healthy controls. We hypothesized, that symptomatic whiplash patients have smaller cervical muscle CSAs than matched controls and that smaller cervical muscle CSAs in women might explain that women more frequently are symptomatic after whiplash injury than men. Prospective controlled study. Thirty-eight consecutive acute whiplash patients were examined within 48 h after a motor vehicle accident and 38 healthy age- and sex-matched controls, each half female, half male, were examined with the same protocol. MRI CSA measurements were performed of the deep and total cervical extensor muscles as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscles using transversal STIR (Short T1 Inversion Recovery) sequences on level C2, C4, and C5 by two blinded raters. Clinical symptoms were assessed with patient questionnaires (EuroQuol 5D, Specific Whiplash Questionnaire, head- and neck pain intensity [VAS]). Agreement of measurements between the two raters was high (intraclass correlation 0.52 to 0.85 for the different levels). No significant difference in age and body mass index were seen between patients and controls and the distribution of genders across groups was identical. There were no significant differences between patients and controls for all CSAs. Women had consistently smaller CSAs than men. The CSAs showed no significant correlation with the pain intensity of neck pain and headache but a consistent tendency of less neck pain and more headache with greater CSAs. This small study provides no evidence that subjects with smaller CSAs of cervical extensor muscles have a higher risk in developing symptoms after a whiplash injury and confirms smaller CSA in women. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Stressful events and coping related to acute and sub-acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Susanne; Bring, Annika; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To describe daily stressors affecting and coping strategies employed by individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) immediately to one month (acute) and three to four months (sub-acute) after injury events using a daily coping assessment. Levels of pain, anxiety, depressed mood and activity are also compared between phases. Method A descriptive prospective design with a content analysis approach was used. Participants completed daily coping assessments for one week during both acute and sub-acute phases. Main measure was whiplash-associated disorders-daily coping assessment (WAD-DCA). Results Nine participants used words describing recovery in the sub-acute phase; 31 described stressful events during both phases. Most frequently reported stressors were related to "symptoms", "emotions" and "occupations/studies". These were equally reported during both phases. Cognitive coping strategies were employed more often during the sub-acute phase (p = 0.008). The only behavioral strategy that increased in prevalence over time was the "relaxed" strategy (p = 0.001). Anxiety levels declined over time (p = 0.022). Conclusion The reported stressors were largely uniform across both acute and sub-acute phases; however, the use of cognitive coping strategies increased over time. The WAD-DCA captures individual stressors and coping strategies employed during a vulnerable phase of rehabilitation and can thus provide information that is useful to clinical practice. Implications for rehabilitation The WAD-DCA provides valuable information for clinical practice when employed during early phases of whiplash-associated disorder development. Reported stressors during the acute and sub-acute phases are essentially the same, whereas cognitive coping strategies grow in prevalence over time. Tailored treatments in early phases of whip-lash associated disorders may benefit from strategies aimed at matching patient-specific stressors with contextually adapted coping

  3. Pain thresholds and tenderness in neck and head following acute whiplash injury: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kasch, H; Stengaard-Pedersen, K; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Staehelin Jensen, T

    2001-04-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE INVESTIGATION: In a 6-month prospective study of 141 consecutive acute whiplash-injured participants, and 40 acute, ankle-injured controls, pain and tenderness in the neck/head, and at a distant control site, were measured. Muscle palpation and pressure algometry in five head/neck muscle-pairs were performed after 1 week and 1, 3 and 6 months after injury. Algometry was performed at a distant control site. Whiplash-injured patients had lowered pressure-pain-detection thresholds and higher palpation-score initially in the neck/head, but the groups were similar after 6 months, and the control site was not sensitized. Focal, but not generalized, sensitization to musculoskeletal structure is present until 3 months, but not 6 months, after whiplash injury, and probably does not play a major role in the development of late whiplash syndrome. Pressure algometry and palpation are useful clinical tools in the evaluation of neck and jaw pain in acute whiplash injury.

  4. Patterns of acute whiplash-associated disorder in the Lithuanian population after road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Pajediene, Evelina; Janusauskaite, Jolita; Samusyte, Gintaute; Stasaitis, Kestutis; Petrikonis, Kestutis; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre

    2015-01-01

    To investigate acute whiplash-associated disorder in the Lithuanian population who are unaware of the phenomenon. Controlled cohort study. Seventy-one patients were enrolled from the emergency departments of the Kaunas region of Lithuania following road traffic accidents, examined within 3-14 days after the accident, and compared with 53 matched controls. Clinical neurological examination, including range of motion and motion-evoked pain or stiffness in the neck; spontaneous pain and pain pressure threshold. Questionnaires: Quebec Task Force questionnaire (QTFQ); Disability Rating Index (DRI); Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and health perception. Sixty-six of 71 (93%) patients developed acute symptoms. The most frequent symptoms found after road traffic accidents were neck or shoulder pain; reduced or painful neck movements, including decreased range of motion; multiple subjective symptoms according to QTFQ and significantly reduced pain threshold. Perceived health status was decreased and DRI was increased, while HADS showed a significantly higher risk of developing anxiety. Higher grade whiplash-associated disorder was linked with a greater reduction in range of motion and more prominent neck pain. Road traffic accidents induce whiplash-associated disorder in patients who seek help, but who are unaware of the condition whiplash-associated disorder. Whiplash-associated disorder should be considered and treated as an entity per se.

  5. Information needs of patients with whiplash associated disorders: A Delphi study of patient beliefs.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Joanna; Maujean, Annick; Sterling, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) result in significant personal and economic costs. Patient education and reassurance are recommended treatments for acute WAD but the information needs of patients have not been investigated. To determine what information whiplash-injured patients believe is important to help recovery in the acute stage of injury. A Delphi design survey series with three rounds. Thirty-three participants who had sustained a whiplash injury within the last three years were invited to participate. Participants were asked to provide five statements, in response to an open-ended question, regarding what they believed was the most important information to provide to patients following a whiplash injury. Nineteen patients responded and 85 statements were collected and reviewed independently by two of the authors to remove duplicates. The importance of the remaining items was rated by the participants in the second survey round. Items rated by >50% of participants as important were included in the third survey round. To be deemed key information, >80% of participants had to rate an item as important in this final round. Eighteen items met the criteria for key information. These points addressed four areas: assessment and treatment, recovery and symptoms, patient attitudes during treatment and relationships with health practitioners. The key information points endorsed by patients in this study may provide useful information to constitute a basis for reassurance and education provided to patients with WAD. The results also suggest that improved relationships between patients with whiplash and health practitioners is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The risk assessment score in acute whiplash injury predicts outcome and reflects biopsychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Kasch, Helge; Qerama, Erisela; Kongsted, Alice; Bach, Flemming W; Bendix, Tom; Jensen, Troels S

    2011-12-01

    One-year prospective study of 141 acute whiplash patients (WLP) and 40 acute ankle-injured controls. This study investigates a priori determined potential risk factors to develop a risk assessment tool, for which the expediency was examined. The whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) grading system that emerged from The Quebec Task-Force-on-Whiplash has been of limited value for predicting work-related recovery and for explaining biopsychosocial disability after whiplash and new predictive factors, for example, risk criteria that comprehensively differentiate acute WLP in a biopsychosocial manner are needed. Consecutively, 141 acute WLP and 40 ankle-injured recruited from emergency units were examined after 1 week, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months obtaining neck/head visual analog scale score, number of nonpainful complaints, epidemiological, social, psychological data and neurological examination, active neck mobility, and furthermore muscle tenderness and pain response, and strength and duration of neck muscles. Risk factors derived (reduced cervical range of motion, intense neck pain/headache, multiple nonpain complaints) were applied in a risk assessment score and divided into seven risk strata. A receiver operating characteristics curve for the Risk Assessment Score and 1-year work disability showed an area of 0.90. Risk strata and number of sick days showed a log-linear relationship. In stratum 1 full recovery was encountered, but for high-risk patients in stratum 6 only 50% and 7 only 20% had returned to work after 1 year (P < 5.4 × 10). Strength measures, psychophysical pain measurements, and psychological and social data (reported elsewhere) showed significant relation to risk strata. The Risk Assessment score is suggested as a valuable tool for grading WLP early after injury. It has reasonable screening power for encountering work disability and reflects the biopsychosocial nature of whiplash injuries.

  7. Antinociceptive reflex alteration in acute posttraumatic headache following whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Keidel, M; Rieschke, P; Stude, P; Eisentraut, R; van Schayck, R; Diener, H

    2001-06-01

    Brainstem-mediated antinociceptive inhibitory reflexes of the temporalis muscle were investigated in 82 patients (47 F, 35 M, mean age 28.3 years, SD 9.4) with acute posttraumatic headache (PH) following whiplash injury but without neurological deficits, bone injury of the cervical spine or a combined direct head trauma on average 5 days after the acceleration trauma. Latencies and durations of the early and late exteroceptive suppression (ES1 and ES2) and the interposed EMG burst (IE) of the EMG of the voluntarily contracted right temporalis muscle evoked by ipsilateral stimulation of the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve were analyzed and compared to a cohort of 82 normal subjects (43 F, 39 M, mean age 27.7 years, SD 7.1). Highly significant reflex alterations were found in patients with PH with a shortening of ES2 duration with delayed onset and premature ending as the primary parameter of this study, a moderate prolongation of ES1 and IE duration and a delayed onset of IE. The latency of ES1 was not significantly changed. These findings indicate that acute PH in whiplash injury is accompanied by abnormal antinociceptive brainstem reflexes. We conclude that the abnormality of the trigeminal inhibitory temporalis reflex is based on a transient dysfunction of the brainstem-mediated reflex circuit mainly of the late polysynaptic pathways. The reflex abnormalities are considered as a neurophysiological correlate of the posttraumatic (cervico)-cephalic pain syndrome. They point to an altered central pain control in acute PH due to whiplash injury.

  8. Alterations of the transverse ligament: an MRI study comparing patients with acute whiplash and matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Erika Jasmin; Eigenheer, Sandra; Boesch, Chris; Hodler, Juerg; Busato, André; Schraner, Christian; Anderson, Suzanne E; Bonel, Harald; Zimmermann, Heinz; Sturzenegger, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether there is injury to the transverse ligament of the atlas in patients with acute whiplash. Ninety patients with an acute (< 48 hours) symptomatic whiplash-associated injury and 90 healthy age- and sex-matched asymptomatic control subjects (mean age of patients and control subjects, 36 years) were included. The maximal sagittal thickness of the transverse ligament was measured on midsagittal T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) images and transverse reformatted VIBE images. The signal intensity of the transverse ligament was measured on transverse STIR images and on transverse reformatted T1 VIBE images before and after IV administration of gadoterate. Contrast between the transverse ligament and CSF and alterations of contrast after gadoterate injection were calculated. Patients had a minimally thicker transverse ligament (posttraumatic swelling) than control subjects, and the difference in thickness was significant in men only (p = 0.03). In patients, a significant signal alteration of the transverse ligament (p = 0.03) was seen on STIR (posttraumatic edema) and native VIBE sequences. The contrast between the transverse ligament and the CSF on VIBE images was significantly (p = 0.005) lower in patients than in control subjects. With the application of a contrast agent, the contrast difference between the transverse ligament and CSF in patients and control subjects was less pronounced (p = 0.038). There was no abnormal uptake of contrast agent by the transverse ligament or CSF. The results of our study indicate possible involvement of the transverse ligament in whiplash injury. Although MRI may be helpful to study injury-related changes of anatomic structures in cohorts, it is not suited for individual diagnosis because the alterations are too small.

  9. Early mobilization of acute whiplash injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Mealy, K; Brennan, H; Fenelon, G C

    1986-01-01

    Acute whiplash injuries are a common cause of soft tissue trauma for which the standard treatment is rest and initial immobilisation with a soft cervical collar. Because the efficacy of this treatment is unknown a randomised study in 61 patients was carried out comparing the standard treatment with an alternative regimen of early active mobilisation. Results showed that eight weeks after the accident the degree of improvement seen in the actively treated group compared with the group given standard treatment was significantly greater for both cervical movement (p less than 0.05) and intensity of pain (p less than 0.0125). PMID:3081211

  10. Prevention of chronic pain after whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, R

    2002-01-01

    The acute whiplash injury is a significant health burden for patients and the healthcare system. Traditional approaches to treatment fail to resolve this ever growing medicolegal and social problem. A new biopsychosocial model of whiplash disorder encourages new ways of treating and preventing of the chronic disability. This biopsychosocial model takes into account the mechanism by which acute pain becomes chronic pain, and how this can be prevented. Specific education and treatments encourage a behaviour after whiplash injury that is conducive to more rapid recovery, and provides the whiplash patient with insight into the mediators of chronic pain. The article describes in practical terms how to use education, reassurance, a more judicious use of therapy, and exercise to achieve this goal. Practical guidelines are provided on educating the patient about other symptoms that may cause concern. PMID:12421777

  11. Assessing the existence of dissociative PTSD in sub-acute patients of whiplash.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Tonny E

    2018-03-16

    Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD. Dissociative symptoms, psychological distress (i.e. anxiety/depression), and pain severity significantly predicted PTSD severity. Combined, the results support the component model of dissociation and PTSD, while still stressing the importance of dissociative symptoms when planning treatment for PTSD.

  12. Development in pain and neurologic complaints after whiplash: a 1-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming W; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Troels S

    2003-03-11

    To prospectively examine the course of pain and other neurologic complaints in patients with acute whiplash injury and in controls with acute ankle injury. Patients with acute whiplash (n = 141) and ankle-injured controls (n = 40) were consecutively sampled, and underwent interview and examination after 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Outcome measures were pain intensity, pain frequency, and associated symptoms. Initial overall pain intensity above lower extremities (pain in neck, head, shoulder-arm, and low back) was similar in patients with whiplash (median Visual Analogue Scale [VAS](0-100) of 20 [25th and 75th percentile, 4, 39]) and ankle-injured controls (median VAS(0-100) of 15 [5, 34]). Whiplash-injured patients reported median overall VAS(0-100) pain intensity above lower extremities of 23 (12, 40) after 11 days and 14 (12, 40) after 1 year. Controls reported pain intensity of 0 (0, 4) after 12 days and 0 (0, 9) after 1 year. Reported overall pain frequency above lower extremities was 96% after 11 days and 74% after 1 year in whiplash-injured patients and 33% after 12 days and 47% after 1 year in controls. Associated neurologic symptoms were two to three times more common after whiplash injury. Correlation was found between pain intensity and associated symptoms in whiplash-injured patients but not controls. Pain occurs with high frequency but low intensity after whiplash and ankle injury. Associated neurologic symptoms were not correlated to pain in ankle-injured controls, but were correlated to pain in patients with whiplash injury. Persistent symptoms in whiplash-injured patients may be caused by both specific neck injury-related factors and nonspecific post-traumatic reactions. Disability was only encountered in the whiplash group.

  13. Distribution of concussion related symptoms after whiplash injury in risk strata.

    PubMed

    Kasch, Helge; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-12-29

    Background/aims The presence and severity of concussion related symptoms after acute whiplash injury are debatable. In this study we examine the distribution and development of the burden of concussion related symptoms in whiplash patients. Methods Consecutively 141 acute whiplash patients and 40 ankle injured controls were recruited from emergency units and were examined after 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 months obtaining neck/head VAS score, number-of-non-painful complaints, epidemiological, social, psychological data and neurological examination, active neck mobility, and furthermore muscle tenderness and pain response, strength and duration of neck muscles. Risk factors derived (reduced CROM, intense neckpain/headache, multiple non-pain complaints) were applied in a Risk Assessment Score and divided into 7 risk-strata (refer Kasch et al., Spine 2011). After 1 week and 6 months whiplash patients fulfilled the Rivermead Oxford Head Injury questionnaire (10 items, score from 0 = no change to 4 = very marked change, Danish Version, total score range from 0 to 40). Results 138 acute whiplash patients fulfilled the Rivermead Oxford Head Injury questionnaire after 1 week and 111 after 6 months. The distribution was markedly different in the risk strata, in stratum 7 the sum score was a factor 10 higher than stratum 1 after 1 week (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 1.4 × 10-7) and remained high 6 months after injury (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mild concussion symptoms do not necessarily reflect eventual concussion, but are found after injuries with no direct head trauma and amnesia e.g. whiplash injuries. The Risk Assessment Score fits nicely with the burden of concussion related symptoms after whiplash injury.

  14. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  15. Treatment of neck and shoulder pain in whip-lash syndrome patients with intracutaneous sterile water injections.

    PubMed

    Byrn, C; Borenstein, P; Linder, L E

    1991-01-01

    Ten whip-lash syndrome patients treated with intracutaneous triggerpoint injections with sterile water for pain relief were followed for 2 months. Pain intensity was evaluated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Eight patients became free from pain (VAS 0) and two patients improved to VAS 2 immediately after the treatment. Nine patients remained free from pain, three of them after one treatment, while six patients needed 2-4 treatments. One patient responded only a few hours after each of three treatments. Remarkably, with the relief of pain mobility was normalised in all patients. The method is suggested to be a first choice in the treatment of not only whip-lash patients but also for most acute and chronic musculo-skeletal triggerpoint pain syndromes.

  16. Prevalence of whiplash trauma in TMD patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, B; Rezvani, M; List, T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the prevalence of whiplash trauma in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and to describe clinical signs and symptoms in comorbid TMD/whiplash compared with TMD localised to the facial region. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Bandolier databases was carried out for articles published from 1 January 1966 to 31 December 2012. The systematic search identified 129 articles. After the initial screening of abstracts, 32 articles were reviewed in full text applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Six studies on the prevalence of neck trauma in patients with TMD met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Two of the authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies. The reported prevalence of whiplash trauma ranged from 8·4% to 70% (median 35%) in TMD populations, compared with 1·7-13% in the non-TMD control groups. Compared with patients with TMD localised to the facial region, TMD patients with a history of whiplash trauma reported more TMD symptoms, such as limited jaw opening and more TMD pain, and also more headaches and stress symptoms. In conclusion, the prevalence of whiplash trauma is higher in patients with TMD compared with non-TMD controls. Furthermore, patients with comorbid TMD/whiplash present with more jaw pain and more severe jaw dysfunction compared with TMD patients without a history of head-neck trauma. These results suggest that whiplash trauma might be an initiating and/or aggravating factor as well as a comorbid condition for TMD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The efficacy of patient education in whiplash associated disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Hamers, Veronique; Ickmans, Kelly; Oosterwijck, Jessica Van

    2012-01-01

    Until now, there is no firm evidence for conservative therapy in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). While chronic WAD is a biopsychosocial problem, education may be an essential part in the treatment and the prevention of chronic WAD. However, it is still unclear which type of educative intervention has already been used in WAD patients and how effective such interventions are. This systematic literature study aimed at providing an overview of the literature regarding the currently existing educative treatments for patients with whiplash or WAD and their evidence. Systematic review of the literature. A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: Pubmed, Springerlink, and Web of Science using different keyword combinations. We included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) that encompass the effectiveness of education for patients with WAD. The included articles were evaluated on their methodological quality. Ten RCT's of moderate to good quality remained after screening. Both oral and written advice, education integrated in exercise programs and behavioral programs appear effective interventions for reducing pain and disability and enhancing recovery and mobility in patients with WAD. In acute WAD, a simple oral education session will suffice. In subacute or chronic patients broader (multidisciplinary) programs including education which tend to modulate pain behavior and activate patients seems necessary. Because of limited studies and the broad range of different formats and contents of education and different outcome measures, further research is needed before solid conclusions can be drawn regarding the use and the modalities of these educational interventions in clinical practice. Based on this systematic literature study is seems appropriate for the pain physician to provide education as part of a biopsychosocial approach of patients with whiplash. Such education should target removing therapy barriers

  18. Therapy recommendation "act as usual" in patients with whiplash injuries QTF I°.

    PubMed

    Dehner, Christoph; Kraus, Michael; Schöll, Hendrik; Schneider, Florian; Richter, Peter; Kramer, Michael

    2012-08-20

    Up to now no therapy study has used the classification system of the Quebec Task Force (QTF) to differentiate between patients with (QTF II°) and without functional disorders (QTF I°). This differentiation seems meaningful, as this difference may be relevant for the correct treatment planning. In this context the effect of the therapy recommendation "act as usual" has been evaluated in a homogeneous patient collective with whiplash injuries QTF I°. 470 patients with acute whiplash injuries had been catched in this study and classified according to the QTF. 359 patients (76.4%) with QTF I° injuries could be identified. Out of that 162 patients were enrolled to the study and received the therapy recommendation "act as usual" and the adapted pain treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). After six months the outcome was evaluated by phone. After injury the median pain score assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) was 5.4 (min = 3.3; max = 8.5). After six months 5 of the 162 patients complained intermittent pain symptoms (VAS values < 2). This is consistent with a chronification rate of 3.1%. After injury, the median pain disability index (PDI) was 3.9 (min = 1.9; max = 7.7). After six months 3 of the 162 patients stated persisting disability during sporting and physical activities (VAS values < 1). The therapy recommendation "act as usual" in combination with an adapted pain treatment is sufficient. Usually patients with whiplash injuries QTF I° do not need physical therapy. An escalation of therapy measures should be reserved to patients with complicated healing processes.

  19. Trunk sway measures of postural stability during clinical balance tests in patients with chronic whiplash injury symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Henrik; Allum, John H J; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L; Honegger, Flurin; Ettlin, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Trunk sway occurring during clinical stance and gait tasks was compared between a group of subjects with a chronic whiplash injury, resulting from an automobile collision, and a normal collective. To examine if population specific trunk sway patterns for stance and gait could be identified for chronic whiplash injury patients. Our previous work has established that it is possible to identify specific patterns of stance and gait deficits for vestibular loss (both acute and compensated) patients and those with Parkinson's disease. Our question was whether it was possible to use the same stance and gait tasks to identify patterns of trunk sway differences with respect to those of healthy subjects and individuals with a chronic whiplash injury. Twenty-five subjects with history of whiplash injury and 170 healthy age-matched control subjects participated in the study. Trunk sway angular displacements in chronic whiplash patients were assessed for a number of stance and gait tasks similar to those of the Tinetti and Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) protocols. We used a lightweight, easy-to-attach, body-worn apparatus to measure trunk angular displacements and velocities in the roll (lateral) and the pitch (forward-backward) planes. Data analysis revealed several significant differences between the two groups. A pattern could be identified, showing greater trunk sway for stance tasks and for complex gait tasks that required task-specific gaze control such as walking up and down stairs. Trunk sway was less, however, for simple gait tasks that demanded large head movements but no task-specific gaze control, such as walking while rotating the head. Subjects who have a chronic whiplash injury show a characteristic pattern of trunk sway that is different from that of other patient groups with balance disorders. Balance was most unstable during gait involving task-specific head movements which possibly enhance a pathologic vestibulo-cervical interaction.

  20. Acute whiplash-associated disorders (WAD): the effects of early mobilization and prognostic factors in long-term symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, A; Olerud, C; Lindberg, P

    2000-10-01

    To compare two different home exercise programmes for patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A further aim was to describe the initial prognostic variables related to self-reported pain at six months follow-up. A randomized treatment study with a follow-up period of six months. The study was undertaken in an orthopaedic clinic at a university hospital. A total of 59 symptomatic (neck pain, stiffness, etc.) patients with acute whiplash injury. Patients were randomized to a regular treatment group (RT group) and an additional-exercise treatment group (AT group). Pain Disability Index (PDI), Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), neck range of motion (ROM), head posture, kinaesthetic sensibility, visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients given an additional exercise did not improve more than patients with regular treatment. Only one CSQ item, 'Ability to decrease pain', showed a significant difference between the groups in its pattern of change over time: the AT group had a significant increase between three and six months whilst values in the RT group decreased. Nonsymptomatic patients at six months follow-up were characterized by initially better self-efficacy, lower disability and significantly different patterns in the use of 'behavioural coping strategies' when compared with symptomatic patients. The nonsymptomatic patients also reported more frequent training than symptomatic patients, i.e. they complied better with the treatment regime. This home exercise programme, including training of neck and shoulder ROM, relaxation and general advice seems to be sufficient treatment for acute WAD patients when used on a daily basis. Additionally, patients reporting low self-efficacy and high disability levels may profit from more attention initially, as these psychological factors are significant predictors of pain at long-term follow-up.

  1. [Whiplash-associated disorders].

    PubMed

    Schmid, P

    1999-09-25

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) represent a class of clinical complaints which commonly result from rear-end car accidents. An automobile collision can generate major forces which are transferred to the neck by an acceleration-deceleration mechanism (whiplash), resulting in bony or soft-tissue injuries (whiplash injury). Incidence of WAD is estimated to be 0.1 to 3.8/1000/year; WAD cost $29 billion a year in the USA. They can be classified clinically into 5 degrees of severity, namely WAD grades 0 to IV. Signs and symptoms typically crescendo during the first few days after an accident. Pathological findings (especially of musculo-skeletal or neurological types) must often be sought actively and should be documented at the earliest stage. Prevention of possible chronicity is the most important goal in clinical management of WAD. WAD grade IV patients are treated in the way their fracture or dislocation demands. Therapy of WAD grades I to III has three main aspects: non-narcotic analgesics, early active mobilisation (to the extent possible consistent with pain) and education of the patient. Soft collars should not be used (or only temporarily and sparingly). Most patients with WAD grades I-III feel well again relatively soon. Symptoms and signs that persist for longer than two months are important warning signs for imminent chronicity, which occurs at rates of 14-42%. In such cases, an interdisciplinary approach is recommended. Risk factors are accident severity, head position at the time of accident, age and pretraumatic existence of headache. Patients with chronic complaints can develop additional psychic and cognitive problems, which are caused by--and not the cause of--their chronic disorder. Therapy of chronic whiplash-associated disorders involves all the problems inherent in therapies of chronic pain. There are many therapeutic concepts, but little evidence that anything helps. Prevention of whiplash injuries is therefore very important in view of the

  2. fMRI response during visual motion stimulation in patients with late whiplash syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freitag, P; Greenlee, M W; Wachter, K; Ettlin, T M; Radue, E W

    2001-01-01

    After whiplash trauma, up to one fourth of patients develop chronic symptoms including head and neck pain and cognitive disturbances. Resting perfusion single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) found decreased temporoparietooccipital tracer uptake among these long-term symptomatic patients with late whiplash syndrome. As MT/MST (V5/V5a) are located in that area, this study addressed the question whether these patients show impairments in visual motion perception. We examined five symptomatic patients with late whiplash syndrome, five asymptomatic patients after whiplash trauma, and a control group of seven volunteers without the history of trauma. Tests for visual motion perception and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements during visual motion stimulation were performed. Symptomatic patients showed a significant reduction in their ability to perceive coherent visual motion compared with controls, whereas the asymptomatic patients did not show this effect. fMRI activation was similar during random dot motion in all three groups, but was significantly decreased during coherent dot motion in the symptomatic patients compared with the other two groups. Reduced psychophysical motion performance and reduced fMRI responses in symptomatic patients with late whiplash syndrome both point to a functional impairment in cortical areas sensitive to coherent motion. Larger studies are needed to confirm these clinical and functional imaging results to provide a possible additional diagnostic criterion for the evaluation of patients with late whiplash syndrome.

  3. Therapy Recommendation “Act as Usual” in Patients with Whiplash Injuries QTF I°

    PubMed Central

    Dehner, Christoph; Kraus, Michael; Schöll, Hendrik; Schneider, Florian; Richter, Peter; Kramer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Up to now no therapy study has used the classification system of the Quebec Task Force (QTF) to differentiate between patients with (QTF II°) and without functional disorders (QTF I°). This differentiation seems meaningful, as this difference may be relevant for the correct treatment planning. In this context the effect of the therapy recommendation “act as usual” has been evaluated in a homogeneous patient collective with whiplash injuries QTF I°. 470 patients with acute whiplash injuries had been catched in this study and classified according to the QTF. 359 patients (76.4%) with QTF I° injuries could be identified. Out of that 162 patients were enrolled to the study and received the therapy recommendation “act as usual” and the adapted pain treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). After six months the outcome was evaluated by phone. After injury the median pain score assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) was 5.4 (min = 3.3; max = 8.5). After six months 5 of the 162 patients complained intermittent pain symptoms (VAS values < 2). This is consistent with a chronification rate of 3.1%. After injury, the median pain disability index (PDI) was 3.9 (min = 1.9; max = 7.7). After six months 3 of the 162 patients stated persisting disability during sporting and physical activities (VAS values < 1). The therapy recommendation “act as usual” in combination with an adapted pain treatment is sufficient. Usually patients with whiplash injuries QTF I° do not need physical therapy. An escalation of therapy measures should be reserved to patients with complicated healing processes. PMID:23121740

  4. Grade II whiplash injuries to the neck: what is the benefit for patients treated by different physical therapy modalities?

    PubMed Central

    Dehner, Christoph; Elbel, Martin; Strobel, Philipp; Scheich, Matthias; Schneider, Florian; Krischak, Gert; Kramer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background In a majority of cases, whiplash injuries are a domain of conservative therapy. Nevertheless it remains unclear whether physical therapy is of medical or economic benefit in patients with whiplash injuries. Methods Seventy patients with acute Quebec Task Force (QTF) grade II whiplash injuries were randomized to two therapy groups and received either active (APT) or passive (PPT) physical therapy. Patients were compared with regard to pain and range of motion with data obtained in an earlier study from a group with grade II whiplash injuries in which the therapy recommendation had been "act as usual" (AAU; n = 20). The above-mentioned parameters were assessed at 24 hours and two months after the injury. Furthermore patients' period of disability was documented after two months. Results After two months, patients in both the APT and PPT groups showed significant improvement in the median period of disability (active: 14 days; passive: 14 days) compared to the AAU group (49 days). No group difference was observed with regard to median improvement in range of motion (active: 120°; passive: 108°; activity as usual: 70°). The median pain reduction was significantly greater in the APT group (50.5) than in the PPT (39.2) or AAU group (28.8). Conclusion Our data show that active physical therapy results in enhanced pain reduction and shortening of post-injury disability. Therefore, active physical therapy should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with QTF grade II whiplash injuries. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission. PMID:19149880

  5. Use of botulinum toxin-A for musculoskeletal pain in patients with whiplash associated disorders [ISRCTN68653575

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    Background Whiplash associated disorder is commonly linked to motor vehicle accidents and sports injuries. Cervical injury is attributed to rapid extension followed by neck flexion. The exact pathophysiology of whiplash is uncertain but probably involves some degree of aberrant muscle spasms and may produce a wide range of symptoms. The most commonly prescribed pharmacological agents for initial treatment of whiplash-associated pain are oral muscle relaxants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, potential systemic adverse effects limit these agents. Physical interventions such as mobilization, manipulation, and exercises have proved beneficial for pain and dysfunction but only on a time-limited basis. Little evidence suggests that physical therapy specifically aimed at the musculature (e.g., transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ultrasonography, heat, ice, and acupuncture) improves prognosis in acute whiplash associated disorder. A new approach to treatment is the use of botulinum toxin, which acts to reduce muscle spasms. Methods/design This is a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial and botulinum toxin-A (Botox®) injections will be compared with placebo injections. The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of Botox® in the management of musculoskeletal pain in whiplash associated disorders. Discussion Botulinum toxin type-A toxin has been studied in small trials on whiplash associated disorder patients and has generally been found to relieve pain and improve range of motion. Specifically, we seek to assess the efficacy of Botox® in reducing pain and to improve the cervical spine range of movement, during the 6-month trial period. PMID:15018625

  6. StressModEx--Physiotherapist-led Stress Inoculation Training integrated with exercise for acute whiplash injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Carrie; Kenardy, Justin; Smeets, Rob; Sterling, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Whiplash associated disorders are the most common non-hospitalised injuries following a road traffic crash. Up to 50% of individuals who experience a whiplash injury will not fully recover and report ongoing pain and disability. Most recovery, if it occurs, takes place in the first 2-3 months post injury, indicating that treatment provided in the early stages is critical to long-term outcome. However, early management approaches for people with acute whiplash associated disorders are modestly effective. One reason may be that the treatments have been non-specific and have not targeted the processes shown to be associated with poor recovery, such as post-traumatic stress symptoms. Targeting and modulating these early stress responses in the early management of acute whiplash associated disorders may improve health outcomes. Early aggressive psychological interventions in the form of psychological debriefing may be detrimental to recovery and are now not recommended for management of early post-traumatic stress symptoms. In contrast, Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) is a cognitive behavioural approach that teaches various general problem-solving and coping strategies to manage stress-related anxiety (ie, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring and positive self-statements) and provides important information to injured individuals about the impact of stress on their physical and psychological wellbeing. While referral to a psychologist may be necessary in some cases where acute stress disorder or other more significant psychological reactions to stress are evident, in the case of acute whiplash injuries, it is neither feasible nor necessary for a psychologist to deliver the early stress modulation intervention to all injured individuals. The feasibility of using other specially trained health professionals to deliver psychological interventions has been explored in conditions such as chronic low back pain, chronic whiplash and cancer, but few trials have studied

  7. What information do patients need following a whiplash injury? The perspectives of patients and physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Maujean, Annick; Sterling, Joanna; Sterling, Michele

    2018-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify information that individuals with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) need to know in the early stages of recovery and to establish whether there is a difference between what physiotherapists and whiplash-injured patients perceive as important information. Forty-one participants were recruited (20 whiplash-injured patients, 21 physiotherapists). Participants were asked to provide five statements to one open-ended question about what they believe is the most important information individuals with WAD need to know in the early stages of recovery. Participants provided 182 statements which were reviewed independently and organised into themes by two of the authors. Six key themes emerged from the statements. These included general information about whiplash injury, treatment and recovery, reassurance, provision of poor information and patients' interaction with general practitioners, maintaining daily activities, and compensation claims and litigation. Both patients and physiotherapists agreed on the type of general whiplash information that should be provided however, major differences were found with regard to information pertaining to compensation claims and litigation and maintaining daily activities. The findings of this study provide some insight into the type of information that WAD individuals require in the early stages of recovery. Implications for Rehabilitation The provision of reassurance can be an effective communication tool to decrease patients concerns about their injury and help strengthen the patient-health practitioner relationship. Although clinical guidelines for the management of whiplash injuries recommend that individuals must remain physically active post-injury, statements from the patient group indicate that this information is not always provided and clearly explained to patients. Keeping in line with the patient centred care approach of being responsive to patient needs and values, it is

  8. Vestibular rehabilitation in a patient with whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Kwo-Shieng; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2006-12-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders are characterized by multiple physical complaints after a flexion-extension trauma to the neck. They are difficult to treat, and they often result in great impact on the patient's quality of life. In this paper, the comprehensive treatment of a patient with whiplash-associated disorders is presented. The purpose is to highlight the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plans to improve patients' quality of life. This 23-year-old woman experienced a traffic accident which caused severely painful neck disability, numbness over bilateral upper limbs, dizziness, double vision and loss of balance. Among these symptoms, dizziness was the problem that bothered the patient most. She received a comprehensive rehabilitation program including physical modalities, trigger point injections for relief of pain, as well as a vestibular rehabilitation program, which included exercises challenging and improving her balance function, head-eye coordination exercise, visual-ocular control exercise and sensory substitution-promoting exercises. She resumed her previous full-time work after 3 weeks of treatment. This successfully treated case illustrates the importance of correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment for patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders.

  9. Development of an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II management: a modified Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Rushton, Alison

    2016-09-14

    To develop an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for managing acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II using a modified Delphi method to develop consensus for the basic features of the ABPI. Modified Delphi study. Our systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating conservative management for acute WADII found that a combined ABPI may be a useful intervention to prevent patients progressing to chronicity. No previous research has considered a combined behavioural approach and active physiotherapy in the management of acute WADII patients. The ABPI was therefore developed using a rigorous consensus method using international research and local clinical whiplash experts. Descriptive statistics were used to assess consensus in each round. Online international survey. A purposive sample of 97 potential participants (aiming to recruit n=30) consisting of international research whiplash experts, UK private physiotherapists and UK postgraduate musculoskeletal physiotherapy students were invited to participate via electronic mail with an attached participant information sheet and consent form. 36 individuals signed and returned the consent form. In round 1, 32/36 participants (response rate=89%, mean age±SD=36.03±13.22 years) across 8 countries (Australia, Finland, Greece, India, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and UK) contributed to round 1 questionnaire. Response rates were 78% and 75% for rounds 2 and 3, respectively. Following round 3, 12 underlying principles (eg, return to normal function as soon as possible, pain management, encouragement of self-management, reduce fear avoidance and anxiety) achieved consensus. The treatment components reaching consensus included behavioural (eg, education, reassurance, self-management) and physiotherapy components (eg, exercises for stability and mobility). No passive intervention achieved consensus. Experts suggested and agreed the underlying principles and treatment components of the ABPI for the management

  10. Whiplash headache is transitory worsening of a pre-existing primary headache.

    PubMed

    Stovner, L J; Obelieniene, D

    2008-07-01

    Acute and chronic whiplash headache are new diagnostic entities in the ICHD-2 (5.3, 5.4). In a prospective cohort study, 210 rear-end collision victims were identified consecutively from police records and asked about head and neck pain in questionnaires after 2 weeks, 3 months and 1 year. The results were compared with those of matched controls who were also followed for 1 year. Of 210 accident victims, 75 developed headache within 7 days. Of these, 37 had also neck pain and complied with the criteria for acute whiplash headache. These 37 had the same headache diagnoses, headache features, accompanying symptoms and long-term prognosis as the 38 without initial neck pain who therefore did not comply with the acute whiplash headache diagnosis. Previous headache was a major risk factor for headache both in the acute and chronic stage. Compared with the non-traumatized controls, headache in the whiplash group had the same prevalence, the same diagnoses and characteristic features, and the same prognosis. Both acute and chronic whiplash headache lack specificity compared with the headache in a control group, and have the same long-term prognosis, indicating that such headaches are primary headaches, probably elicited by the stress of the situation.

  11. What factors have influence on persistence of neck pain after a whiplash?

    PubMed

    Cobo, Eulogio Pleguezuelos; Mesquida, M Engracia Pérez; Fanegas, Elisabet Palomera; Atanasio, Eva Moreno; Pastor, M Beatriz Samitier; Pont, Cristina Perucho; Prieto, Carlos Matarrubia; Gómez, Genoveva Reverón; Cano, Lluis Guirao

    2010-04-20

    Prospective longitudinal study. To identify prognosis factors that allow us to identify patients with risk of developing chronic symptoms and disabilities after a whiplash injury. The prognosis factors for poor recovery in acute whiplash are not conclusive. We included 557 patients who suffered whiplash injury after road traffic accident and visited the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of Mataró Hospital (Spain) for medical evaluation and rehabilitation treatment. The variables were collected following a protocol designed for the study, and all patients were assessed through the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the intensity of neck pain, the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale and the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPH) for cervical column functionality at initial evaluation and 6 months later. Factors related with VAS 6 months after the whiplash injury were women, age, number of days of cervical column immobilization, previous neck pain, self-employed workers, housewives, pensioners, students, presence of headache or dizziness, and VAS, Goldberg Depression and Anxiety scale, and NPH scores at initial evaluation. In multivaried analysis, it had been found that the variables that had influence on VAS 6 months after the whiplash injury were statistically significant for age, presence of dizziness, self-employed workers, and VAS and NPH scores at initial evaluation. Our findings indicate that factors that allow us to identify patients at risk for poor recovery are age, dizziness, and initial evaluation of neck pain with VAS and cervical column functionality with NPH.

  12. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1) physician-based education and activation, 2) a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers), and 3) the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs) will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February 27, 2008] PMID

  13. Burnout in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clementz, Gunilla; Borsbo, Bjorn; Norrbrink, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess burnout and its relation to pain, disability, mood and health-related quality of life in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Forty-five patients with chronic WAD ([greater than or equal to] 3 months) referred to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation centre were included. A questionnaire…

  14. Modic changes of the cervical spine in patients with whiplash injury: a prospective 11-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Morio; Ichihara, Daisuke; Okada, Eijiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Momoshima, Suketaka; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Takahata, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    There are few studies on Modic changes of the cervical spine in patients suffering from whiplash. This study compared Modic changes seen in whiplash patients 10 years after the injury with those observed in asymptomatic volunteers. This is a follow-up study of 133 patients who suffered whiplash injuries in 1994-1996 and underwent MRI with a superconductive imager (63 men, 70 women, mean age 49.6±15.3 years, mean follow-up 11.4 years). In addition, 223 healthy volunteers who underwent MRI during the same period were included as controls (123 men, 100 women, mean age 50.5±15.0 years, mean follow-up 11.6 years). All participants underwent follow-up MRI. We examined all participants for Modic changes, and investigated relationships between Modic changes and clinical symptoms or potentially related factors. Modic changes were observed in 4 patients (3%) and at 7 intervertebral levels in the initial study, and in 17 patients (12.8%) and at 30 intervertebral levels at the follow-up. Modic Type 2 changes were the most prevalent in the whiplash patients in both the initial and follow-up studies. There was no significant difference in the percentage of whiplash patients versus control subjects with positive Modic changes, either at the initial study or at follow-up. Modic changes were not related to clinical symptoms present at follow-up, but were associated with preexisting disc degeneration. There was no association between Modic changes and the details of the car accident that caused the injury. While Modic changes became more common in whiplash patients in the 10-year period after the accident, they occurred with a similar frequency in control subjects. We did not find any association between Modic changes and the nature of the car accident in which the whiplash occurred. Modic changes found in whiplash patients may be a result of the physiological ageing process rather than pathological findings relating to the whiplash injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Late whiplash syndrome: a clinical science approach to evidence-based diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Poorbaugh, Keith; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Phelps, Valerie; Sizer, Phillip S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to narrow the gap that exists in the clinical application of scientific research and empiric evidence for the evaluation and management of late whiplash. Considering that 14% to 42% of patients are left with chronic symptoms following whiplash injury, it is unlikely that only minor self-limiting injuries result from the typical rear-end impact. As psychosocial issues play a role in the development of persistent whiplash symptoms, discerning the organic conditions from the biopsychosocial factors remains a challenge to clinicians. The term "whiplash" represents the multiple factors associated with the event, injury, and clinical syndrome that are the end-result of a sudden acceleration-deceleration trauma to the head and neck. However, contentions surround the nature of soft-tissue injuries that occur with most motor vehicle accidents and whether these injuries are significant enough to result in chronic pain and limitations. The stark contrast in litigation for whiplash that exists among industrialized nations and less developed countries suggests another factor that could influence one's interpretation of symptoms' chronicity associated with Late Whiplash Syndrome. There are no gold standard tests or imaging techniques that can objectify whiplash-associated disorders. A lack of supporting evidence and disparity in medico-legal issues have created distinct camps in the scientific interpretations and clinical management of late whiplash. It is likely that efforts in research and/or clinical practice will begin to explain the disparity between acute and chronic whiplash syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that Late Whiplash Syndrome should be considered from a different context. The purpose of this article is to expound on several of the significant findings in the literature and offer clinical applications for evaluation and management of Late Whiplash Syndrome.

  16. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, active range of cervical motion, and oculomotor function in patients with whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, H V; Wenngren, B I

    1998-09-01

    To investigate cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, active range of cervical motion, and oculomotor function in patients with whiplash injury. A 2-year review of consecutive patients admitted to the emergency unit after whiplash injury. An otorhinolaryngology department. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with diagnosed whiplash injury (14 men and 13 women, mean age, 33.8yrs [range, 18 to 66yrs]). The controls were healthy subjects without a history of whiplash injury. Oculomotor function was tested at 2 months and at 2 years after whiplash injury. The ability to appreciate both movement and head position was studied. Active range of cervical motion was measured. Subjective intensity of neck pain and major medical symptoms were recorded. Active head repositioning was significantly less precise in the whiplash subjects than in the control group. Failures in oculomotor functions were observed in 62% of subjects. Significant correlations occurred between smooth pursuit tests and active cervical range of motion. Correlations also were established between the oculomotor test and the kinesthetic sensibility test. The results suggest that restricted cervical movements and changes in the quality of proprioceptive information from the cervical spine region affect voluntary eye movements. A flexion/extension injury to the neck may result in dysfunction of the proprioceptive system. Oculomotor dysfunction after neck trauma might be related to cervical afferent input disturbances.

  17. Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kenji; Ichimaru, Katsuji; Komagata, Mashashi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2006-06-01

    Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25-50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for the evaluation of vertebrobasilar hemodynamics in patients who complain of dizziness and vertigo. It is reported that vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) leads to brainstem and cerebellar ischemia and infarction following cervical manipulation. Here we examined the correlation between vertigo or dizziness and the right and left side difference in vertebral arteries after whiplash injury using MRA. We studied 20 patients who complained of neck pain with vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury and 13 healthy volunteers as a control. In the control group, abnormal MRA findings in the vertebral arteries such as occlusion, stenosis or slow blood flow were seen in 77% of the cases. In the patient group, abnormal MRA findings were seen in 60%. The side difference in blood flow was 3.5+/-2.5 cm/s in the control group and 6.1+/-3.0 cm/s in the patient group. Our findings suggest that some subjects with persistent vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury are more likely to have VBI on MRA. VBI might be an important background factor to evoke cervical vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury. The side difference between the two vertebral arteries could cause a circulation disorder in the vertebrobasilar system after whiplash injury. However, the VBI on MRA itself was also seen in the control group, and thus it is not clear whether it is due to whiplash injury in the patient group.

  18. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Kasch, Helge; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Background 10–22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision. Methods and Findings 719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 3.8 (2.1;7.1)) and future neck pain (OR (95%CI) = 3.3 (1.8;6.3)), controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2) = 36.7, p < 0.001) and unemployment (χ2(2) = 12.5, p = 0.002)) pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI) = 3.1 (2.3;4.4)) compared with controls. Conclusions Sick leave before the

  19. Do X-ray-occult fractures play a role in chronic pain following a whiplash injury?

    PubMed

    Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Petersen, Henrik; Kasch, Helge; Bendix, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Whiplash trauma in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) may involve various painful soft tissue damages, but weeks/months later a minority of victims still suffers from various long-lasting and disabling symptoms, whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The etiology is currently unknown, but X-ray-occult fractures may be one cause in some cases. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the association between occult fractures, as seen on bone single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), with neck-, head- and arm pain. An inception cohort of 107 patients presenting with acute whiplash symptoms following an MVA was invited to have a cervical SPECT shortly post injury and again 6 months later. Associations between occult fractures and pain levels at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up were analyzed. Eighty-eight patients had baseline SPECT performed at median 15 days (range 3-28) post injury, but only 49 patients accepted to have the follow-up SPECT at 6 months. Abnormal SPECT, defined as minimum one area of focal uptake, was seen in 32 patients at baseline, reflecting an occult fracture. Occult fractures were not associated with pain levels, neither at baseline nor at follow-up. Occult fractures do not seem to play a role for development of chronic pain after whiplash.

  20. Whiplash injuries: is there a role for imaging?

    PubMed

    Van Geothem, J W; Biltjes, I G; van den Hauwe, L; Parizel, P M; De Schepper, A M

    1996-03-01

    Whiplash describes the manner in which a head is moved suddenly to produce a sprain in the neck and typically occurs after rear-end automobile collisions. It is one of the most common mechanisms of injury to the cervical spine. Although considered by some to be a form of compensation neurosis, evidence suggests that whiplash injuries are real and that they are a potential cause of significant impairment. Symptoms of cervical whiplash injury include neck pain and stiffness, interscapular pain, arm pain and/or occipital headache, and many whiplash patients have persistent complaints. Cervical roentgenography and conventional or computed tomography (CT) may show dislocations, subluxations and fractures in severely traumatized patients, but often fail to determine or visualize the cause for a whiplash syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, is able to assess different types of soft-tissue lesions related to whiplash injuries. Dynamic imaging may show functional disturbances. More widespread use of flexion/extension views, high-resolution static MRI and especially dynamic MRI should improve the correlation between imaging findings and patients' complaints.

  1. Characterization of postural control deficit in whiplash patients by means of linear and nonlinear analyses - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Pascal; Nielsen, Mogens; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-04-01

    The ability to maintain balance is diminished in patients suffering from a whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to characterize the variability of postural control in patients with chronic whiplash injury. For this purpose, we analyzed static postural recordings from 11 whiplash patients and sex- and age-matched asymptomatic healthy volunteers. Static postural recordings were performed randomly with eyes open, eyes closed, and eyes open and speaking (dual task). Spatial-temporal changes of the center of pressure displacement were analyzed to assess the amplitude and structure of postural variability by computing, respectively, the standard deviation/coefficient of variation and sample entropy/fractal dimension of the time series. The amplitude of variability of the center of pressure was larger among whiplash patients compared with controls (P<0.001) while fractal dimension was lower (P<0.001). The sample entropy increased during both eyes closed and a simple dual task compared with eyes open (P<0.05). The analysis of postural control dynamics revealed increased amplitude of postural variability and decreased signal dimensionality related to the deficit in postural stability found in whiplash patients. Linear and nonlinear analyses can thus be helpful for the quantification of postural control in normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered perception of distorted visual feedback occurs soon after whiplash injury: an experimental study of central nervous system processing.

    PubMed

    Daenen, Liesbeth; Nijs, Jo; Roussel, Nathalie; Wouters, Kristien; Cras, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and motor system dysfunctions have been documented in a proportion of patients with acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Sensorimotor incongruence may occur and hence, may explain pain and other sensations in the acute stage after the trauma. The present study aimed at (1) evaluating whether a visually mediated incongruence between sensory feedback and motor output increases symptoms and triggers additional sensations in patients with acute WAD, (2) investigating whether the pattern of sensations in response to sensorimotor incongruence differs among patients suffering from acute and chronic WAD, and healthy controls. Experimental study. Patients with acute WAD were recruited within one month after whiplash injury via the emergency department of a local Red Cross medical care unit, the Antwerp University Hospital, and through primary care practices. Patients with chronic WAD were recruited through an advertisement on the World Wide Web and from the medical database of a local Red Cross medical care unit. Healthy controls were recruited from among the university college staff, family members, and acquaintances of the researchers. Thirty patients with acute WAD, 35 patients with chronic WAD, and 31 healthy persons were subjected to a coordination test. They performed congruent and incongruent arm movements while viewing a whiteboard or mirror. RESULTS. Twenty-eight patients with acute WAD reported sensations such as pain, tightness, feeling of peculiarity, and tiredness at some stage of the test protocol. No significant differences in frequencies and intensities of sensations were found between the various test stages (P > .05). Significantly more sensations were reported during the incongruent mirror stage compared to the incongruent control stage (P < .05). The pattern in intensity of sensations across the congruent and incongruent stages was significantly different between the WAD groups and the control group. The course and prognostic value of

  3. Trapped in the neutral zone: another symptom of whiplash-associated disorder?

    PubMed

    Klein, G N; Mannion, A F; Panjabi, M M; Dvorak, J

    2001-04-01

    Instability of the cervical spine following whiplash trauma has been demonstrated in a number of studies. We hypothesized that, in patients with whiplash-associated disorder, rotation of the head would be accompanied by an earlier onset of neck muscle activity to compensate for intrinsic instability. The aim of the study was to examine the range of motion (RoM) of the cervical spine and the onset and activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles during axial rotation, in healthy control subjects and in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Forty-eight control subjects (42% male) and 46 patients (33% male) with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (symptoms lasting longer than 3 months) were examined. Cervical axial RoM differed significantly (P = 0.0001) between the groups, with the whiplash patients showing lower values (83 degrees +/- 30 degrees) than the healthy controls (137 degrees +/- 19 degrees). The whiplash patient group showed no evidence of the predicted earlier activation of SCM muscles. Many patients never reached the point in the RoM where SCM muscle activity rises steeply, as it does in the healthy controls (the 'elastic zone'), and their movements remained mostly within the region of low muscle activity (the 'neutral zone'). The whiplash patients appeared either unable or unwilling to drive the cervical spine into this region of high muscle activity, possibly because they were restricted by existing pain or fear of pain.

  4. A new stratified risk assessment tool for whiplash injuries developed from a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kasch, Helge; Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela; Bach, Flemming W; Bendix, Tom; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives An initial stratification of acute whiplash patients into seven risk-strata in relation to 1-year work disability as primary outcome is presented. Design The design was an observational prospective study of risk factors embedded in a randomised controlled study. Setting Acute whiplash patients from units, general practitioners in four Danish counties were referred to two research centres. Participants During a 2-year inclusion period, acute consecutive whiplash-injured (age 18–70 years, rear-end or frontal-end car accident and WAD (whiplash-associated disorders) grades I–III, symptoms within 72 h, examination prior to 10 days postinjury, capable of written/spoken Danish, without other injuries/fractures, pre-existing significant somatic/psychiatric disorder, drug/alcohol abuse and previous significant pain/headache). 688 (438 women and 250 men) participants were interviewed and examined by a study nurse after 5 days; 605 were completed after 1 year. A risk score which included items of initial neck pain/headache intensity, a number of non-painful complaints and active neck mobility was applied. The primary outcome parameter was 1-year work disability. Results The risk score and number of sick-listing days were related (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.0001). In stratum 1, less than 4%, but in stratum 7, 68% were work-disabled after 1 year. Early work assessment (p<0.0001), impact of the event questionnaire (p<0.0006), psychophysical pain measures being McGill pain questionnaire parameters (p<0.0001), pressure pain algometry (p<0.0001) and palpation (p<0.0001) showed a significant relationship with risk stratification. Analysis Findings confirm previous studies reporting intense neck pain/headache and distress as predictors for work disability after whiplash. Neck-mobility was a strong predictor in this study; however, it was a more inconsistent predictor in other studies. Conclusions Application of the risk assessment score and use of the risk strata

  5. Isometric muscle fatigue of the paravertebral and upper extremity muscles after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Rastovic, Pejana; Gojanovic, Marija Definis; Berberovic, Marina; Pavlovic, Marko; Lesko, Josip; Galic, Gordan; Pandza, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) result from injury of neck structures that most often occur during traffic accidents as a result of rapid acceleration-deceleration. The dominant symptoms manifest in the musculoskeletal system and include increased fatigue. Because of the frequency of whiplash injuries, a simple, cheap and useful diagnostic tool is needed to differentiate whiplash injury from healthy patients or those faking symptoms. To determine muscle fatigue in patients with whiplash injury in six body positions. Analytical cross-sectional study. Emergency center, university hospital. We studied patients with whiplash injury from vehicular traffic accidents who presented to the emergency center within 6 hours of sustaining the injury. We determined whiplash injury grade according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF) classification and measured isometric muscle endurance in six different body positions. Control subjects for each patient were matched by age, gender and anthropomorphic characteristics. Cut-off values were determined to distinguish patients with whiplash injury from controls and for determination of injury grade . QTF grade, time to muscle fatigue in seconds. From September 2013 to September 2016, we enrolled 75 patients with whiplash injury and 75 matching control subjects. In all six positions, the patients with whiplash injury felt muscle fatigue faster than equivalent controls (P < .05) and the time to onset of muscle fatigue decreased with increasing injury grades in all six positions. Assignment to the patient or control group and to injury grade could be predicted with more than 90% accuracy on the basis of time to muscle fatigue. The most efficient position was the highest injury grade, by which 99.9% of the patients were accurately categorized. Isometric muscle endurance correlated with whiplash injury grade in all six positions (P < .01). Under clinical conditions, muscle endurance and the appearance of isometric muscle fatigue during

  6. Do head-restraints protect the neck from whiplash injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, F

    1989-01-01

    Over an 11-month period a study was made of all patients presenting to an accident and emergency department who had sustained whiplash as a result of rear-bumper impacts. The patients were analysed with respect to the presence of head-restraints in their vehicles. A significant increase in the incidence of whiplash was found in patients whose vehicles did not have head-restraints fitted. Legislation requiring all passenger cars to have head-restraints fitted as standard would have a major impact in reducing the number of whiplash injuries sustained in rear bumper impacts. PMID:2712983

  7. Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar radiculopathy or the whiplash syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thuile, Ch; Walzl, M

    2002-01-01

    Back pain and the whiplash syndrome are very common diseases involving tremendous costs and extensive medical effort. A quick and effective reduction of symptoms, especially pain, is required. In two prospective randomized studies, patients with either lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 or the whiplash syndrome were investigated. Inclusion criteria were as follows: either clinically verified painful lumbar radiculopathy in the segments L5/S1 and a Laségue's sign of 30 degrees (or more), or typical signs of the whiplash syndrome such as painful restriction of rotation and flexion/extension. Exclusion criteria were prolapsed intervertebral discs, systemic neurological diseases, epilepsy, and pregnancy. A total of 100 patients with lumbar radiculopathy and 92 with the whiplash syndrome were selected and entered in the study following a 1:1 ratio. Both groups (magnetic field treatment and controls) received standard medication consisting of diclofenac and tizanidine, while the magnetic field was only applied in group 1, twice a day, for a period of two weeks. In patients suffering from radiculopathy, the average time until pain relief and painless walking was 8.2 +/- 0.5 days in the magnetic field group, and 11.7 +/- 0.5 days in controls p < 0.04). In patients with the whiplash syndrome, pain was measured on a ten-point scale. Pain in the head was on average 4.6 before and 2.1 after treatment in those receiving magnetic field treatment, and 4.2/3.5 in controls. Neck pain was on average 6.3/1.9 as opposed to 5.3/4.6, and pain in the shoulder/arm was 2.4/0.8 as opposed to 2.8/2.2 (p < 0.03 for all regions). Hence, magnetic fields appear to have a considerable and statistically significant potential for reducing pain in cases of lumbar radiculopathy and the whiplash syndrome.

  8. Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Ito, Shigeki; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Rubin, Wolfgang; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Carlson, Erik J.; Panjabi, Manohar M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous clinical studies have identified the cervical facet joint, including the capsular ligaments, as sources of pain in whiplash patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether whiplash caused increased capsular ligament laxity by applying quasi-static loading to whiplash-exposed and control capsular ligaments. Methods A total of 66 capsular ligament specimens (C2/3 to C7/T1) were prepared from 12 cervical spines (6 whiplash-exposed and 6 control). The whiplash-exposed spines had been previously rear impacted at a maximum peak T1 horizontal acceleration of 8 g. Capsular ligaments were elongated at 1 mm/s in increments of 0.05 mm until a tensile force of 5 N was achieved and subsequently returned to neutral position. Four pre-conditioning cycles were performed and data from the load phase of the fifth cycle were used for subsequent analyses. Ligament elongation was computed at tensile forces of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 N. Two factor, non-repeated measures ANOVA (P<0.05) was performed to determine significant differences in the average ligament elongation at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N between the whiplash-exposed and control groups and between spinal levels. Findings Average elongation of the whiplash-exposed capsular ligaments was significantly greater than that of the control ligaments at tensile forces of 0 and 5 N. No significant differences between spinal levels were observed. Interpretation Capsular ligament injuries, in the form of increased laxity, may be one component perpetuating chronic pain and clinical instability in whiplash patients. PMID:17959284

  9. No cash no whiplash?: Influence of the legal system on the incidence of whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Represas, C; Vieira, D N; Magalhães, T; Dias, R; Frazão, S; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Rodríguez-Calvo, M S; Concheiro, L; Muñoz, J I

    2008-08-01

    Whiplash injury has been a continuous source of controversy due to its association with litigation. We studied the incidence of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in two similar socioeconomic areas and carried out a retrospective study based on the hypothesis that the Spanish law 30/1995 might have an affect on the incidence and duration of cervical symptoms and the persistence of impairment. More than 10,000 patients injured in traffic accidents were studied over a period three years. Of these, only patients with an initial diagnosis of whiplash injury were included in the study. Patients with other injuries were excluded. The patients were classified into two groups: Galicia-Spain and North-Central Portugal (depending on where the accident took place and the medico-legal evaluation procedure in force). Statistical analysis was made using SPSS 13.0 and Statistix 8.0. We found a statistically significant difference between Spain and Portugal in the incidence of WAD and in the duration of symptoms. The incongruities caused by the compulsory application of Spanish law arise from the fact that evaluation on a points scale of impairment does not always reflect the functional state of the injured person.

  10. [Chronic whiplash syndrome--an overview].

    PubMed

    Schrader, Harald; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Ferrari, Robert

    2002-05-20

    In some countries a seemingly large number of patients suffer from chronic whiplash syndrome, whereas in other countries whiplash is not known or is considered to give only moderate symptoms over a brief period of time. In this paper, this discrepancy is accounted for by a biopsychosocial model, a central element of which is the existence of a large pool of spontaneously occurring symptoms in the population, among them head and neck pain. By the mechanisms of attribution, expectation ("nocebo") and reinforcement, common symptoms may be experienced by the patient as caused exclusively by a mild or moderate trauma. Inappropriate behaviour and harmful treatment may worsen and prolong symptoms. To this one should add the effects of conscious exaggeration of symptoms, under-performance in neuropsychological testing, and underreporting of pre-accident symptoms in a medico-legal context. When assessing litigation claims, it is emphasised that a causal relation between common whiplash injuries and chronic complaints has not been demonstrated; a causal relationship can be accepted in exceptional cases only if a set of minimal criteria are fulfilled.

  11. Measurement of cervical flexor endurance following whiplash.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Balsor, Brad; Parkinson, William L; Harding Bsckin, Peter; Bedard, Michel; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2005-07-22

    To investigate measurement properties of a practical test of cervical flexor endurance (CFE) in whiplash patients including inter-rater reliability, sensitivity to clinical change, criterion related validity against the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and discriminant validity for injured versus uninjured populations. Two samples were recruited, 81 whiplash patients, and a convenience sample of 160 subjects who were not seeking treatment and met criteria for normal pain and range of motion. CFE was measured using a stopwatch while the subject, in crook lying, held their head against gravity to fatigue. Inter-rater reliability in whiplash patients was in a range considered 'almost perfect' (Intraclass Correlation=0.96). CFE had greater inter-subject variability than the NDI or range of motion in any of three planes. However, the effect size for improvement in CFE over treatment was as large as the effect sizes for all of those measures. In multivariate regression, CFE changes accounted for changes on the NDI better than the three ranges of motion. CFE discriminated whiplash patients who were within six months of injury (n=71) from age and gender matched normals with high effect size (ES=1.5). These findings provide evidence of reliability and validity for CFE measurement, and demonstrate that CFE detects clinical improvements. Variance on CFE emphasizes the need to consider inter-, and intra-subject standard deviations to interpret scores.

  12. Long-term functioning following whiplash injury: the role of social support and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Bernheim, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Transition from acute whiplash injury to either recovery or chronicity and the development of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) remains a challenging issue for researchers and clinicians. The roles of social support and personality traits in long-term functioning following whiplash have not been studied concomitantly. The present study aimed to examine whether social support and personality traits are related to long-term functioning following whiplash. One hundred forty-three subjects, who had experienced a whiplash injury in a traffic accident 10-26 months before the study took place, participated. The initial diagnoses were a 'sprain of the neck' (ICD-9 code 847.0); only the outcome of grades I-III acute WAD was studied. Long-term functioning was considered within the biopsychosocial model: it was expressed in terms of disability, functional status, quality of life and psychological well-being. Participants filled out a set of questionnaires to measure the long-term functioning parameters (i.e. the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being and the Symptom Checklist-90) and potential determinants of long-term functioning (the Dutch Personality Questionnaire and the Social Support List). The results suggest that social support (especially the discrepancies dimension of social support) and personality traits (i.e. inadequacy, self-satisfaction and resentment) are related to long-term functioning following whiplash injury (Spearman rho varied between 0.32 and 0.57; p < 0.01). Within the discrepancy dimension, everyday emotional support, emotional support during problems, appreciative support and informative support were identified as important correlates of long-term functioning. Future prospective studies are required to confirm the role of social support and personality traits in relation to long-term functioning following whiplash. For such

  13. Responsiveness of pain and disability measures for chronic whiplash.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mark; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Bogduk, Nikolai; Nicholas, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Cohort study. To evaluate the responsiveness of common pain and disability measures in a cohort of patients with chronic whiplash. Pain and disability are routinely measured in clinical practice and clinical research. However, to date, a head-to-head comparison of competing measures for whiplash patients has not been performed. Pain (pain intensity, bothersomeness, and SF-36 bodily pain score) and disability (Patient Specific Functional Scale, Neck Disability Index, Functional Rating Index, Copenhagen Scale, and SF-36 physical summary) measures were completed by 132 patients with chronic whiplash at baseline and then again after 6 weeks together with an 11-point global perceived effect scale. Internal responsiveness was evaluated by calculating effect sizes and standardized response means, and external responsiveness by correlating change scores with global perceived effect scores and by ROC curves. The ranking of responsiveness was consistent across the different analyses. Pain bothersomeness was more responsive than pain intensity, which was more responsive than the SF-36 pain measure. The Patient Specific Functional Scale was the most responsive disability measure, followed by the spine-specific measures, with the SF-36 physical summary measure the least responsive. Pain bothersomeness and the Patient Specific Functional Scale provide the most responsive measures of pain and disability, respectively, in patients with chronic whiplash.

  14. Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99); N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45). Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p<0.05). The association was moderately strong (group difference of 0.60 standard deviation), only partly accounted for by confounding. For self

  15. Acupuncture treatment of whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Bruno; Ursino, Francesco; Cingolani, Cristina; Bruschini, Luca; Dallan, Iacopo; Nacci, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated by computerized static posturography the postural changes after acupuncture treatment in a group of 27 patients (12 men and 15 women; mean age, 35.7+/-6.8 SD) having balance disorders caused by cervical torsion due to whiplash injury. Acupuncture was performed by piercing deeply and bilaterally acupuncture points bladder 10 and gall bladder 20 with steel needles that were twirled manually for 20 seconds. All patients underwent posturographic evaluations before and just after each session of acupuncture. The posturography was performed with open eyes (OE), closed eyes (CE), and closed eyes with retroflexed head (CER). The control group consisted of 25 patients complaining of the same symptoms as those recorded by the study group due to whiplash injury but treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and myorelaxation or with physiotherapy only. The data presented in this study revealed a considerable difference between the two groups as regards the reduction of the CE and CER length of the statokinesigram just before each session of acupuncture; the frequency oscillation on the sagittal plane in CER was reduced in the study group, whereas we noticed a progressive increase of its values in the control group. The high percentage of positive results in whiplash injury patients leads us to advocate acupuncture for balance disorders due to cervical pathology.

  16. Symptoms, disabilities, and life satisfaction five years after whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Styrke, Johan; Sojka, Peter; Björnstig, Ulf; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2017-12-29

    Background Chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) are often associated with social functioning problems and decreased ability to perform previous activities. This may lead to decreased life satisfaction, which is insufficiently studied in the context of whiplash injuries. Symptoms included in chronic WAD are similar to symptoms frequently reported by persons who have sustained mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)/concussion. In cases of MTBI, the severity and number of symptoms have been suggested to have a diagnostic value. The corresponding importance of symptoms in chronic WAD has not been documented. Most studies of whiplash injuries have focused on neck pain because this is the dominant complaint, while other symptoms are less studied. The frequency of long-term symptoms after whiplash injuries seems to vary. It is difficult to compare the long-term outcome since the follow-up after whiplash injury in most studies has been rather short. Therefore, the primary aim of this investigation was to study neck pain and other symptoms, disability, and life satisfaction five years after whiplash injury in a defined population and geographical area. Methods The study was carried out at a public hospital in northern Sweden and was a cross-sectional survey of patients five years after the injury event in a cohort of whiplash-injured patients. Five years after the emergency department visit, 186 persons aged 18-64 answered questionnaires on symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ), disabilities (Rivermead Head Injury Follow Up Questionnaire, RHFUQ), and life satisfaction (LiSat-11). The answers were compared to those of a comparison cohort. Results The most common symptoms five years after whiplash injury were fatigue (41%), poor memory (39%), and headache (37%). Inability to sustain previous workload (44%) and fatigue at work (43%) were frequently reported disabilities. Only 39% were satisfied with their somatic health and 60% with their

  17. [Postural control disorders in initial phases of whiplash].

    PubMed

    Pleguezuelos Cobo, Eulogio; García-Alsina, Joan; García Almazán, Concepción; Ortiz Fandiño, Javier; Pérez Mesquida, M Engracia; Guirao Cano, Lluis; Samitier Pastor, Beatriz; Perucho Pont, Cristina; Coll Serra, Estel; Matarrubias, Carlos; Reveron, Genoveva

    2009-05-02

    Dizziness of variable intensity is a frequent complaint in patients who suffered whiplash and largely documented balance disturbances. The objective of the study was to identify balance disorders in early stage of whiplash after road traffic accidents. Ninety nine women were included in the study. Fifty four women had suffered whiplash within two weeks and 45 were included in a healthy control group. Static posturography on a force platform was carried out in all study participants, by means of the Romberg test in four sequential phases, using the postural sway area (SA) as a dependent variable. Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPH) were used to evaluate pain and function. Postural sway area increased significantly in each of the consecutive phases in both groups. The differences of the means of the postural sway area were statistically significant in all Romberg phases (p=.009 to P=.000). No correlation was found between SA and VAS or NPH scores. There was a positive correlation between the postural sway area standing on a thick foam cushion placed over the plate with closed eyes and the number of days of transitory incapacity (r=0.414; P=.009). Patients with recent whiplash show a postural control disturbance revealed trough a sequential static posturography analysis. This suggests that the balance disorder is not only a consequence of late whiplash syndrome evolution. Therefore, we should promote early instauration of a specific therapeutic approach if and when the patient refers dizziness and related symptoms.

  18. Prognostic factors of whiplash-associated disorders: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Bekkering, Geertruida E; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; Barnsley, Les; Oostendorp, Rob A B; Hendriks, Erik J M

    2003-07-01

    We present a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Our aim was to assess prognostic factors associated with functional recovery of patients with whiplash injuries. The failure of some patients to recover following whiplash injury has been linked to a number of prognostic factors. However, there is some inconsistency in the literature and there have been no systematic attempts to analyze the level of evidence for prognostic factors in whiplash recovery. Studies were selected for inclusion following a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the database of the Dutch Institute of Allied Health Professions up until April 2002 and hand searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles. Studies were selected if the objective was to assess prognostic factors associated with recovery; the design was a prospective cohort study; the study population included at least an identifiable subgroup of patients suffering from a whiplash injury; and the paper was a full report published in English, German, French or Dutch. The methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers. A study was considered to be of 'high quality' if it satisfied at least 50% of the maximum available quality score. Two independent reviewers extracted data and the association between prognostic factors and functional recovery was calculated in terms of risk estimates. Fifty papers reporting on twenty-nine cohorts were included in the review. Twelve cohorts were considered to be of 'high quality'. Because of the heterogeneity of patient selection, type of prognostic factors and outcome measures, no statistical pooling was able to be performed. Strong evidence was found for high initial pain intensity being an adverse prognostic factor. There was strong evidence that for older age, female gender, high acute psychological response, angular deformity of the neck, rear-end collision, and compensation not being associated with an adverse prognosis. Several physical (e

  19. The notion of a “whiplash culture”: a review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haneline, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Most whiplash patients eventually recover, although some are left with ongoing pain and impairment. Why some develop long-term symptoms after whiplash, whereas others do not, is largely unknown. One explanation blames the cultural expectations of the population wherein the injury occurred, engendering the moniker whiplash culture. The purpose of this review was to locate and discuss studies that were used as a basis for developing the whiplash culture concept and to evaluate its plausibility. Methods The PubMed database was searched using combinations of the terms whiplash culture, whiplash OR WAD, and chronic OR late OR long term. Search dates spanned from 1950 to June 2008. Filters were set to only retrieve English-language citations. Articles that dealt with the whiplash culture were selected and examined to determine which studies had been used to create the concept. Results Nineteen articles discussed the cultural aspects of whiplash and were explored to determine which were used as a basis for the whiplash culture. Eight studies were found that met this final criterion. Conclusion There are many unanswered questions about the basis of chronic whiplash, and the notion of a whiplash culture is controversial. Chronic whiplash symptoms are surely not caused entirely by cultural issues, yet they are probably not entirely physical. Presumably, a tissue injury component exists in most chronic whiplash-associated disorder victims that becomes aggravated in those who are susceptible to biopsychosocial factors. As with many other controversial health care topics, the answer to the debate probably lies somewhere in the middle. PMID:19703667

  20. WHIPLASH INJURIES—Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, O. Leonard

    1958-01-01

    Whiplash injury may extend far beyond the neck, and may involve even the soft tissues of the pelvis. For permanent recovery, all the injuries must be evaluated and treated together. When impact from the rear snaps the head back and then forward, posterior subluxations in the cervical spine cause anterior-posterior narrowing of the intervertebral foramina, which may result in injury to the cervical nerve roots. Impact at the front, causing hyperflexion followed by hyperextension, has a similar effect although usually not as severe. Resulting symptoms may not appear until two or three weeks later, when irritative lesions have developed because of hemorrhage or swelling. Mild or progressive degenerative changes may cause no symptoms but may predispose the affected area to injury following some slight trauma. Capsular ligaments of the lateral intervertebral joints are especially liable to whiplash injury which may give rise to scars and adhesions that compress spinal nerves. Sympathetic system involvement may cause reflex and referred pain. Detailed neurologic, roentgen and electromyographic studies may be necessary for proper evaluation of injuries. Seemingly psychosomatic pain or disability is likely to have some physical basis in whiplash injuries. In 33 patients with whiplash injury, some recently injured and some chronically disabled with persistent symptoms, good results were observed following hydromassage, hot packs, joint mobilization exercises and, in a few, cervical or pelvic traction. PMID:13585155

  1. Cervical range of motion discriminates between asymptomatic persons and those with whiplash.

    PubMed

    Dall'Alba, P T; Sterling, M M; Treleaven, J M; Edwards, S L; Jull, G A

    2001-10-01

    A comparative study of cervical range of motion in asymptomatic persons and those with whiplash. To compare the primary and conjunct ranges of motion of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons and those with persistent whiplash-associated disorders, and to investigate the ability of these measures of range of motion to discriminate between the groups. Evidence that range of motion is an effective indicator of physical impairment in the cervical spine is not conclusive. Few studies have evaluated the ability to discriminate between asymptomatic persons and those with whiplash on the basis of range of motion or compared three-dimensional in vivo measures of range of motion in asymptomatic persons and those with whiplash-associated disorders. The study participants were 89 asymptomatic volunteers (41 men, 48 women; mean age 39.2 years) and 114 patients with persistent whiplash-associated disorders (22 men, 93 women; mean age 37.2 years) referred to a whiplash research unit for assessment of their cervical region. Range of cervical motion was measured in three dimensions with a computerized, electromagnetic, motion-tracking device. The movements assessed were flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion, and left and right rotation. Range of motion was reduced in all primary movements in patients with persistent whiplash-associated disorder. Sagittal plane movements were proportionally the most affected. On the basis of primary and conjunct range of motion, age, and gender, 90.3% of study participants could be correctly categorized as asymptomatic or as having whiplash (sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 95.3%). Range of motion was capable of discriminating between asymptomatic persons and those with persistent whiplash-associated disorders.

  2. Cognitive function and distress after common whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Smed, A

    1997-02-01

    In a prospective study 29 patients fulfilled the criteria of Whiplash-Associated Disorders grade III in the Quebec classification. One month postinjury, computerized neuropsychological tests, a clinical interview and the symptom checklist SCL-90-R were administered. Three whiplash scales were extrapolated from SCL-90-R: pain, subjective cognitive difficulties and sleep disorders. SCL-90-R was repeated 6 months later. One month after the accident, 85% of the patients had resumed work. Subjective cognitive disturbances, however, were frequent but unrelated to test performances, which were within the normal range. Patients reporting stressful life events unrelated to the injury had more symptoms and elevated levels of distress on all SCL-90-R syndrome scales. At follow-up their distress was unchanged, and subjective cognitive function had deteriorated. Stressful life events unrelated to the accident and a high level of distress 1 month postinjury may augment the risk of "late whiplash syndrome". Reassessment 3-6 weeks postinjury as recommended by the Quebec Task Force should include assessment of complicating social factors and a psychological symptom checklist.

  3. Are smooth pursuit eye movements altered in chronic whiplash-associated disorders? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kongsted, A; Jørgensen, L V; Bendix, T; Korsholm, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate whether smooth pursuit eye movements differed between patients with long-lasting whiplash-associated disorders and controls when using a purely computerized method for the eye movement analysis. Cross-sectional study comparing patients with whiplash-associated disorders and controls who had not been exposed to head or neck trauma and had no notable neck complaints. Smooth pursuit eye movements were registered while the subjects were seated with and without rotated cervical spine. Thirty-four patients with whiplash-associated disorders with symptoms more than six months after a car collision and 60 controls. Smooth pursuit eye movements were almost identical in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders and controls, both when the neck was rotated and in the neutral position. Disturbed smooth pursuit eye movements do not appear to be a distinct feature in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. This is in contrast to results of previous studies and may be due to the fact that analyses were performed in a computerized and objective manner. Other possible reasons for the discrepancy to previous studies are discussed.

  4. Reduced head steadiness in whiplash compared with non-traumatic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Liljebäck, Pål; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2010-01-01

    While sensorimotor alterations have been observed in patients with neck pain, it is uncertain whether such changes distinguish whiplash-associated disorders from chronic neck pain without trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate head steadiness during isometric neck flexion in subjects with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), those with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy subjects. Associations with fatigue and effects of pain and dizziness were also investigated. Head steadiness in terms of head motion velocity was compared in subjects with whiplash (n=59), non-traumatic neck pain (n=57) and healthy controls (n=57) during 2 40-s isometric neck flexion tests; a high load test and a low load test. Increased velocity was expected to reflect decreased head steadiness. The whiplash group showed significantly decreased head steadiness in the low load task compared with the other 2 groups. The difference was explained largely by severe levels of neck pain and dizziness. No group differences in head steadiness were found in the high load task. Reduced head steadiness during an isometric holding test was observed in a group of patients with whiplash-associated disorders. Decreased head steadiness was related to severe pain and dizziness.

  5. Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT): design of a randomised controlled trial of treatments for whiplash associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Sarah E; Gates, Simon; Underwood, Martin R; Cooke, Matthew W; Ashby, Deborah; Szczepura, Ala; Williams, Mark A; Williamson, Esther M; Withers, Emma J; Mt Isa, Shahrul; Gumber, Anil

    2007-01-01

    Background A substantial proportion of patients with whiplash injuries develop chronic symptoms. However, the best treatment of acute injuries to prevent long-term problems is uncertain. A stepped care treatment pathway has been proposed, in which patients are given advice and education at their initial visit to the emergency department (ED), followed by review at three weeks and physiotherapy for those with persisting symptoms. MINT is a two-stage randomised controlled trial to evaluate two components of such a pathway: 1. use of The Whiplash Book versus usual advice when patients first attend the emergency department; 2. referral to physiotherapy versus reinforcement of advice for patients with continuing symptoms at three weeks. Methods Evaluation of the Whiplash Book versus usual advice uses a cluster randomised design in emergency departments of eight NHS Trusts. Eligible patients are identified by clinicians in participating emergency departments and are sent a study questionnaire within a week of their ED attendance. Three thousand participants will be included. Patients with persisting symptoms three weeks after their ED attendance are eligible to join an individually randomised study of physiotherapy versus reinforcement of the advice given in ED. Six hundred participants will be randomised. Follow-up is at 4, 8 and 12 months after their ED attendance. Primary outcome is the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and secondary outcomes include quality of life and time to return to work and normal activities. An economic evaluation is being carried out. Conclusion This paper describes the protocol and operational aspects of a complex intervention trial based in NHS emergency and physiotherapy departments, evaluating two components of a stepped-care approach to the treatment of whiplash injuries. The trial uses two randomisations, with the first stage being cluster randomised and the second individually randomised. PMID:17257408

  6. Effect of therapeutic jaw exercise on temporomandibular disorders in individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Klobas, Luciano; Axelsson, Susanna; Tegelberg, Ake

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a specific therapeutic jaw exercise on the temporomandibular disorders of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Ninety-four consecutive patients with whiplash-related conditions were referred to and accepted for a treatment period at a center for functional evaluation and rehabilitation during 2001-2002. The patients followed a program of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and pain management. At the start of their stay, they were examined by a physician specialized in rehabilitation medicine and also by a dentist who performed a functional examination of the stomatognathic system. Of the 93 patients who accepted participation in the study, 55 were diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders and chronic whiplash-associated disorders in accordance with the inclusion criteria. They were randomized into a jaw exercise group (n = 25), who performed specific therapeutic jaw exercises, and a control group (n = 30). Both groups undertook the whiplash rehabilitation program at the center. There were no inter- or intra-group differences in symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders at baseline, nor at the 3-week and 6-month follow-ups, except for an increase of maximum active mouth-opening capacity in the control group. In conclusion, the therapeutic jaw exercises, in addition to the regular whiplash rehabilitation program, did not reduce symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

  7. MRI analysis of the size and shape of the oropharynx in chronic whiplash.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James; Cannata, Emma; Christensen, Eric; Demaris, Joel; Kummrow, John; Manning, Erin; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Romero, Tomas; Barnes, Clifford; Jull, Gwendolen

    2008-06-01

    To quantify differences in the size/shape of the oropharynx between female subjects with whiplash and controls. Retrospective cohort. A total of 113 subjects (79 whiplash, 34 controls) were included. T1-weighted MRI was used to measure 1) cross-sectional area (CSA [mm(2)]) and 2) shape ratios for the oropharynx. Reliability data were established. Whiplash subjects had significantly smaller oropharynx CSAs (P < 0.001) and shape ratios (P < 0.001) compared with healthy controls. Self-reported levels of pain and disability and duration of symptoms were not associated with size and shape of the oropharynx in whiplash subjects (P = 0.75 and P = 0.99, respectively). Age and BMI did influence the size (P = 0.01) and shape of the oropharynx (P < 0.001) in the whiplash subjects, but only 20 to 30 percent of the variance could be explained by these factors. Significant difference in the size and shape of the oropharynx was noted in subjects with chronic whiplash compared with controls. Future studies are required to investigate the relationships between oropharynx morphometry and symptoms in patients with chronic whiplash.

  8. Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT): a randomised controlled trial of treatments for whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Lamb, S E; Williams, M A; Williamson, E M; Gates, S; Withers, E J; Mt-Isa, S; Ashby, D; Castelnuovo, E; Underwood, M; Cooke, M W

    2012-01-01

    To examine the clinical effectiveness of a stepped care approach over a 12-month period after an acute whiplash injury; to estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of each strategy including treatments and subsequent health-care costs; and to gain participants' perspective on experiencing whiplash injury, NHS treatment, and recovery within the context of the Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT). Two linked, pragmatic, randomised controlled trials. In Step 1, emergency departments (EDs) were cluster randomised to usual care advice (UCA) or The Whiplash Book advice (WBA)/active management advice. In Step 2, participants were individually randomised to either a single session of advice from a physiotherapist or a physiotherapy package of up to six sessions. An economic evaluation and qualitative study were run in parallel with the trial. Twelve NHS trusts in England comprising 15 EDs. People who attended EDs with an acute whiplash injury of whiplash-associated disorder grades I-III were eligible for Step 1. People who had attended EDs with whiplash injuries and had persistent symptoms 3 weeks after ED attendance were eligible for Step 2. In Step 1, the control intervention was UCA and the experimental intervention was a psycho-educational intervention (WBA/active management advice). In Step 2 the control treatment was reinforcement of the advice provided in Step 1 and the experimental intervention was a package of up to six physiotherapy treatments. The primary outcome was the Neck Disability Index (NDI), which measures severity and frequency of pain and symptoms, and a range of activities including self-care, driving, reading, sleeping and recreation. Secondary outcomes included the mental and physical health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) subscales of the Short Form questionnaire-12 items (SF-12) and the number of work days lost. A total of 3851 patients were recruited to Step 1 of the trial. 1598 patients attending EDs were randomised to UCA, and 2253 were

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash-associated disorders 1 and 2: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vetti, Nils; Kråkenes, Jostein; Damsgaard, Eivind; Rørvik, Jarle; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Espeland, Ansgar

    2011-03-15

    Cross-sectional. To describe alar- and transverse-ligament magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) high-signal changes in acute whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) grades 1 and 2 in relation to the severity and mechanics of trauma, and to compare them with controls. The alar and transverse ligaments are important stabilizers at the craniovertebral junction. Acute injury of these ligaments should be detected as high-signal changes on high-resolution MRI. In the study, 114 consecutive acute WAD 1-2 patients and 157 noninjured controls underwent upper-neck high-resolution MRI, using proton-weighted sequences and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR). Two blinded radiologists independently graded high-signal changes 0 to 3 on proton images and assessed ligament high-signal intensity on STIR. Image quality was evaluated as good, reduced, or poor (not interpretable). Multiple logistic regression was used for both within- and between-groups analyses. All proton and STIR images were interpretable. Interobserver agreement for grades 2 to 3 versus grades 0 to 1 changes was moderate to good (κ = 0.71 alar; and 0.54 transverse). MRI showed grades 2 to 3 alar ligament changes in 40 (35.1%) and grades 2 to 3 transverse ligament changes in 27 (23.7%) of the patients. Such changes were related to contemporary head injury (P = 0.041 alar), neck pain (P = 0.042 transverse), and sex (P = 0.033 transverse) but did not differ between patients and controls (P = 0.433 alar; and 0.254 transverse). STIR ligament signal intensity, higher than bone marrow, was found in only three patients and one control. This first study on high-resolution MRI of craniovertebral ligaments in acute WAD 1-2 indicates that such trauma does not induce high-signal changes. Follow-up studies are needed to find out whether pretraumatic high-signal changes imply reduced ligament strength and can predict chronic WAD.

  10. Physiotherapists' Beliefs About Whiplash-associated Disorder: A Comparison Between Singapore and Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Siong; Pedler, Ashley; Vicenzino, Bill; Sterling, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Healthcare providers' beliefs may play a role in the outcome of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), a condition which is proposed to be culturally dependent. Clinical practice guidelines recommend an active approach for the management of WAD, which is often delivered by physiotherapists. However, there is no data on physiotherapists' whiplash beliefs. Our primary objective was to determine physiotherapists' beliefs from Queensland (Australia) and Singapore, two cultures with differing prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain and chronic WAD. A pen and paper survey of musculoskeletal physiotherapists practicing in Queensland and Singapore was conducted. Participants completed questionnaires consisting of patient vignettes and statements inquiring knowledge and attitudes towards WAD. Chi-square tests of significance were used to compare the responses of physiotherapists from both samples. Ninety-one (response rate 45%) Queensland-based and 94 (response rate 98%) Singapore-based physiotherapists participated in the study. The beliefs in the management strategies for the patient vignettes were generally consistent with practice guidelines. A higher proportion of Queensland-based physiotherapists expected permanent disabilities for the patient vignette depicting chronic WAD (Queensland: 55% Singapore: 28% Pearson chi-sq 18.76, p < 0.005).Up to 99% of the physiotherapists from both samples believed in encouragement of physical activity, the effectiveness of exercise and multimodal physiotherapy for WAD. Significantly higher proportions of Singapore-based physiotherapists believed in ordering radiographs for acute WAD (Pearson chi-sq 41.98, p < 0.001) and also believed in a psychogenic origin of chronic WAD (Pearson chi-sq 22.57, p  0.001). The majority of beliefs between physiotherapists in Queensland and Singapore were similar but there were specific differences. Physiotherapists' whiplash beliefs in Queensland and Singapore did not clearly reflect the difference

  11. Whiplash injuries of the temporomandibular joint in motor vehicle accidents: speculations and facts.

    PubMed

    McKay, D C; Christensen, L V

    1998-10-01

    Referring to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of the human mandibular locomotor system, it has been asserted that displacement of the TMJ disc and inflammation of TMJ tissues are the results of acute and indirect trauma to the TMJ; on occasion this is allegedly experienced in motor vehicle accidents and commonly known as a TMJ whiplash injury. It is postulated that the TMJ whiplash injury is released in the occupant or occupants of a target vehicle when its rear end is impacted by the front end of a bullet vehicle. On the basis of detailed analyses of TMJ trauma/pain histories and TMJ magnetic resonance images, presented as circumstantial evidence in favour of the postulated TMJ whiplash injury, and detailed analyses of the mathematical biophysics of the mandibular locomotor system as well as direct experimental evidence, it is concluded that the postulated TMJ whiplash injury does not exist as a single and independent disease entity caused by motor vehicle accidents. If TMJ disc displacement and inflammation are present, they are expressions of an insidious and progressive pre-existing (pre-accident) disease entity that is comprised of TMJ synovitis/osteoarthritis (phase of inflammation with presence of immune system cells), TMJ internal derangement (phase of disc displacement and deformation with presence of proteinases), and TMJ osteoarthrosis (phase of degeneration with absence of immune system cells). For the asserted TMJ whiplash manoeuvre and ensuing injury to occur as postulated, the laws of physics and biology would have to be suspended.

  12. Early coping strategies do not influence the prognosis after whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Kivioja, Jouko; Jensen, Irene; Lindgren, Urban

    2005-08-01

    This is a 1-year prospective study to investigate the prognostic value of coping strategies such as catastrophising for persistent pain after a whiplash injury. A consecutive series of 96 patients who were seen in the emergency room in the acute phase after the injury were followed prospectively for 1 year. Age, gender and whether or not pain in the neck preceded the accident was recorded. Cases involving fractures or dislocations of the cervical spine, head trauma or pre-existing neurological disorders were not included. The mean interval between the accident and the initial examination was 3+/-2(S.D.) days. Coping was measured using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ). The outcome parameter was self-reported neck pain at 1 year after the motor vehicle accident. At 1 year, 34% of the patients had neck pain. Women developed chronic neck pain more often than men (71% versus 29%); they also had significantly higher coping activity, such as diverting attention, praying or hoping (p<0.05), catastrophising and increasing behavioural activities (p<0.0001). Women reported pain in the neck or shoulder more often before the accident and this was the only statistically significant predictor of chronic symptoms when analysed by logistic regression (odds ratio 4.5). To conclude, we found no evidence that the different coping patterns during the early phase after a whiplash injury influenced the prognosis.

  13. Sex Differences in Patients with Chronic Pain Following Whiplash Injury: The Role of Depression, Fear, Somatization, Social Support, and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Malfliet, Anneleen; De Kooning, Margot; Inghelbrecht, Els; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Willems, Bert; Bernheim, Jan; Nijs, Jo

    2015-11-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorders (chronic WAD) cover a large variety of clinical manifestations that can occur after a whiplash injury. Women have an increased risk of developing chronic WAD, and it is suggested that psychosocial factors are related to long-term pain and functioning following whiplash injury and persistence of chronic pain. This leads to the question whether there are sex differences in psychosocial factors in chronic WAD. This study included 117 subjects who had experienced a whiplash injury at least 3 months before the start of the study (mean duration of pain: 67.29 ± 63.86 months, range: 297 months). They were selected as chronically symptomatic, by excluding those who had recovered from their whiplash injury. Psychosocial aspects (including depression, fear, somatization, social support, and personality traits) were assessed by validated questionnaires, and sex differences were tested using a univariate analysis of variance (ANCOVA), with age and time from whiplash injury as covariates. No differences in depression, fear, somatization, discrepancy in social support personality trait, Neck Disability Index scores, physical functioning, bodily pain, or general health were present between women and men with chronic WAD. Women with chronic WAD reported higher levels of emotional support in problem situations and social companionship. Except for emotional support in problem situations and social companionship, psychosocial factors do not differ between men and women with chronic WAD. These findings imply little to no risk for sex bias in studies investigating psychosocial issues in patients with chronic WAD. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  14. Frequent jaw-face pain in chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Grönqvist, Johan; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) present with frequent pain in the neck, head and shoulder regions but the presence of frequent jaw-face pain is unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of jaw-face pain, pain in other regions, and general symptoms in chronic WAD patients. Fifty whiplash-patients and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were examined by questionnaire for pain in the jaw-face, pain in other regions and other symptoms. In contrast to healthy, a majority of the WAD patients (88%) reported frequent pain in the jaw-face, in addition to frequent pain in the neck (100%), shoulders (94%), head (90%) and back (72%). The WAD patients also reported stiffness and numbness in the jaw-face region, and frequent general symptoms such as balance problems, stress and sleep disturbances. The result suggests that frequent pain in the jaw-face can be part of the spectrum of symptoms in chronic WAD.The finding of self-reported numbness in the jaw-face indicates disturbed trigeminal nerve function and merits further investigation. We conclude that assessment of WAD should include pain in the jaw-face region. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation program including dentists, preferably specialized in the area of orofacial pain, should be advocated after whiplash injury.

  15. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for whiplash associated disorder II: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chris; Heneghan, Nicola; Eveleigh, Gillian; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effectiveness of physiotherapy management in patients experiencing whiplash associated disorder II, on clinically relevant outcomes in the short and longer term. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias and extracted data. A third reviewer mediated disagreement. Assessment of risk of bias was tabulated across included trials. Quantitative synthesis was conducted on comparable outcomes across trials with similar interventions. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes, with random effects as primary analyses. Data sources Predefined terms were employed to search electronic databases. Additional studies were identified from key journals, reference lists, authors and experts. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English before 31 December 2010 evaluating physiotherapy management of patients (>16 years), experiencing whiplash associated disorder II. Any physiotherapy intervention was included, when compared with other types of management, placebo/sham, or no intervention. Measurements reported on ≥1 outcome from the domains within the international classification of function, disability and health, were included. Results 21 RCTs (2126 participants, 9 countries) were included. Interventions were categorised as active physiotherapy or a specific physiotherapy intervention. 20/21 trials were evaluated as high risk of bias and one as unclear. 1395 participants were incorporated in the meta-analyses on 12 trials. In evaluating short term outcome in the acute/sub-acute stage, there was some evidence that active physiotherapy intervention reduces pain and improves range of movement, and that a specific physiotherapy intervention may reduce pain. However, moderate/considerable heterogeneity suggested that treatments may differ in nature or effect in different trial patients. Differences

  16. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for facial numbness and pain after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Genese, Josephine Sun

    2013-07-01

    Whiplash injury is often caused by rear-end motor vehicle collisions. Symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness or arm pain or numbness are common with whiplash injury. The author reports a case of right facial numbness and right cheek pain after a whiplash injury. Osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques applied at the level of the cervical spine, suboccipital region, and cranial region alleviated the patient's facial symptoms by treating the right-sided strain of the trigeminal nerve. The strain on the trigeminal nerve likely occurred at the upper cervical spine, at the nerve's cauda, and at the brainstem, the nerve's point of origin. The temporal portion of the cranium played a major role in the strain on the maxillary.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Prediction of the Relationship between Whiplash Injury and Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Whiplash injury can cause internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and lead to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Our aim was to evaluate whether the initial clinical findings in TMD patients with whiplash injury are correlated with their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics. This case-control study involved 219 patients (135 women, 84 men; mean age: 37.84 years) who visited our orofacial pain clinic with TMD; TMD was diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria for TMD Axis I. Patients were categorized into three groups based on the presence and type of macrotrauma: in the "wTMD" group, patients had suffered whiplash injury; patients in the "pTMD" group had post-traumatic TMD; the "iTMD" group comprised patients who had presented with TMD symptoms and had sustained no macrotrauma. We investigated the presence of disk displacement, effusion, disk deformity, and condylar degeneration, and changes in the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM). To evaluate the severity of TMD pain and objectively analyze symptoms, we used a visual analog scale (VAS), palpation index (PI), neck PI, dysfunction index, and craniomandibular index (CMI). The VAS scores, and the severity indexes of the TMD including PI, neck PI, and CMI were highest in the wTMD patients. Atrophy of the LPM was most commonly seen in the wTMD group, as was disk deformity. In wTMD patients only, VAS score was significantly correlated with stress; it was correlated with headache in wTMD and iTMD patients. The clinical symptoms of TMD were not correlated with MRI findings in the wTMD group. However, alterations in the LPM were strongly correlated with disk displacement. If clinicians recognize alterations in the LPM and disk displacement in the TMJ, they will better understand the clinical symptoms and pathophysiology of TMD with whiplash injury. Whiplash injury may lead to TMD via different mechanisms from other macrotraumas.

  18. Recruitment bias in chronic pain research: whiplash as a model.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Wouters, Kristien; Bernheim, Jan

    2011-11-01

    In science findings which cannot be extrapolated to other settings are of little value. Recruitment methods vary widely across chronic whiplash studies, but it remains unclear whether this generates recruitment bias. The present study aimed to examine whether the recruitment method accounts for differences in health status, social support, and personality traits in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Two different recruitment methods were compared: recruiting patients through a local whiplash patient support group (group 1) and local hospital emergency department (group 2). The participants (n=118) filled in a set of questionnaires: the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being, Symptom Checklist-90, Dutch Personality Questionnaire, and the Social Support List. The recruitment method (either through the local emergency department or patient support group) accounted for the differences in insufficiency, somatization, disability, quality of life, self-satisfaction, and dominance (all p values <.01). The recruitment methods generated chronic WAD patients comparable for psychoneurotism, social support, self-sufficiency, (social) inadequacy, rigidity, and resentment (p>.01). The recruitment of chronic WAD patients solely through patient support groups generates bias with respect to the various aspects of health status and personality, but not social support. In order to enhance the external validity of study findings, chronic WAD studies should combine a variety of recruitment procedures.

  19. Is temporomandibular pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders part of a more widespread pain syndrome?

    PubMed

    Visscher, Corine; Hofman, Nico; Mes, Carola; Lousberg, Richel; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder is a controversial issue that may be influenced by the widespread pain character and psychologic distress frequently observed in patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain, widespread pain, and psychologic distress in persons with chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain, using a controlled, single blind study design. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group was compared with 2 control groups: a chronic neck pain group and a no neck pain group. From 65 persons, a standardized oral history was taken, a physical examination of the neck and the masticatory system was performed, widespread pain was investigated by tender point palpation, and psychologic distress was measured with a questionnaire (SCL-90). Because the recognition of temporomandibular disorder pain and neck pain remains a matter of debate, 3 well-defined classification systems were used: one based on the oral history, a second on a combination of oral history and pain on active movements and palpation, and a third one based on a combination of oral history and function tests. Irrespective of the classification system used, the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group more often suffered from temporomandibular disorder pain (0.001patients with whiplash-associated disorder showed more psychologic distress (0.000patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder suggests that the higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in these patients is part of a more widespread chronic pain disorder.

  20. Examination of the diagnostic validity of 'headache attributed to whiplash injury': a controlled, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Schrader, H; Stovner, L J; Obelieniene, D; Surkiene, D; Mickeviciene, D; Bovim, G; Sand, T

    2006-11-01

    Acute and chronic headache attributed to whiplash injury are new diagnostic entities in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition. A main objective of the present study was to assess the validity of these nosologic entities by studying the headache pattern in an inception cohort of 210 rear-end car collision victims and in 210 matched controls. Consecutive drivers involved in rear-end collisions were identified from the daily records of the Traffic Police Department of Kaunas, Lithuania. A standard self-report questionnaire was sent to the drivers between 2 and 7 days after the collision, and their passengers were recruited as well. Headache and neck pain were evaluated within 7 days of the collision, at 2 months and 1 year after the collision. A control group of non-traumatized subjects received questionnaires at the time of the selection and 1 year later. Of the 75 collision victims who developed headache within the first 7 days of the collision, 37 had a clinical picture in accordance with the criteria for acute whiplash headache (i.e., concomitant neck pain) and 38 did not. For acute headache after collision, concomitant neck pain was of no relevance to the headache type or its course. In both these subgroups, migraine and tension-type headache could be diagnosed in similar proportions and the prognosis after 2 months and 1 year was also similar. Preexisting headache was a strong prognostic factor in both groups for both acute and chronic pain. Compared with the non-traumatized control group, the 1-year incidence of new or worsened headache, or of headache improvement, was the same. A likely interpretation of the data is that acute headaches after rear-end car collisions mainly represent episodes of a primary headache precipitated by the stress of the situation. We conclude that the nosologic validity of both acute and chronic whiplash headache is poor as the headaches, in accordance with the criteria lack distinguishing clinical

  1. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Ndu, Anthony B; Coe, Marcus P; Valenson, Arnold J; Ivancic, Paul C; Ito, Shigeki; Rubin, Wolfgang; Panjabi, Manohar M

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous clinical studies have documented successful neck pain relief in whiplash patients using nerve block and radiofrequency ablation of facet joint afferents, including capsular ligament nerves. No previous study has documented injuries to the neck ligaments as determined by altered dynamic mechanical properties due to whiplash. The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of whiplash-exposed human cervical spine ligaments. Additionally, the present data were compared to previously reported control data. The ligaments included the anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. Methods A total of 98 bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1) were prepared from six cervical spines following 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g rear impacts and pre- and post-impact flexibility testing. The specimens were elongated to failure at a peak rate of 725 (SD 95) mm/s. Failure force, elongation, and energy absorbed, as well as stiffness were determined. The mechanical properties were statistically compared among ligaments, and to the control data (significance level: P < 0.05; trend: P < 0.1). The average physiological ligament elongation was determined using a mathematical model. Results For all whiplash-exposed ligaments, the average failure elongation exceeded the average physiological elongation. The highest average failure force of 204.6 N was observed in the ligamentum flavum, significantly greater than in middle-third disc and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. The highest average failure elongation of 4.9 mm was observed in the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. The average energy absorbed ranged from 0.04 J by the middle-third disc to 0.44 J by the capsular ligament. The ligamentum flavum was the stiffest ligament, while the

  2. Whiplash (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The pain of whiplash may not appear right away after an accident, but sometimes may take hours to weeks to develop. Symptoms include dizziness, headache, pain or stiffness in the neck, jaw, shoulders, or arms.

  3. Persistent pseudomyopia following a whiplash injury in a previously emmetropic woman.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Fintan E; Treacy, Maxwell P; Duignan, Emma S; Mullaney, Paul B

    2017-12-01

    Accommodative spasm, which manifests as ciliary muscle spasm, convergent strabismus or miosis, is a recognised consequence of head trauma. In whiplash cases, cervical spine hyperextension poses a risk of contra-coup injury and brainstem trauma, and is known to affect the visual system. However, to date, no cases of accommodative spasm due to whiplash injury have been reported. We present the case of a 34-year-old female who developed sudden onset blurred distance vision after a rear impact car crash, having previously been emmetropic. Her unaided distance visual acuity was 20/70 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/20 with a correction that progressed from -1.75 to -3.50 DS over the 12 months following the accident.This patient's sudden unilateral myopia, with unilaterally increased amplitude of accommodation suggests pseudomyopia due to accommodative spasm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of injury to her brain stem, frontal lobes or oculomotor nerve. The patient is now well adjusted with a -3.50DS corrective lens for the right eye. The accommodation reflex is susceptible to injury at the occipital lobe, frontal eye fields, Edinger-Westphal nuclei and oculomotor nerves. As such it should be examined in patients who present with visual disturbances following whiplash injury.It is important that such cases are identified at presentation, as early intervention can improve outcomes in accommodative spasm and reduce the long term psychological effects often associated with whiplash injuries.

  4. Whiplash Syndrome Reloaded: Digital Echoes of Whiplash Syndrome in the European Internet Search Engine Context.

    PubMed

    Noll-Hussong, Michael

    2017-03-27

    In many Western countries, after a motor vehicle collision, those involved seek health care for the assessment of injuries and for insurance documentation purposes. In contrast, in many less wealthy countries, there may be limited access to care and no insurance or compensation system. The purpose of this infodemiology study was to investigate the global pattern of evolving Internet usage in countries with and without insurance and the corresponding compensation systems for whiplash injury. We used the Internet search engine analytics via Google Trends to study the health information-seeking behavior concerning whiplash injury at national population levels in Europe. We found that the search for "whiplash" is strikingly and consistently often associated with the search for "compensation" in countries or cultures with a tort system. Frequent or traumatic painful injuries; diseases or disorders such as arthritis, headache, radius, and hip fracture; depressive disorders; and fibromyalgia were not associated similarly with searches on "compensation." In this study, we present evidence from the evolving viewpoint of naturalistic Internet search engine analytics that the expectations for receiving compensation may influence Internet search behavior in relation to whiplash injury. ©Michael Noll-Hussong. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 27.03.2017.

  5. Case report: whiplash-associated disorder from a low-velocity bumper car collision: history, evaluation, and surgery.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael F; Stuberg, Wayne; DeJong, Stacey; Gold, Kurt V; Nystrom, N Ake

    2004-09-01

    Case report of a patient with a whiplash-associated disorder following a bumper car collision. Imaging studies failed to provide an anatomic explanation for the debilitating symptoms. To report a chronic, debilitating pain syndrome after a low-velocity bumper car collision while using complex range-of-motion data for the diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical indication in whiplash-associated disorder. The controversy of whiplash-associated disorder mainly concerns pathophysiology and collision dynamics. Although many investigations attempt to define a universal lesion or determine a threshold of force that may cause permanent injury, no consensus has been reached. Eight years after a low-velocity collision, the patient underwent surgical excision of multiple painful trigger points in the posterior neck. Computerized motion analysis was used for pre- and postoperative evaluations. Surgical treatment resulted in an increase in total active range of motion by 20%, reduced intake of pain medication, doubled the number of work hours, and generally led to a dramatic improvement in quality of life. This case of whiplash-associated disorder after a low-velocity collision highlights the difficulty in defining threshold of injury in regard to velocity. It also illustrates the value of computerized motion analysis in confirming the diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder and in the evaluation of prognosis and treatment.

  6. A narrative review on cervical interventions in adults with chronic whiplash-associated disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Euson; Tong, Tiffany; Reed, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Whiplash injuries are common in society, but clinical interventions are inconclusive on the most effective treatment. Research and reviews have been completed with the goal of determining clinical interventions that are effective for whiplash injuries and disorders, but literature has not recently been summarised on best practices for cervical spine interventions for adults with chronic whiplash. Purpose The objective of this narrative review is to update and expand on previous works, to provide recommendations for clinical interventions and future research in the area of cervical spine rehabilitation for adults with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Method The Arskey and O’Malley methodology was used for this narrative review. CINHAL, EMBASE, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, as well as grey literature, were searched from 2003 to April 2017. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts for relevance to the review, and content analysis summarised the study findings. A total of 14 citations were included in the final review. Findings Exercise-based interventions targeted at the cervical spine appear most beneficial for adults with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD). Invasive interventions still require more rigorous studies to deem their effectiveness for this population. Conclusion Further research is required to investigate and determine clinically relevant results for cervical spine intervention in patients with chronic WAD. PMID:29719724

  7. Dynamic and functional balance tasks in subjects with persistent whiplash: a pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Stokell, Raina; Yu, Annie; Williams, Katrina; Treleaven, Julia

    2011-08-01

    Disturbances in static balance have been demonstrated in subjects with persistent whiplash. Some also report loss of balance and falls. These disturbances may contribute to difficulties in dynamic tasks. The aim of this study was to determine whether subjects with whiplash had deficits in dynamic and functional balance tasks when compared to a healthy control group. Twenty subjects with persistent pain following a whiplash injury and twenty healthy controls were assessed in single leg stance with eyes open and closed, the step test, Fukuda stepping test, tandem walk on a firm and soft surface, Singleton test with eyes open and closed, a stair walking test and the timed 10 m walk with and without head movement. Subjects with whiplash demonstrated significant deficits (p < 0.01) in single leg stance with eyes closed, the step test, tandem walk on a firm and soft surface, stair walking and the timed 10 m walk with and without head movement when compared to the control subjects. Specific assessment and rehabilitation directed towards improving these deficits may need to be considered in the management of patients with persistent whiplash if these results are confirmed in a larger cohort. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematics of a Head-Neck Model Simulating Whiplash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2008-02-01

    A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that qualitatively undergoes the same forces acting in whiplash and shows the same behavior is used to analyze the kinematics of both the head and the cervical spine and the resulting neck loads. The rapid acceleration during a whiplash event causes the extension and flexion of the cervical spine, which in turn can cause dislocated vertebrae, torn ligaments, intervertebral disc herniation, and other trauma that appear to be the likely causes of subsequent painful headache or neck pain symptoms. Thus, whiplash provides a connection between the dynamics of the human body and physics. Its treatment can enliven the usual teaching in kinematics, and both theoretical and experimental approaches provide an interesting biological context to teach introductory principles of mechanics.

  9. Pain and Disability in the Jaw and Neck Region following Whiplash Trauma.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, B; Lampa, E; Marklund, S; Wänman, A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between whiplash trauma and chronic orofacial pain is unclear, especially with regard to the time elapsed from trauma to development of orofacial pain. The aim was to analyze prevalence of jaw pain and disability, as well as the relationship between pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions in the early nonchronic stage after whiplash trauma. In this case-control study, 70 individuals (40 women, 30 men, mean age 35.5 y) who visited an emergency department with neck pain following a car accident were examined within 3 wk of trauma (group 1) and compared with 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 33.8 y), who declined to attend a clinical examination but agreed to fill in questionnaires (group 2). The 2 case groups were compared with a matched control group of 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 37.6 y) without a history of neck trauma. All participants completed questionnaires regarding jaw pain and dysfunction, rating pain intensity in jaw and neck regions on the Numerical Rating Scale, the Neck Disability Index, and Jaw Disability Checklist. Compared with controls, individuals with a recent whiplash trauma reported more jaw pain and dysfunction. Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between jaw and neck pain ratings for group 1 (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001) and group 2 (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). In the logistic regression analysis, cases showed higher odds ratios (range, 6.1 to 40.8) for jaw and neck pain and disability compared with controls. Taken together, the results show that individuals with a recent whiplash trauma report more jaw pain and disability compared with controls without a history of neck trauma. Furthermore, the correlation between jaw and neck pain intensity implies that intensity of neck pain in the acute stage after whiplash trauma might be a possible risk factor also for development of chronic orofacial pain. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  10. A randomized study of new sling exercise treatment vs traditional physiotherapy for patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders with unsettled compensation claims.

    PubMed

    Vikne, John; Oedegaard, Arit; Laerum, Even; Ihlebaek, Camilla; Kirkesola, Gitle

    2007-04-01

    Many patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders have reduced neuromuscular control of the neck and head. It has been proposed that a new sling exercise therapy may promote neuromuscular control of the neck. To compare the effects of traditional physiotherapy vs traditional physiotherapy combined with a new sling exercise therapy on discomfort and function in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders who have unsettled compensation claims; and to investigate possible additional effects of guided, long-term home training. A randomized multi-centre trial with 4 parallel groups. A total of 214 patients were assigned randomly to 4 treatment groups, and received either traditional physiotherapy with or without home training, or new sling exercise therapy with or without home training. Outcome measures were pain, disability, psychological distress, sick leave and physical tests. A total of 171 patients (80%) completed the study. There were no important statistical or clinical differences between the groups after 4 months of treatment. There was a small statistically significant effect at 12-month follow-up in both groups with home training regarding pain during rest (p = 0.05) and reported fatigue in the final week (p = 0.02). No statistically significant differences were found between the traditional physiotherapy group and the new sling exercise group, with or without home training. Since the groups were not compared with a control group without treatment, we cannot conclude that the studied treatments are effective for patients with whiplash-associated disorder, only that they did not differ in our study.

  11. To What Degree Does Active Cervical Range of Motion Differ Between Patients With Neck Pain, Patients With Whiplash, and Those Without Neck Pain? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stenneberg, Martijn S; Rood, Michiel; de Bie, Rob; Schmitt, Maarten A; Cattrysse, Erik; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G

    2017-07-01

    To quantify differences in active cervical range of motion (aCROM) between patients with neck pain and those without neck pain, in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and nontraumatic neck pain, and in patients with acute complaints versus those with chronic complaints. Seven bibliographic databases were searched from inception to April 2015. In addition, a manual search was performed. Full articles on a numerical comparison of aCROM in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic control persons of similar ages were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies and assessed risk of bias. Two reviewers extracted the data. Pooled mean differences of aCROM were calculated using a random-effects model. The search yielded 6261 hits; 27 articles (2366 participants, 13 low risk of bias) met the inclusion criteria. The neck pain group showed less aCROM in all movement directions compared with persons without neck pain. Mean differences ranged from -7.04° (95% CI, -9.70° to -4.38°) for right lateral bending (11 studies) to -89.59° (95% CI, -131.67° to -47.51°) for total aCROM (4 studies). Patients with WADs had less aCROM than patients with nontraumatic neck pain. No conclusive differences in aCROM were found between patients with acute and patients with chronic complaints. Patients with neck pain have a significantly decreased aCROM compared with persons without neck pain, and patients with WADs have less aCROM than those with nontraumatic neck pain. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevated [11C]-D-Deprenyl Uptake in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Suggests Persistent Musculoskeletal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Fredrikson, Mats; Gordh, Torsten; Söderlund, Anne; Långström, Bengt; Engler, Henry

    2011-01-01

    There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer 11C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain after a rear impact car accident (Whiplash Associated Disorder grade II) and 14 healthy controls were investigated. Patients displayed significantly elevated tracer uptake in the neck, particularly in regions around the spineous process of the second cervical vertebra. This suggests that whiplash patients have signs of local persistent peripheral tissue inflammation, which may potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker. The present investigation demonstrates that painful processes in the periphery can be objectively visualized and quantified with PET and that 11C-D-deprenyl is a promising tracer for these purposes. PMID:21541010

  13. Energy-absorbing car seat designs for reducing whiplash.

    PubMed

    Himmetoglu, S; Acar, M; Bouazza-Marouf, K; Taylor, A J

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an investigation of anti-whiplash features that can be implemented in a car seat to reduce whiplash injuries in the case of a rear impact. The main emphasis is on achieving a seat design with good energy absorption properties. A biofidelic 50th percentile male multi-body human model for rear impact is developed to evaluate the performance of car seat design concepts. The model is validated using the responses of 7 volunteers from the Japanese Automobile Research Institute (JARI) sled tests, which were performed at an impact speed of 8 kph with a rigid seat and without head restraint and seatbelt. A generic multi-body car seat model is also developed to implement various seatback and recliner properties, anti-whiplash devices, and head restraints. Using the same driving posture and the rigid seat in the JARI sled tests as the basic configuration, several anti-whiplash seats are designed to allow different types of motion for the seatback and seat-pan. The anti-whiplash car seat design concepts limit neck internal motion successfully until the head-to-head restraint contact occurs and they exhibit low NIC(max) values (7 m(2)/s(2) on average). They are also effective in reducing neck compression forces and T1 forward accelerations. In principle, these car seat design concepts employ controlled recliner rotation and seat-pan displacement to limit the formation of S-shape. This is accomplished by using anti-whiplash devices that absorb the crash energy in such a way that an optimum protection is provided at different severities. The results indicate that the energy absorbing car seat design concepts all demonstrate good whiplash-reducing performances at the IIWPG standard pulse. Especially in higher severity rear impacts, two of the car seat design concepts reduce the ramping of the occupant considerably.

  14. Risk factors for chronic disability in a cohort of patients with acute whiplash associated disorders seeking physiotherapy treatment for persisting symptoms.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-03-01

    (1) To identify risk factors for chronic disability in people with acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). (2) To estimate the impact of the numbers of risk factors present. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected, on average, 32 days after injury (SD=10.9) and 12 months later. Baseline measures of pain, disability, neck movement, psychological and behavioural factors were independent variables and chronic disability at 12 months was the dependent variable in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. National Health Service physiotherapy departments. Participants (n=599) with symptoms 3 weeks after injury, self-referred to physiotherapy as part of a randomised controlled trial. 430 (72%) participants provided complete data for this analysis. Chronic disability based on Neck Disability Index scores. 136 (30%) participants developed chronic disability. High baseline disability (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.97 to 5.55), longer predicted recovery time (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.87), psychological distress (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.51), passive coping (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.97) and greater number of symptoms (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.78) were associated with chronic disability. One risk factor resulted in 3.5 times the risk (95% CI 1.04 to 11.45) of chronic disability but this risk increased to 16 times (95%CI 5.36 to 49.27) in those with four or five risk factors. Baseline disability had the strongest association with chronic disability but psychological and behavioural factors were also important. Treatment strategies should reflect this which may require a change to current physiotherapy approaches for acute WAD. The number of risk factors present should be considered when evaluating potential for poor outcome. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expectancies mediate the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work following whiplash injury: A 1-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Carriere, J S; Thibault, P; Adams, H; Milioto, M; Ditto, B; Sullivan, M J L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that perceived injustice is a risk factor for work disability in individuals with whiplash injury. At present, however, little is known about the processes by which perceived injustice impacts on return to work. The purpose of this study was to examine whether expectancies mediated the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work in patients with whiplash injury. One hundred and fifty-two individuals (81 men, 71 women) with a primary diagnosis of whiplash injury completed self-report measures of pain intensity, perceived injustice and return-to-work expectancies following admission to a rehabilitation programme. Work status was assessed 1 year after discharge. Consistent with previous research, high scores on a measure of perceived injustice were associated with prolonged work disability. Results indicated that high perceptions of injustice were associated with low return-to-work expectancies. Causal mediation analyses revealed that expectancies fully mediated the relationship between perceived injustice and return to work. The findings suggest that intervention techniques designed to target expectancies could improve return-to-work outcomes in patients with whiplash injury. Discussion addresses the processes by which expectancies might impact on return-to-work outcomes and the manner in which negative return-to-work expectancies might be modified through intervention. The study confirms that expectancies are the mechanism through which perceived injustice impacts return to work following whiplash injury. The findings suggest that interventions designed to specifically target return-to-work expectancies might improve rehabilitation outcomes in patients with whiplash injury. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  16. Whiplash in individuals with known pre-accident, clinical neck status.

    PubMed

    Sjaastad, Ottar; Fredriksen, Torbjörn A; Båtnes, Jan; Petersen, Hans C; Bakketeig, Leiv S

    2006-02-01

    In whiplash studies, there may be interpretation difficulties: are post-whiplash findings, when present, a consequence of the whiplash trauma, or did they exist prior to trauma? In the Vågå headache epidemiology study (1995-1997), there was a headache history and detailed physical/neurological findings from the face/head/neck in 1838 18-65-year-old parishioners. In September 2001, four years after the Vågå study, a search through the Health Centre files divulged six cases with whiplash trauma in the intervening period. These parishioners could thus be their own controls. Two females did not develop new complaints. In the four parishioners with apparently new, subjective complaints, i.e., headache, neck pain, and a feeling of stiffness in the neck, there were corresponding findings as regards various parameters: shoulder area skin-roll test, changes in two, possible changes in two; range of motion, neck, changes in two, borderline changes in one; "features indicative of cervical abnormality" ("CF"), changes in all four; the mean, post-whiplash stage value was: 3.6+, against 1.6+ prior to accident (Vågå: only 0.93%, "CF" exceeding 3+). In the two without new complaints, the mean "CF" value was 1.0+. The number of cases is small, but the similarity of the symptoms--and signs--following whiplash injury may suggest an element of organic origin in the whiplash syndrome.

  17. Impairment in the cervical flexors: a comparison of whiplash and insidious onset neck pain patients.

    PubMed

    Jull, G; Kristjansson, E; Dall'Alba, P

    2004-05-01

    There has been little investigation into whether or not differences exist in the nature of physical impairment associated with neck pain of whiplash and insidious origin. This study examined the neck flexor synergy during performance of the cranio-cervical flexion test, a test targeting the action of the deep neck flexors. Seventy-five volunteer subjects participated in this study and were equally divided between Group 1, asymptomatic control subjects, Group 2, subjects with insidious onset neck pain and Group 3, subjects with neck pain following a whiplash injury. The cranio-cervical flexion test was performed in five progressive stages of increasing cranio-cervical flexion range. Subjects' performance was guided by feedback from a pressure sensor inserted behind the neck which monitored the slight flattening of the cervical lordosis which occurs with the contraction of longus colli. Myoelectric signals (EMG) were detected from the muscles during performance of the test. The results indicated that both the insidious onset neck pain and whiplash groups had higher measures of EMG signal amplitude (normalized root mean square) in the sternocleidomastoid during each stage of the test compared to the control subjects (all P<0.05) and had significantly greater shortfalls from the pressure targets in the test stages (P<0.05). No significant differences were evident between the neck pain groups in either parameter indicating that this physical impairment in the neck flexor synergy is common to neck pain of both whiplash and insidious origin.

  18. Localized cervical facet joint kinematics under physiological and whiplash loading.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Pintar, Frank A

    2005-12-01

    Although facet joints have been implicated in the whiplash injury mechanism, no investigators have determined the degree to which joint motions in whiplash are nonphysiological. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the correlation between facet joint and segmental motions under physiological and whiplash loading. Human cadaveric cervical spine specimens were exercise tested under physiological extension loading, and intact human head-neck complexes were exercise tested under whiplash loading to correlate the localized component motions of the C4-5 facet joint with segmental extension. Facet joint shear and distraction kinematics demonstrated a linear correlation with segmental extension under both loading modes. Facet joints responded differently to whiplash and physiological loading, with significantly increased kinematics for the same-segmental angulation. The limitations of this study include removal of superficial musculature and the limited sample size for physiological testing. The presence of increased facet joint motions indicated that synovial joint soft-tissue components (that is, synovial membrane and capsular ligament) sustain increased distortion that may subject these tissues to a greater likelihood of injury. This finding is supported by clinical investigations in which lower cervical facet joint injury resulted in similar pain patterns due to the most commonly reported whiplash symptoms.

  19. [Current study and research progress of whiplash injury of cervical vertebrae].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Jia, Lian-shun

    2011-07-01

    Whiplash injury is a common injures in our daily lives, but the mechanism of it and the best treatment is largely unknown. The development of chronic pain and disability following whiplash injury is not uncommon and results in substantial social and economic costs. Clinical manifestation and recovery time are difference, which make it difficult for doctor diagnosis and treatment. The current study have shown that the social class, severity of collision, compensation and lawsuit, physical and psychological factors were relevant predictors for the outcome of whiplash. This article is try to overview the status quo of the whiplash injury.

  20. Does knowledge of seat design and whiplash injury mechanisms translate to understanding outcomes?

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    Review of whiplash injury mechanisms and effects of anti-whiplash systems including active head restraint (AHR) and Whiplash Protection System (WHIPS). This article provides an overview of previous biomechanical and epidemiological studies of AHR and WHIPS and investigates whether seat design and biomechanical knowledge of proposed whiplash injury mechanisms translates to understanding outcomes of rear crash occupants. In attempt to reduce whiplash injuries, some newer automobiles incorporate anti-whiplash systems such as AHR or WHIPS. During a rear crash, mechanically based systems activate by occupant momentum pressing into the seatback whereas electronically based systems activate using crash sensors and an electronic control unit linked to the head restraint. To investigate the effects of AHR and WHIPS on occupant responses including head and neck loads and motions, biomechanical studies of simulated rear crashes have been performed using human volunteers, mathematical models, crash dummies, whole cadavers, and hybrid cadaveric/surrogate models. Epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of AHR and WHIPS on reducing whiplash injury claims and lessening subjective complaints of neck pain after rear crashes. RESULTS.: Biomechanical studies indicate that AHR and WHIPS reduced the potential for some whiplash injuries but did not completely eliminate the injury risk. Epidemiological outcomes indicate reduced whiplash injury claims or subjective complaints of crash-related neck pain between 43 and 75% due to AHR and between 21% and 49% due to WHIPS as compared to conventional seats and head restraints. Yielding energy-absorbing seats aim to reduce occupant loads and accelerations whereas AHRs aim to provide early head support to minimize head and neck motions. Continued objective biomechanical and epidemiological studies of anti-whiplash systems together with industry, governmental, and clinical initiatives will ultimately lead to reduced whiplash injuries

  1. Initial healthcare and coping preferences are associated with outcome 1 year after whiplash trauma: a multicentre 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Myrtveit, Solbjørg Makalani; Carstensen, Tina; Kasch, Helge; Ørnbøl, Eva; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals exposed to whiplash collisions have to cope with the stressful event as well as early physical symptoms. As in other chronic pain conditions, coping has been associated with outcome after whiplash. In this study, our aim was to examine whether initial coping preferences were associated with the development of chronic whiplash. Design Prospective study. Setting Primary care. Methods 740 acute whiplash patients were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners after car collisions in Denmark. Within 10 days postinjury, participants were asked what they believed could help them get better. At 12-month follow-up, the level of neck pain and capability to work was obtained. Whether coping preferences (baseline) were associated with outcome was investigated using multiple regression analyses. Results Persistent neck pain was most strongly associated with preferring medications (mean difference=1.24 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.82)) and sickness absence (mean difference=1.18 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.82)). Reduced work capability was most strongly associated with preferring medications (OR=3.53 (95% CI 2.13 to 5.86)), sickness absence (OR=3.05 (95% CI 1.80 to 5.17)) and being referred to a physiotherapist/chiropractor (OR=3.03 (95% CI 1.33 to 6.91)). Active coping was associated with better outcomes: Participants preferring to change their lifestyle were protected against reduced work capability (OR=0.11 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.78)). Individuals who wanted to keep living as usual only (no other preference reported) were protected against neck pain (mean difference −1.62 (95% CI −2.39 to −0.84)) and reduced work capability (OR=0.09 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.64)). Conclusions A simple nine-item measure of coping preferences is associated with the development of chronic neck pain and reduced capability to work following whiplash trauma and may be used to identify individuals at risk of poor recovery. PMID:25795697

  2. [Discrimination between pain-induced head movement disturbances after whiplash injuries and their simulation].

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Lechner-Steinleitner, S; Hoffmann, F; Schönegger, J

    1998-12-09

    Neck pain after whiplash injury of the cervical spine often induces typical changes in head motion patterns (amplitude, velocity). These changes of kinematics may help to recognize malingerers. We investigated the hypothesis that malingerers are not able to reproduce their simulated head movement disturbances three times. The kinematics of head movements of 23 patients with neck pain after whiplash injury and of 22 healthy subjects trying to act as malingerers were compared. The healthy subjects were informed about the symptomatology of whiplash injury and were asked to simulate painful head movements. Two different kinds of head movements were registered and analyzed by Cervicomotography: (1) the slow free axial head rotation (yaw) and (2) the axial head rotation (yaw) tracking a moving visual target. Each experimental condition was presented three times, expecting the malingerers not to be able to produce as well as to reproduce the same head movement disturbances again and again. In patients, as a consequence of their distinct pain patterns, we expected less variance between the test repetitions. The statistical analysis showed significant differences of the calculated kinematic parameters between both groups and the inability of healthy subjects to simulate and to reproduce convincingly distinct pain patterns.

  3. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-12-01

    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  4. Active involvement and intervention in patients exposed to whiplash trauma in automobile crashes reduces costs: a randomized, controlled clinical trial and health economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Mark; Seferiadis, Aris; Gunnarsson, Ronny

    2006-07-15

    To examine and compare the costs and consequences in a partial economic evaluation of two competing interventions in patients exposed to whiplash trauma in automobile crashes. The interventions were an active involvement and intervention using early mobilization and a standard intervention of rest, recommended short-term immobilization in a cervical collar and a cautious, gradual self-exercise program according to a leaflet. The study was randomized and controlled. The aim of the study was to compare the costs of an active involvement and intervention versus a standard intervention and to relate them to the clinical benefits in patients exposed to whiplash trauma in automobile crashes to facilitate decision-making regarding intervention and resource allocation. There is very little known about the health economic aspects of various interventions in the target treatment group of patients. Based on a prospective, randomized, clinical trial, data on clinical effectiveness and resources used for the active involvement and intervention and standard intervention were collected for a comparative analysis of the costs related to physical therapy treatment and sick leave. A cost-consequence analysis consisting of a modified cost-effectiveness analysis was used. The costs were significantly lower after 6 and 36 months with an active involvement and intervention as compared with the standard intervention. The active involvement and intervention were significantly superior in reducing experienced pain and reducing sick leave. For patients exposed to whiplash trauma in a motor vehicle collision, an active involvement and intervention were both less costly and more effective than a standard intervention.

  5. Whiplash Syndrome Reloaded: Digital Echoes of Whiplash Syndrome in the European Internet Search Engine Context

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background In many Western countries, after a motor vehicle collision, those involved seek health care for the assessment of injuries and for insurance documentation purposes. In contrast, in many less wealthy countries, there may be limited access to care and no insurance or compensation system. Objective The purpose of this infodemiology study was to investigate the global pattern of evolving Internet usage in countries with and without insurance and the corresponding compensation systems for whiplash injury. Methods We used the Internet search engine analytics via Google Trends to study the health information-seeking behavior concerning whiplash injury at national population levels in Europe. Results We found that the search for “whiplash” is strikingly and consistently often associated with the search for “compensation” in countries or cultures with a tort system. Frequent or traumatic painful injuries; diseases or disorders such as arthritis, headache, radius, and hip fracture; depressive disorders; and fibromyalgia were not associated similarly with searches on “compensation.” Conclusions In this study, we present evidence from the evolving viewpoint of naturalistic Internet search engine analytics that the expectations for receiving compensation may influence Internet search behavior in relation to whiplash injury. PMID:28347974

  6. Quantitative posturography in altered sensory conditions: a way to assess balance instability in patients with chronic whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Pascal; Prietzel, Hanne; Svarrer, Heine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2004-03-01

    To quantify neck mobility and posture with and without various postural perturbations. A multivariable 2-group study with repeated measures and treatments. A human performance laboratory. Eleven patients with chronic whiplash injury (mean age, 33.3+/-6.7 y; weight, 73.4+/-11.4 kg; height, 173.3+/-7.2 cm) with a sex- and age-matched control group (mean age, 33.1+/-6.8 y; weight, 68+/-12.5 kg; height, 171.5+/-6.3 cm). Neck mobility and the effects of postural perturbations affecting the visual, vestibular, cutaneous, proprioceptive, and nociceptive systems were measured. Active range of motion, neck position sense, and postural activity. We found significantly reduced neck mobility and increased postural activity in the patient group compared with the control group. In patients, there was significantly greater postural activity with eyes closed, eyes open and speaking, and eyes closed with Achilles' tendons vibrations compared with eyes open with no vibrations. In the controls, there was no significant effect of experimental muscle pain on postural activity. Patients with chronic whiplash injury had a protective response to neck movement and different tuning, sequencing, and execution of the postural synergies probably because of excessive reliance on visual input despite a possible deficit and altered vestibular and/or proprioceptive activity. In healthy volunteers, the pain induced by a single bolus injection of hypertonic saline was probably too limited in intensity and spreading to decrease postural stability.

  7. Optimal designs for prediction studies of whiplash.

    PubMed

    Kamper, Steven J; Hancock, Mark J; Maher, Christopher G

    2011-12-01

    Commentary. To provide guidance for the design and interpretation of predictive studies of whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Numerous studies have sought to define and explain the clinical course and response to treatment of people with WAD. Design of these studies is often suboptimal, which can lead to biased findings and issues with interpreting the results. Literature review and commentary. Predictive studies can be grouped into four broad categories; studies of symptomatic course, studies that aim to identify factors that predict outcome, studies that aim to isolate variables that are causally responsible for outcome, and studies that aim to identify patients who respond best to particular treatments. Although the specific research question will determine the optimal methods, there are a number of generic features that should be incorporated into design of such studies. The aim of these features is to minimize bias, generate adequately precise prognostic estimates, and ensure generalizability of the findings. This paper provides a summary of important considerations in the design, conduct, and reporting of prediction studies in the field of whiplash.

  8. Kinematics of a Head-Neck Model Simulating Whiplash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that…

  9. Pregabalin versus placebo in targeting pro-nociceptive mechanisms to prevent chronic pain after whiplash injury in at-risk individuals - a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nikles, J; Keijzers, G; Mitchell, G; Schug, S; Ware, R; McLean, S A; Connelly, L; Gibson, S; Farrell, S F; Sterling, M

    2018-01-17

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are an enormous and costly burden to Australian society. Up to 50% of people who experience a whiplash injury will never fully recover. Whiplash is resistant to treatment and no early management approach has yet been shown to prevent chronic pain. The early presence of central sensitization is associated with poor recovery. Pregabalin's effects on central sensitization indicate the potential to prevent or modulate these processes after whiplash injury and to improve health outcomes, but this has not been investigated. This paper describes the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial of pregabalin plus evidence-based advice compared to placebo plus evidence-based advice for individuals with acute whiplash injury who are at risk of poor recovery. This double blind, placebo-controlled randomised feasibility study will examine the feasibility and potential effectiveness of pregabalin and evidence-based advice (intervention) compared to placebo and evidence-based advice (control) for individuals with acute whiplash injury at risk of poor recovery. Thirty participants (15 per group) aged 18-65 years with Grade II WAD, within 48 hours of injury and currently experiencing at least moderate pain (NRS: ≥ 5/10) will be recruited from Emergency Departments of public hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Pregabalin will be commenced at 75 mg bd and titrated up to 300 mg bd as tolerated for 4 weeks followed by 1 week of weaning. The feasibility of trial procedures will be tested, as well as the potential effect of the intervention on the outcomes. The primary outcome of neck pain intensity at 3 months from randomisation will be compared between the treatment groups using standard analysis of variance techniques. Feasibility and potential effectiveness data will inform an appropriately powered full trial, which if successful, will provide an effective and cost-effective intervention for a costly and treatment

  10. Anterior longitudinal ligament injuries in whiplash may lead to cervical instability.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Rao, Raj D

    2006-07-01

    Although whiplash injuries account for a significant annual cost to society, the exact mechanism of injury and affected tissues remain unknown. Previous investigations documented injuries to the cervical anterior longitudinal ligament in whiplash. The present investigation implemented a comprehensively validated computational model to quantify level-dependent distraction magnitudes of this structure in whiplash. Maximum ligament distractions approached failure levels, particularly in middle to lower cervical levels, and occurred during the initial phase of head-neck kinematics. In particular, the C5-C6 anterior longitudinal ligament sustained distraction magnitudes as high as 2.6mm during the retraction phase, corresponding to 56% of distraction necessary to result in ligament failure. Present results demonstrated that anterior structures in the lower cervical spine may be susceptible to injury through excess distraction during the retraction phase of whiplash, which likely occurs prior to head restraint contact. Susceptibility of these structures is likely due to non-physiologic loading placed on the cervical spinal column as the head translates posteriorly relative to the thorax. Injury to anterior spinal structures can result in clinical indications including cervical instability in extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending modes. Mitigation of whiplash injury may be achieved by minimizing head retraction during initial stages of whiplash.

  11. Risk factors for persistent problems following acute whiplash injury: update of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Walton, David M; Macdermid, Joy C; Giorgianni, Anthony A; Mascarenhas, Joanna C; West, Stephen C; Zammit, Caroline A

    2013-02-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. To update a previous review and meta-analysis on risk factors for persistent problems following whiplash secondary to a motor vehicle accident. Prognosis in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) has become an active area of research, perhaps owing to the difficulty of treating chronic problems. A previously published review and meta-analysis of prognostic factors included primary sources up to May 2007. Since that time, more research has become available, and an update to that original review is warranted. A systematic search of international databases was conducted, with rigorous inclusion criteria focusing on studies published between May 2007 and May 2012. Articles were scored, and data were extracted and pooled to estimate the odds ratio for any factor that had at least 3 independent data points in the literature. Four new cohorts (n = 1121) were identified. In combination with findings of a previous review, 12 variables were found to be significant predictors of poor outcome following whiplash, 9 of which were new (n = 2) or revised (n = 7) as a result of additional data. The significant variables included high baseline pain intensity (greater than 5.5/10), report of headache at inception, less than postsecondary education, no seatbelt in use during the accident, report of low back pain at inception, high Neck Disability Index score (greater than 14.5/50), preinjury neck pain, report of neck pain at inception (regardless of intensity), high catastrophizing, female sex, WAD grade 2 or 3, and WAD grade 3 alone. Those variables robust to publication bias included high pain intensity, female sex, report of headache at inception, less than postsecondary education, high Neck Disability Index score, and WAD grade 2 or 3. Three existing variables (preaccident history of headache, rear-end collision, older age) and 1 additional novel variable (collision severity) were refined or added in this updated review but showed no significant

  12. How can animal models inform on the transition to chronic symptoms in whiplash?

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A non-systematic review of the literature. Objective The objective was to present general schema for mechanisms of whiplash pain and review the role of animal models in understanding the development of chronic pain from whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data Extensive biomechanical and clinical studies of whiplash have been performed to understand the injury mechanisms and symptoms of whiplash injury. However, only recently have animal models of this painful disorder been developed based on other pain models in the literature. Methods A non-systematic review was performed and findings were integrated to formulate a generalized picture of mechanisms by chronic whiplash pain develops from mechanical tissue injuries. Results The development of chronic pain from tissue injuries in the neck due to whiplash involves complex interactions between the injured tissue and spinal neuroimmune circuits. A variety of animal models are beginning to define these mechanisms. Conclusion Continued work is needed in developing appropriate animal models to investigate chronic pain from whiplash injuries and care must be taken to determine whether such models aim to model the injury event or the pain symptom. PMID:22020616

  13. [The drama of hyperextension trauma--chronic whiplash syndrome with its neuropsychological and psychiatric findings. An analysis of 80 cases from expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Kissel, W

    1999-10-28

    The problem "whiplash associated disorder" was studied in a multidisciplinary analysis of 80 patients who all had a "simple whiplash-accident", this means a whiplash-accident without concomitant head trauma apart from contact with the car seat and without unconsciousness. The opinions of a rheumatologist and of a psychiatrist were considered in each case, and in 47 patients, a neuropsychological expertise was present. 43% of the patients who had been neuropsychologically tested revealed specific cognitive deficits as they are described after mild traumatic brain injuries and after whiplash accidents. Symptoms related to a pretraumatic cognitive disease were not found in any of the cases. Most patients had been professionally active at the time of the accident, some performing activities requiring a high level of cognitive skill. 66% percent of the study group showed psychological disturbances reducing the working capacity. There was no evidence for preexisting traumatic psychiatric symptoms. In many cases the psychiatric disturbances were accident-related, either reactive to the cognitive deficiencies or resulting from chronic pain. We assume that the "simple whiplash-accident" can cause chronic disturbances of brain function. In the etiology, a mild traumatic brain damage must be considered, this means an organic damage and not only a functional brain disorder. These brain function disturbances are often masked by the pure psychiatric symptoms, therefore they must be carefully searched for. Injured patients, who do not regain their working capacity after the accident, should be explored in a neuropsychological as well as in a psychiatric mode as early as possible after the accident.

  14. A case-control study of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (Chiari) and head/neck trauma (whiplash).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Rosa, Scott; Harshfield, David; Smith, Francis; Bennett, Robert; Centeno, Christopher J; Kornel, Ezriel; Nystrom, Ake; Heffez, Dan; Kohles, Sean S

    2010-01-01

    Chiari malformation is defined as herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, also known as cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (CTE). CTE may become symptomatic following whiplash trauma. The purpose of the present study was to assess the frequency of CTE in traumatic vs non-traumatic populations. Case-control. Cervical MRI scans for 1200 neck pain patients were reviewed; 600 trauma (cases) and 600 non-trauma (controls). Half of the groups were scanned in a recumbent position and half were scanned in an upright position. Two radiologists interpreted the scans for the level of the cerebellar tonsils. A total of 1195 of 1200 scans were read. CTE was found in 5.7% and 5.3% in the recumbent and upright non-trauma groups vs 9.8% and 23.3% in the recumbent and upright trauma groups (p = 0.0001). The results described in the present investigation are first to demonstrate a neuroradiographic difference between neck pain patients with and without a recent history of whiplash trauma. The results of prior research on psychosocial causes of chronic pain following whiplash are likely confounded because of a failure to account for a possible neuropathologic basis for the symptoms.

  15. The relationship of whiplash injury and temporomandibular disorders: a narrative literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Charles E.; Amiri, Abid; Jaime, Joseph; Delaney, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to offer a narrative review and discuss the possible relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and whiplash injuries. Methods Databases from 1966 to present were searched including PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Search terms used included whiplash injury, temporomandibular disorders and craniomandibular disorders. Inclusion criteria consisted of studies on orofacial pain of a musculoskeletal origin addressing the following topics: posttraumatic temporomandibular disorder (pTMD) incidence and prevalence, mechanism of injury, clinical findings and characteristics, prognosis (including psychologic factors). Excluded were studies of orofacial pain from nontraumatic origin, as well as nonmusculoskeletal causes including neurologic, vascular, neoplastic, or infectious disease. Results Thirty-two studies describing the effects of whiplash on TMD were reviewed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The best evidence from prospective studies indicates a low to moderate incidence and prevalence. Only 3 studies addressed mechanism of injury theories. Most studies focusing on clinical findings and characteristics suggest significant differences when comparing pTMD to idiopathic/nontraumatic patients. Regarding prognosis, most studies suggest a significant difference when comparing pTMD to idiopathic/nontraumatic TMD patients, with pTMD having a poorer prognosis. Conclusions There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of whiplash on the development of TMD. Furthermore, because of lack of homogeneity in the study populations and lack of standardization of data collection procedures and outcomes measured, this review cannot conclusively resolve the controversies that exist concerning this relationship. This review of the literature is provided to clarify the issues and to provide useful clinical information for health care

  16. BAEP and E.M.G. changes from whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Serra, L L; Gallicchio, B; Serra, F P; Grillo, G; Ferrari, M

    1994-12-01

    The frequent negativity of neuroradiological changes after neck injury despite the constant complaints (neck pain and stiffness, limited neck movements, arm pains) experienced after a motor vehicle crash has led us to verify the diagnostic and prognostic validity of different neurophysiological tests in these patients. To this aim 120 young patients (67 females and 53 males) referred for a whiplash syndrome aged 18-31 years without neuroradiological abnormalities have been submitted to EMG and BAEP studies immediately after the traffic accident and after six months. Constant slowing of median MNCV and SNCV and ulnar SNCV without changes in morphology, amplitude and duration of MAP and SAP have been observed in 92 patients, with persistent abnormalities in 64 cases after six months. Increase in I-III or I-V interpeak interval of BAEP have been observed unilaterally in 45 patients and bilaterally in 32 ones without changes in absolute latencies and V/I amplitude ratio, with persistence of such abnormalities in 31 and 16 patients respectively after six months. Simultaneous abnormalities of all neurophysiological tests have been observed in 31 patients, with unmodified recordings after six months in 24 patients. The above findings could be accounted for subtle cerebral lesions and a possible damage to brain stem structures as claimed by Ettlin et al. (1992). The usefulness of the above proposed neurophysiological tests in assessment of asymptomatic dysfunction of central motor and sensory pathways in whiplash injuries is discussed.

  17. Effects of Stress and Relaxation on Central Pain Modulation in Chronic Whiplash and Fibromyalgia Patients Compared to Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Iris; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven; De Pauw, Robby; Meeus, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation contributes to persistent pain in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM). However, there is limited research concerning the influence of stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in patients with chronic WAD and FM. The present study aims to investigate the effects of acute cognitive stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in chronic WAD and FM patients compared to healthy individuals. A randomized crossover design was employed. The present study took place at the University of Brussels, the University Hospital Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine participants (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM, 22 pain-free controls) were enrolled and subjected to various pain measurements. Temporal summation (TS) of pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated. Subsequently, participants were randomly allocated to either a group that received progressive relaxation therapy or a group that performed a battery of cognitive tests (= cognitive stressor). Afterwards, all pain measurements were repeated. One week later participant groups were switched. A significant difference was found between the groups in the change in TS in response to relaxation (P = 0.008) and cognitive stress (P = 0.003). TS decreased in response to relaxation and cognitive stress in chronic WAD patients and controls. In contrast, TS increased after both interventions in FM patients. CPM efficacy decreased in all 3 groups in response to relaxation (P = 0.002) and cognitive stress (P = 0.001). The obtained results only apply for a single session of muscle relaxation therapy and cognitive stress, whereby no conclusions can be made for effects on pain perception and modulation of chronic cognitive stress and long-term relaxation therapies. A single relaxation session as well as cognitive stress may have negative acute effects on pain modulation in patients with

  18. "If I can get over that, I can get over anything"--understanding how individuals with acute whiplash disorders form beliefs about pain and recovery: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Esther; Nichols, Vivien; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    Beliefs held by patients have been shown to influence outcomes in acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). The aim was to identify beliefs about pain and recovery present in the narratives of individuals with WAD and to understand how and why individuals' came to hold these beliefs. A qualitative study. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants (n=20) were enrolled in a large, pragmatic randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy for acute WAD. Participants were interviewed after they completed their treatment. A range of beliefs were evident. These included beliefs about exercise and activity, ability to self-manage symptoms, expectations of recovery and competing priorities. Some beliefs appeared to be barriers to recovery despite all participants having consulted several health professionals. Health professionals were highly influential over how individuals' thought about and managed their injury. The pain experienced influenced how individuals thought and behaved as did past experiences of injury and illness. Competing priorities were a potential barrier to engaging with treatment. We identified examples of how beliefs and behaviour changed in response to information from health professionals and the pain they experienced. People with WAD hold a range of beliefs about pain and recovery and some appear unhelpful to recovery. Health professionals can influence these beliefs and encourage behaviours that aid recovery. Understanding how patients form beliefs may help health professionals to address unhelpful beliefs. It is important that advice and education provided is in line with the current evidenced based understanding of pain and recovery. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Jaw symptoms and signs and the connection to cranial cervical symptoms and post-traumatic stress during the first year after a whiplash trauma.

    PubMed

    Severinsson, Yvonne; Bunketorp, Olle; Wenneberg, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of jaw symptoms and signs during the first year after a neck sprain in a car collision. Further, to determine their relationships to the localisation and grade of the initial neck symptoms and signs, headache, post-traumatic stress and crash characteristics. One hundred and forty-six adult subjects and crash characteristics were prospectively investigated in an in-depth study during 1997-2001. Head, neck, and jaw symptoms and signs were recorded within 5 weeks and after 1 year. Acute post-traumatic stress was estimated with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Jaw symptoms were initially reported by three men (5%) and three women (4%), and subsequently developed in eight women (10%) during the following year. Jaw signs were noted initially in 53 subjects (37%) and in 28 subjects (24%) after 1 year, without difference between sexes, and more often after low-speed impacts. Headache in females, cranial cervical symptoms, pronounced neck problems, post-traumatic stress and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) grade II-III after rear-end impacts were related to jaw signs during the acute phase. After 1 year, jaw signs were related to residual neck problems, headache and post-traumatic stress. Jaw symptoms are seldom reported during the acute phase after a whiplash trauma. Women more often than men develop jaw symptoms during the first year. Jaw symptoms and signs may develop also after low-speed impacts, especially after rear-end collisions. Jaw symptoms and signs should be observed after whiplash trauma, especially in those with headache, pronounced neck problems, cranial neck symptoms and post-traumatic stress.

  20. Acute Whiplash Injury Study (AWIS): a protocol for a cluster randomised pilot and feasibility trial of an Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention in an insurance private setting

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3–4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6–8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). Ethics and dissemination This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). Trial

  1. Acute Whiplash Injury Study (AWIS): a protocol for a cluster randomised pilot and feasibility trial of an Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention in an insurance private setting.

    PubMed

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison

    2016-07-13

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3-4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6-8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). ISRCTN84528320. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  2. Laypersons' expectations of recovery and beliefs about whiplash injury: a cross-cultural comparison between Australians and Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Ng, T S; Bostick, G; Pedler, A; Buchbinder, R; Vicenzino, B; Sterling, M

    2013-09-01

    Beliefs and expectations are thought to influence outcome following whiplash injury. Studies have proposed a link between rates of chronic whiplash and laypersons' expectations about outcome following a motor vehicle accident. The prevalence of chronic whiplash is relatively high in Australia and apparently low in Singapore. This study's objectives were to compare laypersons' beliefs and expectations of recovery of whiplash injury in Brisbane and Singapore and to assess the effect of demographic factors on whiplash beliefs. A cross-sectional study using online surveys was conducted on adult Internet users in Brisbane (Australia) and Singapore. The 14-item whiplash beliefs questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate whiplash beliefs. Two additional items assessed expectations of recovery. Individual items of WBQ, WBQ score and expectations of recovery were analysed. Stratified analysis was performed to adjust for sampling bias due to quota sampling. A total of 402 participants from Singapore and 411 participants from Brisbane, Australia, completed the survey. While participants from Singapore demonstrated slightly more negative whiplash beliefs than participants from Brisbane [t(811)  = -5.72; p < 0.0001], participants from both samples were similar in their expectations of quick recovery and return to normal activities following whiplash injury. Only gender had a significant effect on whiplash beliefs [estimated marginal means of WBQ score for men = 21.5; standard error (SE) = 0.20; women = 22.5; SE = 0.20; F(1,810)  = 11.2; p = 0.001]. Laypersons' expectations of recovery and beliefs about whiplash injury in Brisbane and Singapore were generally similar and mostly positive. Our results demonstrate that cultural differences reflected by laypersons' beliefs may not reflect the differences in prevalence of chronic whiplash between countries. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  3. Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

    2013-09-01

    To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated with balance performance or self-perceived dizziness handicap. A total of 29 patients, 20 women and 9 men, age range 22-76 years. Patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness were randomized to either intervention (vestibular rehabilitation) or control. Neck pain intensity, cervical range of motion (CROM), balance and self-perceived dizziness handicap were measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. There were no differences in neck pain intensity or CROM between the 2 groups either at baseline, 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.10-0.89). At baseline, neck pain intensity correlated with CROM (-0.406) and self-perceived dizziness handicap (0.492). CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap and with 1 balance measure (-0.432). Neck pain intensity did not correlate with balance performance (-0.188-0.049). Neck pain intensity and CROM was not influenced by vestibular rehabilitation. Importantly, the programme did not appear to increase pain or decrease neck motion, as initially thought. Neck pain intensity and CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap. CROM also correlated with 1 balance measure.

  4. Head repositioning accuracy in patients with whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Feipel, Veronique; Salvia, Patrick; Klein, Helene; Rooze, Marcel

    2006-01-15

    Controlled study, measuring head repositioning error (HRE) using an electrogoniometric device. To compare HRE in neutral position, axial rotation and complex postures of patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) to that of control subjects. The presence of kinesthetic alterations in patients with WAD is controversial. In 26 control subjects and 29 patients with WAD (aged 22-74 years), head kinematics was sampled using a 3-dimensional electrogoniometer mounted using a harness and a helmet. All tasks were realized in seated position. The repositioning tasks included neutral repositioning after maximal flexion-extension, eyes open and blindfolded, repositioning at 50 degrees of axial rotation, and repositioning at 50 degrees of axial rotation combined to 20 degrees of ipsilateral bending. The flexion-extension, ipsilateral bending, and axial rotation components of HRE were considered. A multiple-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare tasks and groups. The WAD group displayed a reduced flexion-extension range (P = 1.9 x 10(-4)), and larger HRE during flexion-extension and repositioning tasks (P = 0.009) than controls. Neither group nor task affected maximal motion velocity. Neutral HRE of the flexion-extension component was larger in blindfolded condition (P = 0.03). Ipsilateral bending and axial rotation HRE components were smaller than the flexion-extension component (P = 7.1 x 10(-23)). For pure rotation repositioning, axial rotation HRE was significantly larger than flexion-extension and ipsilateral bending repositioning error (P = 3.0 x 10(-23)). Ipsilateral bending component of HRE was significantly larger combined tasks than for pure rotation tasks (P = 0.004). In patients with WAD, range of motion and head repositioning accuracy were reduced. However, the differences were small. Vision suppression and task type influenced HRE.

  5. Whiplash evokes descending muscle recruitment and sympathetic responses characteristic of startle

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Daniel WH; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash injuries are the most common injuries following rear-end collisions. During a rear-end collision, the human muscle response consists of both a postural and a startle response that may exacerbate injury. However, most previous studies only assessed the presence of startle using data collected from the neck muscles and head/neck kinematics. The startle response also evokes a descending pattern of muscle recruitment and changes in autonomic activity. Here we examined the recruitment of axial and appendicular muscles along with autonomic responses to confirm whether these other features of a startle response were present during the first exposure to a whiplash perturbation. Ten subjects experienced a single whiplash perturbation while recording electromyography, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal responses. All subjects exhibited a descending pattern of muscle recruitment, and increasing heart rate and electrodermal responses following the collision. Our results provide further support that the startle response is a component of the response to whiplash collisions. PMID:24932015

  6. From railway spine to whiplash--the recycling of nervous irritation.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Robert; Shorter, Edward

    2003-11-01

    The search for a specific structural basis for chronic whiplash and other chronic pain and fatigue syndromes has been in progress for decades, and yet currently there remains no "structural" solution to these enigmata. In light of the failure of research to identify the chronic "damage" or pathology as lying in a muscular, bony, or "connective tissue" sites for many chronic pain syndromes like whiplash, fibromyalgia, et cetera, more recent attention has been paid to nervous system structures. Nerve irritation has been implicated as the basis for the pain and other symptoms that are common to many chronic disability syndromes. We postulate here, however, that the concept of nervous irritation has been prostituted for centuries whenever more concrete structural explanations for chronic pain and other controversial illness have been untenable. We suggest that, after each cycle of nervous irritation as a disease, and subsequent dismissal of the notion, the doctrine of irritation as a disease was too good to go away. First, with the hypersthenic and asthenic diseases of the nineteenth century, then railway spine, whiplash, thoracic outlet syndrome, and now brachial plexus irritation, we detect the same pattern: patients with symptoms, but no objective evidence of nerve disease. Nervous irritation has repeatedly served this purpose for the last 200 years. It is our intent that bringing an understanding of this trend will encourage current clinicians and researchers to appreciate the need to abandon this form of speculation without historical insight when dealing with today's controversial syndromes.

  7. Balance, dizziness and proprioception in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders complaining of dizziness: A prospective randomized study comparing three exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Treleaven, Julia; Peterson, Gunnel; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-04-01

    Dizziness and unsteadiness are common symptoms following a whiplash injury. To compare the effect of 3 exercise programs on balance, dizziness, proprioception and pain in patients with chronic whiplash complaining of dizziness. A sub-analysis of a randomized study. One hundred and forty subjects were randomized to either a physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-guided neck-specific exercise, with a behavioural approach (NSEB) or prescription of general physical activity (PPA) group. Pre intervention, 3, 6 and 12 months post baseline they completed the University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire (UCLA-DQ), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for, dizziness at rest and during activity and physical measures (static and dynamic clinical balance tests and head repositioning accuracy (HRA)). There were significant time by group differences with respect to dizziness during activity and UCLA-Q favouring the physiotherapy led neck specific exercise group with a behavioural approach. Within group analysis of changes over time also revealed significant changes in most variables apart from static balance. Between and within group comparisons suggest that physiotherapist led neck exercise groups including a behavioural approach had advantages in improving measures of dizziness compared with the general physical activity group, although many still complained of dizziness and balance impairment. Future studies should consider exercises specifically designed to address balance, dizziness and cervical proprioception in those with persistent whiplash. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    PubMed

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p < 0.001), being female (p = 0.001), clinical grade (p < 0.001) and abnormal cervical MRI exploration (p < 0.001). Patients with previous cervical pathology reported more complaints (p = 0.001). In our study, WI affected young people of both sex mainly during rear-end collision. Worst medico-legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  9. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to whiplash injury in childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.

  10. Serum C-reactive protein levels predict regional brain responses to noxious cold stimulation of the hand in chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Michele; Head, Jessica; Cabot, Peter J; Farrell, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) are a costly health burden. The condition is characterised by sensory disturbances such as widespread hyperalgesia likely indicative of central hyperexcitability. Recently elevated levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers have also found in acute and chronic WAD. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and pain processing in people with persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Twenty one participants with chronic whiplash (>3 months) were recruited. Venous blood samples were collected and assays performed for C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF-α. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast images of the brain were acquired with a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner during repeated 24s stimulus blocks of innocuous or painful stimuli (thumbnail pressure and cold stimulation of dorsum of hand) separated by 36s inter-stimulus intervals. Stimulus intensities used during scanning were at the level of participants' thresholds for moderate pain. Parameter estimates representing BOLD signal increases during painful events from each participant were tested for associations with inflammatory biomarkers. Clinically relevant levels of CRP and TNF-α were found in 33% and 38% of participants. Levels of CRP showed a positive correlation with levels of cold pain activation in brain regions including the anterior insula, posterior parietal cortex, caudate and thalamus (p corrected <0.05). Levels of TNF-α were not related to activation levels during either noxious pressure or cold. Pressure pain activations also did not show a relationship with CRP levels. Shared variance between inflammation and increased levels of regional pain-related activation in people with persistent whiplash symptoms is apparent for cold, but not pressure stimuli. The results highlight cold pain processing as an important aspect of whiplash chronicity, although the implications of this modality-specific effect are

  11. Whiplash: pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Arthur A; Barr, Karen P; Burns, Stephen P

    2004-06-01

    We have reviewed the literature relevant to pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) since 1995 and provided a brief summary of literature pertaining to forces action on the head and neck during a motor vehicle accident. The scope of the current review is confined to the Quebec guidelines for WAD grades 1-3 but excludes grade 4 (neck complaints and fracture or dislocation). After excluding papers without scientific data and single case reports or case series with fewer than 20 patients, articles were reviewed for methodological quality. The diagnosis remains clinical. No imaging, physiological, or psychological study provides specific diagnostic criteria. In the acute period up to 2 weeks, soft collars or rest and work-leave do not shorten the duration of neck pain. Sick leave is reduced by high-dose methylprednisolone given within 8 h of injury, but confirmatory studies examining the cost-benefit relationship are needed. In the first 6 months, active as opposed to passive treatment results in improved outcomes. Specific exercise strategies have not been studied. For those with symptoms lasting more than 6 months, percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy can provide pain relief for many months in those responding to blind local anesthetic facet blocks. Intra-articular corticosteroids are ineffective. Uncontrolled trials suggest that multimodal rehabilitation programs result in improved overall function. The overall prognosis for recovery has varied considerably across studies. Such variability is likely due to differences in case identification methods and whether outcome is assessed in terms of symptoms or the receipt of financial compensation for injury. The impact on prognosis of both collision- and patient-related factors is also reviewed.

  12. Laterality judgments are not impaired in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Pedler, Ashley; Motlagh, Helena; Sterling, Michele

    2013-02-01

    Impaired integration of the body schema with motor processes may contribute to painful and/or restricted movement in chronic pain. Laterality judgment tasks assess this integration of the body schema with motor processes. The purpose of this study was to assess if patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are impaired on laterality judgment tasks. Accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for foot and neck laterality tasks were assessed in 64 (35 female) patients with chronic (>6 months) WAD and 24 (14 female) asymptomatic subjects. Pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms, cold pain thresholds (CPT) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were collected for patients with WAD. The effect of WAD and body part on laterality task performance was assessed. For patients with WAD, the correlations between neck task performance and pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain thresholds were assessed. There was no effect of group on laterality performance. Subjects showed better RT (p < 0.001) and ACC (p = 0.001) on the neck task in comparison to the foot task. There was a significant correlation between CPT and ACC (r = 0.33) and RT (r = -0.33) on the neck laterality task in patients with WAD. Cervical spine PPT were significantly correlated with accuracy (r = 0.36) and RT (r = 0.29) in patients with WAD. These findings suggest that patients with chronic WAD are not impaired on neck or foot laterality judgment tasks. Laterality training is not indicated in the management of chronic WAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dizziness and unsteadiness following whiplash injury: characteristic features and relationship with cervical joint position error.

    PubMed

    Treleaven, Julia; Jull, Gwendolen; Sterling, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Dizziness and/or unsteadiness are common symptoms of chronic whiplash-associated disorders. This study aimed to report the characteristics of these symptoms and determine whether there was any relationship to cervical joint position error. Joint position error, the accuracy to return to the natural head posture following extension and rotation, was measured in 102 subjects with persistent whiplash-associated disorder and 44 control subjects. Whiplash subjects completed a neck pain index and answered questions about the characteristics of dizziness. The results indicated that subjects with whiplash-associated disorders had significantly greater joint position errors than control subjects. Within the whiplash group, those with dizziness had greater joint position errors than those without dizziness following rotation (rotation (R) 4.5 degrees (0.3) vs 2.9 degrees (0.4); rotation (L) 3.9 degrees (0.3) vs 2.8 degrees (0.4) respectively) and a higher neck pain index (55.3% (1.4) vs 43.1% (1.8)). Characteristics of the dizziness were consistent for those reported for a cervical cause but no characteristics could predict the magnitude of joint position error. Cervical mechanoreceptor dysfunction is a likely cause of dizziness in whiplash-associated disorder.

  14. Irregular head movement patterns in whiplash patients during a trajectory task.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2010-03-01

    Patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have shown less accuracy in trajectory head motion compared to asymptomatic controls, which comply with clinical observations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a trajectory head movement task can differ between WAD patients, chronic non-traumatic neck pain (CNP) patients and asymptomatic controls. Study groups included subjects with WAD (n = 35) with persistent neck pain after a car accident, CNP (n = 45), and asymptomatic controls (n = 48). Head motion was recorded from an unsupported standing position using a 3D Fastrak device. A laser pointer was attached to the head and by moving the head the subjects were asked to trace a figure of eight displayed on the wall at three different paces (slow, moderate and fast). The motion signal was decomposed into 1 Hz frequency bands and angular velocity (deg/s) within each frequency band was calculated. Significantly higher angular RMS velocity was found in the WAD group compared to the two other groups for the slow paced test (3-4 and 4-5 Hz frequency bands) and the moderate paced test (3-4 Hz frequency band) indicating irregular and uncoordinated movements. Angular RMS velocity was associated with pain and dizziness, but only with severe symptom levels. In conclusion, irregular head movements during a complex task were found in the WAD group, indicating altered central sensorimotor processing. The irregularities were found within frequency levels observable to clinicians.

  15. Differential diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial pain after whiplash: a case report.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case report. Symptoms in the face and jaw are common after whiplash. Few studies have reported cervicogenic headache in a trigeminal nerve distribution, and no published studies could be found describing such symptoms experienced bilaterally after whiplash. The objective of the current case report was to detail the clinical reasoning and management of an uncommon patient presentation. The 41-year-old female patient of the current case complained of shooting pain in the jaw, cheek and forehead beginning 7 days after her accident. No imaging was performed, and examination ruled out serious pathology. The patient was treated primarily with deep neck flexor (DNF) and proprioceptive training for 10 visits over an 8-week period. The Numeric Pain Rating Scale improved from 2/10 to 0/10, the Neck Disability Index improved from 17/50 to 1/50, and the Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance Test improved from 13 to 30 s. The patient remained symptom-free at 4-month follow-up. The current case report describes a patient presentation unique to the literature. Significant changes were seen by week 3 with DNF and proprioceptive training. Additional research is required to determine the effectiveness of this intervention in similar presentations.

  16. Pain-catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs as mediators between post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain following whiplash injury - A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, T E; Karstoft, K-I; Brink, O; Elklit, A

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge about the course of recovery after whiplash injury is important. Most valuable is identification of prognostic factors that may be reversed by intervention. The mutual maintenance model outlines how post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and pain may be mutually maintained by attention bias, fear, negative affect and avoidance behaviours. In a similar vein, the fear-avoidance model describes how pain-catastrophizing (PCS), fear-avoidance beliefs (FA) and depression may result in persistent pain. These mechanisms still need to be investigated longitudinally in a whiplash cohort. A longitudinal cohort design was used to assess patients for pain intensity and psychological distress after whiplash injury. Consecutive patients were all contacted within 3 weeks after their whiplash injury (n = 198). Follow-up questionnaires were sent 3 and 6 months post-injury. Latent Growth Mixture Modelling was used to identify distinct trajectories of recovery from pain. Five distinct trajectories were identified. Six months post-injury, 64.6% could be classified as recovered and 35.4% as non-recovered. The non-recovered (the medium stable, high stable and very high stable trajectories) displayed significantly higher levels of PTSS, PCS, FA and depression at all time points compared to the recovered trajectories. Importantly, PCS and FA mediated the effect of PTSS on pain intensity. The present study adds important knowledge about the development of psychological distress and pain after whiplash injury. The finding, that PCS and FA mediated the effect of PTSS on pain intensity is a novel finding with important implications for prevention and management of whiplash-associated disorders. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The study confirms the mechanisms as outlined in the fear-avoidance model and the mutual maintenance model. The study adds important knowledge of pain-catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs as mediating mechanisms in the effect of post-traumatic stress on pain

  17. Neuromuscular control of the head in an isometric force reproduction task: comparison of whiplash subjects and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Descarreaux, Martin; Mayrand, Nancy; Raymond, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A number of recent scientific publications suggest that patients suffering from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) exhibit sensorimotor deficits in the control of head and neck movements. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate if subjects with WADs can produce isometric neck extension and flexion forces with precision, variability, and a mode of control similar to the values of healthy subjects. A control group study with repeated measures. Neck force production parameters and neuromuscular control were measured in 17 whiplash and 14 control subjects. The experimental group included subjects who had a history of persistent neck pain or disability after a motor vehicle accident. Pain levels were assessed on a standard 100-mm visual analog pain scale at the beginning and end of the experiment. Each whiplash subject completed the neck disability index and the short-form 36 health survey (SF-36) questionnaire before the experiment. All subjects were asked to exert flexion and extension forces against a fixed head harness. Kinetic variables included time to peak force, time to peak force variability, peak force variability, and absolute error in peak force. Surface electrodes were applied bilaterally over the sternocleidomastoideus and paraspinal muscles. Electromyography (EMG)-dependent variables included EMG burst duration and amplitude using numerical integrated techniques. The average time to peak force was significantly longer for whiplash subjects than for the healthy controls. A significant increase in peak force variability was also observed in the whiplash group, and no group differences were noted for absolute error. Heightened muscular activity was seen in both paraspinal muscles, even though it only reached statistical significance for the left paraspinal muscle. Our results show that the whiplash subjects involved in the study were able to produce isometric forces with spatial precision similar to healthy controls using a motor strategy

  18. Headache and musculoskeletal complaints among subjects with self reported whiplash injury. The HUNT-2 study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury and the relationship to chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) and headache in a large unselected adult population. Methods Between 1995 and 1997, all inhabitants 20 years and older in Nord-Trondelag county in Norway were invited to a comprehensive health survey. Out of 92,936 eligible for participation, a total of 59,104 individuals (63.6%) answered the question about whiplash injury (whiplash). Among these, 46,895 (79.3%) responded to the questions of musculoskeletal complaints and headache. Results The total life-time prevalence of self reported whiplash injury was 2.9%, for women 2.7% and for men 3.0%. There was a significant association between self reported whiplash injury and headache (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.4), and chronic MSCs (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 2.8-3.8), evident for all ten anatomical sites investigated. The association was most pronounced for those with a combination of headache and chronic MSC for both men (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 3.6-6.2) and women (OR = 5.2; 95% CI 3.7-7.1). Conclusions Subjects with self reported whiplash injury had significantly more headache and musculoskeletal complaints than those without, and may in part be due to selective reporting. The causal mechanism remains unclear and cannot be addressed in the present study design. PMID:21651816

  19. Function in patients with cervical radiculopathy or chronic whiplash-associated disorders compared with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Peolsson, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Maria Landén; Wibault, Johanna; Dedering, Åsa; Peterson, Gunnel

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine whether any differences in function and health exist between patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR) due to disk disease scheduled for surgery and patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and to compare measures of patients' physical function with those obtained from healthy volunteers. This is a cross-sectional study of patients with CR (n = 198) and patients with chronic WAD (n = 215). Patient data were compared with raw data previously obtained from healthy people. Physical measures included cervical active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand grip strength. Self-rated measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), neck disability (Neck Disability Index), self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier). Patient groups exhibited significantly lower performance than the healthy group in all physical measures (P < .0005) except for neck muscle endurance in flexion for women (P > .09). There was a general trend toward worse results in the CR group than the WAD group, with significant differences in neck active range of motion, left hand strength for women, pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, EuroQol 5-dimensional self-classifier, and Self-Efficacy Scale (P < .0001). Patients had worse values than healthy individuals in almost all physical measures. There was a trend toward worse results for CR than WAD patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomechanical analyses of whiplash injuries using an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Cusick, Joseph F

    2002-09-01

    Neck pain and headaches are the two most common symptoms of whiplash. The working hypothesis is that pain originates from excessive motions in the upper and lower cervical segments. The research design used an intact human cadaver head-neck complex as an experimental model. The intact head-neck preparation was fixed at the thoracic end with the head unconstrained. Retroreflective targets were placed on the mastoid process, anterior regions of the vertebral bodies, and lateral masses at every spinal level. Whiplash loading was delivered using a mini-sled pendulum device. A six-axis load cell and an accelerometer were attached to the inferior fixation of the specimen. High-speed video cameras were used to obtain the kinematics. During the initial stages of loading, a transient decoupling of the head occurs with respect to the neck exhibiting a lag of the cranium. The upper cervical spine-head undergoes local flexion concomitant with a lag of the head while the lower column is in local extension. This establishes a reverse curvature to the head-neck complex. With continuing application of whiplash loading, the inertia of the head catches up with the neck. Later, the entire head-neck complex is under an extension mode with a single extension curvature. The lower cervical facet joint kinematics demonstrates varying local compression and sliding. While the anterior- and posterior-most regions of the facet joint slide, the posterior-most region of the joint compresses more than the anterior-most region. These varying kinematics at the two ends of the facet joint result in a pinching mechanism. Excessive flexion of the posterior upper cervical regions can be correlated to headaches. The pinching mechanism of the facet joints can be correlated to neck pain. The kinematics of the soft tissue-related structures explain the mechanism of these common whiplash associated disorders.

  1. [Whiplash lesions and temporomandibular joint disorders].

    PubMed

    Gola, R; Richard, O; Guyot, L; Cheynet, F

    2004-11-01

    Attributing dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to whiplash injury is a difficult problem to solve. TMJ disorders do not seem to be secondary to direct articular trauma but rather caused by a postural disorder of the cervical spine. Occlusal disorders and stress further complicate the picture. Four clinical cases illustrate a new hypothetical approach.

  2. Reliability and safety of functional capacity evaluation in patients with whiplash associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Trippolini, M A; Reneman, M F; Jansen, B; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B

    2013-09-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are a burden for both individuals and society. It is recommended to evaluate patients with WAD at risk of chronification to enhance rehabilitation and promote an early return to work. In patients with low back pain (LBP), functional capacity evaluation (FCE) contributes to clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. FCE should have demonstrated sufficient clinimetric properties. Reliability and safety of FCE for patients with WAD is unknown. Thirty-two participants (11 females and 21 males; mean age 39.6 years) with WAD (Grade I or II) were included. The FCE consisted of 12 tests, including material handling, hand grip strength, repetitive arm movements, static arm activities, walking speed, and a 3 min step test. Overall the FCE duration was 60 min. The test-retest interval was 7 days. Interclass correlations (model 1) (ICCs) and limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. Safety was assessed by a Pain Response Questionnaire, observation criteria and heart rate monitoring. ICCs ranged between 0.57 (3 min step test) and 0.96 (short two-handed carry). LoA relative to mean performance ranged between 15 % (50 m walking test) and 57 % (lifting waist to overhead). Pain reactions after WAD FCE decreased within days. Observations and heart rate measurements fell within the safety criteria. The reliability of the WAD FCE was moderate in two tests, good in five tests and excellent in five tests. Safety-criteria were fulfilled. Interpretation at the patient level should be performed with care because LoA were substantial.

  3. Chronic pain and difficulty in relaxing postural muscles in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Elert, J; Kendall, S A; Larsson, B; Månsson, B; Gerdle, B

    2001-06-01

    To investigate if muscle tension according to the surface electromyogram (EMG) of the shoulder flexors is increased in consecutive patients with fibromyalgia (FM) or chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). A total of 59 consecutive patients with FM (n = 36) or chronic WAD (n = 23) performed 100 maximal isokinetic contractions combined with surface electromyography of the trapezius and infraspinatus. A randomized group of pain-free female (n = 27) subjects served as control group. Peak torque initially (Pti) and absolute and relative peak torque at endurance level (PTe, PTer) were registered as output variables, together with the EMG level of unnecessary muscle tension, i.e., the signal amplitude ratio (SAR). The patient groups had a higher level of unnecessary tension initially and at the endurance level. The patients had lower absolute output (PTi and PTe), but the relative levels (PTer) did not differ comparing all 3 groups. Subjects with FM had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than the other groups. BMI did not influence the SAR but correlated positively with PTi. The results confirmed earlier findings that groups of patients with chronic pain have increased muscle tension and decreased output during dynamic activity compared to pain-free controls. However, the results indicated there is heterogeneity within groups of patients with the same chronic pain disorder and that not all patients with chronic pain have increased muscle tension.

  4. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-05

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H.; Nightingale, R. W.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. Methods A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury. The cervical spine was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP (the European New Car Assessment Programme) testing using the whole human FE model. The coupled motions between the cervical spine and lumbar spine were assessed by evaluating the biomechanical effects of simulated cervical fusion and lumbar fusion. Results Peak anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) strain ranged from 0.106 to 0.382 in a normal spine, and from 0.116 to 0.399 in a fused cervical spine. Strain increased from cranial to caudal levels. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion, respectively (p = 0.03, unpaired two-way t-test). Peak cervical strains following various lumbar-fusion procedures were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p = 0.61, two-way ANOVA). Conclusion Cervical arthrodesis increases peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments. C3-4 experiences greater changes in strain than C6-7. Lumbar fusion did not have a significant effect on cervical spine strain. Cite this article: H. Huang, R. W. Nightingale, A. B. C. Dang. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study. Bone

  6. Cervical radiofrequency neurotomy reduces central hyperexcitability and improves neck movement in individuals with chronic whiplash.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley Dean; Jull, Gwendolen; Schneider, Geoff; Frizzell, Bevan; Hooper, Robert Allen; Sterling, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine if cervical medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy reduces psychophysical indicators of augmented central pain processing and improves motor function in individuals with chronic whiplash symptoms. Prospective observational study of consecutive patients with healthy control comparison. Tertiary spinal intervention centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Fifty-three individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorder symptoms (Grade 2); 30 healthy controls. Measures were made at four time points: two prior to radiofrequency neurotomy, and 1- and 3-months post-radiofrequency neurotomy. Measures included: comprehensive quantitative sensory testing (including brachial plexus provocation test), nociceptive flexion reflex, and motor function (cervical range of movement, superficial neck flexor activity during the craniocervical flexion test). Self-report pain and disability measures were also collected. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Friedman's tests were performed to investigate the effect of time on the earlier measures. Differences between the whiplash and healthy control groups were investigated with two-tailed independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney tests. Following cervical radiofrequency neurotomy, there were significant early (within 1 month) and sustained (3 months) improvements in pain, disability, local and widespread hyperalgesia to pressure and thermal stimuli, nociceptive flexor reflex threshold, and brachial plexus provocation test responses as well as increased neck range of motion (all P < 0.0001). A nonsignificant trend for reduced muscle activity with the craniocervical flexion test (P > 0.13) was measured. Attenuation of psychophysical measures of augmented central pain processing and improved cervical movement imply that these processes are maintained by peripheral nociceptive input. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Implementation of a guideline-based clinical pathway of care to improve health outcomes following whiplash injury (Whiplash ImPaCT): protocol of a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rebbeck, Trudy; Leaver, Andrew; Bandong, Aila Nica; Kenardy, Justin; Refshauge, Kathryn; Connelly, Luke; Cameron, Ian; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Willcock, Simon; Ritchie, Carrie; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Sterling, Michele

    2016-04-01

    secondary (self-efficacy, pain intensity, general health and disability and psychological health) outcomes will be collected using validated scales. Direct (eg, professional care, transportation costs, time spent for care, co-payments) and indirect (eg, lost economic productivity) costs will be obtained through an electronic cost diary. Health and cost outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. Professional practice outcomes will be evaluated through questionnaires completed by healthcare providers and their patients at 3 months. Potential participants (patients) will be identified through emergency departments, primary health clinics and advertisements. Eligible participants will complete baseline assessments and will be categorised into low or medium/high risk of poor recovery using a clinical prediction rule. After this assessment, participants will be randomly allocated to either a control group (n=118) or intervention group (n=118), stratified by risk subgroup and treatment site. The participants' nominated primary healthcare providers will be informed of their involvement in the trial. Consent will be obtained from the primary healthcare providers to participate and to obtain information about professional practice. Participants in the intervention group will additionally have access to an interactive website that provides information about whiplash and recovery relative to their risk category. Analysis will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Outcomes will be analysed independently through cross-sectional analyses using generalised linear models methods, with an appropriate link function, to test for an intervention effect, adjusted for the baseline values. The risk category will be tested for its association with treatment effect by adding risk group to the regression equation. Cost-effectiveness will be calculated using utility weights and the resulting measure will be cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved

  8. High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1° and 2° grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Maria; Fachinetti, Giorgio Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: whiplash is a frequent post traumatic pathology caused by muscle, tendon and capsular elements over stretching. The authors conducted a short term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of a multi wave High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT) versus conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT) included in Italian tariff nomenclature performance physiotherapy Study Design: prospective randomised study (Level II). Material and methods: the authors identified 135 homogeneous patients with whiplash grade 1 – 2 of the Quebec Task Force classification (QTFC). INAIL, the Italian National Workers Insurance, based in Milan, was reliable source for identifying patients. All patients with whiplash injuries grade 1 or 2 QTFC, were eligible for the study, starting from April 28 2010 to September 30 2010. Patients referred to a Coordinator (C.M.) who applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Dates for initial treatment session were arranged, including cervical spine X-ray, and assessment. Each patient gave informed consent for participation and agreed to adopt only the study treatment for 6 weeks. Group A (84 patients) was treated with High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT), Group B (51 patients) received conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT). During the treatment period, no other electro-medical therapy, analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at the end of the treatment period (T1) using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), (T2) the date of return to work was registered afterwards. Results: there was a reduction in VAS pain scores at T1. Group A (VAS = 20) Group B (VAS = 34,8) (p =0.0048). Laser treatment allowed quick recovery and return to work (T2). Group A after 48 days against 66 days of Group B (p=0.0005). Conclusions: results suggest that High Power Laser

  9. High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1° and 2° grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria; Fachinetti, Giorgio Paolo

    2013-04-01

    whiplash is a frequent post traumatic pathology caused by muscle, tendon and capsular elements over stretching. The authors conducted a short term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of a multi wave High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT) versus conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT) included in Italian tariff nomenclature performance physiotherapy Study Design: prospective randomised study (Level II). the authors identified 135 homogeneous patients with whiplash grade 1 - 2 of the Quebec Task Force classification (QTFC). INAIL, the Italian National Workers Insurance, based in Milan, was reliable source for identifying patients. All patients with whiplash injuries grade 1 or 2 QTFC, were eligible for the study, starting from April 28 2010 to September 30 2010. Patients referred to a Coordinator (C.M.) who applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Dates for initial treatment session were arranged, including cervical spine X-ray, and assessment. Each patient gave informed consent for participation and agreed to adopt only the study treatment for 6 weeks. Group A (84 patients) was treated with High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT), Group B (51 patients) received conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT). During the treatment period, no other electro-medical therapy, analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at the end of the treatment period (T1) using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), (T2) the date of return to work was registered afterwards. there was a reduction in VAS pain scores at T1. Group A (VAS = 20) Group B (VAS = 34,8) (p =0.0048). Laser treatment allowed quick recovery and return to work (T2). Group A after 48 days against 66 days of Group B (p=0.0005). results suggest that High Power Laser Therapy - is an effective treatment in patients with whiplash injury

  10. Conservative treatment of a patient with previously unresponsive whiplash-associated disorders using clinical biomechanics of posture rehabilitation methods.

    PubMed

    Ferrantelli, Joseph R; Harrison, Deed E; Harrison, Donald D; Stewart, Denis

    2005-01-01

    To describe the treatment of a patient with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) previously unresponsive to multiple physical therapy and chiropractic treatments, which resolved following Clinical Biomechanics of Posture (CBP) rehabilitation methods. A 40-year-old man involved in a high-speed rear-impact collision developed chronic WADs including cervicothoracic, shoulder, and arm pain and headache. The patient was diagnosed with a confirmed chip fracture of the C5 vertebra and cervical and thoracic disk herniations. He was treated with traditional chiropractic and physical therapy modalities but experienced only temporary symptomatic reduction and was later given a whole body permanent impairment rating of 33% by an orthopedic surgeon. The patient was treated with CBP mirror-image cervical spine adjustments, exercise, and traction to reduce forward head posture and cervical kyphosis. A presentation of abnormal head protrusion resolved and cervical kyphosis returned to lordosis posttreatment. His initial neck disability index was 46% and 0% at the end of care. Verbal pain rating scales also improved for neck pain (from 5/10 to 0/10). A patient with chronic WADs and abnormal head protrusion, cervical kyphosis, and disk herniation experienced an improvement in symptoms and function after the use of CBP rehabilitation protocols when other traditional chiropractic and physical therapy procedures showed little or no lasting improvement.

  11. The effect of pre-injury physical fitness on the initial severity and recovery from whiplash injury, at six-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Geldman, Mark; Moore, Ann; Cheek, Liz

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-injury physical fitness on the initial severity and recovery of motor vehicle-induced neck injury (whiplash injury). A quantitative experimental design using both retrospective and prospective data. Metropolitan Police physiotherapy and rehabilitation department in the UK. One-hundred and two patients with neck pain following whiplash injury. Patients were divided into three groups based on pre-injury physical fitness (low, medium and high). Recovery was compared between the three groups initially then again at three and six months. Three measurement scales were used: the Neck Disability Index, the Problem Percentage, and the Physical Activity Scale. Pre-injury physical fitness had a marked effect on recovery at three and six months, with the medium and high fitness groups having significantly better recovery than the low fitness group. At three months the Neck Disability Index score for the low fitness group was 12 compared with 7 and 7.5 for the medium and high fitness groups respectively (P = 0.009). At six months the Neck Disability Index score was 9 for the low fitness group compared with 0 and 3 for the medium and high fitness groups (P = 0.002). In addition, the return to work rate was almost twice as high for individuals with medium/high fitness. Early recovery from whiplash injury was significantly more likely for individuals with medium to high levels of pre-injury physical fitness than for individuals with low levels of pre-injury physical fitness.

  12. The role of tissue damage in whiplash associated disorders: Discussion paper 1

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, Nikolai; Ivancic, Paul C.; McLean, Samuel A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Winkelstein, Beth

    2011-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Non-systematic review of cervical spine lesions in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). OBJECTIVE To describe whiplash injury models in terms of basic and clinical science, to summarize what can and cannot be explained by injury models, and to highlight future research areas to better understand the role of tissue damage in WAD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The frequent lack of detectable tissue damage has raised questions about whether tissue damage is necessary for WAD and what role it plays in the clinical context of WAD. METHODS Non-systematic review. RESULTS Lesions of various tissues have been documented by numerous investigations conducted in animals, cadavers, healthy volunteers and patients. Most lesions are undetected by imaging techniques. For zygapophysial (facet) joints, lesions have been predicted by bioengineering studies and validated through animal studies; for zygapophysial joint pain, a valid diagnostic test and a proven treatment are available. Lesions of dorsal root ganglia, discs, ligaments, muscles and vertebral artery have been documented in biomechanical and autopsy studies, but no valid diagnostic test is available to assess their clinical relevance. The proportion of WAD patients in whom a persistent lesion is the major determinant of ongoing symptoms is unknown. Psychosocial factors, stress reactions and generalized hyperalgesia have also been shown to predict WAD outcomes. CONCLUSION There is evidence supporting a lesion-based model in WAD. Lack of macroscopically identifiable tissue damage does not rule out the presence of painful lesions. The best available evidence concerns zygapophysial joint pain. The clinical relevance of other lesions needs to be addressed by future research. PMID:22020601

  13. Head eye co-ordination and gaze stability in subjects with persistent whiplash associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Treleaven, Julia; Jull, Gwendolen; Grip, Helena

    2011-06-01

    Symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness and visual disturbances are frequent complaints in persons with persistent whiplash associated disorders. This study investigated eye, head co-ordination and gaze stability in subjects with persistent whiplash (n = 20) and asymptomatic controls (n = 20). Wireless motion sensors and electro-oculography were used to measure: head rotation during unconstrained head movement, head rotation during gaze stability and sequential head and eye movements. Ten control subjects participated in a repeatability study (two occasions one week apart). Between-day repeatability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) for most measures. The whiplash group had significantly less maximal eye angle to the left, range of head movement during the gaze stability task and decreased velocity of head movement in head eye co-ordination and gaze stability tasks compared to the control group (p < 0.01). There were significant correlations (r > 0.55) between both unrestrained neck movement and neck pain and head movement and velocity in the whiplash group. Deficits in gaze stability and head eye co-ordination may be related to disturbed reflex activity associated with decreased head range of motion and/or neck pain. Further research is required to explore the mechanisms behind these deficits, the nature of changes over time and the tests' ability to measure change in response to rehabilitation. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Characteristics of vertebral and muscular tonic syndromes in acute and remote periods of cervical whiplash injuries].

    PubMed

    Makarov, G V; Levin, O S

    2004-01-01

    The study elicited the peculiarities of vertebral and muscular tonic syndromes in acute and remote periods of whip cervical trauma (WCT). Forty patients in acute period of WCT (2nd-3rd degree of severity) and 30 patients in remote period of WCT, who experienced pain and other symptoms 6 months after the trauma (late whip syndrome--LWS) were examined. The control group included 30 patients with neck and arm pain due to cervical osteochondrosis. In WCT, comparing to cervical osteochondrosis, more marked movement restriction in sagittal plane, more frequent blockade of the lower cervical spine segments, stronger correlation between pain syndrome and movement restriction in the cervical segments, more frequent muscular tonic syndrome in the anterior neck muscles and deeper neck flexors were found. In LWS, in contrast to the acute period of WCT, dissociation between more restricted active and more preserved passive movements in the cervical segments, weaker correlation between emerging of pain syndrome and restriction of movement volume, more frequent blockade of the upper cervical segments, more frequent occurrence of supraspinal muscles and shoulder-scapular syndromes were detected. The data obtained revealed a complex mechanism of symptoms formation in WCT that should be taken into account in treatment planning for acute and remote periods of cervical trauma.

  15. Novel insights into the interplay between ventral neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gunnel; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Falla, Deborah; Dedering, Åsa; Wallman, Thorne; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-10-16

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is common after whiplash injury, with considerable personal, social, and economic burden. Despite decades of research, factors responsible for continuing pain and disability are largely unknown, and diagnostic tools are lacking. Here, we report a novel model of mechanical ventral neck muscle function recorded from non-invasive, real-time, ultrasound measurements. We calculated the deformation area and deformation rate in 23 individuals with persistent WAD and compared them to 23 sex- and age-matched controls. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse interactions between ventral neck muscles, revealing different interplay between muscles in individuals with WAD and healthy controls. Although the cause and effect relation cannot be established from this data, for the first time, we reveal a novel method capable of detecting different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD. This non-invasive method stands to make a major breakthrough in the assessment and diagnosis of people following a whiplash trauma.

  16. Gender differences in care-seeking behavior and healthcare consumption immediately after whiplash trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbaum, Artur; Nordeman, Lena; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.; Gunnarsson, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim was to study gender differences in care-seeking behavior and treatment provided immediately after whiplash trauma. Methods Participants were residents from a defined geographical area, Skaraborg County in the southwestern part of Sweden. A cohort of 3,368 persons exposed to whiplash trauma and attending a healthcare facility immediately after the trauma between 1999 and 2008 were identified in a database. Information about gender, age, time elapsed prior to seeking care, type of healthcare contact, initial treatment provided and eventual hospitalization time was retrieved. Results Women sought care later than men (p = 0.00074). Women consulted primary healthcare first more often than men, who more often first sought hospital care (p = 0.0060). There were no gender differences regarding the type of treatment after trauma. Women had longer hospital admission than men (p = 0.022), indicating their injuries were at least similar to or worse than men’s. Conclusion Women sought healthcare later than men after whiplash trauma. Although not directly investigated in this study, it raises the question if this may reduce their probability of getting financial compensation compared to men. PMID:28441465

  17. [Medical and legal considerations in whiplash injury].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Chávez, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Whiplash injury usually occurs in people who suffered an automobile accident, but also occurs as a result of physical assault and other mechanisms. Diagnosis and initial management of the patient by the emergency physician or orthopedist, and prescribing indications, are taken into account by two forensic intervention specialists. One of these is the medical officer, who, through analysis of the injury mechanism, establishes a cause-effect relationship and concludes whether the accident suffered by a worker it is related to work or not, determines how long the worker will remain disabled and if the injury caused permanent disability under Federal Labor Law. The medical examiner by injury classification assists the Public Ministry so that it can frame the crime of injury to the Criminal Code of Federal District. For these reasons a review of medical information about the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and healing time was performed to help both specialists to standardize their approach in their daily activities.

  18. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement Deficits in Patients With Whiplash and Neck Pain are Modulated by Target Predictability.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Malou; Ischebeck, Britta K; de Vries, Jurryt; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Frens, Maarten A; van der Geest, Jos N

    2015-10-01

    This is a cross-sectional study. The purpose of this study is to support and extend previous observations on oculomotor disturbances in patients with neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) by systematically investigating the effect of static neck torsion on smooth pursuit in response to both predictably and unpredictably moving targets using video-oculography. Previous studies showed that in patients with neck complaints, for instance due to WAD, extreme static neck torsion deteriorates smooth pursuit eye movements in response to predictably moving targets compared with healthy controls. Eye movements in response to a smoothly moving target were recorded with video-oculography in a heterogeneous group of 55 patients with neck pain (including 11 patients with WAD) and 20 healthy controls. Smooth pursuit performance was determined while the trunk was fixed in 7 static rotations relative to the head (from 45° to the left to 45° to right), using both predictably and unpredictably moving stimuli. Patients had reduced smooth pursuit gains and smooth pursuit gain decreased due to neck torsion. Healthy controls showed higher gains for predictably moving targets compared with unpredictably moving targets, whereas patients with neck pain had similar gains in response to both types of target movements. In 11 patients with WAD, increased neck torsion decreased smooth pursuit performance, but only for predictably moving targets. Smooth pursuit of patients with neck pain is affected. The previously reported WAD-specific decline in smooth pursuit due to increased neck torsion seems to be modulated by the predictability of the movement of the target. The observed oculomotor disturbances in patients with WAD are therefore unlikely to be induced by impaired neck proprioception alone. 3.

  19. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, Sayeed; Madi, Mohammad; Rushton, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy) for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB) of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12. Data Sources PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies RCTs evaluating acute (<4 weeks) WADII, any conservative intervention, with outcome measures important to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Results Fifteen RCTs all assessed as high RoB (n=1676 participants) across 9 countries were included. Meta-analyses enabled 4 intervention comparisons: conservative versus standard/control, active versus passive, behavioural versus standard/control, and early versus late. Conservative intervention was more effective for pain reduction at 6 months (95%CI: -20.14 to -3.38) and 1-3 years (-25.44 to -3.19), and improvement in cervical mobility in the horizontal plane at <3 months (0.43 to 5.60) compared with standard/control intervention. Active intervention was effective

  20. Maintaining a balance: a focus group study on living and coping with chronic whiplash-associated disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little qualitative insight into how persons with chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder cope on a day to day basis. This study seeks to identify the symptoms persons with Whiplash-Associated Disorder describe as dominating and explore their self-initiated coping strategies. Methods Qualitative study using focus groups interviews. Fourteen Norwegian men and women with Whiplash-Associated Disorder (I or II) were recruited to participate in two focus groups. Data were analyzed according to a phenomenological approach, and discussed within the model of Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS). Results Participants reported neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction following their whiplash injury. Based on the intensity of symptoms, participants divided everyday life into good and bad periods. In good periods the symptoms were perceived as manageable. In bad periods the symptoms intensified and took control of the individual. Participants expressed a constant notion of trying to balance their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal. In good periods participants experienced coping by expecting good results from the strategies they used. In bad periods they experienced no or negative relationships between their behavioral strategies and their complaints. Conclusions Neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction were reported as participants' main complaints. A constant notion of balancing between their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal, was described. PMID:20626855

  1. Maintaining a balance: a focus group study on living and coping with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

    PubMed

    Krohne, Kariann; Ihlebaek, Camilla

    2010-07-13

    There is little qualitative insight into how persons with chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder cope on a day to day basis. This study seeks to identify the symptoms persons with Whiplash-Associated Disorder describe as dominating and explore their self-initiated coping strategies. Qualitative study using focus groups interviews. Fourteen Norwegian men and women with Whiplash-Associated Disorder (I or II) were recruited to participate in two focus groups. Data were analyzed according to a phenomenological approach, and discussed within the model of Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS). Participants reported neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction following their whiplash injury. Based on the intensity of symptoms, participants divided everyday life into good and bad periods. In good periods the symptoms were perceived as manageable. In bad periods the symptoms intensified and took control of the individual. Participants expressed a constant notion of trying to balance their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal. In good periods participants experienced coping by expecting good results from the strategies they used. In bad periods they experienced no or negative relationships between their behavioral strategies and their complaints. Neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction were reported as participants' main complaints. A constant notion of balancing between their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal, was described.

  2. Surgical fasciectomy of the trapezius muscle combined with neurolysis of the Spinal accessory nerve; results and long-term follow-up in 30 consecutive cases of refractory chronic whiplash syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic problems from whiplash trauma generally include headache, pain and neck stiffness that may prove refractory to conservative treatment modalities. As has previously been reported, such afflicted patients may experience significant temporary relief with injections of local anesthetic to painful trigger points in muscles of the shoulder and neck, or lasting symptomatic improvement through surgical excision of myofascial trigger points. In a subset of patients who present with chronic whiplash syndrome, the clinical findings suggest an affliction of the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI, SAN) by entrapment under the fascia of the trapezius muscle. The present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of SAN neurolysis in chronic whiplash syndrome. Methods A standardized questionnaire and a linear visual-analogue scale graded 0-10 was used to assess disability related to five symptoms (pain, headache, insomnia, weakness, and stiffness) before, and one year after surgery in a series of thirty consecutive patients. Results The preoperative duration of symptoms ranged from seven months to 13 years. The following changes in disability scores were documented one year after surgery: Overall pain decreased from 9.5 +/- 0.9 to 3.2 +/- 2.6 (p < 0.001); headaches from 8.2 +/- 2.9 to 2.3 +/- 2.8 (p < 0.001); insomnia from 7.5 +/- 2.4 to 3.8 +/- 2.8 (p < 0.001); weakness from 7.6 +/- 2.6 to 3.6 +/- 2.8 (p < 0.001); and stiffness from 7.0 +/- 3.2 to 2.6 +/- 2.7 (p < 0.001). Conclusions Entrapment of the spinal accessory nerve and/or chronic compartment syndrome of the trapezius muscle may cause chronic debilitating pain after whiplash trauma, without radiological or electrodiagnostic evidence of injury. In such cases, surgical treatment may provide lasting relief. PMID:20374624

  3. Cognitive Performance Is Related to Central Sensitization and Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders and Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Iris; Ickmans, Kelly; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; De Pauw, Robby; Noten, Suzie; Meeus, Mira

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation or central sensitization (CS) is a crucial mechanism for the development of persistent pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence for cognitive dysfunctions among these patients. In addition, chronic WAD and FM patients often report problems with health-related quality of life (QoL). Yet, there is limited research concerning the interrelations between cognitive performance, indices of CS, and health-related QoL in these patients. (1) Examining the presence of cognitive impairment, CS, and limitations on health-related QoL in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls. (2) Examining interrelations between performance-based cognitive functioning, CS, and self-reported health-related QoL in these 3 study groups. A case-control study was conducted. The present study took place at the University Hospital Brussels, the University of Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine patients (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM patients, and 22 pain-free volunteers) filled out the Short Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36), a self-reported psychosocial questionnaire, to assess health-related QoL. Next, they were subjected to various pain measurements (pressure hyperalgesia, deep-tissue hyperalgesia, temporal summation [TS], and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]). Finally, participants completed a battery of performance-based cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task [PVT], and operation span task [OSPAN]). Significant cognitive impairment, bottom-up sensitization, and decreased health-related QoL were demonstrated in patients with chronic WAD and FM compared to healthy controls (P < 0.017). CPM was comparable between the 3 groups. Cognitive performance was significantly related to central pain modulation (deep-tissue hyperalgesia, TS, CPM) as well as to self-reported health

  4. [Whiplash injury of the neck from concepts to facts].

    PubMed

    Revel, M

    2003-04-01

    To focus on a topic of traumatology and rehabilitation becoming recently a much debated public health problem. A references search from Medline database with whiplash as keyword was carried out. Were selected articles with abstracts in french or english and focusing on accidentology, biomechanics, demonstrated lesions, epidemiology and treatments. From 1664 references found, 232 were reviewed. The usual mechanism of crash is a rear-end collision inducing in the occupants of the bumped vehicle a sudden lower cervical spine extension with upper flexion followed by a global flexion. In nearly 50% of the cases, the stress occurring in the collision is comparable to that observed in bumper cars. The velocity changes are seldom up to 15 km/h. A headrest at the level of the center of gravity of the head restrict significantly the extension of the neck. Every structure of the cervical spine could be damaged and mainly the facet joints but the lesions were only demonstrated in severes traumatisms. The discrepancies in incidence among the different countries could be related to their medicolegal system. Although subjectives, the early symptoms are rather similar among patients suggesting true anatomical or functional disorders but the chronicity seems to be mainly related to social and psychological factors. The association of: no posterior midline cervical tenderness, no intoxication, normal alertness, no focal neurological deficit and no painful distracting injuries has a good predictive value of the lack of osteo-articular lesion on X-rays. Except the grade IV of the Quebec task Force (0, no symptom; 1, pain and stiffness; 2, neck complaint and physical signs; 3, neck complaint and neurological signs; 4, fracture or dislocation) the use of a collar should be avoided and the cervical spine should be mobilized. In most whiplash injuries, the mildness should be early stated, mobilization encouraged, and procedures of compensation shortened.

  5. An Investigation of Fat Infiltration of the Multifidus Muscle in Patients With Severe Neck Symptoms Associated With Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anette; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Åslund, Ulrika; West, Janne; Romu, Thobias; Smedby, Örjan; Zsigmond, Peter; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-10-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Findings of fat infiltration in cervical spine multifidus, as a sign of degenerative morphometric changes due to whiplash injury, need to be verified. Objectives To develop a method using water/fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate fat infiltration and cross-sectional area of multifidus muscle in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) compared to healthy controls. Methods Fat infiltration and cross-sectional area in the multifidus muscles spanning the C4 to C7 segmental levels were investigated by manual segmentation using water/fat-separated MRI in 31 participants with WAD and 31 controls, matched for age and sex. Results Based on average values for data spanning C4 to C7, participants with severe disability related to WAD had 38% greater muscular fat infiltration compared to healthy controls (P = .03) and 45% greater fat infiltration compared to those with mild to moderate disability related to WAD (P = .02). There were no significant differences between those with mild to moderate disability and healthy controls. No significant differences between groups were found for multifidus cross-sectional area. Significant differences were observed for both cross-sectional area and fat infiltration between segmental levels. Conclusion Participants with severe disability after a whiplash injury had higher fat infiltration in the multifidus compared to controls and to those with mild/moderate disability secondary to WAD. Earlier reported findings using T1-weighted MRI were reproduced using refined imaging technology. The results of the study also indicate a risk when segmenting single cross-sectional slices, as both cross-sectional area and fat infiltration differ between cervical levels. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(10):886-893. Epub 2 Sep 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6553.

  6. Pain neurophysiology education improves cognitions, pain thresholds, and movement performance in people with chronic whiplash: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Truijen, Steven; Craps, Julie; Van den Keybus, Nick; Paul, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Chronic whiplash is a debilitating condition characterized by increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, maladaptive illness beliefs, inappropriate attitudes, and movement dysfunctions. Previous work in people with chronic low back pain and chronic fatigue syndrome indicates that pain neurophysiology education is able to improve illness beliefs and attitudes as well as movement performance. This single-case study (A-B-C design) with six patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) was aimed at examining whether education about the neurophysiology of pain is accompanied by changes in symptoms, daily functioning, pain beliefs, and behavior. Periods A and C represented assessment periods, while period B consisted of the intervention (pain neurophysiology education). Results showed a significant decrease in kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), the passive coping strategy of resting (Pain Coping Inventory), self-rated disability (Neck Disability Index), and photophobia (WAD Symptom List). At the same time, significantly increased pain pressure thresholds and improved pain-free movement performance (visual analog scale on Neck Extension Test and Brachial Plexus Provocation Test) were established. Although the current results need to be verified in a randomized, controlled trial, they suggest that education about the physiology of pain is able to increase pain thresholds and improve pain behavior and pain-free movement performance in patients with chronic WAD.

  7. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Nightingale, R W; Dang, A B C

    2018-01-01

    Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury. The cervical spine was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP (the European New Car Assessment Programme) testing using the whole human FE model. The coupled motions between the cervical spine and lumbar spine were assessed by evaluating the biomechanical effects of simulated cervical fusion and lumbar fusion. Peak anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) strain ranged from 0.106 to 0.382 in a normal spine, and from 0.116 to 0.399 in a fused cervical spine. Strain increased from cranial to caudal levels. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion, respectively (p = 0.03, unpaired two-way t -test). Peak cervical strains following various lumbar-fusion procedures were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p = 0.61, two-way ANOVA). Cervical arthrodesis increases peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments. C3-4 experiences greater changes in strain than C6-7. Lumbar fusion did not have a significant effect on cervical spine strain. Cite this article : H. Huang, R. W. Nightingale, A. B. C. Dang. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:28-35. DOI: 10

  8. Outcome of Acute Pancreatic and Peripancreatic Collections Occurring in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh; Gupta, Vikas; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Dhaka, Narendra; Kalra, Naveen; Sinha, Saroj K; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2018-02-01

    To study the outcome of acute collections occurring in patients with acute pancreatitis BACKGROUND:: There are limited data on natural history of acute collections arising after acute pancreatitis (AP). Consecutive patients of AP admitted between July 2011 and December 2012 were evaluated by imaging for development of acute collections as defined by revised Atlanta classification. Imaging was repeated at 1 and 3 months. Spontaneous resolution, evolution, and need for intervention were assessed. Of the 189 patients, 151 patients (79.9%) had acute collections with severe disease and delayed hospitalization being predictors of acute collections. Thirty-six patients had acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis, 8 of whom developed acute peripancreatic fluid collections, of which 1 evolved into pseudocyst. Among the 153 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, 143 (93.4%) developed acute necrotic collection (ANC). Twenty-three of 143 ANC patients died, 21 had resolved collections, whereas 84 developed walled-off necrosis (WON), with necrosis >30% (P = 0.010) and Computed Tomographic Severity Index score ≥7 (P = 0.048) predicting development of WON. Of the 84 patients with WON, 8 expired, 53 patients required an intervention, and 23 were managed conservatively. Independent predictors of any intervention among all patients were Computed Tomographic Severity Index score ≥7 (P < 0.001) and interval between onset of pain to hospitalization >7 days (P = 0.04). Patients with severe AP and delayed hospitalization more often develop acute collections. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a rarity in acute interstitial pancreatitis. A majority of patients with necrotising pancreatitis will develop ANC, more than half of whom will develop WON. Delay in hospitalization and higher baseline necrosis score predict need for intervention.

  9. German translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the whiplash disability questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Corina; McCaskey, Michael; Ettlin, Thierry

    2013-03-14

    The Australian Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was cross-culturally translated, adapted, and tested for validity to be used in German-speaking patients. The self-administered questionnaire evaluates actual pain intensity, problems in personal care, role performance, sleep disturbances, tiredness, social and leisure activities, emotional and concentration impairments with 13 questions rated on an 11-point rating scale from zero to ten. In a first part, the Australian-based WDQ was forward and backward translated. In a consensus conference with all translators and health care professionals, who were experts in the treatment of patients with a whiplash associated disorder (WAD), formulations were refined. Original authors were contacted for clarification and approval of the forward-backward translated version. The German version (WDQ-G) was evaluated for comprehensiveness and clarity in a pre-study patient survey by a random sample of German-speaking patients after WAD and four healthy twelve to thirteen year old teenagers. In a second part, the WDQ-G was evaluated in a patient validation study including patients affected by a WAD. Inpatients had to complete the WDQ-G, the North American Spine Society questionnaire (NASS cervical pain), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at entry in the rehabilitation centre. In the pre-study patient survey (response rate 31%) patients rated clarity for title 9.6 ± 0.9, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.6 ± 0.7, and comprehensiveness for title 9.6 ± 0.7, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.8 ± 0.4. Time needed to fill in was 13.7 ± 9.0 minutes. In total, 70 patients (47 females, age = 43.4 ± 12.5 years, time since injury: 1.5 ± 2.6 years) were included in the validation study. WDQ-G total score was 74.0 ± 21.3 points (range between 15 and 117 points). Time needed to fill in was 6.7 ± 3.4 minutes with data from 22 patients. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbachs

  10. Patient dissatisfaction with acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Kjell; Jonsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Marie; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Appelros, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Terént, Andreas; Asberg, Kerstin Hulter

    2009-12-01

    Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, was used to explore patient characteristics and stroke services as determinants of patient dissatisfaction with acute in-hospital care. All 79 hospitals in Sweden admitting acute stroke patients participate in Riks-Stroke. During 2001 to 2007, 104,876 patients (87% of survivors) responded to a follow-up questionnaire 3 months after acute stroke; this included questions on satisfaction with various aspects of stroke care. The majority (>90%) were satisfied with acute in-hospital stroke care. Dissatisfaction was closely associated with outcome at 3 months. Patient who were dependent regarding activities of daily living, felt depressed, or had poor self-perceived general health were more likely to be dissatisfied. Dissatisfaction with global acute stroke care was linked to dissatisfaction with other aspects of care, including rehabilitation and support by community services. Patients treated in stroke units were less often dissatisfied than patients in general wards, as were patients who had been treated in a small hospital (vs medium or large hospitals) and patient who had participated in discharge planning. In multivariate analyses, the strongest predictor of dissatisfaction with acute care was poor outcome (dependency regarding activities of daily living, depressed mood, poor self-perceived health). Dissatisfaction with in-hospital acute stroke care is part of a more extensive complex comprising poor functional outcome, depressive mood, poor self-perceived general health, and dissatisfaction not only with acute care but also with health care and social services at large. Several aspects of stroke care organization are associated with a lower risk of dissatisfaction.

  11. The pain drawing as an instrument for identifying cervical spine nerve involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Bernhoff, Gabriella; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria; Peterson, Gunnel; Bertilson, Bo Christer; Elf, Madeleine; Peolsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a standardized assessment of pain drawing with regard to clinical signs of cervical spine nerve root involvement. This cross-sectional study included data collected in a randomized controlled study. Two hundred and sixteen patients with chronic (≥6 months) whiplash-associated disorders, grade 2 or 3, were included in this study. The validity, sensitivity, and specificity of a standardized pain drawing assessment for determining nerve root involvement were analyzed, compared to the clinical assessment. In addition, we analyzed the interrater reliability with 50 pain drawings. Agreement was poor between the standardized pain drawing assessment and the clinical assessment (kappa =0.11, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.20). Sensitivity was high (93%), but specificity was low (19%). Interrater reliability was good (kappa =0.64, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.76). The standardized pain drawing assessment of nerve root involvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders was not in agreement with the clinical assessment. Further research is warranted to optimize the utilization of a pain/discomfort drawing as a supportive instrument for identifying nerve involvement in cervical spinal injuries.

  12. Increasing climate whiplash in 21st century California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, D. L.; Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.; Hall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Temperate "Mediterranean" climate regimes across the globe are particularly susceptible to wide swings between drought and flood—of which California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012-2016 to extreme wetness during 2016-2017 provides a dramatic example. The wide-ranging human and environmental impacts of this recent "climate whiplash" event in a highly-populated, economically critical, and biodiverse region highlight the importance of understanding weather and climate extremes at both ends of the hydroclimatic spectrum. Previous studies have examined the potential contribution of anthropogenic warming to recent California extremes, but findings to date have been mixed and primarily drought-focused. Here, we use specific historical California flood and drought events as thresholds for quantifying long-term changes in precipitation extremes using a large ensemble of multi-decadal climate model simulations (CESM-LENS). We find that greenhouse gas emissions are already responsible for a detectable increase in both wet and dry extremes across portions of California, and that increasing 21st century "climate whiplash" will likely yield large increases in the frequency of both rapid "dry-to-wet" transitions and severe flood events over a wide range of timescales. This projected intensification of California's hydrological cycle would seriously challenge the region's existing water storage, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure—even absent large changes in mean precipitation.

  13. Positive Cervical Artery Testing in a Patient with Chronic Whiplash Syndrome: Clinical Decision-Making in the Presence of Diagnostic Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, David L.; Nitsch, Wanda; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis and management of a 43-year-old female patient who had sustained an injury to her neck in a motor-vehicle accident two years earlier. The major symptoms described by the patient included headache and neck pain, but history and examination also revealed signs and symptoms potentially indicative of cervical artery compromise. Physical therapy management initially consisted of soft tissue and non-thrust joint manipulation of the lower cervical and thoracic spine, specific exercise prescription, and superficial heat. Cervical vascular compromise was re-evaluated by way of the sustained extension-rotation test. When at the fifth visit this test no longer produced symptoms potentially indicative of vascular compromise, upper cervical diagnosis and management consisting of soft tissue and non-thrust joint manipulation was added. A positive outcome was achieved both at the impairment level and with regard to limitations in activities, the latter including increased performance at work, a return to previous reading activities, improved length and quality of sleep, and greater comfort while driving. At discharge, the patient reported only occasional pain and mild limitations in activities. This report describes the positive outcomes in a patient with chronic whiplash syndrome; however, its main emphasis lies in the discussion and critical evaluation of clinical reasoning in the presence of diagnostic uncertainty with regard to cervical artery compromise. PMID:19066653

  14. Cervical helical axis characteristics and its center of rotation during active head and upper arm movements-comparisons of whiplash-associated disorders, non-specific neck pain and asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Grip, Helena; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Gerdle, Björn; Stefan Karlsson, J

    2008-09-18

    The helical axis model can be used to describe translation and rotation of spine segments. The aim of this study was to investigate the cervical helical axis and its center of rotation during fast head movements (side rotation and flexion/extension) and ball catching in patients with non-specific neck pain or pain due to whiplash injury as compared with matched controls. The aim was also to investigate correlations with neck pain intensity. A finite helical axis model with a time-varying window was used. The intersection point of the axis during different movement conditions was calculated. A repeated-measures ANOVA model was used to investigate the cervical helical axis and its rotation center for consecutive levels of 15 degrees during head movement. Irregularities in axis movement were derived using a zero-crossing approach. In addition, head, arm and upper body range of motion and velocity were observed. A general increase of axis irregularity that correlated to pain intensity was observed in the whiplash group. The rotation center was superiorly displaced in the non-specific neck pain group during side rotation, with the same tendency for the whiplash group. During ball catching, an anterior displacement (and a tendency to an inferior displacement) of the center of rotation and slower and more restricted upper body movements implied a changed movement strategy in neck pain patients, possibly as an attempt to stabilize the cervical spine during head movement.

  15. Whiplash-type neck distortion in restrained car drivers: frequency, causes and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Otte, D; Pohlemann, T; Krettek, C; Blauth, M

    2000-04-01

    An analysis was made of 1176 whiplash-type neck distortions taken from a total of 3838 restrained car driver incident reports. The percentage of whiplash-type neck distortion among injured drivers increased from less than 10% in 1985 to over 30% in 1997. Most occurred in head-on crashes or crashes with multiple collisions; only 15% occurred in rear-end collisions. More than 1,000 questionnaires were sent to the injured to find out about the duration and type of complaints caused by their cervical spine injury. Although only 138 (12%) returned the questionnaire, which may not be a representative sample, a further analysis was carried out. Of the 138, 121 (88%) indicated that they had suffered or were still suffering from their symptoms. The percentages of the various complaints were as follows: pain (74%), tension (6%) and stiffness (5%) in the head (27%), neck (55%) and shoulder (8%). The duration of the complaints was longest after multiple collisions and when the onset of complaints was longer than 24 h after trauma. Women and elderly persons predominated slightly in the group with longer duration of complaints. A correlation between the severity of the accompanying injuries and duration of complaints was found. Lack of adequate follow-up for patients with less severe injuries posed considerable difficulties for this retrospective study. In order to better evaluate this problem, prospective studies are necessary, with documentation including diagnosis, treatments, complaint duration and type.

  16. [Management of patients with simple cervical distortions].

    PubMed

    Foletti, G; Regli, F

    1995-11-11

    Common distortion of the cervical spine without evidence of neurological or osteoligamentary damage is a frequent consequence of indirect head and neck trauma. The mechanism of the injury (called "whiplash", "coup de lapin", or "Schleudertrauma") does not imply direct trauma to the head or neck. In the acute phase, common distortion of the cervical spine requires treatment. Rapid management may avoid or considerably reduce the chronic pain syndrome with the characteristic chronic tension-like headache. The chronic pain and the numerous associated functional disorders are not well understood: certain factors favour central and peripheral dysfunction and others emphasize the importance of extra-trauma phenomena. In our opinion, extra-trauma phenomena would explain the invalidating nature of pain in a small number of patients. Management of these chronic patients requires a multidisciplinary approach aimed at helping the patient overcome the inconveniences of this condition.

  17. Do "whiplash" victims with neck pain differ from those with neck pain and other symptoms?

    PubMed

    Tencer, A F; Mirza, S; Cummings, P

    2001-01-01

    Studying 432 patients with "whiplash" neck pain after a low speed rear-end crash, we determined whether those who reported associated symptoms (arm or low back pain) differed from those with neck pain only. Exposure variables were: age, gender, height, weight, surprised by impact, rotated position of the head, and pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal degeneration. Immediate symptoms were considered. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression. Only pre-existing lumbar spinal degeneration was associated with having arm symptoms (OR = 9.6, CI = 1.1, 83.6) or low back pain (OR = 23.3, CI = 2.6, 206.7) along with neck pain.

  18. A small group Whiplash-Associated-Disorders (WAD) patients with central neck pain and movement induced stabbing pain, the painful segment determined by mechanical provocation: Fusion surgery was superior to multimodal rehabilitation in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Bo; Svensson, Elisabeth; Larsson, Svante; Schillberg, Birgitta; Mörk, Ann; Taube, Adam

    2016-07-01

    The majority of patients suffering from a whiplash injury will recover, but some will have symptoms (Whiplash Associated Disorders, WAD) for years despite conservative treatment. Some of these patients perceive neck pain that might come from a motion segment, possibly the disc. In comprehensive reviews no evidence has been found that fusion operations have a positive treatment effect on neck pain in WAD patients. Our aim was to evaluate the possibility of (a) selecting a subgroup of chronic WAD patients based on specified symptoms possibly indicating segmental pain, and (b) treating said segmental pain through fusion operation based on non-radiological segment localization. The hypothesis was that fusion operation in this selected subgroup of chronic WAD patients could alleviate perceived neck pain. Eligible patients for the study had a traffic accident as the origin for their neck pain, and no previous neck symptoms. Neck pain should be the predominant symptom and the pain origin reported to be in the midline, being dull, aching in character and at sudden movements combined by a stabbing pain in the same area. Forty-nine patients with these specified symptoms were identified among a large number of chronic WAD patients. Those selected had pronounced symptoms for a median of around 50 months and had previously been investigated and fully treated within the ordinary healthcare system without success. No neurological abnormalities were to be found at clinical examination and no specific changes to be seen on X-ray and MRI. The patients were randomized to either cervical fusion operation or multimodal rehabilitation. By using a mechanical provocation test the level/s to be fused were identified. In all but one patient the surgery was performed anteriorly using microsurgical technique and a right-sided Smith-Pedersen approach and plate fixation. The multimodal rehabilitation at the Clinic of Medical Rehabilitation, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, included outpatient

  19. [Fenspiride in patients with acute bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz; Ochwat, Agnieszka

    2005-07-01

    Fenspiride is an anti-inflammatory drug that may have a role in inhibition of histamine receptor H1 and influence a production of archidonic acid metabolites. The efficacy and tolerance of fenspiride therapy have been performed in patients with acute bronchitis. 597 patients, 51% females and 49% males, aged 39+/-18 years, were observed because of acute bronchitis. Fenspiride (Eurespal, Servier) was given in a dose of 240 mg per day (80 mg three times daily) for 14 consecutive days. During two following medical examinations - after 7 and 14 days of treatment, clinical symptoms of disease, therapy efficacy and tolerance were determined. Mean duration of acute bronchitis before fenspiride therapy was 2.3+/-1.3 days. In most of the patients (72%) a moderate, and in 27% mild degree of disease was diagnosed. Only 1% of patients were diagnosed as severe. Total evaluation of fenspiride efficacy in examined patients with acute bronchitis showed complete relief of symptoms after 7 days of therapy in 24% and after 14 days in 87% of patients. In 6% of patients after 7 days and in 1% after 14 days of fenspiride therapy no improvement was obtained. 28 adverse reactions were determined in 26 patients (4.3%): vertigo in 7, nausea in 6, somnolence in 5, palpitations in 4, fatigue in 2, abdominal pain in 2 and other symptoms in 2 patients. In 8 patients the therapy was discontinued after 7 days because of adverse reactions. In performed observations in patients with acute bronchitis the high clinical efficacy of fenspiride therapy. In 12% of patients an antibiotic support was necessary to obtain relief of the symptoms. Very good tolerance of the 14 days therapy was determined and it is recommended for safe clinical application.

  20. Acute computed tomography findings in patients with acute confusion of non-traumatic aetiology.

    PubMed

    West, W M; Ali, A; West, K P; Stultz, R

    2011-10-01

    A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients referred for computed tomography (CT) scans of the head for acute onset of confusion, not consequent on head trauma, during the period June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2007. Data were obtained by Microsoft Word search of the reports of the Radiology Department of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were reviewed: 103 men and 118 women. The mean age of the sample was 64 years; 168 patients (76%) were 50 years old or older. Computed tomography scans were reported normal in 170 (76.9%) patients; 45 patients (20.4%) had definite acute intracranial CT findings. Findings were equivocal in three patients (1.4%) and unavailable for three (1.4%); 23.2% and 15.6% of patients above and below the age of 50 years respectively showed acute abnormalities on CT The most common acute finding on CT scan was an ischaemic infarct (68%). Other abnormalities included intracerebral haemorrhage and metastases 6.2% each, toxoplasmosis and primary brain tumour 4.2% each and subdural haematoma and meningitis 2.1% each. The diagnoses of toxoplasmosis were made based on appearances typical of toxoplasmosis on CT scans in patients whose request stated that they were HIV positive. In the sample reviewed, most patients who presented with acute confusion were above the age of 50 years. Overall, 20.4% of patients from all age groups had acute abnormalities on CT with a relative higher proportion, 23.2% versus 15.6% of those over 50 years, having acute pathology. The most common abnormality was an ischaemic infarct. This finding is similar to that in developed countries and unlike that seen in other developing countries where infectious aetiologies predominate.

  1. The Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient casemix classification.

    PubMed

    Eagar, K

    1999-01-01

    The Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) Version 1 casemix classification was completed in 1997. AN-SNAP is designed for the classification of sub-acute and non-acute care provided in both inpatient and ambulatory settings and is intended to be useful for both funding and clinical management purposes. The National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Casemix Classification study has produced the first version of a national classification of sub-acute and non-acute care. Ongoing refinement (leading to Version 2) will be possible through further analysis of the existing data set in combination with analysis of the results of a carefully planned and phased implementation.

  2. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as a rare etiology of acute cholecystitis in endemic areas because the typical signs of scrub typhus such as skin rash and eschar can present after the abdominal pain.

  3. Musculotendon and fascicle strains in anterior and posterior neck muscles during whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, Anita N; Brault, John R; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2007-04-01

    A biomechanical neck model combined with subject-specific kinematic and electromyographic data were used to calculate neck muscle strains during whiplash. To calculate the musculotendon and fascicle strains during whiplash and to compare these strains to published muscle injury thresholds. Previous work has shown potentially injurious musculotendon strains in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during whiplash, but neither the musculotendon strains in posterior cervical muscles nor the fascicle strains in either muscle group have been examined. Experimental human subject data from rear-end automobile impacts were integrated with a biomechanical model of the neck musculoskeletal system. Subject-specific head kinematic data were imposed on the model, and neck musculotendon and fascicle strains and strain rates were computed. Electromyographic data from the sternocleidomastoid and the posterior cervical muscles were compared with strain data to determine which muscles were being eccentrically contracted. SCM experienced lengthening during the retraction phase of head/neck kinematics, whereas the posterior muscles (splenius capitis [SPL], semispinalis capitis [SEMI], and trapezius [TRAP]) lengthened during the rebound phase. Peak SCM fascicle lengthening strains averaged (+/-SD) 4% (+/-3%) for the subvolumes attached to the mastoid process and 7% (+/-5%) for the subvolume attached to the occiput. Posteriorly, peak fascicle strains were 21% (+/-14%) for SPL, 18% (+/-16%) for SEMI, and 5% (+/-4%) for TRAP, with SPL strains significantly greater than calculated in SCM or TRAP. Fascicle strains were, on average, 1.2 to 2.3 times greater than musculotendon strains. SCM and posterior muscle activity occurred during intervals of muscle fascicle lengthening. The cervical muscle strains induced during a rear-end impact exceed the previously-reported injury threshold for a single stretch of active muscle. Further, the larger strains experienced by extensor muscles are consistent with

  4. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P  < 0.01). No changes in pressure pain thresholds were observed in either group after treatment ( P  > 0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxia in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Xue, Zuo-Liang; Li, Yu-Min; Zhu, You-Quan; Cao, Nong

    2005-02-01

    The prophylactic use of antibiotics in patients with severe acute pancreatitis remains contentious. This study was undertaken to review the current studies on antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. All papers found by a Medline search were relevant to human trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. In the 1970s, three small randomized studies of prophylactic ampicillin in the treatment of acute pancreatitis showed no effect on mortality or morbidity, but the inclusion of patients at low risk for infection and the use of an ineffective antibiotic were insufficient to detect any differences. From 1993 to 2001, eight prospective clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis were conducted in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Seven of the 8 trials showed significant effect of the prophylaxis in prevention of pancreatic infections, and one showed significant improvement of clinical course documented by the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores. Only two trials did demonstrate the significance of the prophylaxis in lowering the mortality rate. Despite variations in drug agents, study size and patient selection, duration of treatment, and methodology (None of the studies was double-blinded), a meta-analysis showed the positive effect of antibiotics in reducing the mortality. We suggested that antibiotic prophylaxis with proven efficacy in necrotic pancreatic tissues should be given to all patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. In recent years, however, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study from Germany detected no benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis with respect to the risk of developing infected pancreatic necrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis is still a matter of discussion and further studies are required to provide adequate data to answer many questions and to define the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients

  6. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Euler de Medeiros Ázaro; Galvão, Thales Delmondes; Ettinger, João Eduardo Marques de Menezes; Silva Reis, Jadson Murilo; Lima, Marcos; Fahel, Edvaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the major complication of biliary lithiasis, for which laparoscopic treatment has been established as the standard therapy. With longer life expectancy, acute cholecystitis has often been seen in elderly patients (>65 years old) and is often accompanied by comorbity and severe complications. We sought to compare the outcome of laparoscopic treatment for acute cholecystitis with special focus on comparison between elderly and nonelderly patients. Method: This study was a prospective analysis of 190 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis or chronic acute cholecystitis, comparing elderly and nonelderly patients. Results: Of 190 patients, 39 (21%) were elderly (>65 years old) and 151 (79%) were not elderly (≤65 years), with conversion rates of 10.3% and 6.6% (P=0.49), respectively. The incidence of postoperative complications in elderly and nonelderly patients were the following, respectively: atelectasis 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27); respiratory infection 5.1% and 2.7% (P=0.6); bile leakage 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27), and intraabdominal abscess 1 case (0.7%) and no incidence (P=1). Conclusion: According to our data, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in patients older than 65 years of age. PMID:17575761

  7. Addition of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity more accurately estimates disability and pain than fear avoidance measures alone after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Pedler, Ashley; Kamper, Steven J; Sterling, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The fear avoidance model (FAM) has been proposed to explain the development of chronic disability in a variety of conditions including whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). The FAM does not account for symptoms of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity, which are associated with poor recovery from whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to explore a model for the maintenance of pain and related disability in people with WAD including symptoms of PTSD, sensory hypersensitivity, and FAM components. The relationship between individual components in the model and disability and how these relationships changed over the first 12 weeks after injury were investigated. We performed a longitudinal study of 103 (74 female) patients with WAD. Measures of pain intensity, cold and mechanical pain thresholds, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, pain catastrophising, kinesiophobia, and fear of cervical spine movement were collected within 6 weeks of injury and at 12 weeks after injury. Mixed-model analysis using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and average 24-hour pain intensity as the dependent variables revealed that overall model fit was greatest when measures of fear of movement, posttraumatic stress, and sensory hypersensitivity were included. The interactive effects of time with catastrophising and time with fear of activity of the cervical spine were also included in the best model for disability. These results provide preliminary support for the addition of neurobiological and stress system components to the FAM to explain poor outcome in patients with WAD.

  8. Reciprocal Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Critically Ill Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Michael S; Stewart, Ian J; Sosnov, Jonathan A; Howard, Jeffrey T; Belenkiy, Slava M; Sine, Christy R; Henderson, Jonathan L; Buel, Allison R; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the association between acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury with respect to their contributions to mortality in critically ill patients. Retrospective analysis of consecutive adult burn patients requiring mechanical ventilation. A 16-bed burn ICU at tertiary military teaching hospital. Adult patients more than 18 years old requiring mechanical ventilation during their initial admission to our burn ICU from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2011. None. A total 830 patients were included, of whom 48.2% had acute kidney injury (n = 400). These patients had a 73% increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome after controlling for age, gender, total body surface area burned, and inhalation injury (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.18-2.54; p = 0.005). In a reciprocal multivariate analysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 299; 36%) demonstrated a strong trend toward developing acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99-1.95; p = 0.05). There was a 24% overall in-hospital mortality (n = 198). After adjusting for the aforementioned confounders, both acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 3.73; 95% CI, 2.39-5.82; p < 0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.58-2.94; p < 0.001) significantly contributed to mortality. Age, total body surface area burned, and inhalation injury were also significantly associated with increased mortality. Acute kidney injury increases the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome in mechanically ventilated burn patients, whereas acute respiratory distress syndrome similarly demonstrates a strong trend toward the development of acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are both independent risks for subsequent death. Future research should look at this interplay for possible early interventions.

  9. Noninvasive ventilation for patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nava, Stefano; Schreiber, Ania; Domenighetti, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Few studies have been performed on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat hypoxic acute respiratory failure in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The outcomes of these patients, for whom endotracheal intubation is not mandatory, depend on the degree of hypoxia, the presence of comorbidities and complications, and their illness severity. The use of NIV as an alternative to invasive ventilation in severely hypoxemic patients with ARDS (ie, P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) < 200) is not generally advisable and should be limited to hemodynamically stable patients who can be closely monitored in an intensive care unit by highly skilled staff. Early NIV application may be extremely helpful in immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates, in whom intubation dramatically increases the risk of infection, pneumonia, and death. The use of NIV in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome and other airborne diseases has generated debate, despite encouraging clinical results, mainly because of safety issues. Overall, the high rate of NIV failure suggests a cautious approach to NIV use in patients with ALI/ARDS, including early initiation, intensive monitoring, and prompt intubation if signs of NIV failure emerge.

  10. Lack of Gender and Age Differences in Pain Measurements Following Exercise in People with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ickmans, Kelly; Malfliet, Anneleen; De Kooning, Margot; Goudman, Lisa; Hubloue, Ives; Schmitz, Tom; Goubert, Dorien; Aguilar-Ferrandiz, Maria Encarnacion

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) present persistent pain in the absence of structural pathology. In these people, altered central pain processing and central sensitization are observed. The role of personal factors, such as gender and age, on pain processing mechanisms in chronic WAD, however, is still unclear. This study investigated possible gender- and age-related differences in self-reported and experimental pain measurements in people with chronic WAD. Besides the exercise-induced response on pain measurements between gender and age subgroups was recorded. Case-control study. University Hospital, Brussels. Self-reported pain and experimental pain measurements (pressure pain thresholds [PPT], occlusion cuff pressure, temporal summation, and conditioned pain modulation) were performed in 52 individuals (26 chronic WAD patients and 26 healthy controls), before and after a submaximal cycle exercise. Lower PPTs and occlusion cuff pressures were shown in chronic WAD in comparison with healthy controls. No gender and age differences regarding PPTs, occlusion cuff pressures and conditioned pain modulation were found in chronic WAD. Within the chronic WAD group, men showed higher self-reported pain compared to women and younger adults showed enhanced generalized pain facilitation compared to older adults. In addition, chronic WAD patients are able to inhibit exercise-induced hyperalgesia, but no gender and age differences in pain response following exercise were found. This study was sufficiently powered to detect differences between the chronic WAD and control group. However, a sufficient power was not reached when patients were divided in age and gender groups. Furthermore, only mechanical stimuli were included in the experimental pain measurements. Besides, psychosocial factors were not taken into account. Some alterations of altered pain processing are present in chronic WAD patients, however not in response to exercise. No gender and

  11. Chemokines and their receptors in whiplash injury: elevated RANTES and CCR-5.

    PubMed

    Kivioja, J; Rinaldi, L; Ozenci, V; Kouwenhoven, M; Kostulas, N; Lindgren, U; Link, H

    2001-07-01

    The human sufferings and socioeconomic burden due to whip-lash-associated disorders (WAD) are obvious but the pathogenesis of WAD is obscure. The possible involvement of the immune system during the disease process in WAD is not known. Effector molecules including chemokines and their receptors could play a role in WAD. In a prospective study using flow cytometry, we examined percentages of blood mononuclear cells (MNC) expressing the chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and IL-8, the chemokine receptor CCR-5, the T cell activation marker CD25, and the T cell chemoattractant IL-16 in patients with WAD and, for reference, in healthy controls. Higher percentages of RANTES-expressing blood MNC and T cells were observed in patients with WAD examined within 3 days compared to 14 days after the whiplash injury and, likewise, compared with healthy controls. The patients with WAD examined within 3 days after the accident also had higher percentages of CCR-5-expressing blood MNC, T cells, and CD45RO+ T cells compared to healthy controls. In contrast, there were no differences for any of these variables between patients with WAD examined 14 days after injury and healthy controls. In conclusion, WAD is associated with a systemic but transient dysregulation in percentages of RANTES and CCR-5 expressing MNC and T cells.

  12. Acute epiglottitis: A review of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Lon, Shafkat Ahmad; Lateef, Mohd; Sajad, Mir

    2006-04-01

    We reviewed 50 patients admitted to the department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery of Govt Medical College Srinagar from September 19% to September 2002 diagnosed with acute epiglottitis. Male were more commonly involved than females in the ratio of 2.8:1 with only 6 cases younger than 10 years of age. The highest incidence was in the month of January (22%). The common symptoms of acute epiglottitis were sorethroat(92%) and odynophagia(88%). Any patient with sudden onset of these symptoms should be suspected of having acute epiglottitis and should have an indirect laryngoscopy. Blood culture was obtained in 20 cases Cultures were positive only in 5 cases, out of which 4 were positive for Hemophilus influenzae type B. Throat cultures were not obtamed The primary treatment of acute epiglottitis is intravenous antibiotics, steriods, and humidified air. Treacheostomy was needed only in 4 patients. There were no deaths.

  13. Accurate diagnosis of acute abdomen in FMF and acute appendicitis patients: how can we use procalcitonin?

    PubMed

    Kisacik, Bunyamin; Kalyoncu, Umut; Erol, M Fatih; Karadag, Omer; Yildiz, Mustafa; Akdogan, Ali; Kaptanoglu, Bugra; Hayran, Mutlu; Ureten, Kemal; Ertenli, Ihsan; Kiraz, Sedat; Calguneri, Meral

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to define the value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in the differential diagnosis of abdominal familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) attacks from acute appendicitis. From October 2006 to January 2007, 28 FMF (12 males, 16 females) patients with acute abdominal attacks and 34 patients (18 males) with acute abdomen who underwent operation with the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis were consecutively enrolled in this study. FMF patients with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. PCT values were measured by an immunofluorescent method using the B.R.A.H.M.S. PCT kit (B.R.A.H.M.S. Diagnostica, Berlin, Germany). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive proteins (CRP) and leucocyte levels were also noted. Mean disease duration in FMF patients was 9.6 +/- 8.1 years (range 2-33 years) and all were on colchicine therapy with a mean colchicine dosage of 1.2 +/- 0.4 mg/day. Among the operated patients, 5 were excluded: 3 patients had normal findings and 2 had intestinal perforation (PCT levels were 2.69 and 4.93 ng/ml, respectively) at operative and pathologic evaluation. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to gender and age (p was not significant (NS) for all). Acute phase reactants and PCT levels were increased in patients with FMF compared to patients with acute appendicitis (0.529[0.12 +/- 0.96] vs 0.095 [0.01-0.80] p < 0.001, respectively). PCT levels higher than 0.5 ng/ml were found in 11% (3/28) of FMF patients compared to 62% (18/29) of acute appendicitis patients (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that PCT could be a useful test in the differentiation of abdominal FMF attacks from acute appendicitis, though it should not supplant more conventional investigations.

  14. Head and neck control varies with perturbation acceleration but not jerk: implications for whiplash injuries

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed that a high rate of acceleration onset, i.e. high jerk, during a low-speed vehicle collision increases the risk of whiplash injury by triggering inappropriate muscle responses and/or increasing peak head acceleration. Our goal was to test these proposed mechanisms at realistic jerk levels and then to determine how collision jerk affects the potential for whiplash injuries. Twenty-three seated volunteers (8 F, 15 M) were exposed to multiple experiments involving perturbations simulating the onset of a vehicle collision in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In the first experiment, subjects experienced five forward and five rearward perturbations to look for the inappropriate muscle responses and ‘floppy’ head kinematics previously attributed to high jerk perturbations. In the second experiment, we independently varied the jerk (∼125 to 3 000 m s−3) and acceleration (∼0.65 to 2.6 g) of the perturbation to assess their effect on the electromyographic (EMG) responses of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), scalene (SCAL) and cervical paraspinal (PARA) muscles and the kinematic responses of the head and neck. In the first experiment, we found neither inappropriate muscle responses nor floppy head kinematics when subjects had their eyes open, but observed two subjects with floppy head kinematics with eyes closed. In the second experiment, we found that about 70% of the variations in the SCM and SCAL responses and about 95% of the variations in head/neck kinematics were explained by changes in perturbation acceleration in both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Less than 2% of the variation in the muscle and kinematic responses was explained by changes in perturbation jerk and, where significant, response amplitudes diminished with increasing jerk. Based on these findings, collision jerk appears to have little or no role in the genesis of whiplash injuries in low-speed vehicle crashes. PMID:19237420

  15. Simulated pain and cervical motion in patients with chronic disorders of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Zeevi; Gal-Eshel, Noga; Shamir, Boaz; Pevzner, Evgeny; Peretz, Chava; Knoller, Nachshon

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to determine how simulated severe cervical pain affects cervical motion in patients suffering from two distinct chronic cervical disorders: whiplash (n=25) and degenerative changes (n=25). The second objective was to derive an index that would allow the differentiation of maximal from submaximal performances of cervical range of motion. Patients first performed maximal movement of the head (maximal effort) in each of the six primary directions and then repeated the test as if they were suffering from a much more intense level of pain (submaximal effort). All measurements were repeated within four to seven days. In both groups, there was significant compression of cervical motion during the submaximal effort. This compression was also highly stable on a test-retest basis. In both groups, a significantly higher average coefficient of variation was associated with the imagined pain and it was significantly different between the two clinical groups. In the whiplash group, a logistic regression model allowed the derivation of coefficient of variation-based cutoff scores that might, at selected levels of probability and an individual level, identify chronic whiplash patients who intentionally magnify their motion restriction using pain as a cue. However, the relatively small and very stable compression of cervical motion under pain simulation supports the view that the likelihood that chronic whiplash patients are magnifying their restriction of cervical range of motion using pain as a cue is very low.

  16. Rapid neck muscle adaptation alters the head kinematics of aware and unaware subjects undergoing multiple whiplash-like perturbations.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Sanderson, David J; Myers, Barry S; Inglis, J Timothy

    2003-04-01

    To examine whether habituation confounds the study of whiplash injury using human subjects, we quantified changes in the magnitude and temporal development of the neck muscle electromyogram and peak linear and angular head/torso kinematics of subjects exposed to sequential whiplash-like perturbations. Forty-four seated subjects (23F, 21M) underwent 11 consecutive forward horizontal perturbations (peak sled acceleration=1.5 g). Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and cervical paraspinal (PARA) muscles with surface electrodes, and head and torso kinematics were measured using linear and angular accelerometers and a 3D motion analysis system. EMG onset occurred at reflex latencies (67-75 ms in SCM) and did not vary with repeated perturbations. EMG amplitude was significantly attenuated by the second perturbation in PARA muscles and by the third perturbation in SCM muscles. The mean decrement in EMG amplitude between the first trial and the mean of the last five trials was between 41% and 64%. Related kinematic changes ranged from a 21% increase in head extension angle to a 29% decrease in forward acceleration at the forehead, and were also significantly different by the second exposure in some variables. Although a wider range of perturbation intensities and inter-perturbation intervals need to be studied, the significant changes observed in both muscle and kinematic variables by the second perturbation indicated that habituation was a potential confounder of whiplash injury studies using repeated perturbations of human subjects.

  17. Thoracic dysfunction in whiplash associated disorders: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard; Tyros, Isaak; Falla, Deborah; Rushton, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Background Research investigating Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) has largely focused on the cervical spine yet symptoms can be widespread. Thoracic spine pain prevalence is reported ~66%; perhaps unsurprising given the forceful stretch/eccentric loading of posterior structures of the spine, and the thoracic spine’s contribution to neck mobility/function. Approximately 50% WAD patients develop chronic pain and disability resulting in high levels of societal and healthcare costs. It is time to look beyond the cervical spine to fully understand anatomical dysfunction in WAD and provide new directions for clinical practice and research. Purpose To evaluate the scope and nature of dysfunction in the thoracic region in patients with WAD. Methods A systematic review and data synthesis was conducted according to a pre-defined, registered (PROSPERO, CRD42015026983) and published protocol. All forms of observational study were included. A sensitive topic-based search strategy was designed from inception to 1/06/16. Databases, grey literature and registers were searched using a study population terms and key words derived from scoping search. Two reviewers independently searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third reviewer checked for consistency and clarity. Extracted data included summary data: sample size and characteristics, outcomes, and timescales to reflect disorder state. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were tabulated to allow enabling a semi-qualitative comparison and grouped by outcome across studies. Strength of the overall body of evidence was assessed using a modified GRADE. Results Thirty eight studies (n>50,000) which were conducted across a range of countries were included. Few authors responded to requests for further data (5 of 9 contacted). Results were reported in the context of overall quality and were presented for measures of pain or dysfunction and

  18. The effect of neck torsion on postural stability in subjects with persistent whiplash.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Ju; Stokell, Raina; Treleaven, Julia

    2011-08-01

    Dysfunction of cervical receptors in neck disorders has been shown to lead to disturbances in postural stability. The neck torsion manoeuvre used in the smooth pursuit neck torsion (SPNT) test is thought to be a specific measure of neck afferent dysfunction on eye movement in those with neck pain. This study aimed to determine whether neck torsion could change balance responses in those with persistent whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). Twenty subjects with persistent WAD and 20 healthy controls aged between 18 and 50 years stood on a computerised force plate with eyes closed in comfortable stance under 5 conditions: neutral head, head turned to left and right and neck torsion to left and right. Root mean square (rms) amplitude of sway was measured in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. The whiplash group had significantly greater rms amplitude in the AP direction following neck torsion compared to the control group (p < 0.03). The results show that the neck torsion manoeuvre may lead to greater postural deficits in individuals with persistent WAD and provides further evidence of neck torsion to identify abnormal cervical afferent input, as an underlying cause of balance disturbances in WAD. Further research is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization and infection in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia: different patterns in patients with acute myelogenous and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Clyde D; Lopansri, Bert K; Haydoura, Souha; Snow, Greg; Dascomb, Kristin K; Asch, Julie; Bo Petersen, Finn; Burke, John P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization and infection in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. DESIGN Retrospective clinical study with VRE molecular strain typing. SETTING A regional referral center for acute leukemia. PATIENTS Two hundred fourteen consecutive patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia between 2006 and 2012. METHODS All patients had a culture of first stool and weekly surveillance for VRE. Clinical data were abstracted from the Intermountain Healthcare electronic data warehouse. VRE molecular typing was performed utilizing the semi-automated DiversiLab System. RESULTS The rate of VRE colonization was directly proportional to length of stay and was higher in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Risk factors associated with colonization include administration of corticosteroids (P=0.004) and carbapenems (P=0.009). Neither a colonized prior room occupant nor an increased unit colonization pressure affected colonization risk. Colonized patients with acute myelogenous leukemia had an increased risk of VRE bloodstream infection (BSI, P=0.002). Other risk factors for VRE BSI include severe neutropenia (P=0.04) and diarrhea (P=0.008). Fifty-eight percent of BSI isolates were identical or related by molecular typing. Eighty-nine percent of bloodstream isolates were identical or related to stool isolates identified by surveillance cultures. VRE BSI was associated with increased costs (P=0.0003) and possibly mortality. CONCLUSIONS VRE colonization has important consequences for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia undergoing induction therapy. For febrile neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, use of empirical antibiotic regimens that avoid carbapenems and include VRE coverage may be helpful in decreasing the risks associated with VRE BSI.

  20. [The diagnosis of so-called whiplash injury of the cervical vertebrae. A case report].

    PubMed

    Ludolph, E; Meindl, U

    1990-08-01

    The acceleration injury of the cervical spine (so-called whip-lash injury) is a common traumatic mechanism in traffic accident. Severe damages are possible. Scepticism is necessary, if several hours or days are symptom-free. Radiological results which seem to prove an injury should be controlled. Severe injuries are in consideration of the symptom-free course incredible. This is demonstrated with a description of a case.

  1. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

  2. Acute pain management in patients with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Jane; Carter, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, prescriptions of opioids for chronic pain have increased dramatically. This review addresses the difficulties in managing acute pain in this growing group of patients and discusses evidence relating to opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia and new avenues of research in specific painful conditions. There is accumulating evidence surrounding the dangers of high-dose opioids and the risk of overdose and death. Employing nonopioid analgesics and disease-modifying drugs to cover an acute exacerbation of pain will thus limit escalating opioid doses. In specific diseases, the role of oxidative stress and the disruption of calcium homeostasis may provide treatment targets in acute pancreatitis; the identification of psychological stressors may decrease the frequency of acute exacerbations of abdominal pain; modifying the adhesion of sickle cells to inflamed endothelium may reduce vaso-occlusive crises; while vertebroplasty and calcitonin appear to improve pain and functioning after osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Much of the evidence regarding the acute pain management of chronic pain patients is extrapolated from studies of opioid-naïve patients undergoing surgery. More focused research is needed to ascertain whether this model is an appropriate one to follow for such a complex group of patients.

  3. Phase II trial of vindesine in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sklaroff, R B; Arlin, Z; Young, C W

    1979-01-01

    Vindesine was administered to 18 patients with acute leukemia who had failed conventional chemotherapy. Each course of therapy consisted of an iv bolus infusion at a dose of 1-2 mg/m2 given daily x 5-10 days. Of 13 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, two had partial remissions which lasted 2 and 3 months and five had minor responses. One of three patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and one of two patients with blastic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia each had a minor response. The data suggest that vindesine has activity in the treatment of acute leukemia.

  4. Demographic and clinical profiles in patients with acute urticaria.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Capriles-Hulett, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common cause for consultation in general and specialised medical practices. There is scarce information on the characteristics of patients suffering acute urticaria in Latin America. To investigate demographic and clinical features of patients with acute urticaria attending two allergy clinics in Caracas, Venezuela. A prospective study of all new patients who consulted during a three-year period because of acute urticaria. Information on age, gender, symptom duration, previous medical history, body distribution of wheals and angio-oedema, laboratory investigations, skin prick tests, and pharmacological treatment, was collected. Patients were classified according to their age as children/adolescents and adults. Two hundred and forty eight patients (177 adults and 71 children) were studied. Acute urticaria was more frequent in middle-aged atopic female patients. Lesions more often involved upper and lower limbs and head, and 31% of patients exhibited generalised urticaria. Laboratory investigations, performed only in selected cases, did not contribute to the final diagnosis. Most frequent subtypes of acute urticaria were spontaneous, dermographic, papular, and drug-induced urticaria. Most patients were treated with non-sedating antihistamines, with increased use of cetirizine and levocetirizine in children, while 5.6% of children and 20.3% of adults required the addition of short courses of systemic corticosteroids. Acute urticaria is a frequent cause of consultation for allergists, affecting more often middle-aged female atopic patients. The use of extensive complementary tests does not seem to be cost-effective for this clinical condition. Spontaneous, dermographic, papular and drug-induced urticaria are the most common subtypes. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The acute monocytic leukemias: multidisciplinary studies in 45 patients.

    PubMed

    Straus, D J; Mertelsmann, R; Koziner, B; McKenzie, S; de Harven, E; Arlin, Z A; Kempin, S; Broxmeyer, H; Moore, M A; Menendez-Botet, C J; Gee, T S; Clarkson, B D

    1980-11-01

    The clinical and laboratory features of 37 patients with variants of acute monocytic leukemia are described. Three of these 37 patients who had extensive extramedullary leukemic tissue infiltration are examples of true histiocytic "lymphomas." Three additional patients with undifferentiated leukemias, one patient with refractory anemia with excess of blasts, one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, one patient with B-lymphocyte diffuse "histiocytic" lymphoma and one patient with "null" cell, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive lymphoblastic lymphoma had bone marrow cells with monocytic features. Another patient had dual populations of lymphoid and monocytoid leukemic cells. The true monocytic leukemias, acute monocytic leukemia (AMOL) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMOL), are closely related to acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) morphologically and by their response to chemotherapy. like AML, the leukemic cells from the AMMOL and AMOL patients form leukemic clusters in semisolid media. Cytochemical staining of leukemic cells for nonspecific esterases, presence of Fc receptor on the cell surface, phagocytic ability, low TdT activity, presence of surface "ruffles" and "ridges" on scanning EM, elevations of serum lysozyme, and clinical manifestations of leukemic tissue infiltration are features which accompanied monocytic differentiation in these cases.

  6. [Prediction of mortality in patients with acute hepatic failure].

    PubMed

    Eremeeva, L F; Berdnikov, A P; Musaeva, T S; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a study of 243 patients (from 18 to 65 years old) with acute hepatic failure. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the predictive capability of severity scales APACHE III, SOFA, MODS, Child-Pugh and to identify mortality predictors in patients with acute hepatic failure. Results; The best predictive ability in patients with acute hepatic failure and multiple organ failure had APACHE III and SOFA scales. The strongest mortality predictors were: serum creatinine > 132 mmol/L, fibrinogen < 1.4 g/L, Na < 129 mmol/L.

  7. The Effect of Neck-specific Exercise With, or Without a Behavioral Approach, on Pain, Disability, and Self-Efficacy in Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Gunnel; O’Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). Materials and Methods: A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (P<0.01) in the 2 NSE groups (29% to 48%) compared with the PPA group (5%) at 3 months. At 6 months 39% to 44% of the patients in the 2 neck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P<0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. Discussion: NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive. PMID:24918474

  8. Acute Toxoplasma infection among family members of patients with acute lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Luft, B J; Remington, J S

    1984-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine how frequently acute infections with Toxoplasma gondii occur among family members of patients with acute acquired lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis. In five of the nine families studied, more than one family member had serologic evidence of recent acute infection with T gondii. In three of the families, the immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody titers to T gondii among infected family members were similar irrespective of whether lymphadenopathy was present. Lymphadenopathy developed in one family member in each of two families (families VIII and IX) three and eight months after lymphadenopathy had developed in the index case (proband). These results suggest that common-source outbreaks occur with surprising frequency among family members of patients with lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis and that the humoral response is similar with different manifestations of the infection.

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury Following Mannitol Infusion in Patients With Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic, is commonly used to treat patients with acute brain edema, but its use also increases the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigated the incidence and risk factors of mannitol-related AKI in acute stroke patients. A total of 432 patients (ischemic stroke 62.3%) >20 years of age who were admitted to the neurocritical care center in a tertiary hospital and received mannitol treatment were enrolled in this study. Clinical parameters including the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, vascular risk factors, laboratory data, and concurrent nephrotoxic medications were registered. Acute kidney injury was defined as an absolute elevation in the serum creatinine (Scr) level of ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline or a ≥50% increase in Scr. The incidence of mannitol-related AKI was 6.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.5%–9.3%) in acute stroke patients, 6.3% in patients with ischemic stroke, and 6.7% in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline, higher initial NIHSS score, and concurrent use of diuretics increased the risk of mannitol-related AKI. When present, the combination of these elements displayed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 (95% confidence interval, 0.770–0.909). In conclusion, mannitol-related AKI is not uncommon in the treatment of acute stroke patients, especially in those with vulnerable risk factors. PMID:26632702

  10. Return to the Primary Acute Care Service Among Patients With Multiple Myeloma on an Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jack B; Lee, Jay; Shin, Ben C; Silver, Julie K; Smith, Dennis W; Shah, Jatin J; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Pancytopenia, immunosuppression, and other factors may place patients with multiple myeloma at risk for medical complications. These patients often require inpatient rehabilitation. No previous studies have looked at risk factors for return to the primary acute care service of this patient population. To determine the percentage of and factors associated with return to the primary acute care service of multiple myeloma rehabilitation inpatients. Retrospective review. Acute inpatient rehabilitation unit within a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center. All patients with multiple myeloma admitted to the inpatient rehabilitation unit between March 1, 2004, and February 28, 2015. Return to the primary acute care service was analyzed with demographic information, multiple myeloma characteristics, medications, laboratory values, and hospital admission characteristics. One hundred forty-three inpatient rehabilitation admissions were found during the study period. After we removed multiple admissions of the same patients and planned transfers to the primary acute care service, 122 admissions were analyzed. Thirty-two (26%) patients transferred back to the primary acute care service for unplanned reasons. Multivariate analysis revealed male gender and thrombocytopenia as significantly associated with return to the primary acute care service. The median survival of patients who transferred back to the inpatient primary acute care service was 180 days versus 550 days for those who did not (P < .001). Because of their medical fragility, clinicians caring for rehabilitation inpatients with multiple myeloma should maintain close contact with the primary oncology service. Factors associated with an increased risk of transfer back to the primary acute care service include male gender and thrombocytopenia. IV. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sincerity of effort versus feigned movement control of the cervical spine in patients with whiplash-associated disorders and asymptomatic persons: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Oddsdóttir, Gudny Lilja; Kristjansson, Eythor; Gislason, Magnus Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional design. To investigate whether the Fly Test can be used to differentiate patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) from asymptomatic persons who deliberately feign symptoms and from WAD patients exaggerating symptoms. The lack of valid clinical tests makes it difficult to detect a justifiable cause for compensation claims in traumatic neck-pain disorders. The Fly Test recorded the accuracy of neck movements in patients with WAD (n = 34) and asymptomatic persons (n = 31). The participants followed a moving "Fly" on a computer screen with a cursor from sensors mounted on the head. Two conditions were tested, sincere versus feigned efforts. In the former, the participants moved their neck as accurately as possible. In the latter, a short text was presented describing a fictitious accident (asymptomatic group) or imagining more intense pain/suffering (WAD group), and the test was performed as affected by these more serious conditions. Amplitude accuracy (AA), time on target (ToT) and jerk index (JI) were compared across patterns, conditions and groups. The sincere effort in the WAD group was significant compared to the feigned effort of the asymptomatic group (p < 0.001). For AA, correct categorization of 81.5% of the performances was made, where a mean score above 5.5 mm differentiated feigned versus sincere efforts in asymptomatic and WAD groups (sensitivity 79.4%, specificity 67.7%). For ToT, score above 11% indicated correctly categorized WAD patients (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 64.5%). The Fly Test can provide clinicians a clue when patients with mild to moderate pain/disability are feigning or exaggerating symptoms.

  12. Active acute leukaemia: should transplant be offered to all patients?

    PubMed

    Avni, Batia; Shapira, Michael Y; Resnick, Igor B; Stepensky, Polina; Or, Reuven; Grisariu, Sigal

    2017-12-01

    The probability of achieving long term remission for patients with refractory acute leukaemia is very low. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is offered to these patients in order to improve their dismal outcome. We retrospectively analyzed 361 acute leukaemia patients, who underwent allogeneic SCT in the Hadassah's bone marrow transplantation department between the years 2005 and 2012 and identified 84 patients with active leukaemia at transplantation. Median age was 34 years. Sixty four patients were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 18 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and two with biphenotypic leukaemia. The majority of patients were diagnosed with de-novo AML and transplanted at relapse. In the surviving patients, median follow up was 15 months. One year OS was 20%. At time of last follow up, 13 patients were alive (15.5%): ten patients with AML and two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with significantly better overall survival were as follows: matched unrelated donor (p = 0.006), matched donor (p = 0.014) and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (p = 0.019). Karnofsky performance score at SCT and occurrence of cGVHD were found to be borderline significant. Only matched unrelated donor and aGVHD were found to affect overall survival significantly in the multivariate analysis. Other than performance score at SCT, none of the pretransplant patients' characteristics were found to influence survival. In conclusion, as none of the pretransplant characteristics were found to influence the ability to select the patients that will benefit from HSC transplantation, this work supports offering HSCT to all active leukaemia eligible patients with reasonable performance status. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-06-20

    Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9 degrees (95% CI; 12.2-15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9 degrees (95% CI; 16.1-19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9 degrees (95% CI; 23.7-28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor to current pain, but more

  14. Value of initial radiological investigations in patients admitted to hospital with appendicitis, acute gallbladder disease or acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhangu, Aneel; Richardson, Charlotte; Winter, Hannah; Bleetman, Anthony

    2010-10-01

    To determine the value of abdominal radiography (AXR) for investigating patients attending hospital with a first episode of appendicitis (requiring appendicectomy), acute gallbladder disease or acute pancreatitis, and to identify if early (within 18 h) ultrasound or CT scanning reduces the use of AXR. Setting Two acute teaching hospitals during August-September 2008 and February-March 2009. Audit of 355 patients (179 patients (50%) who underwent appendicectomy, 128 (36%) admitted with acute gallbladder disease and 48 (14%) with acute pancreatitis). AXR was performed in 53 patients (30%) who underwent appendicectomy, 73 (57%) with acute gallstone disease and 38 (78%) with acute pancreatitis. The useful abnormality pick-up rate was low; 9% (n=5), 5% (n=4) and 0% (n=0), respectively. When used, ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis in 84% (140/166) and CT scanning (either after AXR or as first line) in 97% (34/35). 42 patients underwent early ultrasound (n=27) or CT scanning (n=15), which together reduced the rate of AXR usage by 34% (14/42 early vs 107/159 delayed, p<0.001). AXR does not aid diagnosis of these conditions but is still performed. Early ultrasound or CT scanning reduces the use of AXR and are more sensitive; methods of providing these should be explored.

  15. Troponin I degradation in serum of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper K; Hallén, Jonas; Lund, Terje; Madsen, Lene Helleskov; Grieg, Zanina; Januzzi, James L; Atar, Dan

    2011-02-01

    Although troponin is a cornerstone biomarker in the assessment and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome, much remains to be learned about the biology of this widely used biomarker, including its post-release modification. Degradation of troponin following release in patients with acute coronary syndrome has been described; however whether such post-release modification occurs in other non-acute coronary syndrome states remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define troponin degradation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Troponin I (cTnI) was measured daily during the first 5 days of admission in 244 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Western blot analysis was performed using anti-cTnI antibodies and compared with serum concentrations of cTnI in seven patients and one patient with myocardial infarction (positive control). Elevated levels of troponin were detected in 25 (10%) patients; in all, both intact cTnI and cTnI degradation products were detected, with up to seven degradation fragments found. Samples with the highest total cTnI levels gave the strongest and most numerous western-blotting bands. All fragments were comparable with the degradation pattern of the positive control in terms of position. Immunoblotting of blood samples from patients with acute ischemic stroke reveals similar degradation patterns of cTnI as has been described in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The biological ramification and potential clinical impact of this finding bears further scrutiny.

  16. Risk factors and outcomes of acute kidney injury in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Tujios, Shannan R; Hynan, Linda S; Vazquez, Miguel A; Larson, Anne M; Seremba, Emmanuel; Sanders, Corron M; Lee, William M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) frequently develop renal dysfunction, yet its overall incidence and outcomes have not been fully assessed. We investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with ALF, using defined criteria to identify risk factors and to evaluate its effect on overall outcomes. We performed a retrospective review of data from 1604 patients enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group, from 1998 through 2010. Patients were classified by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, as well as for etiology of liver failure (acetaminophen-based, ischemic, and all others). Seventy percent of patients with ALF developed AKI, and 30% received renal replacement therapy (RRT). Patients with severe AKI had higher international normalized ratio values than those without renal dysfunction (P < .001), and a higher proportion had advanced-grade coma (coma grades 3 or 4; P < .001) or presented with hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy (P < .001). A greater proportion of patients with acetaminophen-induced ALF had severe kidney injury than of patients with other etiologies of ALF; 34% required RRT, compared with 25% of patients with ALF not associated with acetaminophen or ischemia (P < .002). Of the patients with ALF who were alive at 3 weeks after study entry, significantly fewer with AKI survived for 1 year. Although AKI reduced the overall survival time, more than 50% of patients with acetaminophen-associated or ischemic ALF survived without liver transplantation (even with RRT), compared with 19% of patients with ALF attribute to other causes (P < .001). Only 4% of patients requiring RRT became dependent on dialysis. Based on a retrospective analysis of data from more than 1600 patients, AKI is common in patients with ALF and affects short- and long-term outcomes, but rarely results in chronic kidney disease. Acetaminophen-induced kidney injury is frequent, but patients have better outcomes than those with other forms of

  17. Widespread pain following whiplash-associated disorders: incidence, course, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lena W; Carroll, Linda J; Cassidy, J David; Skillgate, Eva; Ahlbom, Anders

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and course of widespread pain (WP) subsequent to localized pain in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD); and to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms, neck pain intensity, number of whiplash-associated symptoms, and number of painful body areas on such conditions. From a large prospective cohort of injury claimants who reported WAD after motor vehicle collision (MVC; n = 7462), we identified a subgroup with only localized head/neck/back pain, and who responded to one or more followup questionnaires mailed at 6 weeks and 4, 6, and 12 months after the MVC (n = 266). Pain drawings were distributed at the followup, and we defined WP as having 9 or more painful areas, including posterior neck, at any of these occasions. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and pain intensity with on a visual analog scale (VAS). The cumulative incidence of WP was 21%, and it occurred early after the injury. Continuous WP over the 12 months was rare. The odds for developing WP were greater in those with depressive symptoms (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.3), VAS pain intensity 55-100 (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-8.0), reporting > or = 3 pain-associated symptoms (OR 1.9, 95% CI 0.9-3.8), and those reporting 4 or 5 painful body areas (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.4). WP occurred early in the course. Even though the cumulative incidence was 21%, continuous WP was rare. Subjects with WAD who report early depressive symptoms and more severe neck injury symptoms are at risk of developing WP after MVC.

  18. Acute porphyria in a patient with Arnold Chiari malformation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianbin; O'Keefe, Kevin; Webb, Lisa B; DeGirolamo, Angela

    2015-02-20

    Acute porphyria and Arnold Chiari malformation are both uncommon genetic disorders without known association. The insidious onset, non-specific clinical manifestations, and precipitating factors often cause diagnosis of acute porphyria to be missed, particularly in patients with comorbidities. A women with Arnold Chiari malformation type II who was treated with oxybutynin and antibiotics, including Bactrim for neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infection, presented with non-specific abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. After receiving Flagyl for C. difficile colitis, the patient developed psychosis, ascending paralysis, and metabolic derangements. She underwent extensive neurological workup due to her congenital neurological abnormalities, most of which were unremarkable. As a differential diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome, acute porphyria was then considered and ultimately proved to be the diagnosis. After hematin administration and intense rehabilitation, the patient slowly recovered from the full-blown acute porphyria attack. This case report, for the first time, documents acute porphyria attack as a result of a sequential combination of 3 common medications. This is the first case report of the concomitant presence of both acute porphyria and Arnold Chiari malformation, 2 genetic disorders with unclear association.

  19. Transthyretin Concentrations in Acute Stroke Patients Predict Convalescent Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Isono, Naofumi; Imamura, Yuki; Ohmura, Keiko; Ueda, Norihide; Kawabata, Shinji; Furuse, Motomasa; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    For stroke patients, intensive nutritional management is an important and effective component of inpatient rehabilitation. Accordingly, acute care hospitals must detect and prevent malnutrition at an early stage. Blood transthyretin levels are widely used as a nutritional monitoring index in critically ill patients. Here, we had analyzed the relationship between the transthyretin levels during the acute phase and Functional Independence Measure in stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. We investigated 117 patients who were admitted to our hospital with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke from February 2013 to October 2015 and subsequently transferred to convalescent hospitals after receiving acute treatment. Transthyretin concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points as follows: at admission, and 5 and 10 days after admission. After categorizing patients into 3 groups according to the minimum transthyretin level, we analyzed the association between transthyretin and Functional Independence Measure. In our patients, transthyretin levels decreased during the first 5 days after admission and recovered slightly during the subsequent 5 days. Notably, Functional Independence Measure efficiency was significantly associated with the decrease in transthyretin levels during the 5 days after admission. Patients with lower transthyretin levels had poorer Functional Independence Measure outcomes and tended not to be discharged to their own homes. A minimal transthyretin concentration (<10 mg/dL) is predictive of a poor outcome in stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. In particular, an early decrease in transthyretin levels suggests restricted rehabilitation efficiency. Accordingly, transthyretin levels should be monitored in acute stroke patients to indicate mid-term rehabilitation prospects. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal Microbial Community Differs between Acute Pancreatitis Patients and Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi Mei; Zhang, Zheng Yu; Zhang, Chen Huan; Wu, Jing; Wang, You Xin; Zhang, Guo Xin

    2018-01-01

    A case control study including 45 acute pancreatitis and 44 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the association between intestinal microbial community and acute pancreatitis. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to profile the microbiological composition of the samples. In total, 27 microbial phyla were detected and the samples of pancreatitis patients contained fewer phyla. Samples from acute pancreatitis patients contained more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and fewer Firmicutes and Actinobacteria than those from healthy volunteers. PCoA analyses distinguished the fecal microbial communities of acute pancreatitis patients from those of healthy volunteers. The intestinal microbes of acute pancreatitis patients are different from those of healthy volunteers. Modulation of the intestinal microbiome may serve as an alternative strategy for treating acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical diagnostic accuracy of acute colonic diverticulitis in patients admitted with acute abdominal pain, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Jamal Talabani, A; Endreseth, B H; Lydersen, S; Edna, T-H

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the capability of clinical findings, temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count to discern patients with acute colonic diverticulitis from all other patients admitted with acute abdominal pain. The probability of acute diverticulitis was assessed by the examining doctor, using a scale from 0 (zero probability) to 10 (100 % probability). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the clinical diagnostic accuracy of acute colonic diverticulitis in patients admitted with acute abdominal pain. Of 833 patients admitted with acute abdominal pain, 95 had acute colonic diverticulitis. ROC curve analysis gave an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95 (CI 0.92 to 0.97) for ages <65 years, AUC = 0.86 (CI 0.78 to 0.93) in older patients. Separate analysis showed an AUC = 0.83 (CI 0.80 to 0.86) of CRP alone. White blood cell count and temperature were almost useless to discriminate acute colonic diverticulitis from other types of acute abdominal pain, AUC = 0.59 (CI 0.53 to 0.65) for white blood cell count and AUC = 0.57 (0.50 to 0.63) for temperature, respectively. This prospective study demonstrates that standard clinical evaluation by non-specialist doctors based on history, physical examination, and initial blood tests on admission provides a high degree of diagnostic precision in patients with acute colonic diverticulitis.

  2. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative massmore » spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.« less

  4. Hypokalemia and agitation in acute psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Hatta, K; Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Yamashiro, H; Asukai, N; Yonezawa, Y

    1999-04-19

    Hypokalemia is caused partly by intensive exercise. Some evidence suggests that psychological distress may cause hypokalemia. The relationship between the decline of serum potassium concentration and the level of symptoms of acute agitation, which was defined as a total score on a subset of six categories on the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (anxiety, tension, mannerism and posturing, hostility, uncooperativeness, psychomotor excitement), was examined in 313 schizophrenic men, admitted on an emergency basis during a 24-month period. In addition, change in serum potassium concentration after sedation was investigated. Serum potassium concentration in the severely agitated group was lower than that in the mild group. There was a significant correlation between serum potassium concentration and the level of symptoms of acute agitation (r = -0.30, P < 0.0001). Although the decline of serum potassium concentration in the patients who were sufficiently sedated improved within 8 h, that in the patients showing high scores on the acute agitation subset even 8 h after emergency admission was prolonged. Results indicate that sedation improves acute agitation-induced hypokalemia. rights

  5. Acute Vilazodone Toxicity in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Acker, Emily C; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Beardsley, Andrew L; Ahmed, Sheikh S; Froberg, Blake A

    2015-09-01

    Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5HT1A agonist recently approved to treat depression in adults. To date, there are minimal data available regarding the expected course and treatment of acute vilazodone ingestions. We report a case of a previously healthy 19-month-old girl who presented after an acute ingestion of an estimated 37 mg/kg vilazodone. She was taken to an outside emergency department approximately 1 h after an unwitnessed ingestion. Initially, the patient was noted to have decreased responsiveness, sluggish but reactive pupils, altered mental status, and reported seizure activity. She was given intravenous lorazepam for seizure control, intubated, and transferred to a pediatric tertiary care facility, where she continued to show signs of serotonin toxicity and received treatment with benzodiazepines and cyproheptadine. Despite vilazodone's long half-life and the large amount ingested, the patient was extubated within 10 h of presentation, had returned to baseline mental status by 22 h, and was discharged home approximately 57 h after ingestion. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Accidental ingestions are common in the pediatric population. Emergency physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of acute medication toxicities, the expected clinical course, and the necessary supportive measures used to treat these patients. Because vilazodone is a recently approved medication, there is little experience with acute vilazodone ingestions. This report considerably increases the understanding of vilazodone's effects in the setting of an acute ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Responsiveness of the cervical Northern American Spine Society questionnaire (NASS) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) in chronic whiplash.

    PubMed

    Angst, Felix; Verra, Martin L; Lehmann, Susanne; Gysi, Françoise; Benz, Thomas; Aeschlimann, André

    2012-02-01

    To determine and compare the sensitivity to change of the condition-specific cervical Northern American Spine Society (NASS) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36). Prospective cohort study. One hundred and seventy five patients after whiplash injury. Four-week inpatient interdisciplinary pain management programme. MAIN MEASURES, ANALYSIS: Responsiveness of the NASS and the SF-36 was quantified by effect size and standardized response mean and compared within the same construct by the modified Jacknife test. Ability to detect improvement was compared using sensitivities determined from receiver operating characteristics curves. In pain, the NASS was comparable responsive to the SF-36 at the one-month follow-up (n = 175): effect sizes: 0.62 (NASS) versus 0.61 (SF-36), P = 0.914. The NASS was less responsive than the SF-36 in function: 0.23 versus 0.63, P < 0.001 and in pain+function: 0.35 versus 0.58 (P = 0.001). These relationships remained consistent using standardized response means, at the six-month follow-up (n = 103), and in the comparison of the sensitivities. Sensitivities at one month, pain: 70% (NASS) versus 62% (SF-36), P = 0.234; function: 65% versus 80%, P = 0.002; pain+function: 68% versus 78%, P = 0.035. The six-month data were similar. The generic SF-36 was more responsive in function and equally responsive in pain when compared to the condition-specific NASS. The SF-36 can be recommended as a responsive instrument for measurement of pain and function in chronic whiplash syndrome.

  7. The effect of neck-specific exercise with, or without a behavioral approach, on pain, disability, and self-efficacy in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsson, Maria L; Peterson, Gunnel; O'Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (P<0.01) in the 2 NSE groups (29% to 48%) compared with the PPA group (5%) at 3 months. At 6 months 39% to 44% of the patients in the 2 neck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P<0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive.

  8. Investigation of pituitary functions in patients with acute meningitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, F; Alp, E; Demiraslan, H; Dokmetas, H S; Unluhizarci, K; Doganay, M; Casanueva, F F; Kelestimur, F

    2008-06-01

    Although long-term pituitary consequences of tuberculous meningitis are well documented in the literature, there have been few case reports of pituitary dysfunction after acute bacterial or viral meningitis. In this preliminary study, we have assessed the pituitary functions in adult patients who had acute bacterial or viral meningitis. Fourteen patients (8 men, 6 women; mean age 35.3+/-13.3) were included in the study. The diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis was proven by clinical findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, gram staining, and blood and CSF cultures. Pituitary functions were evaluated ranging from 6 to 48 months (mean 20 months) after acute meningitis. GH deficiency was investigated by the GHRH+arginine stimulation test. Four of 14 patients (28.6%) had isolated GH deficiency. In GH-deficient patients, the earliest duration was 6 months and the latest duration was 48 months after the diagnosis of acute meningitis. Three of the GH-deficient patients had acute bacterial meningitis and 1 patient had acute viral meningitis. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed normal pituitary gland in the patients with GH deficiency. This is the first systematic study evaluating the anterior pituitary function long term after the diagnosis of acute meningitis. Based on the present study, it is tempting to speculate that pituitary dysfunction is a more common sequel of acute bacterial or viral meningitis than hitherto reported. Studies with high numbers of patients are warranted to ascertain the prevalence of meningitis-induced hypopituitarism.

  9. Acute versus subacute community-acquired meningitis: Analysis of 611 patients.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Tarek; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    Community-acquired meningitis can be classified into acute and subacute presentations by the duration of illness of ≤ or >5 days, respectively. There are currently no studies comparing the clinical features, management decisions, etiologies, and outcomes between acute and subacute presentations.It is a retrospective study of adults with community-acquired meningitis hospitalized in Houston, TX between January 2005 and January 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of ≤4.A total of 611 patients were identified, of which 458 (75%) were acute and 153 subacute (25%). The most common etiologies were unknown in 418 (68.4%), viral in 94 (15.4%), bacterial in 47 (7.7%), fungal in 42 patients (6.9%), and other noninfectious etiologies in 6 (1%). Patients with subacute meningitis were more likely to be immunosuppressed or have comorbidities, had fungal etiologies, and had higher rates of hypoglycorrachia and abnormal neurological findings (P <.05). Patients with an acute presentation were more likely to be treated empirically with intravenous antibiotics and had higher cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and serum white blood cell counts (P <.05). On logistic regression, age >65 years and abnormal neurological findings were predictive of an adverse clinical outcome in both acute and subacute meningitis, whereas fever was also a significant prognostic factor in acute meningitis. (P <.05).Acute and subacute meningitis differ in regards to clinical presentations, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management decisions, but did not differ in rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Future studies including thoroughly investigated patients with new diagnostic molecular methods may show different results and outcomes.

  10. Prospective investigation of pituitary functions in patients with acute infectious meningitis: is acute meningitis induced pituitary dysfunction associated with autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, F; De Bellis, A; Teksahin, H; Alp, E; Bizzarro, A; Sinisi, A A; Bellastella, G; Paglionico, V A; Bellastella, A; Unluhizarci, K; Doganay, M; Kelestimur, F

    2012-12-01

    Previous case reports and retrospective studies suggest that pituitary dysfunction may occur after acute bacterial or viral meningitis. In this prospective study we assessed the pituitary functions, lipid profile and anthropometric measures in adults with acute bacterial or viral meningitis. Moreover, in order to investigate whether autoimmune mechanisms could play a role in the pathogenesis of acute meningitis-induced hypopituitarism we also investigated the anti-pituitary antibodies (APA) and anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) prospectively. Sixteen patients (10 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age 40.9 ± 15.9) with acute infectious meningitis were included and the patients were evaluated in the acute phase, and at 6 and 12 months after the acute meningitis. In the acute phase 18.7% of the patients had GH deficiency, 12.5% had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. At 12 months after acute meningitis 6 of 14 patients (42.8%) had GH deficiency, 1 of 14 patients (7.1%) had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. Two of 14 patients (14.3%) had combined hormone deficiencies and four patients (28.6%) had isolated hormone deficiencies at 12 months. Four of 9 (44.4%) hormone deficiencies at 6 months were recovered at 12 months, and 3 of 8 (37.5%) hormone deficiencies at 12 months were new-onset hormone deficiencies. At 12 months there were significant negative correlations between IGF-I level vs. LDL-C, and IGF-I level vs. total cholesterol. The frequency of AHA and APA positivity was substantially high, ranging from 35 to 50% of the patients throughout the 12 months period. However there were no significant correlations between AHA or APA positivity and hypopituitarism. The risk of hypopituitarism, GH deficiency in particular, is substantially high in the acute phase, after 6 and 12 months of the acute infectious meningitis. Moreover we found that 6th month after meningitis is too early to make a decision for pituitary dysfunction and these patients should be screened for at least 12 months

  11. The Olson method for detection of acute myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Thomas; Olson, Charles W; Swenne, Cees A; Man, Sumche; Pahlm, Olle

    An automated ECG-based method may provide diagnostic support in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Olson method has previously proved to accurately identify the culprit artery in patients with acute coronary occlusion. The Olson method was applied to 360 patients without acute myocardial ischemia and 52 patients with acute coronary occlusion. This study establishes the normal variation of the Olson wall scores in patients without acute myocardial ischemia, which provides the basis for implementation of the Olson method for triage of patients with acute coronary syndrome. All patients with acute occlusion had Olson wall scores above the upper limit of normal. The Olson method can be used for ischemia detection with very high sensitivity. Future studies are needed to explore specificity in patients with non-ischemic ST elevation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute myelofibrosis and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an elderly patient with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria M; Kidd, Laura; Quesada, Jorge; Nguyen, Nghia; Chen, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm involving the bone marrow with organ damage and/or a monoclonal protein (M-spike in the serum and/or urine). This neoplasm typically affects adults over the age of 50. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematological disorder involving at least 20% lymphoblasts in the bone marrow of the B-cell lineage. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia most commonly affects young children with 75% of cases occurring in children less than 6 years old. This case report describes a patient diagnosed with MM in 2000 who achieved a complete remission in 2006 after chemotherapy. Four years later, the patient presented with sudden pancytopenia. A bone marrow biopsy was obtained revealing a B lymphoblastic leukemia in an extensively fibrotic marrow without evidence of MM. A diagnosis of ALL with myelofibrosis is rare in the adult population, acute myelofibrosis (AMF) is more commonly associated with myeloproliferative disorders, and the development of acute leukemia in myeloma is rare. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of MM, ALL, and myelofibrosis in one patient has never been reported.

  13. [Acute poisoning in patients over 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Miranda Arto, P; Ferrer Dufol, A; Ruiz Ruiz, F J; Menao Guillén, S; Civeira Murillo, E

    2014-01-01

    There are few Spanish studies on acute poisoning in the elderly despite the associated risk factors of this group of patients. Retrospective descriptive study of acute poisonings treated in the Emergency Service of the University Hospital of Zaragoza from 1995 to 2009 on patients 65 years old or older. A total of 762 patients were selected in the study (4.74% of all acute poisonings) with a mean age of 74.16 (SD ± 6) years. Ingestion was the major route of exposure (85%) and alcohol overdose (28,7%) was the most frequent type of poisoning. A trend was also observed showing a lower emetic treatment and gastric lavage and an increase in activated charcoal. Benzodiazepines (14.3%) and toxic household products (11%) with caustic properties were also the main toxics found in the study. Acute poisonings in the elderly required more hospitalizations, have a higher mortality and more autolytic attempts which result in death.

  14. Interest in spiritually integrated psychotherapy among acute psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Rosmarin, David H; Forester, Brent P; Shassian, Daniel M; Webb, Christian A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-12-01

    Spiritually integrated psychotherapy (SIP) is increasingly common, though systematic assessment of interest in such treatments, and predictors of such interest, has not yet been conducted among acute psychiatric patients. We conducted a survey with 253 acute psychiatric patients (95-99% response rate) at a private psychiatric hospital in Eastern Massachusetts to assess for interest in SIP, religious affiliation, and general spiritual or religious involvement alongside clinical and demographic factors. More than half (58.2%) of patients reported "fairly" or greater interest in SIP, and 17.4% reported "very much" interest. Demographic and clinical factors were not significant predictors except that current depression predicted greater interest. Religious affiliation and general spiritual or religious involvement were associated with more interest; however, many affiliated patients reported low or no interest (42%), and conversely many unaffiliated patients reported "fairly" or greater interest (37%). Many acute psychiatric patients, particularly individuals with major depression, report interest in integrating spirituality into their mental health care. Assessment of interest in SIP should be considered in the context of clinical care. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Long-term follow-up of whiplash injuries reported to insurance companies: a cohort study on patient-reported outcomes and impact of financial compensation.

    PubMed

    Rydman, Eric; Ponzer, Sari; Brisson, Rosa; Ottosson, Carin; Pettersson-Järnbert, Hans

    2018-06-01

    The long-term outcome of Whiplash-associated disorder (WADs) has been reported to be poor in populations from medical settings. However, no trials have investigated the long-term prognosis of patients from medico-legal environment. For this group, the "compensation hypothesis" suggests financial compensation being associated with worsened outcome. The aims of this study were to describe long-term (2-4 years) non-recovery rates in participants with WAD recruited from insurance companies and to investigate the association between self-reported non-recovery and financial compensation. 144 participants, reporting neck pain after a motor vehicle accident, were recruited from two major insurance companies in Sweden. Self-reported recovery was measured at 6 months and 2-4 years. Those who received financial compensation from an insurance company were compared with those who received no compensation. The overall non-recovery rate after 2-4 years was 55.9% (66/118). In the non-compensated group, the non-recovery rate was 51.0% (25/49) and in the compensated group 73% (27/37) (p = 0.039). Adjusted OR was 4.33 (1.37-13.66). High level of pain at baseline was a strong predictor of non-recovery [OR 46 (4.7-446.0)]. However, no association was found between pain level at baseline and financial compensation. The non-recovery rate among patients making insurance claims is high, especially among those receiving financial compensation even if causal relationship cannot be determined based on this study. However, lack of association between baseline level of pain and compensation supports the compensation hypothesis.

  16. The Value of Secretin-Enhanced MRCP in Patients With Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Tahir, Bilal; Barad, Udaykamal; Fogel, Evan; Akisik, Fatih; Tirkes, Temel; Sherman, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the additional value of secretin-enhanced MRCP over conventional (non-secretin-enhanced) MRCP in diagnosing disease in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. A retrospective review of a radiology database found 72 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis who had secretin-enhanced MRCP and ERCP correlation within 3 months of each other between January 2007 and December 2011. Of these patients, 54 had no history of pancreatic tumor or surgery and underwent MRI more than 3 months after an episode of acute pancreatitis. In addition, 57 age- and sex-matched control subjects with secretin-enhanced MRCP and ERCP correlation and without a diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis were enrolled as the control group. All studies were anonymized, and secretin-enhanced MRCP images (image set A) were separated from conventional 2D and 3D MRCP and T2-weighted images (image set B). Image sets A and B for each patient were assigned different and randomized case numbers. Two blinded reviewers independently assessed both image sets for ductal abnormalities and group A image sets for exocrine response to secretin. There were statistically significantly more patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis with reduced exocrine function compared with patients in the control group (32% vs 9%; p < 0.01) on secretin-enhanced images. Patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis were more likely to have side branch dilation (p = 0.02; odds ratio, 3.6), but not divisum, compared with the control group. Secretin-enhanced images were superior to non-secretin-enhanced images for detecting ductal abnormalities in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis, with higher sensitivity (76% vs 56%; p = 0.01) and AUC values (0.983 vs 0.760; p < 0.01). Up to one-third of patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis showed exocrine functional abnormalities. Secretin-enhanced MRCP had a significantly higher yield for ductal abnormalities than

  17. The Value of Secretin-Enhanced MRCP in Patients With Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Tahir, Bilal; Barad, Udaykamal; Fogel, Evan; Akisik, Fatih; Tirkes, Temel; Sherman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to assess the additional value of secretin-enhanced MRCP over conventional (non–secretin-enhanced) MRCP in diagnosing disease in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review of a radiology database found 72 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis who had secretin-enhanced MRCP and ERCP correlation within 3 months of each other between January 2007 and December 2011. Of these patients, 54 had no history of pancreatic tumor or surgery and underwent MRI more than 3 months after an episode of acute pancreatitis. In addition, 57 age- and sex-matched control subjects with secretin-enhanced MRCP and ERCP correlation and without a diagnosis of recurrent acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis were enrolled as the control group. All studies were anonymized, and secretin-enhanced MRCP images (image set A) were separated from conventional 2D and 3D MRCP and T2-weighted images (image set B). Image sets A and B for each patient were assigned different and randomized case numbers. Two blinded reviewers independently assessed both image sets for ductal abnormalities and group A image sets for exocrine response to secretin. RESULTS There were statistically significantly more patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis with reduced exocrine function compared with patients in the control group (32% vs 9%; p < 0.01) on secretin-enhanced images. Patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis were more likely to have side branch dilation (p = 0.02; odds ratio, 3.6), but not divisum, compared with the control group. Secretin-enhanced images were superior to non–secretin-enhanced images for detecting ductal abnormalities in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis, with higher sensitivity (76% vs 56%; p = 0.01) and AUC values (0.983 vs 0.760; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION Up to one-third of patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis showed exocrine functional abnormalities. Secretin-enhanced MRCP had a

  18. Aldosterone, mortality, and acute ischaemic events in coronary artery disease patients outside the setting of acute myocardial infarction or heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ivanes, Fabrice; Susen, Sophie; Mouquet, Frédéric; Pigny, Pascal; Cuilleret, François; Sautière, Karine; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Beygui, Farzin; Hennache, Bernadette; Ennezat, Pierre Vladimir; Juthier, Françis; Richard, Florence; Dallongeville, Jean; Hillaert, Marieke A; Doevendans, Pieter A; Jude, Brigitte; Bertrand, Michel; Montalescot, Gilles; Van Belle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that aldosterone levels measured in patients with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction (MI) are associated with long-term mortality, but the association with aldosterone levels in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) outside these specific settings remains unknown. In addition, no clear mechanism has been elucidated to explain these observations. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the level of aldosterone and the risk of death and acute ischaemic events in CAD patients with a preserved left ventricular (LV) function and no acute MI. In 799 consecutive CAD patients referred for elective coronary angioplasty measurements were obtained before the procedure for: aldosterone (median = 25 pg/mL), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) (median = 35 pg/mL), hsC-reactive protein (median = 4.17 mg/L), and left ventricular ejection fraction (mean = 58%). Patients with acute MI or coronary syndrome (ACS) who required urgent revascularization were not included in the study. The primary endpoint, cardiovascular death, occurred in 41 patients during a median follow-up period of 14.9 months. Secondary endpoints-total mortality, acute ischaemic events (acute MI or ischaemic stroke), and the composite of death and acute ischaemic events-were observed in 52, 54, and 94 patients, respectively. Plasma aldosterone was found to be related to BMI, hypertension and NYHA class, and inversely related to age, creatinine clearance, and use of beta-blockers. Multivariate Cox model analysis demonstrated that aldosterone was independently associated with cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.001), total mortality (P = 0.001), acute ischaemic events (P = 0.01), and the composite of death and acute ischaemic events (P = 0.004). Reclassification analysis, using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI), demonstrated incremental predictive value of aldosterone (P < 0.0001). Our results

  19. Predicting kidney disease progression in patients with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, K Annette; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Shempp, Ian; Wang, Justin; Shekar, Prem; Frendl, Gyorgy

    2018-06-01

    The study objective was to identify patients who are likely to develop progressive kidney dysfunction (acute kidney disease) before their hospital discharge after cardiac surgery, allowing targeted monitoring of kidney function in this at-risk group with periodic serum creatinine measurements. Risks of progression to acute kidney disease (a state in between acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease) were modeled from acute kidney injury stages (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A modified Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to evaluate the association between acute kidney injury stages and the development of acute kidney disease (defined as doubling of creatinine 2-4 weeks after surgery) in this observational study. Acute kidney disease occurred in 4.4% of patients with no preexisting kidney disease and 4.8% of patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease. Acute kidney injury predicted development of acute kidney disease in a graded manner in which higher stages of acute kidney injury predicted higher relative risk of progressive kidney disease (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve = 0.82). This correlation persisted regardless of baseline kidney function (P < .001). Of note, development of acute kidney disease was associated with higher mortality and need for renal replacement therapy. The degree of acute kidney injury can identify patients who will have a higher risk of progression to acute kidney disease. These patients may benefit from close follow-up of renal function because they are at risk of progressing to chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Sub-acute thyroiditis in a patient on immunosuppressive treatment].

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Giovanna; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Caleo, Alessia; Garzi, Alfredo; Vitale, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Sub-acute thyroiditis or De Quervain's thyroiditis is a viral, inflammatory disease which causes the serum release of thyroidal hormones and hyperthyroidism. The pathogenesis of thyroid follicle damage is unclear because the exclusive viral action or a concomitant autoimmune component, determined by the lymphoid infiltrate remain to be assessed. We describe the case of a patient under immunosuppressive treatment, who developed sub-acute thyroiditis with hormone release and hyperthyroidism. The patient, while was under immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant, exhibited a clinical picture and hormonal profile of hyperthyroidism. Thyroid scintiscan exhibited an extremely low uptake. Fine-needle cytologic diagnosis was granulomatous sub-acute thyroiditis (De Quervain's thyroiditis). This case suggests the primary or even exclusive role of the viral infection in hormone release and hyperthyroidism in sub-acute thyroiditis, excluding an autoimmune component.

  1. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    de Souza Giassi, Karina; Costa, Andre Nathan; Apanavicius, Andre; Teixeira, Fernando Bin; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Helito, Alfredo Salim; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib

    2014-11-25

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals. Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. From 2009 to 2013, three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. Tomographic findings were bilateral smooth septal and peribronchovascular thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (100%), atelectasis (33%), random nodules (33%), lymph node enlargement (33%) and pleural effusion (66%). All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup. These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis. The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion

  2. Attitudes of Acutely Ill Patients Towards Euthanasia in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lam, R.C.S; Chien, Wai-Tong

    2007-01-01

    The global euthanasia debate by health care professionals has raised important ethical issues concerning the professional duties and responsibilities of nurses caring for terminal patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of acutely ill patients towards the practice of euthanasia in Hong Kong. A modified form of the 23-item Questionnaire for General Household Survey scale was used. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted with a stratified sample of in-patients recruited from a wide variety of departments in a regional, acute general hospital. Seventy-seven out of 129 patients responded (59.7%) and a high proportion of patients agreed with the use of euthanasia in the following circumstances: ‘where they were a third party’, if ‘someone they loved’ was affected, or if ‘they themselves were the patient’. Of the 77 patients, 54 agreed with active euthanasia (70.1%) and 65 with passive (84.4%). The results also indicated that a few socio-demographic characteristics (such as age, gender and household income) statistically significantly correlated with patients’ attitudes towards euthanasia. These findings highlight that Chinese patients with acute illness generally accept the use of euthanasia. Further research on the attitudes and perceptions of patients towards the use of euthanasia is recommended, particularly in diverse groups of Chinese and Asian patients with acute or terminal illness. PMID:19319212

  3. Research of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofang; Bi, Hongye; Zhang, Meiyun; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Xueying; Zu, Ruonan

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of sleep disorders (SD), characteristic of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected. The research selected 101 patients with a first occurrence of acute cerebral infarction as the experimental group, and 86 patients without cerebral infarction as controls. Polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and US National Stroke Scale were assessed. Compared with control group, the incidence of SD was higher in experimental group (P < .05), and the incidence of SD in women was more frequent in experimental group (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the types of SD patients with acute cerebral infarction. In addition, the sleep quality of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected was different: the sleep quality of left hemisphere infarction patients was poor compared with the right one, and the sleep quality of anterior circulation patients was poor compared with posterior circulation patients. Patients with thalamus infarction had a longer sleep time and a shorter sleep latency and stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with non-thalamus infarction group. The prevalence of SD was relatively high in acute cerebral infarction patients, and the detailed classification of acute cerebral infarction may provide a more effective therapeutic method and therefore relieve patients' pain and supply a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor

  5. Anticoagulant therapy and outcomes in patients with prior or acute heart failure and acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the APixaban for PRevention of Acute ISchemic Events 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Cornel, Jan H; Lopes, Renato D; James, Stefan; Stevens, Susanna R; Neely, Megan L; Liaw, Danny; Miller, Julie; Mohan, Puneet; Amerena, John; Raev, Dimitar; Huo, Yong; Urina-Triana, Miguel; Gallegos Cazorla, Alex; Vinereanu, Dragos; Fridrich, Viliam; Harrington, Robert A; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H

    2015-04-01

    Clinical outcomes and the effects of oral anticoagulants among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and either a history of or acute heart failure (HF) are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between prior HF or acute HF complicating an index ACS event and subsequent clinical outcomes and the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with placebo in these populations. High-risk patients were randomly assigned post-ACS to apixaban 5.0 mg or placebo twice daily. Median follow-up was 8 (4-12) months. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The main safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. Heart failure was reported in 2,995 patients (41%), either as prior HF (2,076 [28%]) or acute HF (2,028 [27%]). Patients with HF had a very high baseline risk and were more often managed medically. Heart failure was associated with a higher rate of the primary outcome (prior HF: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.10, P < .0001, acute HF: adjusted HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.35-2.01, P < .0001) and cardiovascular death (prior HF: HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.82-3.54, acute HF: adjusted HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.82-3.50). Patients with acute HF also had significantly higher rates of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding (prior HF: adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.65-2.27, P = .54, acute HF: adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.08, P = .04). There was no statistical evidence of a differential effect of apixaban on clinical events or bleeding in patients with or without prior HF; however, among patients with acute HF, there were numerically fewer events with apixaban than placebo (14.8 vs 19.3, HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.01, interaction P = .13), a trend that was not seen in patients with prior HF or no HF. In high-risk patients post-ACS, both prior and acute HFs are associated with an increased risk of subsequent clinical events. Apixaban did not significantly reduce clinical events and increased bleeding in

  6. Acute peri-operative beta blockade in intermediate-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Biccard, B M; Sear, J W; Foëx, P

    2006-10-01

    Peri-operative beta-blockade has been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative cardio- vascular complications including cardiac death in high-risk non-cardiac surgical patients. However, the recent analysis by Lindenauer et al. suggests that it is inappropriate to administer beta-blockers blindly to all surgical patients. In an attempt to determine the appropriateness of peri-operative beta-blocker administration across patients with a spectrum of cardiovascular risks, we have examined studies of intermediate-risk patient groups (that is those undergoing intermediate risk surgery or those with a Lee Revised Cardiac Risk Score of < or =2). We analysed data from randomised prospective studies of the effects of acute peri-operative beta-blockade on the incidence of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia. By examining the demographics and surgical interventions in these patients, we have compared these studies with other studies of peri-operative silent myocardial ischaemia representing patients of similar risk. We thus estimated the expected long-term postoperative cardiovascular complication rate associated with myocardial ischaemia in these patients in terms of number needed to treat for ischaemia prevention and for prevention of major cardiovascular complications. Prevention of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia with acute beta-blockade in non-cardiac surgical patients with 1-2 RCRI clinical risk factors can be achieved with a number needed to treat of 10. It is not associated with a significant increase in drug associated side-effects. However, acute beta-blockade shows no real benefit in the prevention of major cardiovascular complications in intermediate risk non-vascular surgical patients with a number-needed-to-treat of 833. Vascular surgical patients undergoing intermediate-risk surgery may benefit from the protective effects of acute peri-operative beta-blockade, however, with a number-needed-to-treat of 68 it would require a randomised clinical trial of

  7. Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) Rehabilitation in Patients with Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Abe, Hiroshi; Samura, Kazuhiro; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Higashi, Toshio; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Etsuji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) rehabilitation in the acute phase of stroke remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) who were treated with or without HAL rehabilitation. Among 270 patients with acute ICH from 2009 to 2014, 91 patients with supratentorial ICH were included in this retrospective study. Of these, 14 patients (HAL group) received HAL rehabilitation at approximately 1 week after ICH occurrence, while the remaining 77 patients received usual rehabilitation without HAL (N-HAL group). We obtained various patient data from the hospitals where the patients were moved to for further rehabilitation. Statistical comparisons were performed for the characteristics of the ICH patients, and outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. There were no differences in outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. However, patients with right ICH in the HAL group exhibited a significant association with a functional independence measure (FIM) score of ≥ 110 compared with patients in the N-HAL group (HAL group: 81.8%, N-HAL group: 43.9%, P = 0.04). In patients with right ICH, HAL rehabilitation was associated with improved outcomes as evaluated by the FIM score. Thus, HAL rehabilitation may improve outcomes of acute ICH in appropriately selected patients.

  8. Acute appendicitis in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Nazer, Mona A; Al-Saeed, Hussain H; Al-Salem, Ahmed H

    2003-09-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) often present with abdominal pain, usually attributed to vaso-occlusive crisis, but not rarely, it may be caused by other surgical conditions. Acute appendicitis although common in patients with SCD, it is rare and has a rapid course with a high incidence of perforation. Over a period of 7 years from 1995 to 2001, only 8 patients with SCD out of 1563 (0.5%) patients with acute appendicitis underwent operation at Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Their histological slides were reviewed and the findings were compared to those with sickle cell trait (9 patients) and control group (28 patients). All patients with SCD and in spite of a short duration of symptoms had a moderate to severe inflammation and the vessels were packed with sickle red blood cells (RBCs) except one who had an intact mucosa, extensive transmural hemorrhage and congested blood vessels with sickled RBCs without inflammatory cell infiltrate. The mucosa was intact in only one patient with SCD when compared to 5 (55.6%) in those with sickle cell trait and 6 (21.4%) in the control group and in the majority (87.5%) of those with SCD there were moderate to severe mucosal ulcerations when compared to those with sickle cell trait (44.4%) or controls (64.3%). In patients with SCD, acute appendicitis is rare, and these appendicular changes were a sequelae of blockage of appendiceal vessels by sickled RBCs leading to congestion, edema, and ischemia with subsequent mucosal ulceration and marked inflammatory cell infiltrate.

  9. [Cryopresipitate in comprehensive conservative therapy of patients with acute purulent pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Samchuk, Yu G; Gatkin, M Ya; Momot, A P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive conservative therapy of patients with acute purulent pyelonephritis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who were diagnosed with acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis from 2007to 2015. During this period, a total of 3912 patients with acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis were treated at the Department of Urology. Patients were assigned to either receive or not receive cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive conservative therapy. The comprehensive conservative therapy of both groups included antibacterial agents, detoxification, anti-inflammatory therapy. In the study group, patients received additional treatment with cryoprecipitate. By that way we estimated the number of patients who avoided surgery in both groups. There were 3912 patients divided into two groups. The first group included 756 patients (19.3%) who received cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive therapy of pyelonephritis. Of them, 735 patients (97.3%) did not require surgical treatment, and only 21 patients (2.7%) underwent surgery. The second group comprised 3156 patients (80.7%) who did not receive cryoprecipitate. Of them, 2974 patients (94.2%) were treated conservatively without surgical intervention and 182 patients (5.8%) received conservative therapy concurrently with surgical treatment. Therefore, including cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive conservative therapy of acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis results in twice smaller percentage of patients (2.7% vs 5.8%) requiring surgery compared to the comprehensive conservative therapy alone.

  10. Neuroanatomical Predictors of Awakening in Acutely Comatose Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Robert G.; Buitrago, Manuel M.; Duckworth, Josh; Chonka, Zachary D.; Puttgen, H. Adrian; Stevens, Robert D.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lateral brain displacement has been associated with loss of consciousness and poor outcome in a range of acute neurologic disorders. We studied the association between lateral brain displacement and awakening from acute coma. Methods This prospective observational study included all new onset coma patients admitted to the Neurosciences Critical Care Unit (NCCU) over 12 consecutive months. Head computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed independently at coma onset, after awakening, and at follow-up. Primary outcome measure was awakening, defined as the ability to follow commands before hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures were discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), modified Rankin Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale, and hospital and NCCU lengths of stay. Results Of the 85 patients studied, the mean age was 58 ± 16 years, 51% were female, and 78% had cerebrovascular etiology of coma. Fifty-one percent of patients had midline shift on head CT at coma onset and 43 (51%) patients awakened. In a multivariate analysis, independent predictors of awakening were younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.039, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.002–1.079, p = 0.040), higher GCS score at coma onset (OR = 1.455, 95% CI = 1.157–1.831, p = 0.001), nontraumatic coma etiology (OR = 4.464, 95% CI = 1.011–19.608, p = 0.048), lesser pineal shift on follow-up CT (OR = 1.316, 95% CI = 1.073–1.615, p = 0.009), and reduction or no increase in pineal shift on follow-up CT (OR = 11.628, 95% CI = 2.207–62.500, p = 0.004). Interpretation Reversal and/or limitation of lateral brain displacement are associated with acute awakening in comatose patients. These findings suggest objective parameters to guide prognosis and treatment in patients with acute onset of coma. PMID:25628166

  11. Preferences of acutely ill patients for participation in medical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, C; Khanji, M; Cotter, P E; Dunne, O; O'Keeffe, S T

    2008-04-01

    To determine patient preferences for information and for participation in decision-making, and the determinants of these preferences in patients recently admitted to an acute hospital. Prospective questionnaire-based study. Medical wards of an acute teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty-two consecutive acute medical inpatients, median age 74 years. Standardised assessment included abbreviated mental test and subjective measure of severity of illness. Patients' desire for information was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale, and their desire for a role in medical decision-making using the Degner Control of Preferences Scale. Of the 152 patients, 93 (61%) favoured a passive approach to decision-making (either "leave all decisions to the doctor" or "doctor makes final decision but seriously considers my opinion." In contrast, 101 (66%) patients sought "very extensive" or "a lot" of information about their condition. No significant effects of age, sex, socio-economic group or severity of acute illness on desire for information or the Degner scale result were found. There was no agreement between patients' preferences on the Degner scale and their doctors' predictions of those preferences. Acute medical inpatients want to receive a lot of information about their illness, but most prefer a relatively passive role in decision-making. The only way to determine individual patient preferences is to ask them; preferences cannot be predicted from clinical or sociodemographic data.

  12. Severe acute hypophosphatemia during renal replacement therapy adversely affects outcome of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Schiffl, Helmut; Lang, Susanne M

    2013-02-01

    Hypophosphatemia during renal replacement therapy (RRT) is common in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). The clinical consequences of RRT-induced phosphate depletion are not well defined in this patient population, and there is no evidence that intravenous sodium phosphate supplementation (PS) prevents the clinical sequelae of acute hypophosphatemia. The purpose of this retrospective analysis of the Acute Renal Support Registry of the University of Munich was to examine the association between severe hypophosphatemia and severity of and recovery from AKI. 289 ICU patients with AKI on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) were included in the study. One hundred and forty-nine patients received PS during IHD. Outcomes were short-term (at discharge) and long-term (at 1 year) recovery of renal function and mortality. The two patient groups did not differ in demographics, clinical features, renal characteristics, and frequency of hypophosphatemia at initiation of IHD. Without PS, the frequency of hypophosphatemia increased from 20 to 35%. Severe hypophosphatemia was found in 50% of these patients. By comparison, PS was not associated with an increased frequency of hypophosphatemia. Compared with patients with acute phosphate depletion, patients receiving PS developed less oliguria during IHD, had shorter duration of AKI, higher incidence of complete renal recovery at discharge, and a lower risk of de novo chronic kidney disease. Hypophosphatemia was associated with higher all-cause in-hospital mortality and higher risk of long-term mortality. This multicenter study indicates for the first time that hypophosphatemia during IHD adversely affects short- and long-term outcome of critically-ill patients with AKI. The clinical consequences of the acute hypophosphatemic syndrome may be prevented by PS.

  13. [Laparascopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Tokin, A N; Chistiakov, A A; Mamalygina, L A; Zheliabin, D G; Osokin, G Iu

    2008-01-01

    Experience of diagnostics and treatment of 758 patients with acute cholecystitis was summarized. Authors attach the main importance to evaluation of ultrasound data and functional condition of respiratory and cardio-vascular sistem choosing the method of surgical treatment. Sparse use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in treatment of acute cholecystitis compared with chronic may be explouned by presence of complications in patients which make problems in differentiation of tubular structures during the operation. Authors offered to use ultrasound dissection for clear identification of tubular structures and argon coagulation for hemostasis and safe mobilization of gall bladder. Stick to suggested tactics authors practically doubled the amount of performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies reducing at the same time the frequency of complications.

  14. Role of oxygen free radicals in patients with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung Kyu; Chung, Jae Bock; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Jeong Hun; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kang, Jin Kyung

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The generation of oxygen free radicals has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxygen free radicals in patients with acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid peroxide (LPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in 13 patients with acute pancreatitis and 14 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Among the patients with acute pancreatitis, there were higher plasma levels of LPO and MPO and lower SOD activity in patients with severe pancreatitis than in those with mild pancreatitis. However, there was no significant difference in the serum marker of oxidative stress no matter what the etiology was. The LPO level was especially correlated with the concentration of serum CRP and CT severity index. CONCLUSION: The oxygen free radicals may be closely associated with inflammatory process and the severity of acute pancreatitis. Especially, the concentration of plasma LPO is a meaningful index for determining the severity of the disease. PMID:14562390

  15. Association between in-hospital acute hypertensive episodes and outcomes in older trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Lina; Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Thongrong, Cattleya; Bergese, Sergio Daniel; Papadimos, Thomas John; Gerlach, Anthony Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Although chronic hypertension is associated with long-term complications, few studies directly examine the effects of in-hospital acute hypertensive episodes in trauma patients. The aim was to determine whether there is an association between in-hospital acute hypertension and morbidity. We included trauma patients between 45 and 89 years who presented to a level I trauma center between January and September 2008. Patients were classified as either experiencing or not experiencing acute hypertensive episode(s) as defined by systolic blood pressure ≥180, or diastolic blood pressure ≥110 mmHg, or at least two readings of systolic blood pressure ≥160 or diastolic blood pressure ≥100 mmHg. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, venous thromboembolism, new-onset atrial fibrillation, or acute kidney injury. At least one acute hypertensive episode occurred in 42.6% (69/162) of patients. A total of 10.5% patients developed the composite endpoint, 17.4% in the acute hypertensive episode group compared to 5.4% in the non-hypertensive group, p = 0.012. Patients in the acute hypertensive group were more likely to require an intensive care unit admission compared to the non-hypertensive group (33.3 versus 14.0%, p = 0.004). Of the 17 patients who developed an acute hypertensive episode and met the primary endpoint, 10 were on home antihypertensive medications. Of those, four were restarted on all medications initially, three on some, two were started on new medications, and one was not resumed on home medications. Development of acute hypertensive episode(s) in older trauma patients was associated with an increase in the composite endpoint. Prospective studies are needed.

  16. Management of patients after recovering from acute severe biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dedemadi, Georgia; Nikolopoulos, Manolis; Kalaitzopoulos, Ioannis; Sgourakis, George

    2016-09-14

    Cholelithiasis is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, accounting 35%-60% of cases. Around 15%-20% of patients suffer a severe attack with high morbidity and mortality rates. As far as treatment is concerned, the optimum method of late management of patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis is still contentious and the main question is over the correct timing of every intervention. Patients after recovering from an acute episode of severe biliary pancreatitis can be offered alternative options in their management, including cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy, or no definitive treatment. Delaying cholecystectomy until after resolution of the inflammatory process, usually not earlier than 6 wk after onset of acute pancreatitis, seems to be a safe policy. ERCP and sphincterotomy on index admission prevent recurrent episodes of pancreatitis until cholecystectomy is performed, but if used for definitive treatment, they can be a valuable tool for patients unfit for surgery. Some patients who survive severe biliary pancreatitis may develop pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Management of pseudocysts with minimally invasive techniques, if not therapeutic, can be used as a bridge to definitive operative treatment, which includes delayed cholecystectomy and concurrent pseudocyst drainage in some patients. A management algorithm has been developed for patients surviving severe biliary pancreatitis according to the currently published data in the literature.

  17. Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) Rehabilitation in Patients with Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    OGATA, Toshiyasu; ABE, Hiroshi; SAMURA, Kazuhiro; HAMADA, Omi; NONAKA, Masani; IWAASA, Mitsutoshi; HIGASHI, Toshio; FUKUDA, Hiroyuki; SHIOTA, Etsuji; TSUBOI, Yoshio; INOUE, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of hybrid assistive limb (HAL) rehabilitation in the acute phase of stroke remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) who were treated with or without HAL rehabilitation. Among 270 patients with acute ICH from 2009 to 2014, 91 patients with supratentorial ICH were included in this retrospective study. Of these, 14 patients (HAL group) received HAL rehabilitation at approximately 1 week after ICH occurrence, while the remaining 77 patients received usual rehabilitation without HAL (N-HAL group). We obtained various patient data from the hospitals where the patients were moved to for further rehabilitation. Statistical comparisons were performed for the characteristics of the ICH patients, and outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. There were no differences in outcomes between the HAL and N-HAL groups. However, patients with right ICH in the HAL group exhibited a significant association with a functional independence measure (FIM) score of ≥ 110 compared with patients in the N-HAL group (HAL group: 81.8%, N-HAL group: 43.9%, P = 0.04). In patients with right ICH, HAL rehabilitation was associated with improved outcomes as evaluated by the FIM score. Thus, HAL rehabilitation may improve outcomes of acute ICH in appropriately selected patients. PMID:26511112

  18. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients with Down syndrome with a previous history of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Endo, Akifumi; Kajiwara, Michiko; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kaneda, Makoto; Taga, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in early and later childhood, respectively, but rarely experience both. We herein discuss four patients with DS with ALL and a history of AML who were treated with various chemotherapies, one of whom later received a bone marrow transplantation. Three patients survived and remain in remission. One patient died of fulminant hepatitis during therapy. No common cytogenetic abnormalities in AML and ALL besides constitutional +21 were identified, indicating that the two leukemia types were independent events. However, the underlying pathomechanism of these conditions awaits clarification. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Risk Factors of Nicardipine-Related Phlebitis in Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Kei; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koudai; Kadoguchi, Naoto; Yamamoto, Souichi; Morimoto, Masanori

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous nicardipine is generally used to treat hypertension in acute stroke patients but is associated with frequent phlebitis. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of phlebitis in such patients. The incidence and risk factors of phlebitis were investigated in 358 acute stroke patients from July 2014 to June 2015. In total, 138 patients received intravenous nicardipine. Of 45 (12.6%) phlebitis patients in 358 acute stroke patients, 42 (93.3%) were administered nicardipine, which was significantly associated with phlebitis occurrence (P < .01). Other candidate risk factors of phlebitis of acute stroke patients in univariate analysis were intracerebral hemorrhage (P < .01), nicardipine injection to paralyzed limbs (P = .023), dilution of nicardipine with normal saline (P < .01), higher maximum flow rate of nicardipine (7.2 ± 4.1 mg/h versus 1.6 ± 3.1 mg/h; P < .01), and higher maximum concentration of nicardipine (271.5 ± 145.0 µg/mL versus 37.6 ± 75.0 µg/mL; P < .01). The only statistically significant independent factor following multivariate logistic regression analysis, according to the optimal cutoff values defined from receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, was the maximum concentration of nicardipine greater than 130 µg/mL (OR 57.9; 95% CI 21.5-156; P < .01). A gradual decline of pH below 4.3 was observed when the concentration of nicardipine solution increased to greater than or equal to 130 µg/mL in vitro. Nicardipine-related phlebitis is frequently observed in acute stroke patients and is significantly associated with administration of a maximum concentration of nicardipine greater than 130 µg/mL. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient.

    PubMed

    Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

    2015-05-01

    Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  1. General practitioners knowledge and management of whiplash associated disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder: implications for patient care.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Bunzli, Samantha; Xia, Ting; Singh, Nabita; Schattner, Peter; Collie, Alex; Sterling, Michele; Mazza, Danielle

    2016-07-20

    In Australia, general practitioners (GPs) see around two-thirds of people injured in road traffic crashes. Road traffic crash injuries are commonly associated with diverse physical and psychological symptoms that may be difficult to diagnose and manage. Clinical guidelines have been developed to assist in delivering quality, consistent care, however the extent to which GPs knowledge and practice in diagnosing and managing road traffic crash injuries concords with the guidelines is unknown. This study aimed to explore Australian GPs knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the diagnosis and management of road traffic crash injuries, specifically whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A cross-sectional survey of 423 GPs across Australia conducted between July and December 2014. We developed a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of WAD and PTSD, confidence in diagnosing and managing WAD and PTSD, frequency of referral to health providers, barriers to referral, and attitudes towards further education and training. Factor analysis, Spearman's correlation, and multiple ordered logistic regressions were performed. Overall, GPs have good level knowledge of WAD and PTSD; only 9.6 % (95 % CI: 7.1 %, 12.8 %) and 23.9 % (95 % CI: 20.8 %, 28.2 %) of them were deemed to have lower level knowledge of WAD and PTSD respectively. Key knowledge gaps included imaging indicators for WAD and indicators for psychological referral for PTSD. GPs who were male, with more years of experience, working in the urban area and with higher knowledge level of WAD were more confident in diagnosing and managing WAD. Only GPs PTSD knowledge level predicted confidence in diagnosing and managing PTSD. GPs most commonly referred to physiotherapists and least commonly to vocational rehabilitation providers. Barriers to referral included out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients and long waiting times. Most GPs felt positive towards further education

  2. Multivariate analysis of ultrasound-recorded dorsal strain sequences: Investigation of dynamic neck extensions in women with chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David

    2016-08-03

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD.

  3. Multivariate analysis of ultrasound-recorded dorsal strain sequences: Investigation of dynamic neck extensions in women with chronic whiplash associated disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David

    2016-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD. PMID:27484361

  4. Multivariate analysis of ultrasound-recorded dorsal strain sequences: Investigation of dynamic neck extensions in women with chronic whiplash associated disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David

    2016-08-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD.

  5. Acute porphyrias: clinical spectrum of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Sheerani, Mughis; Urfy, Mian Zainulsajadeen; Hassan, Ali; Islam, Zunaira; Baig, Shahid

    2007-11-01

    To determine characteristics, clinical features and triggers of acute porphyria in hospitalized patients presenting to a tertiary care center in Pakistan. Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 1988 to 2003. Case records of 26 patients hospitalized with diagnosis were identified through computerized hospital patients' data. The diagnosis of acute porphyria was based on pertinent clinical features and laboratory investigations after exclusion of other alternative diagnosis and patients previously diagnosed as porphyric. The data was analyzed through SPSS software version 11.0. Twelve patients (46.2%) were males. Mean age was 21 years. Most common manifestation were gastrointestinal (n=22; 88.5%) followed by neurological symptoms (n=14; 54%). Neurological manifestations included seizures (n=9; 34.6%) and neuropathy (n=6; 23%). One patient presented with depression and insomnia. Family history was positive in (n=8; 30.8%). Eighteen (69%) had history of previous attacks at their presentation to the hospital. Most common precipitating factor was 'eating outside' (n=18; 69%). Porphyrias are uncommon and cryptic group of diseases. This study shows a slightly different gender distribution, earlier onset of symptoms, higher number of neuropsychiatric symptoms (especially seizures), more distal neuropathies and different precipitant in the studied subset of patients than described previously in the western studies.

  6. Acute Complex Care Model: An organizational approach for the medical care of hospitalized acute complex patients.

    PubMed

    Pietrantonio, Filomena; Orlandini, Francesco; Moriconi, Luca; La Regina, Micaela

    2015-12-01

    Chronic diseases are the major cause of death (59%) and disability worldwide, representing 46% of global disease burden. According to the Future Hospital Commission of the Royal College of Physicians, Medical Division (MD) will be responsible for all hospital medical services, from emergency to specialist wards. The Hospital Acute Care Hub will bring together the clinical areas of the MD that focus on the management of acute medical patients. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) places the patient at the center of the care system enhancing the community's social and health support, pathways and structures to keep chronic, frail, poly-pathological people at home or out of the hospital. The management of such patients in the hospital still needs to be solved. Hereby, we propose an innovative model for the management of the hospital's acute complex patients, which is the hospital counterpart of the CCM. The target population are acutely ill complex and poly-pathological patients (AICPPs), admitted to hospital and requiring high technology resources. The mission is to improve the management of medical admissions through pre-defined intra-hospital tracks and a global, multidisciplinary, patient-centered approach. The ACCM leader is an internal medicine specialist (IMS) who summarizes health problems, establishes priorities, and restores health balance in AICPPs. The epidemiological transition leading to a progressive increase in "chronically unstable" and complex patients needing frequent hospital treatment, inevitably enhances the role of hospital IMS in the coordination and delivery of care. ACCM represents a practical response to this epochal change of roles. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining level of care appropriateness in the patient journey from acute care to rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The selection of patients for rehabilitation, and the timing of transfer from acute care, are important clinical decisions that impact on care quality and patient flow. This paper reports utilization review data on inpatients in acute care with stroke, hip fracture or elective joint replacement, and other inpatients referred for rehabilitation. It examines reasons why acute level of care criteria are not met and explores differences in decision making between acute care and rehabilitation teams around patient appropriateness and readiness for transfer. Methods Cohort study of patients in a large acute referral hospital in Australia followed with the InterQual utilization review tool, modified to also include reasons why utilization criteria are not met. Additional data on team decision making about appropriateness for rehabilitation, and readiness for transfer, were collected on a subset of patients. Results There were 696 episodes of care (7189 bed days). Days meeting acute level of care criteria were 56% (stroke, hip fracture and joint replacement patients) and 33% (other patients, from the time of referral). Most inappropriate days in acute care were due to delays in processes/scheduling (45%) or being more appropriate for rehabilitation or lower level of care (30%). On the subset of patients, the acute care team and the utilization review tool deemed patients ready for rehabilitation transfer earlier than the rehabilitation team (means of 1.4, 1.3 and 4.0 days from the date of referral, respectively). From when deemed medically stable for transfer by the acute care team, 28% of patients became unstable. From when deemed stable by the rehabilitation team or utilization review, 9% and 11%, respectively, became unstable. Conclusions A high proportion of patient days did not meet acute level of care criteria, due predominantly to inefficiencies in care processes, or to patients being more appropriate for an alternative level of care, including

  8. Acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy in patients with phaeochromocytoma or functional paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Giavarini, Alessandra; Chedid, Antoine; Bobrie, Guillaume; Plouin, Pierre-François; Hagège, Albert; Amar, Laurence

    2013-10-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) can cause acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy (ACC). We assessed the prevalence of ACC and compared the presentation of cases with and without ACC in a large series of PPGL. Single centre retrospective study. Hypertension Unit, University Hospital, Paris. 140 consecutive patients with PPGL, referred from January 2003 to September 2012. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), perioperative mortality. Fifteen patients (11%) had suffered an ACC, occurring in 14 cases before the diagnosis of PPGL. Precipitating factors were identified in 11 cases. Twelve patients presented with acute pulmonary oedema, including 10 with cardiogenic shock, requiring life support in eight cases. Seven patients (five with pulmonary oedema) presented with acute chest pain and cardiac dysfunction. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were present in 14 cases: ST segment elevation or pathological Q waves, ST segment depression, and/or diffuse T wave inversion. Six patients displayed classical (apical ballooning) or inverted (basal/mid ventricular stunning) takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. Coronary arteries were always normal on angiography. In patients with ACC, median LVEF rose from 30% (IQR 23-33%) during ACC to 71% (50-72%) before surgery (n=11, p<0.001). Median LVEF before PPGL surgery was 65% (51-72%) and 65% (60-70%) in patients with and without a history of ACC, respectively (not significant). PPGL may present as ACC in 11% of cases, excluding patients dying from undiagnosed tumours. Left ventricular dysfunction is usually reversible before surgery. PPGL should be suspected in patients with acute heart failure without evidence of valvular or coronary artery disease.

  9. [New diagnostic approach can improve treatment of whiplash injuries. Functional magnetic resonance tomography makes visualization of the injuries possible].

    PubMed

    Bergholm, Ulla; Johansson, Bengt H

    2003-11-20

    Patients suffering from chronic pain and dysfunction after acceleration/deceleration trauma to the cervical spine often present reliability problems. This is partly due to inadequate possibilities of diagnosing of the soft tissue structures in this area. A new diagnostic method--functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has made it possible to detect injuries in ligaments and capsules at the craniocervical junction. Not only do these structures stabilize the head during rotation movements, but they also contain receptors of the central nervous system, and thus have the most important function in position perception (i.e. proprioception) and movement control. The late onset of symptoms in this patient group can now be explained by the functional stenosis of the spinal cord and brainstem due to scar formation around the dens axis after injury. Modern neurophysiology can now explain the background of the generalized and complex picture of chronic pain and muscular and cognitive dysfunction. This new knowledge has prepared the way for more specific therapy in patients suffering from craniocervical instability symptoms and pain from disks and facet joints in the cervical spine after whiplash trauma.

  10. Acute anal toxicity after whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with asymptomatic haemorrhoids: identification of dosimetric and patient factors.

    PubMed

    Jang, H; Baek, J G; Yoo, S-J

    2015-06-01

    Patients with asymptomatic haemorrhoids are known to be less tolerant of radiation doses lower than known tolerance doses. In the present study, the authors sought to identify the risk factors of acute haemorrhoid aggravation after whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT). The records of 33 patients with cervical, rectal or prostate cancer with asymptomatic haemorrhoids, which were confirmed by colonoscopy before the start of radiotherapy (RT), were reviewed. Acute anal symptoms, such as anal pain and bleeding, were observed up to 1 month after RT completion. Dosimetric and patient factors were analysed, and subgroup analyses were performed. The median induction dose for acute anal symptoms was 34.1 Gy (range, 28.8-50.4 Gy). Post-operative treatment intent showed more acute anal toxicity of patient factors (p = 0.04). In subgroup analysis, post-operative treatment intent and concurrent chemoradiotherapy were found to be related to acute anal symptoms (p < 0.01). Of the dosimetric factors, V10 tended to be related to acute anal symptoms (p = 0.08). This study indicates that asymptomatic haemorrhoid may deteriorate after low-dose radiation and that patient factors, such as treatment intent and concurrent chemotherapy, probably influence anal toxicity. In patients with asymptomatic haemorrhoids, WPRT requires careful dosimetry and clinical attention. The tolerance of anal canal tends to be ignored in patients with pelvic cancer who are undergoing WPRT. However, patients with asymptomatic haemorrhoids may be troubled by low radiation doses, and further studies are required.

  11. Brachial-ankle PWV for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kye Taek; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Jin, Seon-Ah; Kim, Mijoo; Oh, Jin Kyung; Choi, Ung-Lim; Seong, Seok-Woo; Kim, Jun Hyung; Choi, Si Wan; Jeong, Hye Seon; Song, Hee-Jung; Kim, Jei; Seong, In-Whan

    2017-08-01

    Although brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is well-known for predicting the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, its anticipated value is not demonstrated well concerning acute stroke. Total 1557 patients with acute stroke who performed baPWV were enrolled. We evaluated the prognostic value of baPWV predicting all-cause death and vascular death in patients with acute stroke Results: Highest quartile of baPWV was ≥23.64 m/s. All-caused deaths (including vascular death; 71) were 109 patients during follow-up periods (median 905 days). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with the highest quartile of baPWV had higher risk for vascular death when they are compared with patients with all other three quartiles of baPWV (Hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.879 [1.022-3.456], p = .042 for vascular death). High baPWV was a strong prognostic value of vascular death in patients with acute stroke.

  12. Albumin infusion improves renal blood flow autoregulation in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martinez, Rita; Noiret, Lorette; Sen, Sambit; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar; Jalan, Rajiv

    2015-02-01

    In cirrhotic patients with renal failure, renal blood flow autoregulation curve is shifted to the right, which is consequent upon sympathetic nervous system activation and endothelial dysfunction. Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. We aimed to determine the effect of albumin infusion on systemic haemodynamics, renal blood flow, renal function and endothelial function in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis and acute kidney injury. Twelve patients with refractory ascites and 10 patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis and acute kidney injury were studied. Both groups were treated with intravenous albumin infusion, 40-60 g/days over 3-4 days. Cardiac and renal haemodynamics were measured. Endothelial activation/dysfunction was assessed using von Willebrand factor and serum nitrite levels. F2α Isoprostanes, resting neutrophil burst and noradrenaline levels were quantified as markers of oxidative stress, endotoxemia and sympathetic activation respectively. Albumin infusion leads to a shift in the renal blood flow autoregulation curve towards normalization, which resulted in a significant increase in renal blood flow. Accordingly, improvement of renal function was observed. In parallel, a significant decrease in sympathetic activation, inflammation/oxidative stress and endothelial activation/dysfunction was documented. Improvement of renal blood flow correlated with improvement in endothelial activation (r = 0.741, P < 0.001). The data suggest that albumin infusion improves renal function in acutely decompensated cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury by impacting on renal blood flow autoregulation. This is possibly achieved through endothelial stabilization and a reduction in the sympathetic tone, endotoxemia and oxidative stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rapid Response Team activation for pediatric patients on the acute pain service.

    PubMed

    Teets, Maxwell; Tumin, Dmitry; Walia, Hina; Stevens, Jenna; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-11-01

    Untreated pain or overly aggressive pain management may lead to adverse physiologic consequences and activation of the hospital's Rapid Response Team. This study is a quality improvement initiative that attempts to identify patient demographics and patterns associated with Rapid Response Team consultations for patients on the acute pain service. A retrospective review of all patients on the acute pain service from February 2011 until June 2015 was cross-referenced with inpatients requiring consultation from the Rapid Response Team. Two independent practitioners reviewed electronic medical records to determine which events were likely associated with pain management interventions. Over a 4-year period, 4872 patients were admitted to the acute pain service of whom 135 unique patients required Rapid Response Team consults. There were 159 unique Rapid Response Team activations among 6538 unique acute pain service consults. A subset of 27 pain management-related Rapid Response Team consultations was identified. The largest percentage of patients on the acute pain service were adolescents aged 12-17 (36%). Compared to this age group, the odds of Rapid Response Team activation were higher among infants <1 year old (odds ratio = 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 5.10; P < .001) and adults over 18 years (odds ratio = 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.80; P = .046). Identifying demographics and etiologies of acute pain service patients requiring Rapid Response Team consultations may help to identify patients at risk for clinical decompensation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Incidence and Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury Following Mannitol Infusion in Patients With Acute Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic, is commonly used to treat patients with acute brain edema, but its use also increases the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigated the incidence and risk factors of mannitol-related AKI in acute stroke patients.A total of 432 patients (ischemic stroke 62.3%) >20 years of age who were admitted to the neurocritical care center in a tertiary hospital and received mannitol treatment were enrolled in this study. Clinical parameters including the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, vascular risk factors, laboratory data, and concurrent nephrotoxic medications were registered. Acute kidney injury was defined as an absolute elevation in the serum creatinine (Scr) level of ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline or a ≥50% increase in Scr.The incidence of mannitol-related AKI was 6.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.5%-9.3%) in acute stroke patients, 6.3% in patients with ischemic stroke, and 6.7% in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline, higher initial NIHSS score, and concurrent use of diuretics increased the risk of mannitol-related AKI. When present, the combination of these elements displayed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 (95% confidence interval, 0.770-0.909). In conclusion, mannitol-related AKI is not uncommon in the treatment of acute stroke patients, especially in those with vulnerable risk factors.

  15. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome components in patients with acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Zaliūnas, Remigijus; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Luksiene, Dalia; Slapikiene, Birute; Statkeviciene, Audrone; Milvidaite, Irena; Gustiene, Olivija

    2008-01-01

    Many studies report that the components of the metabolic syndrome--arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atherogenic dyslipidemia--are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the prevalence of different components of the metabolic syndrome and frequency of their combinations and acute hyperglycemia among patients with acute coronary syndromes. The study population consisted of 2756 patients (1670 men and 1086 women with a mean age of 63.3+/-11.3 years) with acute coronary syndromes: Q-wave myocardial infarction was present in 41.8% of patients; non-Q-wave MI, in 30.7%; and unstable angina pectoris, in 27.5%. The metabolic syndrome was found in 59.6% of the patients according to modified NCEP III guidelines. One component of the metabolic syndrome was found in 13.5% of patients; two, in 23.0%; and none, in 3.9%. Less than one-third (29.2%) of the patients had three components of the metabolic syndrome, and 30.4% of the patients had four or five components. Arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome (82.2% and 65.8%, respectively). Nearly half of the patients had hypertriglyceridemia and decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (55.0% and 51.1%, respectively), and 23.9% of patients had diabetes mellitus. Acute hyperglycemia (> or =6.1 mmol/L) without known diabetes mellitus was found in 38.1% of cases. The combination of arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity was reported in 57.8% of patients in the case of combinations of two-five metabolic syndrome components. More than half of patients with acute coronary syndromes had three or more components of the metabolic syndrome, and arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most prevalent components of the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Percutaneous cholecystostomy for high-risk patients with acute cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Lin; Wong, Kin-Hoi; Chiu, Keith Wan-Hang; Cheng, Andrew Kai-Chun; Cheung, Ronald Kin-On; Yam, Max Kai-Ho; Chan, Angie Lok-Chi; Chan, Victor Siang-Hua; Law, Martin Wai-Ming; Lee, Paul Sing-Fun

    2018-05-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) is a well-established treatment for acute cholecystitis. We investigate the performance and role of PC in managing acute cholangitis.Retrospective review on all patients who underwent PC for acute cholangitis between January 2012 and June 2017 at a major regional hospital in Hong Kong.Thirty-two patients were included. The median age was 84 years and median American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status was Class III (severe systemic disease). All fulfilled Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) diagnostic criteria for moderate or severe cholangitis. Eighty-four percent of the patients were shown to have lower common bile duct stones on imaging. The majority had previously failed intervention by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (38%), percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (38%), or both (13%)The technical success rate for PC was 100% with no procedure-related mortality. The overall 30-day mortality was 9%. Rest of the patients (91%) had significant improvement in clinical symptoms and could be discharged with median length of stay of 14 days. Significant postprocedural biochemical improvement was observed in terms of white cell count (P < .001), serum bilirubin (P < .001), alkaline phosphatase (P = .001), and alanine transaminase levels (P < .001). Time from admission to PC was associated with excess mortality (P = .002).PC is an effective treatment for acute cholangitis in high-risk elderly patients. Early intervention is associated with lower mortality. PC is particularly valuable as a temporising measure before definitive treatment in critical patients or as salvage therapy where other methods endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (ERCP/PTBD) have failed.

  17. Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Grodzinsky, Anna; Goyal, Abhinav; Gosch, Kensey; McCullough, Peter A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Palmer, Biff F.; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance following acute myocardial infarction are not well described. Methods In 38,689 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients from the Cerner Health Facts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels (max K) and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status, and grouped by max K as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5–<5.5 mEq/L, 5.5–<6.0 mEq/L, 6.0–<6.5 mEq/L, and ≥ 6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between number of hyperkalemic values and in-hospital mortality was also evaluated. Results Of 38,689 acute myocardial infarction patients, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in non-dialysis and 66.8% in dialysis patients. Moderate-severe hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher max K levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once max K ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher max K and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs. a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality. Conclusions Hyperkalemia is common in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher max K levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase; with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in acute myocardial infarction patients merits further study. PMID:27060233

  18. Patent foramen ovale increases the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with acute pulmonary embolism leading to right ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goliszek, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Babiuch, Marek; Paczynska, Marzanna; Koć, Marcin; Palczewski, Piotr; Wyzgał, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an established risk factor for ischemic stroke. Since acute right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) observed in patients with PE can lead to right-to-left inter-atrial shunt via PFO, we hypothesized that PFO is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in PE with significant right ventricular dysfunction. 55 patients (31 F, 24M), median age 49 years (range 19-83 years) with confirmed PE underwent echocardiography for RVD and PFO assessment. High risk acute PE was diagnosed in 3 (5.5%) patients, while 16 (29%) hemodynamically stable with RVD patients formed a group with intermediate-risk PE. PFO was diagnosed in 19 patients (34.5%). Diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was performed in all patients 4.91 ± 4.1 days after admission. AIS was detected by MRI in 4 patients (7.3%). Only one stroke was clinically overt and resulted in hemiplegia. All 4 AIS occurred in the PFO positive group (4 of 19 patients), and none in subjects without PFO (21.0% vs 0%, p=0.02). Moreover, all AIS occurred in patients with RVD and PFO, and none in patients with PFO without RVD (50% vs 0%, p=0.038). Our data suggest that acute pulmonary embolism resulting in right ventricular dysfunction may lead to acute ischemic stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale. However, the clinical significance of such lesions remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The acutely affected abdomen in paraplegic spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed Central

    Neumayer, L A; Bull, D A; Mohr, J D; Putnam, C W

    1990-01-01

    The records of 145 paraplegic or quadriplegic patients were reviewed to identify those factors useful in the correct diagnosis of the acute abdomen in this population. Twenty-one patients had 22 episodes of acute or subacute abdominal problems. Presenting complaints, physical findings, and laboratory results were useful in various ways. However appropriate radiographic studies led to the correct diagnosis in 77% of patients. Although paraplegic and quadriplegic patients are predisposed to a distinct constellation of medical problems, including urinary tract infection and calculi, they also may present with other abdominal conditions that cause significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized. PMID:2241311

  20. Studying Physician-Patient Communication in the Acute Care Setting: The Hospitalist Rapport Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Wendy G.; Winters, Kathryn; Arnold, Robert M.; Puntillo, Kathleen A.; White, Douglas B.; Auerbach, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of studying physician-patient communication in the acute care setting. Methods We recruited hospitalist physicians and patients from two hospitals within a university system and audio-recorded their first encounter. Recruitment, data collection, and challenges encountered were tracked. Results Thirty-two physicians consented (rate 91%). Between August 2008 and March 2009, 441 patients were referred, 210 (48%) were screened, and 119 (66% of 179 eligible) consented. We audio-recorded encounters of 80 patients with 27 physicians. Physicians’ primary concern about participation was interference with their workflow. Addressing their concerns and building the protocol around their schedules facilitated participation. Challenges unique to the acute care setting were: 1) extremely limited time for patient identification, screening, and enrollment during which patients were ill and busy with clinical care activities, and 2) little advance knowledge of when physician-patient encounters would occur. Employing a full-time study coordinator mitigated these challenges. Conclusion Physician concerns for participating in communication studies are similar in ambulatory and acute care settings. The acute care setting presents novel challenges for patient recruitment and data collection. Practice Implications These methods should be used to study provider-patient communication in acute care settings. Future work should test strategies to increase patient enrollment. PMID:20444569

  1. Patients with acute abdominal pain describe their experiences of fundamental care across the acute care episode: a multi-stage qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Jangland, Eva; Kitson, Alison; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa

    2016-04-01

    To explore how patients with acute abdominal pain describe their experiences of fundamental care across the acute care episode. Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common conditions to present in the acute care setting. Little is known about how patients' fundamental care needs are managed from presentation to post discharge. A multi-stage qualitative case study using the Fundamentals of Care framework as the overarching theoretical and explanatory mechanism. Repeated reflective interviews were conducted with five adult patients over a 6-month period in 2013 at a university hospital in Sweden. The interviews (n = 14) were analysed using directed content analysis. Patients' experiences across the acute care episode are presented as five patient narratives and synthesized into five descriptions of the entire hospital journey. The patients talked about the fundamentals of care and had vivid accounts of what they meant to them. The experiences of each of the patients were influenced by the extent to which they felt engaged with the health professionals. The ability to engage or build a rapport was identified as a central component across the fundamental care elements, but it varied in visibility. Consistent pain management, comfort, timely and accurate information, choice and dignity and relationships were identified as essential fundamental care needs of patients experiencing acute abdominal pain regardless of setting, diagnosis, or demographic variables. These were variously achieved and the patients' narratives raised areas for improvement in several areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The experience of acute leukaemia in adult patients: a qualitative thematic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Constantina; Johnston, Bridget; Themessl-Huber, Markus

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this review was to systematically identify and synthesise all qualitative evidence on how adult patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia experience living with their illness. A systematic search strategy was developed comprising of two search strings: i) acute leukaemia and ii) qualitative methodology. The search strategy was run in seven electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE, BNI & Archive, SSCI and ASSIA). Nine qualitative studies in adult patients with acute leukaemia, published in peer reviewed journals between 01/1990 and 01/2013 were included in the final sample. The qualitative thematic synthesis resulted in the development of a conceptual model describing a person's path to build a renewed self. Following the initial blow of diagnosis with the range of initial reactions, patients with acute leukaemia are living in a contracting world; they have to deal with the life in hospital, the several losses and the impact of their illness on their emotions and interpersonal relationships. Several factors take up a buffering role at that stage: coping, support, information and hope. Finally, patients accommodate acute leukaemia in their lives through re-evaluating personal values and assigning new meaning to their experience. Results from this thematic synthesis are indicative of the impact of acute leukaemia on patients' lives and the processes they use to make sense and accommodate the illness in their life. Increasing our understanding of these processes is warranted to improve patient care. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC CORRELATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    MUNHOZ-FILHO, Clewis Henri; BATIGÁLIA, Fernando; FUNES, Hamilton Luiz Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas due to enzymatic autodigestion which can cause necrosis or multiple organ failure; its pathophysiology is not fully known yet. Aim To evaluate the correlation between clinical and therapeutic data in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. Methods A retrospective study in 55 medical records of patients admitted with acute mild pancreatitis was realized to analyze the association between age, leukocytosis, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, antibiotics, time admission and Ranson´s scores. Results There was a positive association between less intensive care (strict hydration, analgesia and monitoring of vital signs), early antibiotic therapy (monotherapy), early return to diet after 48 hours and laboratory control of the serum amylase and lipase (high in the first week and decreasing after 10 days, without any prognostic value). Conclusions Changes in the management of patients with mild acute pancreatitis, such as enteral nutrition, rational use of lower spectrum antibiotics and intensive care, have contributed significantly to the reduction of hospitalization time and mortality. PMID:25861064

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients presenting with (sub)acute cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tanja; Thomalla, Götz; Goebell, Einar; Piotrowski, Anna; Yousem, David Mark

    2015-06-01

    Acute or subacute cerebellar inflammation is mainly caused by postinfectious, toxic, neoplastic, vascular, or idiopathic processes and can result in cerebellar ataxia. Previous magnetic resonance (MR) studies in single patients who developed acute or subacute ataxia showed varying imaging features. Eighteen patients presenting with acute and subacute onset of ataxia were included in this study. Cases of chronic-progressive/hereditary and noncerebellar causes (ischemia, multiple sclerosis lesions, metastasis, bleedings) were excluded. MR imaging findings were then matched with the clinical history of the patient. An underlying etiology for ataxic symptoms were found in 14/18 patients (postinfectious/infectious, paraneoplastic, autoimmune, drug-induced). In two of five patients without MR imaging findings and three of eight patients with minimal imaging features (cerebellar atrophy, slight signal alterations, and small areas of restricted diffusion), adverse clinical outcomes were documented. Of the five patients with prominent MR findings (cerebellar swelling, contrast enhancement, or broad signal abnormalities), two were lost to follow-up and two showed long-term sequelae. No correlation was found between the presence of initial MRI findings in subacute or acute ataxia patients and their long-term clinical outcome. MR imaging was more flagrantly positive in cases due to encephalitis.

  5. Clinical and Genetic Risk Factors for Acute Pancreatitis in Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng; Yang, Wenjian; Devidas, Meenakshi; Cheng, Cheng; Pei, Deqing; Smith, Colton; Carroll, William L.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Bowman, W. Paul; Larsen, Eric C.; Maloney, Kelly W.; Martin, Paul L.; Mattano, Leonard A.; Winick, Naomi J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Bhojwani, Deepa; Howard, Scott C.; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Hunger, Stephen P.; Evans, William E.; Loh, Mignon L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute pancreatitis is one of the common causes of asparaginase intolerance. The mechanism is unknown, and genetic predisposition to asparaginase-induced pancreatitis has not been previously identified. Methods To determine clinical risk factors for asparaginase-induced pancreatitis, we studied a cohort of 5,185 children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including 117 (2.3%) who were diagnosed with at least one episode of acute pancreatitis during therapy. A genome-wide association study was performed in the cohort and in an independent case-control group of 213 patients to identify genetic risk factors. Results Risk factors associated with pancreatitis included genetically defined Native American ancestry (P < .001), older age (P < .001), and higher cumulative dose of asparaginase (P < .001). No common variants reached genome-wide significance in the genome-wide association study, but a rare nonsense variant rs199695765 in CPA2, encoding carboxypeptidase A2, was highly associated with pancreatitis (hazard ratio, 587; 95% CI, 66.8 to 5166; P = 9.0 × 10−9). A gene-level analysis showed an excess of additional CPA2 variants in patients who did versus those who did not develop pancreatitis (P = .001). Sixteen CPA2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated (P < .05) with pancreatitis, and 13 of 24 patients who carried at least one of these variants developed pancreatitis. Biologic functions that were overrepresented by common variants modestly associated with pancreatitis included purine metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Conclusion Older age, higher exposure to asparaginase, and higher Native American ancestry were independent risk factors for pancreatitis in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Those who inherit a nonsense rare variant in the CPA2 gene had a markedly increased risk of asparaginase-induced pancreatitis. PMID:27114598

  6. Acute cognitive impairment in elderly ED patients: etiologies and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wofford, J L; Loehr, L R; Schwartz, E

    1996-11-01

    Despite the common occurrence of acute cognitive impairment in elderly emergency department (ED) patients, there is much uncertainty regarding the evaluation and management of this syndrome. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients 60 years of age and older transported by emergency medical services (EMS) to hospital EDs in Forsyth County, North Carolina, during 1990 specifically for evaluation of acute cognitive impairment. Five percent (227 of 4,688) of EMS transports during this time period were for the purpose of evaluation of acute cognitive impairment. Compared with community-dwelling patients (n = 105), nursing home patients (n = 47) had a higher prevalence of final ED diagnoses indicative of infection (42.5% v 13.3%) and a lower prevalence of diagnoses indicative of cerebrovascular disease (10.6% v 22.9%) as the etiology of cognitive impairment. The rates of hospitalization and mortality were 74.3% and 28.9%, respectively. The projected aging of the US population and the high prevalence of this syndrome among elderly patients make better understanding of this syndrome essential for ED providers.

  7. Asian patients with Hinchey Ia acute diverticulitis: a condition for the ambulatory setting?

    PubMed

    Chan, Dedrick Kok Hong; Tan, Ker-Kan

    2018-01-01

    Diverticulitis in Asians is a different disease entity from Western counterparts. Few Asian studies have evaluated the management of acute Hinchey Ia diverticulitis with consideration for outpatient management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of Asian patients with Hinchey Ia acute diverticulitis. A retrospective review of all patients who were treated for Hinchey Ia acute colonic diverticulitis between 2012 and 2014 was performed. All patients were diagnosed on computed tomography (CT). There were 129 patients with Hinchey Ia acute diverticulitis. Fifty-five (42.6%) patients were male, and the median age was 54 years (range, 30-86). Eighty-seven (67.4%) patients had right-sided diverticulitis. Most patients were treated empirically with intravenous ceftriaxone and metronidazole (89.1%). They were then discharged with oral antibiotics. Only 6.1% of patients had a positive blood culture. The median length of stay in the hospital was 4 (range, 3-4) days. Only three (2.3%) patients were readmitted for acute diverticulitis within 30 days. They were managed with antibiotics and discharged well. The repeated CT scans reconfirmed Hinchey Ia diverticulitis. No patients required emergency surgery, and there were no 30-day mortalities. Asian patients with Hinchey Ia diverticulitis recovered well with conservative management and could be amenable to outpatient therapy. Future prospective studies should be performed amongst Asians to evaluate managing this condition in an ambulatory setting.

  8. Clinical presentation and course of acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeyer, Annie; Hare, C Bradley; Stansell, John; Tien, Phyllis C; Charlesbois, Edwin; Lum, Paula; Havlir, Diane; Peters, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a significant source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the clinical presentation and course of acute HCV infection in this population. This study reports the outcomes of acute HCV infection in 9 HIV-infected men. Sex with men was the only reported risk factor for HCV infection in 6 of the subjects. Clinical presentation of acute HCV ranged from incidentally discovered elevated transaminases to severe liver dysfunction requiring hospitalization. At the time of HCV diagnosis, 8 of 9 patients had CD4+ counts >250 cells/mm(3), and 6 had HIV viral loads of < or =5000 copies/mL. Eight patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Outcome of these acute HCV infections varied. Five patients experienced virologic clearance, 2 in whom virus cleared spontaneously and 3 who were treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Four patients developed chronic infection, one of whom had a relapse during HCV treatment and 3 of whom were untreated. All 4 patients to whom HCV therapy was administered experienced significant anemia or neutropenia, necessitating dose reduction or support with growth factors. Prompt recognition of acute HCV infection may minimize antiretroviral treatment interruption and will allow early treatment, which may improve virologic clearance. Unexplained transaminase elevations in HIV-infected patients, including men who have sex with men, should trigger an evaluation for acute HCV infection.

  9. Concurrent Acute Retinal Necrosis in a Patient With Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, A P; Srinivasan, Renuka

    2016-11-01

    To report a rare case of concurrent acute retinal necrosis in a patient with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE). Case report. A 42-year-old woman showed acute diminution of vision in the right eye. Her fundus examination revealed features of acute retinal necrosis. She had also experienced gradual diminution of vision in her left eye for 5 years. The examination of her left eye revealed corneal edema with mild corectopia and increased intraocular pressure with abnormal endothelium on specular microscopy pointing to a diagnosis of ICE. This is a rare case where concurrent acute retinal necrosis and ICE syndrome are present in the same patient, possibly pointing to a common viral etiology causing both entities.

  10. MRI-Guided Selection of Patients for Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Richard; Krakauer, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize what is known about the use of MRI in acute stroke treatments (predominantly thrombolysis), to examine the assumptions and theories behind the interpretation of MR images of acute stroke and how they are used to select patients for therapies, and to suggest directions for future research. Recent findings Recent studies have been contradictory about the usefulness of MRI in selecting patients for treatment. New MRI models for selecting patients have emerged that focus not only on the ischemic penumbra but also the core infarct. Fixed time-window selection parameters are being replaced by individualized MRI features. New ways to interpret traditional MRI sequences are emerging. Summary Although the efficacy of acute stroke treatment is time dependent, the use of fixed time-windows does not account for individual differences in infarct evolution, which could be detected with MRI. While MRI shows promise for identifying patients who should be treated, as well as exclude patients who should not be treated, definitive evidence is still lacking. Future research should focus on validating the use of MRI to select patients for IV therapies in extended time windows. PMID:24978637

  11. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Munker, Reinhold; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Hai Lin; de Lima, Marcos; Khoury, Hanna J; Gale, Robert Peter; Maziarz, Richard T; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Weisdorf, Daniel; Saber, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Acute biphenotypic leukemias or mixed phenotype acute leukemias (MPAL) are rare and considered high risk. The optimal treatment and the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) are unclear. Most prior case series include only modest numbers of patients who underwent transplantation. We analyzed the outcome of 95 carefully characterized alloHCT patients with MPAL reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1996 and 2012. The median age was 20 years (range, 1 to 68). Among the 95 patients, 78 were in first complete remission (CR1) and 17 were in second complete remission (CR2). Three-year overall survival (OS) of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 76), leukemia-free survival of 56% (95% CI, 46 to 66), relapse incidence of 29% (95% CI, 20 to 38), and nonrelapse mortality of 15% (95% CI, 9 to 23) were encouraging. OS was best in younger patients (<20 years), but no significant differences were observed between those 20 to 40 years of age and those who were 40 years or older. A matched-pair analysis showed similar outcomes comparing MPAL cases to 375 acute myelogenous leukemia or 359 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. MPAL patients had more acute and a trend for more chronic graft-versus-host disease. No difference was observed between patients who underwent transplantation in CR1 versus those who underwent transplantation in CR2. AlloHCT is a promising treatment option for pediatric and adult patients with MPAL with encouraging long-term survival. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Depression screening: utility of the patient health questionnaire in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Anthony W; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Hays, Ron D; Doering, Lynn V

    2013-01-01

    Depression screening in cardiac patients has been recommended by the American Heart Association, but the best approach remains unclear. To evaluate nurse-administered versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression screening in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome. Staff nurses in an urban cardiac care unit administered versions 2, 9, and 10 of the questionnaire to 100 patients with acute coronary syndrome. The Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton was administered by advanced practice nurses blinded to the results of the Patient Health Questionnaire. With the results of the Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton as a criterion, receiver operating characteristic analyses were done for each version of the Patient Health Questionnaire. The Delong method was used for pairwise comparisons. Cutoff scores balancing false-negatives and false-positives were determined by using the Youden Index. Each version of the questionnaire had excellent area-under- the-curve statistics: 91.2%, 92.6%, and 93.4% for versions 2, 9, and 10, respectively. Differences among the 3 versions were not significant. Each version yielded higher symptom scores in depressed patients than in nondepressed patients: version 2 scores, 3.4 vs 0.6, P = .001; version 9 scores, 13 vs 3.4, P < .001; and version 10 scores, 14.5 vs 3.6, P < .001. For depression screening in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome, the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 is as accurate as longer versions when administered by nurses. Further study is needed to determine if screening with this tool changes clinical decision making or improves outcomes in these patients.

  13. Percutaneous imaging-guided interventions for acute biliary disorders in high surgical risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Donkol, Ragab Hani; Latif, Nahed Abdel; Moghazy, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous imaging-guided biliary interventions in the management of acute biliary disorders in high surgical risk patients. METHODS: One hundred and twenty two patients underwent 139 percutaneous imaging-guided biliary interventions during the period between January 2007 to December 2009. The patients included 73 women and 49 men with a mean age of 61 years (range 35-90 years). Fifty nine patients had acute biliary obstruction, 26 patients had acute biliary infection and 37 patients had abnormal collections. The procedures were performed under computed tomography (CT)- (73 patients), sonographic- (41 patients), and fluoroscopic-guidance (25 patients). Success rates and complications were determined. The χ2 test with Yates’ correction for continuity was applied to compare between these procedures. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The success rates for draining acute biliary obstruction under CT- , fluoroscopy- or ultrasound-guidance were 93.3%, 62.5% and 46.1%, respectively with significant P values (P = 0.026 and 0.002, respectively). In acute biliary infection, successful drainage was achieved in 22 patients (84.6%). The success rates in patients drained under ultrasound- and CT-guidance were 46.1% and 88.8%, respectively and drainage under CT-guidance was significantly higher (P = 0.0293). In 13 patients with bilomas, percutaneous drainage was successful in 11 patients (84.6%). Ten out of 12 cases with hepatic abscesses were drained with a success rate of 83.3%. In addition, the success rate of drainage in 12 cases with pancreatic pseudocysts was 83.3%. The reported complications were two deaths, four major and seven minor complications. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous imaging-guided biliary interventions help to promptly diagnose and effectively treat acute biliary disorders. They either cure the disorders or relieve sepsis and jaundice before operations. PMID:21160698

  14. Improving patients' and staff's experiences of acute care.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Rob; Crawshaw, Jacob; Hood, Chloe

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the effect of the Quality Mark programme on the quality of acute care received by older patients by comparing the experiences of staff and older adults before and after the programme. Data from 31 wards in 12 acute hospitals were collected over two stages. Patients and staff completed questionnaires on the perceived quality of care on the ward. Patients rated improved experiences of nutrition, staff availability and dignity. Staff received an increase in training and reported better access to support, increased time and skill to deliver care and improved morale, leadership and teamwork. Problems remained with ward comfort and mealtimes. Overall, results indicated an improvement in ratings of care quality in most domains during Quality Mark data collection. Further audits need to explore ways of improving ward comfort and mealtime experience.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Early Versus Delayed Statin Therapy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: ASSORT Trial (Administration of Statin on Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Shinichi; Uchida, Kazutaka; Daimon, Takashi; Takashima, Ryuzo; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    Several studies suggested that statins during hospitalization were associated with better disability outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke, but only 1 small randomized trial is available. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in patients with acute ischemic strokes in 11 hospitals in Japan. Patients with acute ischemic stroke and dyslipidemia randomly received statins within 24 hours after admission in the early group or on the seventh day in the delayed group, in a 1:1 ratio. Statins were administered for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was patient disability assessed by modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. A total of 257 patients were randomized and analyzed (early 131, delayed 126). At 90 days, modified Rankin Scale score distribution did not differ between groups ( P =0.68), and the adjusted common odds ratio of the early statin group was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.3; P =0.46) compared with the delayed statin group. There were 3 deaths at 90 days (2 in the early group, 1 in the delayed group) because of malignancy. Ischemic stroke recurred in 9 patients (6.9%) in the early group and 5 patients (4.0%) in the delayed group. The safety profile was similar between groups. Our randomized trial involving patients with acute ischemic stroke and dyslipidemia did not show any superiority of early statin therapy within 24 hours of admission compared with delayed statin therapy 7 days after admission to alleviate the degree of disability at 90 days after onset. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02549846. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Grodzinsky, Anna; Goyal, Abhinav; Gosch, Kensey; McCullough, Peter A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Palmer, Biff F; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance after acute myocardial infarction are not well described. In 38,689 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction from the Cerner Health Facts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status and grouped by maximum potassium as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5 to <5.5 mEq/L, 5.5 to <6.0 mEq/L, 6.0 to <6.5 mEq/L, and ≥6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between the number of hyperkalemic values and the in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Of 38,689 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (maximum potassium ≥5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in patients on dialysis and 66.8% in patients not on dialysis. Moderate to severe hyperkalemia (maximum potassium ≥5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher maximum potassium levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once maximum potassium was ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher maximum potassium and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with a greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality. Hyperkalemia is common in patients who are hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher maximum potassium levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase, with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction merits further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidural analgesia is infrequently used in patients with acute pancreatitis : a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sasabuchi, Y; Yasunaga, H; Matsui, H; Lefor, A K; Fushimi, K; Sanui, M

    2017-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an option for pain control in patients with acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics, morbidity and mortality of patients with acute pancreatitis treated with epidural analgesia. Data was extracted from a national inpatient database in Japan on patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis between July 2010 and March 2013. A total of 44,146 patients discharged from acute care hospitals were included in this retrospective cohort study. The patient background, timing and duration of epidural analgesia, complications (epidural hematoma or abscess), surgery (for cholelithiasis / cholecystitis or complications) and mortality were verified. Epidural analgesia was used in 307 patients (0.70 %). The mean age was 64.0 years (standard deviation, 15.4 years) and 116 (37.8%) of the patients were female. The median duration of epidural analgesia was four days (interquartile range, 3-5 days). No patient underwent surgery for epidural hematoma or abscess. Six (2.0%) patients died during hospitalization. Most likely causes of death were pulmonary embolism, multiple organ failure, sepsis, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis. The responsible physician for 250 of the patients (81.4%) was a gastroenterological surgeon. Epidural analgesia was started on the day of surgery in 278 (90.6%) patients. Epidural analgesia is rarely used in patients with acute pancreatitis. None of the patients included in the study required surgery for epidural hematoma or abscess. Further research to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epidural analgesia in patients with acute pancreatitis is warranted. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  18. Patient factors associated with increased acute care costs of hip fractures: a detailed analysis of 402 patients.

    PubMed

    Aigner, R; Meier Fedeler, T; Eschbach, D; Hack, J; Bliemel, C; Ruchholtz, S; Bücking, B

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify patient factors associated with higher costs in hip fracture patients. The mean costs of a prospectively observed sample of 402 patients were 8853 €. The ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and fracture location were associated with increased costs. Fractures of the proximal end of the femur (hip fractures) are of increasing incidence due to demographic changes. Relevant co-morbidities often present in these patients cause high complication rates and prolonged hospital stays, thus leading to high costs of acute care. The aim of this study was to perform a precise cost analysis of the actual hospital costs of hip fractures and to identify patient factors associated with increased costs. The basis of this analysis was a prospectively observed single-center trial, which included 402 patients with fractures of the proximal end of the femur. All potential cost factors were recorded as accurately as possible for each of the 402 patients individually, and statistical analysis was performed to identify associations between pre-existing patient factors and acute care costs. The mean total acute care costs per patient were 8853 ± 5676 € with ward costs (5828 ± 4294 €) and costs for surgical treatment (1972 ± 956 €) representing the major cost factors. The ASA score, Charlson comorbidity index, and fracture location were identified as influencing the costs of acute care for hip fracture treatment. Hip fractures are associated with high acute care costs. This study underlines the necessity of sophisticated risk-adjusted payment models based on specific patient factors. Economic aspects should be an integral part of future hip fracture research due to limited health care resources.

  19. Early biomarkers of acute kidney failure after heart angiography or heart surgery in patients with acute coronary syndrome or acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Elmlili, Nisrin; Puchades, María Jesús; Solís, Miguel Angel; Sanjuán, Rafael; Blasco, Maria Luisa; Ramos, Carmen; Tomás, Patricia; Ribes, José; Carratalá, Arturo; Juan, Isabel; Miguel, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, which worsens patients' prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the increase in serum creatinine, which is delayed. It is necessary to identify and validate new biomarkers that allow for early and effective interventions. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine (uNGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18) in urine and cystatin C in serum for the early detection of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure, and who underwent cardiac surgery or catheterization. The study included 135 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute coronary syndrome or heart failure due to coronary or valvular pathology and who underwent coronary angiography or cardiac bypass surgery or valvular replacement. The biomarkers were determined 12 hours after surgery and serum creatinine was monitored during the next six days for the diagnosis of AKI. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for NGAL was 0.983, and for cystatin C and IL-18 the AUCs were 0.869 and 0.727, respectively. At a cut-off of 31.9 ng/ml for uNGAL the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 91%. uNGAL is an early marker of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure and undergoing cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, with a higher predictive value than cystatin C or IL-18.

  20. Edaravone offers neuroprotection for acute diabetic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Chen, X

    2016-11-01

    Edaravone, a novel free-radical scavenger, has been shown to alleviate cerebral ischemic injury and protect against vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of edaravone in acute diabetic stroke patients remain undetermined. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to prospectively evaluate the effects of edaravone on acute diabetic stroke patients admitted to our hospital within 24 h of stroke onset. The edaravone group received edaravone (30 mg twice per day) diluted with 100 ml of saline combined with antiplatelet drug aspirin and atorvastatin for 14 days. The non-edaravone group was treated only with 100 ml of saline twice per day combined with aspirin and atorvastatin. Upon admission, and on days 7, 14 post-stroke onset, neurological deficits and activities of daily living were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively. The occurrence of hemorrhage transformation, pulmonary infection, progressive stroke and epilepsy was also evaluated on day 14 post-treatment. A total of 65 consecutive acute diabetic stroke patients were enrolled, of whom 35 were allocated to the edaravone group and 30 to the non-edaravone group. There was no significant group difference in baseline clinical characteristics, but mean NIHSS scores were lower (60 %), and BI scores were 1.7-fold higher, in edaravone-treated patients vs. controls on day 14. Furthermore, the incidence of hemorrhage transformation, pulmonary infection, progressive stroke and epilepsy was markedly reduced in the edaravone vs. non-edaravone group. Edaravone represents a promising neuroprotectant against cerebral ischemic injury in diabetic patients.

  1. Thrombopoietin as Early Biomarker of Disease Severity in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lupia, Enrico; Pigozzi, Luca; Pivetta, Emanuele; Bosco, Ornella; Vizio, Barbara; Loiacono, Maria; Lucchiari, Manuela; Battista, Stefania; Morello, Fulvio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Mengozzi, Giulio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    To study the concentrations of thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor recently involved in the pathogenesis of experimental acute pancreatitis (AP), and its potential role as an early diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with AP. Thrombopoietin was measured in 44 AP patients, 18 patients with nonpancreatic acute abdominal pain, and 18 healthy volunteers. Acute pancreatitis severity was classified on the basis of the 2012 International Atlanta Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis criteria. Thrombopoietin levels did not differ between AP patients and control subjects, whereas these were higher in patients with moderately severe or severe AP compared with those with mild AP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of TPO for severe AP diagnosis showed an area under the curve of 0.80. A cutoff value of 31.48 pg/mL showed the highest sensitivity, allowing to rule out severe AP when TPO was lower, whereas TPO higher than 98.23 pg/mL was associated with severe AP with high specificity (93.5%). Furthermore, TPO levels were greater in AP patients developing organ dysfunction or sepsis and in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Our data provide the first evidence for TPO as potential early prognostic biomarker in AP patients. High TPO levels at hospital admission may predict organ dysfunction, sepsis, and fatal outcome in AP patients.

  2. Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Kirk B.; Stevens, Todd M; Singal, Ashwani K.

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in patients with advanced cirrhosis and negatively impacts pre- and post-transplant outcomes. Physiologic changes that occur in patients with decompensated cirrhosis with ascites, place these patients at high risk of AKI. The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis include prerenal injury, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and the hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), accounting for more than 80% of AKI in this population. Distinguishing between these causes is particularly important for prognostication and treatment. Treatment of Type 1 HRS with vasoconstrictors and albumin improves short term survival and renal function in some patients while awaiting liver transplantation. Patients with HRS who fail to respond to medical therapy or those with severe renal failure of other etiology may require renal replacement therapy. Simultaneous liver kidney transplant (SLK) is needed in many of these patients to improve their post-transplant outcomes. However, the criteria to select patients who would benefit from SLK transplantation are based on consensus and lack strong evidence to support them. In this regard, novel serum and/or urinary biomarkers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukins-6 and 18, kidney injury molecule-1, fatty acid binding protein, and endothelin-1 are emerging with a potential for accurately differentiating common causes of AKI. Prospective studies are needed on the use of these biomarkers to predict accurately renal function recovery after liver transplantation alone in order to optimize personalized use of SLK. PMID:26623266

  3. Clinical course of ulcerative colitis patients who develop acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Wook; Hwang, Sung Wook; Park, Sang Hyoung; Song, Tae Jun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Su; Ye, Byong Duk; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2017-05-21

    To investigate the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who develop acute pancreatitis. We analyzed 3307 UC patients from the inflammatory bowel disease registry at Asan Medical Center from June 1989 to May 2015. The clinical course of UC patients who developed acute pancreatitis was compared with that of non-pancreatitis UC patients. Among 51 patients who developed acute pancreatitis, 13 (0.40%) had autoimmune, 10 (0.30%) had aminosalicylate-induced, and 13 (1.73%) had thiopurine-induced pancreatitis. All 13 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) had type 2 AIP. Two (15.4%) patients had pre-existing AIP, and three (23.1%) patients developed AIP and UC simultaneously. Compared to non-pancreatitis patients, AIP patients had UC diagnosed at a significantly younger age (median, 22.9 years vs 36.4 years; P = 0.001). AIP and aminosalicylate-induced pancreatitis patients had more extensive UC compared to non-pancreatitis patients. All patients with pancreatitis recovered uneventfully, and there were no recurrences. Biologics were used more frequently in aminosalicylate- and thiopurine-induced pancreatitis patients compared to non-pancreatitis patients [adjusted OR (95%CI), 5.16 (1.42-18.67) and 6.90 (1.83-25.98), respectively]. Biologic utilization rate was similar among AIP and non-pancreatitis patients [OR (95%CI), 0.84 (0.11-6.66)]. Colectomy rates for autoimmune, aminosalicylate-induced, and thiopurine-induced pancreatitis, and for non-pancreatitis patients were 15.4% (2/13), 20% (2/10), 15.4% (2/13), and 7.3% (239/3256), respectively; the rates were not significantly different after adjusting for baseline disease extent. Pancreatitis patients show a non-significant increase in colectomy, after adjusting for baseline disease extent.

  4. Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Saber; Golzar, Farhad; Ayubi, Erfan; Naghili, Behrooz; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Q fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease among at-risk individuals in northwestern Iran. An etiological study was carried out in 2013 in Tabriz County. A total of 116 individuals who were in contact with livestock and had a nonspecific febrile illness were enrolled in the study. IgG phase II antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected using ELISA. The prevalence of acute Q fever was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0, 21.0%). Headache (87.5%) and fatigue and weakness (81.3%) were the dominant clinical characteristics among patients whit acute Q fever. Acute lower respiratory tract infection and chills were poorly associated with acute Q fever. Furthermore, 32% (95% CI: 24, 41%) of participants had a history of previous exposure to Q fever agent (past infection). Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products was a weak risk factor for previous exposure to C. burnetii. This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system.

  5. Impaired math achievement in patients with acute vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Moser, Ivan; Vibert, Dominique; Caversaccio, Marco D; Mast, Fred W

    2017-12-01

    Broad cognitive difficulties have been reported in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit, especially in the domain of spatial cognition. Processing and manipulating numbers relies on the ability to use the inherent spatial features of numbers. It is thus conceivable that patients with acute peripheral vestibular deficit show impaired numerical cognition. Using the number Stroop task and a short math achievement test, we tested 20 patients with acute vestibular neuritis and 20 healthy, age-matched controls. On the one hand, patients showed normal congruency and distance effects in the number Stroop task, which is indicative of normal number magnitude processing. On the other hand, patients scored lower than healthy controls in the math achievement test. We provide evidence that the lower performance cannot be explained by either differences in prior math knowledge (i.e., education) or slower processing speed. Our results suggest that peripheral vestibular deficit negatively affects numerical cognition in terms of the efficient manipulation of numbers. We discuss the role of executive functions in math performance and argue that previously reported executive deficits in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit provide a plausible explanation for the lower math achievement scores. In light of the handicapping effects of impaired numerical cognition in daily living, it is crucial to further investigate the mechanisms that cause mathematical deficits in acute PVD and eventually develop adequate means for cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute admissions to medical departments in Denmark: diagnoses and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vest-Hansen, Betina; Riis, Anders Hammerich; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2014-09-01

    Despite extensive research on individual diseases, population-based knowledge about reasons for acute medical admissions remains limited. Our aim was to examine primary diagnoses, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, age, and gender among patients admitted acutely to medical departments in Denmark. In this population-based observational study, 264,265 acute medical patients admitted during 2010 were identified in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP), covering all hospitals in Denmark. Reasons for acute admissions were assessed by primary diagnoses, grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. Additionally, the CCI score, age and gender were presented according to each diagnostic group. Two-thirds of the patients had one of the four following reasons for admission: cardiovascular diseases (19.3%), non-specific Z-diagnoses ("Factors influencing health status and contact with health services") (16.9%), infectious diseases (15.5%), and non-specific R-diagnoses ("Symptoms and abnormal findings, not elsewhere classified") (11.8%). In total, 45% of the patients had a CCI score of one or more and there was a considerable overlap between the patients' chronic diseases and the reason for admission. The median age of the study population was 64 years (IQR 47-77 years), ranging from 46 years (IQR 27-66) for injury and poisoning to 74 years (IQR 60-83) for hematological diseases. Gender representation varied considerably within the diagnostic groups, for example with male predominance in mental disorders (59.0%) and female predominance in diseases of the musculoskeletal system (57.8%). Our study identifies that acute medical patients often present with non-specific symptoms or complications related to their chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: A correlational study of the discrepancy between patients' expectations and experiences.

    PubMed

    Abed, Mona A; Ali, Raeda M Abu; Abu Ras, Motaz M; Hamdallah, Faten O; Khalil, Amani A; Moser, Debra K

    2015-10-01

    Patients' responses to acute myocardial infarction symptoms are affected by symptom incongruence, which is the difference between the symptoms they expect to experience and the symptoms they actually experienced during an acute myocardial infarction. To examine the relationship of patients' demographics, clinical characteristics and sources of information about acute myocardial infarction with their symptom expectations, actual experiences and symptom incongruence. Descriptive correlational study. Patients were recruited from ten hospitals in the two most populated cities in Jordan (Amman and Al Zarqa). Jordanian patients with acute myocardial infarction were recruited. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years or older, diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, oriented, mentally competent and fluent in Arabic. Exclusion criteria were experiencing acute myocardial infarction during a hospitalization or having severe psychiatric illnesses. The Morgan Incongruence of Heart Attack Symptoms Index was used to quantify symptom incongruence and identify patients' expected and experienced acute myocardial infarction symptoms. Patients' information sources about acute myocardial infarction and demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by interview and medical chart review. Patients (N=299) were mostly males (80%) and married (92%). The average age was 56±12.3 years. Patients expected a limited number of acute myocardial infarction symptoms and these expectations were largely confined to typical symptoms and matched their experiences. Patients who were female, elderly, nonsmokers, poorly educated, with low income, and those who were normolipidemic, had no personal or family cardiac history, and were informed about acute myocardial infarction by relatives expected fewer symptoms (mostly typical and atypical) than their counterparts. Elderly patients and those with hyperlipidemia experienced fewer typical symptoms than their counterparts. Patients with ST

  8. Early Exercise Rehabilitation of Muscle Weakness in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael J.; Morris, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Failure patients experience significant muscle weakness which contributes to prolonged hospitalization and functional impairments post-hospital discharge. Based on our previous work, we hypothesize that an exercise intervention initiated early in the intensive care unit aimed at improving skeletal muscle strength could decrease hospital stay and attenuate the deconditioning and skeletal muscle weakness experienced by these patients. Summary Early exercise has the potential to decrease hospital length of stay and improve function in Acute Respiratory Failure patients. PMID:23873130

  9. Persistent post-traumatic headache, postconcussion syndrome, and whiplash injuries: the evidence for a non-traumatic basis with an historical review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Randolph W

    2010-04-01

    There has been intense controversy about postconcussion syndrome since Erichsen's publication in 1866 on railway brain and railway spine. The fascinating history of this debate will be reviewed and then the non-organic explanations for postconcussion syndrome, headaches after head injury, and chronic whiplash injuries and headaches will be explored including the following: psychogenic, psychosocial, sociocultural, base rate misattribution, chronic pain, compensation and litigation, and malingering.

  10. Case series on chronic whiplash related neck pain treated with intraarticular zygapophysial joint regeneration injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R Allen; Frizzell, J Bevan; Faris, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Although in clinical use, there is only 1 published case report on the efficacy of intraarticular regeneration injection therapy (RIT) (a.k.a. prolotheraphy). This report supports a rationale for future clinical trials of this technique. To assess the efficacy of intraarticular zygapophysial joint RIT in patients with chronic whiplash related neck pain that failed other conservative and interventional procedures. Patients were treated with intraarticular RIT and reassessed over 1 year. Retrospective case review of prospective data. Eighteen consecutive patients were treated with intraarticular prolotherapy by placing 0.5 - 1mL of 20% dextrose solution into each zygapophysial joint, after confirmation of intraarticular location with radiographic contrast, using 25-gauge spinal needles and fluoroscopic guidance. Solution was prepared by diluting D50W with 1% lidocaine. Fifteen patients completed treatment. Three patients had bilateral treatment, leaving 18 sides for analysis. Mean Neck Disability Index (NDI) pre-treatment was 24.71 and decreased post-treatment to 14.21 (2 months), 13.45 (6 months), 10.94 (12 months). Average change NDI=13.77 (p<0.0001) baseline versus 12 months. Symptoms for 14 patients were from motor vehicle accident, of which 13 were in litigation. Patients attending physiotherapy over the course of treatment had better outcomes than those without physiotherapy. Women needed more injections (5.4) than men (3.2) p=0.0003. Intraarticular RIT improved pain and function in this case series. The procedure appears safe, more effective than periarticular RIT, and lasted as long, or longer, than those patients with previous radiofrequency neurotomy. Concurrent physiotherapy helped reduce post-procedure neck stiffness. Future trials should consider gender when deciding how many treatments to administer. Litigation was not a barrier to recovery.

  11. Psychosocial distress in acute cancer patients assessed with an expert rating scale.

    PubMed

    Senf, Bianca; Brandt, Holger; Dignass, Axel; Kleinschmidt, Rolf; Kaiser, Jochen

    2010-08-01

    The identification of psychosocial stress in cancer patients has remained a challenging task especially in an acute care environment. The aims of the present study were to apply a short expert rating scale for the assessment of distress during the acute treatment phase and to identify potential sociodemographic and disease-related predictors. Four hundred seventy-eight ward cancer patients were assessed with the short form of the psycho-oncological basis documentation and its breast-cancer-specific version. In addition, they completed a self-rating questionnaire on stress in cancer patients. We recorded sociodemographic and disease-related variables and assessed their predictive value for psychosocial distress. According to the expert rating scale, 56.3% of patients were rated distressed. While only 31.3% of patients were classified as distressed according to a patient self-rating, both approaches showed a good degree of concurrence with a consistent classification of 69% of patients. Younger age, current psychotropic medication, and past psychological treatment were associated with higher distress levels. Patients with metastases and those with a poorer functional status were more distressed. Interestingly, having an operation was associated with a better psychological well-being. This study demonstrated that a substantial proportion of cancer patients in acute care are psychosocially distressed. A short expert rating scale proved to be a feasible tool for the assessment of distress in an acute care setting.

  12. Does expecting mean achieving? The association between expecting to return to work and recovery in whiplash associated disorders: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ozegovic, Dejan; Carroll, Linda J; David Cassidy, J

    2009-06-01

    To determine the association between expectations to return to work and self-assessed recovery. Positive expectations predict better outcomes in many health conditions, but to date the relationship between expecting to return to work after traffic-related whiplash-associated disorders and actual recovery has not been reported. We assessed early expectations for return to work in a cohort of 2,335 individuals with traffic-related whiplash injury to the neck. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis we assessed the association between return to work expectations and self-perceived recovery during the first year following the event. After adjusting for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, initial pain and symptoms, post-crash mood, prior health status and collision-related factors, those who expected to return to work reported global recovery 42% more quickly than those who did not have positive expectations (HRR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60). Knowledge of return to work expectation provides an important prognostic tool to clinicians for recovery.

  13. Therapeutic implications of transesophageal echocardiography after transthoracic echocardiography on acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, Tiago Tribolet; Mateus, Sonia; Carreteiro, Cecilia; Correia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Background The role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the evaluation of acute stroke patients is still ill-defined. We conducted a prospective observational study to find the prevalence of TEE findings that indicate anticoagulation as beneficial, in acute ischemic stroke patients without indication for anticoagulation based on clinical, electrocardiographic and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. Methods We prospectively studied all patients referred to our laboratory for TTE and TEE. Patients were excluded if the diagnosis was not acute ischemic stroke or if they had an indication for anticoagulation based on clinical, electrocardiographic, or TTE data. Patients with TEE findings that might indicate anticoagulation as beneficial were identified. Results A total of 84 patients with acute ischemic stroke and without indication for anticoagulation based on clinical and electrocardiographic or TTE data were included in the study. Findings indicating anticoagulation as beneficial were found in 32.1%: spontaneous echo contrast (1.2%), complex aortic atheroma (27.4%), thrombus (8.3%), and simultaneous patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm (2.4%). Conclusions The results of our study show that TEE can have therapy implications in 32.1% of ischemic stroke patients in sinus rhythm and with TTE with no indication for anticoagulation. PMID:18629351

  14. EXERCISE, MANUAL THERAPY AND POSTURAL RE-EDUCATION FOR UNCONTROLLED EAR TWITCHING AND RELATED IMPAIRMENTS AFTER WHIPLASH INJURY: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Kelsey; Feldner, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders and the interventions used to remediate them are well documented in physical therapy literature. However, specific interventions for spasms of the neck musculature that also involve constant ear twitching have yet to be addressed. The purpose of this case report is twofold. First, to describe comprehensive physical therapy management and outcomes for a subject with uncontrolled ear twitching and related musculoskeletal impairments, and second, to discuss the physical therapist's approach to evidence-based care when faced with a paucity of literature addressing physical therapy interventions for subjects with uncontrolled ear twitching. The subject was a 14-year-old female who sustained a right anterolateral whiplash injury when struck in the head by a volleyball seven months prior to physical therapy. Beginning five months after that injury, she experienced uncontrolled and constant superior/inferior movement of her right ear (hereafter described in this report as a twitch) in addition to facial and cervical pain from her initial injury. She was unable to participate in high school athletics due to her pain. A multimodal treatment approach including exercise, manual therapy, and postural reeducation was utilized during the subject's episode of care. After eight treatment sessions, the subjects's cervical range of motion and upper extremity strength improved. The reported frequency of ear twitching decreased, as did reports of neck and shoulder pain. In addition, her Neck Disability Index improved from a score of 22, indicating moderate disability, to 9, indicating mild disability and she was able to return to sport activity. With limited research to direct intervention, clinical reasoning was utilized to formulate an effective therapeutic intervention. A combination of manual therapy, exercise, and postural reeducation intervention was effective for this subject and could assist in guiding interventions for similarly unique clinical

  15. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  16. Prone Positioning Improves Oxygenation in Adult Burn Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Prone positioning improves oxygenation in adult burn patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome Diane F. Hale, MD, Jeremy W. Cannon, MD...Kevin K. Chung, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation and may provide a benefit in patients with acute... positioning improves oxygenation in adult burn patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Heart Failure Patients: Observations from the Oman Acute Heart Failure Registry

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alazzawi, Aouf AbdlRahman; Abraham, Abraham; Singh, Prit Pal; Narayan, Narayan Anantha; Rajarao, Mamatha Punjee; Khdir, Mohammed Ahmed; Abdlraheem, Mohamad; Siddiqui, Aftab Ahmed; Soliman, Hisham; Elkadi, Osama Abdellatif; Bichu, Ruchir Kumar; Al Lawati, Kumayl Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of patients in Oman with acute heart failure (AHF) as part of the Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry (CARE) project. Methods Data were analyzed from 988 consecutive patients admitted with AHF to 12 hospitals in Oman between 14 February and 14 November 2012. Results The mean age of our patients was 63±12 years. Over half (57%) were male and 95% were Omani citizens. Fifty-seven percent of patients presented with acute decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF) while 43% had new-onset AHF. The primary comorbid conditions were hypertension (72%), coronary artery disease (55%), and diabetes mellitus (53%). Ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease, and idiopathic cardiomyopathy were the most common etiologies of AHF in Oman. The median left ventricular ejection fraction of the cohort was 36% (27–45%) with 56% of the patients having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (< 40%). Atrial fibrillation was seen in 15% of patients. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and non-compliance with medications were the most common precipitating factors. At discharge, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers were prescribed adequately, but aldosterone antagonists were under prescribed. Within 12-months follow-up, one in two patients were rehospitalized for AHF. In-hospital mortality was 7.1%, which doubled to 15.7% at three months and reached 26.4% at one-year post discharge. Conclusions Oman CARE was the first prospective multicenter registry of AHF in Oman and showed that heart failure (HF) patients present at a younger age with recurrent ADCHF and HF with reduced ejection fraction. IHD was the most common etiology of HF with a low prevalence of AHF, but a high prevalence of acute coronary syndrome and non-compliance with medications precipitating HF. A quarter of patients died at one-year follow-up even though at discharge medical therapy was

  18. Uncertainty of Acute Stroke Patients: A Cross-sectional Descriptive and Correlational Study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chunping; Peng, Jing; Wei, Yuanyuan; Hua, Yan; Ren, Xiaoran; Su, Xiangni; Shi, Ruijie

    2018-06-12

    Uncertainty is a chronic and pervasive source of psychological distress for patients and plays an important role in the rehabilitation of stroke survivors. Little is known about the level and correlates of uncertainty among patients in the acute phase of stroke. The purposes of this study were to describe the uncertainty of patients in the acute phase of stroke and to explore characteristics of patients associated with that uncertainty. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study was conducted with a convenience sample of 451 consecutive hospitalized acute stroke patients recruited from the neurology department of 2 general hospitals of China. Uncertainty was measured using Chinese versions of Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale for Adults on the fourth day of patients' admission. The patients had moderately high Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale for Adults scores (mean [SD], 74.37 [9.22]) in the acute phase of stroke. A total of 95.2% and 2.9% of patients were in moderate and high levels of uncertainty, respectively. The mean (SD) score of ambiguity (3.05 [0.39]) was higher than that of complexity (2.88 [0.52]). Each of the following characteristics was independently associated with greater uncertainty: functional status (P = .000), suffering from other chronic diseases (P = .000), time since the first-ever stroke (P = .000), self-evaluated economic pressure (P = .000), family monthly income (P = .001), educational level (P = .006), and self-evaluated severity of disease (P = .000). Patients experienced persistently, moderately high uncertainty in the acute phase of stroke. Ameliorating uncertainty should be an integral part of the rehabilitation program. Better understanding of uncertainty and its associated characteristics may help nurses identify patients at the highest risk who may benefit from targeted interventions.

  19. Dementia in the acute hospital: the prevalence and clinical outcomes of acutely unwell patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Briggs, R; Dyer, A; Nabeel, S; Collins, R; Doherty, J; Coughlan, T; O'Neill, D; Kennelly, S P

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that a significant minority of older persons presenting to acute hospital services are cognitively impaired; however, the impact of dementia on long-term outcomes is less clear. To evaluate the prevalence of dementia, both formally diagnosed and hitherto unrecognised in a cohort of acutely unwell older adults, as well as its impact on both immediate outcomes (length of stay and in-hospital mortality) and 12-month outcomes including readmission, institutionalisation and death. Prospective observational study. 190 patients aged 70 years and over, presenting to acute hospital services underwent a detailed health assessment including cognitive assessment (standardised Mini Mental State Examination, AD8 and Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit). Patients or informants were contacted directly 12 months later to compile 1-year outcome data. Dementia was defined as a score of 2 or more on the AD8 screening test. Dementia was present in over one-third of patients (73/190). Of these patients, 36% (26/73) had a prior documented diagnosis of dementia with the remaining undiagnosed before presentation. The composite outcome of death or readmission to hospital within the following 12 months was more likely to occur in patients with dementia (73% (53/73) vs. 58% (68/117), P = 0.043). This finding persisted after controlling for age, gender, frailty status and medical comorbidities, including stroke and heart disease. A diagnosis of dementia confers an increased risk of either death or further admission within the following 12 months, highlighting the need for better cognitive screening in the acute setting, as well as targeted intervention such as comprehensive geriatric assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Elective course in acute care using online learning and patient simulation.

    PubMed

    Seybert, Amy L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L

    2011-04-11

    To enhance students' knowledge of and critical-thinking skills in the management of acutely ill patients using online independent learning partnered with high-fidelity patient simulation sessions. Students enrolled in the Acute Care Simulation watched 10 weekly Web-based video presentations on various critical care and advanced cardiovascular pharmacotherapy topics. After completing each online module, all students participated in groups in patient-care simulation exercises in which they prepared a pharmacotherapeutic plan for the patient, recommended this plan to the patient's physician, and completed a debriefing session with the facilitator. Students completed a pretest and posttest before and after each simulation exercise, as well as midterm and final evaluations and a satisfaction survey. Pharmacy students significantly improved their scores on 9 of the 10 tests (p ≤ 0.05). Students' performance on the final evaluation improved compared with performance on the midterm evaluation. Overall, students were satisfied with the unique dual approach to learning and enjoyed the realistic patient-care environment that the simulation laboratory provided. Participation in an elective course that combined self-directed Web-based learning and hands-on patient simulation exercises increased pharmacy students' knowledge and critical-thinking skills in acute care.

  1. Characteristics of Inpatient Care and Rehabilitation for Acute First-Ever Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Il; Lee, Sam-Gyu; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Lim, Young Shil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the status of inpatient care for acute first-ever stroke at three general hospitals in Korea to provide basic data and useful information on the development of comprehensive and systematic rehabilitation care for stroke patients. Materials and Methods This study conducted a retrospective complete enumeration survey of all acute first-ever stroke patients admitted to three distinct general hospitals for 2 years by reviewing medical records. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were included. Survey items included demographic data, risk factors, stroke type, state of rehabilitation treatment, discharge destination, and functional status at discharge. Results A total of 2159 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 61.5±14.4 years and the ratio of males to females was 1.23:1. Proportion of ischemic stroke comprised 54.9% and hemorrhagic stroke 45.1%. Early hospital mortality rate was 8.1%. Among these patients, 27.9% received rehabilitation consultation and 22.9% underwent inpatient rehabilitation treatment. The mean period from admission to rehabilitation consultation was 14.5 days. Only 12.9% of patients were transferred to a rehabilitation department and the mean period from onset to transfer was 23.4 days. Improvements in functional status were observed in the patients who had received inpatient rehabilitation treatment after acute stroke management. Conclusion Our analysis revealed that a relatively small portion of patients who suffered from an acute first-ever stroke received rehabilitation consultation and inpatient rehabilitation treatment. Thus, applying standardized clinical practice guidelines for post-acute rehabilitation care is needed to provide more effective and efficient rehabilitation services to patients with stroke. PMID:25510773

  2. A comparison of physical and psychological features of responders and non-responders to cervical facet blocks in chronic whiplash

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical facet block (FB) procedures are often used as a diagnostic precursor to radiofrequency neurotomies (RFN) in the management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals will respond to the FB procedures and others will not respond. Such responders and non-responders provided a sample of convenience to question whether there were differences in their physical and psychological features. This information may inform future predictive studies and ultimately the clinical selection of patients for FB procedures. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 58 individuals with chronic WAD who responded to cervical FB procedures (WAD_R); 32 who did not respond (WAD_NR) and 30 Healthy Controls (HC)s. Measures included: quantitative sensory tests (pressure; thermal pain thresholds; brachial plexus provocation test); nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR); motor function (cervical range of movement (ROM); activity of the superficial neck flexors during the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT). Self-reported measures were gained from the following questionnaires: neuropathic pain (s-LANSS); psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28), post-traumatic stress (PDS) and pain catastrophization (PCS). Individuals with chronic whiplash attended the laboratory once the effects of the blocks had abated and symptoms had returned. Results Following FB procedures, both WAD groups demonstrated generalized hypersensitivity to all sensory tests, decreased neck ROM and increased superficial muscle activity with the CCFT compared to controls (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between WAD groups (all p > 0.05). Both WAD groups demonstrated psychological distress (GHQ-28; p < 0.05), moderate post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain catastrophization. The WAD_NR group also demonstrated increased medication intake and elevated PCS scores compared to the WAD_R group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic WAD responders and non-responders to FB

  3. Clinical course of ulcerative colitis patients who develop acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Wook; Hwang, Sung Wook; Park, Sang Hyoung; Song, Tae Jun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Su; Ye, Byong Duk; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who develop acute pancreatitis. METHODS We analyzed 3307 UC patients from the inflammatory bowel disease registry at Asan Medical Center from June 1989 to May 2015. The clinical course of UC patients who developed acute pancreatitis was compared with that of non-pancreatitis UC patients. RESULTS Among 51 patients who developed acute pancreatitis, 13 (0.40%) had autoimmune, 10 (0.30%) had aminosalicylate-induced, and 13 (1.73%) had thiopurine-induced pancreatitis. All 13 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) had type 2 AIP. Two (15.4%) patients had pre-existing AIP, and three (23.1%) patients developed AIP and UC simultaneously. Compared to non-pancreatitis patients, AIP patients had UC diagnosed at a significantly younger age (median, 22.9 years vs 36.4 years; P = 0.001). AIP and aminosalicylate-induced pancreatitis patients had more extensive UC compared to non-pancreatitis patients. All patients with pancreatitis recovered uneventfully, and there were no recurrences. Biologics were used more frequently in aminosalicylate- and thiopurine-induced pancreatitis patients compared to non-pancreatitis patients [adjusted OR (95%CI), 5.16 (1.42-18.67) and 6.90 (1.83-25.98), respectively]. Biologic utilization rate was similar among AIP and non-pancreatitis patients [OR (95%CI), 0.84 (0.11-6.66)]. Colectomy rates for autoimmune, aminosalicylate-induced, and thiopurine-induced pancreatitis, and for non-pancreatitis patients were 15.4% (2/13), 20% (2/10), 15.4% (2/13), and 7.3% (239/3256), respectively; the rates were not significantly different after adjusting for baseline disease extent. CONCLUSION Pancreatitis patients show a non-significant increase in colectomy, after adjusting for baseline disease extent. PMID:28596686

  4. Treatment of whiplash associated neck pain [corrected] with botulinum toxin-A: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Freund, B J; Schwartz, M

    2000-02-01

    Up to 87% of patients with whiplash associated disorder (WAD) have some degree of muscle spasm that is contributory to both pain and dysfunction. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) produces prolonged muscle relaxation that is dose-dependent and can be easily targeted to affected muscles. BTX-A therapy may be an effective form of therapy offering an alternative or adjunct to conventional modalities. We investigated BTX-A as therapy in patients with WAD. This randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study compares outcome measures in 26 patients with chronic neck pain (WAD-II chronic) subsequent to a motor vehicle accident. One-half of the patients received 100 units BTX-A, diluted in 1 ml saline, while the other half received just saline (1 ml). Five trigger points received 0.2 ml each of injectant via a 30 gauge needle. Outcome measures included total subjective neck, shoulder, and head pain based on visual analog scales; objective total range of neck motion (ROM), and the Vernon-Mior subjective function index. Followup assessments were carried out at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment. Fourteen subjects receiving BTX-A and 12 receiving saline completed the study. The treatment group showed a trend toward improvement in ROM and reduction in pain at 2 weeks post-injection. At 4 weeks post-injection the treatment group was significantly improved from preinjection levels (p < 0.01). The placebo group showed no statistically significant changes at any post-treatment time. The Vernon-Mior scale revealed a trend to improvement for both groups. BTX-A treatment of subjects with chronic WAD II neck pain resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) improvement in ROM and subjective pain compared to a placebo group, but only a trend to improvement in subjective functioning.

  5. Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Emergency Department Patients Despite Therapeutic Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle Y; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Reed, Mary E; Bouvet, Sean C; Vinson, David R

    2018-05-01

    Emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) despite therapeutic anticoagulation at the time of diagnosis are uncommonly encountered and present a diagnostic and management challenge. Their characterization and outcomes are poorly described. We sought to describe the prevalence and characteristics of therapeutically anticoagulated patients among a population of patients with acute PE in a community setting and to describe treatment changes and 30-day outcomes. From a large retrospective cohort of adults with acute, objectively-confirmed PE across 21 EDs between 01/2013 and 04/2015, we identified patients who arrived on direct oral or injectable anticoagulants, or warfarin with an initial ED international normalized ratio (INR) value ≥2.0. Patients were excluded from the larger cohort if they had received a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the prior 30 days. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We report discharge anticoagulation regimens and major 30-day adverse outcomes. Among 2,996 PE patients, 36 (1.2%) met study criteria. Mean age was 63 years. Eleven patients (31%) had active cancer and 25 (69%) were high risk on the PE Severity Index (Classes III-V), comparable to the larger cohort (p>0.1). Reasons for pre-arrival anticoagulation were VTE treatment or prevention (n=21), and atrial fibrillation or flutter (n=15). All patients arrived on warfarin and one was also on enoxaparin: 32 had a therapeutic INR (2.0-3.0) and four had a supratherapeutic INR (>3.0). Fifteen patients (42%) had at least one subtherapeutic INR (<2.0) in the 14 days preceding their diagnostic visit. Two patients died during hospitalization. Of the 34 ultimately discharged, 22 underwent a change in anticoagulation drug or dosing, 19 of whom received injectables, either to replace or to supplement warfarin. Four patients also received inferior vena cava filters. Thirty

  6. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on cardiac organ damage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mattaliano, Paola; Lombardi, Carolina; Sangalli, Davide; Faini, Andrea; Corrà, Barbara; Adobbati, Laura; Branzi, Giovanna; Mariani, Davide; Silani, Vincenzo; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiac organ damage have a crucial role in acute ischemic stroke. Our aim is to explore the relationship between OSA and cardiac organ damage in acute stroke patients. A total of 130 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent full multichannel 24-h polysomnography for evaluation of OSA and echocardiography to evaluate left ventricle (LV) mass index (LV mass/BSA, LV mass/height), thickness of interventricular septum (IVS) and posterior wall (LVPW), LV ejection fraction and left atrium enlargement. Information on occurrence of arterial hypertension and its treatment before stroke was obtained from patients' history. 61.9% (70) of patients, mostly men (67.1%), with acute stroke had OSA (AHI > 10). Patients with acute stroke and OSA showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) of LV mass index, IVS and LVPW thickness and a significant left atrial enlargement as compared with patients without OSA. LV ejection fraction was not significantly different in stroke patients with and without OSA and was within normal limits. No relationship was found among cardiac alterations, occurrence of OSA and history of hypertension. Acute stroke patients with OSA had higher LV mass and showed greater left atrial enlargement than patients without OSA. This study confirms the high prevalence of OSA in stroke patients, suggesting also an association between OSA and cardiac target organ damage. Our finding of structural LV abnormalities in acute stroke patients with OSA suggests a potential role of OSA as contributing factor in determining both cerebrovascular and cardiac damage, even in absence of clear link with a history of blood pressure elevation.

  7. Acute erythroid neoplastic proliferations. A biological study based on 62 patients.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Claros, Alicia; Larriba, Itziar; Rozman, Maruja; Irriguible, Dolors; Vallespí, Teresa; Aventin, Anna; Ayats, Ramon; Millá, Fuensanta; Solé, Francesc; Florensa, Lourdes; Gallart, Miquel; Tuset, Esperanza; Lopez, Carmen; Woessner, Soledad

    2002-02-01

    The terms acute erythroleukemia and AML-M6 are defined in the FAB classification as proliferations of dysplastic erythroid elements mixed with blasts of myeloid origin, but pure erythroid leukemias are not included. The recent WHO classification has a category of acute myeloid leukemia not otherwise categorized, which includes acute erythroid leukemia (M6) of two subtypes: M6a-erythroleukemia (erythroid/myeloid) and M6b-pure erythroid leukemia. The aims of this co-operative study were to discover the incidences of these different subtypes, and pay special attention to the morphology of these entities. We reviewed a series of 62 patients with erythroid neoplastic proliferations. Previous medical history, age, sex, peripheral blood and bone marrow cell counts, cytochemical stains, immunophenotype, and cytogenetics were evaluated at presentation. We analyzed the incidence of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet abnormalities in the peripheral blood. In bone marrow we analyzed dysplastic features of erythroblasts, granulocytic elements and the megakaryocytic lineage. Fifty-three patients met the criteria of M6a subtype of the WHO classification, and 2 were classified as having pure erythremia (M6b); 7 cases could not be classified according to the WHO criteria. Fifty-five patients presented with de novo acute leukemia, and seven patients had secondary acute leukemia. The most frequent dysplastic features in blood smears were: schistocytes, tear-drop and pincered cells in erythrocytes; hypogranulation and hyposegmentation in leukocytes; gigantism and hypogranulation in platelets. In bone marrow, megaloblastic changes, multinuclearity, karyorrhexis and basophilic stippling in erythroblasts; hypogranulation and gigantism in granulocytic series, and micromegakaryocytes and unconnected nuclei in megakarocytes were the most dysplastic features. A positive PAS reaction and increase of bone marrow iron with ring sideroblasts were common features. Trilineage dysplasia was

  8. Changes in serum interleukin-33 levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyao; Xing, Yingqi; Gao, Ying; Zhou, Chunkui

    2014-02-01

    Inflammation is widely considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic injury. The balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors significantly affects the prognosis of patients with cerebral infarction. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly identified member of the interkeukin-1 superfamily, has been found to play very important roles in the inflammation of several human diseases including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and central nervous system inflammation. To our knowledge its role in the pathology of acute cerebral infarction has not yet been reported. In this study, we demonstrated that serum IL-33 levels were significantly increased in patients with acute cerebral infarction compared to control patients without acute cerebral infarction. Furthermore, serum IL-33 levels increased with the infarction volume. Our study suggests that IL-33 may be involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of acute cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, Hyder O; Elnour, Mohammed A; Taha, Akasha M; Elbadawi, Abdulateef S

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P < 0.05). No differences were found with regard to age, hypertension, diabetes, family history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and in-hospital acute coronary complications (P > 0.05). Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications.

  10. Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Saber; Golzar, Farhad; Ayubi, Erfan; Naghili, Behrooz; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background Q fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease among at-risk individuals in northwestern Iran. Methodology An etiological study was carried out in 2013 in Tabriz County. A total of 116 individuals who were in contact with livestock and had a nonspecific febrile illness were enrolled in the study. IgG phase II antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected using ELISA. Principal findings The prevalence of acute Q fever was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0, 21.0%). Headache (87.5%) and fatigue and weakness (81.3%) were the dominant clinical characteristics among patients whit acute Q fever. Acute lower respiratory tract infection and chills were poorly associated with acute Q fever. Furthermore, 32% (95% CI: 24, 41%) of participants had a history of previous exposure to Q fever agent (past infection). Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products was a weak risk factor for previous exposure to C. burnetii. Conclusion This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system. PMID:28394892

  11. A combination of gestalt therapy, Rosen Body Work, and Cranio Sacral therapy did not help in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)--results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Bendix, Tom

    2004-12-10

    The chronic state of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) might be understood as a somatization of existential pain. Intervention aimed to improve quality of life (QOL) seemed to be a solution for such situations. The basic idea behind the intervention was holistic, restoring quality of life and relationship with self, in order to diminish tension in the locomotion system, especially the neck. A psychosomatic theory for WAD is proposed. Our treatment was a short 2-day course with teachings in philosophy of life, followed by 6-10 individual sessions in gestalt psychotherapy and body therapy (Rosen therapy and Cranio Sacral therapy), followed by a 1-day course approximately 2 months later, closing the intervention. Two independent institutions did the intervention and the assessments. In a randomized, clinically controlled setting, 87 chronic WAD patients were included with a median duration of 37 months from their whiplash accidents. One patient never started. Forty-three had the above intervention (female/male = 36/7, ages 22-49, median 37 years) and another 43 were assigned to a nontreated control group (female/male = 35/8, ages 18-48, median 38). Six had disability pension and 27 had pending medicolegal issues in each group. Effect variables were pain in neck, arm, and/or head; measures of quality of life and daily activities; as well as general physical or mental health. Wilcoxon test for between-groups comparisons with intention-to-treat analyses was conducted; the square curve paradigm testing for immediate improvements of health and quality of life was also used. The groups were comparable at baseline. From the intervention group, 11 dropped out during the intervention (4 of those later joined the follow-up investigation), 22 of the remaining 32 graduated the course, and 35 of the 43 controls did as well. Approximately 3 months later, we found no clinically relevant or significant increase in any effect measure. The above version of a quality of life

  12. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  13. Disturbed jaw behavior in whiplash-associated disorders during rhythmic jaw movements.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, B; Zafar, H; Eriksson, P-O

    2002-11-01

    As shown previously, "functional jaw movements" are the result of coordinated activation of jaw as well as neck muscles, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital, and cervical spine joints. In this study, the effect of neck trauma on natural jaw function was evaluated in 12 individuals suffering from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Spatiotemporal characteristics of mandibular and concomitant head movements were evaluated for three different modes of rhythmic jaw activities: self-paced continuous maximal jaw-opening/-closing movements, paced continuous maximal jaw-opening/-closing movements at 50 cycles/minute, and unilateral chewing. Compared with healthy subjects, the WAD group showed smaller magnitude and altered coordination pattern (a change in temporal relations) of mandibular and head movements. In conclusion, these results show that neck trauma can derange integrated jaw and neck behavior, and underline the functional coupling between the jaw and head-neck motor systems.

  14. The Multidisciplinary Swallowing Team Approach Decreases Pneumonia Onset in Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Hirayama, Junko; Nakamori, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Nezu, Tomohisa; Kubo, Satoshi; Nagano, Yuka; Nagao, Akiko; Yamane, Naoya; Nishikawa, Yuichi; Takamoto, Megumi; Ueno, Hiroki; Ochi, Kazuhide; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia occurs in acute stroke patients at high rates, and many of them develop aspiration pneumonia. Team approaches with the cooperation of various professionals have the power to improve the quality of medical care, utilizing the specialized knowledge and skills of each professional. In our hospital, a multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team was organized. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of a team approach on dysphagia by comparing the rates of pneumonia in acute stroke patients prior to and post team organization. All consecutive acute stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2009 and March 2014 were registered. We analyzed the difference in the rate of pneumonia onset between the periods before team organization (prior period) and after team organization (post period). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the predictors of pneumonia. We recruited 132 acute stroke patients from the prior period and 173 patients from the post period. Pneumonia onset was less frequent in the post period compared with the prior period (6.9% vs. 15.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Based on a multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was determined that a swallowing team approach was related to pneumonia onset independent from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (adjusted hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.84, p = 0.02). The multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team effectively decreased the pneumonia onset in acute stroke patients.

  15. Acute fascioliasis--clinical and epidemiological features of four patients in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fica, A; Dabanch, J; Farias, C; Castro, M; Jercic, M I; Weitzel, T

    2012-01-01

    Because of its infrequent and protean presentation and the lack of clinical data, the management of acute infections with the foodborne trematode Fasciola hepatica is challenging. We report four serologically confirmed cases that illustrate our experience with this parasitic infection in Chile. All patients were adults presenting with upper abdominal pain. Other symptoms included fever, nausea/vomiting, and cutaneous manifestations. In all cases, marked eosinophilia was present. All patients lived in an urban environment, and three reported the consumption of raw watercress. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed hypodense hepatic lesions, whereas ultrasonography findings were unremarkable. One patient suffered portal vein thrombosis, which might be a rare complication of acute fascioliasis. All patients were successfully treated with triclabendazole. Our case series demonstrates that patients with acute fascioliasis typically present with a combination of upper abdominal pain, marked eosinophilia, and hypodense hepatic lesions on CT imaging. Diagnosis should be confirmed by serological investigation. A history of recent consumption of raw watercress is an important finding, but in some patients the source of infection remains obscure. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Acute suppurative parotitis in a 33-day-old patient.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Belet, Nursen; Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar

    2015-06-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is a rare disease in childhood. Its incidence is higher in premature newborns. Parotid swelling and pus drainage from Stenson's duct is pathognomonic, and Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent in most cases. Here, a 33-day-old patient with acute suppurative parotitis is presented. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Proton MR spectroscopy in patients with acute temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Smith, J K; Kwock, L

    2001-01-01

    Decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as seen by proton MR spectroscopy are found in hippocampal sclerosis, and elevated levels of lipids/lactate have been observed after electroconvulsive therapy. Our purpose was to determine whether increased levels of lipids/lactate are found in patients with acute seizures of hippocampal origin. Seventeen patients with known temporal lobe epilepsy underwent proton MR spectroscopy of the mesial temporal lobes within 24 hours of their last seizure. Four of them were restudied when they were seizure-free. Five healthy individuals were used as control subjects. All MR spectroscopy studies were obtained using a single-voxel technique with TEs of 135 and 270. The relationship between the presence of lipids/lactate and seizures was tested using Fisher's exact test. Mean and standard deviations for NAA/creatine (Cr) were obtained in the hippocampi in patients with seizures on initial and follow-up studies and these values were compared with those in the control subjects. Seizure lateralization was obtained in 15 patients. Of the 17 seizure locations that involved hippocampi, 16 showed lipids/lactate by proton MR spectroscopy. Of the 13 hippocampi not directly affected by seizures, 10 showed no lipids/lactate and three showed lipids/lactate. The relationship between lipids/lactate and seizure location was confirmed. A comparison of NAA/Cr ratios for the involved hippocampi with those in control subjects showed significant differences on initial MR spectroscopy; however, no significant difference was found between acute and follow-up NAA/Cr ratios in hippocampi affected by seizures. Lipids/lactate were present in the hippocampi of patients with acute seizures and decreased when the patients were seizure-free. Thus, lipids/lactate may be a sensitive marker for acute temporal lobe seizures.

  19. Should acute Q-fever patients be screened for valvulopathy to prevent endocarditis?

    PubMed

    de Lange, Marit M A; Gijsen, Laura E V; Wielders, Cornelia C H; van der Hoek, Wim; Scheepmaker, Arko; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2018-02-20

    Echocardiographic screening of acute Q-fever patients and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with cardiac valvulopathy are considered an important approach to prevent chronic Q-fever-related endocarditis. During a large Q-fever epidemic in the Netherlands, routine screening echocardiography was discontinued, raising controversy in the international literature. We followed a cohort of acute Q-fever patients to estimate the risk for developing chronic Q-fever, and we evaluated the impact of screening in patients who were not yet known to have a valvulopathy. The study population consisted of patients diagnosed with acute Q-fever in 2007 and 2008. We retrospectively reviewed all screening echocardiographs and checked for development of chronic Q-fever eight years after the acute episode. Risks of developing chronic Q-fever in relation to the presence or absence of valvulopathy were analysed with logistic regression. The cohort included 509 patients, of whom 306 received echocardiographic screening. There was no significant difference (p-value=0.22) in occurrence of chronic Q-fever between patients with a newly detected valvulopathy (2/84, 2.4%) and those with no valvulopathy (12/202, 5.9%). Two patients with a newly detected valvulopathy, who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis, developed chronic Q-fever at a later stage. We found no difference in outcome between patients with and without a valvulopathy newly detected by echocardiographic screening. In retrospect, the two above-mentioned patients could have benefitted from antibiotic prophylaxis, but its omission must be weighed against the unnecessary large-scale and long-term use of antibiotics that would have resulted from universal echocardiographic screening.

  20. The management of acute appendicitis in liver transplant patients: How effective is the Alvarado score?

    PubMed

    Ince, Volkan; Barut, Bora; Ozdemir, Fatih; Ersan, Veysel; Kutluturk, Koray; Gonultas, Fatih; Onur, Asim; Isik, Burak; Kutlu, Ramazan; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of acute appendicitis after liver transplantation (LT) is extremely low, reported to be 0.09% to 0.49%, but the efficacy of the Alvarado score in this patient group has not been studied. This study was an investigation of the clinical management of patients who developed acute appendicitis after LT and the usefulness of the Alvarado score in the diagnosis. The study was performed using the data of 7 patients treated for acute appendicitis who were among 1990 patients who underwent LT between March 2002 and July 2017. The Alvarado score of the patients was calculated and reliability was analyzed. In this study, the incidence of acute appendicitis in LT patients was 0.35%. All of the patients were in the adult age group; 86% were male. The mean age was 46.4±10.7 years and the timeframe for the development of appendicitis after transplantation was a median of 12 months (range: 4-101 months). The median Alvarado score was 7 (range: 5-9). All of the patients had an Alvarado score above 5 and 71% had a score of 7 or more. Acute appendicitis is very rare in LT patients. As with non-transplant patients, Alvarado scoring can be safely performed in LT patients.

  1. The management of acute appendicitis in liver transplant patients: How effective is the Alvarado score?

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Volkan; Barut, Bora; Ozdemir, Fatih; Ersan, Veysel; Kutluturk, Koray; Gonultas, Fatih; Onur, Asim; Isik, Burak; Kutlu, Ramazan; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of acute appendicitis after liver transplantation (LT) is extremely low, reported to be 0.09% to 0.49%, but the efficacy of the Alvarado score in this patient group has not been studied. This study was an investigation of the clinical management of patients who developed acute appendicitis after LT and the usefulness of the Alvarado score in the diagnosis. METHODS: The study was performed using the data of 7 patients treated for acute appendicitis who were among 1990 patients who underwent LT between March 2002 and July 2017. The Alvarado score of the patients was calculated and reliability was analyzed. RESULTS: In this study, the incidence of acute appendicitis in LT patients was 0.35%. All of the patients were in the adult age group; 86% were male. The mean age was 46.4±10.7 years and the timeframe for the development of appendicitis after transplantation was a median of 12 months (range: 4-101 months). The median Alvarado score was 7 (range: 5-9). All of the patients had an Alvarado score above 5 and 71% had a score of 7 or more. CONCLUSION: Acute appendicitis is very rare in LT patients. As with non-transplant patients, Alvarado scoring can be safely performed in LT patients. PMID:29270576

  2. Atraumatic acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient taking dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Paul A; Mandel, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is an uncommon diagnosis most often related to blunt trauma requiring immediate surgical decompression to avoid serious sequelae. Patients who present with bleeding-related acute carpal tunnel syndrome tend to have severe pain, rapid onset of swelling, and neurologic symptoms that appear early and progress rapidly secondary to mass effect. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome can occur in anticoagulated patients spontaneously or after minor trauma. This article describes a case of a 57-year-old man with progressive pain and paresthesias in the median nerve distribution after reaching for a picture frame. He was taking dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, for atrial fibrillation. He developed acute carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to spontaneous bleeding into the carpal canal and flexor tenosynovium with hematoma formation requiring surgical decompression. He reported immediate pain relief postoperatively, had no further bleeding complications, and regained full median nerve function within 2 months.Dabigatran has gained recent popularity for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Unlike warfarin, its use does not involve regular laboratory monitoring or dose titration. The risks and benefits of dabigatran should be considered carefully by the prescriber, particularly in patients taking medications that may alter its metabolism. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may have effects similar to dabigatran and may increase the risk of bleeding problems. Should acute carpal tunnel syndrome occur, the authors recommend prompt surgical decompression rather than conservative management. The modification of anticoagulant therapy should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Soluble CD163 is increased in patients with acute pancreatitis independent of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Thomas; Brünnler, Tanja; Hamer, Okka W; Schmid, Karin; Voelk, Markus; Herfarth, Hans; Buechler, Christa

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is specifically released from macrophages and systemic levels are increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, sCD163 was measured in serum of 50 patients with acute pancreatitis to find out possible associations with disease activity. Admission levels of systemic sCD163 were nearly three-fold higher in patients with acute pancreatitis compared to controls. In patients sCD163 did not correlate with C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as established markers of inflammation. Levels were not associated with disease severity assessed by the Schroeder score, Balthazar score, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (Apache) II score and peripancreatic necrosis score. Soluble CD163 was not related to complications of acute pancreatitis. These data show that serum sCD163 is increased in acute pancreatitis indicating activation of macrophages but is not associated with disease severity and outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute suppurative parotitis: a dreadful complication in elderly surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulos, Pavlos; Rizos, Spyros; Marinis, Athanasios

    2012-08-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) is a severe infection seen particularly in elderly surgical patients. Factors that increase the risk of ASP include post-operative dehydration, debilitating conditions, and immunosuppressed states. Case report and literature review. An 82-year-old female patient was admitted because of paralytic ileus, dehydration, and poor oral hygiene, and was in distress. After two days of hospitalization, the patient developed a progressive painful swelling of her right parotid gland and fever up to 39.0°C. Computed tomography scanning showed an abscess in the parotid gland. Because of her progressive clinical deterioration, the patient underwent operative drainage of the abscess and removal of the necrotic material. Unfortunately, she suffered multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and died. Acute suppurative parotitis requires prompt aggressive treatment that nevertheless may fail.

  5. Serum visfatin concentration in acutely ill and weight-recovered patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Maria; King, Joseph A; Ritschel, Franziska; Döpmann, Johanna; Bühren, Katharina; Seitz, Jochen; Roessner, Veit; Westphal, Sabine; Egberts, Karin; Burghardt, Roland; Wewetzer, Christoph; Fleischhaker, Christian; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Visfatin is a recently described protein that is thought to regulate the process of adipocyte differentiation. Findings suggest that visfatin may be actively involved in the control of weight regulatory networks. However, to what extent and which role it plays in eating disorders is still poorly understood, as mixed results have been reported. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum visfatin concentrations on a cross sectional sample between acute anorexia nervosa patients (n=44), weight recovered patients (n=13) and healthy controls (n=46) and a longitudinal sample of acute patients (n=57) during weight recovery at three different time-points. Results did not show significant differences in visfatin between the three groups; however, acute patients showed a higher visfatin/BMI-SDS ratio than controls and recovered patients. Longitudinal results revealed an increase of visfatin levels during therapy. Our results suggest that high ratios of visfatin/BMI-SDS could be a state marker in acute anorexia nervosa, displaying a compensatory mechanism of the individual to maintain normal visfatin levels under malnourished conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with chronic hemodialysis: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng-Wen; Lee, Yi-Kung; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis is higher as compared to the general population. However, the relationship between long-term hemodialysis and acute pancreatitis has never been established. We investigated the incidence of acute pancreatitis among patients on long-term hemodialysis in Taiwan to evaluate if there is a higher risk of acute pancreatitis in comparison to the general population. We utilized a National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data sample containing one million beneficiaries. We followed all adult beneficiaries from January 1, 2007 until December 31, 2010 to see if they had been hospitalized for acute pancreatitis during this period. We further identified patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared their risk of acute pancreatitis with the general population. This study included 2603 patients with long-term hemodialysis and 773,140 patients without hemodialysis. After controlling for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, geographic region, socioeconomic status and urbanization level, the adjusted hazard ratio was 3.44 (95% Confidence interval, 2.5-4.7). The risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on long-term hemodialysis is significantly higher in comparison to the general population.

  7. Discharge hemoglobin and outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Hwang, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kang, Seung Hun; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Many patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding present with anemia and frequently require red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. A restrictive transfusion strategy and a low hemoglobin (Hb) threshold for transfusion had been shown to produce acceptable outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, most patients are discharged with mild anemia owing to the restricted volume of packed RBCs (pRBCs). We investigated whether discharge Hb influences the outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had received pRBCs during hospitalization between January 2012 and January 2014. Patients with variceal bleeding, malignant lesion, stroke, or cardiovascular disease were excluded. We divided the patients into 2 groups, low (8 g/dL ≤ Hb < 10 g/dL) and high (Hb ≥ 10 [g/dL]) discharge Hb, and compared the clinical course and Hb changes between these groups. Results: A total of 102 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty patients were discharged with Hb levels < 10 g/dL, whereas 52 were discharged with Hb levels > 10 g/dL. Patients in the low Hb group had a lower consumption of pRBCs and shorter hospital stay than did those in the high Hb group. The Hb levels were not fully recovered at outpatient follow-up until 7 days after discharge; however, most patients showed Hb recovery at 45 days after discharge. The rate of rebleeding after discharge was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions: In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, a discharge Hb between 8 and 10 g/dL was linked to favorable outcomes on outpatient follow-up. Most patients recovered from anemia without any critical complication within 45 days after discharge. PMID:27540574

  8. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mirghani, Hyder O.; Elnour, Mohammed A.; Taha, Akasha M.; Elbadawi, Abdulateef S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P < 0.05). No differences were found with regard to age, hypertension, diabetes, family history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and in-hospital acute coronary complications (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications. PMID:27186156

  9. A qualitative study of patient experiences of decentralized acute healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Linqvist Leonardsen, Ann-Chatrin; Del Busso, Lilliana; Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Vigdis; Ghanima, Waleed; Barach, Paul; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2016-09-01

    Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have recently been launched in Norway as an alternative to hospitalizations, and are aimed at providing treatment for patients who otherwise would have been hospitalized. The objective of this study was to explore how patients normally admitted to hospitals perceived the quality and safety of treatment in MAWs. The study had a qualitative design. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The study was conducted in a county in south-eastern Norway and included five different MAWs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 participants who had required acute health care and who had been discharged from the five MAWs. Three subthemes were identified that related to the overarching theme of hospital-like standards ("almost a hospital, but…"), namely (a) treatment and competence, (b) location and physical environment, and (c) adequate time for care. Participants reported the treatment to be comparable to hospital care, but they also experienced limitations. Participants spoke positively about MAW personnel and the advantages of having a single patient room, a calm environment, and proximity to home. Participants felt safe when treated at MAWs, even though they realized that the diagnostic services were not similar to that in hospitals. Geographical proximity, treatment facilities and time for care positively distinguished MAWs from hospitals, while the lack of diagnostic resources was stressed as a limitation. Key points   Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have been implemented across Norway. Research on patient perspectives on the decentralization of acute healthcare in MAWs is lacking.   • Patients perceive decentralized acute healthcare and treatment as being comparable to the quality they would have expected in hospitals.   • Geographical proximity, a home-like atmosphere and time for care were aspects stressed as positive features of the decentralized services.   • Lack of diagnostic

  10. Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Emergency Department Patients Despite Therapeutic Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michelle Y.; Ballard, Dustin W.; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S.; Reed, Mary E.; Bouvet, Sean C.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) despite therapeutic anticoagulation at the time of diagnosis are uncommonly encountered and present a diagnostic and management challenge. Their characterization and outcomes are poorly described. We sought to describe the prevalence and characteristics of therapeutically anticoagulated patients among a population of patients with acute PE in a community setting and to describe treatment changes and 30-day outcomes. Methods From a large retrospective cohort of adults with acute, objectively-confirmed PE across 21 EDs between 01/2013 and 04/2015, we identified patients who arrived on direct oral or injectable anticoagulants, or warfarin with an initial ED international normalized ratio (INR) value ≥2.0. Patients were excluded from the larger cohort if they had received a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the prior 30 days. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We report discharge anticoagulation regimens and major 30-day adverse outcomes. Results Among 2,996 PE patients, 36 (1.2%) met study criteria. Mean age was 63 years. Eleven patients (31%) had active cancer and 25 (69%) were high risk on the PE Severity Index (Classes III–V), comparable to the larger cohort (p>0.1). Reasons for pre-arrival anticoagulation were VTE treatment or prevention (n=21), and atrial fibrillation or flutter (n=15). All patients arrived on warfarin and one was also on enoxaparin: 32 had a therapeutic INR (2.0–3.0) and four had a supratherapeutic INR (>3.0). Fifteen patients (42%) had at least one subtherapeutic INR (<2.0) in the 14 days preceding their diagnostic visit. Two patients died during hospitalization. Of the 34 ultimately discharged, 22 underwent a change in anticoagulation drug or dosing, 19 of whom received injectables, either to replace or to supplement warfarin. Four patients also received inferior vena

  11. Acute hyperglycaemia and inflammation in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Michał; Bednarek, Agnieszka; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Acute hyperglycaemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk among both diabetic and non-diabetic patients although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clearly understood. Acute hyperglycaemia in patients with ACS may be associated with increased systemic inflammation. Leukocytes are the major cellular mediators of inflammation and their elevated count is associated with higher CV event rate in ACS patients. Thus, it is possible that there is a relationship between acute hyperglycaemia and high leukocyte count and concomitant presence of these two conditions may contribute to increased CV risk among patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To investigate the relationship between acute hyperglycaemia and high leukocyte count and to evaluate its association with outcomes in patients with STEMI. Glucose level and leukocyte count on admission were measured in 246 patients with STEMI admitted in 2004- -2007 to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension at the University Hospital in Cracow who were treated with an early invasive management strategy. Patients were divided into two groups, with acute hyperglycaemia (glycaemia on admission ≥ 7.8 mmol/L) and with normoglycaemia (glycaemia on admission < 7.8 mmol/L). Leukocyte count was defined as high when it was greater than or equal to the median in the overall study group. Acute hyperglycaemia was noted in 136 (55.3%) patients. Median leukocyte count on admission in the overall study group was 10.8 × 103/mm3 (interquartile range: 8.5-13.0). Significantly higher in-hospital mortality (11.8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.0029) and higher rates of cardiogenic shock (10.3% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.0022), Killip class > 1 heart failure (HF; 44.1% vs. 20.0%, p < 0.0001), atrial fibrillation (11.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.0308), ventricular fibrillation (5.9% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.0389), repeated percutaneous coronary angioplasty (5.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0

  12. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Galeiras, Rita; Mourelo, Mónica; Pértega, Sonia; Lista, Amanda; Ferreiro, Mª Elena; Salvador, Sebastián; Montoto, Antonio; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) exhibit factors that, in other populations, have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute traumatic SCI admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), as well as the development of secondary acute kidney injury and associated factors. Study Design and Setting: This was an observational, retrospective study. Patient Sample: All adult patients admitted to the ICU with acute traumatic SCI who presented rhabdomyolysis, diagnosed through creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels >500 IU/L. Outcome Measures: Incidence of rhabdomyolysis and subsequent renal dysfunction was calculated. Materials and Methods: Data about demographic variables, comorbidity, rhabdomyolysis risk factors, and variables involving SCI, severity scores, and laboratory parameters were obtained from clinical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify renal injury risk factors. Results: In 2006–2014, 200 patients with acute SCI were admitted to ICU. Of these, 103 had rhabdomyolysis (incidence = 51.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.3%–58.7%). The most typical American Spinal Injury Association classification was A (70.3%). The injury severity score was 30.3 ± 12.1 and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 5.6 ± 3.3 points. During their stay, 57 patients (55.3%; 95% CI: 45.2%–65.4%) presented renal dysfunction (creatinine ≥1.2 mg/dL). In the multivariate analysis, variables associated with renal dysfunction were creatinine at admission (odds ratio [OR] = 9.20; P = 0.006) and hemodynamic SOFA score the day following admission (OR = 1.33; P = 0.024). Creatinine was a better predictor of renal dysfunction than the peak CPK value during the rhabdomyolysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91 vs. 0.63, respectively). Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent condition in patients

  13. Performance of an automated electronic acute lung injury screening system in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Helen C; Finkel, Barbara B; Khalsa, Satjeet S; Lanken, Paul N; Prasad, Meeta; Urbani, Richard; Fuchs, Barry D

    2011-01-01

    Lung protective ventilation reduces mortality in patients with acute lung injury, but underrecognition of acute lung injury has limited its use. We recently validated an automated electronic acute lung injury surveillance system in patients with major trauma in a single intensive care unit. In this study, we assessed the system's performance as a prospective acute lung injury screening tool in a diverse population of intensive care unit patients. Patients were screened prospectively for acute lung injury over 21 wks by the automated system and by an experienced research coordinator who manually screened subjects for enrollment in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials Network (ARDSNet) trials. Performance of the automated system was assessed by comparing its results with the manual screening process. Discordant results were adjudicated blindly by two physician reviewers. In addition, a sensitivity analysis using a range of assumptions was conducted to better estimate the system's performance. The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an academic medical center and ARDSNet center (1994-2006). Intubated patients in medical and surgical intensive care units. None. Of 1270 patients screened, 84 were identified with acute lung injury (incidence of 6.6%). The automated screening system had a sensitivity of 97.6% (95% confidence interval, 96.8-98.4%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% confidence interval, 96.8-98.4%). The manual screening algorithm had a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% confidence interval, 54.5-59.8%) and a specificity of 99.7% (95% confidence interval, 99.4-100%). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated a range for sensitivity of 75.0-97.6% of the automated system under varying assumptions. Under all assumptions, the automated system demonstrated higher sensitivity than and comparable specificity to the manual screening method. An automated electronic system identified patients with acute lung injury with high sensitivity and specificity in diverse

  14. Modular acute system for general surgery: hand over the operation, not the patient.

    PubMed

    Poole, Garth H; Glyn, Tamara; Srinivasa, Sanket; Hill, Andrew G

    2012-03-01

    Various models have been proposed to effectively provide acute surgical care in Australasia. Recently, General Surgeons Australia (GSA) has published a 12-point plan with guiding principles on this matter. This study describes a model of providing acute general surgical care in a high-volume institution, evaluates clinical outcomes and critically appraises the system against the GSA 12-point plan. The acute care system is qualitatively described with quantitative measures of workload. The outcomes of acute laparoscopic cholecystectomy were used as a proxy of system performance. The system was critically appraised against the GSA 12-point plan. Teams are on call once per week with each surgeon on call once per fortnight. The three key elements of acute management - collecting patients, post-acute ward round and operating - are treated as modules. The patient remains under the care of the admitting consultant but is often operated on by another team. From June 2009 to 2010, there were 7429 acute general surgical admissions (mean: 20.4 patients per day) with 2999 acute operations (mean: 8.4 operations per day). The other activities of the department were not compromised. In that time, 388 acute laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed with a conversion rate of 1.3% and no major bile duct injury. The system is compatible with the GSA 12-point plan. This study describes an efficient and safe system for providing acute general surgical care in a high-volume setting with satisfactory clinical outcomes. It is compatible with the GSA 12-point plan. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. An Audit of the Use of Gonadorelin Analogues to Prevent Recurrent Acute Symptoms in Patients with Acute Porphyria in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Gardiner, Tricia; Guppy, Simon; Rees, David C; Stein, Penelope; Barth, Julian; Felicity Stewart, M; Badminton, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Severe recurrent acute attacks of porphyria have traditionally been treated with either prophylactic human haemin or gonadorelin analogues (GnA) in females. Evidence on the most effective treatment for this patient subgroup is lacking. This audit surveyed the use of prophylactic GnA in the UK.Twenty female patients (who experienced between 2 and 45 acute attacks of porphyria requiring hospitalisation and treatment with human haemin prior to GnA prophylaxis) were included in the audit. Data was retrospectively collected based on patient history and case review.Twenty three treatment courses were given lasting a median period of 12 months. Monthly subcutaneous Goserelin was most commonly used. In three patients in whom timing with the menstrual cycle was not considered, an acute attack occurred after initiation of the first dose. The majority of patients experienced oestrogen deficiency symptoms during treatment. Fifty percent of the prescribed courses of GnA resulted in a degree of clinical benefit. This successfully treated group experienced between 3 and 20 acute attacks prior to and between 0 and 6 acute attacks during GnA treatment.The audit revealed large variation in practice in the United Kingdom regarding indication, duration of treatment, specific drug used and management of side effects. In view of the limited treatment options available for this cohort and the mixed outcome successes reported, we believe it is reasonable for porphyria specialists to continue offering GnA treatment to women with severe recurrent debilitating acute attacks of porphyria associated with the menstrual cycle, and we propose best practice guidelines to standardise management.

  16. Elevated troponin in patients with acute stroke - Is it a true heart attack?

    PubMed

    Dous, George V; Grigos, Angela C; Grodman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Although the prognostic value of a positive troponin in an acute stroke patient is still uncertain, it is a commonly encountered clinical situation given that Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) frequently co-exist in the same patient and share similar risk factors. Our objectives in this review are to (1) identify the biologic relationship between acute cerebrovascular stroke and elevated troponin levels, (2) determine the pathophysiologic differences between positive troponin in the setting of acute stroke versus acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and (3) examine whether positive troponin in the setting of acute stroke has prognostic significance. We also will provide an insight analysis of some of the available studies and will provide guidance for a management approach based on the available data according to the current guidelines.

  17. Outpatient Management of Emergency Department Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Variation, Patient Characteristics, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Reed, Mary E; Lin, James S; Kene, Mamata V; Sax, Dana R; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Wang, David H; McLachlan, D Ian; Pleshakov, Tamara S; Silver, Matthew A; Clague, Victoria A; Klonecke, Andrew S; Mark, Dustin G

    2017-12-13

    Outpatient management of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism is uncommon. We seek to evaluate the facility-level variation of outpatient pulmonary embolism management and to describe patient characteristics and outcomes associated with home discharge. The Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (MAPLE) study is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute pulmonary embolism undertaken in 21 community EDs from January 2013 to April 2015. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from comprehensive electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between patient characteristics and home discharge. We report ED length of stay, consultations, 5-day pulmonary embolism-related return visits and 30-day major hemorrhage, recurrent venous thromboembolism, and all-cause mortality. Of 2,387 patients, 179 were discharged home (7.5%). Home discharge varied significantly between EDs, from 0% to 14.3% (median 7.0%; interquartile range 4.2% to 10.9%). Median length of stay for home discharge patients (excluding those who arrived with a new pulmonary embolism diagnosis) was 6.0 hours (interquartile range 4.6 to 7.2 hours) and 81% received consultations. On adjusted analysis, ambulance arrival, abnormal vital signs, syncope or presyncope, deep venous thrombosis, elevated cardiac biomarker levels, and more proximal emboli were inversely associated with home discharge. Thirteen patients (7.2%) who were discharged home had a 5-day pulmonary embolism-related return visit. Thirty-day major hemorrhage and recurrent venous thromboembolism were uncommon and similar between patients hospitalized and those discharged home. All-cause 30-day mortality was lower in the home discharge group (1.1% versus 4.4%). Home discharge of ED patients with acute pulmonary embolism was uncommon and varied significantly between facilities. Patients selected for outpatient management had a

  18. Assessment of the usefulness of magnetic resonance brain imaging in patients presenting with acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, D A; Costello, D J

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly available as a tool for assessment of patients presenting to acute services with seizures. We set out to prospectively determine the usefulness of early MRI brain in a cohort of patients presenting with acute seizures. We examined the MR imaging studies performed in patients admitted solely because of acute seizures to Cork University Hospital over a 12-month period. The main aim of the study was to determine if the MRI established the proximate cause for the patient's recent seizure. We identified 91 patients who underwent MRI brain within 48 h of admission for seizures. Of the 91 studies, 51 were normal (56 %). The remaining 40 studies were abnormal as follows: microvascular disease (usually moderate/severe) (n = 19), post-traumatic gliosis (n = 7), remote symptomatic lesion (n = 6), primary brain tumour (n = 5), venous sinus thrombosis (n = 3), developmental lesion (n = 3), post-surgical gliosis (n = 3) and single cases of demyelination, unilateral hippocampal sclerosis, lobar haemorrhage and metastatic malignant melanoma. Abnormalities in diffusion-weighted sequences that were attributable to prolonged ictal activity were seen in nine patients, all of who had significant ongoing clinical deficits, most commonly delirium. Of the 40 patients with abnormal MRI studies, seven patients had unremarkable CT brain. MR brain imaging revealed the underlying cause for acute seizures in 44 % of patients. CT brain imaging failed to detect the cause of the acute seizures in 19 % of patients in whom subsequent MRI established the cause. This study emphasises the importance of obtaining optimal imaging in people admitted with acute seizures.

  19. Acetaminophen Adducts Detected in Serum of Pediatric Patients With Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Estella M; James, Laura P; Zhang, Song; Squires, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies in patients with acute liver failure identified acetaminophen (APAP) protein adducts in the serum of 12% and 19% of children and adults, respectively, with acute liver failure of indeterminate etiology. This article details the testing of APAP adducts in a subset (n = 393) of patients with varied diagnoses in the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group (PALFSG). Serum samples were available from 393 participants included in the PALFSG registry. Adduct measurement was performed using validated methods. Participants were grouped by diagnostic category as known APAP overdose, known other diagnosis, and indeterminate etiology. Demographic and clinical characteristics and participant outcomes were compared by adduct status (positive or negative) within each group. APAP adduct testing was positive in 86% of participants with known APAP overdose, 6% with other known diagnoses, and 11% with an indeterminate cause of liver failure. Adduct-positive participants were noted to have marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase coupled with total serum bilirubin that was significantly lower than adduct-negative patients. In the indeterminate group, adduct-positive patients had different outcomes than adduct-negative patients (P = 0.03); spontaneous survival was 16 of 21 (76%) in adduct-positive patients versus 75 of 169 (44%) in adduct-negative patients. Prognosis did not vary by adduct status in patients with known diagnoses. Furthermore, study is needed to understand the relation of APAP exposure, as determined by the presence of APAP adducts, to the clinical phenotype and outcomes of children with acute liver failure.

  20. Predictors of acute and persisting ischemic brain lesions in patients randomized to carotid stenting or endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rostamzadeh, Ayda; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Jongen, Lisa M; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A; Kappelle, L Jaap; Mali, Willem P Th M; Brown, Martin M; van der Worp, H Bart; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo H

    2014-02-01

    We investigated predictors for acute and persisting periprocedural ischemic brain lesions among patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis randomized to stenting or endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study. We assessed acute lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging 1 to 3 days after treatment in 124 stenting and 107 endarterectomy patients and lesions persisting on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery after 1 month in 86 and 75 patients, respectively. Stenting patients had more acute (relative risk, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-17.5; P<0.001) and persisting lesions (relative risk, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-11.1; P=0.005) than endarterectomy patients. Acute lesion count was associated with age (by trend), male sex, and stroke as the qualifying event in stenting; high systolic blood pressure in endarterectomy; and white matter disease in both groups. The rate of conversion from acute to persisting lesions was lower in the stenting group (relative risk, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8; P=0.007), and was only predicted by acute lesion volume. Stenting caused more acute and persisting ischemic brain lesions than endarterectomy. However, the rate of conversion from acute to persisting lesions was lower in the stenting group, most likely attributable to lower acute lesion volumes. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: www.isrctn.org. Unique identifier: ISRCTN25337470.

  1. Acute hepatitis A and B in patients with chronic liver disease: prevention through vaccination.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, Emmet B

    2005-10-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies have demonstrated that the occurrence of acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic liver disease is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality than in previously healthy individuals with acute hepatitis A. The mortality associated with acute hepatitis A may be particularly high in patients with preexisting chronic hepatitis C. Although acute hepatitis B in patients with preexisting chronic liver disease is less well studied, worse outcomes than in previously healthy individuals are apparent. However, numerous studies convincingly demonstrate that chronic hepatitis B virus coinfection with hepatitis C virus (or hepatitis D virus) is associated with an accelerated natural history of liver disease and worse outcomes. These observations led to studies that demonstrated the safety and efficacy of hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccination in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic liver disease. Hepatitis A and B vaccination is less effective in patients with advanced liver disease, especially after decompensation, such as in patients awaiting liver transplantation, and in liver transplant recipients. The emerging lower rates of inherent immunity in younger individuals, higher morbidity and mortality of acute hepatitis A or B superimposed on chronic liver disease, and greater vaccine efficacy in milder forms of chronic liver disease suggest that it is a reasonable policy to recommend hepatitis A and B vaccination in patients early in the natural history of chronic liver disease.

  2. A qualitative study of patient experiences of decentralized acute healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Linqvist Leonardsen, Ann-Chatrin; Del Busso, Lilliana; Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Vigdis; Ghanima, Waleed; Barach, Paul; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have recently been launched in Norway as an alternative to hospitalizations, and are aimed at providing treatment for patients who otherwise would have been hospitalized. The objective of this study was to explore how patients normally admitted to hospitals perceived the quality and safety of treatment in MAWs. Design The study had a qualitative design. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Setting The study was conducted in a county in south-eastern Norway and included five different MAWs. Patients Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 participants who had required acute health care and who had been discharged from the five MAWs. Results Three subthemes were identified that related to the overarching theme of hospital-like standards (“almost a hospital, but…”), namely (a) treatment and competence, (b) location and physical environment, and (c) adequate time for care. Participants reported the treatment to be comparable to hospital care, but they also experienced limitations. Participants spoke positively about MAW personnel and the advantages of having a single patient room, a calm environment, and proximity to home. Conclusions Participants felt safe when treated at MAWs, even though they realized that the diagnostic services were not similar to that in hospitals. Geographical proximity, treatment facilities and time for care positively distinguished MAWs from hospitals, while the lack of diagnostic resources was stressed as a limitation. Key Points Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have been implemented across Norway. Research on patient perspectives on the decentralization of acute healthcare in MAWs is lacking.  • Patients perceive decentralized acute healthcare and treatment as being comparable to the quality they would have expected in hospitals.  • Geographical proximity, a home-like atmosphere and time for care were aspects stressed as positive features of the decentralized

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient.

    PubMed

    Ates, İhsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Çiftçi, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a disorder that goes with liver cell necrosis and liver inflammation. Among the causes of acute hepatitis, the most common reasons are viral hepatitis. About 95% of the acute hepatitis generate because of hepatotropic viruses. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are from the family of herpes viruses and rare causes of acute hepatitis. In this case report, acute hepatitis due to EBV and CMV coinfection will be described. Ates İ, Kaplan M, Yilmaz N, Çiftçi F. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):60-61.

  4. Update on the management of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Barber-Millet, Sebastián; Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gómez Gavara, Immaculada; Ballester Pla, Neus; García Domínguez, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Acute abdomen is a rare entity in the pregnant patient, with an incidence of one in 500-635 patients. Its appearance requires a quick response and an early diagnosis to treat the underlying disease and prevent maternal and fetal morbidity. Imaging tests are essential, due to clinical and laboratory masking in this subgroup. Appendicitis and complicated biliary pathology are the most frequent causes of non-obstetric acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. The decision to operate, the timing, and the surgical approach are essential for a correct management of this pathology. The aim of this paper is to perform a review and update on the diagnosis and treatment of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetricmore » parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  6. Candidemia in acute leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, P; Sousa, A B; Nunes, O; Aveiro, F; Fernandes, J P; Gouveia, J

    1997-05-01

    Fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute leukemia (AL). Candidemia, once rare, is now a common nosocomial infection because of the intensity of chemotherapy, prolonged neutropenia, administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics and use of central venous catheters (CVC). We retrospectively identified patients treated for AL from 6/86 to 6/95 who also had candidemia. We describe 28 patients (incidence 6.3%) with a median age of 39 years, 24 of whom were on remission induction and 4 on postremission chemotherapy. All patients had CVC and empiric antimicrobial therapy, 4 had been given prophylactic antifungal drugs, and 2 had parenteral nutrition. Neutropenia was profound (median leukocyte nadir 200/microliters, median duration 19 days). Candida was isolated in blood cultures 10 days (median) after the start of neutropenia. The clinical presentation included fever (100%), respiratory symptoms (71.4%), skin lesions (39.2%) and septic shock (17.8%). Amphotericin B was given to 17 patients and liposomal amphotericin to 5 patients. Infection resolved in 18 patients (64.2%). 10 of whom were in complete remission. Mortality from candidemia was 17.8% (5/28). In conclusion, fungal infections are responsible for death in a significant number of patients. In our series treatment success was related to its rapid onset and to the recovery of neutropenia.

  7. Blood Transfusion and the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Karrowni, Wassef; Vora, Amit Navin; Dai, David; Wojdyla, Daniel; Dakik, Habib; Rao, Sunil V

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicating percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. To date, no studies have evaluated the association of blood transfusion with AKI in patients undergoing PCI. We used a retrospective cohort study of all patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI from CathPCI Registry (n=1 756 864). The primary outcome was AKI defined as the rise in serum creatinine post procedure ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% above baseline values. AKI developed in 9.0% of study sample. Patients with AKI were older, more often women, and had high prevalence of comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and advanced stages of chronic kidney disease at baseline. Blood transfusion was utilized in 2.2% of patients. In the overall sample, AKI developed in 35.1% of patients who received transfusion versus 8.4% of patients without transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 4.87 [4.71-5.04]). In the subgroup of patients who sustained bleeding event and received transfusion, the rate of AKI was significantly increased across all preprocedure hemoglobin levels versus no blood transfusion. Similar findings were seen in the subgroup of patients with no bleeding event. Blood transfusion is strongly associated with AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing PCI. Further investigation is needed to determine whether a restrictive blood transfusion strategy might improve PCI outcomes by reducing the risk of AKI. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The relationship between pneumonia and Glasgow coma scale assessment on acute stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritarwan, K.; Batubara, C. A.; Dhanu, R.

    2018-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most frequent medical complications of a stroke. Despite the well-documented association of a stroke associated infections with increased mortality and worse long-term outcome, on the other hand, the limited data available on independent predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke patients in an emergency unit. To determine the independentrelationship between pneumonia and Glasgow Coma Scale assessment on acute stroke patients. The cohort retrospective study observed 55 acute stroke patients who stayed in intensive care unit Adam Malik General Hospital from January until August 2017. Pneumonia was more frequent in patients with Ischemic stroke (OR 5.40; 95% CI: 1.28 – 6.40, p=0.003), higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p=0.014) and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (p=0.0001). Analysis multivariate logistic regression identified NIHSS as an independent of predictors of pneumonia (95% CI : 1.047 – 1.326, p=0.001). Pneumonia was associated with severity and type of stroke and length of hospital stay. The severity of the deficits evaluated by the NIHSS was shown to be the only independent risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke patients.

  9. Design Considerations for Post-Acute Care mHealth: Patient Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sanger, Patrick; Hartzler, Andrea; Lober, William B; Evans, Heather L; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Many current mobile health applications ("apps") and most previous research have been directed at management of chronic illnesses. However, little is known about patient preferences and design considerations for apps intended to help in a post-acute setting. Our team is developing an mHealth platform to engage patients in wound tracking to identify and manage surgical site infections (SSI) after hospital discharge. Post-discharge SSIs are a major source of morbidity and expense, and occur at a critical care transition when patients are physically and emotionally stressed. Through interviews with surgical patients who experienced SSI, we derived design considerations for such a post-acute care app. Key design qualities include: meeting basic accessibility, usability and security needs; encouraging patient-centeredness; facilitating better, more predictable communication; and supporting personalized management by providers. We illustrate our application of these guiding design considerations and propose a new framework for mHealth design based on illness duration and intensity.

  10. Heart failure in patients admitted for acute coronary syndromes: A report from a large national registry.

    PubMed

    Jeger, Raban V; Pfister, Otmar; Radovanovic, Dragana; Eberli, Franz R; Rickli, Hans; Urban, Philip; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Nossen, Jörg; Erne, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Data on temporal trends of heart failure (HF) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are scarce. Improved treatment options may have led to lower case-fatality rates (CFRs) during the last years in ACS complicated by HF. Patients of the nationwide Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland (AMIS)-Plus ACS registry were analyzed from 2000 to 2014. Of 36 366 ACS patients, 3376 (9.3%) had acute or chronic HF, 2111 (5.8%) de novo acute HF (AHF), 964 (2.7%) chronic HF (CHF), and 301 (0.8%) acute decompensated CHF (ADCHF). In-hospital CFRs were highest in patients with ADCHF (32.6%) and de novo AHF (29.7%), followed by patients with CHF (12.9%) and without HF (3.2%, P < 0.001). Although in-hospital CFRs gradually decreased in CHF patients (14.3% to 4.5%, P = 0.003) and patients without HF (3.5% to 2.2%, P < 0.001), they remained high in patients with ADCHF (36.4% to 40.0%, P = 0.45) and de novo AHF (50.0% to 29.4%, P = 0.37). Although there was an increase in specific ACS therapies in the cohort over time, ACS patients with HF received significantly less pharmacological and interventional ACS therapies than patients without HF. There was no significant change in HF medication rates except less frequent use of β-blockers and diuretics in de novo AHF patients in recent years. HF is present in 1 out of 10 patients presenting with ACS and is associated with high in-hospital CFRs, particularly in acute HF. Although advances in ACS therapy improved in-hospital CFRs in patients with no HF or CHF, CFRs remained unchanged and high in patients with acute HF and ACS over the last decade. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients After ATACH-2 Trial.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Shahram; Suarez, Jose I; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-10-01

    Acute hypertensive response is elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the first 24 h after symptom onset which is highly prevalent in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Observational studies suggested association between acute hypertensive response and hematoma expansion, peri-hematoma edema and death and disability, and possible reduction in these adverse outcomes with treatment of acute hypertensive response. Recent clinical trials have focused on determining the clinical efficacy of early intensive SBP reduction in ICH patients. The Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH-2) trial was the latest phase 3 randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial aimed to study the efficacy of early intensive reduction of SBP in ICH patients. In this review article, we summarize the results of recent clinical trials, treatment principles based on the latest guidelines, and the anticipated interpretation and incorporation of ATACH-2 trial results in clinical practice.

  12. Unsuspected Critical Illness Among Emergency Department Patients Presenting for Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Klein, Lauren R; Cole, Jon B; Driver, Brian E; Battista, Christopher; Jelinek, Ryan; Martel, Marc L

    2018-03-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits for acute alcohol intoxication are common, but this population is at risk for decompensation and occult critical illness. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence and predictors of unsuspected critical illness among patients with acute alcohol intoxication. This was a retrospective observational study of ED patients from 2011 to 2016 with acute alcohol intoxication. The study cohort included patients presenting for alcohol intoxication, whose initial assessment was uncomplicated alcohol intoxication without any other active acute medical or traumatic complaints. The primary outcome was defined as the unanticipated subsequent use of critical care resources during the encounter or admission to an ICU. We investigated potential predictors for this outcome with generalized estimating equations. We identified 31,364 eligible patient encounters (median age 38 years; 71% men; median breath alcohol concentration 234 mg/dL); 325 encounters (1%) used critical care resources. The most common diagnoses per 1,000 ED encounters were acute hypoxic respiratory failure (3.1), alcohol withdrawal (1.7), sepsis or infection (1.1), and intracranial hemorrhage (1.0). Three patients sustained a cardiac arrest. Presence of the following had an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of developing critical illness: hypoglycemia (aOR 9.2), hypotension (aOR 3.8), tachycardia (aOR 1.8), fever (aOR 7.6), hypoxia (aOR 3.8), hypothermia (aOR 4.2), and parenteral sedation (aOR 2.4). The initial blood alcohol concentration aOR was 1.0. Critical care resources were used for 1% of ED patients with alcohol intoxication who were initially assessed by physicians to have low risk. Abnormal vital signs, hypoglycemia, and chemical sedation were associated with increased odds of critical illness. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pleural effusion in patients with acute lung injury: a CT scan study.

    PubMed

    Chiumello, Davide; Marino, Antonella; Cressoni, Massimo; Mietto, Cristina; Berto, Virna; Gallazzi, Elisabetta; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Lazzerini, Marco; Cadringher, Paolo; Quintel, Michael; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    Pleural effusion is a frequent finding in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. To assess the effects of pleural effusion in patients with acute lung injury on lung volume, respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, lung recruitability, and response to positive end-expiratory pressure. A total of 129 acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, 68 analyzed retrospectively and 61 prospectively, studied at two University Hospitals. Whole-lung CT was performed during two breath-holding pressures (5 and 45 cm H2O). Two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (5 and 15 cm H2O) were randomly applied. Pleural effusion volume was determined on each CT scan section; respiratory system mechanics, gas exchange, and hemodynamics were measured at 5 and 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. In 60 patients, elastances of lung and chest wall were computed, and lung and chest wall displacements were estimated. Patients were divided into higher and lower pleural effusion groups according to the median value (287 mL). Patients with higher pleural effusion were older (62±16 yr vs. 54±17 yr, p<0.01) with a lower minute ventilation (8.8±2.2 L/min vs. 10.1±2.9 L/min, p<0.01) and respiratory rate (16±5 bpm vs. 19±6 bpm, p<0.01) than those with lower pleural effusion. Both at 5 and 15 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure PaO2/FIO2, respiratory system elastance, lung weight, normally aerated tissue, collapsed tissue, and lung and chest wall elastances were similar between the two groups. The thoracic cage expansion (405±172 mL vs. 80±87 mL, p<0.0001, for higher pleural effusion group vs. lower pleural effusion group) was greater than the estimated lung compression (178±124 mL vs. 23±29 mL, p<0.0001 for higher pleural effusion group vs. lower pleural effusion group, respectively). Pleural effusion in acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome patients is of modest entity and leads to a greater chest wall expansion than lung

  14. Safe patient handling perceptions and practices: a survey of acute care physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, Brian F; Stolfi, Angela M

    2014-05-01

    Acute care physical therapists are at risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to manual patient handling. Safe patient handling (SPH) reduces WMSDs caused by manual handling. The purpose of this study was to describe the patient handling practices of acute care physical therapists and their perceptions regarding SPH. Additionally, this study determined whether an SPH program influences the patient handling practices and perceptions regarding SPH of acute care physical therapists. Subscribers to the electronic discussion board of American Physical Therapy Association's Acute Care Section were invited to complete a survey questionnaire. The majority of respondents used SPH equipment and practices (91.1%), were confident using SPH equipment and practices (93.8%), agreed that evidence supports the use of SPH equipment and practices (87.0%), and reported the use of SPH equipment and practices is feasible (92.2%). Respondents at a facility with an SPH program were more likely to use SPH equipment and practices, have received training in the use of SPH equipment and practices, agree that the use of SPH equipment and practices is feasible, and feel confident using SPH equipment and practices. The study might not reflect the perceptions and practices of the population of acute care physical therapists. Acute care physical therapists are trained to use SPH equipment and practices, use SPH equipment and practices, and have positive perceptions regarding SPH. Acute care physical therapists in a facility with an SPH program are more likely to use SPH equipment and practices, receive training in SPH equipment and practices, and have positive perceptions regarding SPH. Quasi-regulatory organizations should incorporate SPH programs into their evaluative standards.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Çiftçi, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a disorder that goes with liver cell necrosis and liver inflammation. Among the causes of acute hepatitis, the most common reasons are viral hepatitis. About 95% of the acute hepatitis generate because of hepatotropic viruses. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are from the family of herpes viruses and rare causes of acute hepatitis. In this case report, acute hepatitis due to EBV and CMV coinfection will be described. How to cite this article Ates İ, Kaplan M, Yilmaz N, Çiftçi F. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):60-61. PMID:29201691

  16. Frequency and Reasons for Return to Acute Care in Leukemia Patients Undergoing Inpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jack Brian; Lee, Jay; Smith, Dennis W.; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency and reasons for return to the primary acute care service among leukemia patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Design Retrospective study of all patients with leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, or myelofibrosis admitted to inpatient rehabilitation at a tertiary referral-based cancer center between January 1, 2005, and April 10, 2012. Items analyzed from patient records included return to the primary acute care service with demographic information, leukemia characteristics, medications, hospital admission characteristics, and laboratory values. Results 225 patients were admitted a total of 255 times. 93/255 (37%) of leukemia inpatient rehabilitation admissions returned to the primary acute care service. 18/93 (19%) and 42/93 (45%) of these patients died in the hospital and were discharged home respectively. Statistically significant factors (p<.05) associated with return to the primary acute care service include peripheral blast percentage and the presence of an antifungal agent on the day of inpatient rehabilitation transfer. Using an additional two factors (platelet count and the presence of an antiviral agent both with a p<.11), a Return To Primary (RTP) - Leukemia index was formulated. Conclusions Leukemia patients with the presence of circulating peripheral blasts and/or antifungal agent may be at increased risk of return to the primary acute care service. The RTP-Leukemia index should be tested in prospective studies to determine its usefulness. PMID:23117267

  17. Utilization of acute care among patients with ESRD discharged home from skilled nursing facilities.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rasheeda K; Toles, Mark; Massing, Mark; Jackson, Eric; Peacock-Hinton, Sharon; O'Hare, Ann M; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

    2015-03-06

    Older adults with ESRD often receive care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) after an acute hospitalization; however, little is known about acute care use after SNF discharge to home. This study used Medicare claims for North and South Carolina to identify patients with ESRD who were discharged home from a SNF between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Nursing Home Compare data were used to ascertain SNF characteristics. The primary outcome was time from SNF discharge to first acute care use (hospitalization or emergency department visit) within 30 days. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify patient and facility characteristics associated with the outcome. Among 1223 patients with ESRD discharged home from a SNF after an acute hospitalization, 531 (43%) had at least one rehospitalization or emergency department visit within 30 days. The median time to first acute care use was 37 days. Characteristics associated with a shorter time to acute care use were black race (hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04 to 1.51), dual Medicare-Medicaid coverage (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.50), higher Charlson comorbidity score (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.12), number of hospitalizations during the 90 days before SNF admission (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.22), and index hospital discharge diagnoses of cellulitis, abscess, and/or skin ulcer (HR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.45). Home health use after SNF discharge was associated with a lower rate of acute care use (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.87). There were no statistically significant associations between SNF characteristics and time to first acute care use. Almost one in every two older adults with ESRD discharged home after a post-acute SNF stay used acute care services within 30 days of discharge. Strategies to reduce acute care utilization in these patients are needed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. [Acute liver failure in a patient with hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Valero, Beatriz; Picó Sala, M Dolores; Palazón, José María; Payá, Artemio

    2007-01-01

    Acute liver failure as a manifestation of primary non-Hodkin's lymphoma is a rare phenomenon with a fatal prognosis. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an uncommon chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, representing about 2 percent of all leukemies. We report a 78-year-old patient with a history of hairy cell leukemia since 10 years, presenting whith fulminant liver failure due to massive liver infiltration. He have reviewed several cases of infiltration of the liver by haematological malignancies, but we only have found after a review in MEDLINE between 1980 and 2006, one case of acute liver failure in a patient with hepatic invasion by hairy cell leukaemia.

  19. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  20. Music as Medicine: The Therapeutic Potential of Music for Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Supnet, Charlene; Crow, April; Stutzman, Sonja; Olson, DaiWai

    2016-04-01

    Nurses caring for patients with acute stroke are likely to administer both music and medication with therapeutic intent. The administration of medication is based on accumulated scientific evidence and tailored to the needs of each patient. However, the therapeutic use of music is generally based on good intentions and anecdotal evidence. This review summarizes and examines the current literature regarding the effectiveness of music in the treatment of critically ill patients and the use of music in neurologically injured patients. The rationale for hypothesis-driven research to explore therapeutic music intervention in acute stroke is compelling. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. Practice patterns, outcomes, and end-organ dysfunction for patients with acute severe hypertension: the Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) registry.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jason N; Gore, Joel M; Amin, Alpesh; Anderson, Frederick A; Dasta, Joseph F; Ferguson, James J; Kleinschmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Stephan A; Multz, Alan S; Peacock, W Frank; Peterson, Eric; Pollack, Charles; Sung, Gene Yong; Shorr, Andrew; Varon, Joseph; Wyman, Allison; Emery, Leigh A; Granger, Christopher B

    2009-10-01

    Limited data are available on the care of patients with acute severe hypertension requiring hospitalization. We characterized contemporary practice patterns and outcomes for this population. STAT is a 25-institution, US registry of consecutive patients with acute severe hypertension (>180 mm Hg systolic and/or >110 mm Hg diastolic; >140 and/or >90 for subarachnoid hemorrhage) treated with intravenous therapy in a critical care setting. One thousand five hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled (January 2007 to April 2008). Median age was 58 years (interquartile range 49-70 years), 779 (49%) were women, and 892 (56%) were African American; 27% (n = 425) had a prior admission for acute hypertension and 486 (31%) had chronic kidney disease. Median qualifying blood pressure (BP) was 200 (186, 220) systolic and 110 (93, 123) mm Hg diastolic. Initial intravenous antihypertensive therapies used to control BP varied, with 1,009 (64%) patients requiring multiple drugs. Median time to achieve a systolic BP <160 mm Hg (<140 mm Hg for subarachnoid hemorrhage) was 4.0 (0.8, 12) hours; 893 (60%) had reelevation to >180 (>140 for subarachnoid hemorrhage) after initial control; and 63 (4.0%) developed iatrogenic hypotension. Hospital mortality was 6.9% (n = 109) with an aggregate 90-day mortality rate of 11% (174/1,588); 59% (n = 943) had acute/worsening end-organ dysfunction during hospitalization. The 90-day readmission rate was 37% (523/1,415), of which one quarter (132/523) was due to recurrent acute severe hypertension. This study highlights heterogeneity in care, BP control, and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute severe hypertension.

  2. Efficacy of Strain Elastography in Diagnosis and Staging of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Harun; Akdemir, Zülküf; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Gökçal, Fahri; Parlakgümüş, Cemal; İslamoglu, Necat; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2018-02-11

    BACKGROUND In the present study, the role and efficiency of strain elastography (SE) were evaluated in diagnosis and staging of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 225 pediatric patients with suspected clinical and laboratory findings of acute appendicitis. Gray-scale sonographic findings were recorded and staging was made by the colorization method of SE imaging. Appendectomy was performed in all patients and the results of the surgical pathology were compared with the imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SE imaging were determined in terms of evaluating the "acute appendicitis". RESULTS Sonographic evaluation revealed acute appendicitis in 100 patients. Regarding the SE analysis, cases with appendicitis were classified into 3 groups as: mild (n=17), moderate (n=39), and severe (n=44). The pathological evaluation revealed 95 different stages of appendicitis and normal appendix in 5 cases: acute focal (n=10), acute suppurative (n=46), phlegmonous (n=27), and perforated (n=12), regarding the results of surgical pathology. Five patients with pathologically proven "normal" appendix were noted as "mild stage appendicitis" based on gray scale and SE analysis. In total, when gray-scale and SE results were compared with pathology results regardless of the stage of appendicitis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rates were 96%, 96%, 95%, 96.8%, and 96%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected between other groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In acute appendicitis, the use of SE imaging as a supportive method for the clinical approach can be useful in diagnosis, and its results are closely correlated with the histopathologic stage of appendix inflammation.

  3. Increase in electrocardiographic R-waves after revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Satoshi; Takada, Yasuo; Ando, Akitada; Ohshima, Satoru; Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Nanasato, Mamoru; Unno, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Takuo; Kondo, Takahisa; Izawa, Hideo; Inden, Yasuya; Hirai, Makoto; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2006-11-01

    The physiological mechanism of the increase in the electrocardiographic (ECG) R-wave voltage after revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) needs to be elucidated. One hundred and thirty-eight MI patients (83: anterior MI, 45: inferior MI, 10: lateral MI) underwent ECG and echocardiography in both the acute and subacute phases after emergency revascularization, as well as a resting thallium-201/iodine-123 15-p-iodophenyl-3-(R,S)-methyl pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy in the acute phase. The total sum of the R-wave voltage (SigmaR) was calculated over multiple leads on ECG for each infarcted lesion. Scintigraphic defect on each tracer was expressed as the percentage (%) defect of the total left ventricular (LV) myocardium. The % defect-discordance on both images in the acute phase and the % increase in SigmaR and the absolute increase in LV ejection fraction from the acute to the subacute phase (DeltaEF) were also calculated. The SigmaR in the subacute phase was significantly greater than that in the acute phase (p<0.0001). The % increase in SigmaR significantly correlated with the DeltaEF (r=0.57, p<0.0001). The % increase in SigmaR also correlated with the % defect-discordance (r=0.68, p<0.0001). The increase in the ECG R-wave voltage reflects not only the improvement in myocardial perfusion but also the presence of salvaged myocardium after revascularization in acute MI patients.

  4. Effect of formoterol/budesonide combination on arterial blood gases in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, M; Noschese, P; De Michele, F; D'Amato, G; Matera, M G

    2006-02-01

    Patients with severe chronic airway obstruction might suffer dangerous hypoxemia after administration of a beta-agonist despite bronchodilation. We first compared the acute effects on gas exchange of two doses of formoterol Turbuhaler (9 and 18 microg) in 10 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Afterwards, we compared the acute effects of formoterol Turbuhaler 9 microug with those of formoterol/budesonide combination in a single inhaler (Turbuhaler) 9/320 microg in 10 other patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Finally, we compared the changes in PaO(2) induced by formoterol Turbuhaler 9 microg or formoterol/budesonide combination in a single inhaler (Turbuhaler) 9/320 microg with those in FEV(1) in 10 other patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Each agent was given on separate days, and the patients' arterial blood gases were measured at baseline and at intervals of 120 min. Small but statistically significant declines in PaO(2) were found after administration of both formoterol 9 and 18 microg. In the second group of patients, formoterol 9 microg alone again induced a significant decrease in PaO(2). However, the simultaneous administration of budesonide 320 microg significantly reduced the acute effect of formoterol on PaO(2). In a third group of 10 patients we confirmed a small but significant decrease in PaO(2) after formoterol alone and the reduction of this effect when budesonide was administered simultaneously. Moreover, we also documented that addition of budesonide amplified the fast onset of action of formoterol. These results suggest that when treating patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD with formoterol, it is prudent to check their arterial blood gases. In any case, combined administration of formoterol and budesonide reduces the potential for acute effects of formoterol on blood-gas tensions.

  5. An acute stroke service: potential to improve patient outcome without increasing length of stay.

    PubMed

    Collins, D; McConaghy, D; McMahon, A; Howard, D; O'Neill, D; McCormack, P M

    2000-05-01

    Acute stroke is associated with a high morbidity and mortality: up to 24% of patients may not survive their hospital admission. Stroke unit care has been shown in a meta-analysis to reduce this morbidity and mortality. We present a three-year audit of the first acute stroke service in an Irish teaching hospital. The audit was carried out prospectively on 193 patients admitted to the acute stroke service, from July 1996 to end of June 1999. Details regarding patients, type and severity of stroke, length of stay and outcome were collected prospectively on a standard pro-forma. We observed a reduction in mortality from 19% to 15% to 9%, and an increasing percentage of patients discharged home from 55% to 64% to 68%, in year 1, year 2 and year 3 respectively. A trend towards a greater number of patients, younger age and improved outcome with lower mortality was observed from year to year, without significant change in length of stay. This study confirms the value to patients of organised stroke care in terms of reduction in mortality and morbidity without increasing length of stay or disability. We suggest that every acute hospital should have organised stroke care.

  6. Frequency of cancer in patients operated on for acute peripheral arterial thrombosis and the impact on prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nicolajsen, Chalotte Winther; Dickenson, Maja Holch; Budtz-Lilly, Jacob; Eldrup, Nikolaj

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about acute peripheral arterial thrombosis in patients with concomitant cancer. Small studies suggest that revascularization in this patient group is associated with thrombosis and increased risk of amputation and death. We investigated the frequency of cancer in patients operated on for acute peripheral arterial thrombosis and the long-term risk of amputation, mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in a national cohort. This was a prospective case/noncase study comprising all Danish citizens undergoing vascular surgery for acute arterial thrombosis from 1986 to 2012 with up to 26 years of follow-up. A total of 7840 patients were treated surgically for acute arterial thrombosis; 2384 (30.4%) were previously diagnosed with cancer or developed cancer during the observation period. Risk of amputation was not significantly different in patients with or without cancer, except in patients with cancer diagnosed <24 months before acute limb ischemia (hazard ratio, 2.0). Mortality was significantly greater in all patients having or developing cancer within 24 months after surgery (hazard ratio, 1.2-2.2). The frequencies of myocardial infarction and stroke were similar to those among patients without cancer. One of five patients operated on for acute limb ischemia has a diagnosis of cancer, and a further 3.4% will develop cancer within 24 months. The data further show that patients with acute limb ischemia and concomitant cancer can be successfully revascularized and that the majority of these patients preserve their limb. Cancer should therefore not contravene interventional treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of factors influencing survival in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Ji; Kim, Dae Bum; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Ji Min; Youn, Gun Jung; Jung, Yun Duk; Choi, Sooa; Oh, Jung Hwan

    2017-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) ranges from a mild and self-limiting disease to a fulminant illness with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is defined as persistent organ failure lasting for 48 h. We aimed to determine the factors that predict survival and mortality in patients with SAP. We reviewed a consecutive series of patients who were admitted with acute pancreatitis between January 2003 and January 2013. A total of 1213 cases involving 660 patients were evaluated, and 68 cases with SAP were selected for the study. Patients were graded based on the Computer Tomography Severity Index (CTSI), the bedside index for severity (BISAP), and Ranson's criteria. The frequency of SAP was 5.6% (68/1213 cases). Among these patients, 17 died due to pancreatitis-induced causes. We compared several factors between the survivor (n = 51) and non-survivor (n = 17) groups. On multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in the incidence of diabetes mellitus (p = .04), Ranson score (p = .03), bacteremia (p = .05) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .02) between the survivor and non-survivor groups. Bacteremia, high Ranson score, DM, and lower BMI were closely associated with mortality in patients with SAP. When patients with SAP show evidence of bacteremia or diabetes, aggressive treatment is necessary. For the prediction of disease mortality, the Ranson score might be a useful tool in SAP.

  8. Recent trends in survival of adult patients with acute leukemia: overall improvements, but persistent and partly increasing disparity in survival of patients from minority groups

    PubMed Central

    Pulte, Dianne; Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann; Jeffreys, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The survival of younger patients with acute leukemia has improved in the early 21st century, but it is unknown whether people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have benefited equally. Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we assessed trends in 5-year relative survival for patients aged 15 years or more with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia divided by racial and ethnic group, including non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Pacific Islanders in the 1990s and the early 21st century. Modeled period analysis was used to obtain the most up-to-date estimates of survival. Overall, the 5-year survival increased from 31.6% in 1997-2002 to 39.0% in 2003-2008 for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and from 15.5% in 1991-1996 to 22.5% in 2003-2008 for those with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Nevertheless, among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, age-adjusted 5-year relative survival rates remained lower for African-Americans and Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Among patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, the increase in survival was greatest (from 32.6% in 1991-1996 to 47.1% in 2003-2008) for younger patients (15-54 years), and was more pronounced for non-Hispanic whites (+16.4% units) than for other patients (+10.8% units). Increases in survival are observed in all ethnic or racial groups. Nevertheless, among patients with acute leukemias, disparities in survival persist between non-Hispanic white people and people of other ethnic or racial groups. Disparities are increasing in younger patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Improvements in access to treatment, especially for minority patients, may improve outcomes. PMID:22929974

  9. Pulmonary function test findings in patients with acute inhalation injury caused by smoke bombs

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu; Zhang, Xin-Gang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Han-Bin; Chen, Yi-Bing; Zhao, Da-Hui; Shi, Wen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the effects of smoke bomb-induced acute inhalation injury on pulmonary function at different stages of lung injury. Methods We performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 15 patients with acute inhalation injury from days 3 to 180 after smoke inhalation. We measured the trace element zinc in whole blood on days 4 and 17, and correlations of zinc levels with PFTs were performed. Results In the acute stage of lung injury (day 3), 3 of 11 patients with mild symptoms had normal pulmonary function and 8 patients with restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity. Some patients also had mild obstructive ventilatory dysfunction (5 patients) and a decline in small airway function (6 patients). For patients with severe symptoms, PFT results showed moderate to severe restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity. PaCO2 was significantly higher (P=0.047) in patients with reduced small airway function compared with those with normal small airway function. Whole blood zinc levels in the convalescence stage (day 17) were significantly lower than those in the acute stage (day 4). Zinc in the acute stage was negatively correlated with DLCO/VA on days 3, 10, and 46 (r=−0.633, −0.676, and −0.675 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions Smoke inhalation injury mainly causes restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity, and causes mild obstructive ventilatory dysfunction and small airway function decline in some patients. Zinc is negatively correlated with DLCO/VA. Zinc levels may be able to predict prognosis and indicate the degree of lung injury. PMID:28066595

  10. Classification of neck movement patterns related to whiplash-associated disorders using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Grip, Helena; Ohberg, Fredrik; Wiklund, Urban; Sterner, Ylva; Karlsson, J Stefan; Gerdle, Björn

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for classification of neck movement patterns related to Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) using a resilient backpropagation neural network (BPNN). WAD are a common diagnosis after neck trauma, typically caused by rear-end car accidents. Since physical injuries seldom are found with present imaging techniques, the diagnosis can be difficult to make. The active range of the neck is often visually inspected in patients with neck pain, but this is a subjective measure, and a more objective decision support system, that gives a reliable and more detailed analysis of neck movement pattern, is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of a BPNN, using neck movement variables as input. Three-dimensional (3-D) neck movement data from 59 subjects with WAD and 56 control subjects were collected with a ProReflex system. Rotation angle and angle velocity were calculated using the instantaneous helical axis method and motion variables were extracted. A principal component analysis was performed in order to reduce data and improve the BPNN performance. BPNNs with six hidden nodes had a predictivity of 0.89, a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.88, which are very promising results. This shows that neck movement analysis combined with a neural network could build the basis of a decision support system for classifying suspected WAD, even though further evaluation of the method is needed.

  11. [Acute myocardial infarction in young patients--severe failures in the system of acute and secondary care].

    PubMed

    Dostálová, G; Bělohlávek, J; Vítek, L; Muchová, L; Skvařilová, M; Karetová, D; Jirátová, K; Kvasnička, J; Vondráková, D; Toman, O; Linhart, A

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Czech Republic is de-clining. In spite of this in a proportion of patients AMI occurs in young age. The aim of our project was to assess the character of risk factors, precipitating diseases and the quality of care in young AMI survivors. We included 132 patients (97 men and 35 women) in whom AIM with ST elevations occurred before age of 45 years in men and age of 50 years in women. Several results were compared to a control group composed of 84 healthy volunteers of comparable age. We assessed the course of the disease, extent of coronary involvement, subsequent therapy and control of risk factors after 3 years from the index event. Smoking represented the main risk factor - 85% patents were active smokers at the time of AMI and 9% were former smokers, 64% patients had a positive family history of CV disease. We found a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia history in men. In spite of high rate of statin use, laboratory examination during follow-up revealed higher triglyceride values and low levels of HDL-cholesterol in both genders. All together 23% of patients had a history of provoking underlying disease or precipitating factors (inflammatory diseases, malignancies, combined thrombophilias, drug abuse). In total 95% of patients underwent coronary angiography during the acute phase of AMI, the median time from pain onset to intervention was 9 hours. Most patients had single vessel disease, 14% had even coronary angiogram without clinically significant stenosis. The subsequent care was satisfactory concerning the rate of drug prescriptions. However, target lipid values were not reached in 78% patients and blood pressure targets in 37%. In patients who suffered AMI in young age, risk factors are dominated by smoking and positive family history of CV diseases. One fifth of patients suffer from other underlying disease (inflammatory disease, malignancies, combined thrombophilia) or

  12. Prediction of vascular abnormalities on CT angiography in patients with acute headache.

    PubMed

    Alons, Imanda M E; Goudsmit, Ben F J; Jellema, Korné; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Wermer, Marieke J H; Algra, Ale

    2018-05-09

    Patients with acute headache increasingly undergo CT-angiography (CTA) to evaluate underlying vascular causes. The aim of this study is to determine clinical and non-contrast CT (NCCT) criteria to select patients who might benefit from CTA. We retrospectively included patients with acute headache who presented to the emergency department of an academic medical center and large regional teaching hospital and underwent NCCT and CTA. We identified factors that increased the probability of finding a vascular abnormality on CTA, performed multivariable regression analyses and determined discrimination with the c-statistic. A total of 384 patients underwent NCCT and CTA due to acute headache. NCCT was abnormal in 194 patients. Among these, we found abnormalities in 116 cases of which 99 aneurysms. In the remaining 190 with normal NCCT we found abnormalities in 12 cases; four unruptured aneurysms, three cerebral venous thrombosis', two reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes, two cervical arterial dissections and one cerebellar infarction. In multivariable analysis abnormal NCCT, lowered consciousness and presentation within 6 hr of headache onset were independently associated with abnormal CTA. The c-statistic of abnormal NCCT alone was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.80), that also including the other two variables was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80-0.88). If NCCT was normal no other factors could help identify patients at risk for abnormalities. In patients with acute headache abnormal NCCT is the strongest predictor of a vascular abnormality on CTA. If NCCT is normal no other predictors increase the probability of finding an abnormality on CTA and diagnostic yield is low. © 2018 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Educational Level and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Melgarejo-Moreno, Antonio; Galcerá-Tomás, José; Alonso-Fernández, Nuria; Díaz-Pastor, Ángela; Escudero-García, Germán; Jaulent-Huertas, Leticia; Vicente-Gilabert, Marta

    2015-11-01

    The value of socioeconomic status as a prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of educational level, as a marker of socioeconomic status, on the prognosis of long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. We conducted a prospective, observational study of 5797 patients admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction. We studied long-term all-cause mortality (median 8.5 years) using adjusted regression models. We found that 73.1% of patients had primary school education (n=4240), 14.5% had secondary school education (including high school) (n=843), 7.0% was illiterate (n=407), and 5.3% had higher education (n=307). Patients with secondary school or higher education were significantly younger, more were male, and they had fewer risk factors and comorbidity. These patients arrived sooner at hospital and had less severe heart failure. During admission they received more reperfusion therapy and their crude mortality was lower. Their drug treatment in hospital and at discharge followed guideline recommendations more closely. On multivariate analysis, secondary school or higher education was an independent predictor and protective factor for long-term mortality (hazard ratio=0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.98). Our study shows an inverse and independent relationship between educational level and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-Term Serological Follow-Up of Acute Q-Fever Patients after a Large Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Wielders, Cornelia C. H.; van Loenhout, Joris A. F.; Morroy, Gabriëlla; Rietveld, Ariene; Notermans, Daan W.; Wever, Peter C.; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; van der Hoek, Wim; Schneeberger, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serological follow-up of acute Q-fever patients is important for detection of chronic infection but there is no consensus on its frequency and duration. The 2007–2009 Q-fever epidemic in the Netherlands allowed for long-term follow-up of a large cohort of acute Q-fever patients. The aim of this study was to validate the current follow-up strategy targeted to identify patients with chronic Q-fever. Methods A cohort of adult acute Q-fever patients, diagnosed between 2007 and 2009, for whom a twelve-month follow-up sample was available, was invited to complete a questionnaire and provide a blood sample, four years after the acute episode. Antibody profiles, determined by immunofluorescence assay in serum, were investigated with a special focus on high titres of IgG antibodies against phase I of Coxiella burnetii, as these are considered indicative for possible chronic Q-fever. Results Of the invited 1,907 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,289 (67.6%) were included in the analysis. At any time during the four-year follow-up period, 58 (4.5%) patients were classified as possible, probable, or proven chronic Q-fever according to the Dutch Q-fever Consensus Group criteria (which uses IgG phase I ≥1:1,024 to as serologic criterion for chronic Q-fever). Fifty-two (89.7%) of these were identified within the first year after the acute episode. Of the six patients that were detected for the first time at four-year follow-up, five had an IgG phase I titre of 1:512 at twelve months. Conclusions A twelve-month follow-up check after acute Q-fever is recommended as it adequately detects chronic Q-fever in patients without known risk factors. Additional serological and clinical follow-up is recommended for patients with IgG phase I ≥1:512, as they showed the highest risk to progress to chronic Q-fever. PMID:26161658

  15. The evaluation of cervical spinal angle in patients with acute and chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Aşkin, Ayhan; Bayram, Korhan Barış; Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Atar, Emel; Arifoğlu Karaman, Çiğdem; Güvendi, Ece; Tosun, Aliye

    2017-06-12

    Clinicians associate the changes in cervical lordosis with neck pain, but there is no clear consensus on this. We aimed to investigate the relationships of cervical angles, neck pain, disability, and the psychological status of the patients with acute and chronic neck pain. A total of 110 patients with neck pain were included in this study. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded. The lordosis angle was determined by the posterior tangent method. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale were administered to all patients. The mean cervical lordosis angle was 23.10 ± 8.07 degrees. A statistically negative correlation was detected between cervical angle and duration of disease (P < 0.05). The cervical angle of the acute neck pain group was higher than that of the chronic pain group (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the acute and chronic neck pain groups with respect to VAS, NDI, and HAD scores (P > 0.05). We found that the cervical angle was significantly lower in chronic neck pain patients when compared to acute patients, and patients with higher pain scores had more severe disability and that disability increased with the duration of disease.

  16. Sub-acute neuropathy in patients with African tick bite fever.

    PubMed

    Jensenius, Mogens; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Fladby, Tormod; Hellum, Kjell Block; Hagen, Tormod; Priø, Tine; Christiansen, Merete Skovdal; Vene, Sirkka; Raoult, Didier; Myrvang, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    African tick bite fever (ATBF) caused by Rickettsia africae is an emerging health problem in travellers to sub-Saharan Africa. We here present 6 patients with evidence of long-lasting sub-acute neuropathy following ATBF contracted during safari trips to southern Africa. Three patients developed radiating pain, paresthaesia and/or motor weakness of extremities, 2 had hemi-facial pain and paresthaesia, and 1 developed unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. When evaluated 3-26 months after symptom onset, cerebrospinal fluid samples from 5 patients were negative for R. africae PCR and serology, but revealed elevated protein content in 3 and mild pleocytosis in 1 case. Despite extensive investigations, no plausible alternative causes of neuropathy could be identified. Treatment with doxycycline in 2 patients had no clinical effect. Given the current increase of international safari tourism to sub-Saharan Africa, more cases of sub-acute neuropathy following ATBF may well be encountered in Europe and elsewhere in the y to come.

  17. Improving sleep for patients in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Norton, Christine; Flood, David; Brittin, Andy; Miles, Jane

    2015-03-11

    Sleep is important to health and recovery from illness, but is known to be difficult in hospital. This article describes a quality improvement project conducted on 18 wards in acute hospitals. Patients reported sleeping an average of five hours per night, and 47% (352/749) rated their sleep quality as good or excellent in hospital. Individualised ward action plans were implemented. At follow up, disturbance by noise and light had fallen significantly and 69% (540/783) of patients rated their sleep as good or excellent, 22% more than before the intervention (P<0.001). Local interventions such as improving staff awareness of noise, installing window blinds and turning down equipment alarms improved the patient experience of sleep.

  18. Determinants of Emergency Medical Services Utilization Among Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients in Hubei Province in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoxv; Yang, Tingting; Gong, Yanhong; Zhou, Yanfeng; Li, Wenzhen; Song, Xingyue; Wang, Mengdie; Hu, Bo; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-03-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) can effectively shorten the prehospital delay for patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to investigate EMS utilization and its associated factors in patients with acute ischemic stroke in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015, which included 2096 patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke from 66 hospitals in Hubei province in China. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression model was undertaken to identify the factors associated with EMS utilization. Of the 2096 participants, only 323 cases (15.4%) used EMS. Those acute ischemic stroke patients who previously used EMS (odds ratio [OR] =9.8), whose National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was ≥10 (OR=3.7), who lived in urban communities (OR=2.5), who had sudden onset of symptoms (OR=2.4), who experienced their first stroke (OR=1.8), and who recognized initial symptom as stroke (OR=1.4) were more likely to use EMS. Additionally, when acute ischemic stroke patients' stroke symptom were noticed first by others (OR=2.1), rather than by the patients, EMS was more likely to be used. A very low proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke used the EMS in Hubei province in China. Considerable education programs are required regarding knowledge of potential symptoms and the importance of EMS for stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. [in-hospital mortality in patient with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Sadamasa, Nobutake; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Narumi, Osamu; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of evidence to compare in-hospital mortality with different types of stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the in-hospital mortality after acute ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and compare the factors associated with the mortality among stroke subtypes. All patients admitted to Kurashiki Central Hospital in Japan between January 2009 and December 2009, and diagnosed with acute ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke were included in this study. Demographics and clinical data pertaining to the patients were obtained from their medical records. Out of 738 patients who had an acute stroke, 53 (7.2%) died in the hospital. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the cerebral infarction group than in the intracerebral hemorrhage and subarach