Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech
Persistent pain and disability after whiplash trauma has become an increasingly significant problem in many industrialized countries entailing comprehensive individual as well as social costs. The dissertation includes two areas of research within whiplash trauma. The first part contains two empirical articles focusing on risk factors for poor recovery. The second part contains a systematic review and an empirical article and concerns the influence of coping strategies on recovery with a special emphasis on possible gender differences. All empirical articles in the dissertation are based on self-reported questionnaire data on a patient cohort of whiplash-exposed. Patients are consecutively included in the study within the first ten days of collision recruited from emergency departments and general practitioners in four counties in Denmark from April 2001 to June 2003. One of the empirical articles in the dissertation is supplemented with data from a social register of transfer benefits on the patient cohort as well as on a matched register control cohort in the general population. In this dissertation we wish to answer the following questions: 1) Do self-reported pre-collision health-related and socio-demographic factors affect self-reported work capability and neck pain one year after acute whiplash trauma? 2) Do transfer benefits before the accident predict negative change in future health-related provisional situation and future neck pain? 3) Do persons with acute whiplash trauma experience more negative change in future health-related provisional situation compared to a matched register control group? 4) Does research in the use of coping strategies after whiplash trauma show that these predict poor restitution and is there any research on gender differences in the use of coping strategies in whiplash-exposed? 5) Do gender and coping strategies interact in the prediction of future neck pain following acute whiplash trauma? Self-reported unspecified pain, female
Häggman-Henrikson, B; Rezvani, M; List, T
The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the prevalence of whiplash trauma in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and to describe clinical signs and symptoms in comorbid TMD/whiplash compared with TMD localised to the facial region. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Bandolier databases was carried out for articles published from 1 January 1966 to 31 December 2012. The systematic search identified 129 articles. After the initial screening of abstracts, 32 articles were reviewed in full text applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Six studies on the prevalence of neck trauma in patients with TMD met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Two of the authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies. The reported prevalence of whiplash trauma ranged from 8·4% to 70% (median 35%) in TMD populations, compared with 1·7-13% in the non-TMD control groups. Compared with patients with TMD localised to the facial region, TMD patients with a history of whiplash trauma reported more TMD symptoms, such as limited jaw opening and more TMD pain, and also more headaches and stress symptoms. In conclusion, the prevalence of whiplash trauma is higher in patients with TMD compared with non-TMD controls. Furthermore, patients with comorbid TMD/whiplash present with more jaw pain and more severe jaw dysfunction compared with TMD patients without a history of head-neck trauma. These results suggest that whiplash trauma might be an initiating and/or aggravating factor as well as a comorbid condition for TMD.
Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Kasch, Helge; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Frostholm, Lisbeth
Background 10–22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision. Methods and Findings 719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 3.8 (2.1;7.1)) and future neck pain (OR (95%CI) = 3.3 (1.8;6.3)), controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2) = 36.7, p < 0.001) and unemployment (χ2(2) = 12.5, p = 0.002)) pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI) = 3.1 (2.3;4.4)) compared with controls. Conclusions Sick leave before the
Pomara, Cristoforo; Bello, Stefania; Serinelli, Serenella; Fineschi, Vittorio
Whiplash trauma from a car crash is one of the most common causes of neck injury, resulting in pain and dysfunction. We report on an unusual case of post-whiplash pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery, which led to acute massive hemorrhage and death days after the initial trauma. A post-mortem computed tomography angiography showed rupture of the pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery with the contrast agent leaking out into the mouth. The subsequent autopsy confirmed a large hemorrhagic clot extending to the right side of the neck and mediastinum. A rupture of the right wall of the oropharynx was identified with massive bronchial hemoaspiration. The case demonstrates a rare but lethal clinical entity, and is important in providing a better understanding of the potentially fatal consequences of minor trauma, such as whiplash injury, and its physiopathological mechanisms. Thus, changing symptoms after a whiplash injury should be carefully evaluated since they can be related to the underlying severe consequences of a rapid hyperextension-hyperflexion of the neck, as in the reported case.
Siegmund, Gunter P; Winkelstein, Beth A; Ivancic, Paul C; Svensson, Mats Y; Vasavada, Anita
Whiplash injury is the most common motor vehicle injury, yet it is also one of the most poorly understood. Here we examine the evidence supporting an organic basis for acute and chronic whiplash injuries and review the anatomical sites within the neck that are potentially injured during these collisions. For each proposed anatomical site--facet joints, spinal ligaments, intervertebral discs, vertebral arteries, dorsal root ganglia, and neck muscles--we present the clinical evidence supporting that injury site, its relevant anatomy, the mechanism of and tolerance to injury, and the future research needed to determine whether that site is responsible for some whiplash injuries. This article serves as a snapshot of the current state of whiplash biomechanics research and provides a roadmap for future research to better understand and ultimately prevent whiplash injuries.
Nacci, A; Ferrazzi, M; Berrettini, S; Panicucci, E; Matteucci, J; Bruschini, L; Ursino, F; Fattori, B
Vertigo and postural instability following whiplash and/or minor head injuries is very frequent. According to some authors, post-whiplash vertigo cannot be caused by real injury to vestibular structures; other authors maintain that vestibular damage is possible even in the case of isolated whiplash, with vascular or post-traumatic involvement. Furthermore, many of the balance disorders reported after trauma can be justified by post-traumatic modification to the cervical proprioceptive input, with consequent damage to the vestibular spinal reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular condition and postural status in a group of patients (Group A, n = 90) affected with balance disorders following whiplash, and in a second group (Group B, n = 20) with balance disorders after minor head injury associated with whiplash. Both groups were submitted to videonystagmography (VNG) and stabilometric investigation (open eyes - O E, closed eyes - CE, closed eyes with head retroflexed - CER) within 15 days of their injuries and repeated within 10 days after conclusion of cervical physiotherapy treatment. The VNG tests revealed vestibulopathy in 19% of cases in Group A (11% peripheral, 5% central, 3% in an undefined site) and in 60% of subjects in Group B (50% peripheral, 10% central). At the follow-up examination, all cases of non-compensated labyrinth deficit showed signs of compensation, while there were two cases (2%) in Group A and one case (5%) in Group B of PPV. As far as the altered posturographic recordings are concerned, while there was no specific pattern in the two groups, they were clearly pathologic, especially during CER. Both in OE and in CE there was an increase in the surface values and in those pertaining to shifting of the gravity centre on the sagittal plane, which was even more evident during CER. In Group A, the pre-post-physiotherapy comparison of CER results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the majority of the
Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason
Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.
In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem. PMID:26688392
Martin, G T
In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem.
Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming W; Korsholm, Lars; Jensen, Troels S
Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury predicted long-term sequelae. Participants with acute whiplash-associated symptoms after a motor vehicle accident were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. The predictor variable was the sum score of the impact of event scale (IES) completed within 10 days after the accident. The main outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals.
Kijowski, R; Roemer, F; Englund, M; Tiderius, C J; Swärd, P; Frobell, R B
Joint injury has been recognized as a potent risk factor for the onset of osteoarthritis. The vast majority of studies using imaging technology for longitudinal assessment of patients following joint injury have focused on the injured knee joint, specifically in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury and meniscus tears where a high risk for rapid onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis is well known. Although there are many imaging modalities under constant development, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most important instrument for longitudinal monitoring after joint injury. MR imaging is sensitive for detecting early cartilage degeneration and can evaluate other joint structures including the menisci, bone marrow, tendons, and ligaments which can be sources of pain following acute injury. In this review, focusing on imaging following acute knee trauma, several studies were identified with promising short-term results of osseous and soft tissue changes after joint injury. However, studies connecting these promising short-term results to the development of osteoarthritis were limited which is likely due to the long follow-up periods needed to document the radiographic and clinical onset of the disease. Thus, it is recommended that additional high quality longitudinal studies with extended follow-up periods be performed to further investigate the long-term consequences of the early osseous and soft tissue changes identified on MR imaging after acute knee trauma.
Evans, R W
Motor vehicle accidents with a whiplash mechanism of injury are one of the most common causes of neck injuries, with an incidence of perhaps 1 million per year in the United States. Proper adjustment of head restraints can reduce the incidence of neck pain in rear-end collisions by 24%. Persistent neck pain is more common in women by a ratio of 70:30. Whiplash injuries usually result in neck pain owing to myofascial trauma, which has been documented in both animal and human studies. Headaches, reported in 82% of patients acutely, are usually of the muscle contraction type, often associated with greater occipital neuralgia and less often temporomandibular joint syndrome. Occasionally migraine headaches can be precipitated. Dizziness often occurs and can result from vestibular, central, and cervical injury. More than one third of patients acutely complain of paresthesias, which frequently are caused by trigger points and thoracic outlet syndrome and less commonly by cervical radiculopathy. Some studies have indicated that a postconcussion syndrome can develop from a whiplash injury. Interscapular and low back pain are other frequent complaints. Although most patients recover within 3 months after the accident, persistent neck pain and headaches after 2 years are reported by more than 30% and 10% of patients. Risk factors for a less favorable recovery include older age, the presence of interscapular or upper back pain, occipital headache, multiple symptoms or paresthesias at presentation, reduced range of movement of the cervical spine, the presence of an objective neurologic deficit, preexisting degenerative osteoarthritic changes; and the upper middle occupational category. There is only a minimal association of a poor prognosis with the speed or severity of the collision and the extent of vehicle damage. Whiplash injuries result in long-term disability with upward of 6% of patients not returning to work after 1 year. Although litigation is very common and always
Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul
The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro
Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul
The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15-21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro
Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Rushton, Alison
Objective To develop an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for managing acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II using a modified Delphi method to develop consensus for the basic features of the ABPI. Design Modified Delphi study. Our systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating conservative management for acute WADII found that a combined ABPI may be a useful intervention to prevent patients progressing to chronicity. No previous research has considered a combined behavioural approach and active physiotherapy in the management of acute WADII patients. The ABPI was therefore developed using a rigorous consensus method using international research and local clinical whiplash experts. Descriptive statistics were used to assess consensus in each round. Setting Online international survey. Participants A purposive sample of 97 potential participants (aiming to recruit n=30) consisting of international research whiplash experts, UK private physiotherapists and UK postgraduate musculoskeletal physiotherapy students were invited to participate via electronic mail with an attached participant information sheet and consent form. Results 36 individuals signed and returned the consent form. In round 1, 32/36 participants (response rate=89%, mean age±SD=36.03±13.22 years) across 8 countries (Australia, Finland, Greece, India, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and UK) contributed to round 1 questionnaire. Response rates were 78% and 75% for rounds 2 and 3, respectively. Following round 3, 12 underlying principles (eg, return to normal function as soon as possible, pain management, encouragement of self-management, reduce fear avoidance and anxiety) achieved consensus. The treatment components reaching consensus included behavioural (eg, education, reassurance, self-management) and physiotherapy components (eg, exercises for stability and mobility). No passive intervention achieved consensus. Conclusions Experts suggested and agreed the underlying principles
The acute whiplash injury is a significant health burden for patients and the healthcare system. Traditional approaches to treatment fail to resolve this ever growing medicolegal and social problem. A new biopsychosocial model of whiplash disorder encourages new ways of treating and preventing of the chronic disability. This biopsychosocial model takes into account the mechanism by which acute pain becomes chronic pain, and how this can be prevented. Specific education and treatments encourage a behaviour after whiplash injury that is conducive to more rapid recovery, and provides the whiplash patient with insight into the mediators of chronic pain. The article describes in practical terms how to use education, reassurance, a more judicious use of therapy, and exercise to achieve this goal. Practical guidelines are provided on educating the patient about other symptoms that may cause concern. PMID:12421777
Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous
... activity. Strengthening the muscles will also improve their range of motion. Body mechanics describes the interrelationship between the head, ... help relieve the pain of whiplash and regain range of motion. Follow your health care professional's instructions carefully. Remain ...
Schwartz-Cowley, Roberta; Stepanik, Mark J.
The Shock Trauma Center of the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems instituted a comprehensive speech-language pathology program to provide acute intervention for communicative disorders in a critical/intensive care environment. This article provides a profile of the Center, a review of communicative impairments, and examples…
Matas, A J; Payne, W D; Simmons, R L; Buselmeier, T J; Kjellstrand, C M
Renal failure developed in 20 patients following blunt civilian trauma. Ten recovered normal renal function; 8 currently survive. Survivors and nonsurvivors did not differ in age, time from trauma to anuria, mean blood urea nitrogen or creatinine level prior to the first or to subsequent dialyses. However, there was an increased incidence of sepsis and liver failure in those who died. When outcome was related to site of injury, patients with closed head injury and/or intra-abdominal injury had a worse prognosis than those with thoracic or extremity injury only. Only 2 patients with perforated bowel survived; both had peritoneal dialysis combined with peritoneal lavage with antibiotic solutions. Mortality in patients with posttraumatic renal failure remains high; however, death is usually a result of associated complications rather than a result of the renal failure. Aggressive management of other complications of the trauma, especially sepsis or potential sepsis, is necessary. We recommend peritoneal dialysis combined with peritoneal antibiotic lavage where there is a potential for posttraumatic intra-abdominal sepsis associated with renal failure. PMID:843128
Huddleston, O. Leonard
Whiplash injury may extend far beyond the neck, and may involve even the soft tissues of the pelvis. For permanent recovery, all the injuries must be evaluated and treated together. When impact from the rear snaps the head back and then forward, posterior subluxations in the cervical spine cause anterior-posterior narrowing of the intervertebral foramina, which may result in injury to the cervical nerve roots. Impact at the front, causing hyperflexion followed by hyperextension, has a similar effect although usually not as severe. Resulting symptoms may not appear until two or three weeks later, when irritative lesions have developed because of hemorrhage or swelling. Mild or progressive degenerative changes may cause no symptoms but may predispose the affected area to injury following some slight trauma. Capsular ligaments of the lateral intervertebral joints are especially liable to whiplash injury which may give rise to scars and adhesions that compress spinal nerves. Sympathetic system involvement may cause reflex and referred pain. Detailed neurologic, roentgen and electromyographic studies may be necessary for proper evaluation of injuries. Seemingly psychosomatic pain or disability is likely to have some physical basis in whiplash injuries. In 33 patients with whiplash injury, some recently injured and some chronically disabled with persistent symptoms, good results were observed following hydromassage, hot packs, joint mobilization exercises and, in a few, cervical or pelvic traction. PMID:13585155
Introduction Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols provide a common approach for trauma resuscitations. This was a quality review assessing compliance with ATLS protocols at a Level I trauma center; specifically whether the presence or absence of a trauma team leader (TTL) influenced adherence. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on adult major trauma patients with acute injuries over a one-year period in a Level I Canadian trauma center. Data were collected from the Alberta Trauma Registry, and adherence to ATLS protocols was determined by chart review. Results The study identified 508 patients with a mean Injury Severity Score of 24.5 (SD 10.7), mean age 39.7 (SD 17.6), 73.8% were male and 91.9% were involved in blunt trauma. The overall compliance rate was 81.8% for primary survey and 75% for secondary survey. The TTL group compared to non-TTL group was more likely to complete the primary survey (90.9% vs. 81.8%, p = 0.003), and the secondary survey (100% vs. 75%, p = 0.004). The TTL group was more likely than the non-TTL group to complete the following tasks: insertion of two large bore IVs (68.2% vs. 57.7%, p = 0.014), digital rectal exam (64.6% vs. 54.7%, p = 0.023), and head to toe exam (77% vs. 67.1%, p = 0.013). Mean times from emergency department arrival to diagnostic imaging were also significantly shorter in the TTL group compared to the non-TTL group, including times to pelvis xray (mean 68min vs. 107min, p = 0.007), CT chest (mean 133min vs. 172min, p = 0.005), and CT abdomen and pelvis (mean 136min vs. 173min, p = 0.013). Readmission rates were not significantly different between the TTL and non-TTL groups (3.5% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.642). Conclusions While many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of trauma systems on outcomes, few have explored the direct influence of the TTL on ATLS compliance. This study demonstrated that TTL involvement during resuscitations was associated with improved
Goodman, Michael; Lewis, Jaime; Guitron, Julian; Reed, Michael; Pritts, Timothy; Starnes, Sandra
Background: Operative intervention for thoracic trauma typically requires thoracotomy. We hypothesized that thoracoscopy may be safely and effectively utilized for the acute management of thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: The Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was queried from 1999 through 2010 for all video-assisted thoracic procedures within 24 h of admission. Data collected included initial vital signs, operative indication, intraoperative course, and postoperative outcome. Results: Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria: 3 (13%) following blunt injury and 20 (87%) after penetrating trauma. Indications for urgent thoracoscopy included diaphragmatic/esophageal injury, retained hemothorax, ongoing hemorrhage, and open/persistent pneumothorax. No conversions to thoracotomy were required and no patient required re-operation. Mean postoperative chest tube duration was 2.9 days and mean length of stay was 5.6 days. Conclusion: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and effective for managing thoracic trauma in hemodynamically stable patients within the first 24 h post-injury. PMID:23723618
Bernabeu, Eduardo; Mestres, Carlos A; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Josa, Miguel
Traumatic rupture of intracardiac structures is an uncommon phenomenon although there are a number of reports with regards to rupture of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation of traumatic origin. Both lesions were seen separated by 2 weeks. Pathophysiology is reviewed. The combination of both aortic and mitral lesions following blunt chest trauma is almost exceptional.
Introduction It is debated whether early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated the prevalence of overt DIC and ACoTS in trauma patients and characterized these conditions based on their biomarker profiles. Methods An observational study was carried out at a single Level I Trauma Center. Eighty adult trauma patients (≥18 years) who met criteria for full trauma team activation and had an arterial cannula inserted were included. Blood was sampled a median of 68 minutes (IQR 48 to 88) post-injury. Data on demography, biochemistry, injury severity score (ISS) and mortality were recorded. Plasma/serum was analyzed for biomarkers reflecting tissue/endothelial cell/glycocalyx damage (histone-complexed DNA fragments, Annexin V, thrombomodulin, syndecan-1), coagulation activation/inhibition (prothrombinfragment 1+2, thrombin/antithrombin-complexes, antithrombin, protein C, activated protein C, endothelial protein C receptor, protein S, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, vWF), factor consumption (fibrinogen, FXIII), fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and inflammation (interleukin (IL)-6, terminal complement complex (sC5b-9)). Comparison of patients stratified according to the presence or absence of overt DIC (International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) criteria) or ACoTS (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and/or international normalized ratio (INR) above normal reference). Results No patients had overt DIC whereas 15% had ACoTS. ACoTS patients had higher ISS, transfusion requirements and mortality (all P < 0.01) and a biomarker profile suggestive of enhanced tissue, endothelial cell and glycocalyx damage and consumption coagulopathy with low protein C, antithrombin, fibrinogen and FXIII levels
Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison
Introduction Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3–4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6–8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). Ethics and dissemination This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). Trial
Angerer, F; Hoppe, U; Schick, B
The cochlea and vestibular organ is often affected in lightning strikes. A lightning strike to a motor vehicle with cochlear injury has not been described hitherto in the literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male patient with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus after his car was struck by lightning. While hearing loss recovered using intravenous therapy, tinnitus persisted 6 months after the lightning strike. Cochlear injuries as an acute acoustic trauma have to be considered in lightning strikes and can occur when a car is struck by lightning.
Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.
Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…
Chen, Hai-bin; Yang, King H; Wang, Zheng-guo
Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics, facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3) The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury, potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains
Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan
A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that qualitatively undergoes the same forces acting in whiplash and shows the same behavior is used to analyze the kinematics of both the head and the cervical spine and the resulting neck loads. The rapid acceleration during a whiplash event causes the extension and flexion of the cervical spine, which in turn can cause dislocated vertebrae, torn ligaments, intervertebral disc herniation, and other trauma that appear to be the likely causes of subsequent painful headache or neck pain symptoms. Thus, whiplash provides a connection between the dynamics of the human body and physics. Its treatment can enliven the usual teaching in kinematics, and both theoretical and experimental approaches provide an interesting biological context to teach introductory principles of mechanics.
The aim of this paper was to review the physical and psychological processes associated with whiplash-associated disorders. There is now much scientific data available to indicate the presence of disturbed nociceptive processing, stress system responses, muscle and motor changes as well as psychological factors in both acute and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Some of these factors seem to be associated with the transition from acute to chronic pain and have demonstrated prognostic capacity. Further investigation is required to determine if these processes can be modified and if modification will lead to improved outcomes for this condition. The burden of whiplash injuries, the high rate of transition to chronicity, and evidence of limited effects of current management on transition rates demand new directions in evaluation and management. The understanding of processes underlying this condition is improving and this lays the foundation for the development of more effective management approaches. PMID:23115472
Chen, Ye-meng; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Qun-ce; Wang, Tian-fang
Whiplash injury is a relatively common injury of clinical acupuncture and moxibustion in the United States. The mechanism and clinical manifestation of whiplash injuries as well as its pathogenesis described in TCM were analyzed in this present article. The authors introduced the TCM syndrome differentiation of whiplash injuries and claimed that both the location and the stage of disease should be considered. For the different injury locations, the meridian musculature differentiation was applied to classify the whiplash injuries as Taiyang, Yangming, Shaoyang and Shaoyin Meridian syndromes. Considering the duration of the injury, qi stagnation and blood stasis types were classified in the acute stage and phlegm accumulation, insufficiency of the liver and kidney and qi and blood deficiencies types were classified during the chronic stage. An acupuncture protocol for whiplash injuries and typical cases were also introduced.
Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward
Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N = 162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. PMID
Kwan, O; Friel, J
The existence of a 'chronic whiplash injury' has been a source of debate in the medical literature for many years. Some authors have published articles suggesting that chronic whiplash syndrome is the result of chronic pathology (injury), and that this injury may occur at any collision speed; others have stated that any psychological factors are secondary rather than primary (etiologic) to the problem of chronic pain, or that secondary gain is a rare or uncommon phenomenon. These articles contradict scientific measures and efforts which show that for Quebec Task Force Grade 1 and 2 whiplash-associated disorders, the highly prevalent problem of chronic pain may be a culturally and psychosocially determined phenomenon, in which confounding psychosocial variables determine the behaviour and outcome following an otherwise benign acute injury. The authors of the current literature critique reviewed the biomedical and engineering literature relating to whiplash syndrome, searching for articles that supported the construct of 'chronic whiplash injuries'. Thirty seven articles containing fourteen distinct statements supporting the construct of 'chronic whiplash injuries' were found that fit the inclusion criteria. The methodology described in these articles was evaluated critically to determine if the authors' conclusions regarding 'chronic whiplash injuries' were scientifically sound. The authors of the current critique found that all of the articles contained significant methodologic errors relative to their respective authors' statements regarding chronic whiplash. The most frequent concerns reside with sampling, experimental design and interpretation of data.
Mandrioli, Matteo; Inaba, Kenji; Piccinini, Alice; Biscardi, Andrea; Sartelli, Massimo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Catena, Fausto; Cirocchi, Roberto; Jovine, Elio; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone
The greatest advantages of laparoscopy when compared to open surgery include the faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, decreased postoperative pain, earlier return to work and resumption of normal daily activity as well as cosmetic benefits. Laparoscopy today is considered the gold standard of care in the treatment of cholecystitis and appendicitis worldwide. Laparoscopy has even been adopted in colorectal surgery with good results. The technological improvements in this surgical field along with the development of modern techniques and the acquisition of specific laparoscopic skills have allowed for its utilization in operations with fully intracorporeal anastomoses. Further progress in laparoscopy has included single-incision laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, laparoscopy for emergency surgery is still considered challenging and is usually not recommended due to the lack of adequate experience in this area. The technical difficulties of operating in the presence of diffuse peritonitis or large purulent collections and diffuse adhesions are also given as reasons. However, the potential advantages of laparoscopy, both in terms of diagnosis and therapy, are clear. Major advantages may be observed in cases with diffuse peritonitis secondary to perforated peptic ulcers, for example, where laparoscopy allows the confirmation of the diagnosis, the identification of the position of the ulcer and a laparoscopic repair with effective peritoneal washout. Laparoscopy has also revolutionized the approach to complicated diverticulitis even when intestinal perforation is present. Many other emergency conditions can be effectively managed laparoscopically, including trauma in select hemodynamically-stable patients. We have therefore reviewed the most recent scientific literature on advances in laparoscopy for acute care surgery and trauma in order to demonstrate the current indications and outcomes associated with a
Mandrioli, Matteo; Inaba, Kenji; Piccinini, Alice; Biscardi, Andrea; Sartelli, Massimo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Catena, Fausto; Cirocchi, Roberto; Jovine, Elio; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone
The greatest advantages of laparoscopy when compared to open surgery include the faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, decreased postoperative pain, earlier return to work and resumption of normal daily activity as well as cosmetic benefits. Laparoscopy today is considered the gold standard of care in the treatment of cholecystitis and appendicitis worldwide. Laparoscopy has even been adopted in colorectal surgery with good results. The technological improvements in this surgical field along with the development of modern techniques and the acquisition of specific laparoscopic skills have allowed for its utilization in operations with fully intracorporeal anastomoses. Further progress in laparoscopy has included single-incision laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, laparoscopy for emergency surgery is still considered challenging and is usually not recommended due to the lack of adequate experience in this area. The technical difficulties of operating in the presence of diffuse peritonitis or large purulent collections and diffuse adhesions are also given as reasons. However, the potential advantages of laparoscopy, both in terms of diagnosis and therapy, are clear. Major advantages may be observed in cases with diffuse peritonitis secondary to perforated peptic ulcers, for example, where laparoscopy allows the confirmation of the diagnosis, the identification of the position of the ulcer and a laparoscopic repair with effective peritoneal washout. Laparoscopy has also revolutionized the approach to complicated diverticulitis even when intestinal perforation is present. Many other emergency conditions can be effectively managed laparoscopically, including trauma in select hemodynamically-stable patients. We have therefore reviewed the most recent scientific literature on advances in laparoscopy for acute care surgery and trauma in order to demonstrate the current indications and outcomes associated with a
Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, Sayeed; Madi, Mohammad; Rushton, Alison
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy) for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) II. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB) of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12. Data Sources PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies RCTs evaluating acute (<4 weeks) WADII, any conservative intervention, with outcome measures important to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health. Results Fifteen RCTs all assessed as high RoB (n=1676 participants) across 9 countries were included. Meta-analyses enabled 4 intervention comparisons: conservative versus standard/control, active versus passive, behavioural versus standard/control, and early versus late. Conservative intervention was more effective for pain reduction at 6 months (95%CI: -20.14 to -3.38) and 1-3 years (-25.44 to -3.19), and improvement in cervical mobility in the horizontal plane at <3 months (0.43 to 5.60) compared with standard/control intervention. Active intervention was effective
Montgomery, Kayla; Hall, A Brad; Keriazes, Georgia
The timely administration of analgesics is crucial to the comprehensive management of trauma patients. When an emergency department (ED) pharmacist participates in trauma resuscitation, the pharmacist acts as a medication resource for trauma team members and facilitates the timely administration of analgesics. This study measured the impact of a pharmacist on time to first analgesic dose administered during trauma resuscitation. All adult (>18 years) patients who presented to this level II trauma center via activation of the trauma response system between January 1, 2009, and May 31, 2013, were screened for eligibility. For inclusion, patients must have received intravenous fentanyl, morphine, or hydromorphone in the trauma bay. The time to medication administration was defined as the elapsed time from ED arrival to administration of first analgesic. There were 1328 trauma response system activations during the study period; of which 340 patients were included. The most common analgesic administered was fentanyl (62% in both groups). When a pharmacist was participating, the mean time to first analgesic administered was decreased (17 vs 21 minutes; P = .03). Among the 78% of patients with documented pain scores, the overall mean reduction in pain scores from ED arrival to ED discharge was similar between the 2 groups. There was a 2.4 point reduction with a pharmacist versus 2.7 without a pharmacist, using a 0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale. The participation of a clinical pharmacist during trauma resuscitation significantly decreased the time to first analgesic administration in trauma patients. The results of this study supplement the literature supporting the integration of clinical ED pharmacists on trauma teams.
Schmand, B; Lindeboom, J; Schagen, S; Heijt, R; Koene, T; Hamburger, H
OBJECTIVES—The validity of memory and concentration complaints that are often reported after a whiplash trauma is controversial. The prevalence of malingering or underperformance in post-whiplash patients, and its impact on their cognitive test results were studied. METHODS—The Amsterdam short term memory (ASTM) test, a recently developed malingering test, was used as well as a series of conventional memory and concentration tests. The study sample was a highly selected group of patients, who were examined either as part of a litigation procedure (n=36) or in the normal routine of an outpatient clinic (n=72). RESULTS—The prevalence of underperformance, as defined by a positive score on the malingering test, was 61% (95% CI: 45-77) in the context of litigation, and 29% (95% CI: 18-40) in the outpatient clinic (p=0.003). Furthermore, the scores on the memory and concentration test of malingering post-whiplash patients (n=43) and non-malingering post-whiplash patients (n=65) were compared with the scores of patients with closed head injury (n=20) and normal controls (n=46). The malingering post-whiplash patients scored as low as the patients with closed head injury on most tests. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of malingering or cognitive underperformance in late post-whiplash patients is substantial, particularly in litigation contexts. It is not warranted to explain the mild cognitive disorders of whiplash patients in terms of brain damage, as some authors have done. The cognitive complaints of non-malingering post-whiplash patients are more likely a result of chronic pain, chronic fatigue, or depression. PMID:9527145
Puanglumyai, Supot; Thamtakerngkit, Somboon; Lekawanvijit, Suree
Blunt thoracic trauma is a common occurrence in automobile accidents. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) caused by coronary dissection following blunt thoracic trauma is rare. We report a case of healthy 24-year-old man with a history of blunt thoracic injury with subsequent undetected AMI who died of acute decompensated heart failure 4 days after the insult. The autopsy findings showed a 90% luminal narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery by dissecting hematoma, 3 cm in length. The myocardium revealed transmural myocardial infarction affecting apex, most part of left ventricular free wall, and interventricular septum. Both lungs were heavy, wet, and noncrepitant. Histological findings of the infarcted myocardium were consistent with 3-5 days post-AMI. Sections from both lungs revealed massive pulmonary edema, reflecting acute decompensated heart failure following a large AMI secondary to coronary dissection. Blunt thoracic trauma may obscure typical chest pain associated with cardiac ischemia especially in cases with a high tolerance for pain.
Capistrant, T D
Thirty-five cases of thoracic outlet syndrome complicating whiplash or cervical strain injury were studied. Thirty cases had confirmation by the demonstration of slowed ulnar nerve conduction velocity (UNCV) through the thoracic outlet. Two distinct groups of patients were found. An acute group, seen an average of 3 1/2 months post injury, had severe neck pain with often mild or incidental thoracic outlet syndrome. A chronic group, with symptoms persisting more than 2 years after cervical injury, often had thoracic outlet symptoms as the predominant complaint. This study suggests that the arm aches and parethesias seen in association with both acute and chronic cervical strain injury are most often secondary to thoracic outlet syndrome. PMID:836089
Chang, Connie Y; Torriani, Martin; Huang, Ambrose J
Rock climbing has increased in popularity as a sport, and specific injuries related to its practice are becoming more common. Chronic repetitive injuries are more common than acute injuries, although acute injuries tend to be more severe. We review both acute and chronic upper and lower extremity injuries. Understanding the injury pattern in rock climbers is important for accurate diagnosis.
Fanous, Andrew A; Jowdy, Patrick K; Lipinski, Lindsay J; Balos, Lucia L; Li, Veetai
OBJECTIVE Cavernous hemangiomas are benign congenital vascular abnormalities. Intracerebral cavernous hemangiomas have an appreciable risk of spontaneous hemorrhage. Little is known as to whether head trauma increases the risk of bleeding for these lesions. In this study, the authors present a case series of 3 patients with posttraumatic nonspontaneous hemorrhage of intracerebral cavernous malformations (CMs). For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, they propose that trauma might constitute a risk factor for acute hemorrhage in intracerebral cavernomas. METHODS The authors reviewed the charts of all patients with a new diagnosis of intracerebral cavernoma at their pediatric hospital between 2010 and 2014. Patients with a history of head trauma prior to presentation were subsequently studied to identify features common to these posttraumatic, hemorrhage-prone lesions. RESULTS A history of head trauma was identified in 3 of 19 cases. These 3 patients presented with seizures and/or headaches and were found to have acute hemorrhage within a cavernous hemangioma. None of these patients had any history of abnormal neurological symptoms. All 3 abnormal vascular lesions had associated developmental venous anomalies (DVAs). The 3 patients underwent resection of their respective vascular abnormalities, and the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma was confirmed with postsurgical tissue pathology. All 3 patients had complete resolution of symptoms following complete excision of their lesions. CONCLUSIONS Trauma may represent a risk factor for acute hemorrhage in patients with CMs. The presence of associated DVAs may represent a risk factor for posttraumatic hemorrhage of cavernomas. Excision should be considered in such cases, if feasible.
Background Exposure to acute, potentially traumatic events is an unfortunately common experience for children and adolescents. Posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following acute trauma can have an ongoing impact on child development and well-being. Early intervention to prevent or reduce PTS responses holds promise but requires careful development and empirical evaluation. Objectives The aims of this review paper are to present a framework for thinking about the design, delivery, and evaluation of early interventions for children who have been exposed to acute trauma; highlight targets for early intervention; and describe next steps for research and practice. Results and conclusions Proposed early intervention methods must (1) have a firm theoretical grounding that guides the design of intervention components; (2) be practical for delivery in peri-trauma or early post-trauma contexts, which may require creative models that go outside of traditional means of providing services to children; and (3) be ready for evaluation of both outcomes and mechanisms of action. This paper describes three potential targets for early intervention—maladaptive trauma-related appraisals, excessive early avoidance, and social/interpersonal processes—for which there is theory and evidence suggesting an etiological role in the development or persistence of PTS symptoms in children. PMID:25018860
1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0485 TITLE: The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic...Final 25 June 2010 – 24 October 2013 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic Trauma...was to apply the same drug administration protocol to groups of animals exposed to a lower level continuous noise. Data from the treated and control
Vecer, J; Kubátová, H; Soucek, M; Charvát, J; Kvapil, M; Matousovic, K; Martínek, V
Rhabdomyolysis (damage of the muscles of various origin) leads to the efflux of the intracellular fluids in the circulation. The common complication of this status is the renal failure. The early diagnosis and the proper treatment makes the fall of renal function reversible. That is why the possibility of the rhabdomyolysis must be consider. The case report describes the development of renal failure in young, previously healthy men, followed by trauma mechanism after drug and alcohol abuse.
Peterson, Gunnel; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Falla, Deborah; Dedering, Åsa; Wallman, Thorne; Peolsson, Anneli
Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is common after whiplash injury, with considerable personal, social, and economic burden. Despite decades of research, factors responsible for continuing pain and disability are largely unknown, and diagnostic tools are lacking. Here, we report a novel model of mechanical ventral neck muscle function recorded from non-invasive, real-time, ultrasound measurements. We calculated the deformation area and deformation rate in 23 individuals with persistent WAD and compared them to 23 sex- and age-matched controls. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse interactions between ventral neck muscles, revealing different interplay between muscles in individuals with WAD and healthy controls. Although the cause and effect relation cannot be established from this data, for the first time, we reveal a novel method capable of detecting different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD. This non-invasive method stands to make a major breakthrough in the assessment and diagnosis of people following a whiplash trauma.
Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke; Cleare, Anthony J.; Glucksman, Edward
The study investigated the relationship between the acute psychological and psychobiological trauma response and the subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in 53 accident survivors attending an emergency department. Lower levels of salivary cortisol measured in the emergency room predicted greater symptom levels of PTSD and depression 6 months later, and lower diastolic blood pressure, past emotional problems, greater dissociation and data-driven processing predicted greater PTSD symptoms. Heart rate was not predictive. Low cortisol levels correlated with data-driven processing during the accident, and, in female participants only, with prior trauma and prior emotional problems. Higher evening cortisol 6 months after the accident correlated with PTSD and depressive symptoms at 6 months, but this relationship was no longer significant when levels of pain were controlled. The results support the role of the acute response to trauma in the development and maintenance of PTSD and provide promising preliminary evidence for a meaningful relationship between psychobiological and psychological factors in the acute trauma phase. PMID:18789538
KARIBE, Hiroshi; KAMEYAMA, Motonobu; HAYASHI, Toshiaki; NARISAWA, Ayumi; TOMINAGA, Teiji
The number of cases with child abuse is increasing in Japan, and abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major cause of death in abused children. Child abuse has been recognized by the late 19th century, and widely accepted as battered child syndrome in the middle of the 20th century. As terms, there had been considerable mechanistic controversies between shaken-baby and -impact syndrome until the beginning of the 21st century. In recent years, AHT has been utilized as a less mechanistic term. Most of the characteristics of AHT in Japan have been similar to those in the United States as follows: infant is the most common victim, acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common intracranial lesion, and retinal hemorrhage is often complicated. On the other hand, several characteristics have been different as follows: mother is the most common perpetrators, impact is a more common mechanism of trauma than shaking, and external trauma is more common reflecting the existence of impact. Since AHT as well as child abuse is a social pathological phenomenon influenced by victims, perpetrators, socioeconomic circumstances, and so on, various aspects of AHT as well as child abuse can be changed with times. Actually, a recent paper suggests such changes in infants with acute SDH due to AHT. In this review article, AHT, abusive infantile acute SDH in particular, are reviewed from the aspect of neurosurgical perspectives, including its mechanisms of trauma, biomechanics, clinical features, management, and prognosis, to update the trend in Japan. PMID:26960448
Formulating an expert opinion on whiplash injuries requires that consideration be given to biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects. The greatest difficulties are encountered in cases of mild whiplash where patients complain of constant pain without any physical correlative. Diverse assessments and principles for approving a claim are reflected in the fact that the prevalence of chronic spine pain after whiplash injuries (late whiplash syndrome) varies between 16% and 71% in different countries, and the proportion of whiplash injuries involved in petitions for compensation differs greatly across Europe (UK 75%, Germany 47%, Finland 8.5% and France 3% of all personal injuries).Important biomechanical, orthopedic, neurological, psychiatric and medicolegal aspects of expert testimony on whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are delineated.
Nieto, Rubén; Miró, Jordi; Huguet, Anna
The aim of this work was to study whether fear of movement, and pain catastrophizing predict pain related-disability and depression in sub-acute whiplash patients. Moreover, we wanted to test if fear of movement is a mediator in the relation between catastrophizing and pain-related disability/depression as has been suggested by the fear-avoidance model [Vlaeyen JWS, Kole-Snijders AMJ, Boeren RGB, van Eek H. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain 1995;62:363-72]. The convenience sample used was of 147 sub-acute whiplash patients (pain duration less than 3 months). Two stepwise regression analyses were performed using fear of movement and catastrophizing as the independent variables, and disability and depression as the dependent variables. After controlling for descriptive variables and pain characteristics, catastrophizing and fear of movement were found to be predictors of disability and depression. Pain intensity was a predictor of disability but not of depression. The mediation effect of fear of movement in the relationships between catastrophizing and disability, and between catastrophizing and depression was also supported. The results of this study are in accordance with the fear-avoidance model, and support a biopsychosocial perspective for whiplash disorders.
Background Mortality from trauma remains a major public health issue as it is the leading cause of death in persons aged 5 to 44 years .Uncontrolled hemorrhage and coagulopathy is responsible for over 50% of all trauma related deaths within the first 48hrs of admission. Coagulation profiles are not routinely done among trauma patients in resource limited settings and there is a paucity of data on acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in sub Saharan Africa. The study was conducted to evaluate the prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time (PT/PTT) as predictors of mortality and morbidity among major trauma patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was carried out, in which major trauma patients admitted in A&E department between December 2011 to April 2012 were recruited. Five (5) mls of venous blood was drawn from a convenient vein within 10 minutes of the patient’s arrival at A&E for analysis of PT/PTT. Patients were stratified into two groups by the presence/absence of coagulopathy then followed up for a 2 week period for morbidity and mortality. Results A total of 182 major trauma patients were recruited; 149 (81.9%) were males, the mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.8). Prevalence of coagulopathy was 54% (98/182). The mean ISS for the ATC group was 36.9 and the non ATC group was 26.9 (p=0.001). Patients with ATC stayed longer in hospital 11.24 days than non ATC patients 8 days (p=0.001). ATC was strongly associated with ARI (p= 0.003). Mortality was more in the ATC group 29 deaths compared to 9 deaths in the non ATC group. PTT was a strong independent predictor of mortality. Conclusion A significant proportion of major trauma patients were coagulopathic. Initial coagulation profile is useful in predicting outcomes for major trauma patients. PMID:23150904
Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea
Traumatic brain and spine injury (TBI/TSI) is a leading cause of death and lifelong disability in children. The biomechanical properties of the child's brain, skull, and spine, the size of the child, the age-specific activity pattern, and variance in trauma mechanisms result in a wide range of age-specific traumas and patterns of brain and spine injuries. A detailed knowledge about the various types of primary and secondary pediatric head and spine injuries is essential to better identify and understand pediatric TBI/TSI, which enhances sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, will guide therapy, and may give important information about the prognosis. The purposes of this chapter are to: (1) discuss the unique epidemiology, mechanisms, and characteristics of TBI/TSI in children; (2) review the anatomic and functional imaging techniques that can be used to study common and rare pediatric TBI/TSI and their complications; (3) comprehensively review frequent primary and secondary brain injuries; and (4) to give a short overview of two special types of pediatric TBI/TSI: birth-related and nonaccidental injuries.
Resler, Julia; Hackworth, Jodi; Mayo, Erin; Rouse, Thomas M
Missed injuries contribute to increased morbidity in trauma patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric trauma patients from 2010 to 2013 with a documented missed injury. A significant percentage of missed injuries were identified (3.01% during July 2012 to December 2013 vs 0.39% during January 2010 to July 2012) with the addition of acute care trained pediatric nurse practitioners to the trauma service at a pediatric trauma center. The increase is thought to be due to improvement in charting, consistent personnel performing tertiary examinations, and improved radiology reads of outside films.
Davis, Charles G
This article is to provide insights into the mechanisms underlying chronic pain from whiplash injury. Studies show that injury produces plasticity changes of different neuronal structures that are responsible for amplification of nociception and exaggerated pain responses. There is consistent evidence for hypersensitivity of the central nervous system to sensory stimulation in chronic pain after whiplash injury. Tissue damage, detected or not by the available diagnostic methods, is probably the main determinant of central hypersensitivity. Different mechanisms underlie and co-exist in the chronic whiplash condition. Spinal cord hyperexcitability in patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury can cause exaggerated pain following low intensity nociceptive or innocuous peripheral stimulation. Spinal hypersensitivity may explain pain in the absence of detectable tissue damage. Whiplash is a heterogeneous condition with some individuals showing features suggestive of neuropathic pain. A predominantly neuropathic pain component is related to a higher pain/disability level.
Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.
Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001
Park, Myung S.; Xue, Ailing; Spears, Grant M.; Halling, Timothy M.; Ferrara, Michael J.; Kuntz, Melissa M.; Dhillon, Sabtir K.; Jenkins, Donald H.; Harmsen, William S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Heit, John A.
Objective The two sides of Trauma Induced Coagulopathy (TIC), the hypo- and the hyper- coagulable states, are poorly understood. To identify potential mechanisms for venous thromboembolism and bleeding after acute trauma, we estimated changes in circulating procoagulant MPs and thrombin activity during hospitalization for trauma. Methods Whole blood was collected by venipuncture into 3.2% trisodium citrate at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours after injury, and discharge. Platelet poor plasma was harvested and stored at −80°C until analysis. Thrombin generation was determined using the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), reported as lagtime (minutes), peak height (nM thrombin) and time to reach peak height (ttPeak - minutes). The concentration of total procoagulant MPs (number/uL]) was measured by flow cytometry. Data are presented as median [interquartile range]. Results Among 443 trauma patients (1734 samples; ISS=13.0 [6.0, 22.0], hospital LOS=4.0 [2.0, 10.0] days, age=48 [28, 65] years, 70.7% male, 95% with blunt mechanism, mortality 3.2%), no discernable patterns in thrombin generation or MP concentration were observed over time. The peak height and MPs were significantly different from healthy volunteers and were 337 [285, 395] nM and 400 [211, 772] per uL plasma, respectively. Extreme (defined as highest or lowest 5%) values reflecting a possible “hypercoagulable state” (lagtime ≤ 1.98, peak height ≥ 486.2, ttPeak ≤ 3.61, and total procoagulant MP ≥ 2278) were reached within 12 hours after acute trauma, while extreme values representing a possible “hypocoagulable state” (lagtime ≥ 18.6, peak height ≤ 17.8 and ttPeak ≥ 29.45) were not reached until 1-3 days. Conclusion Although there was no predictable pattern of coagulopathy observed in each patient after trauma, those who reached extreme values did so relatively early after injury. These findings should be taken into account when designing risk model tools involving coagulation
Haiduk, Philipp; Benz, Thomas; Lehmann, Susanne; Gysi-Klaus, Francoise; Aeschlimann, André; Michel, Beat A.; Angst, Felix
Abstract Whiplash injury associated disorders (WAD) cause high costs for public health care. Neck pain is number 16 on the global prevalence lists for the 50 most common sequelae. It is of importance to obtain long-term data on disability and working capacity outcomes after rehabilitation. Long-term prospective data of the outcome course of whiplash are sparse. The aim of this study was to quantify improvements of pain, function/role performance, vitality, and working capacity 5 years after whiplash injury and to compare the state of health to normative values at 5 years after rehabilitation. In this naturalistic, observational, prospective cohort study, 115 patients were assessed 5 years (60 months) after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The assessment set consisted of the Short Form 36 (SF-36), parts of the North American Spine Society's cervical spine assessment questionnaire (NASS) and the coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ). The effects were quantified by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). Score differences over the course were tested by the Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test for significance. Comparing data between entry and 60 months after rehabilitation 8 of 15 parameters improved with large ES/SRM. Outcome between 6 and 60 months showed small to moderate ES/SRM. Working capacity increased from 0 at entry to rehabilitation to 21 h/wk at 6 months and to 30 h/wk at 60 months follow-up. After large improvements in health and working capacity in the mid-term, further important improvements were observed in the long-term course. It can be hypothesized that part of those can be attributed to the interventions during inpatient rehabilitation, for example, due to better coping strategies. PMID:28248865
Neubauer, Henning; Wirth, Clemens; Ruf, Katharina; Hebestreit, Helge; Beer, Meinrad
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common inherited diseases and is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Although the pulmonary and gastrointestinal manifestations of the disease remain in the focus of treatment, recent studies have shown expression of the CFTR gene product in skeletal muscle cells and observed altered intramuscular Ca2+ release dynamics in CFTR-deficient animal models. Physical exercise is beneficial for maintaining fitness and well-being in CF patients and constitutes one aspect of modern multimodal treatment, which has considerably increased life span and reduced morbidity. We report on a case of acute muscle trauma resulting from excessive dumbbell exercise in a young adult with cystic fibrosis and describe clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics of acute exercise-induced muscle injury. PMID:22606534
Andersson, Sten-Ove; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Lundberg, Lars; Sjöström, Björn
Emergency medical care for seriously injured patients in war or warlike situations is highly important when it comes to soldiers' survival and morale. The Swedish Armed Forces sends nurses, who have limited experience of caring for injured personnel in the field, on a variety of international missions. The aim of this investigation was to identify the kind of criteria nurses rely on when assessing acute trauma and what factors are affecting the emergency care of injured soldiers. A phenomenographic research approach based on interviews was used. The database for the study consists of twelve nurses who served in Bosnia in 1994-1996. The criteria nurses rely on, when assessing acute trauma in emergency care, could be described in terms of domain-specific criteria such as a physiological, an anatomical, a causal and a holistic approach as well as contextual criteria such as being able to communicate, having a sense of belonging, the military environment, the conscript medical orderly and familiarity with health-caring activity. The present study shows that the specific contextual factors affecting emergency care in the field must also be practised before the nurse faces military emergency care situations. This calls for realistic exercises and training programs, where experience from civilian emergency care is interwoven with the knowledge specific to military medical care.
Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Prashar, Rohini; Putchakayala, Krishna G; Kane, William J; Denny, Jason E; Kim, Dean Y; Malinzak, Lauren E
We report a rare case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney secondary to trauma that occurred 12 years after kidney transplantation. A 67-year-old Caucasian male with a past surgical history of kidney transplant presented to the emergency department at a local hospital with left lower abdominal tenderness. He recalled that his cat, which weighs 15 lbs, jumped on his abdomen 7 d prior. On physical examination, a small tender mass was noticed at the incisional site of the kidney transplant. He was producing a normal amount of urine without hematuria. His serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from his baseline. Computer tomography revealed a large subscapular hematoma around the transplant kidney. The patient was observed to have renal trauma grade II at the hospital over a period of three days, and he was finally transferred to a transplant center after his urine output significantly decreased. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated an extensive peri-allograft hypoechoic area and abnormal waveforms with absent arterial diastolic flow and a patent renal vein. Despite surgical decompression, the allograft failed to respond appropriately due to the delay in surgical intervention. This is the third reported case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney following kidney transplantation. This case reinforces that kidney care differs if the kidney is solitary or a transplant. Early recognition and aggressive treatments are mandatory, especially in a case with Doppler signs that are suggestive of compression.
Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Prashar, Rohini; Putchakayala, Krishna G; Kane, William J; Denny, Jason E; Kim, Dean Y; Malinzak, Lauren E
We report a rare case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney secondary to trauma that occurred 12 years after kidney transplantation. A 67-year-old Caucasian male with a past surgical history of kidney transplant presented to the emergency department at a local hospital with left lower abdominal tenderness. He recalled that his cat, which weighs 15 lbs, jumped on his abdomen 7 d prior. On physical examination, a small tender mass was noticed at the incisional site of the kidney transplant. He was producing a normal amount of urine without hematuria. His serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from his baseline. Computer tomography revealed a large subscapular hematoma around the transplant kidney. The patient was observed to have renal trauma grade II at the hospital over a period of three days, and he was finally transferred to a transplant center after his urine output significantly decreased. Doppler ultrasound demonstrated an extensive peri-allograft hypoechoic area and abnormal waveforms with absent arterial diastolic flow and a patent renal vein. Despite surgical decompression, the allograft failed to respond appropriately due to the delay in surgical intervention. This is the third reported case of allograft loss from acute Page kidney following kidney transplantation. This case reinforces that kidney care differs if the kidney is solitary or a transplant. Early recognition and aggressive treatments are mandatory, especially in a case with Doppler signs that are suggestive of compression. PMID:28280700
Mueller-Wille, R. Heiss, P.; Herold, T.; Jung, E. M. Schreyer, A. G. Hamer, O. W. Rennert, J. Hoffstetter, P. Stroszczynski, C.; Zorger, N.
Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4-63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.
Wienemann, Tobias; Chantelau, Ernst A.; Koller, Armin
Introduction and objective Acute injury transiently lowers local mechanical pain thresholds at a limb. To elucidate the impact of painless (diabetic) neuropathy on this post-traumatic hyperalgesia, pressure pain perception thresholds after a skeletal foot trauma were studied in consecutive persons without and with neuropathy (i.e. history of foot ulcer or Charcot arthropathy). Design and methods A case–control study was done on 25 unselected clinical routine patients with acute unilateral foot trauma (cases: elective bone surgery; controls: sprain, toe fracture). Cases were 12 patients (11 diabetic subjects) with severe painless neuropathy and chronic foot pathology. Controls were 13 non-neuropathic persons. Over 1 week after the trauma, cutaneous pressure pain perception threshold (CPPPT) and deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT) were measured repeatedly, adjacent to the injury and at the opposite foot (pinprick stimulators, Algometer II®). Results In the control group, post-traumatic DPPPT (but not CPPPT) at the injured foot was reduced by about 15–25%. In the case group, pre- and post-operative CPPPT and DPPPT were supranormal. Although DPPPT fell post-operatively by about 15–20%, it remained always higher than the post-traumatic DPPPT in the control group: over musculus abductor hallucis 615 kPa (kilopascal) versus 422 kPa, and over metatarsophalangeal joint 518 kPa versus 375 kPa (medians; case vs. control group); CPPPT did not decrease post-operatively. Conclusion Physiological nociception and post-traumatic hyperalgesia to pressure are diminished at the foot with severe painless (diabetic) neuropathy. A degree of post-traumatic hypersensitivity required to ‘pull away’ from any one, even innocuous, mechanical impact in order to avoid additional damage is, therefore, lacking. PMID:25397867
Zou, Qingsong; Fu, Qiang
Objective: To report our 10-year diagnosis and treatment experience of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas and outline the management of the traumatic injury. Methods: We reviewed the diagnoses and treatments of 208 cases of acute kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, or male genitalia injuries in our department between March 2002 and March 2012. The patient data including general information, injury position and mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, the follow-up information was analyzed and summarized. Results: Of 62 patients with renal injury examined by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination, 45 were treated conservatively, 9 with superselective arterial embolization, and 8 with nephrectomy. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) was conducted in two patients with ureteral injury, one was treated with cystoscopic ureteral catheterization and the other with ureteric reimplantation. Bladder injury (6 patients) confirmed with a waterflood susceptibility test combined with CT scans underwent laparotomy and the bladder suturing was done. Of 92 patients with urethral injury, 6 were treated with a nonoperative approach (indwelling catheter), 18 with urethral realignment, 35 with cystoscopic urethral realignment, 29 with end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty, and 4 with urethral repairmen. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. During the follow-up period, 62 patients with renal injury had normal renal function. Neither of the two patients with ureteral injury developed hydronephrosis. Twenty-nine patients with urethral injury suffered from urethral structure. All patients with vesical or genital injury recovered
Bartanusz, Viktor; Corneille, Michael G; Sordo, Salvador; Gildea, Marianne; Michalek, Joel E; Nair, Prakash V; Stewart, Ronald M; Jezova, Daniela
Acute trauma patients represent a specific subgroup of the critically ill population due to sudden and dramatic changes in homeostasis and consequently extreme demands on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Salivary cortisol is an accepted surrogate for serum free cortisol in the assessment of HPA axis function. The purpose of this study was (1) to establish the feasibility of salivary cortisol measurement in acute trauma patients in the neurosurgical-surgical intensive care unit (NSICU), and (2) to determine the diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol in the acute phase after injury. Saliva from 50 acute trauma patients was prospectively collected twice a day at 6AM and 4PM during the first week after injury in the NSICU. Mean PM cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in subjects versus controls (p<0.001). Subjects failed to develop the expected PM versus AM decrease in cortisol concentration seen in controls (p=0.005). Salivary cortisol did not vary significantly with baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score, sex, injury type, ethnicity, or age. When comparing mean AM and PM salivary cortisol by GCS severity category (GCS ⩽8 and GCS >8) the AM salivary cortisol was significantly higher in patients with GCS ⩽8 (p=0.002). The results show a loss of diurnal cortisol variation in acute trauma patient in the NSICU during the first week of hospitalization. Patients with severe brain injury had higher morning cortisol levels than those with mild/moderate brain injury.
Dolan, Michael G; Graves, Paul; Nakazawa, Chika; Delano, Teresa; Hutson, Alan; Mendel, Frank C
Context: Ibuprofen is widely used to manage pain and inflammation after orthopaedic trauma, but its effect on acute swelling has not been investigated. Cathodal high-voltage pulsed current (CHVPC) at 120 pulses per second and 90% of visible motor threshold is known to curb edema formation after blunt trauma to the hind limbs of rats. Objective: To examine the effects of ibuprofen, continuous CHVPC, and simultaneous ibuprofen and CHVPC on acute edema formation after blunt trauma to the hind limbs of rats. Design: Randomized, parallel-group, repeated-measures design. Setting: Laboratory animal facility. Participants: A total of 21 3-month-old Zucker Lean rats (mass = 288 ± 55 g) were studied. Intervention(s): We assessed the effects of ibuprofen, continuous CHVPC, and simultaneous ibuprofen and CHVPC on acute edema formation after blunt trauma to the hind limbs of rats. Main Outcome Measure(s): Limb volumes were measured immediately before and after trauma and every 30 minutes over the 4 hours of the experiment. Results: Volumes of treated limbs of all 3 experimental groups were smaller (P < .05) than those of untreated limbs, but no treatment was more effective than another. Conclusions: Ibuprofen, CHVPC, and simultaneous ibuprofen and CHVPC effectively curbed edema after blunt injury by roughly 50% relative to untreated but similarly injured control limbs of rats. PMID:15970957
Bader, Augustinus; Lorenz, Katrin; Richter, Anja; Scheffler, Katja; Kern, Larissa; Ebert, Sabine; Giri, Shibashish; Behrens, Maria; Dornseifer, Ulf; Macchiarini, Paolo; Machens, Hans-Günther
If controllable, stem cell activation following injury has the therapeutic potential for supporting regeneration in acute or chronic wounds. Human dermally-derived stem cells (FmSCs) were exposed to the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the presence of erythropoietin (EPO). Cells were cultured under ischemic conditions and phenotypically characterized using flow cytometry. Topical EPO application was performed in three independent clinical wound healing attempts. The FmSCs expressed the receptor for EPO. EPO had a strong inhibitory effect on FmSC growth in the absence of IL-6 and TNF-α. With IL-6, the EPO effects were reversed to that of growth stimulation. TNF-α had the strongest stimulatory effect. In contrast, IL-1β had an inhibitory effect. Topically applied EPO considerably enhanced wound healing and improved wound conditions of acute and chronic wounds. Site specificity of stem cell activation is mediated by IL-6 and TNF-α. In trauma, EPO ceases its inhibitory role and reverts to a clinically relevant boosting function. EPO may be an important therapeutic tool for the topical treatment of acute and chronic wounds.
Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Bernheim, Jan
Transition from acute whiplash injury to either recovery or chronicity and the development of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) remains a challenging issue for researchers and clinicians. The roles of social support and personality traits in long-term functioning following whiplash have not been studied concomitantly. The present study aimed to examine whether social support and personality traits are related to long-term functioning following whiplash. One hundred forty-three subjects, who had experienced a whiplash injury in a traffic accident 10-26 months before the study took place, participated. The initial diagnoses were a 'sprain of the neck' (ICD-9 code 847.0); only the outcome of grades I-III acute WAD was studied. Long-term functioning was considered within the biopsychosocial model: it was expressed in terms of disability, functional status, quality of life and psychological well-being. Participants filled out a set of questionnaires to measure the long-term functioning parameters (i.e. the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being and the Symptom Checklist-90) and potential determinants of long-term functioning (the Dutch Personality Questionnaire and the Social Support List). The results suggest that social support (especially the discrepancies dimension of social support) and personality traits (i.e. inadequacy, self-satisfaction and resentment) are related to long-term functioning following whiplash injury (Spearman rho varied between 0.32 and 0.57; p < 0.01). Within the discrepancy dimension, everyday emotional support, emotional support during problems, appreciative support and informative support were identified as important correlates of long-term functioning. Future prospective studies are required to confirm the role of social support and personality traits in relation to long-term functioning following whiplash. For such
Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.
We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting. PMID:27656309
Nakhjavan-Shahraki, Babak; Baikpour, Masoud; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Nikseresht, Zahra Sadat; Abiri, Samaneh; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Pouraghae, Mahboob; Shirzadegan, Sahar; Hosseini, Mostafa
Introduction: Rapid acute physiology score (RAPS) and rapid emergency medicine score (REMS) are two physiologic models for measuring injury severity in emergency settings. The present study was designed to compare the two models in outcome prediction of trauma patients presenting to emergency department (ED). Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the two models of RAPS and REMS were compared regarding prediction of mortality and poor outcome (severe disability based on Glasgow outcome scale) of trauma patients presenting to the EDs of 5 educational hospitals in Iran (Tehran, Tabriz, Urmia, Jahrom and Ilam) from May to October 2016. The discriminatory power and calibration of the models were calculated and compared using STATA 11. Results: 2148 patients with the mean age of 39.50±17.27 years were studied (75.56% males). The area under the curve of REMS and RAPS in predicting in-hospital mortality were calculated to be 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95) and 0.899 (95% CI: 0.86-0.93), respectively (p=0.02). These measures were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.94) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.90), respectively, regarding poor outcome (p=0.001). The optimum cut-off point in predicting outcome was found to be 3 for REMS model and 2 for RAPS model. The sensitivity and specificity of REMS and RAPS in the mentioned cut offs were 95.93 vs. 85.37 and 77.63 vs. 83.51, respectively, in predicting mortality. Calibration and overall performance of the two models were acceptable. Conclusion: The present study showed that adding age and level of arterial oxygen saturation to the variables included in RAPS model can increase its predictive value. Therefore, it seems that REMS could be used for predicting mortality and poor outcome of trauma patients in emergency settings. PMID:28286837
Sixta, Sherry L; Hatch, Quinton M; Matijevic, Nena; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A
Introduction: The development of acute coagulopathy of trauma (ACoT) is associated with a significant increase in mortality. However, the contributory mechanisms behind ACoT have yet to be clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of multiple variables, including base deficit and injury severity, on development of ACoT within a subset of critically ill trauma patients. Methods: A retrospective review of all trauma laparotomies between 01/2004-12/2009 was performed. ACoT (+) was defined as an arrival INR ≥1.5, ACoT (-) defined as INR<1.5. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: Of 1218 patients, 337 (27%) were ACoT (+) and 881 (73%) were ACoT (-) upon presentation. Groups were similar in demographics, ED fluid administration, GCS scores, and admission temperatures. Admission base deficit (8.5 vs. 4, p<0.001) and ISS (median 25 vs. 16, p<0.001) were higher in the ACoT (+) group, as were intra-operative RBC (median 4 vs. 0 U) and plasma (3 vs. 0 U) transfusions; both p<0.001. Multiple-linear regression revealed INR values were independently associated with arrival base deficit and pre-hospital fluid volumes (both p<0.001). On logistic regression, the development of ACoT (+) was associated with base deficit (OR 0.92, p=0.013) as well as ISS (OR 1.05, p<0.001). However, blunt mechanism alone was not an independent predictor of ACoT. Conclusion: The current study revealed that ACoT is independently associated with both shock (base deficit) and tissue injury. Additionally, tissue injury is a significant contributor to the development of early ACoT regardless of blunt or penetrating mechanism. PMID:23272297
Grossman, Ephraim S; Hoffman, Yaakov S G; Shrira, Amit
In this study, we addressed how sleep is related to acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, and how the presence of a trauma related-context moderates this relationship. This study (N = 140) was carried out during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, during which 70% of Israelis were exposed to missile attacks. Findings show that participants with clinical ASD symptom levels reported more sleep disturbances than participants without clinical ASD symptom levels. More critically, this effect was only evident among respondents who had a reinforced security room in their houses. While reinforced security rooms offer protection against indirect missile damage, their relevance is salient in negative traumatic situations, which individuals with a clinical level of ASD are more sensitive to. Conversely, in houses without a reinforced security room, there was no difference in subjective sleep reports between individuals with or without clinical levels of ASD symptoms. Results are discussed in reference to trauma being activated by context and the ensuing effects on sleep. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter
Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026
Tator, C H; Fehlings, M G
In patients with spinal cord injury, the primary or mechanical trauma seldom causes total transection, even though the functional loss may be complete. In addition, biochemical and pathological changes in the cord may worsen after injury. To explain these phenomena, the concept of the secondary injury has evolved for which numerous pathophysiological mechanisms have been postulated. This paper reviews the concept of secondary injury with special emphasis on vascular mechanisms. Evidence is presented to support the theory of secondary injury and the hypothesis that a key mechanism is posttraumatic ischemia with resultant infarction of the spinal cord. Evidence for the role of vascular mechanisms has been obtained from a variety of models of acute spinal cord injury in several species. Many different angiographic methods have been used for assessing microcirculation of the cord and for measuring spinal cord blood flow after trauma. With these techniques, the major systemic and local vascular effects of acute spinal cord injury have been identified and implicated in the etiology of secondary injury. The systemic effects of acute spinal cord injury include hypotension and reduced cardiac output. The local effects include loss of autoregulation in the injured segment of the spinal cord and a marked reduction of the microcirculation in both gray and white matter, especially in hemorrhagic regions and in adjacent zones. The microcirculatory loss extends for a considerable distance proximal and distal to the site of injury. Many studies have shown a dose-dependent reduction of spinal cord blood flow varying with the severity of injury, and a reduction of spinal cord blood flow which worsens with time after injury. The functional deficits due to acute spinal cord injury have been measured electrophysiologically with techniques such as motor and somatosensory evoked potentials and have been found proportional to the degree of posttraumatic ischemia. The histological effects
Stiles, Lucy; Darlington, Cynthia L.; Smith, Paul F.
Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats. PMID:25162023
... National Headache Foundation 820 N. Orleans Suite 411 Chicago IL Chicago, IL 60610-3132 email@example.com http://www. ... National Headache Foundation 820 N. Orleans Suite 411 Chicago IL Chicago, IL 60610-3132 firstname.lastname@example.org ...
Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna
Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.
Gálvez-Hernández, Carmen Lizette; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda
Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en evaluar el efecto fisiológico y psicológico de la retroalimentación biológica de electromiografía de superficie (RB de EMGs) en combinación con relajación muscular progresiva (RMP) en pacientes con esguince cervical (EC) agudo. Métodos: Un total de 12 pacientes con EC agudo participaron voluntariamente en el estudio, con diseño cuasiexperimental, y grupo control. Criterios de inclusión: máximo dos meses del accidente automovilístico; gravedad I y II. Se excluyeron: pacientes con historia previa de dolor persistente, o que hayan tenido lesión seria. Se dividió en dos grupos aleatoriamente (de intervención y en lista de espera). Se realizó un registro psicofisiológico de los músculos trapecios con EMGs, en conjunto con instrumentos psicométricos: inventario de ansiedad y depresión de Beck; índice de incapacidad de Oswestry; escala visual análoga y de miedo al movimiento. La intervención consistió aplicar RB de EMGs, posterior a un entrenamiento en RMP. Resultados: el grupo de intervención disminuyó significativamente su valor de simetría muscular (permaneciendo dentro de lo normal) así como su percepción subjetiva del dolor, intragrupo antes/después de la intervención. Conclusiones: se produjo un cambio significativo (tanto clínico como estadístico) en la percepción del dolor y la actividad conjunta de músculos pares. Igualmente, muestra la relevancia de atender un problema agudo multidisciplinariamente; así como la utilidad de las estrategias psicofisiológicas clínicas en pacientes agudos de EC.
Pressman, B D; Shellock, F G; Schames, J; Schames, M
Patients often have temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction-related symptoms after cervical hyperextension/hyperflexion injuries ("whiplash") caused by rear-end motor-vehicle collisions. To determine abnormalities of the TMJ associated with these injuries, 33 consecutive symptomatic patients (66 joints) with no direct trauma to the jaw, mouth, head, or face due to the accident and no prior history of TMJ dysfunction underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the images were retrospectively analyzed. Overall, 29 (88%) patients had some type of TMJ abnormality related to whiplash injury. Displacement of the disk was seen in 37 (56%) of the TMJs as follows: 21 (32%) had anterior displacement with reduction, nine (14%) had anterior displacement without reduction, six (9%) had lateral or medial displacement, and one (2%) had posterior displacement. On T2-weighted images, 43 (65%) TMJs had abnormal joint fluid or edema, predominantly affecting the joint capsule and/or lateral pterygoid muscles. The finding that many of the patients had joint fluid and/or soft-tissue edema indicates that T2-weighted images are especially useful for assessment of patients with a history of whiplash injury.
Zeng, Chunlai; Hu, Wuming; Zhu, Ning; Zhao, Xuyong; Xu, Jian; Ye, Shiyong; Xiang, Yijia; Lv, Linchun
Coronary artery dissection and aneurysm culminating in acute myocardial infarction are rare after blunt chest trauma. We are reporting a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with right inferior lobe contusion, pleural effusion, right interlobar fissure effusion, bone fracture of right fourth rib, and acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and who experienced blunt trauma in his right chest wall by an airbag deployment in a car accident. Coronary angiography showed an aneurysm in the middle of right coronary artery with 70% afferent narrowing just distal to the aneurysm with no visible atherosclerotic lesion. A 4.0×20 mm TEXUS Liberté stent in the lesion was deployed, and a good coronary flow was obtained without residual stenosis and the aneurysm vanished.
Drottning, M; Staff, P H; Sjaastad, O
The main objective of the present investigation was to search for cervicogenic headache (CEH) after whiplash injury. Whiplash patients (n= 587), were followed for a year after their emergency service consultation. A total of 222 patients with headache after 1 month went through interview and examinations at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. All included persons received a questionnaire after 1 year. De novo CEH seemed to be present in 8% at 6 weeks and in 3% at 1 year. Previous car accidents, pre-existing headache and neck pain were more frequent in chronic CEH individuals than in those in the cohort without CEH. Range of motion in the neck was reduced in 65% of chronic CEH individuals hours after the accident, compared with 41% in the cohort. Cybex inclinometer, at 6 weeks and 1 year, demonstrated reduced extension in the neck. CEH seems to be present after whiplash injury, particularly in the early phase. It seems similar to, but probably not identical to, non-whiplash CEH.
Wang, Xin; Xie, Hong; Cotton, Andrew S.; Duval, Elizabeth R.; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Brickman, Kristopher R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Ho, S. Shaun; McLean, Samuel A.; Ferguson, Eric J.; Liberzon, Israel
Accumulating evidence suggests traumatic experience can rapidly alter brain activation associated with emotion processing. However, little is known about acute changes in emotion neurocircuits that underlie PTSD symptom development. To examine acute alterations in emotion circuit activation and structure that may be linked to PTSD symptoms, thirty-eight subjects performed a task of appraisal of emotional faces as their brains were functionally and structurally studied with MRI at both two weeks and three months after motor vehicle collision (MVC). As determined by symptoms reported in the PTSD Checklist at three months, sixteen survivors developed probable PTSD, whereas the remaining 22 did not meet criteria for PTSD diagnosis (non-PTSD). The probable PTSD group had greater activation than the non-PTSD group in dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and vmPFC) while appraising fearful faces within two weeks after MVC and in left insular cortex (IC) three months after MVC. dmPFC activation at two weeks significantly positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity at two weeks (R = 0.462, P = 0.006) and three months (R = 0.418, p = 0.012). Changes over time in dmPFC activation and in PTSD symptom severity were also significantly positively correlated in the probable PTSD group (R = 0.641, P = 0.018). A significant time by group interaction was found for volume changes in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG, F = 6.048, p = 0.019) that partially overlapped dmPFC active region. Between two weeks and three months, left SFG volume decreased in probable PTSD survivors. These findings identify alterations in frontal cortical activity and structure during the early post-trauma period that appear to be associated with development of PTSD symptoms. PMID:27415431
Medina-Garin, Doris R.; Dia, Aissata; Bedubourg, Gabriel; Deparis, Xavier; Berger, Franck; Michel, Remy
Context: Despite existing preventive measures, the number of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) cases reported to the French Military Epidemiological Surveillance System (MESS) remains high. Aims: The objective of this study was to describe AAT and the preventive measures already implemented. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of AAT using data from the MESS for the period 2007–2014. In addition, we reviewed the current prevention measures that exist in the French armed forces. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons between different incidence rates were made by Poisson and quasi-Poisson regression. Results: Between 2007 and 2014, 10,487 AAT cases were reported to the MESS, with a significant decrease in 2013 (P < 0.001). AAT incidence rates were the highest among those aged <25 years − 14.3 per 1000 person-years (PYs) (P < 0.001), and those in the army; with 8.1 per 1000 PYs (P < 0.001), and men had almost twice the risk of women (P < 0.001). AAT mainly occurred in training schools or at camps during exercises. The main prevention actions identified were the following: official regulations, education, making hearing protection devices (HPDs) available for all service members, and regular hearing monitoring. A working group has been set up and has proposed an informative chapter in the weapon handling instruction book, an AAT simulator, and a new HPD, the 3M® earplug, with an information brochure. Conclusions: AAT rates decreased from 2007 to 2014 in the French armed forces. Further analysis is needed to identify the underlying factors involved to improve the prevention actions proposed. The MESS and targeted surveys will assess the impact of the different prevention measures implemented. PMID:27991460
Lollo, Loreto; Grabinsky, Andreas
Background: Acute lower extremity compartment syndrome (CS) is a condition that untreated causes irreversible nerve and muscle ischemia. Treatment by decompression fasciotomy without delay prevents permanent disability. The use of intracompartmental pressure (iCP) measurement in uncertain situations aids in diagnosis of severe leg pain. As an infrequent complication of lower extremity trauma, consequences of CS include chronic pain, nerve injury, and contractures. The purpose of this study was to observe the clinical and functional outcomes for patients with lower extremity CS after fasciotomy. Methods: Retrospective chart analysis for patients with a discharge diagnosis of CS was performed. Physical demographics, employment status, activity at time of injury, injury severity score, fracture types, pain scores, hours to fasciotomy, iCP, serum creatine kinase levels, wound treatment regimen, length of hospital stay, and discharge facility were collected. Lower extremity neurologic examination, pain scores, orthopedic complications, and employment status at 30 days and 12 months after discharge were noted. Results: One hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred and eight patients were assessed at 12 months. Eighty-one percent were male. Motorized vehicles caused 51% of injuries in males. Forty-one percent of injuries were tibia fractures. Acute kidney injury occurred in 2.4%. Mean peak serum creatine kinase levels were 58,600 units/ml. Gauze dressing was used in 78.9% of nonfracture patients and negative pressure wound vacuum therapy in 78.2% of fracture patients. About 21.6% of patients with CS had prior surgery. Nearly 12.9% of patients required leg amputation. Around 81.8% of amputees were male. Sixty-seven percent of amputees had associated vascular injuries. Foot numbness occurred in 20.5% of patients and drop foot palsy in 18.2%. Osteomyelitis developed in 10.2% of patients and fracture nonunion in 6.8%. About 14.7% of patients
The development of chronic symptoms following whiplash injury is common and contributes substantially to costs associated with this condition. The currently used Quebec Task Force classification system of whiplash associated disorders is primarily based on the severity of signs and symptoms following injury and its usefulness has been questioned. Recent evidence is emerging that demonstrates differences in physical and psychological impairments between individuals who recover from the injury and those who develop persistent pain and disability. Motor dysfunction, local cervical mechanical hyperalgesia and psychological distress are present soon after injury in all whiplash injured persons irrespective of recovery. In contrast those individuals who develop persistent moderate/severe pain and disability show a more complex picture, characterized by additional impairments of widespread sensory hypersensitivity indicative of underlying disturbances in central pain processing as well as acute posttraumatic stress reaction, with these changes present from soon after injury. Based on this heterogeneity a new classification system is proposed that takes into account measurable disturbances in motor, sensory and psychological dysfunction. The implications for the management of this condition are discussed.
Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma
Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23380312
Colicchia, Giuseppe; Zollman, Dean; Wiesner, Hartmut; Sen, Ahmet Ilhan
A whiplash event is a relative motion between the head and torso that occurs in rear-end automobile collisions. In particular, the large inertia of the head results in a horizontal translation relative to the thorax. This paper describes a simulation of the motion of the head and neck during a rear-end (whiplash) collision. A head-neck model that…
This article aims to discuss the possible relationship between rapid extension-flexion of the neck-whiplash injury and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Clinical experience and studies revealed that whiplash injury may cause TMD. The pathophysiology of TMD is described as well as clinical and imaging diagnostic criteria. The treatment modalities for TMD are: physiotherapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and occlusal splints.
Enhancing the population impact of collaborative care interventions: Mixed method development and implementation of stepped care targeting posttraumatic stress disorder and related comorbidities after acute trauma
Zatzick, Douglas; Rivara, Frederick; Jurkovich, Gregory; Russo, Joan; Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wang, Jin; Wagner, Amy; Stephens, Kari; Dunn, Chris; Uehara, Edwina; Petrie, Megan; Engel, Charles; Davydow, Dimitri; Katon, Wayne
Objective To develop and implement a stepped collaborative care intervention targeting PTSD and related co-morbidities to enhance the population impact of early trauma-focused interventions. Method We describe the design and implementation of the Trauma Survivors Outcomes & Support Study (TSOS II). An interdisciplinary treatment development team was comprised of trauma surgical, clinical psychiatric and mental health services “change agents” who spanned the boundaries between front-line trauma center clinical care and acute care policy. Mixed method clinical epidemiologic and clinical ethnographic studies informed the development of PTSD screening and intervention procedures. Results Two-hundred and seven acutely injured trauma survivors with high early PTSD symptom levels were randomized into the study. The stepped collaborative care model integrated care management (i.e., posttraumatic concern elicitation and amelioration, motivational interviewing, and behavioral activation) with cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy targeting PTSD. The model was feasibly implemented by front-line acute care MSW and ARNP providers. Conclusions Stepped care protocols targeting PTSD may enhance the population impact of early interventions developed for survivors of individual and mass trauma by extending the reach of collaborative care interventions to acute care medical settings and other non-specialty posttraumatic contexts. PMID:21596205
Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi
The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.
Sterling, Michele; Noteboom, Jon Timothy; Treleaven, Julia; Galloway, Graham; Jull, Gwendolen
The objective was to determine whether any measurable changes in sensory responses, kinesthetic sense, cervical motion, and psychological features were related to established fatty infiltration values in the cervical extensor musculature in subjects with persistent whiplash. It is unknown if fatty infiltrate is related to any signs or symptoms. Data on motor function, Quantitative Sensory Testing, psychological and general well-being, and pain and disability were collected from 79 female subjects with chronic whiplash. Total fat values were created for all subjects by averaging the muscle fat indices by muscle, level, and side from our MRI dataset of all the cervical extensor muscles. Results of this study indicate the presence of altered physical, kinesthetic, sensory, and psychological features in this cohort of patients with chronic whiplash. Combined factors of sensory, physical, kinesthetic, and psychological features all contributed to a small extent in explaining the varying levels of fatty infiltrate, with cold pain thresholds having the most influence (r2 = 0.28; P = 0.02). Identifying and relating quantifiable muscular alterations to clinical measures in the chronic state, underpin some clinical hypotheses for possible pathophysiological processes in this group with a chronic and recalcitrant whiplash disorder. Future research investigations aimed at accurate identification, sub-classification, prediction, and management of patients with acute and chronic whiplash is warranted and underway. PMID:19672633
Elliott, James; Sterling, Michele; Noteboom, Jon Timothy; Treleaven, Julia; Galloway, Graham; Jull, Gwendolen
The objective was to determine whether any measurable changes in sensory responses, kinesthetic sense, cervical motion, and psychological features were related to established fatty infiltration values in the cervical extensor musculature in subjects with persistent whiplash. It is unknown if fatty infiltrate is related to any signs or symptoms. Data on motor function, Quantitative Sensory Testing, psychological and general well-being, and pain and disability were collected from 79 female subjects with chronic whiplash. Total fat values were created for all subjects by averaging the muscle fat indices by muscle, level, and side from our MRI dataset of all the cervical extensor muscles. Results of this study indicate the presence of altered physical, kinesthetic, sensory, and psychological features in this cohort of patients with chronic whiplash. Combined factors of sensory, physical, kinesthetic, and psychological features all contributed to a small extent in explaining the varying levels of fatty infiltrate, with cold pain thresholds having the most influence (r (2) = 0.28; P = 0.02). Identifying and relating quantifiable muscular alterations to clinical measures in the chronic state, underpin some clinical hypotheses for possible pathophysiological processes in this group with a chronic and recalcitrant whiplash disorder. Future research investigations aimed at accurate identification, sub-classification, prediction, and management of patients with acute and chronic whiplash is warranted and underway.
Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S
In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.
Introduction Worldwide, trauma is a leading cause of death and disability. Haemorrhage is responsible for up to 40% of trauma deaths. Recent strategies to improve mortality rates have focused on optimal methods of early hemorrhage control and correction of coagulopathy. We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCT) which evaluated trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock within the first 24 hours of injury and appraised how the interventions affected three outcomes: bleeding and/or transfusion requirements; correction of trauma induced coagulopathy and mortality. Methods Comprehensive searches were performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 7, 2010), Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the National Health Service Blood and Transplant Systematic Review Initiative (NHSBT SRI) RCT Handsearch Database. Results A total of 35 RCTs were identified which evaluated a wide range of clinical interventions in trauma hemorrhage. Many of the included studies were of low methodological quality and participant numbers were small. Bleeding outcomes were reported in 32 studies; 7 reported significantly reduced transfusion use following a variety of clinical interventions, but this was not accompanied by improved survival. Minimal information was found on traumatic coagulopathy across the identified RCTs. Overall survival was improved in only three RCTs: two small studies and a large study evaluating the use of tranexamic acid. Conclusions Despite 35 RCTs there has been little improvement in outcomes over the last few decades. No clear correlation has been demonstrated between transfusion requirements and mortality. The global trauma community should consider a coordinated and strategic approach to conduct well designed studies with pragmatic endpoints. PMID:21392371
Bendon, Charlotte L; Giele, Henk P
Traditionally, in free flap cover of lower limb injuries, every attempt is made to perform anastomoses proximal to the zone of injury. We report on the success of anastomoses within the zone of trauma, at the level of the fracture, avoiding further dissection and exposure. The records of free flap reconstructions for fractures of the lower extremity at a tertiary trauma centre between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 48 lower limb fractures required free flap reconstruction, performed at 28 days post injury (0-275 days). Anastomoses were proximal (21), distal (5) or within the zone of trauma (22). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in return to theatre, revision of anastomosis or flap survival between groups. Of the 22 performed within the zone of injury, five returned to theatre but only two for revision of anastomosis and 20 (91%) of these flaps survived. Of the 48 free flaps, arterial anastomoses were end to end in 34 (71%) and end to side in 14 (30%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in return to theatre, revision of anastomosis or flap survival between the end-to-end and end-to-side groups. There was a tendency for arterial anastomoses to be performed end to end outside the zone of trauma (23/26) compared to within the zone of trauma (11/22). Our data suggest that free flap anastomoses can be performed safely in the zone of trauma in lower limb injuries.
Andreasen, Frances M; Kahler, Bill
In 1985 Andreasen and Andreasen published a paper on the diagnosis of luxation injuries and outlined the importance of standardized clinical, radiographic, and photographic techniques. Now 30 years later, these recommendations remain current in the International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) guidelines for the management of dental trauma and describe circumstances surrounding the time of injury, the extent of trauma (e.g., type of luxation injury), healing potential (e.g., stage of root development) as well as information concerning subsequent treatment. The purpose of this review was to include findings for other types of trauma and to discuss more recent studies that augment and/or improve on the original findings from 30 years ago. The present review discusses the use of a standardized clinical registration (pulpal sensibility testing, laser Doppler flowmetry, mobility testing), radiographic survey, and photographic registration of the traumatized patient. Moreover, the value of digital radiographs and recent developments in computer tomography with respect to possible enhancement of the trauma diagnosis are discussed.
Slodicka, R; Lautenbach, M; Eisenschenk, A
The operative treatment of hand and upper extremity trauma with injury of main vessels becomes a daily standard work in trauma and microsurgical replantation centers. The techniques of vessel and soft tissue reconstruction are well known. The outcome of the replantation depends on various factors. Main influences are the intraoperative status of the vessel wall and the unobstructed flow in the vessel after the operation. Another factor for successful replantation is the homeostasis of the patient. It can be influenced by many drugs which are applied according to a replantation schema. Aim of this therapy is the correction of the rheologic properties of a patient. In a patient group of 25 treated with Prostaglandin E1 (Prostavasin) we observed better wound healing with a 80% rate of successful replantation and microvascular vessel reconstruction.
Department of Bellevue Hospital, New York in the hours following a psychologically traumatic event. Thirty-six participants will be enrolled over a 12...study will have experienced a trauma within 8 hours and presenting with signs of a strong risk factor for PTSD: peritraumatic panic (severe psychological ...in the hours following a psychologically traumatic event. Thirty-six participants will be enrolled over a 12- month period (18 receiving ARTAT and
Walsh, Mary E.; Buchanan, Marla J.
A large body of research provides evidence of workplace injuries to those in the nursing profession. Research on workplace stress and burnout among medical professionals is also well known; however, the profession of acute care nursing has not been examined with regards to work-related stress. This qualitative study focused on acute care nurses'…
Represas, C; Vieira, D N; Magalhães, T; Dias, R; Frazão, S; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Rodríguez-Calvo, M S; Concheiro, L; Muñoz, J I
Whiplash injury has been a continuous source of controversy due to its association with litigation. We studied the incidence of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in two similar socioeconomic areas and carried out a retrospective study based on the hypothesis that the Spanish law 30/1995 might have an affect on the incidence and duration of cervical symptoms and the persistence of impairment. More than 10,000 patients injured in traffic accidents were studied over a period three years. Of these, only patients with an initial diagnosis of whiplash injury were included in the study. Patients with other injuries were excluded. The patients were classified into two groups: Galicia-Spain and North-Central Portugal (depending on where the accident took place and the medico-legal evaluation procedure in force). Statistical analysis was made using SPSS 13.0 and Statistix 8.0. We found a statistically significant difference between Spain and Portugal in the incidence of WAD and in the duration of symptoms. The incongruities caused by the compulsory application of Spanish law arise from the fact that evaluation on a points scale of impairment does not always reflect the functional state of the injured person.
Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut
In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine between whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) patients and population-based control persons, and examined whether MRI-verified abnormalities in WAD patients were related to accident-related factors hypothesized to be of importance for severity of injury. A total of 92 whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. Information on the accident-related factors (i.e., head position and impact direction) was obtained by a questionnaire that was answered within 1 week after the accident. The MRI examination was performed 2-9 (mean 6) years after the accident. Focus was on MRI abnormalities of the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes, graded 0-3. For all neck structures, the whiplash patients had more high-grade lesions (grade 2 or 3) than the control persons (Chi-square test, p < 0.055). An abnormal alar ligament was most common (66.3% graded 2 or 3). Whiplash patients who had been sitting with their head/neck turned to one side at the moment of collision more often had high-grade lesions of the alar and transverse ligaments (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, respectively). Severe injuries to the transverse ligament and the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane were more common in front than in rear end collisions (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the difference in MRI-verified lesions between WAD patients and control persons, and in particular the association with head position and impact direction at time of accident, indicate that these lesions are caused by the whiplash trauma.
Esposito, Emanuela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore
Background Olprinone hydrochloride is a newly developed compound that selectively inhibits PDE type III and is characterized by several properties, including positive inotropic effects, peripheral vasodilatory effects, and a bronchodilator effect. In clinical settings, olprinone is commonly used to treat congestive cardiac failure, due to its inotropic and vasodilating effects. The mechanism of these cardiac effects is attributed to increased cellular concentrations of cAMP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacological action of olprinone on the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Traumatic SCI is characterized by an immediate, irreversible loss of tissue at the lesion site, as well as a secondary expansion of tissue damage over time. Although secondary injury should be preventable, no effective treatment options currently exist for patients with SCI. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5–T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, and production of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage, apoptosis, and locomotor disturbance. Olprinone treatment (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 and 6 h after the SCI significantly reduced: (1) the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), (3) nitrotyrosine formation, (4) pro-inflammatory cytokines, (5) NF-κB expression, (6) p-ERK1/2 and p38 expression and (7) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, olprinone significantly ameliorated the recovery of hind-limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score). Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that olprinone treatment reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID
Dehner, Christoph; Kraus, Michael; Schöll, Hendrik; Schneider, Florian; Richter, Peter; Kramer, Michael
Up to now no therapy study has used the classification system of the Quebec Task Force (QTF) to differentiate between patients with (QTF II°) and without functional disorders (QTF I°). This differentiation seems meaningful, as this difference may be relevant for the correct treatment planning. In this context the effect of the therapy recommendation "act as usual" has been evaluated in a homogeneous patient collective with whiplash injuries QTF I°. 470 patients with acute whiplash injuries had been catched in this study and classified according to the QTF. 359 patients (76.4%) with QTF I° injuries could be identified. Out of that 162 patients were enrolled to the study and received the therapy recommendation "act as usual" and the adapted pain treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). After six months the outcome was evaluated by phone. After injury the median pain score assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) was 5.4 (min = 3.3; max = 8.5). After six months 5 of the 162 patients complained intermittent pain symptoms (VAS values < 2). This is consistent with a chronification rate of 3.1%. After injury, the median pain disability index (PDI) was 3.9 (min = 1.9; max = 7.7). After six months 3 of the 162 patients stated persisting disability during sporting and physical activities (VAS values < 1). The therapy recommendation "act as usual" in combination with an adapted pain treatment is sufficient. Usually patients with whiplash injuries QTF I° do not need physical therapy. An escalation of therapy measures should be reserved to patients with complicated healing processes.
Castillo-Chávez, Miguel Angel
Whiplash injury usually occurs in people who suffered an automobile accident, but also occurs as a result of physical assault and other mechanisms. Diagnosis and initial management of the patient by the emergency physician or orthopedist, and prescribing indications, are taken into account by two forensic intervention specialists. One of these is the medical officer, who, through analysis of the injury mechanism, establishes a cause-effect relationship and concludes whether the accident suffered by a worker it is related to work or not, determines how long the worker will remain disabled and if the injury caused permanent disability under Federal Labor Law. The medical examiner by injury classification assists the Public Ministry so that it can frame the crime of injury to the Criminal Code of Federal District. For these reasons a review of medical information about the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and healing time was performed to help both specialists to standardize their approach in their daily activities.
Summers, Richard L.; Baker, Stephen D.; Sterling, Sarah A.; Porter, John M; Jones, Alan E.
Objective Neurogenic shock considered a distributive type of shock secondary to loss of sympathetic outflow to the peripheral vasculature. In this study, we examine the hemodynamic profiles of a series of trauma patients with a diagnosis of neurogenic shock. Methods Hemodynamic data were collected on a series of trauma patients determined to have spinal cord injuries with neurogenic shock. A well-established integrated computer model of human physiology was used to analyze and categorize the hemodynamic profiles from a system analysis perspective. A differentiation between these categories was presented as the percent of total patients. Results Of the 9 patients with traumatic neurogenic shock, the etiology of shock was decrease in peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) in 3 (33%; 95% confidence interval, 12%–65%), loss of vascular capacitance in 2 (22%; 6%–55%) and mixed peripheral resistance and capacitance responsible in 3 (33%; 12%–65%), and purely cardiac in 1 (11%; 3%–48%). The markers of sympathetic outflow had no correlation to any of the elements in the patients' hemodynamic profiles. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that hypotension of neurogenic shock can have multiple mechanistic etiologies and represents a spectrum of hemodynamic profiles. This understanding is important for the treatment decisions in managing these patients. PMID:23566731
During an orchestral performance musicians are exposed to high noise levels, which may exceed the intensity which could evoke hearing impairment after many years of exposure. From experience the degree of hearing loss in musicians is in general less than would be expected from the levels of exposure. The likelihood that an orchestral musician would develop a noise-induced hearing loss is much lower than for an industrial worker in a noise-intense factory. On the other hand it has to be considered that it is imperative for musicians to have non-impaired hearing to practise their profession. In some cases a sudden onset of hearing loss is traced to the noise stress of a loud performance. In such cases, the high noise levels predominantly produced by brass instruments or drums were assumed to be the cause. This publication presents five cases of expert opinions, where previous expert opinions had assumed noise or a blast trauma as the cause for the hearing loss. By careful analysis, a noise or a blast trauma was not regarded as probable in any of the cases. Interestingly, three of the five musicians had a normal contralateral hearing. In one case normal bilateral hearing was observed without the typical c(5) notch although the musician had been subject to noise stress in an orchestra for years.
de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Moura, Álvaro Vieira; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Aquim, Esperidião Elias; Reá-Neto, Álvaro; Oliveira, Mirella Cristine; da Silva Júnior, Walderi Monteiro; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Herminia Scola, Rosana
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers on cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics and blood gas variables. METHOD: A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial that included 20 critical patients with severe craniocerebral trauma who were receiving mechanical ventilation and who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Each patient was subjected to the physiotherapeutic maneuvers of vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow (5 minutes on each hemithorax), along with subsequent airway suctioning with prior instillation of saline solution, hyperinflation and hyperoxygenation. Variables related to cardiovascular and cerebral hemodynamics and blood gas variables were recorded after each vibrocompression, increased manual expiratory flow and airway suctioning maneuver and 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. RESULTS: The hemodynamic and blood gas variables were maintained during vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow maneuvers; however, there were increases in mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure during airway suctioning. All of the values returned to baseline 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. CONCLUSION: Respiratory physiotherapy can be safely performed on patients with severe craniocerebral trauma. Additional caution must be taken when performing airway suctioning because this technique alters cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics, even in sedated and paralyzed patients. PMID:24141836
Leth-Petersen, Søren; Rotger, Gabriel Pons
A whiplash is a sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck and head, typically associated with a rear-end car collision that may produce injuries in the soft tissue. Often there are no objective signs or symptoms of injury, and diagnosing lasting whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) is difficult, in particular for individuals with mild or moderate injuries. This leaves a scope for compensation-seeking behaviour. The medical literature disagrees on the importance of this explanation. In this paper we trace the long-term earnings of a group of Danish individuals with mild to moderate injuries claiming compensation for having permanently lost earnings capacity and investigate if they return to their full pre-whiplash earnings when the insurance claim has been assessed. We find that about half of the claimants, those not granted compensation, return to an earnings level comparable with their pre-whiplash earnings suggesting that these individuals do not have chronic WAD in the sense that their earnings capacity is reduced. The other half, those granted compensation, experience persistent reductions in earnings relative to the case where they had not been exposed to a whiplash, even when they have a strong financial incentive to not reduce earnings. This suggests that moderate injuries tend to be chronic, and that compensation-seeking behaviour is not the main explanation for this group. We find that claimants with chronic WADs used more health care in the year prior to the whiplash than claimants with non-chronic cases. This suggests that lower initial health capital increases the risk that a whiplash causes persistent WAD.
Barber, Beth A; Kohl, Krista L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I
A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01) and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, reexperiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), reexperiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's ρ = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery.
Sorensen, Joan S.; Andersen, Hans; Keseler, Bjarne; Jensen, Troels S.; Bendix, Tom
Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months. Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc degeneration were common and most frequent at the C5–6 and C6–7 levels. Findings were not associated with outcome after 3 or 12 months. The population had no considerable neck trouble prior to the whiplash injury and the non-traumatic findings represent findings to be expected in the background population. Trauma-related MRI findings are rare in a whiplash population screened for serious injuries in the emergency unit and not related to a specific symptomatology. Also, pre-existing degeneration is not associated with prognosis. PMID:18512085
Jones, Kirstin; Choi, Jae-Hyek; Sponsel, William E; Gray, Walt; Groth, Sylvia L; Glickman, Randolph D; Lund, Brian J; Reilly, Matthew A
The objective of this study was to determine whether clinically significant ocular trauma can be induced by a survivable isolated primary blast using a live animal model. Both eyes of 18 Dutch Belted rabbits were exposed to various survivable low-level blast overpressures in a large-scale shock tube simulating a primary blast similar to an improvised explosive device. Eyes of the blast-exposed rabbits (as well as five control rabbits) were thoroughly examined before and after blast to detect changes. Clinically significant changes in corneal thickness arose immediately after blast and were sustained through 48 h, suggesting possible disruption of endothelial function. Retinal thickness (RT) increased with increasing specific impulse immediately after exposure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was inversely correlated with the specific impulse of the blast wave. These findings clearly indicate that survivable primary blast causes ocular injuries with likely visual functional sequelae of clinical and military relevance.
Eardley, William G P; Watts, Sarah A; Clasper, Jon C
The manner in which high-energy transfer limb injuries are dressed can alter the wound environment through manipulation of the bacterial burden, thus minimizing tissue degradation and influencing healing potential. Infection is the principal complication of such wounds, and antiseptic soaked gauze is accepted in early coverage of extremity wounds despite a lack of evidence to support this practice. There has been resurgence in the use of silver in acute wounds, through dressings manipulated to deliver sustained elemental silver to the wound interface. In vitro and in vivo experimentation of silver dressings are characterized however by methodological compromise, primarily through lack of similarity of models to the physiology of the healing wound. Results from in vitro studies caution against the use of silver because of evidence of cytotoxicity, but this is not reproduced in in vivo or clinical experimentation, leading to ambiguity. Review of silver dressing application in burns and chronic wound studies fails to support its use over other dressing systems. Similarly, evidence for the use of silver in acute limb wounds is lacking. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the use of silver dressings in acute wound care and highlights in particular the paucity of evidence regarding its routine use in extremity injury.
Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai
Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.
Race, Nicholas; Lai, Jesyin; Shi, Riyi; Bartlett, Edward L
Hearing difficulties are the most commonly reported disabilities among veterans. Blast exposures during explosive events likely play a role, given their propensity to directly damage both peripheral (PAS) and central (CAS) auditory system components. Post-blast PAS pathophysiology has been well-documented in both clinical case reports and laboratory investigations. In contrast, blast-induced CAS dysfunction remains under-studied, but has been hypothesized to contribute to an array of common veteran behavioral complaints including learning, memory, communication, and emotional regulation. This investigation compared the effects of acute blast and non-blast acoustic impulse trauma in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. An array of audiometric tests were utilized, including distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), auditory brainstem responses (ABR), middle latency responses (MLR), and envelope following responses (EFR). Generally, more severe and persistent post-injury central auditory processing (CAP) deficits were observed in blast-exposed animals throughout the auditory neuraxis, spanning from the cochlea to the cortex. DPOAE and ABR results captured cochlear and auditory nerve/brainstem deficits, respectively. EFRs demonstrated temporal processing impairments suggestive of functional damage to regions in the auditory brainstem and the inferior colliculus. MLRs captured thalamocortical transmission and cortical activation impairments. Taken together, the results suggest blast-induced CAS dysfunction may play a complementary pathophysiologic role to maladaptive neuroplasticity of PAS origin. Even mild blasts can produce lasting hearing impairments that can be assessed with non-invasive electrophysiology, allowing these measurements to serve as simple, effective diagnostics.
Have you recently sustained an injury and been diagnosed with whiplash or a whiplash-associated disorder? If so, you may be wondering what your recovery will be like. If health care providers could identify, soon after the initial injury, which patients would probably improve naturally over time and which ones would not, they could better manage the patient's treatment in the early stages of recovery. A study published in the April 2015 issue of JOSPT provides new insights into this challenge, which may help improve decision making for providers and outcomes for patients.
Biglari, Bahram; Child, Christopher; Yildirim, Timur Mert; Swing, Tyler; Reitzel, Tim; Moghaddam, Arash
Background The proper timing for surgery in patients with acute spinal cord injury is controversial. This study was conducted to detect if there is an advantage in early (within the first 4 hours after trauma) compared to late (between 4 and 24 hours after trauma) surgery on neurological outcome. Methods In this single institution prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from 51 spinal cord injured patients with an average age of 43.4 (±19.2) years. The influence of early (29 patients within the first 4 hours) as opposed to late (22 patients between 4 and 24 hours) decompression was evaluated by comparing data for neurological outcome. Patients of the study collectively suffered acute spinal fractures from C2 to L3 (cervical 39.2%, thoracic 29.4%, and lumbal 21.6%) or nonosseous lesions (9.8%). American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grades were assessed at time of admission and 6 months after trauma or longer depending on the time of release. Surgical treatment included early stabilization and decompression within 24 hours. Results No significant difference between improved neurological function, measured with the AIS, and an early or late surgery time can be seen (P=0.402). Furthermore, binary logistic regression shows no significant difference between sex or age, and AIS improvement as possible confounders. Conclusion In our study, all patients with spinal cord injury were treated with spine stabilization and decompression within the first 24 hours after trauma. Surgical decompression within the first 4 hours after trauma was not associated with improved neurological outcome compared to treatment between 4 and 24 hours. In a clinical context, this indicates that there is a time frame of at least 1 day in which optimal care is possible. PMID:27621643
Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar
Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor
Clementz, Gunilla; Borsbo, Bjorn; Norrbrink, Cecilia
This study sought to assess burnout and its relation to pain, disability, mood and health-related quality of life in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Forty-five patients with chronic WAD ([greater than or equal to] 3 months) referred to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation centre were included. A questionnaire…
Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja
Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a "traumatic" context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or "traumatic" picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the "traumatic" stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a "traumatic" context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the "traumatic" stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support the idea that administration
Wright, Chris; Heneghan, Nicola; Eveleigh, Gillian; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick
Objective To evaluate effectiveness of physiotherapy management in patients experiencing whiplash associated disorder II, on clinically relevant outcomes in the short and longer term. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently searched information sources, assessed studies for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias and extracted data. A third reviewer mediated disagreement. Assessment of risk of bias was tabulated across included trials. Quantitative synthesis was conducted on comparable outcomes across trials with similar interventions. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes, with random effects as primary analyses. Data sources Predefined terms were employed to search electronic databases. Additional studies were identified from key journals, reference lists, authors and experts. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English before 31 December 2010 evaluating physiotherapy management of patients (>16 years), experiencing whiplash associated disorder II. Any physiotherapy intervention was included, when compared with other types of management, placebo/sham, or no intervention. Measurements reported on ≥1 outcome from the domains within the international classification of function, disability and health, were included. Results 21 RCTs (2126 participants, 9 countries) were included. Interventions were categorised as active physiotherapy or a specific physiotherapy intervention. 20/21 trials were evaluated as high risk of bias and one as unclear. 1395 participants were incorporated in the meta-analyses on 12 trials. In evaluating short term outcome in the acute/sub-acute stage, there was some evidence that active physiotherapy intervention reduces pain and improves range of movement, and that a specific physiotherapy intervention may reduce pain. However, moderate/considerable heterogeneity suggested that treatments may differ in nature or effect in different trial patients. Differences
Creed, Jennifer A.; DiLeonardi, Ann Mae; Fox, Douglas P.; Tessler, Alan R.
Abstract Concussive brain injury (CBI) accounts for approximately 75% of all brain-injured people in the United States each year and is particularly prevalent in contact sports. Concussion is the mildest form of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) and results in transient cognitive dysfunction, the neuropathologic basis for which is traumatic axonal injury (TAI). To evaluate the structural and functional changes associated with concussion-induced cognitive deficits, adult mice were subjected to an impact on the intact skull over the midline suture that resulted in a brief apneic period and loss of the righting reflex. Closed head injury also resulted in an increase in the wet weight:dry weight ratio in the cortex suggestive of edema in the first 24 h, and the appearance of Fluoro-Jade-B-labeled degenerating neurons in the cortex and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus within the first 3 days post-injury. Compared to sham-injured mice, brain-injured mice exhibited significant deficits in spatial acquisition and working memory as measured using the Morris water maze over the first 3 days (p<0.001), but not after the fourth day post-injury. At 1 and 3 days post-injury, intra-axonal accumulation of amyloid precursor protein in the corpus callosum and cingulum was accompanied by neurofilament dephosphorylation, impaired transport of Fluoro-Gold and synaptophysin, and deficits in axonal conductance. Importantly, deficits in retrograde transport and in action potential of myelinated axons continued to be observed until 14 days post-injury, at which time axonal degeneration was apparent. These data suggest that despite recovery from acute cognitive deficits, concussive brain trauma leads to axonal degeneration and a sustained perturbation of axonal function. PMID:21299360
Kahn, Steven A; Iannuzzi, James C; Stassen, Nicole A; Bankey, Paul E; Gestring, Mark
Hospital quality metrics now reflect patient satisfaction and are measured by Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Understanding these metrics and drivers will be integral in providing quality care as this process evolves. This study identifies factors associated with patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS survey responses in trauma and acute care surgery patients. HCAHPS survey responses from acute care surgery and trauma patients at a single institution between 3/11 and 10/12 were analyzed. Logistic regression determined which responses to individual HCAHPS questions predicted highest hospital score (a rating of 9-10/10). Demographic and clinical variables were also analyzed as predictors of satisfaction. Subgroup analysis for trauma patients was performed. In 70.3 per cent of 182 total survey responses, a 9-10/10 score was given. The strongest predictors of highest hospital ranking were respect from doctors (odds ratio [OR] = 24.5, confidence interval [CI]: 5.44-110.4), doctors listening (OR: 9.33, CI: 3.7-23.5), nurses' listening (OR = 8.65, CI: 3.62-20.64), doctors' explanations (OR = 8.21, CI: 3.5-19.2), and attempts to control pain (OR = 7.71, CI: 3.22-18.46). Clinical factors and outcomes (complications, intensive care unit/hospital length of stay, mechanism of injury, and having an operation) were nonsignificant variables. For trauma patients, Injury Severity Score was inversely related to score (OR = 0.93, CI: 0.87-0.98). Insurance, education, and disposition were also tied to satisfaction, whereas age, gender, and ethnicity were nonsignificant. In conclusion, patient perception of interactions with the healthcare team was most strongly associated with satisfaction. Complications did not negatively influence satisfaction. Insurance status might potentially identify patients at risk of dissatisfaction. Listening to patients, treating them with respect, and explaining the care plan are integral to a
Hou, Cailan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Kun; Li, Lingjiang; Liang, Meng; He, Zhong; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Weihui; Jiang, Tianzi
Functional neuroimaging studies have largely been performed in patients with longstanding chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, memory function of PTSD patients has been proved to be impaired. We sought to characterize the brain responses of patients with acute PTSD and implemented a trauma-related short-term memory recall paradigm. Individuals with acute severe PTSD (n=10) resulting from a mining accident and 7 men exposed to the mining accident without PTSD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the symptom provocation and trauma-related short-term memory recall paradigms. During symptom provocation paradigm, PTSD subjects showed diminished responses in right anterior cingulate gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus and enhanced left parahippocampal gyrus response compared with controls. During the short-term memory recall paradigm, PTSD group showed diminished responses in right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal and left middle occipital gyrus in comparison with controls. PTSD group exhibited diminished right parahippocampal gyrus response during the memory recall task as compared to the symptom provocation task. Our findings suggest that neurophysiological alterations and memory performance deficit have developed in acute severe PTSD.
Drottning, Monica; Staff, Peer H; Sjaastad, Ottar
The main objective of the present investigation was to clarify the long-term natural course of cervicogenic headache (CEH) after whiplash injury. Whiplash patients (n=587) were initially followed up for a year after their emergency service consultation. De novo unilateral CEH seemed to be present in 8% (n=48) at six weeks and in 3% (n=20) at one year. Previous car accidents, pre-existing headache, and neck pain were more frequent among individuals with chronic CEH than in those without CEH at one year. Patients affected by headache with CEH characteristics at one year were followed up for five more years, at the end of which seven (35%) still had such headache, although the attack frequency had reduced appreciably. Forward radiating pain could still generally be precipitated from areas along the occipital tendons ipsilaterally. Increased tenderness in these areas could also be found on the previously symptomatic side in the patients who were now asymptomatic.
Magin, M N; Auer, C
Considering the controversially discussed issue of whiplash injury a pragmatic approach based on our own experience in the area of forensic expert opinion is presented. Findings of accident analysis and biomechanics are correlated with the individual situation after the accident (initial clinical appearance), the course of the ailment and the indispensable physical examination. The latter leads to determination of the individual vulnerability (not increased/increased) which is important for the evaluation of the physical condition and estimation of the physical stress limit. These limits vary widely between individuals and must be considered carefully when relating dose and effect of accident severity to a possible physical injury. Determination of the accident severity is especially important when there are no objective signs of injury and the existence of a minor whiplash injury (Quebec Task Force degree 1 or 2) is in question.
J. Hayek, T. Ettlin, “"Whiplash" injury of the cervical spine: value of modern diagnostic imaging ”, Schweiz -Med- Wochenschr, vol 127, pp 1643-51...standard X-ray. Instead other imaging techniques e.g., MRT can in some instances show changes . Despite absence of abnormal imaging findings, patients...1997.  C.W. Pfirrmann, C.A. Binkert, M. Zanetti, N. Boos, J. Hodler, “Functional MR imaging of the craniocervical junction. Correlation with alar
Lee, Young Seo; Farhadi, Hooman F.; Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Kun Su
Objective This study aims to visualize the subjective symptoms before and after the treatment of whiplash injury using infrared (IR) thermography. Methods IR thermography was performed for 42 patients who were diagnosed with whiplash injury. There were 19 male and 23 female patients. The mean age was 43.12 years. Thermal differences (ΔT) in the neck and shoulder and changes in the thermal differences (ΔdT) before and after treatment were analyzed. Pain after injury was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment (ΔVAS). The correlations between ΔdT and ΔVAS results before and after the treatment were examined. We used Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging equipment of Dorex company for IR thermography. Results The skin temperature of the neck and shoulder immediately after injury showed 1-2℃ hyperthermia than normal. After two weeks, the skin temperature was normal range. ΔT after immediately injuy was higher than normal value, but it was gradually near the normal value after two weeks. ΔdT before and after treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05). VAS of the neck and shoulder significantly reduced after 2 week (p=0.001). Also, there was significant correlation between ΔdT and reduced ΔVAS (the neck; r=0.412, p<0.007) (the shoulder; r=0.648, p<0.000). Conclusion The skin temperature of sites with whiplash injury is immediately hyperthermia and gradually decreased after two weeks, finally it got close to normal temperature. These were highly correlated with reduced VAS. IR thermography can be a reliable tool to visualize the symptoms of whiplash injury and the effectiveness of treatment in clinical settings. PMID:25932296
Koami, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Sakurai, Ryota; Ohta, Miho; Imahase, Hisashi; Yahata, Mayuko; Umeka, Mitsuru; Miike, Toru; Nagashima, Futoshi; Iwamura, Takashi; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Inoue, Satoshi
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the hematological differences between septic and traumatic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) using the rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). This retrospective study includes all sepsis or severe trauma patients transported to our emergency department who underwent ROTEM from 2013 to 2014. All patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of DIC diagnosed by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) DIC score. We statistically analyzed the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory data, ROTEM findings (EXTEM and FIBTEM), and outcome. Fifty-seven patients (30 sepsis and 27 severe trauma) were included in primary analysis. Sepsis cases were significantly older and had higher systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores, whereas there were no significant differences in other parameters including Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. Twenty-six patients (14 sepsis and 12 severe trauma) were diagnosed with DIC. The Septic DIC (S-DIC) group was significantly older and had higher DIC scores than the traumatic DIC (T-DIC) group. Hematologic examination revealed significantly higher CRP, fibrinogen, lower FDP, DD, and higher FDP/DD ratio were found in the S-DIC group in comparison with the T-DIC group. ROTEM findings showed that the A10, A20, and MCF in the FIBTEM test were significantly higher in the S-DIC group. However, no statistical differences were confirmed in the LI30, LI45, and ML in EXTEM test. The plasma fibrinogen level and fibrinogen based clot firmness in whole-blood test revealed statistical significance between septic and traumatic DIC patients. PMID:27495106
Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom; Kasch, Helge; Kongsted, Alice
The mechanisms for developing long-lasting neck pain after whiplash injuries are still largely unrevealed. In the present study it was investigated whether a kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, as opposed to a straight or a lordotic spine, was associated with the symptoms at baseline, and with the prognosis one year following a whiplash injury. MRI was performed in 171 subjects about 10 d after the accident, and 104 participated in the pain recording at 1-year follow-up. It was demonstrated that postures as seen on MRI can be reliably categorized and that a straight spine is the most frequent appearance of the cervical spine in supine MRI. In relation to symptoms it was seen that a kyphotic deformity was associated with reporting the highest intensities of headache at baseline, but not with an increased risk of long-lasting neck pain or headache. In conclusion, a kyphotic deformity is not significantly associated with chronic whiplash associated pain. Moreover, it is a clear clinical implication that pain should not be ascribed to a straight spine on MRI. We suggest that future trials on cervical posture focus upon the presence of kyphotic deformity rather than just on the absence of lordosis.
Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)
Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim
Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…
even before actual hemorrhage shock has enough time to ensue, consistent with the concept of traumatic diabetes or trauma-induced insulin resistance...1082, 1999. 14. Dunn E, Moore E, Breslich D, Galloway W. Acidosis-induced coagu- lopathy. Surg Forum 30: 471–473, 1979. 15. Foot CL, Fraser JF, Mullany...Wolfe RR, Jahoor F, Hartl WH. Protein and amino acid metabolism after injury. Diabetes Metab Rev 5: 149–164, 1989. 50. Zhang Y, Dai Y, Wen J, Zhang W
even before actual hemorrhage shock has enough time to ensue, consistent with the concept of traumatic diabetes or trauma-induced insulin resistance...1082, 1999. 14. Dunn E, Moore E, Breslich D, Galloway W. Acidosis-induced coagu- lopathy. Surg Forum 30: 471–473, 1979. 15. Foot CL, Fraser JF, Mullany...Wolfe RR, Jahoor F, Hartl WH. Protein and amino acid metabolism after injury. Diabetes Metab Rev 5: 149–164, 1989. 50. Zhang Y, Dai Y, Wen J, Zhang W
Suissa, S; Harder, S; Veilleux, M
Whiplash, a common injury following motor vehicle crashes, is associated with high costs and a prognosis that is variable and difficult to predict. We studied the profile of recovery from whiplash and assessed whether presenting signs and symptoms directly after the crash were predictive of whiplash prognosis. We formed a population-based incident cohort of all 2627 individuals who sustained a whiplash injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash in the province of Québec, Canada, in 1987, and followed these patients for up to 7 years. The data on signs and symptoms were obtained from the medical charts kept by the universal automobile insurance plan (Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec), which covers all 7 million residents of the province, while data on the outcome--the recovery time from whiplash--was obtained from their databases. The median recovery time was 32 days, and 12% of subjects had still not recovered after 6 months. The signs and symptoms that were found to be independently associated with a slower recovery from whiplash, besides female gender and older age, are neck pain on palpation, muscle pain, pain or numbness radiating from the neck to arms, hands or shoulders, and headache. Together, these factors in older females (age 60) predicted a median recovery time of 262 days, compared with 17 days for younger males (age 20) who do not have this profile. In contrast, using a classification of injury severity previously proposed by the Québec Whiplash Associated Disorders Task Force, the median recovery time varied from 17 to only 123 days. We conclude that whiplash patients presenting with several specific musculoskeletal and neurological signs and symptoms will have a longer recovery period. These patients can easily be identified and closely monitored and targeted for the evaluation of early intervention programmes aimed at managing whiplash patients with a poor prognosis.
Smith, AC; Parrish, TB; Hoggarth, MA; McPherson, JG; Tysseling, VM; Wasielewski, M; Kim, HE; Hornby, TG; Elliott, JM
Study Design: This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives: Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting: University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods: Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results: We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion: The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship: NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program. PMID:27630770
Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert
Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.
Studer, Maria; Studer, Peter
Ultrasound is an easy to learn and highly efficient diagnostic tool to complete the clinical examination and improve bedside decision-making. In the trauma room, surgeons are often required to make a quick decision as to whether or not a patient needs an emergency intervention or whether further diagnostics are required. For this reason, education of surgeons in performing focused emergency ultrasound is pivotal. The goal of ICAN is to improve and expand the education of surgeons in Switzerland. This article provides a short review of the most frequent surgical pathologies encountered in the emergency room.
Suc, B; Poulet, M; Asperge, A; Vix, J; Barberot, J P; Doucet, F
Traumatic damage on Cochlea (250 cases) induced by assault gun (F.A.M.A.S.) consists in tinitus and hearing impairement on 6000 Hz. Noise's effects are specific to one Cochlea. Dissociated developments of both tinitus and hearing loss show that their anatomical sites are different. Acoustic injury entails definitive haire cells lesions, cellular biochemical and vascular changes. The treatment that reestablishes or raises cochlear blood flow entails recovery in 80% of cases provided that it is given within 48 hours after the trauma.
Banney, L A; Wood, D J; Francis, G D
Vesicular dermatitis due to contact with Coleoptera (beetles) is common worldwide, although the condition has been infrequently described in Australia. We document the largest outbreak recognized so far in Australia with a conservative estimate of 250 cases. This occurred in central coastal Queensland over several weeks in late 1998. A survey of the medical practitioners in this district is presented, along with clinical and histopathological illustrations. Our research found that knowledge of the condition was limited even in this region where cases occur each year. This condition is an important differential diagnosis in acute blistering disorders.
Vil'chinskiĭ, K E; Gutnikov, A I; Davydova, L A; Tsarenko, S V; Evdokimov, E A
In 72 patients with combined trauma the impact of volume and consistence of infusion therapy on severity of the disease, frequency and severity of infectious complications, duration of MV and ICU stay was assessed. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the volemic status control method and infusion algorithm. The main group (35 patients) was controlled by transesophageal dopplerography Cardio Q apparatus ("Deltex Medical", GB) and the infusion therapy was carried out under the control of stroke volume and Ftc. In the control group (37 patients) the volemic status was assessed clinically: BP, CVP, HR, diuresis. The volume of the infusion therapy during the first 12 hours in the main group was significantly higher than in the control group which proved that patients were suffering from hypovolemia, which was not diagnosed by traditional clinical criteria. The ICU stay in the main group was significantly shorter compared to the control group 15.3 +/- 8.2 and 29.5 +/- 10.4 days respectively. Infectious complications occurred in 12 patients out of 35 in main group and 25 out of 37 in the control group. The conclusion of this study is that infusion therapy control with central hemodynamic parameters can shorten the MV time and ICU stay an lower the rate of infectious complications in patients with combined trauma. A mortality decrease in patients with transesophageal dopplerography controlled infusion is not shown.
Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, Fabiola; Morabito, Bruno
The tongue plays a fundamental role in several bodily functions; in the case of a dysfunction, an exhaustive knowledge of manual techniques to treat the tongue is useful in order to help patients on their path toward recovery. A 30-year-old male patient with a recent history of whiplash, with increasing cervical pain during swallowing and reduced ability to open the mouth, was treated with osteopathic techniques addressed to the tongue. The osteopathic techniques led to a disappearance of pain and the complete recovery of the normal functions of the tongue, such as swallowing and mouth opening. The manual osteopathic approach consists of applying a low load, in order to produce a long-lasting stretching of the myofascial complex, with the aim of restoring the optimal length of this continuum, decreasing pain, and improving functionality. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first article reporting a case of resolution of a post whiplash disorder through osteopathic treatment of the tongue. PMID:27462180
Omar, N.; Srinivasan, M. S.
Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Although isolated injuries of both nerves following a whiplash injury have been reported, combined injury of the two nerves following a whiplash injury is very uncommon and is being reported for the first time. PMID:17587067
Mang, Daniel WH; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien
Whiplash injuries are the most common injuries following rear-end collisions. During a rear-end collision, the human muscle response consists of both a postural and a startle response that may exacerbate injury. However, most previous studies only assessed the presence of startle using data collected from the neck muscles and head/neck kinematics. The startle response also evokes a descending pattern of muscle recruitment and changes in autonomic activity. Here we examined the recruitment of axial and appendicular muscles along with autonomic responses to confirm whether these other features of a startle response were present during the first exposure to a whiplash perturbation. Ten subjects experienced a single whiplash perturbation while recording electromyography, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal responses. All subjects exhibited a descending pattern of muscle recruitment, and increasing heart rate and electrodermal responses following the collision. Our results provide further support that the startle response is a component of the response to whiplash collisions. PMID:24932015
Mang, Daniel Wh; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien
Whiplash injuries are the most common injuries following rear-end collisions. During a rear-end collision, the human muscle response consists of both a postural and a startle response that may exacerbate injury. However, most previous studies only assessed the presence of startle using data collected from the neck muscles and head/neck kinematics. The startle response also evokes a descending pattern of muscle recruitment and changes in autonomic activity. Here we examined the recruitment of axial and appendicular muscles along with autonomic responses to confirm whether these other features of a startle response were present during the first exposure to a whiplash perturbation. Ten subjects experienced a single whiplash perturbation while recording electromyography, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal responses. All subjects exhibited a descending pattern of muscle recruitment, and increasing heart rate and electrodermal responses following the collision. Our results provide further support that the startle response is a component of the response to whiplash collisions.
Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke
Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.
Nee, Patrick A
The impact of a previous neck sprain on recovery from whiplash injury is unknown as published studies have produced conflicting results. This article reviews the literature on the prognosis of a second whiplash injury, distinguishing between previous injuries with and without complete recovery. The best available evidence suggests that a previous injury with incomplete recovery represents an adverse prognostic indicator. However, where there has been complete recovery, the prior injury does not influence the prognosis.
Brown, Haywood L
Acute traumatic injury during pregnancy is a significant contributor to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related maternal death, followed by violence and assault. Lack of seat belts or other restraints increases the risks of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends proper seat belt use by all pregnant women and screening for domestic abuse. Maternal injury and death from physical abuse is prevalent, and in some communities, homicide is a major cause of pregnancy-associated maternal death. Blunt trauma most often occurs as a result of motor vehicle accidents, whereas penetrating trauma results from gunshots or stabbings. Blunt trauma to the abdomen increases the risk for placental abruption, and direct fetal injury is more likely with penetrating trauma. Management strategies in acute maternal trauma must focus on a thorough assessment of the mother. A coordinated team effort that includes the obstetrician is essential to ensure optimal maternal and fetal outcomes. Imaging studies should not be delayed because of concerns of fetal radiation exposure, because the risk is minimal with usual imaging procedures, especially in mid-to-late pregnancy. The obstetrician should serve in a consultative role if nonobstetric surgical care is required and must also be prepared to intervene on behalf of the mother and the fetus if trauma care is compromised by the pregnancy. Perimortem cesarean delivery should be considered early in the resuscitation of a pregnant trauma victim, especially when fetal viability is a concern. Once the mother is stabilized in the emergency setting, she should be transported for appropriate maternal and fetal observation until both mother and fetus are clear of danger. It is essential that the clinician and staff maintain thorough and accurate documentation and recording of the chronology of
Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Background Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs) annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents) remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. Objective The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child–parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent–child processes) and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child–parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. Method As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8–13) and parents (n=25 child–parent dyads) completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Results Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral) and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant). Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent–child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent–child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. Conclusions The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping solutions
Kelly, Edward; Rogers, Selwyn O
The increasing need for skilled emergency surgical providers, coupled with decreasing experience in emergency surgery among trainees, has led to significant shortages in the availability of such surgeons. In response to this crisis, surgical leaders have developed a comprehensive curriculum and a set of professional standards to guide the training of a new specialist: the acute care surgeon. This article reviews the development and goals for Fellowship training of this new specialty.
Marsac, Meghan L.; Winston, Flaura K.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Kohser, Kristen L.; March, Sonja; Kenardy, Justin; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Background Millions of children are affected by acute medical events annually, creating need for resources to promote recovery. While web-based interventions promise wide reach and low cost for users, development can be time- and cost-intensive. A systematic approach to intervention development can help to minimize costs and increase likelihood of effectiveness. Using a systematic approach, our team integrated evidence on the etiology of traumatic stress, an explicit program theory, and a user-centered design process to intervention development. Objective To describe evidence and the program theory model applied to the Coping Coach intervention and present pilot data evaluating intervention feasibility and acceptability. Method Informed by empirical evidence on traumatic stress prevention, an overarching program theory model was articulated to delineate pathways from a) specific intervention content to b) program targets and proximal outcomes to c) key longer-term health outcomes. Systematic user-testing with children ages 8–12 (N = 42) exposed to an acute medical event and their parents was conducted throughout intervention development. Results Functionality challenges in early prototypes necessitated revisions. Child engagement was positive throughout revisions to the Coping Coach intervention. Final pilot-testing demonstrated promising feasibility and high user-engagement and satisfaction. Conclusion Applying a systematic approach to the development of Coping Coach led to the creation of a functional intervention that is accepted by children and parents. Development of new e-health interventions may benefit from a similar approach. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of Coping Coach in achieving targeted outcomes of reduced trauma symptoms and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:25844276
Obermann, M; Nebel, K; Riegel, A; Thiemann, D; Yoon, M-S; Keidel, M; Stude, P; Diener, Hc; Katsarava, Z
We identified clinical, demographic and psychological predictive factors that may contribute to the development of chronic headache associated with mild to moderate whiplash injury [Quebec Task Force (QTF) ≤ II] and determined the incidence of this chronic pain state. Patients were recruited prospectively from six participating accident and emergency departments. While 4.6% of patients developed chronic headache attributed to whiplash injury according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn criteria, 15.2% of patients complained about headache lasting > 42 days (QTF criteria). Predictive factors were pre-existing facial pain [odds ratio (OR) 9.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 10.4; P = 0.017], lack of confidence to recover completely (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.0, 13.2; P = 0.005), sore throat (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.5, 8.9; P = 0.013), medication overuse (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.4, 12.3; P = 0.009), high Neck Disability Index (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3, 12.6; P = 0.019), hopelessness/anxiety (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.3, 8.7; P = 0.024), and depression (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2, 9.4; P = 0.024). The lack of a control group limits the conclusions that can be drawn from this study. Identified predictors closely resemble those found in chronic primary headache disorders.
Robinson, James P; Theodore, Brian R; Wilson, Hilary D; Waldo, Peter G; Turk, Dennis C
Problems in diagnosing fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) among motor vehicle collision (MVC) patients with whiplash (WL) include the following: the predominance of tender points (TPs) in the neck/shoulder girdle region; the 3-month duration of widespread pain criterion; and, the stability of diagnosis. The present study examined the prevalence of FM in a cohort (N = 326) patients with persistent neck pain 3 months after WL injury who were enrolled in a treatment program. Physical examinations were performed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results indicated that WL patients had a greater proportion of neck/shoulder girdle TPs, relative to distal TPs. Compared with a matched cohort of treatment-seeking FM patients, WL patients indicated less distal TPs (mean = 7.3 TPs vs. mean = 5.6 TPs, P < .001), but were equivalent on neck/shoulder girdle TPs (mean = 9.0 TPs vs. 9.2 TPs, NS). Baseline prevalence of FM for the WL cohort based on ACR criteria was 14% (95% CI = 10%-18%), adjusted TP criterion discounting for neck/shoulder tenderness indicated a prevalence of FM of 8% (95% CI = 5%-11%). Finally, 63% of patients meeting American College of Rheumatology FM criteria at baseline did not meet this criterion at post-treatment (∼6-months after an MVC). In conclusion, present criteria used in determining FM may result in spuriously inflated rates of diagnosis among WL patients because of persistent localized tenderness after an MVC. Furthermore, the transient nature of FM "symptoms" among WL patients should be taken into account before making a final diagnosis. The present criteria used in determining fibromyalgia may result in spuriously inflated rates of diagnosis among whiplash patients because of persistent localized tenderness after motor vehicle collisions.
Murphy, Robert A; Rosenheck, Robert A; Berkowitz, Steven J; Marans, Steven R
The Child Development Community Policing Program represents a national model of community-based collaboration between police and mental health professionals for violence-exposed and traumatized children. Administrative data from clinical records of a 24-hour consultation service were examined through stepwise multivariate logistic regression to identify child and event characteristics associated with a direct, in-person response at the time of police contact. Of 2361 children, 809 (34.3%) received a direct, in-person response. Relative to Caucasian children, Hispanic youth were more likely to receive this form of response (OR = 1.36). An acute clinical response was more likely for incidents of gang involvement (OR = 8.12), accidents (OR = 5.21), felony assaults (OR = 2.97), property crimes (OR = 2.30), family violence (OR = 1.53) and psychiatric crises (OR = 1.29). Acute response was less likely when juvenile conduct problems (OR = 0.61), fires (OR = 0.59), child maltreatment (OR = 0.57), and domestic violence (OR = 0.44) were involved. Incidents that were more severe or involved a primary mental health component were related to utilization of intensive CDCP resources.
Falasca, Tony; Caulfield, Thomas J.
Describes some classic causes of trauma and symptoms that can result when a child has been traumatized. Lists several factors that effect the degree to which a child is affected by trauma. Categories a wide range of behaviors displayed by the victims into three groups: affect, memories, and behaviors. Discusses various considerations when…
Becker, Minerva; Leuchter, Igor; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Dulguerov, Pavel; Varoquaux, Arthur
External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed.
Corre, Pierre; Arzul, Ludovic; Khonsari, Roman Hossein; Mercier, Jacques
The human face contains the sense organs and is responsible for essential functions: swallowing, chewing, speech, breathing and communication. It is also and most importantly the seat of a person's identity. Multiple trauma adds a life-threatening dimension to the physical and psychological impact of a facial trauma.
Yang, Xiaoqing; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J David; Carroll, Linda
It is hypothesized that excess weight is a risk factor for delayed recovery from neck pain, such as from whiplash injuries. However, the association between obesity and recovery from whiplash injury has not been studied. The authors examined the association between body mass index and time to recovery from whiplash injuries in a population-based cohort study of traffic injuries in Saskatchewan, Canada. The cohort included 4,395 individuals who made an insurance claim to Saskatchewan Government Insurance and were treated for whiplash injury between July 1, 1994, and December 31, 1995. Of those, 87.7% had recovered by November 1, 1997. No association was found between baseline body mass index and time to recovery. Compared with individuals with normal weight, those who were underweight (hazard rate ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.06), overweight (hazard rate ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.09), and obese (hazard rate ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.08) had similar rates of recovery, even after adjustment for other factors. The results do not support the hypothesis that individuals who are overweight or obese have a worse prognosis for whiplash.
Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari
Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424
Skinner, John P; Tuomi, Pam A; Mellish, Jo-Ann E
The Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, has experienced regionally divergent population trends over recent decades. One potential mechanism for this disparity is that local factors cause reduced health and, therefore, reduced survival of individuals. The use of blood parameters to assess sea lion health may help to identify whether malnutrition, disease and stress are important drivers of current trends, but such assessments require species-specific knowledge of how parameters respond to various health challenges. We used principal components analysis to identify which key blood parameters (principal analytes) best described changes in health for temporarily captive juvenile Steller sea lions in known conditions. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the changes in principal analytes with food intake, time in captivity and acute trauma associated with hot-iron branding and transmitter implant surgery. Of the 17 blood parameters examined, physiological changes for juvenile sea lions were best described using the following six principal analytes: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, globulin, platelets, glucose and total bilirubin. The white blood cell counts and total bilirubin declined over time in captivity, whereas globulin increased. Elevated red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and total bilirubin and reduced globulin values were associated with lower food intake. After branding, white blood cell counts were elevated for the first 30 days, while globulin and platelets were elevated for the first 15 days only. After implant surgery, red blood cell counts and globulin remained elevated for 30 days, while white blood cell counts remained elevated during the first 15 days only. Glucose was unassociated with the factors we studied. These results were used to provide expected ranges for principal analytes at different levels of food intake and in response to the physical challenges of branding and implant surgery
Müller, Sebastian A; Vavken, Patrick; Pagenstert, Geert
Video gaming injuries are classically regarded as eccentric accidents and novelty diagnoses. A case of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear sustained during Wii boxing spurned us to review the literature for other Wii-related injuries and Wii-based posttraumatic rehabilitation. The English literature listed in PubMed was systematically reviewed by searching for "Wii (trauma or injury or fracture)." Full-text articles were included after duplicate, blinded review. The type and treatment of injury as well as the Wii-based rehabilitation programs found were analyzed. Additionally, a new case of an acute ACL tear-sustained playing, Wii boxing, is additionally presented. After exclusion of irrelevant articles, 13 articles describing Wii-related injuries were included reporting on 3 fractures, 6 nonosseous, 2 overuse injuries, and 2 rehabilitation programs using Wii for posttraumatic rehabilitation. Among the presented Wii-related injuries, only 12.5% were treated conservatively, whereas 87.5% underwent either surgical or interventional treatment. Because of the reported case, the literature search was limited to Wii-related injuries excluding other video games. Another limitation of this article lies in the fact that mainly case reports but no controlled trials exist on the topic. Assumingly, primarily the more severe injuries are reported in the literature with an unknown number of possibly minor injuries. Motion-controlled video games, such as Wii, are becoming increasingly popular as a recreational entertainment. Because of their wide acceptance and entertaining nature, they are also increasingly recognized as a tool in rehabilitation. However, although the activity is simulated, injuries are real. Our systematic review shows that Wii gaming can lead to severe injuries, sometimes with lasting limitations.
Skinner, John P.; Tuomi, Pam A.; Mellish, Jo-Ann E.
The Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, has experienced regionally divergent population trends over recent decades. One potential mechanism for this disparity is that local factors cause reduced health and, therefore, reduced survival of individuals. The use of blood parameters to assess sea lion health may help to identify whether malnutrition, disease and stress are important drivers of current trends, but such assessments require species-specific knowledge of how parameters respond to various health challenges. We used principal components analysis to identify which key blood parameters (principal analytes) best described changes in health for temporarily captive juvenile Steller sea lions in known conditions. Generalized additive mixed models were used to estimate the changes in principal analytes with food intake, time in captivity and acute trauma associated with hot-iron branding and transmitter implant surgery. Of the 17 blood parameters examined, physiological changes for juvenile sea lions were best described using the following six principal analytes: red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, globulin, platelets, glucose and total bilirubin. The white blood cell counts and total bilirubin declined over time in captivity, whereas globulin increased. Elevated red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts and total bilirubin and reduced globulin values were associated with lower food intake. After branding, white blood cell counts were elevated for the first 30 days, while globulin and platelets were elevated for the first 15 days only. After implant surgery, red blood cell counts and globulin remained elevated for 30 days, while white blood cell counts remained elevated during the first 15 days only. Glucose was unassociated with the factors we studied. These results were used to provide expected ranges for principal analytes at different levels of food intake and in response to the physical challenges of branding and implant surgery
Bahia, H; Platt, A; Hart, N; Baguley, P
The case is reported of a 23 year old male body builder who was involved in a road traffic accident after taking anabolic steroids. The resulting trauma caused a severe life threatening acute multicompartment syndrome resulting in the need for urgent multiple fasciotomies. Key Words: anabolic steroids; body builder; trauma; multicompartment syndrome PMID:10953907
Saranteas, Theodosios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Mandila, Christina; Poularas, John; Panou, Fotios
In the perioperative period, the emergency department or the intensive care unit accurate assessment of variable chest pain requires meticulous knowledge, diagnostic skills, and suitable usage of various diagnostic modalities. In addition, in polytrauma patients, cardiac injury including aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and pericardial effusion should be immediately revealed and treated. In these patients, arrhythmias, mainly tachycardia, cardiac murmurs, or hypotension must alert physicians to suspect cardiovascular trauma, which would potentially be life threatening. Ultrasound of the heart using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are valuable diagnostic tools that can be used interchangeably in conjunction with other modalities such as the electrocardiogram and computed tomography for the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities in trauma patients. Although ultrasound of the heart is often underused in the setting of trauma, it does have the advantages of being easily accessible, noninvasive, and rapid bedside assessment tool. This review article aims to analyze the potential cardiac injuries in trauma patients, and to provide an elaborate description of the role of echocardiography for their accurate diagnosis.
De Boever, J A; Keersmaekers, K
Controversy exists on the aetiological importance and the effect of jaw macrotrauma (fractures excluded) on the occurrence of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of jaw injury in TMD patients and to compare the severity of the symptoms, the clinical characteristics and the treatment outcome in TMD patients with or without a history of trauma to the head and neck region directly linked to the onset of symptoms. The study sample included 400 consecutive TMD clinical patients. In 24.5% of patients the onset of the pain and dysfunction could be linked directly to the trauma, mainly whiplash accidents. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in daily recurrent headache, dizziness, neck pain, joint crepitation and pain in the joints. Maximal mouth opening was less than 20 mm in 14.3% of patients with a history of trauma and in 4.1% of those without such a history. According to the Helkimo dysfunction index (DI), more trauma than non-trauma TMD patients belonged to the severe dysfunction groups (DI 4 and 5) at first examination. The outcome of a conservative treatment procedure (counselling, occlusal splint, physiotherapy, occasionally occlusal therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs was not different between the two groups at the 1 year evaluation. The degree of maximal opening was similar: less than 20 mm in 3.7% and 2.2% in trauma and non-trauma patients respectively. Forty percent and 41% respectively were symptom free or had DI = 1. The results suggest that external trauma to the joint or to the jaw in general is an important initiating factor in the aetiology of TMD but also that the prognosis is favourable.
Watts, Sarah; Nordmann, Giles; Brohi, Karim; Midwinter, Mark; Woolley, Tom; Gwyther, Robert; Wilson, Callie; Poon, Henrietta; Kirkman, Emrys
ABSTRACT Acute trauma coagulopathy (ATC) is seen in 30% to 40% of severely injured casualties. Early use of blood products attenuates ATC, but the timing for optimal effect is unknown. Emergent clinical practice has started prehospital deployment of blood products (combined packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma [PRBCs:FFP], and alternatively PRBCs alone), but this is associated with significant logistical burden and some clinical risk. It is therefore imperative to establish whether prehospital use of blood products is likely to confer benefit. This study compared the potential impact of prehospital resuscitation with (PRBCs:FFP 1:1 ratio) versus PRBCs alone versus 0.9% saline (standard of care) in a model of severe injury. Twenty-four terminally anesthetised Large White pigs received controlled soft tissue injury and controlled hemorrhage (35% blood volume) followed by a 30-min shock phase. The animals were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups during a 60-min prehospital evacuation phase: hypotensive resuscitation (target systolic arterial pressure 80 mmHg) using either 0.9% saline (group 1, n = 9), PRBCs:FFP (group 2, n = 9), or PRBCs alone (group 3, n = 6). Following this phase, an in-hospital phase involving resuscitation to a normotensive target (110 mmHg systolic arterial blood pressure) using PRBCs:FFP was performed in all groups. There was no mortality in any group. A coagulopathy developed in group 1 (significant increase in clot initiation and dynamics shown by TEG [thromboelastography] R and K times) that persisted for 60 to 90 min into the in-hospital phase. The coagulopathy was significantly attenuated in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.025 R time and P = 0.035 K time), which were not significantly different from each other. Finally, the volumes of resuscitation fluid required was significantly greater in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.0067) (2.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.3 L, respectively). This difference was
Watts, Sarah; Nordmann, Giles; Brohi, Karim; Midwinter, Mark; Woolley, Tom; Gwyther, Robert; Wilson, Callie; Poon, Henrietta; Kirkman, Emrys
Acute trauma coagulopathy (ATC) is seen in 30% to 40% of severely injured casualties. Early use of blood products attenuates ATC, but the timing for optimal effect is unknown. Emergent clinical practice has started prehospital deployment of blood products (combined packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma [PRBCs:FFP], and alternatively PRBCs alone), but this is associated with significant logistical burden and some clinical risk. It is therefore imperative to establish whether prehospital use of blood products is likely to confer benefit. This study compared the potential impact of prehospital resuscitation with (PRBCs:FFP 1:1 ratio) versus PRBCs alone versus 0.9% saline (standard of care) in a model of severe injury. Twenty-four terminally anesthetised Large White pigs received controlled soft tissue injury and controlled hemorrhage (35% blood volume) followed by a 30-min shock phase. The animals were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups during a 60-min prehospital evacuation phase: hypotensive resuscitation (target systolic arterial pressure 80 mmHg) using either 0.9% saline (group 1, n = 9), PRBCs:FFP (group 2, n = 9), or PRBCs alone (group 3, n = 6). Following this phase, an in-hospital phase involving resuscitation to a normotensive target (110 mmHg systolic arterial blood pressure) using PRBCs:FFP was performed in all groups. There was no mortality in any group. A coagulopathy developed in group 1 (significant increase in clot initiation and dynamics shown by TEG [thromboelastography] R and K times) that persisted for 60 to 90 min into the in-hospital phase. The coagulopathy was significantly attenuated in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.025 R time and P = 0.035 K time), which were not significantly different from each other. Finally, the volumes of resuscitation fluid required was significantly greater in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.0067) (2.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.3 L, respectively). This difference was principally
Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S
Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction.
Puglisi, Filadelfio; Ridi, Renzo; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonelli, Aurelio; Ferrari, Robert
The purpose of this study was to obtain comparative data concerning the relative contribution of segmental cervical vertebral motion to the cervical range of motion (ROM) in whiplash and healthy subjects in an effort to evaluate the usefulness of X-ray analysis in future forensic and research efforts. Each subject's neck ROM was measured with an optoelectronic system and also by X-ray measurements of the angular rotation in flexion and extension. The X-rays were examined to calculate the angular movement in the sagittal plane of each of the functional units C2-C3 to C6-C7. The chronic whiplash subjects showed reduced total neck range in all directions as compared to healthy subjects (p<0.001). There was a reduced total angular rotation from flexion to extension between these two groups (p<0.01), but no significant difference, however, between chronic whiplash subjects and controls in the percentage contribution of each of the functional units C2-C3 to C6-C7 to this rotation. This data will now allow a design of trials where healthy subjects are asked to simulate restricted neck ROM while undergoing optokinetic and X-ray evaluation of segmental vertebral motion. We will be able to determine if simulators produce a similar pattern to chronic whiplash and healthy, non-simulating subjects, and thus determine if, at least for forensic and research purposes, this technique is useful in validating reported restricted neck range.
Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim
Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined by structured interview in a prospective study of assault and motor vehicle accident (MVA) child survivors, assessed at 2-4 weeks and 6 months post-trauma. Children were significantly more likely to meet criteria for ASD, as well as other ASD and PTSD symptom clusters, based on their own report than on their parent's report. Parent-child agreement for ASD was poor (Cohen's kappa = -.04), but fair for PTSD (Cohen's kappa = .21). Agreement ranged widely for other emotional disorders (Cohen's kappa = -.07-.64), with generalised anxiety disorder found to have superior parent-child agreement (when assessed by phi coefficients) relative to ASD and PTSD. The findings support the need to directly interview children and adolescents, particularly for the early screening of posttraumatic stress, and suggest that other anxiety disorders may have a clearer presentation post-trauma.
Fibrinogen is fundamental to hemostasis and falls rapidly in trauma hemorrhage, although levels are not routinely measured in the acute bleeding episode. Prompt identification of critically low levels of fibrinogen and early supplementation has the potential to correct trauma-induced coagulation and improve outcomes. Early estimation of hypofibrinogenemia is possible using surrogate markers of shock and hemorrhage; for example, hemoglobin and base excess. Rapid replacement with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be considered a clinical priority in major trauma hemorrhage. PMID:24063404
Davenport, Ross; Brohi, Karim
Fibrinogen is fundamental to hemostasis and falls rapidly in trauma hemorrhage, although levels are not routinely measured in the acute bleeding episode. Prompt identification of critically low levels of fibrinogen and early supplementation has the potential to correct trauma-induced coagulation and improve outcomes. Early estimation of hypofibrinogenemia is possible using surrogate markers of shock and hemorrhage; for example, hemoglobin and base excess. Rapid replacement with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be considered a clinical priority in major trauma hemorrhage.
Isobel, Sophie; Edwards, Clair
Without agreeing on an explicit approach to care, mental health nurses may resort to problem focused, task oriented practice. Defining a model of care is important but there is also a need to consider the philosophical basis of any model. The use of Trauma Informed Care as a guiding philosophy provides a robust framework from which to review nursing practice. This paper describes a nursing workforce practice development process to implement Trauma Informed Care as an inpatient model of mental health nursing care. Trauma Informed Care is an evidence-based approach to care delivery that is applicable to mental health inpatient units; while there are differing strategies for implementation, there is scope for mental health nurses to take on Trauma Informed Care as a guiding philosophy, a model of care or a practice development project within all of their roles and settings in order to ensure that it has considered, relevant and meaningful implementation. The principles of Trauma Informed Care may also offer guidance for managing workforce stress and distress associated with practice change.
Parsons, M A; Talbot, J F; Mudhar, H S; Rutty, Guy N
We present a single case report of a 20-year-old female who died following a severe whiplash head and neck injury sustained during a roller-coaster incident. We present the pathology of her eyes, which we believe to be the first pathological illustration of whiplash maculopathy and retinopathy to be reported within the medical literature. This article presents the macroscopic and microscopic pathology identified in this case and discusses the possible causation of the findings.
de Almeida, Patrícia; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Frigo, Lucio; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Santos, Larissa Aline; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; De Marchi, Thiago; Tairova, Olga; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto
Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm(2); 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-1β and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p < 0.05) IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels compared to non-treated injured group as well as diclofenac and cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.
Stenneberg, Martijn S; Schmitt, Maarten A; van Trijffel, Emiel; Schröder, Carin D; Lindeboom, Robert
Valid questionnaires for measuring functional limitations in patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) are lacking, since existing measures are not suitable for addressing the specific limitations of these patients and because of cross contamination between theoretical constructs. The objective of this study was to evaluate dimensionality, test-retest reliability, measurement error, construct validity, and responsiveness of a new condition-specific questionnaire for WAD as well as to estimate the minimally important change score. Patients with WAD grade I or II were recruited from physical therapy practices and rehabilitation centers. Dimensionality was examined by internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was estimated by intraclass correlations and measurement error was calculated by the minimal detectable change (MDC) scores. Construct validity was investigated by testing predefined hypotheses on correlations of the WAL scores with generic health measures and by using the known group method. Responsiveness was expressed as the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) score. 73 patients (53 women) were included. Cronbach's alpha was high (0.95) and unidimensionality was plausible because factor analysis showed 40.3% variance explained by one dominant factor, which was more than 4.5 times larger than the second largest factor. Test-retest reliability was excellent (0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.95). Construct validity was supported by 14 out of 15 confirmed hypotheses and the WAL showed statistically significant differences between known groups. MDC was 16 points while the MCIC was 18 points. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the WAL has adequate measurement properties, but additional research is needed.
Freeman, Catherine M.; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; McGuire, Barry B.; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Ryan, John; Lennon, Gerald; Galvin, David; Quinlan, David; Mulvin, David
Introduction Renal trauma accounts for 5% of all trauma cases. Rare mechanisms of injuries including sports participation are increasingly common. Rugby-related trauma poses a conundrum for physicians and players due to the absence of clear guidelines and a paucity of evidence. Our series highlights traumatic rugby-related renal injuries in our institution, and emphasize the need for international guidelines on management. Methods A retrospective review of all abdominal traumas between January 2006 and April 2013, specifically assessing for renal related trauma that were secondary to rugby injuries was performed. All patients' demographics, computerized tomography results, hematological and biochemical results and subsequent management were recorded. Results Five male patients presented with rugby-related injuries. Mean age was 21 years old. All patients were hemodynamically stable and managed conservatively in acute setting. One patient was detected to have an unknown pre-existing atrophic kidney that had been subsequently injured, and was booked for an elective nephrectomy an 8-week interval. Conclusion Rugby-related trauma has generated essential attention. This paper serves to highlight this type of injury and the need for defined guidelines on role of imaging and international consensus on timing of return to contact sport, in both professional and amateur settings. PMID:26889132
Budassi, S A
For any patient with obvious or suspected chest trauma, one must first assure an adequate airway and adequate ventilation. One should never hesitate to administer oxygen to a victim with a chest injury. The nurse should be concerned with adequate circulation--this may mean the administration of intravenous fluids, specifically volume expanders, via large-bore cannulae. Any obvious open chest wound should be sealed, and any fractures should be splinted. These patients should be rapidly transported to the nearest Emergency Department capable of handling this type of injury. The majority of patients who arrive in the Emergency Department following blunt or penetrating trauma should be considered to be in critical condition until proven otherwise. On presentation, it is essential to recognize those signs, symptoms, and laboratory values that identify the patient's condition as life-threatening. Simple recognition of these signs and symptoms and early appropriate intervention may alter an otherwise fatal outcome.
Radanov, B P; Sturzenegger, M; Di Stefano, G
With the increased incidence of whiplash injury following the introduction of compulsory car seat belts, a large number of reports have dealt with the aftermath of this condition. Previous studies, however, focused on somatic symptoms on the one hand or considered only psychological or neuropsychological variables on the other hand, often in loosely defined or selected groups of patients. No study so far has analyzed the long-term outcome in a nonselected group of patients using a clear injury definition considering patient history; somatic, radiologic, and neuropsychological findings; and features of the injury mechanisms assessed soon after trauma and during follow-up. the present investigation was designed to assess these combined factors. According to a strict definition of whiplash injury, we assessed a consecutive nonselected sample of 117 patients with recent injury who had similar sociocultural and educational backgrounds. The patients had been in automobile crashes and were all equally covered by accident insurance according to the country-wide scheme. Initial examination was performed 7.2 +/- 4.2 days after trauma, and follow-up examinations 3, 6, 12, and 24 months later. At baseline, features of injury mechanism, subjective complaints, and different aspects of patient history were documented and cervical spine X rays performed. At all examinations patients underwent neurologic examination and cognitive and psychosocial factor assessment. At 2 years, patients were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups and then compared with regard to the initial findings. In addition, symptomatic patients who were disabled at the 2-year follow-up examination and symptomatic patients not disabled (that is, they were able to work at the pretraumatic level) were compared regarding initial and 2-year findings. At 2 years, 18% of patients still had injury-related symptoms. With regard to baseline findings the following significant differences were found: Symptomatic
Edwards, Paul C; Kanjirath, Preetha
This article presents an overview of common and/or significant diseases of the oral cavity that the family physician is likely to encounter, with an emphasis on pathogenesis, recognition, complications, and management. Topics reviewed include the sequelae of dental caries, periodontal disease, and trauma. Prevention and early intervention strategies are emphasized. Recent updates and practical issues for the family physician are highlighted.
CAN, İsmail Özgür; DEMİROĞLU UYANIKER, Zehra; ULAŞ, Halis; KARABAĞ, Gökmen; CİMİLLİ, Can; SALAÇİN, Serpil
Introduction In medico-legal evaluation of trauma patients, the bio-psychological effects of the trauma and the severity of the injuries require to be evaluated. In this study, assuming the fact that psychiatric assessment is not taken into consideration in physical trauma cases, we planned to show the presence of psychological trauma in our medico-legally evaluated patients who presented with different types of traumas and to review the mental findings and diagnoses in trauma victims. Method We retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 1975 patients aged 18 years or older who presented to the Department of Forensic Medicine at Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine for medico-legal evaluation between 1999 and 2009. Psychiatric assessment was performed in 142 patients by the Department of Psychiatry. The data contained in medico-legal reports and patient records were then examined with respect to patients’ age, gender, nature of traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses, descriptive characteristics of the patients, severity of trauma and past history of mental disorder and trauma experience. Results of the medicolegal evaluations were also analyzed. Result Of the 142 patients, 80 (56.3%) were female and their average age was 40.30±17.17 years. The most frequent traumatic events were traffic accidents (29.6%) and violence-related blunt force trauma (28.9%). When the distribution of the most common psychiatric diagnoses was examined, it was found that anxiety disorders were found in 69 cases (48.6%), adjustment disorders were found in 16 cases (11.3%) and mood disorders were found in 12 cases (8.5%). Among anxiety disorders, acute stress disorder (n=39) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n=27) were the most common ones. In 27 cases of the 142, it was determined that, psychiatric symptoms and findings did not meet the diagnostic criteria of any psychiatric disorder. Diagnosis of psychiatric disorder was not significantly related with traumatic
Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Vargas, Ivan; Geiss, Elisa G; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a pathway through which childhood trauma may increase risk for negative health outcomes. The HPA axis is sensitive to stress throughout development; however, few studies have examined whether timing of exposure to childhood trauma is related to differences in later HPA axis functioning. Therefore, we examined the association between age of first trauma and HPA axis functioning among adolescents, and whether these associations varied by sex. Parents of 97 youth (aged 9-16 years) completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), and youth completed the Socially-Evaluated Cold-Pressor Task (SECPT). We measured salivary cortisol response to the SECPT, the cortisol awakening response, and diurnal regulation at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Exposure to trauma during infancy related to delayed cortisol recovery from peak responses to acute stress, d = 0.23 to 0.42. Timing of trauma exposure related to diverging patterns of diurnal cortisol regulation for males, d = 0.55, and females, d = 0.57. Therefore, the HPA axis may be susceptible to developing acute stress dysregulation when exposed to trauma during infancy, whereas the consequences within circadian cortisol regulation may occur in the context of later trauma exposure and vary by sex. Further investigations are warranted to characterize HPA axis sensitivity to exposure to childhood trauma across child development.
Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Chun, Rosaleen; Brown, Ross; Simons, Richard K.
Hypothermia has profound effects on every system in the body, causing an overall slowing of enzymatic reactions and reduced metabolic requirements. Hypothermic, acutely injured patients with multisystem trauma have adverse outcomes when compared with normothermic control patients. Trauma patients are inherently predisposed to hypothermia from a variety of intrinsic and iatrogenic causes. Coagulation and cardiac sequelae are the most pertinent physiological concerns. Hypothermia and coagulopathy often mandate a simplified approach to complex surgical problems. A modification of traditional classification systems of hypothermia, applicable to trauma patients is suggested. There are few controlled investigations, but clinical opinion strongly supports the active prevention of hypothermia in the acutely traumatized patient. Preventive measures are simple and inexpensive, but the active reversal of hypothermia is much more complicated, often invasive and controversial. The ideal method of rewarming is unclear but must be individualized to the patient and is institution specific. An algorithm reflecting newer approaches to traumatic injury and technical advances in equipment and techniques is suggested. Conversely, hypothermia has selected clinical benefits when appropriately used in cases of trauma. Severe hypothermia has allowed remarkable survivals in the course of accidental circulatory arrest. The selective application of mild hypothermia in severe traumatic brain injury is an area with promise. Deliberate circulatory arrest with hypothermic cerebral protection has also been used for seemingly unrepairable injuries and is the focus of ongoing research. PMID:10526517
Fernandez, Charles E.; Amiri, Abid; Jaime, Joseph; Delaney, Paul
Objective The purpose of this article is to offer a narrative review and discuss the possible relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and whiplash injuries. Methods Databases from 1966 to present were searched including PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Search terms used included whiplash injury, temporomandibular disorders and craniomandibular disorders. Inclusion criteria consisted of studies on orofacial pain of a musculoskeletal origin addressing the following topics: posttraumatic temporomandibular disorder (pTMD) incidence and prevalence, mechanism of injury, clinical findings and characteristics, prognosis (including psychologic factors). Excluded were studies of orofacial pain from nontraumatic origin, as well as nonmusculoskeletal causes including neurologic, vascular, neoplastic, or infectious disease. Results Thirty-two studies describing the effects of whiplash on TMD were reviewed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The best evidence from prospective studies indicates a low to moderate incidence and prevalence. Only 3 studies addressed mechanism of injury theories. Most studies focusing on clinical findings and characteristics suggest significant differences when comparing pTMD to idiopathic/nontraumatic patients. Regarding prognosis, most studies suggest a significant difference when comparing pTMD to idiopathic/nontraumatic TMD patients, with pTMD having a poorer prognosis. Conclusions There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of whiplash on the development of TMD. Furthermore, because of lack of homogeneity in the study populations and lack of standardization of data collection procedures and outcomes measured, this review cannot conclusively resolve the controversies that exist concerning this relationship. This review of the literature is provided to clarify the issues and to provide useful clinical information for health care
Helpman, Liat; Besser, Avi; Neria, Yuval
Posttraumatic stress (PTSS) and generalized anxiety symptoms (GAS) may ensue following trauma. While they are now thought to represent different psychopathological entities, it is not clear whether both GAS and PTSS show a dose–response to trauma exposure. The current study aimed to address this gap in knowledge and to investigate the moderating role of subjects’ demographics in the exposure-outcome associations. The sample included 249 civilian adults, assessed during the 2014 Israel–Gaza military conflict. The survey probed demographic information, trauma exposure, and symptoms. PTSS but not GAS was associated with exposure severity. Women were at higher risk for both PTSS and GAS than men. In addition, several demographic variables were only associated with PTSS levels. PTSS dose-response effect was moderated by education. These findings are in line with emerging neurobiological and cognitive research, suggesting that although PTSS and GAS have shared risk factors they represent two different psychopathological entities. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:26343559
Jeong, Young Ha; Oh, Ji Woong
Objective The aim of this preliminary collaborative study was to assess the clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of epidural hematoma (EDH) based on the data collected and registered in the Korean Trauma Data Bank System (KTDBS). Methods Of 2,698 patients registered in the KTDBS between September 2010 and March 2014, 285 patients with EDH were analyzed. Twenty-three trauma centers participated in the study voluntarily to collect data. We subcategorized the patients into two groups with good and poor outcomes. Various clinical characteristics and the time intervals with regard to treatment course were investigated to determine the relationship between these parameters and the functional outcome. Results Of multiple parameters for this analysis, older age (p=0.0003), higher degree of brain injury (p<0.0001), cases of surgical EDH (p<0.0001), time interval from trauma to hospital before 6 hours, and the decreasing pattern of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) between and initial and final GCS were strongly associated with poor outcome. Use of prophylactic anticonvulsant did not affect the functional outcome. There was an interesting difference in the use of mannitol in treating EDH between the urban and rural regions (p<0.0001). Conclusion This is the first multi-center analysis of etiology of injury, pre-hospital care, treatment, and functional outcome of EDH in Korea. The degree of brain injury and the GCS difference were notable factors that were significant in determining the functional outcome of EDH. PMID:27857907
Mohta, Medha; Sethi, A K; Tyagi, Asha; Mohta, Anup
The clinician manages trauma patients in the emergency room, operation theatre, intensive care unit and trauma ward with an endeavour to provide best possible treatment for physical injuries. At the same time, it is equally important to give adequate attention to behavioural and psychological aspects associated with the event. Knowledge of the predisposing factors and their management helps the clinician to prevent or manage these psychological problems. Various causes of psychological disturbances in trauma patients have been highlighted. These include pain, the sudden and unexpected nature of events and the procedures and interventions necessary to resuscitate and stabilise the patient. The ICU and trauma ward environment, sleep and sensory deprivation, impact of injury on CNS, medications and associated pre-morbid conditions are also significant factors. Specific problems that concern the traumatised patients are helplessness, humiliation, threat to body image and mental symptoms. The patients react to these stressors by various defence mechanisms like conservation withdrawal, denial, regression, anger, anxiety and depression. Some of them develop delirium or even more severe problems like acute stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Physical, pharmacological or psychological interventions can be performed to prevent or minimise these problems in trauma patients. These include adequate pain relief, prevention of sensory and sleep deprivation, providing familiar surroundings, careful explanations and reassurance to the patient, psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment whenever required.
Borchgrevink, G; Smevik, O; Haave, I; Haraldseth, O; Nordby, A; Lereim, I
The present study was undertaken to evaluate if MRI within 2 days of a motor vehicle accident could reveal pathology of importance for understanding long-term disability after whiplash neck-sprain injuries. As part of a prospective study cervical and cerebral MRI was performed on 40 neck sprain patients with whiplash injury after car accidents. The imaging was done within 2 days of the injury to make sure that any neck muscle bleeding, oedema or other soft tissue injuries could be detected. The MRI findings from the patients were both correlated to reported symptoms 6 months after the accident and compared to a control group of 20 volunteers. The MRI of both brain and neck revealed no significant differences between the patients and the control group. When the patients were grouped according to the main MRI findings at intake and compared according to the development of subjective symptoms reported by the patients, the only significant difference was more headaches at 6 months in the groups with disk pathology or spondylosis when compared to the group with no pathology. In conclusion, MRI within 2 days of the whiplash neck-sprain injury could not detect pathology connected to the injury nor predict symptom development and outcome.
Ferrari, Robert; Shorter, Edward
The search for a specific structural basis for chronic whiplash and other chronic pain and fatigue syndromes has been in progress for decades, and yet currently there remains no "structural" solution to these enigmata. In light of the failure of research to identify the chronic "damage" or pathology as lying in a muscular, bony, or "connective tissue" sites for many chronic pain syndromes like whiplash, fibromyalgia, et cetera, more recent attention has been paid to nervous system structures. Nerve irritation has been implicated as the basis for the pain and other symptoms that are common to many chronic disability syndromes. We postulate here, however, that the concept of nervous irritation has been prostituted for centuries whenever more concrete structural explanations for chronic pain and other controversial illness have been untenable. We suggest that, after each cycle of nervous irritation as a disease, and subsequent dismissal of the notion, the doctrine of irritation as a disease was too good to go away. First, with the hypersthenic and asthenic diseases of the nineteenth century, then railway spine, whiplash, thoracic outlet syndrome, and now brachial plexus irritation, we detect the same pattern: patients with symptoms, but no objective evidence of nerve disease. Nervous irritation has repeatedly served this purpose for the last 200 years. It is our intent that bringing an understanding of this trend will encourage current clinicians and researchers to appreciate the need to abandon this form of speculation without historical insight when dealing with today's controversial syndromes.
Ferrari, R; Kwan, O; Russell, A S; Pearce, J M; Schrader, H
The Quebec Task Force (QTF) on Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD)--1995--sent a clear message that we need to re-evaluate the basis for our treatment strategies, and in particular place more emphasis on research to better define these strategies. Judging by many of the clinical strategies currently in use, the Task Force recommendations seem to have been largely ignored three years later. A further compelling reason to re-evaluate our current practices at this time is the finding of much more rapid recovery rates in some cultures, even with little or no therapy. This commentary is a frank consideration of the therapeutic community's responsibility to not only help solve the dilemma of whiplash, but also avoid contributing to the problem. We thus explore a new biopsychosocial model of whiplash, considering the effects of symptom expectation, amplification, and attribution in chronic pain reporting. Based on that model we propose a treatment strategy, and conclude that such strategies provide the only viable approach to this medicolegal and social dilemma.
Yao, Hua-Dong; Svensson, Mats Y; Nilsson, Håkan
In vehicle collisions, the occupant's torso is accelerated in a given direction while the unsupported head tends to lag behind. This mechanism results in whiplash motion to the neck. In whiplash experiments conducted for animals, pressure transients have been recorded in the spinal canal. It was hypothesized that the transients caused dorsal root ganglion dysfunction. Neck motion introduces volume changes inside the vertebral canal. The changes require an adaptation which is likely achieved by redistribution of blood volume in the internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP). Pressure transients then arise from the rapid redistribution. The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis theoretically and analytically. Further, the objectives were to quantify the effect of the neck motion on the pressure generation and to identify the physical factors involved. We developed a hydrodynamic system of tubes that represent the IVVP and its lateral intervertebral vein connections. An analytical model was developed for an anatomical geometrical relation that the venous blood volume changes with respect to the vertebral angular displacement. This model was adopted in the hydrodynamic tube system so that the system can predict the pressure transients on the basis of the neck vertebral motion data from a whiplash experiment. The predicted pressure transients were in good agreement with the earlier experimental data. A parametric study was conducted and showed that the system can be used to assess the influences of anatomical geometrical properties and vehicle collision severity on the pressure generation.
Lowry, Carina D; O'Hearn, Michael A; Courtney, Carol A
Whiplash injuries of the cervical spine comprise 30% of injuries reported following motor vehicle accident (MVA) and often progress to chronic painful conditions. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a 37-year-old female referred to physical therapy with neck and shoulder pain after whiplash injury. The patient demonstrated limited cervical and shoulder active range of motion as well as quantitative sensory testing (QST) results consistent with central nervous system sensitization. She was treated for 11 visits over a 6-week period with manual therapy and specific exercise directed to the cervicothoracic spine. Her pain decreased from 9/10 to 2/10 by the end of treatment and remained improved at 1/10 at the 6-month follow-up. Her Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale decreased from 23/30 to 4/30 by the 11th visit. In addition, she demonstrated clinically significant increases in cervical active range of motion and normal somatosensation. Manual therapy of the cervicothoracic spine may be a beneficial adjunct to the standard care of patients with signs and symptoms of central sensitization after whiplash-associated disorder and primary report of neck and shoulder pain.
Development Program. The authors have nothing to disclose. a Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery , San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke...Drive, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX 78234, USA; b Department of Surgery , Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD...Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 810
Martin, Kathleen D; Molitor-Kirsch, Shirley; Elgart, Heidi; Ruffolo, Daria C; Sicoutris, Corinna; Meredith, Denise
The need for advanced practice nurses (APN) has expanded over the past several decades as a result of the changing healthcare environment. Increased patient acuity and decreased resident work hours have lead to a need for additional clinical expertise at the bedside. APNs are becoming an integral part of the acute care delivery team in many trauma programs and intensive care units. To date little has been published regarding the role of the APN in Trauma Centers. This article outlines the wide variety of responsibilities and services provided by a select group of nurse practitioners who work in trauma centers throughout the United States.
Livingstone AS, Schulman CI, Namias N, Proctor KG: Is hydroxyethyl starch safe in penetrating trauma patients? An analysis with propensity score...with hydroxyethyl starch J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Dec;77(6):859-864. 9) Allen CJ, Tashiro J, Valle EJ, Thorson CM, Shariatmadar S, Schulman CI... starch solutions safe in trauma patients? Presented at 2014 MHSRS (Military Health Science Research Symposium), Fort Lauderdale, FL, Aug 2014 14
James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A
A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events.
Plumb, Jacqui L.; Bush, Kelly A.; Kersevich, Sonia E.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are a common and pervasive problem. There is a positive correlation between ACEs and difficulties across the lifespan. Unlike healthy forms of stress, ACEs have a detrimental impact on the developing brain. There are three types of trauma: acute, chronic, and complex. Most ACEs are considered complex trauma,…
Messing, Jonathan; Garces-King, Jasmine; Taylor, Dennis; Van Horn, Jonathan; Sarani, Babak; Christmas, A Britton
Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants, collectively known as advanced practitioners (APs), enhance the provision of care for the acutely injured patient. Despite their prevalence, institutions employ, train, and utilize these providers with significant variability. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST), the Society of Trauma Nurses (STN), and the American Association of Surgical Physicians Assistants (AASPA) acknowledge the value of APs and support their utilization in the management of injured and critically ill patients. This position paper offers insight into the history of, scope of practice for, and opportunities for optimal utilization of APs in trauma, critical care, and acute care surgery services.
Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien
Recent studies have proposed that a high rate of acceleration onset, i.e. high jerk, during a low-speed vehicle collision increases the risk of whiplash injury by triggering inappropriate muscle responses and/or increasing peak head acceleration. Our goal was to test these proposed mechanisms at realistic jerk levels and then to determine how collision jerk affects the potential for whiplash injuries. Twenty-three seated volunteers (8 F, 15 M) were exposed to multiple experiments involving perturbations simulating the onset of a vehicle collision in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In the first experiment, subjects experienced five forward and five rearward perturbations to look for the inappropriate muscle responses and ‘floppy’ head kinematics previously attributed to high jerk perturbations. In the second experiment, we independently varied the jerk (∼125 to 3 000 m s−3) and acceleration (∼0.65 to 2.6 g) of the perturbation to assess their effect on the electromyographic (EMG) responses of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), scalene (SCAL) and cervical paraspinal (PARA) muscles and the kinematic responses of the head and neck. In the first experiment, we found neither inappropriate muscle responses nor floppy head kinematics when subjects had their eyes open, but observed two subjects with floppy head kinematics with eyes closed. In the second experiment, we found that about 70% of the variations in the SCM and SCAL responses and about 95% of the variations in head/neck kinematics were explained by changes in perturbation acceleration in both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Less than 2% of the variation in the muscle and kinematic responses was explained by changes in perturbation jerk and, where significant, response amplitudes diminished with increasing jerk. Based on these findings, collision jerk appears to have little or no role in the genesis of whiplash injuries in low-speed vehicle crashes. PMID:19237420
segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients). An additional 23 prehospital patients were excluded because of missing or incomplete data...tool (J Trauma Acute Care Surgery 2014 Mar;76(3):743-9.), and is among the important findings from this project...Trauma Acute Care Surgery 2014 Mar;76(3):743-9 2) Van Haren RM, Ryan ML, Thorson CM, Namias N, Livingstone AS, Proctor KG: Bilateral near infrared
Whiplash injury medico-legal reporting has traditionally been focused upon identifying restrictions in range of motion and identifying the presence of tender areas in the cervical spine in an effort both to diagnose the condition and to offer a prognosis. There have been considerable advances in this field over the last decade however that calls into question such a diminutive approach. This paper reviews the contemporary evidence base for the medico-legal assessment of whiplash injury and identifies a body of literature that strongly implicates a Claimant's physiological and psychological stress response as a key medico-legal marker in predicting prognosis following whiplash injury.
Schneider, R; Moebius, C; Thelen, A; Jonas, S
Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominal pain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis.
Pääkkönen, Markus; Kallio, Markku J T; Lankinen, Petteri; Peltola, Heikki; Kallio, Pentti E
Preceding trauma may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of hematogenous bone and joint infections. Among 345 children with an acute hematogenous bone and/or joint infection, 20% reported trauma during a 2-week period leading to infection. Blunt impact, bruises, or excoriations were commonly reported. The rate was similar to that in the general pediatric population obtained from the literature. In the study group, patients with and without trauma were similar in age, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, length of hospitalization, and late sequelae. Preceding minor trauma did not prove to be significant as an etiological or as a prognostic factor.
Govett, G S; Amedee, R G
Otolaryngologists are commonly called upon to emergently evaluate blunt trauma to the facial skeleton. These injuries are occasionally associated with serious trauma to the orbital contents. This manuscript reviews these orbital injuries by considering the pertinent eye anatomy and the extensive examination usually performed by an ophthalmologist. Anterior and posterior segment injuries along with specific trauma to the optic nerve will also be discussed.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008
This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…
Military Sexual Trauma What is military sexual trauma (MST)? Military sexual trauma, or MST, is the term used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault ... that a Veteran experienced during his or her military service. The definition used by the VA comes ...
Chambers, Jamie C.
The effects of trauma can roll on unchecked like a spirit of death. In its path are strewn its once vibrant victims. Human bonds are rent asunder by the disgrace of trauma. These are the youngsters who have been verbally bashed, physically battered, sexually assaulted, and spiritually exploited. Other traumas of childhood neglect include: (1)…
Rod, Eduard; Ivkovic, Alan; Boric, Igor; Jankovic, Sasa; Radic, Andrej; Hudetz, Damir
We report on 2 cases of hyperextension/valgus elbow injuries in two adult male national team water polo goalkeepers. Both were healthy and had never sustained any major injuries of the elbow. Mechanism and type of injury in both of them was identical. Different medical treatment protocols of these injuries possibly have led to different outcomes, with one of them developing osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Inadequate medical treatment of acute impact elbow injuries could lead to osteochondritis disecans of the elbow in top-level adult male water polo goalkeepers.
Gruen, Russell L.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; McIntyre, Lisa K.; Foy, Hugh M.; Maier, Ronald V.
Objective: To identify patterns of errors contributing to inpatient trauma deaths. Methods: All inpatient trauma deaths at a high-volume level I trauma center from 1996 to 2004 inclusive were audited. Data were collected with daily trauma registry chart abstraction, weekly morbidity and mortality reports, hospital quality assurance reports, and annual trauma registry analyses of risk of death using TRISS and HARM methodology. Deaths that met criteria for low to medium probability of mortality or those with quality of care concerns were analyzed for errors and then subjected to 3-stage peer review at weekly departmental, monthly hospital, and annual regional forums. Patterns of errors were constructed from the compiled longitudinal data. Results: In 9 years, there were 44,401 trauma patient admissions and 2594 deaths (5.8%), of which 601 met low to medium mortality risks. Sixty-four patients (0.14% admissions, 2.47% deaths) had recognized errors in care that contributed to their death. Important error patterns included: failure to successfully intubate, secure or protect an airway (16%), delayed operative or angiographic control of acute abdominal/pelvic hemorrhage (16%), delayed intervention for ongoing intrathoracic hemorrhage (9%), inadequate DVT or gastrointestinal prophylaxis (9%), lengthy initial operative procedures rather than damage control surgery in unstable patients (8%), over-resuscitation with fluids (5%), and complications of feeding tubes (5%). Resulting data-directed institutional and regional trauma system policy changes have demonstrably reduced the incidence of associated error-related deaths. Conclusions: Preventable deaths will occur even in mature trauma systems. This review has identified error patterns that are likely common in all trauma systems, and for which policy interventions can be effectively targeted. PMID:16926563
Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G; Brault, John R; Inglis, J Timothy
Background The cervical multifidus muscles insert onto the lower cervical facet capsular ligaments and the cervical facet joints are the source of pain in some chronic whiplash patients. Reflex activation of the multifidus muscle during a whiplash exposure could potentially contribute to injuring the facet capsular ligament. Our goal was to determine the onset latency and activation amplitude of the cervical multifidus muscles to a simulated rear-end collision and a loud acoustic stimuli. Methods Wire electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were inserted unilaterally into the cervical multifidus muscles of 9 subjects (6M, 3F) at the C4 and C6 levels. Seated subjects were then exposed to a forward acceleration (peak acceleration 1.55 g, speed change 1.8 km/h) and a loud acoustic tone (124 dB, 40 ms, 1 kHz). Results Aside from one female, all subjects exhibited multifidus activity after both stimuli (8 subjects at C4, 6 subjects at C6). Neither onset latencies nor EMG amplitude varied with stimulus type or spine level (p > 0.13). Onset latencies and amplitudes varied widely, with EMG activity appearing within 160 ms of stimulus onset (for at least one of the two stimuli) in 7 subjects. Conclusion These data indicate that the multifidus muscles of some individuals are active early enough to potentially increase the collision-induced loading of the facet capsular ligaments. PMID:18534030
Sullivan, Michael; Adams, Heather; Thibault, Pascal; Moore, Emily; Carrière, Junie S; Lariviere, Christian
The present study examined the relation between return-to-work and the maintenance of treatment gains made over the course of a rehabilitation intervention. The study sample consisted of 110 individuals who had sustained whiplash injuries in rear collision motor vehicle accidents and were work-disabled at the time of enrolment in the study. Participants completed pre- and post-treatment measures of pain severity, disability, cervical range of motion, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms and catastrophizing. Pain severity was assessed again at 1-year follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, 73 participants had returned to work and 37 remained work-disabled. Analyses revealed that participants who returned to work were more likely to maintain treatment gains (77.5%) than participants who remained work-disabled (48%), χ = 6.3, p < .01. The results of a regression analysis revealed that the relation between return-to-work and the maintenance of treatment gains remained significant (β = .30, p < .01), even when controlling for potential confounders such as pain severity, restricted range of motion, depression and pain catastrophizing. The Discussion addresses the processes by which prolonged work-disability might contribute to the failure to maintain treatment gains. Important knowledge gaps still remain concerning the individual, workplace and systems variables that might play a role in whether or not the gains made in the rehabilitation of whiplash injury are maintained. Clinical implications of the findings are also addressed.
McClune, T; Burton, A; Waddell, G
Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted, which included both clinical and non-clinical articles to encompass the wide range of patients' informational needs. From the studies and previous reviews retrieved, 163 were selected for detailed review. The review process considered the quantity, consistency, and relevance of all selected articles. These were categorised under a grading system to reflect the quality of the evidence, and then linked to derived evidence statements. Results: The main messages that emerged were: physical serious injury is rare; reassurance about good prognosis is important; over-medicalisation is detrimental; recovery is improved by early return to normal pre-accident activities, self exercise, and manual therapy; positive attitudes and beliefs are helpful in regaining activity levels; collars, rest, and negative attitudes and beliefs delay recovery and contribute to chronicity. These findings were synthesised into patient centred messages with the potential to reduce the risk of chronicity. Conclusions: The scientific evidence on whiplash associated disorders is of variable quality, but sufficiently robust and consistent for the purpose of guiding patient information and advice. While the delivery of appropriate messages can be both oral and written, consistency is imperative, so an innovative patient educational booklet, The Whiplash Book, has been developed and published. PMID:12421771
Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Andreisek, Gustav; McFarland, Edward G; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh
The purpose of this study was to determine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to synovial injury of the shoulder in patients with and without acute shoulder trauma. Three hundred and nine consecutive shoulder MRI studies (185-male, 124-female, 50 ± 15 years old) were retrospectively evaluated for findings suggestive of synovial injury including rupture and/or diverticulum of the joint capsule, bursa, and biceps tendon sheath (BTS), ganglion/synovial cyst, geyser phenomenon, and sequel of previous shoulder dislocation (Hill-Sachs deformity). Patients with one or more of these findings were included in the MR-positive group, whereas the remaining subjects were used as MR negatives. Based on their medical records, patients were also divided into trauma and non-trauma groups, and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the aforementioned MRI findings and history of shoulder trauma. Fifty-six patients were included in the MR-positive group and 253 in the MR-negative group. In MR-positive group, the incidence of capsular rupture (CR) and subacromial/subdeltoid (SASD) bursal rupture was higher in trauma patients, whereas the incidence of BTS diverticulum and ganglion cyst was higher in subjects without trauma. Significant association was found between the history of acute trauma and CR, SASD bursal rupture, BTS rupture, and Hill-Sachs deformity. In shoulder MR examination, presence of CR and/or SASD bursal rupture is strongly suggestive of acute shoulder trauma. In addition, BTS rupture and Hill-Sachs deformity are more prevalent in patients with acute shoulder trauma. The presence of these features should alert MRI readers to assess for additional trauma-related internal derangements, if a respective history has not been provided.
Lendrum, R A; Lockey, D J
The word 'trauma' describes the disease entity resulting from physical injury. Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and deaths due to injury look set to increase. As early as the 1970s, it became evident that centralisation of resources and expertise could reduce the mortality rate from serious injury and that organisation of trauma care delivery into formal systems could improve outcome further. Internationally, trauma systems have evolved in various forms, with widespread reports of mortality and functional outcome benefits when major trauma management is delivered in this way. The management of major trauma in England is currently undergoing significant change. The London Trauma System began operating in April 2010 and others throughout England became operational this year. Similar systems exist internationally and continue to be developed. Anaesthetists have been and continue to be involved with all levels of trauma care delivery, from the provision of pre-hospital trauma and retrieval teams, through to chronic pain management and rehabilitation of patients back into society. This review examines the international development of major trauma care delivery and the components of a modern trauma system.
Hazeldine, Jon; Hampson, Peter; Lord, Janet M
A well described consequence of traumatic injury is immune dysregulation, where an initial increase in immune activity is followed by a period of immune depression, the latter leaving hospitalised trauma patients at an increased risk of nosocomial infections. Here, we discuss the emerging role of the neutrophil, the most abundant leucocyte in human circulation and the first line of defence against microbial challenge, in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response to trauma. We review the findings of the most recent studies to have investigated the impact of trauma on neutrophil function and discuss how alterations in neutrophil biology are being investigated as potential biomarkers by which to predict the outcome of hospitalised trauma patients. Furthermore, with trauma-induced changes in neutrophil biology linked to the development of such post-traumatic complications as multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we highlight an area of research within the field of trauma immunology that is gaining considerable interest: the manipulation of neutrophil function as a means by which to potentially improve patient outcome.
Nadarasa, Jeyendran; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Franck; Willinger, Rémy; Raul, Jean-Sébastien
Violently shaking a baby leads to clinical presentations ranging from seizures to cardiopulmonary arrest. The main injuries sustained are retinal hemorrhages, subdural hemorrhages, and sometimes fractures and spine injury. It is important to have a global view of the injuries sustained by the infant to correctly discuss the biomechanical aspects of abusive head trauma. Recent works based on finite element models have shown that whiplash-shaking alone is enough to generate vitreo-retinal traction leading to retinal hemorrhage and to cause the rupture of bridging veins leading to subdural hemorrhage. We will review the main papers dealing with the mechanisms of shaken baby syndrome and present the most relevant hypothesis concerning the biomechanical aspects of injuries related to shaken baby syndrome.
The cervical spine in lateral view is discussed and a method based on digital statistical analysis is used to reproduce quantitative data of the... cervical lordosis. (2) Marked straightening of the cervical spine. (3) Segmental straightening with reversal of the curve. Part II discusses the use of...the digital analysis to determine the displacement in subjects that have sustained ligamentous injuries of the cervical spine following whiplash injury.
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Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark
Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries.
Anderson-Peacock, Elizabeth; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Bryans, Roland; Danis, Normand; Furlan, Andrea; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Rick; Gross Stein, Janice; White, Eleanor
OBJECTIVE To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic cervical treatment of adults with acute or chronic neck pain not due to whiplash. This is a considerable health concern considered to be a priority by stakeholders, and about which the scientific information was poorly organized. OPTIONS Cervical treatments: manipulation, mobilization, ischemic pressure, clinic- and home-based exercise, traction, education, low-power laser, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, pillows, pulsed electromagnetic therapy, and ultrasound. OUTCOMES The primary outcomes considered were improved (reduced and less intrusive) pain and improved (increased and easier) ranges of motion (ROM) of the adult cervical spine. EVIDENCE An “extraction” team recorded evidence from articles found by literature search teams using 4 separate literature searches, and rated it using a Table adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. The searches were 1) Treatment; August, 2003, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ICL, The Cochrane Library (includes CENTRAL), and EBSCO, identified 182 articles. 2) Risk management (adverse events); October, 2004, identified 230 articles and 2 texts. 3) Risk management (dissection); September, 2003, identified 79 articles. 4) Treatment update; a repeat of the treatment search for articles published between September, 2003 and November, 2004 inclusive identified 121 articles. VALUES To enable the search of the literature, the authors (Guidelines Development Committee [GDC]) regarded chiropractic treatment as including elements of “conservative” care in the search strategies, but not in the consideration of the range of chiropractic practice. Also, knowledge based only on clinical experience was considered less valid and reliable than good-caliber evidence, but where the caliber of the relevant evidence was low or it was non-existent, unpublished clinical experience was considered to be equivalent to
Chen, Min; Huang, Ping; Wan, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Ning-Guo; Zou, Dong-Hua; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Qin, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Yi-Jiu
A 45-year-old male car driver died in a traffic accident of four cars rear-end collision on the highway. He was found to have died after a respiratory and cardiac arrest at the scene. No sign of skin injuries was observed from the external inspection. The autopsy was not permitted by the family members because of the local culture. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was applied to the current case, showing dislocation of C3-4 cervical vertebrae with II degree, C4 vertebral plate fractures, and spinal stenosis. Post-mortem MSCT confirmed the diagnosis as whiplash injuries. MSCT was verified to be effective in showing the severity of whiplash injuries, thus providing certain objective evidence for medicolegal expertise.
Ciesla, David J; Moore, Ernest E; Cothren, C Clay; Johnson, Jeffery L; Burch, Jon M
Summary The general surgeon’s growing disinterest in trauma is fueled by lack of surgical opportunity and high burden of non operative responsibilities. The majority of care provided by the trauma surgeon supports other procedure oriented specialties. This is a major deterrent surgeon participation in trauma care and must be addressed in the evolution of the Acute Care Surgeon. Background The role of the trauma surgeon is perceived to be mostly supportive of other procedure oriented specialties. We designed this study to characterize the operative and nonoperative responsibilities of the contemporary trauma surgeon. Methods Trauma patients admitted to an urban academic Level I Trauma Center were studied using trauma registry data for 2004. Results The large majority of patients admitted to trauma service have mild single system injuries to one or two anatomic regions. Most (57%) did not have injuries to the neck, chest, or abdomen. Head and extremity injuries were present in 45% and 46% of patients respectively. Operations were performed by orthopedists in 28%, trauma surgeons in 11% and neurosurgeons in 6% of patiets respectively. Conclusions The contemporary trauma surgeon has little operative opportunity and provides a disproportionate amount of nonoperative care in supportive of consultant specialists. This is a major deterrent to general surgeon interest in trauma care and must be addressed as the Acute Care Surgeon evolves. PMID:17161084
Rebbeck, Trudy; Liebert, Ann
Cranio-vertebral instability (CVI) due to loss of bony or ligamentous integrity is one of the sequelae that may result after a whiplash mechanism injury. Due to the lack of specificity of diagnostic tests, this condition is often missed and the default classification of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) is assigned. This case report describes a 14-year-old boy who was initially classified with WAD II after a rugby injury. He was initially advised to return to usual activity, a treatment recommended in clinical guidelines for WAD. Due to an adverse response to this course of action, his primary carer, a musculoskeletal physiotherapist, continued with facilitating secondary referrals that ultimately led to a specialist physiotherapist. The patient was subsequently found to have CVI arising from a loss of bony integrity due to spina bifida atlanto, a congenital defect in the atlas. Treatment thus was immobilization and stabilization, a treatment usually recommended against in WAD guidelines. The patient recovered and within 8 weeks had returned to school and non-contact sports. This case study, therefore, presents a scenario where current clinical guidelines for whiplash could not be followed, and where pursuing clinical reasoning led to accurate diagnosis as well as safe and tailored management. The case also highlights the integrated roles that primary and specialist health professionals should play in the clinical pathway of care after WAD. As a result, an expanded diagnostic algorithm and pathway of care for WAD are proposed.
Ahmadi, Alireza; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Heidari Zadie, Zahra; Euasobhon, Pramote; Ketumarn, Penkae; Karbasfrushan, Ali; Amini-Saman, Javad; Mohammadi, Reza
Abstract: Background: Pain in trauma has a role similar to the double-edged sword. On the one hand, pain is a good indicator to determine the severity and type of injury. On the other hand, pain can induce sever complications and it may lead to further deterioration of the patient. Therefore, knowing how to manage pain in trauma patients is an important part of systemic approach in trauma. The aim of this manuscript is to provide information about pain management in trauma in the Emergency Room settings. Methods: In this review we searched among electronic and manual documents covering a 15-yr period between 2000 and 2016. Our electronic search included Pub Med, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. We looked for articles in English and in peer-reviewed journals using the following keywords: acute pain management, trauma, emergency room and injury. Results: More than 3200 documents were identified. After screening based on the study inclusion criteria, 560 studies that had direct linkage to the study aim were considered for evaluation based World Health Organization (WHO) pain ladder chart. Conclusions: To provide adequate pain management in trauma patients require: adequate assessment of age-specific pharmacologic pain management; identification of adequate analgesic to relieve moderate to severe pain; cognizance of serious adverse effects of pain medications and weighting medications against their benefits, and regularly reassessing patients and reevaluating their pain management regimen. Patient-centered trauma care will also require having knowledge of barriers to pain management and discussing them with the patient and his/her family to identify solutions. PMID:27414816
Rippey, James C R; Royse, Alistair G
Point-of-care ultrasound is well suited for use in the emergency setting for assessment of the trauma patient. Currently, portable ultrasound machines with high-resolution imaging capability allow trauma patients to be imaged in the pre-hospital setting, emergency departments and operating theatres. In major trauma, ultrasound is used to diagnose life-threatening conditions and to prioritise and guide appropriate interventions. Assessment of the basic haemodynamic state is a very important part of ultrasound use in trauma, but is discussed in more detail elsewhere. Focussed assessment with sonography for Trauma (FAST) rapidly assesses for haemoperitoneum and haemopericardium, and the Extended FAST examination (EFAST) explores for haemothorax, pneumothorax and intravascular filling status. In regional trauma, ultrasound can be used to detect fractures, many vascular injuries, musculoskeletal injuries, testicular injuries and can assess foetal viability in pregnant trauma patients. Ultrasound can also be used at the bedside to guide procedures in trauma, including nerve blocks and vascular access. Importantly, these examinations are being performed by the treating physician in real time, allowing for immediate changes to management of the patient. Controversy remains in determining the best training to ensure competence in this user-dependent imaging modality.
Lozano, Luis Manuel Barrera; Perel, Pablo; Ker, Katharine; Cirocchi, Roberto; Farinella, Eriberto; Morales, Carlos Hernando
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of thromboprophylaxis in trauma patients on mortality and incidence of DVT and PE. To compare the effects of different thromboprophylaxis interventions and their relative effects according to the type of trauma. PMID:25267908
Terr, Lenore C
This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.
... up after Facial trauma: A prospective study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997: 117:72-75 Kim MK, Buchman ... trauma in children: An urban hospitals experience. Otolaryngoly–Head Neck Surgery 2000: 123: 439-43 Patient Health Home ...
Clements, J Randolph; Schopf, Robert
Forefoot traumas, particularly involving the metatarsals, are commonly occurring injuries. There have been several advances in management of these injuries. These advances include updates in operative technique, internal fixation options, plating constructs, and external fixation. In addition, the advances of soft tissue management have improved outcomes. This article outlines these injuries and provides an update on techniques, principles, and understanding of managing forefoot trauma.
Martín, Gonzalo Martín; Morillas, Patricia Jiménez; Pino, José C. Rodríguez; Canis, José M. Morón; Argenté, Francesc X. González
Introduction Pancreatic lesions are very infrequent after closed abdominal trauma (5% of cases) with a complication rate that affects 30–40% of patients, and a mortality rate that can reach 39%. In our experience, closed abdominal traumatisms occurring at typical popular horse-riding festivals in our region constitute a high risk of pancreatic trauma. The purpose of the present paper is to raise awareness about our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic lesions secondary to closed abdominal traumatism. Presentation of case We present the clinical cases of two young patients who, after suffering blunt abdominal trauma secondary to the impact of a horse during the celebration of typical horse-riding festival, were diagnosed with pancreatic trauma type III. The treatment was surgical in both cases and consisted in performing a pancreaticogastric anastomosis with preservation of the distal pancreas and spleen. The postoperative period was uneventful and, at present, both patients are asymptomatic. Discussion Signs and symptoms caused by pancreatic lesion are unspecific and difficult to objectify. With some limitations CT is the imaging test of choice for diagnosis and staging in the acute phase. The Wirsung section is indication for surgical treatment. The most extended surgical procedure in these cases is the resection of pancreatic body, tail, and spleen. Conclusion The identification of a pancreatic injury after closed abdominal trauma requires a high suspicion based on the injury mechanism. A safer option may be the distal pancreatic preservation with pancreaticogastric anastomosis in grade III lesions with healthy pancreatic tissue. PMID:25744560
In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail.
Lajevardi, Sepehr Seyed; Galougahi, Keyvan Karimi; Nova, George; Marshman, David
Right atrial rupture secondary to blunt trauma is exceedingly rare. We present a case report of blunt chest trauma and right atrial rupture in a patient with a background of pericardiectomy that were successfully managed surgically. Right atrial rupture must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with blunt chest trauma. In patients with previous pericardiectomy, this injury may manifest with massive hemothorax, and insertion of a chest drain should be performed with extreme caution. In our experience, urgent exploratory thoracotomy and repair of the defect are the mainstays of acute management.
Steffen, Armin; Frenzel, Henning
Smaller injuries of the auricle, such as lacerations without tissue loss, have more or less standardized treatment protocols that require thorough wound closure of each affected layer. Even extended lacerations of larger parts of the ear quite often heal with only minor irregularities. New in vivo diagnostic tools have aided the understanding of this outstanding "skin flap behavior." At the other end of the trauma severity spectrum are partial or complete amputations of the ear. Here, the debate has become more intense over the last decade. There were numerous reports of successful microvascular reattachments in the 1990s. Consequently, pocket methods and their variations have received increasing attention because the results seem to be convincing. Nevertheless, the pressure damage due to banking larger parts of the elastic cartilage in the mastoid region is tremendous, and the tissue for secondary reconstruction is severely injured. Particularly in cases of acute trauma with relevant concomitant injuries to the patient and in cases in which the amputated area is in a critical state, direct wound closure is a straightforward and safe option. Subsequent thoughtfully planned secondary reconstruction using ear or rib cartilage, or even allogenous material as an ear framework, can achieve excellent aesthetic results.
Currently, there is great variation in the way trauma and non-trauma emergency surgery is organized in Europe. Trauma system development based on orthopedic trauma surgery seems to be more advanced in the central European countries and less developed in Scandinavia, The Baltic States, United Kingdom and the Mediterranean countries. Specific training for trauma surgery correlates with higher level of trauma system development. Multiple common features in the management of a surgical emergency, whether caused by injury or acute disease process, would favor the integration of these two disciplines into a single organizational and educational entity based on regionalization of emergency surgical services and general surgery-based education aiming for multidisciplinary team leadership and decision making skills, and surgical competence in acute life- and limb-saving surgery.
isoflurane. Polytrauma was induced by damaging 10 cm of small intestines, the right and medial liver lobes, the right leg skeletal muscle, and fracture of...right leg skeletal muscle and by fracture of the right femur. A midline incision was made through the abdominal skin and underlying muscle layers. A...clamp. The in- testines and liver were replaced, and the abdominal incision closed with su- tures in two layers. To fracture the left femur, we use a
Karmy-Jones, Riyad; Teso, Desarom; Jackson, Nicole; Ferigno, Lisa; Bloch, Robert
Traumatic thoracic aortic injury remains a major cause of death following motor vehicle accidents. Endovascular approaches have begun to supersede open repair, offering the hope of reduced morbidity and mortality. The available endovascular technology is associated with specific anatomic considerations and complications. This paper will review the current status of endovascular management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries. PMID:21160721
Auner, B; Marzi, I
Multiple trauma in children is rare so that even large trauma centers will only treat a small number of cases. Nevertheless, accidents are the most common cause of death in childhood whereby the causes are mostly traffic accidents and falls. Head trauma is the most common form of injury and the degree of severity is mostly decisive for the prognosis. Knowledge on possible causes of injury and injury patterns as well as consideration of anatomical and physiological characteristics are of great importance for treatment. The differences compared to adults are greater the younger the child is. Decompression and stopping bleeding are the main priorities before surgical fracture stabilization. The treatment of a severely injured child should be carried out by an interdisciplinary team in an approved trauma center with expertise in pediatrics. An inadequate primary assessment involves a high risk of early mortality. On the other hand children have a better prognosis than adults with comparable injuries.
... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business ... Depression Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Schizophrenia Substance Use Suicide Prevention I am a... Returning Veteran Veteran in ...
Kenefake, Mary Ella; Swarm, Matthew; Walthall, Jennifer
Pediatric trauma evaluation mimics adult stabilization in that it is best accomplished with a focused and systematic approach. Attention to developmental differences, anatomic and physiologic nuances, and patterns of injury equip emergency physicians to stabilize and manage pediatric injury.
... are some symptoms related to sexual trauma in boys and men? Particularly when the assailant is a ... those who do not. Emotional Disorders Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted are more likely ...
Morris, J A; Rosenbower, T J; Jurkovich, G J; Hoyt, D B; Harviel, J D; Knudson, M M; Miller, R S; Burch, J M; Meredith, J W; Ross, S E; Jenkins, J M; Bass, J G
HYPOTHESIS: Emergency cesarean sections in trauma patients are not justified and should be abandoned. SETTING AND DESIGN: A multi-institutional, retrospective cohort study was conducted of level 1 trauma centers. METHODS: Trauma admissions from nine level 1 trauma centers from January 1986 through December 1994 were reviewed. Pregnant women who underwent emergency cesarean sections were identified. Demographic and clinical data were obtained on all patients undergoing a cesarean section. Fetal distress was defined by bradycardia, deceleration, or lack of fetal heart tones (FHTs). Maternal distress was defined by shock (systolic blood pressure < 90) or acute decompensation. Statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 114,952 consecutive trauma admissions, more than 441 pregnant women required 32 emergency cesarean sections. All were performed for fetal distress, maternal distress, or both. Overall, 15 (45%) of the fetuses and 23 (72%) of the mothers survived. Of 33 fetuses delivered, 13 had no FHTs and none survived. Twenty infants (potential survivors) had FHTs and an estimated gestational age (EGA) of greater than or equal to 26 weeks, and 75% survived. Infant survival was independent of maternal distress or maternal Injury Severity Score. The five infant deaths in the group of potential survivors resulted from delayed recognition of fetal distress, and 60% of these deaths were in mothers with mild to moderate injuries (Injury Severity Score < 16). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant trauma patients, infant viability is defined by the presence of FHTs, estimated gestational age greater than or equal to 26 weeks. In viable infants, survival after emergency cesarean section is acceptable (75%). Infant survival is independent of maternal distress or Injury Severity Score. Sixty percent of infant deaths resulted from delay in recognition of fetal distress and cesarean section. These were potentially preventable. Given the definition of fetal viability, our initial
Cushing, M; Shaz, B H
Massive transfusion is an essential part of resuscitation efforts in acute trauma patients. The goal is to quickly correct trauma-induced coagulopathy and replace red blood cell (RBC) mass with the minimal number as well as the appropriate choice of blood components to minimize the possible adverse effects of transfusions. Early trauma induced coagulopathy (ETIC) is present in about 20% of patients upon hospital admission and predicts for decreased survival. The mechanism of ETIC is still being elucidated; however, most theories of ETIC's pathophysiology justify the early use of plasma. Most massive transfusion protocol (MTP) ratios deliver blood products in a ratio of 1:1:1 for RBCs:plasma:platelets, which is supported by the majority of the literature demonstrating improved patient survival with higher ratios (>1 plasma and platelet for every 2 RBCs transfused). Indeed, formula-driven MTPs allow trauma services to react quickly to ETIC and provide coagulation factors and platelets in these ratios without having to wait for the results of coagulation assays while the patient's coagulopathy worsens. New MTPs are being created which are adjusted according to an individual's coagulation laboratory values based on point-of-care laboratory tests, such as thromboelastography. When creating an MTP, product wastage due to inappropriate activation and improper product storage should be considered and closely monitored. Another area of discussion regarding transfusion in trauma includes the potential association of prolonged storage of RBCs and adverse outcomes, which has yet to be confirmed. Significant progress has been made in the transfusion management of trauma patients, but further studies are required to optimize patient care and outcomes.
van der Kolk, B A
Exposure to overwhelming stress often determines how people subsequently organize their perceptions of themselves and of others. Traumatic experiences at different developmental levels have different effects on cognitive, affective and biological self-organization. Acute or chronic exposure to trauma may be expressed as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), dissociative disorders, somatic disturbances and alterations in perception of self and others. These disorders involve (a) the involuntary repetitive re-living of the trauma in thoughts, images, somatic states or behaviors, (b) attempts to avoid dealing with reminders of the past, (c) problems with the modulation of physiological responses to subsequent stress, and (d) a loss of capacity to engage in love and work with pleasure and satisfaction. The display of extremes of emotional distress, or of bizarre or disorganized behaviors, easily obscures the fact that current problems may have their origins in past trauma. The recognition that many psychiatric patients organize much of their lives around repetitive patterns of re-living and warding off traumatic memories, reminders and affective states, may help clinicians understand their symptoms as misguided attempts to regain a sense of control and safety, rather than as bizarre behaviors that need to be merely controlled. Since safe attachments appear to be the primary way in which children learn to regulate internal state changes, the negotiation of interpersonal safety needs to be the first focus of treatment. Since the labeling and categorization of emotional states is one of the principal areas of functioning that is disrupted by developmental trauma, treatment needs to include learning how to use words to understand and interpret feelings in general and stressful events, in particular. Since distrust and lack of social safety are critical parts of developmental trauma, structure and predictability are essential. Identifying specific trauma-based perceptions
Bates, P; Parker, P; McFadyen, I; Pallister, I
Trauma care has evolved rapidly over the past decade. The benefits of operative fracture management in major trauma patients are well recognised. Concerns over early total care arose when applied broadly. The burden of additional surgical trauma could constitute a second hit, fuelling the inflammatory response and precipitating a decline into acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Temporary external fixation aimed to deliver the benefits of fracture stabilisation without the risk of major surgery. This damage control orthopaedics approach was advocated for those in extremis and a poorly defined borderline group. An increasing understanding of the physiological response to major trauma means there is now a need to refine our treatment options. A number of large scale retrospective reviews indicate that early definitive fracture fixation is beneficial in the majority of major trauma patients. It is recommended that patients are selected appropriately on the basis of their response to resuscitation. The hope is that this approach (dubbed ‘safe definitive fracture surgery’ or ‘early appropriate care’) will herald an era when care is individualised for each patient and their circumstances. The novel Damage Control in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery course at The Royal College of Surgeons of England aims to equip senior surgeons with the insights and mindset necessary to contribute to this key decision making process as well as also the technical skills to provide damage control interventions when needed, relying on the improved techniques of damage control resuscitation and advances in the understanding of early appropriate care. PMID:27023640
Bergaminelli, C; De Angelis, P; Gauthier, P; Salzano, A; Vecchio, G
A group of 191 cases of emergency tube thoracostomy for acute trauma reviewed retrospectively from March 1993 to March 1998 is reported. Of this group 169 were men and 22 were women. Their ages ranged from 16 to 73 years. The causes were as follows: 89 cases (46%) road accident; 33 cases (17%) accidental trauma; 33 cases (17%) someone else violence (assault, gunshot or stab wound); 15 cases (8%) work accident; 11 cases (6%) domestic accident and 5 cases (3%) iatrogenic trauma. In 32 patients a diagnosis of pneumothorax was made (2 tension, 11 for penetrating chest injuries, 19 after blunt trauma). In 2 cases of tension pneumothorax and in 3 cases of open pneumothorax a chest tube (24-28 Fr) in the third space in the mid-clavicular line was introduced. In the other patients it was decided to place a chest tube in the mid-axillary line in the fifth intercostal space to drain pneumothorax. Only in 7 cases suction was necessary. Fifty-four hemothorax (3 bilateral) were treated in 11 cases using thoracentesis, while the remaining cases were treated using the insertion of multiple drainage holes in the intercostal space (fifth in the mid-axillary line directed inferiorly and posteriorly). One hundred and three were the cases of hemopneumothorax: 24 of them received 2 chest tubes, the first (20-26 Fr) apically in the second intercostal space in the mid-clavicular line, the second (32-38 Fr) in the fifth intercostal space in the mid-axillary line. All the other cases were treated using a single thoracostomy. In 14 cases suction was applied. Two cases of chylothorax resolved by a large tube positioned in the chest (fifth intercostal space in the mid-axillary line) with a constant negative pressure were also observed. Duration of tube drainage ranged from 4 and 18 days, with an average of 11 days. Five infections of thoracostomy site and 1 empyema resolved by rethoracotomy were observed. Moreover, there were 3 complications: 2 subcutaneous placements and 1 little laceration
injury in blunt trauma.15,16 Of the 114 patients, 73 received either antiplatelet agents or anticoagulation , and none developed strokes. The remaining...41 patients were determined to have contraindications to anticoagu- lation and did not receive heparin or antiplatelet agents . Of these, 19 (46...continue to be exam- ined. As prohemostatic agents are being used more frequently in trauma, it is important to understand the natural history of
Pino Sánchez, F I; Ballesteros Sanz, M A; Cordero Lorenzana, L; Guerrero López, F
Traumatic disease is a major public health concern. Monitoring the quality of services provided is essential for the maintenance and improvement thereof. Assessing and monitoring the quality of care in trauma patient through quality indicators would allow identifying opportunities for improvement whose implementation would improve outcomes in hospital mortality, functional outcomes and quality of life of survivors. Many quality indicators have been used in this condition, although very few ones have a solid level of scientific evidence to recommend their routine use. The information contained in the trauma registries, spread around the world in recent decades, is essential to know the current health care reality, identify opportunities for improvement and contribute to the clinical and epidemiological research.
Moffatt, Samuel Edwin
Hypovolaemic shock that results through traumatically inflicted haemorrhage can have disastrous consequences for the victim. Initially the body can compensate for lost circulating volume, but as haemorrhage continues compensatory mechanisms fail and the patient's condition worsens significantly. Hypovolaemia results in the lethal triad, a combination of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy, three factors that are interlinked and serve to worsen each other. The lethal triad is a form of vicious cycle, which unless broken will result in death. This report will focus on the role of hypothermia (a third of the lethal triad) in trauma, examining literature to assess how prehospital temperature control can impact on the trauma patient. Spontaneous hypothermia following trauma has severely deleterious consequences for the trauma victim; however, both active warming of patients and clinically induced hypothermia can produce particularly positive results and improve patient outcome. Possible coagulopathic side effects of clinically induced hypothermia may be corrected with topical haemostatic agents, with the benefits of an extended golden hour given by clinically induced hypothermia far outweighing these risks. Active warming of patients, to prevent spontaneous trauma induced hypothermia, is currently the only viable method currently available to improve patient outcome. This method is easy to implement requiring simple protocols and contributes significantly to interrupting the lethal triad. However, the future of trauma care appears to lie with clinically induced therapeutic hypothermia. This new treatment provides optimism that in the future the number of deaths resulting from catastrophic haemorrhaging may be significantly lessened.
Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J
Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722
Wijaya, Ramesh; Cheng, Hui Min Gloria; Chong, Chee Keong
INTRODUCTION Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is increasingly used in civilian trauma cases to achieve better haemostatic resuscitation in patients requiring massive blood transfusions (MTs), with improved survival outcomes. However, in non-trauma patients, evidence for MTP is lacking. This study aims to assess the outcomes of a newly established MTP in a civilian setting, for both trauma and non-trauma patients, in an acute surgical care unit. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on 46 patients for whom MTP was activated in Changi General Hospital, Singapore. The patients were categorised into trauma and non-trauma groups. Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) score was used to identify MTP trauma patients and analyse over-activation rates. RESULTS Only 39.1% of all cases with MTP activation eventually received MTs; 39.8% of the MTs were for non-trauma patients. Mean fresh frozen plasma to packed red blood cells (pRBC) ratio achieved with MTP was 0.741, while mean platelet to pRBC ratio was 0.213. The 24-hour mortality rate for all patients who received an MT upon MTP activation was 33.3% (trauma vs. non-trauma group: 45.5% vs. 14.3%). The ABC scoring system used for trauma patients had a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8% and 41.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION MTP may be used for both trauma and non-trauma patients in acute care surgery. Scoring systems to predict the need for an MT, improved compliance to predefined transfusion ratios and regular reviews of the MTP are necessary to optimise MTPs and to improve the outcomes of patients receiving MTs. PMID:27211577
Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.
Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…
Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro
There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.
Carrigan, T; Field, H; Illingworth, R; Gaffney, P; Hamer, D
Objectives—To determine the prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use in patients with major trauma. Methods—Consecutive trauma patient enrolment, 24 hours a day, was envisaged with anonymised patient data on gender, age band, and mechanism of injury collected. The study group had surplus plasma quantitatively analysed for ethanol concentration, and urine samples were initially screened, via immunoassay, for opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and methadone. Confirmation and specification of individual positive results was then performed using thin layer or gas-liquid chromatography. Drugs of treatment given in the resuscitation room, if subsequently detected in the urine samples, were excluded from the final results. Results—There were 116 eligible trauma patients assessed and treated in the resuscitation room over a six month period, of which 93 (80%) were enrolled. Altogether 27% of this trauma population had plasma ethanol concentrations greater than 80 mg/dl. There was a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol intoxication in the group not involved in a road traffic accident (RTA) compared with the group who were involved in a RTA. Initial screening of urine for drugs revealed a prevalence of 51%. After 12 exclusions due to iatrogenic administration of opiates, the final confirmed prevalence was 35% in this trauma population. The individual drug prevalence was 13% for cannabinoids, 11% for codeine, 8% for morphine, 6% for amphetamine, 6% for benzodiazepines, 3% for cocaine, 1% for dihydrocodeine, and 1% for methadone. Conclusions—There is a notable prevalence of drug and alcohol use in this British accident and emergency trauma population. A significantly higher prevalence for alcohol intoxication was found in the non-RTA group compared with the RTA group. The patterns of drug usage detected reflect local influences and less cocaine use is seen compared with American studies. The association between alcohol, drugs
Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M
Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.
Whalen, Eileen; Hecker, Cynthia J; Butler, Steven
Harborview Medical Center in Seattle has been home to the pioneering work of University of Washington (UW) Medicine physicians and staff who have led innovations to improve trauma care for more than 40 years. As the only level I adult and pediatric trauma center and regional burn center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho, Harborview provides cares for more than 6500 critically injured trauma and burn patients per year. Our physicians, researchers and staff are recognized as national experts and as collaborative partners with nursing in the delivery of outstanding clinical care, research, and education. Beginning with the establishment of Seattle Medic One in the late 1960s, a groundbreaking program to train firefighters as paramedics, Harborview and the work of UW Medicine has been recognized locally and globally as a leader in every component of the ideal trauma system, as defined by the American College of Surgeons: prevention, access, acute hospital care, rehabilitation, education, and research activities.
Chignalia, Andreia Z.; Yetimakman, Feliz; Christiaans, Sarah C.; Unal, Sule; Bayrakci, Benan; Wagener, Brant M.; Russell, Robert T.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Dull, Randal O.
In the United States trauma is the leading cause of mortality among those under the age of 45, claiming approximately 192,000 lives each year. Significant personal disability, lost productivity and long term healthcare needs are common and contribute 580 billion dollars in economic impact each year. Improving resuscitation strategies and the early acute care of trauma patients has the potential to reduce the pathological sequelae of combined exuberant inflammation and immune suppression that can co-exist, or occur temporally, and adversely affect outcomes. The endothelial and epithelial glycocalyx has emerged as an important participant in both inflammation and immunomodulation. Constituents of the glycocalyx have been used as biomarkers of injury severity and have the potential to be target(s) for therapeutic interventions aimed at immune modulation. In this review, we provide a contemporary understanding of the physiologic structure and function of the glycocalyx and its role in traumatic injury with a particular emphasis on lung injury. PMID:26513707
Abrams, Simon T.; Zhang, Nan; Manson, Joanna; Liu, Tingting; Dart, Caroline; Baluwa, Florence; Wang, Susan Siyu; Brohi, Karim; Kipar, Anja; Yu, Weiping
Rationale: Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To investigate the pathological roles of circulating histones in trauma-induced lung injury. Methods: Circulating histone levels in patients with severe trauma were determined and correlated with respiratory failure and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Their cause–effect relationship was studied using cells and mouse models. Measurements and Main Results: In a cohort of 52 patients with severe nonthoracic blunt trauma, circulating histones surged immediately after trauma to levels that were toxic to cultured endothelial cells. The high levels were significantly associated with the incidence of acute lung injury and SOFA scores, as well as markers of endothelial damage and coagulation activation. In in vitro systems, histones damaged endothelial cells, stimulated cytokine release, and induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and myeloperoxidase release. Cellular toxicity resulted from their direct membrane interaction and resultant calcium influx. In mouse models, cytokines and markers for endothelial damage and coagulation activation significantly increased immediately after trauma or histone infusion. Pathological examinations showed that lungs were the predominantly affected organ with edema, hemorrhage, microvascular thrombosis, and neutrophil congestion. An anti-histone antibody could reduce these changes and protect mice from histone-induced lethality. Conclusions: This study elucidates a new mechanism for acute lung injury after severe trauma and proposes that circulating histones are viable therapeutic targets for improving survival
Moftakhar, Yasmin; Dobbins IV, Arthur L; Khan, Ramisha; Dasgupta, Rahul; Blanda, Rachel; Marchand, Tiffany; Ahmed, Rami
Introduction: Interns are often unprepared to effectively communicate in the acute trauma setting. Despite the many strengths of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program, the main shortcoming within the course is the deficiency of teamwork and leadership training. In this study, we describe the creation of an interdisciplinary boot camp in which interns' basic trauma knowledge, level of confidence, and teamwork skills are assessed. Methods: We designed a one-day, boot camp curriculum for interns of various specialties with the purpose of improving communication and teamwork skills for effective management of acute trauma patients. Our curriculum consisted of a one-day, twelve-hour experience, which included trauma patient simulations, content expert lectures, group discussion of video demonstrations, and skill development workstations. Baseline and acquired knowledge were assessed through the use of confidence surveys, cognitive questionnaires, and a validated evaluation tool of teamwork and leadership skills for trauma Results: Fifteen interns entered the boot camp with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale) in the management of trauma cases. At the culmination of the study, there was a significant increase in the overall confidence level of interns in role delegation, leadership, Crisis Resource Management (CRM) principles, and in the performance of primary and secondary surveys. No significant changes were seen in determining and effectively using the Glasgow Coma Scale, Orthopedic splinting/reduction skills, and effective use of closed-loop communication. Conclusion: An intensive one-day trauma boot camp demonstrated significant improvement in self-reported confidence of CRM concepts, role delegation, leadership, and performance of primary and secondary surveys. Despite the intensive curriculum, there was no significant improvement in overall teamwork and leadership performance during simulated cases. Our boot camp curriculum offers educators a
Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.
Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.
Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…
Hall, Kelly E; Sharp, Claire R; Adams, Cynthia R; Beilman, Gregory
In human trauma patients, most deaths result from hemorrhage and brain injury, whereas late deaths, although rare, are the result of multiple organ failure and sepsis. A variety of experimental animal models have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of traumatic injury and evaluate novel interventions. Similar to other experimental models, these trauma models cannot recapitulate conditions of naturally occurring trauma, and therefore therapeutic interventions based on these models are often ineffective. Pet dogs with naturally occurring traumatic injury represent a promising translational model for human trauma that could be used to assess novel therapies. The purpose of this article was to review the naturally occurring canine trauma literature to highlight the similarities between canine and human trauma. The American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Committee on Trauma has initiated the establishment of a national network of veterinary trauma centers to enhance uniform delivery of care to canine trauma patients. In addition, the Spontaneous Trauma in Animals Team, a multidisciplinary, multicenter group of researchers has created a clinical research infrastructure for carrying out large-scale clinical trials in canine trauma patients. Moving forward, these national resources can be utilized to facilitate multicenter prospective studies of canine trauma to evaluate therapies and interventions that have shown promise in experimental animal models, thus closing the critical gap in the translation of knowledge from experimental models to humans and increasing the likelihood of success in phases 1 and 2 human clinical trials.
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura A.
Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: 1) enhancing safety early in treatment; 2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and 3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths’ ongoing trauma experiences; b) addressing youths’ maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas. PMID:21855140
da Cruz Pacheco, Gabriel Felippe; Carpentier, Benjamin; Petit, Nicolas
This papers exposes two difficulties that are likely to take place during the towing of a space debris. These effects, which could trouble de-orbitation strategies, are visible on simple simulations based on a model of coupled rigid-bodies dynamics. We name them tail wagging and whiplash effects, respectively.
Pesch, Megan H; Bradin, Stuart
Serious blunt scrotal trauma in the pediatric population is rare and can pose significant danger to the viability of the testes. The following case describes an adolescent boy who presented with a single testis in his scrotum after low-impact perineal trauma, consistent with testicular dislocation. The literature regarding scrotal trauma includes few cases of testicular dislocation from low-impact perineal trauma. Included is a brief review of the most recent data including epidemiology, differential diagnosis, acute management, and complications pertinent to the pediatric emergency clinician.
Mykletun, Arnstein; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund
The aetiology of chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD) is unclear and the condition has been perceived both as a chronic pain disorder, based on the injury to the neck, and as a functional somatic disorder. Based on the hypothesis that chronic WAD should be perceived as a functional somatic syndrome, we compared the symptom profile of persons with chronic WAD with the profile of persons with a functional somatic disorder, and with the profile of persons with an organic pain disorder. A sample of 55,046 persons participating in a Norwegian population-based health study (HUNT 2) was divided into four study groups: chronic WAD, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and controls (none of these disorders). Symptoms were categorized as pain and stiffness, cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal symptoms, and mental disorders. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression were used to compare the prevalence of symptoms among the groups. The chronic WAD group had a significantly higher prevalence of symptoms from all body parts, across organ systems and also mental symptoms, compared to the control group. The fibromyalgia group had an even higher prevalence of all symptoms, while the rheumatoid arthritis group showed an increase in the prevalence of particularly pain and stiffness symptoms and also a minor increase in the prevalence of other symptoms compared to the control group. We conclude that this study provide evidence in favour of the hypothesis that chronic WAD should be perceived as a functional somatic syndrome. Persons with chronic WAD had a symptom profile more similar to people with a functional somatic disorder than an organic pain disorder, consisting of a wide array of symptoms, not only predominantly pain symptoms. PMID:19669172
Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B; Gargett, Susan; Sterling, Michele
One might expect that injury compensation would leave injured parties better off than they would otherwise have been, yet many believe that compensation does more harm than good. This study systematically reviews the evidence on this "compensation hypothesis" in relation to compensable whiplash injuries. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, CCTR, Lexis, and EconLit were searched from the date of their inception to April 2010 to locate longitudinal studies, published in English, comparing the health outcomes of adults exposed/not exposed to compensation-related factors. Studies concerning serious neck injuries, using claimants only, or using proxy measures of health outcomes were excluded. Eleven studies were included. These examined the effect of lawyer involvement, litigation, claim submission, or previous claims on pain and other health outcomes. Among the 16 results reported were 9 statistically significant negative associations between compensation-related factors and health outcomes. Irrespective of the compensation-related factor involved and the health outcome measured, the quality of these studies was similar to studies that did not find a significant negative association: most took some measures to address selection bias, confounding, and measurement bias, and none resolved the potential for reverse causality bias that arises in the relationship between compensation-related factors and health. Unless ambiguous causal pathways are addressed, one cannot draw conclusions from statistical associations, regardless of their statistical significance and the extent of measures to address other sources of bias. Consequently, there is no clear evidence to support the idea that compensation and its related processes lead to worse health.
Woltring, H J; Long, K; Osterbauer, P J; Fuhr, A W
To date, the diagnosis of whiplash injuries has been very difficult and largely based on subjective, clinical assessment. The work by Winters and Peles Multiple Muscle Systems--Biomechanics and Movement Organization. Springer, New York (1990) suggests that the use of finite helical axes (FHAs) in the neck may provide an objective assessment tool for neck mobility. Thus, the position of the FHA describing head-trunk motion may allow discrimination between normal and pathological cases such as decreased mobility in particular cervical joints. For noisy, unsmoothed data, the FHAs must be taken over rather large angular intervals if the FHAs are to be reconstructed with sufficient accuracy; in the Winters and Peles study, these intervals were approximately 10 degrees. in order to study the movements' microstructure, the present investigation uses instantaneous helical axes (IHAs) estimated from low-pass smoothed video data. Here, the small-step noise sensitivity of the FHA no longer applies, and proper low-pass filtering allows estimation of the IHA even for small rotation velocity omega of the moving neck. For marker clusters mounted on the head and trunk, technical system validation showed that the IHAs direction dispersions were on the order of one degree, while their position dispersions were on the order of 1 mm, for low-pass cut-off frequencies of a few Hz (the dispersions were calculated from omega-weighted errors, in order to account for the adverse effects of vanishing omega). Various simple, planar models relating the instantaneous, 2-D centre of rotation with the geometry and kinematics of a multi-joint neck model are derived, in order to gauge the utility of the FHA and IHA approaches. Some preliminary results on asymptomatic and pathological subjects are provided, in terms of the 'ruled surface' formed by sampled IHAs and of their piercing points through the mid-sagittal plane during a prescribed flexion-extension movement of the neck.
Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E
This systematic literature review aims to assess the prognostic value of psychological factors in the development of late whiplash syndrome (LWS). We included prospective cohort studies that provided a baseline measure of at least one psychological variable and used outcome measures relating to LWS (i.e. pain or disability persisting 6 months post injury). A search of electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, Cinahl, Embase and Psychinfo) up to August 2006 was done using a predetermined search strategy. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two assessors. Data extraction were carried out using a standardised data extraction form. Twenty-five articles representing data from 17 cohorts were included. Fourteen articles were rated as low quality with 11 rated as adequate quality. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of prognostic factors, outcome measures and methods used. Results were tabulated and predefined criterion applied to rate the overall strength of evidence for associations between psychological factors and LWS. Data on 21 possible psychological risk factors were included. The majority of findings were inconclusive. Limited evidence was found to support an association between lower self-efficacy and greater post-traumatic stress with the development of LWS. No association was found between the development of LWS and personality traits, general psychological distress, wellbeing, social support, life control and psychosocial work factors. The lack of conclusive findings and poor methodological quality of the studies reviewed highlights the need for better quality research. Self-efficacy and post-traumatic distress may be associated with the development of LWS but this needs further investigation.
Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís
The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma.
Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shimoda, Satoe
Vertigo and dizziness are common clinical manifestations after traffic accident-associated whiplash injury. Recently, Shinonaga et al. (2001) suggested that more than 80% of patients with whiplash injury complaining of these symptoms showed cerebrospinal (CSF) hypovolemia on radioisotope (RI) cisternography (111In-DTPA). However, neuro-otological studies to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these symptoms have been insufficient. In the present study, patients complaining of these symptoms with CSF hypovolemia after traffic accidents were investigated with posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). Fourteen patients (4 men, 10 women; 24-52 yr) were examined with posturography and showed parameters (tracking distance & area) significantly (p<0.01) larger than those of healthy subjects. Among them, five cases (1 man, 4 women; 31-52 yr) were further investigated with ENG. The slow phase peak velocities of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic-after nystagmus (OKAN) were significantly (p<0.01) reduced (62.64±6.9 SD deg/sec, 60.76±10.74 SD deg/sec, respectively) and frequencies of OKN were reduced (139.7±10.75 SD), while the ocular smooth pursuit was relatively preserved. Magnetic resonance images (sagittal view) of these five patients demonstrated the downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and flattening of the pons, which are characteristic features of CSF hypovolemia, called "brain sagging." Our results suggest that brain sagging due to CSF hypovolemia impairs vestibular and vestibulocerebellar functions, which may cause dizziness and vertigo.
Thorson, Chad M; Dubose, Joseph J; Rhee, Peter; Knuth, Thomas E; Dorlac, Warren C; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Garcia, George D; Ryan, Mark L; Van Haren, Robert M; Proctor, Kenneth G
In the late 1990s, a Department of Defense subcommittee screened more than 100 civilian trauma centers according to the number of admissions, percentage of penetrating trauma, and institutional interest in relation to the specific training missions of each of the three service branches. By the end of 2001, the Army started a program at University of Miami/Ryder Trauma Center, the Navy began a similar program at University of Southern California/Los Angeles County Medical Center, and the Air Force initiated three Centers for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills (C-STARS) at busy academic medical centers: R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center at the University of Maryland (C-STARS Baltimore), Saint Louis University (C-STARS St. Louis), and The University Hospital/University of Cincinnati (C-STARS Cincinnati). Each center focuses on three key areas, didactic training, state-of-the-art simulation and expeditionary equipment training, as well as actual clinical experience in the acute management of trauma patients. Each is integral to delivering lifesaving combat casualty care in theater. Initially, there were growing pains and the struggle to develop an effective curriculum in a short period. With the foresight of each trauma training center director and a dynamic exchange of information with civilian trauma leaders and frontline war fighters, there has been a continuous evolution and improvement of each center's curriculum. Now, it is clear that the longest military conflict in US history and the first of the 21st century has led to numerous innovations in cutting edge trauma training on a comprehensive array of topics. This report provides an overview of the decade-long evolutionary process in providing the highest-quality medical care for our injured heroes.
Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
OBJECTIVE : To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. METHODS : Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. RESULTS : Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability (P = 0.021), larger pain area (P = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle (P = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P < 0.01). No changes in pressure pain thresholds were observed in either group after treatment (P > 0.222). CONCLUSIONS : The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010
Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…
Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan
This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…
Clinicians now appreciate the full chain of tissue damage of the interconnecting muscles, tendons, ligaments and fascia: this compromised linkage from the skull through the suboccipital musculature to the cervical spine and anterior/posterior cervical muscles, from the check-rein ligaments and muscles extending from the skull and maxilla to the mandible, from the suprahyoid musculature connecting the mandible through to the hyoid bone, from the hyoid through the infrahyoid to the supporting shoulder girdle, all contribute to damaged interconnecting matrices. Consequently, unresolved tissue damage in any of this linkage becomes mutually provocative during function to any part of the linkage. Diagnostics, therefore, must necessarily include examination of this total linkage; similarly, eventual treatment protocols must resolve tissue damage in all of this interconnecting linkage if treatment is to be successful beyond palliative applications. The influence of an angular component in any such trauma must be emphasized; force vectors then attack the craniomandibular/temporo-mandibular/cervical complex where it is most vulnerable, at the most restrictive parameters of functional mobility. Thus, the angular component brings an exponential increase in tissue damage potential to all of the craniomandibular/temporomandibular/cervical complex. Finally, if we are to treat the occlusion of these victims intelligently, we must understand the effects of this trauma on the 'whole body', and not just focus singularly on the restoration or the malocclusion or the TMJoint problem. There are lessons to be learned from this acute trauma which provide valuable insights into the diagnosis of chronic pain patients. If these victims do not come to us for help immediately following the acute trauma episode, but arrive in our offices months or years later, our clinical examinations must include head and neck mobility or functional restrictions, observations of the patients' gait, other
Ganzel, Barbara L; Eckenrode, John J; Kim, Pilyoung; Wethington, Elaine; Horowitz, Eric; Temple, Elise
The authors examined the effects of lifetime trauma exposure on salivary cortisol and mood in a sample of women (N = 37) over 25 days before and after a stressful event. The sample excluded posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression and was divided into three groups: (a) no trauma, (b) prior trauma with no peritraumatic symptoms of acute distress, and (c) prior trauma with peritraumatic symptoms. Because results indicated no significant differences between groups one and two, they were combined for analysis. Women reporting prior trauma with symptoms had lower afternoon cortisol levels across time, with sustained negative mood relative to the comparison group. These data suggest the presence of long-term psychophysiological effects of trauma exposure in healthy women.
Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.
Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205
Pierce, Albert; Pittet, Jean-François
Purpose of this review Recent studies have changed our understanding of the timing and interactions of the inflammatory processes and coagulation cascade following severe trauma. This review highlights this information and correlates its impact on the current clinical approach for fluid resuscitation and treatment of coagulopathy for trauma patients. Recent findings Severe trauma is associated with a failure of multiple biologic emergency response systems that includes imbalanced inflammatory response, acute coagulopathy of trauma (ACOT), and endovascular glycocalyx degradation with microcirculatory compromise. These abnormalities are all inter-linked and related. Recent observations show that after severe trauma: 1) pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses are concomitant, not sequential and 2) resolution of the inflammatory response is an active process, not a passive one. Understanding these interrelated processes is considered extremely important for the development of future therapies for severe trauma in humans. Summary Traumatic injuries continue to be a significant cause of mortality worldwide. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of end-organ failure, and modulation of the inflammatory response has important clinical implications regarding fluid resuscitation and treatment of coagulopathy. PMID:24419158
Brum, Marisa; Reimão, Sofia; Sousa, Djalma; de Carvalho, Rui; Ferreira, Joaquim J.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic, and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson’s disease (PD). We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after the diagnosis, he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4–C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury, which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D) – predominantly on the left side, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities, and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia, and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected, he underwent an MRI that revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type MSA. In our case, we hypothesize that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report, we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment. PMID:27014185
Abraham, Rohit; Vyas, Dinesh; Narayan, Mayur; Vyas, Arpita
Trauma-related injury in fast developing countries are linked to 90% of international mortality rates, which can be greatly reduced by improvements in often non-existent or non-centralized emergency medical systems (EMS)-particularly in the pre-hospital care phase. Traditional trauma training protocols-such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), and Basic Life Support (BLS)-have failed to produce an effective pre-hospital ground force of medical first responders. To overcome these barriers, we propose a new four-tiered set of trauma training protocols: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Trauma Training, Acute Trauma Training (ATT), Broad Trauma Training (BTT), and Cardiac and Trauma Training (CTT). These standards are specifically differentiated to accommodate the educational and socioeconomic diversity found in fast developing settings, where each free course is taught in native, lay language while ensuring the education standards are maintained by fully incorporating high-fidelity simulation, video-recorded debriefing, and retraining. The innovative pedagogy of this trauma education program utilizes MOOC for global scalability and a "train-the-trainer" approach for exponential growth-both components help fast developing countries reach a critical mass of first responders needed for the base of an evolving EMS.
Abraham, Rohit; Vyas, Dinesh; Narayan, Mayur; Vyas, Arpita
Trauma-related injury in fast developing countries are linked to 90% of international mortality rates, which can be greatly reduced by improvements in often non-existent or non-centralized emergency medical systems (EMS)—particularly in the pre-hospital care phase. Traditional trauma training protocols—such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), and Basic Life Support (BLS)—have failed to produce an effective pre-hospital ground force of medical first responders. To overcome these barriers, we propose a new four-tiered set of trauma training protocols: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Trauma Training, Acute Trauma Training (ATT), Broad Trauma Training (BTT), and Cardiac and Trauma Training (CTT). These standards are specifically differentiated to accommodate the educational and socioeconomic diversity found in fast developing settings, where each free course is taught in native, lay language while ensuring the education standards are maintained by fully incorporating high-fidelity simulation, video-recorded debriefing, and retraining. The innovative pedagogy of this trauma education program utilizes MOOC for global scalability and a “train-the-trainer” approach for exponential growth—both components help fast developing countries reach a critical mass of first responders needed for the base of an evolving EMS. PMID:27419222
Davis, Kimberly A; Rozycki, Grace S
At the center of the development of acute care surgery is the growing difficulty in caring for patients with acute surgical conditions. Care demands continue to grow in the face of an escalating crisis in emergency care access and the decreasing availability of surgeons to cover emergency calls. To compound this problem, there is an ever-growing shortage of general surgeons as technological advances have encouraged subspecialization. Developed by the leadership of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the specialty of acute care surgery offers a training model that would produce a new breed of specialist with expertise in trauma surgery, surgical critical care, and elective and emergency general surgery. This article highlights the evolution of the specialty in hope that these acute care surgeons, along with practicing general surgeons, will bring us closer to providing superb and timely care for patients with acute surgical conditions.
Cornwell, Edward E
Trauma remains a significant and persistent public health problem, accounting for 90,000 deaths and 20 million people disabled annually. Current concepts of appropriate triage and emergency treatment of gunshot wounds are addressed from a trauma surgeon's perspective. Recent studies regarding prehospital transport policy, and acute diagnostic studies allow optimal treatment guidelines to be formulated. Specifically, rapid transport rather than prolonged on-scene treatment (including maneuvers such as formal thoracolumbar immobilization) should be given the highest priority. Also, routine arteriography (another time-consuming and invasive procedure) in the treatment of gunshot wounds to the extremity is no longer the standard of care.
Lazoritz, Stephen; Baldwin, Sandra; Kini, Narendra
This study examined recent literature describing the Shaken Infant Syndrome and compared it to John Caffey's original descriptions in 1946. Retrospective evaluation of 71 recent cases and 27 case examples offered by Caffey was also performed. Results indicated the recent cases more likely to involve impact trauma, male perpetrators, and admission…
OBTT consortium as the drug #2 for primary screening . Based on that same review , two doses were selected, namely 5000 or 10,000 IU/kg, by a single IV...in drug screening . This review article discusses a consortium called opera- tion brain trauma therapy (OBTT) that was recently established in attempt...consortium that identifies the most promising therapies and compares them across a spectrum of the state -of-the- art models and injury levels. The most
Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza
There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.
Bremer, C; Cassata, L
The pregnant woman is exposed to the same risks as the non-pregnant woman for sustaining a traumatic injury, but because of the multiple physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy, the assessment and treatment of such patients must be adapted accordingly. This article discusses these normal physiologic changes, their effect on response to trauma, and the comprehensive care of the patient using the nursing process.
patients. The use of endovascu- lar techniques in trauma can be considered in three broad categories: (1) large- vessel repair (e.g. covered stent repair...2) mid- to small- vessel hemostasis (e.g. coils, plugs, and hemostatic agents), and (3) large- vessel balloon occlusion for resuscitation (e.g...a diagnostic contrast study (i.e. angiography), accomplish large- vessel occlusion, or render a therapy for vessel disruption and/or bleeding. Not
This book provides an analysis of pathophysiologic concepts of trauma and reviews the effectiveness of the available imaging modalities in acute trauma of various organ system. Topics covered are chest injuries; abdominal trauma; fractures of long bones; the foot and ankle; the knee; hand and wrist; the elbow; the shoulder; the pelvis hips; the spine; the skull and facial trauma and the clinical assessment of multiple injuries patients. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic techniques of radiography is discussed. Normal anatomy and bone fractures along with soft-tissue injuries are described.
Adedeji, O. A.; Driscoll, P. A.
Trauma remains the leading cause of death under the age of 35 years. England and Wales lost 252,000 working years from accidental deaths, including poison, in 1992. In this country, preventable deaths from trauma are inappropriately high. In many hospitals there are not enough personnel; in the majority, there are no recognisable trauma care systems, which can reduce preventable deaths to a minimum. The appropriateness of trauma centres for this country is being assessed in Stoke-on-Trent, and a report is due out later this year. Even if the recommendation is made to establish such centres, it is unlikely that many will be set up. Consequently most hospitals will have to rely on their own resources to set up and run a trauma team. This type of trauma care system is the subject of this article. PMID:8977939
Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen
Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P<0.05) but the score was not below the cut-off point for safe driving. There were no
funding . The infrastructure/process is streamlined and efficient leading to the selection of research projects based on a solid scientific, peer review...National Trauma Institute (NTI) to build on the establishment of NTI as a national coordinating center for trauma research funding . In addition, a... research funding . 1. Requests for proposals (RFP) based on areas of scientific merit in trauma and emergency or critical care will be prepared and
Stewart, David; Thomson, Kirsten
This paper outlines therapeutic group work with young children in response to acute community trauma in Northern Ireland. The children in question were the focus of a highly publicised dispute concerning access to their school. The work was carried out by NOVA, a Barnardo's trauma support service. Part one outlines the theoretical framework. It…
Green, Steven M
Throughout the past quarter century, there have been slow but dramatic changes in the nature and practice of trauma surgery, and this field increasingly faces potent economic, logistic, political, and workforce challenges. Patients and emergency physicians have much to lose by this budding crisis in our partner discipline. This article reviews the specific issues confronting trauma surgery, their historical context, and the potential directions available to this discipline. Implications of these issues for emergency physicians and for trauma care overall are discussed.
Spearing, Natalie M; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Pobereskin, Louis H; Rowell, David S; Connelly, Luke B
This study examines whether the lure of injury compensation prompts whiplash claimants to overstate their symptoms. Claim settlement is the intervention of interest, as it represents the point at which there is no further incentive to exaggerate symptoms, and neck pain at 24 months is the outcome of interest. Longitudinal data on neck pain scores and timing of claim settlement were regressed, controlling for the effect of time on recovery, to compare outcomes in claimants who had and had not settled their compensation claims. The results show clearly that removing the financial incentive to over-report symptoms has no effect on self-reported neck pain in a fault-based compensation scheme, and this finding concurs with other studies on this topic. Policy decisions to limit compensation in the belief that claimants systematically misrepresent their health status are not supported empirically Claimants do not appear to be "cured by a verdict".
For many years, researchers involved in automotive industry and forensic medicine, as well as insurance companies have shown great interest in the issues of etiology and prevention of cervical spine distortion. The etiopathogenesis of whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) remains controversial and its morphological determinants have not been explicitly determined to date. The subjective nature of complaints causes great difficulties in objective assessment of the consequences of acceleration-deceleration injuries and in verification of compensation claims. The objective of the study was to present biomechanical relationships and circumstances accompanying WADs using population-based studies, statistical data of insurance companies and analysis of recordings of event data recorders installed by vehicle producers. The knowledge of technical aspects of WAD circumstances should facilitate medical assessment of the above-mentioned consequences.
Krohmer, Steven J. Hoffer, Eric K.; Burchard, Kenneth W.
Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.
Injury is still the number 1 killer of children ages 1 to 18 years in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/children.htm). Children who sustain injuries with resulting disabilities incur significant costs not only for their health care but also for productivity lost to the economy. The families of children who survive childhood injury with disability face years of emotional and financial hardship, along with a significant societal burden. The entire process of managing childhood injury is enormously complex and varies by region. Only the comprehensive cooperation of a broadly diverse trauma team will have a significant effect on improving the care of injured children.
Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.
Objectives Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with complex trauma. Methods TF-CBT treatment phases are described and modifications of timing, proportionality and application are described for youth with complex trauma. Practical applications include a) dedicating proportionally more of the model to the TF-CBT coping skills phase; b) implementing the TF-CBT Safety component early and often as needed throughout treatment; c) titrating gradual exposure more slowly as needed by individual youth; d) incorporating unifying trauma themes throughout treatment; and e) when indicated, extending the TF-CBT treatment consolidation and closure phase to include traumatic grief components and to generalize ongoing safety and trust. Results Recent data from youth with complex trauma support the use of the above TF-CBT strategies to successfully treat these youth. Conclusions The above practical strategies can be incorporated into TF-CBT to effectively treat youth with complex trauma. Practice implications Practical strategies include providing a longer coping skills phase which incorporates safety and appropriate gradual exposure; including relevant unifying themes; and allowing for an adequate treatment closure phase to enhance ongoing trust and safety. Through these strategies therapists can successfully apply TF-CBT for youth with complex trauma. PMID:22749612
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Kliethermes, Matthew; Murray, Laura A.
Objectives: Many youth develop complex trauma, which includes regulation problems in the domains of affect, attachment, behavior, biology, cognition, and perception. Therapists often request strategies for using evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for this population. This article describes practical strategies for applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive…
Bowman, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Sharar, Sam R.; Baker, Margaret W.; Martin, Diane P.
Context: While trauma designation has been associated with lower risk of death in large urban settings, relatively little attention has been given to this issue in small rural hospitals. Purpose: To examine factors related to in-hospital mortality and delayed transfer in small rural hospitals with and without trauma designation. Methods: Analysis…
Evans, Randolph W
There has been intense controversy about postconcussion syndrome since Erichsen's publication in 1866 on railway brain and railway spine. The fascinating history of this debate will be reviewed and then the non-organic explanations for postconcussion syndrome, headaches after head injury, and chronic whiplash injuries and headaches will be explored including the following: psychogenic, psychosocial, sociocultural, base rate misattribution, chronic pain, compensation and litigation, and malingering.
In this paper, the author sets out to distinguish anew between two concepts that have become sorely entangled--'trauma' and 'narcissism'. Defining 'narcissism' in terms of an interaction between the selfobject and the self that maintains a protective shield, and 'trauma' as attacks on this protective shield, perpetrated by bad objects, he introduces two attractors present in trauma--'the hole attractor' and the structure enveloping it, 'the narcissistic envelope'. The hole attractor pulls the trauma patient, like a 'black hole', into a realm of emotional void, of hole object transference, devoid of memories and where often in an analyst's countertransference there are no reverberations of the trauma patient's experience. In the narcissistic envelope, on the other hand, motion, the life and death drive and fragments of memory do survive. Based on the author's own clinical experience with Holocaust survivors, and on secondary sources, the paper concludes with some clinical implications that take the two attractors into account.
RIBEIRO-JR, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; MEDRADO, Melina Botelho; ROSA, Otto Mauro; SILVA, Ana Júlia de Deus; FONTANA, Mariana Prado; CRUVINEL-NETO, José; FONSECA, Alexandre Zanchenko
Background : The liver is the most injured organ in abdominal trauma. Currently, the treatment in most cases is non-operative, but surgery may be necessary in severe abdominal trauma with blunt liver damage, especially those that cause uncontrollable bleeding. Despite the damage control approaches in order to achieve hemodynamic stability, many patients develop hypovolemic shock, acute liver failure, multiple organ failure and death. In this context, liver transplantation appears as the lifesaving last resource Aim : Analyze the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe liver trauma. Methods : Were reviewed 14 articles in the PubMed, Medline and Lilacs databases, selected between 2008-2014 and 10 for this study. Results : Were identified 46 cases undergoing liver transplant after liver trauma; the main trauma mechanism was closed/blunt abdominal trauma in 83%, and severe trauma (>grade IV) in 81 %. The transplant can be done, in this context, performing one-stage procedure (damaged organ removed with immediate transplantation), used in 72% of cases. When the two-stage approach is performed, end-to-side temporary portacaval shunt is provided, until new organ becomes available to be transplanted. If two different periods are considered - from 1980 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2014 - the survival rate increased significantly, from 48% to 76%, while the mortality decreased from 52% to 24%. Conclusion : Despite with quite restricted indications, liver transplantation in hepatic injury is a therapeutic modality viable and feasible today, and can be used in cases when other therapeutic modalities in short and long term, do not provide the patient survival chances. PMID:26734803
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Hallmon, W W
While there is evidence that suggests that occlusal trauma is a risk factor for periodontal destruction, there is no evidence that indicates that occlusal trauma will initiate periodontal destruction. Effective plaque control and compliance with periodontal maintenance recommendations are key and essential factors necessary to assure successful treatment and control of periodontal disease.
Panasetis, Paula; Bryant, Richard A
The DSM-IV definition of acute stress disorder (ASD) regards dissociation that occurs during a trauma (peritraumatic dissociation) comparably to persistent dissociation. This study investigated the relative contributions of peritraumatic dissociation and persistent dissociation to acute posttraumatic stress reactions. Civilian trauma (N = 53) survivors with either acute stress disorder (ASD), subclinical ASD, or no ASD were administered modified versions of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire that indexed both dissociation during the trauma and dissociation at the time of assessment. Persistent dissociation was more strongly associated with ASD severity and intrusive symptoms than peritraumatic dissociation. These results are consistent with the proposition that persistent, rather than peritraumatic, dissociation is associated with posttraumatic psychopathology.
Vibert, N; MacDougall, H G; de Waele, C; Gilchrist, D P D; Burgess, A M; Sidis, A; Migliaccio, A; Curthoys, I S; Vidal, P P
passive biomechanical properties of their head-neck ensemble to compensate for the perturbation. In our study, proprioception was the sole source of sensory information as long as the head did not move. We therefore presume that the EMG responses and head movements we observed were mainly triggered by the activation of stretch receptors in the hips, trunk and/or neck. The visualisation of an imaginary reference in space during sideways impulses significantly reduced the head roll exhibited by floppy subjects. This suggests that the adoption by the central nervous system of an extrinsic, ‘allocentric’ frame of reference instead of an intrinsic, ‘egocentric’ one may be instrumental for the selection of the stiff strategy. The response of floppy subjects appeared to be maladaptive and likely to increase the risk of whiplash injury during motor vehicle accidents. Evolution of postural control may not have taken into account the implications of passive, high-acceleration perturbations affecting seated subjects. PMID:11313451
Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng
Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services.
Kuhlman, Kate R.; Geiss, Elisa G.; Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.
Summary Studies examining the association between childhood trauma exposure and neuroendocrine functioning have returned inconsistent findings. To date, few studies have accounted for the role exposure to different types of childhood trauma may have on different neuroendocrine adaptations, and no study has examined this association using multiple indices of hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning. The purpose of this study was to characterize the unique associations between exposure to physical abuse, emotional abuse, and non-intentional trauma, and multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning. Methods A community sample of 138 youth (aged 9—16) completed the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Task (SE-CPT) while their parents completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). All youth then collected 4 diurnal salivary cortisol samples at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Results High reported exposure to non-intentional trauma was associated with intact diurnal regulation but elevated cortisol at bedtime, physical abuse was associated with faster reactivity to acute stress, and emotional abuse was associated with delayed recovery of cortisol following acute stress. Taken together, there was a heterogeneous relationship among different indices of HPA-axis functioning and trauma subtype. Discussion Different types of childhood trauma exposure are related to distinct anomalies in HPA-axis functioning. This study underscores the importance of research incorporating multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning to inform our understanding of the underlying neuroendocrine dysregulation that may later lead to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25704913
Gostečnik, Christian; Repič Slavič, Tanja; Lukek, Saša Poljak; Cvetek, Robert
Victims of traumatic events who experience re-traumatization often develop a highly ambivalent relationship to God and all religiosity as extremely conflictual. On the one hand, they may choose to blame God for not having protected them, for having left them to feel so alone, for having been indifferent to them or they may even turn their wrath upon God, as the source of cruelty. Often though, the traumas experienced by individuals prompt them to turn to God and religion in search of help. This gives reason for the need of new and up-to-date research that can help elucidate why some people choose to seek help in religion and others turn away from it.
Rich, Norman M
This article provides a brief historical review of treatment of vascular trauma. Although methods for ligation came into use in the second century, this knowledge was lost during the Dark Ages and did not come back until the Renaissance. Many advances in vascular surgery occurred during the Balkan Wars, World War I, and World War II, although without antibiotics and blood banking, the philosophy of life over limb still ruled. Documenting and repairing both arteries and veins became more common during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. Increased documentation has revealed that the current conflicts have resulted in more arterial injuries than in previous wars, likely because of improved body armor, improvised explosive device attacks, tourniquet use, and improved medical evacuation time. This brief review emphasizes the great value of mentorship and the legacy of the management of arterial and venous injuries to be passed on.
Desai, Pratik; Suk, Michael
Trauma sustained during pregnancy can trigger uncertainty and anxiety for patient and orthopedic surgeon alike. In particular, orthopedic-related injuries raise concerns about preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care. In this article, we review common concerns about radiation exposure, leukemia, pain management, anticoagulation, and anesthesia. One finding is that radiation risk is minimal when obtaining x-rays for operative planning, provided that the cumulative dose is within 5 rad. We also address safety concerns about patient positioning and staff radiation exposure. In addition, we found that most anesthetics used in pregnancy are category C (ie, safe). Perioperative opioid use for pain management is recommended with little risk. Regarding anticoagulation, low-molecular-weight heparin and fondaparinux are the safest choices. Last, pregnancy is not a contraindication to operative management of pelvic and acetabular fractures.
Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.
Kaczmarski, Jacek; Brzeziński, Daniel; Cieślik-Wolski, Bartosz; Kozak, Józef
Aim of the study Aim of the study is to present our own experiences in the treatment of people suffering from penetrating neck traumas. Material and methods In the years 1996-2012, 10 patients with penetrating neck traumas were treated, including 3 women and 7 men. The patients’ age ranged from 16 to 55 (the average age being 40.7 years). In 9 cases the wound was caused by cutting or stabbing, while in one case it was inflicted by a gunshot. In 8 patients it was a single cut wound, while one patient suffered from 34 stab wounds to the neck, chest and stomach. Two cut wounds resulted from a suicide attempt. The remaining injuries were the result of a crime. Results All patients underwent immediate surgery, which involved revision of the neck wounds in 8 cases, one longitudinal sternotomy and one left-sided thoracotomy. The indications for surgery included increased subcutaneous emphysema in 5 patients, bleeding from the wound in 3 patients, and mediastinal hematoma in 2 patients. The damage assessed intraoperatively included tracheal damage in 6 patients, damage to carotid vessels in 3 patients, larynx in 2 patients, thoracic vessels in 2 patients, oesophagus in 1 patient and thyroid gland in 1 patient. In 9 patients, the treatment yielded positive results. The patient with a gunshot wound died during the surgery due to massive bleeding from the aorta. Conclusions In patients with penetrating neck wounds, early and rapid diagnostics allows one to determine the indications for surgery and prevent serious fatal complications. PMID:26336390
Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive transfusion requirements could allow early activation of blood bank protocols. Methods Datasets on trauma admissions over a 1 or 2-year period were obtained from the trauma registries of five large trauma research networks. A fractional polynomial was used to model the transfusion-associated probability of death. A logistic regression model for the prediction of massive transfusion, defined as 10 or more units of red cell transfusions, was developed. Results In total, 5,693 patient records were available for analysis. Mortality increased as transfusion requirements increased, but the model indicated no threshold effect. Mortality was 9% in patients who received none to five PRBC units, 22% in patients receiving six to nine PRBC units, and 42% in patients receiving 10 or more units. A logistic model for prediction of massive transfusion was developed and validated at multiple sites but achieved only moderate performance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81, with specificity of only 50% at a sensitivity of 90% for the prediction of 10 or more PRBC units. Performance varied widely at different trauma centers, with specificity varying from 48% to 91%. Conclusions No threshold for definition exists at which a massive transfusion specifically results in worse outcomes. Even with a large sample size across multiple trauma datasets, it was not possible to develop a
Moulds, Michelle L.; Bryant, Richard A.
The dissociative reactions in acute stress disorder purportedly impede encoding and organization of traumatic memories and consequently impair the individual's ability to retrieve trauma-related details. A qualitative examination was conducted on trauma narratives of individuals with acute stress disorder (N = 15) prior to cognitive behavior…
Frith, Daniel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Brohi, Karim
Resurgent study of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has delivered considerable improvements in survival after injury. Robust, valid and clinically relevant experimental models of TIC are essential to support the evolution of our knowledge and management of this condition. The aims of this study were to identify and analyze contemporary animal models of TIC with regard to their ability to accurately characterize known mechanisms of coagulopathy and/or to test the efficacy of therapeutic agents. A literature review was performed. Structured search of the indexed online database MEDLINE/PubMed in July 2010 identified 43 relevant articles containing 23 distinct animal models of TIC. The main aim of 26 studies was to test a therapeutic and the other 17 were conducted to investigate pathophysiology. A preponderance of porcine models was identified. Three new models demonstrating an endogenous acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) have offered new insights into the pathophysiology of TIC. Independent or combined effects of induced hypothermia and metabolic acidosis have been extensively evaluated. Recently, a pig model of TIC has been developed that features all major etiologies of TIC, although not in correct chronological order. This review identifies a general lack of experimental research to keep pace with clinical developments. Tissue injury and hemorrhagic shock are fundamental initiating events that prime the hemostatic system for subsequent iatrogenic insults. New animal models utilizing a variety of species that accurately simulate the natural clinical trajectory of trauma are urgently needed.
Silove, Derrick; Baker, Jess R.; Mohsin, Mohammed; Teesson, Maree; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; Carragher, Natacha; Slade, Tim; Mills, Katherine; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Steel, Zachary; Felmingham, Kim; Rees, Susan
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. Methods We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified. Results Men reported more traumatic events (TEs) overall but women reported twice the prevalence of lifetime PTSD (women, 13.4%; men, 6.3%). Women reported a threefold higher level of exposure to GBV and were seven times more likely to nominate GBV as the index trauma as compared to men. Women were twice more likely than men to identify a network trauma as the index trauma and more likely to meet full PTSD symptoms in relation to that event (women, 20.6%; men, 14.6%). Conclusion Women are more likely to identify GBV and network trauma as an index trauma. Women’s far greater exposure to GBV contributes to their higher prevalence of PTSD. Women are markedly more likely to develop PTSD when network trauma is identified as the index trauma. Preventing exposure to GBV and providing timely interventions for acute psychological reactions following network trauma may assist in reducing PTSD rates amongst women. PMID:28207775
Motta, Robert W.
A review of childhood secondary trauma is presented. Secondary trauma involves the transfer and acquisition of negative affective and dysfunctional cognitive states due to prolonged and extended contact with others, such as family members, who have been traumatized. As such, secondary trauma refers to a spread of trauma reactions from the victim…
Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Walker, Margaret G; Riker, Kyle D; Nyland, Jennifer E; Hu, JunMei; Rossi, Catherine; Swor, Robert A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Diatchenko, Luda; Bortsov, Andrey V; Peak, David A; McLean, Samuel A
α2A adrenergic receptor (α2A-AR) activation has been shown in animal models to play an important role in regulating the balance of acute pain inhibition vs facilitation after both physical and psychological stress. To our knowledge, the influence of genetic variants in the gene encoding α2A-AR, ADRA2A, on acute pain outcomes in humans experiencing traumatic stress has not been assessed. In this study, we tested whether a genetic variant in the 3'UTR of ADRA2A, rs3750625, is associated with acute musculoskeletal pain (MSP) severity following motor vehicle collision (MVC, n = 948) and sexual assault (n = 84), and whether this influence was affected by stress severity. We evaluated rs3750625 because it is located in the seed binding region of miR-34a, a microRNA (miRNA) known to regulate pain and stress responses. In both cohorts, the minor allele at rs3750625 was associated with increased musculoskeletal pain in distressed individuals (stress*rs3750625 P = 0.043 for MVC cohort and P = 0.007 for sexual assault cohort). We further found that (1) miR-34a binds the 3'UTR of ADRA2A, (2) the amount of repression is greater when the minor (risk) allele is present, (3) miR-34a in the IMR-32 adrenergic neuroblastoma cell line affects ADRA2A expression, (4) miR-34a and ADRA2A are expressed in tissues known to play a role in pain and stress, (5) following forced swim stress exposure, rat peripheral nerve tissue expression changes are consistent with miR-34a regulation of ADRA2A. Together, these results suggest that ADRA2A rs3750625 contributes to poststress musculoskeletal pain severity by modulating miR-34a regulation.
Background Cervical facet block (FB) procedures are often used as a diagnostic precursor to radiofrequency neurotomies (RFN) in the management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals will respond to the FB procedures and others will not respond. Such responders and non-responders provided a sample of convenience to question whether there were differences in their physical and psychological features. This information may inform future predictive studies and ultimately the clinical selection of patients for FB procedures. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 58 individuals with chronic WAD who responded to cervical FB procedures (WAD_R); 32 who did not respond (WAD_NR) and 30 Healthy Controls (HC)s. Measures included: quantitative sensory tests (pressure; thermal pain thresholds; brachial plexus provocation test); nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR); motor function (cervical range of movement (ROM); activity of the superficial neck flexors during the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT). Self-reported measures were gained from the following questionnaires: neuropathic pain (s-LANSS); psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28), post-traumatic stress (PDS) and pain catastrophization (PCS). Individuals with chronic whiplash attended the laboratory once the effects of the blocks had abated and symptoms had returned. Results Following FB procedures, both WAD groups demonstrated generalized hypersensitivity to all sensory tests, decreased neck ROM and increased superficial muscle activity with the CCFT compared to controls (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between WAD groups (all p > 0.05). Both WAD groups demonstrated psychological distress (GHQ-28; p < 0.05), moderate post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain catastrophization. The WAD_NR group also demonstrated increased medication intake and elevated PCS scores compared to the WAD_R group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic WAD responders and non-responders to FB
A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer
Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971
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Olsen, K D; Carpenter, R J; Kern, E B
If the septal component of a nasal injury is adequately managed, usually the entire nasal injury will be well managed. Major or minor nasal trauma can cause cartilage fracture, deviation, dislocation, hematoma, or abscess formation, and the various associated sequelae, some of them life-threatening. A negative x-ray report should never be used as a substitute for a complete intranasal examination in any child with nasal trauma. Any nasal abnormality should be referred for immediate evaluation and treatment.
The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.
Kühnel, Thomas S.; Reichert, Torsten E.
Fractures of the midface pose a serious medical problem as for their complexity, frequency and their socio-economic impact. Interdisciplinary approaches and up-to-date diagnostic and surgical techniques provide favorable results in the majority of cases though. Traffic accidents are the leading cause and male adults in their thirties are affected most often. Treatment algorithms for nasal bone fractures, maxillary and zygomatic fractures are widely agreed upon whereas trauma to the frontal sinus and the orbital apex are matter of current debate. Advances in endoscopic surgery and limitations of evidence based gain of knowledge are matters that are focused on in the corresponding chapter. As for the fractures of the frontal sinus a strong tendency towards minimized approaches can be seen. Obliteration and cranialization seem to decrease in numbers. Some critical remarks in terms of high dose methylprednisolone therapy for traumatic optic nerve injury seem to be appropriate. Intraoperative cone beam radiographs and preshaped titanium mesh implants for orbital reconstruction are new techniques and essential aspects in midface traumatology. Fractures of the anterior skull base with cerebrospinal fluid leaks show very promising results in endonasal endoscopic repair. PMID:26770280
Cohen, Mitchell J.; Carles, Michel; Brohi, Karim; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Rahn, Pamela; Call, Mariah S; Chesebro, Brian B.; West, Michael A.; Pittet, Jean-François
Objective The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) recognizes a variety of ligands that play an important role in the posttraumatic inflammatory response. However, whether soluble RAGE (sRAGE) is released early after trauma-hemorrhage in humans and whether such a release is associated with the development of an inflammatory response and coagulopathy is not known and therefore constitutes the aim of the present study. Methods One hundred sixty eight patients were studied as part of a prospective cohort study of severe trauma patients admitted to a single Level 1 Trauma center. Blood was drawn within 10 minutes of arrival to the Emergency Department (ED) before the administration of any fluid resuscitation. sRAGE, TNF-a, IL-6, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Prothrombin time, (PT), prothrombin fragments 1+2 (PF1+2), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), protein C (PC), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and D-Dimers (fibrin degradation products) were measured using standard techniques. Base deficit was used as a measure of tissue hypoperfusion. Measurements were compared to outcome measures obtained from the electronic medical record and trauma registry. Results Plasma levels of sRAGE were increased within 30 minutes after severe trauma in humans and correlated with the severity of injury, early posttraumatic coagulopathy and hyperfibrinolysis as well as with endothelial cell activation (angiopoietin-1 and complement). Furthermore, we found that there was a significant relationship between plasma levels of sRAGE and the development of acute renal failure. This relationship was not quite significant for patients who developed acute lung injury (p=.11), although patients with less than 26 ventilator-free days had significantly higher plasma levels of sRAGE than those with more than 26 ventilator-free days. Finally, there was no relationship between plasma levels of sRAGE and mortality rate in trauma patients. Conclusions The results
Schlienger, M; Ferroir, J-P; Huguet, F; Deluen, F; Pène, F; Marseguerra, R; Touboul, E
The authors report a case of Dropped Head Syndrome with an unusually rapid onset after an accident in a patient with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma cured by chemotherapy and mantle field radiotherapy and compare this case to the rare published cases of chronic Dropped Head Syndrome occurring after this type of treatment. A 56-year-old man was treated at the age 36 years for supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma by chemotherapy and mantle field radiotherapy according to a standard technique and standard doses (40Gy, 20 fractions, 27 days). Seventeen years after the end of treatment, he experienced a violent whiplash injury, rapidly followed by a Dropped Head Syndrome, similar to the cases of chronic Dropped Head Syndrome already described in the context of Hodgkin's lymphoma (permanent flexion of the head, only reduced in the supine position). Physical and neurophysiological examination, electromyogram, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of Dropped Head Syndrome. Very few treatment options are available for the major disability related to Dropped Head Syndrome. This type of subacute onset of Dropped Head Syndrome has not been previously described. The good results of radiation therapy after chemotherapy allow a dose reduction to 30Gy in the involved regions. This, together with recent progress in treatment planning, should allow eradication of these complications.
Vonk, Jaap; Horlings, Corinne G C; Allum, John H J
Differentiating balance disorder patients who are malingering from those with organic balance disorders is difficult and costly. We used trunk sway measured during several stance and gait tasks in 18 patients suspected of malingering in order to differentiate these from 20 patients who had suffered unilateral vestibular loss 3 months earlier, 20 patients with documented whiplash injuries, and 34 healthy controls. Classification results ranged from 72 to 96% and were equally accurate for task or criteria variables based on 90% sway values. The tasks yielding the best discrimination were: standing with eyes closed on a foam and firm surface; standing with eyes open on a firm surface; standing on 1 leg; and walking tandem steps. The criteria yielding the best discrimination were: standing with eyes open on a firm surface; the difference between standing with eyes closed on foam and firm surfaces; the difference between walking tandem steps and standing on 1 leg with eyes open; and the difference between roll and pitch velocity when walking 8 tandem steps. We conclude that discriminating suspected malingering balance disorder patients is possible using variables or criteria based on objective measures of trunk sway during several stance and gait tasks.
Campbell-Malone, Regina; Barco, Susan G; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Knowlton, Amy R; McLellan, William A; Rotstein, David S; Moore, Michael J
Vessel-whale collision events represented the ultimate cause of death for 21 (52.5%) of the 40 North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) necropsied between 1970 and December 2006. Injuries seen in vessel-struck whales fall into two distinct categories: 1) sharp trauma, often resulting from contact with the propeller, and 2) blunt trauma, presumably resulting from contact with a vessel's hull. This study analyzes four trauma cases that resulted from vessel-whale collisions, which together provide a framework for a more critical understanding of lethal blunt and sharp trauma resulting from vessel collisions with right whales. In case no. 1, contact with a propeller resulted in three deep lacerations. The animal survived acute trauma only to succumb nearly 14 years later when the lesions reopened and became infected. In case no. 2, anecdotal reports linked the laceration of large arteries of the peduncle and histologic evidence of perimortem trauma at a bone fracture site to vessel-whale collision trauma. Case no. 3 had a laceration of the oral rete and a fracture of the rostrum. Both of the areas displayed histologic evidence of perimortem blunt trauma. Finally, in case no. 4, an antemortem mandibular fracture, two additional skull fractures, and widespread hemorrhage were consistent with severe blunt trauma. Evidence from each case, including the timing of trauma relative to the time of death and identifying characteristics of both trauma types, are presented. Before this study, no detailed comparative analysis of trauma pathology that resulted from lethal interactions between vessels and right whales had been conducted. This study demonstrates the importance of detailed gross and histologic examination in determining the significance and timing of traumatic events. This work represents a new paradigm for the differential diagnosis of lethal sharp and blunt trauma in right whales hit by ships and will enhance the present understanding of the impact of
Gall, Lewis S; Brohi, Karim; Davenport, Ross A
Fibrinolysis activation occurs almost universally after severe trauma. Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is a key component of acute traumatic coagulopathy and associated with poor clinical outcomes, although controversy exists over optimal treatment strategies. The mechanistic drivers and dynamics of fibrinolytic activation in response to injury and trauma resuscitation are currently unclear. Furthermore, therapeutic triggers are compounded by the lack of a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool, with discrepancy between hyperfibrinolysis diagnosed by viscoelastic hemostatic assays versus biomarkers for fibrinolysis. Rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography appear capable of detecting the severest forms of hyperfibrinolysis but are relatively insensitive to moderate, yet clinically significant fibrinolytic activation. Rapid evaluation of the current status of the fibrinolytic system remains a challenge and therefore the decision whether to administer an antifibrinolytic agent should be based on available evidence from clinical trials. In line with current European guidelines, we recommend that all bleeding trauma patients, and in particular, severely injured patients with evidence of hemorrhagic shock, should receive early empiric tranexamic acid. This review explains our current knowledge of the pathophysiological pathways which induce hyperfibrinolysis in trauma hemorrhage, evaluates the available diagnostic modalities, and describes current treatment strategies.
Howlett, Jonathon R; Stein, Murray B
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, frequently chronic, and disabling condition which, along with acute stress disorder (ASD), is categorized as a trauma- and stressor-related disorder by the DSM-5. These disorders are unique in requiring exposure to a severe stressor, which implies that potential sufferers could be identified and helped before developing a disorder. Research on prevention strategies for stress-related disorders has taken a number of avenues, including intervention before and after trauma and the use of both psychosocial and somatic approaches. Despite advances in neurobiological understanding of response to trauma, clinical evidence for preventive interventions remains sparse. This review provides an overview of prevention approaches and summarizes the existing literature on prevention of ASD and PTSD, including clinical and preclinical studies. Given the potential benefits to trauma survivors and society, the development of effective preventive interventions should be given greater priority. Resources should be directed to adequately test promising interventions in clinical trials, and research should be conducted according to translational research principles in which preclinical research informs the design of clinical studies. PMID:26315508
Introduction Evidence-based recommendations are needed to guide the acute management of the bleeding trauma patient, which when implemented may improve patient outcomes. Methods The multidisciplinary Task Force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma was formed in 2005 with the aim of developing a guideline for the management of bleeding following severe injury. This document presents an updated version of the guideline published by the group in 2007. Recommendations were formulated using a nominal group process, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) hierarchy of evidence and based on a systematic review of published literature. Results Key changes encompassed in this version of the guideline include new recommendations on coagulation support and monitoring and the appropriate use of local haemostatic measures, tourniquets, calcium and desmopressin in the bleeding trauma patient. The remaining recommendations have been reevaluated and graded based on literature published since the last edition of the guideline. Consideration was also given to changes in clinical practice that have taken place during this time period as a result of both new evidence and changes in the general availability of relevant agents and technologies. Conclusions This guideline provides an evidence-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of critically injured bleeding trauma patients. PMID:20370902
Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Coleman, Michael J; Green, Isobel; Liao, Huijun; Tate, David F; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Pasternak, Ofer; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.
Mann, Kenneth G.; Freeman, Kalev
SUMMARY Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) includes heterogeneous coagulopathic syndromes with different underlying causes, and treatment is challenged by limited diagnostic tests to discriminate between these entities in the acute setting. We provide an overview of progress in understanding the mechanisms of TIC and the context for several of the hypotheses that will be tested in “TACTIC”. Although connected to ongoing clinical trials in trauma, TACTIC itself has no intent to conduct clinical trials. We do anticipate that “early translation” of promising results will occur. Functions anticipated at this early translational level include: 1. Basic science groundwork for future therapeutic candidates; 2. Development of acute coagulopathy scoring systems; 3. Coagulation factor composition-based computational analysis; 4. Characterization of novel analytes including tissue factor, polyP, histones, meizo and α-thrombin-antithrombin complexes, factor XIa, platelet markers of activation and trauma, signatures of protein C activation and fibrinolysis markers; 5. Assessment of visco-elastic tests and new point-of-care methods. PMID:26149052
Timofeev, Igor; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Chauvette, Sylvain; Grand, Laszlo B.
Trauma and brain infection are the primary sources of acquired epilepsy, which can occur at any age and may account for a high incidence of epilepsy in developing countries. We have explored the hypothesis that penetrating cortical wounds cause deafferentation of the neocortex, which triggers homeostatic plasticity and lead to epileptogenesis (Houweling etal., 2005). In partial deafferentation experiments of adult cats, acute seizures occurred in most preparations and chronic seizures occurred weeks to months after the operation in 65% of the animals (Nita etal., 2006,2007; Nita and Timofeev, 2007). Similar deafferentation of young cats (age 8–12 months) led to some acute seizures, but we never observed chronic seizure activity even though there was enhanced slow-wave activity in the partially deafferented hemisphere during quiet wakefulness. This suggests that despite a major trauma, the homeostatic plasticity in young animals was able to restore normal levels of cortical excitability, but in fully adult cats the mechanisms underlying homeostatic plasticity may lead to an unstable cortical state. To test this hypothesis we made an undercut in the cortex of an elderly cat. After several weeks this animal developed seizure activity. These observations may lead to an intervention after brain trauma that prevents epileptogenesis from occurring in adults. PMID:24065884
Timofeev, Igor; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Bazhenov, Maxim; Chauvette, Sylvain; Grand, Laszlo B
Trauma and brain infection are the primary sources of acquired epilepsy, which can occur at any age and may account for a high incidence of epilepsy in developing countries. We have explored the hypothesis that penetrating cortical wounds cause deafferentation of the neocortex, which triggers homeostatic plasticity and lead to epileptogenesis (Houweling etal., 2005). In partial deafferentation experiments of adult cats, acute seizures occurred in most preparations and chronic seizures occurred weeks to months after the operation in 65% of the animals (Nita etal., 2006,2007; Nita and Timofeev, 2007). Similar deafferentation of young cats (age 8-12 months) led to some acute seizures, but we never observed chronic seizure activity even though there was enhanced slow-wave activity in the partially deafferented hemisphere during quiet wakefulness. This suggests that despite a major trauma, the homeostatic plasticity in young animals was able to restore normal levels of cortical excitability, but in fully adult cats the mechanisms underlying homeostatic plasticity may lead to an unstable cortical state. To test this hypothesis we made an undercut in the cortex of an elderly cat. After several weeks this animal developed seizure activity. These observations may lead to an intervention after brain trauma that prevents epileptogenesis from occurring in adults.
Holmes, D K
Most of the facial trauma in the United States is treated in trauma centers in large urban or university medical centers, with limited trauma care taking place in our military medical treatment facilities. In many cases, active duty facial trauma surgeons may lack the current experience necessary for the optimal care of facial wounds of our inquired military personnel in the early stages of the conflict. Consequently, the skills of the reservist trauma surgeons who staff our civilian trauma centers and who care for facial trauma victims daily will be critical in caring for our wounded. These "trauma-current" reservists may act as a cadre of practiced surgeons to aid those with less experience. A plan for refresher training of active duty facial trauma surgeons is presented.
McSorley, K; Quinlan, J
Trauma is a major source of mortality and morbidity throughout Ireland. Training in trauma is dependant on experience gained by trainees within specific posts. Trauma services are a topical issue at present with much discussion about delivery and restructuring. With this in mind we conducted an online survey of trainees in emergency medicine, orthopaedic and general surgery to assess current experience and opinions with regard to trauma. The survey was vetted and distributed by the relevant training bodies. 59(98.33%) respondents believed smaller units should be bypassed for major trauma and 55 (91.67%) believed that larger hospitals receiving major trauma should have a trauma theatre available 24-hours a day. 55 (91.67%) also foresaw themselves covering major trauma as consultants, consequently these trainees will be the consultants developing, moulding and working in this restructured trauma service.
Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Kodali, Lavanya; Hessel, Amy C; Evans, Scott E; Balachandran, Diwakar D
A case of a 55-year-old woman with iatrogenic vocal cord trauma and sleep-related symptoms is reported. In particular, this case highlights sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication after iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. The patient developed acute stridor from a contralateral vocal cord hematoma following vocal fold injection for right vocal cord paralysis. Acute respiratory symptoms resolved with oxygen, steroids, and nebulized therapy, but nocturnal symptoms persisted and polysomnography revealed sleep-related hypoventilation and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Positive pressure therapy was successfully used to ameliorate her symptoms and treat sleep-disordered breathing until her hematoma resolved. In addition to the typically acute respiratory symptoms that may result from vocal cord dysfunction, sleep-disordered breathing may also present as a significant subacute or chronic problem. Management of the acute respiratory symptoms is relatively well established, but clinicians should be alert for more subtle nocturnal symptoms that may require further study with polysomnography.
Neuberger, Thomas; Gay, Michael; Hallett, Mark; Slobounov, Semyon
Abstract Although they are less severe than a full blown concussive episodes, subconcussive impacts happen much more frequently and current research has suggested this form of head trauma may have an accumulative effect and lead to neurological impairment later in life. To investigate the acute effects that subconcussive head trauma may have on the default mode network of the brain resting-state, functional magnetic resonance was performed. Twenty-four current collegiate rugby players were recruited and all subjects underwent initial scanning 24 h prior to a scheduled full contact game to provide a baseline. Follow-up scanning of the rugby players occurred within 24 h following that game to assess acute effects from subconcussive head trauma. Differences between pre-game and post-game scans showed both increased connectivity from the left supramarginal gyrus to bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and decreased connectivity from the retrosplenial cortex and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. To assess whether or not a history of previous concussion may lead to a differential response following subconcussive impacts, subjects were further divided into two subgroups based upon history of previous concussion. Individuals with a prior history of concussion exhibited only decreased functional connectivity following exposure to subconcussive head trauma, while those with no history showed increased connectivity. Even acute exposure to subconcussive head trauma demonstrates the ability to alter functional connectivity and there is possible evidence of a differential response in the brain for those with and without a history of concussion. PMID:25010992
Zoellner, Lori A; Alvarez-Conrad, Jennifer; Foa, Edna B
Peritraumatic dissociation, i.e., dissociation during or immediately after a traumatic event, has been associated with persistence of trauma-related pathology. Peritraumatic dissociation may interfere with encoding of traumatic memories and this style may impede recovery. This study examines this hypothesis by analyzing trauma narratives from 28 female sexual and nonsexual assault victims who reported either high or low peritraumatic dissociation. Participants were asked to recount their assault. Narratives were videotaped, transcribed, and coded. Narratives of individuals with high peritraumatic dissociation had higher grade levels and a trend toward lower reading ease than those with low peritraumatic dissociation. Both higher grade levels and lower reading ease of prethreat sections of trauma narratives were related to posttreatment reexperiencing and anxiety symptoms.
Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A
Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.
Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M
A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.
that found in civilian trauma patients . Early diagnosis and treatment of acute traumatic coagulopa- thy with new resuscitation paradigms may improve...December 2004. Enemy combatants and patients who received prior treatment at a medical facility and were transferred in were excluded from the study...through discharge from military treatment facilities for coa- lition and foreign national patients and from point of injury through acute care discharge
Fink, David S.; Galea, Sandro
Traumatic events are ubiquitous exposures that interact with life course events to increase risk of acute psychopathology and alter mental health trajectories. While the majority of persons exposed to trauma experience mild to moderate psychological distress followed by a return to pre-trauma health, many persons exposed to trauma experience substantial distress that lasts for several years. Therefore, in an effort to understand why exposure to trauma can provoke such a range of reactions, we apply a life course approach that considers the complex accumulation and interaction of life experiences that range from social to biological factors, which occur over the life span—from gestation to death and across generations. We present this evidence in three categories: genetics and biology, individual exposures, and community experiences, followed by discussing challenges in existing research, and directions for future study. PMID:25773222
Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin
Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.
Wilson, Daniel J
In this paper, I explore the kinds of psychological trauma experienced by polio patients in the mid-twentieth century in the United States. I argue that the trauma was the result of the experience of sudden paralysis, the conditions under which patients were treated, and the expectations for rehabilitation derived from the psychosocial context of the period. Psychiatric and psychological counseling in hospitals was only beginning to be offered in this period, and most polio patients received little or no counseling or assistance in dealing with their psychological problems. Contemporary psychological studies suggest that many polio patients suffered from psychological problems but that they were relatively mild. However, compared with the many studies of the physical problems of polio patients, there were relatively few studies of the psychological issues associated with the disease. The narratives and memoirs of polio survivors vividly testify to the psychological burden they experienced as patients during both the acute phase of the illness and during rehabilitation.
Murthi, Sarah B; Dutton, Richard P; Edelman, Bennett B; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R
Injured patients stress the transfusion service with frequent demands for uncrossmatched red cells and plasma, occasional requirements for large amounts of blood products and the need for new and better blood products. Transfusion services stress trauma centers with demands for strict accountability for individual blood component units and adherence to indications in a clinical field where research has been difficult, and guidance opinion-based. New data suggest that the most severely injured patients arrive at the trauma center already coagulopathic and that these patients benefit from prompt, specific, corrective treatment. This research is clarifying trauma system requirements for new blood products and blood-product usage patterns, but the inability to obtain informed consent from severely injured patients remains an obstacle to further research. PMID:21083009
Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier
Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it.
Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Gordin, Eli; Stroman, David
With increased awareness and liberal screening of trauma patients with identified risk factors, recent case series demonstrate improved early diagnosis of carotid artery trauma before they become problematio. There remains a need for unified screening criteria for both intracranial and extracranial carotid trauma. In the absence of contraindications, antithrombotic agents should be considered in blunt carotid artery injuries, as there is a significant risk of progression of vessel injury with observation alone. Despite CTA being used as a common screening modality, it appears to lack sufficient sensitivity. DSA remains to be the gold standard in screening. Endovascular techniques are becoming more widely accepted as the primary surgical modality in the treatment of blunt extracranial carotid injuries and penetrating/blunt intracranial carotid lessions. Nonetheless, open surgical approaches are still needed for the treatment of penetrating extracranial carotid injuries and in patients with unfavorable lesions for endovascular intervention. PMID:25136406
Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N
Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.].
Trouve-Buisson, Thibaut; Pouzol, Patricia; Larrat, Sylvie; Decaens, Thomas; Payen, Jean-Francois
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes acute liver disease, but severe infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. We describe a case of HEV infection in a previously healthy male trauma patient in France who received massive transfusions. Genotyping confirmed HEV in a transfused platelet pool and the donor. PMID:27983485
Tonglet, Martin L
Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure, and by earlier correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. We identified 14 scores or algorithms developed for the prediction of ongoing hemorrhage and the need for massive transfusion in severe trauma patients. PMID:28144603
Schneider, K; Dietz, H G; Fendel, H
A posttraumatic diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed by ultrasound and x-ray examinations 1 year after a blunt trauma of the chest and abdomen. The diaphragmatic lesion could be seen retrospectively in the initial sonograms which were performed during the acute illness. It was however not possible to confirm the rupture during laparatomy.
Mora-Magaña, I; Collado-Corona, M A; Toral-Martiñòn, R; Cano, A
Lesions produced by exposure to noise are frequent in everyday life. Injuries may be found in all systems of the human body, from the digestive to the endocrine, from the cardiovascular to the nervous system. Many organs may be damaged, the ear being one of them. It is known that noise produced by factories, airports, musical instruments and even toys can cause auditory loss. Noises in nature can also cause acoustic trauma. This report is the case history of acoustic trauma caused by lightning. The patient was studied with CAT scan, electroencephalogram, and brain mapping, impedance audiometry with tympanogram and acoustic reflex, audiometry and evoked otoacoustics emissions: distortion products and transients.
Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K
Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.
Leikola, Anssi; Mäkelä, Jukka; Punkanen, Marko
According to the polyvagal theory, the autonomic nervous system can, in deviation from the conventional theory, be divided in three distinct parts that are in hierarchical relationship with each other. The most-primitive autonomic control results in depression of vital functions, the more evolved one in fighting or escape and the most evolved one in social involvement. Practical application of the polyvagal theory has resulted in positive results above all in the treatment of emotional trauma. in Finland, therapy of complex trauma is founded on the theory of structural dissociation of the personality, which together with the polyvagal theory forms a practical frame of reference for psychotherapeutic work.
Mitra, Biswadev; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Olaussen, Alexander; Thaveenthiran, Prasanthan; Bade-Boon, Jordan; Martin, Katherine; Smit, De Villiers; Cameron, Peter A
Multiply injured patients represent a particularly demanding subgroup of trauma patients as they require urgent simultaneous clinical assessments using physical examination, ultrasound and invasive monitoring together with critical management, including tracheal intubation, thoracostomies and central venous access. Concurrent access to multiple body regions is essential to facilitate the concept of 'horizontal' resuscitation. The current positioning of trauma patient, with arms adducted, restricts this approach. Instead, the therapeutic cruciform positioning, with arms abducted at 90°, allows planning and performing of multiple life-saving interventions simultaneously. This positioning also provides a practical surgical field with improved sterility and procedural access.
DellaValle, Brian; Hempel, Casper; Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Kurtzhals, Jørgen Anders Lindholm
Objectives In this study, we address a gap in knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of acute treatment with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist after severe brain trauma. Moreover, it remains still unknown whether GLP-1 treatment activates the protective, anti-neurodegenerative cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway in the brain in vivo, and whether activation leads to observable increases in protective, anti-neurodegenerative proteins. Finally, we report the first use of a highly sensitive in vivo imaging agent to assess reactive species generation after brain trauma. Methods Severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion in mice and thereafter treated with vehicle, liraglutide, or liraglutide + GLP-1 receptor antagonist. A therapeutic window was established and lesion size post-trauma was determined. Reactive oxygen species were visualized in vivo and quantified directly ex vivo. Hematological analysis was performed over time. Necrotic and apoptotic tone and neuroinflammation was assessed over time. CREB activation and CREB-regulated cytoprotective proteins were assessed over time. Results Lira treatment reduced lesion size by ∼50% through the GLP-1 receptor. Reactive species generation was reduced by ∼40–60%. Necrotic and apoptotic tone maintained similar to sham in diseased animals with Lira treatment. Phosphorylation of CREB was markedly increased by Lira in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent manner. CREB-regulated cytoprotective and anti-neurodegenerative proteins increased with Lira-driven CREB activation. Interpretation These results show that Lira has potent effects after experimental trauma in mice and thus should be considered a candidate for critical care intervention post-injury. Moreover, activation of CREB in the brain by Lira – described for the first time to be dependent on pathology – should be investigated further as a potential mechanism of action in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25493285
Beck, A; Bischoff, M; Gebhard, F; Huber-Lang, M; Kinzl, L; Schmelz, A
Opinions vary with regard to the equipment and structural furnishings required for adequate management of the trauma patient in the dedicated shock suite. In order to assess the current situation in Germany, we conducted a survey of the 76 centers participating in the Polytrauma Registry of the DGU. Fifty-one questionnaires were returned by centers representing all levels of care. Responses revealed, for example, that not all centers possess capabilities for conventional radiography in the shock suite (7/51). Only 20 centers had a fixed table; the remaining 24 hospitals used either an image converter or a mobile X-ray unit. A dedicated ultrasound scanner was provided for the shock suite in 39 of 51 centers responding. Dedicated computed tomography scanners were provided for the shock suite in only eight centers (one dedicated trauma center, three level 3 centers, four university hospitals). All eight scanners use helical CT technology; at least three of the units are 8- or 16-slice. Of 51 shock suites, 12 are air-conditioned in compliance with sterile criteria (and are officially designated as surgical suites), while the remaining 39 are not. In acute cases, emergency surgeries can be performed in the shock suite in 37 centers, but not in the remaining 14 shock suites. According to the survey, slightly less than half of the hospitals responding are un-satisfied with the shock suite infrastructure ( n=24) and, of these, 13 centers are actively planning changes (the necessary financial resources have been guaranteed in 10 centers). Fourteen centers desire changes but do not currently have the required money. Information provided by Philips and Siemens suggests that the cost of furnishing a new shock suite ranges between 1.4 and 1.7 million euros. Responses to our survey show that a large gap remains between wishes and reality in the technical infrastructure in many shock suites in Germany.
Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at ...
Faintuch, J; Machado, F K; Freire, A N; Reis, J R; Machado, M; Pinto, L P; Ramos, S M; Loebens, M; Jovchelevich, V; Pinotti, H W
Total parenteral nutrition with lipids is a well-accepted modality of metabolic support in seriously ill trauma patients. Intolerance to lipid administration is unusual when dosage limits are not exceeded, and few hematologic disturbances have been recorded with modern fat emulsions. In the course of intravenous alimentation of six adults admitted for traumatic lesions, eosinophilia with or without leukocytopenia was noticed after periods of four days to five weeks. Principal clinical events and hematologic derangements were documented in this population. Sepsis was not always present in the patients by the time of the complication, and in those that did require antibiotics and other drugs, the prescription remained unchanged along the episode. Discontinuation of the nutritional regimen with lipids was followed by normalization of the hematologic profile, suggesting that an acute or sub-acute allergic reaction was responsible. The appearance of skin rash in two occasions reinforces this hypothesis, and the possibility of hemophagocytosis merits consideration in two of the cases who displayed reversible acute leukocytopenia. It is concluded that blood cell aberrations are possible during intravenous feeding with lipids in trauma subjects, but tend to respond to suppression of the lipid-containing nutritional prescription.
Lemming, Dag; Sörensen, Jan; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Lauber, Rolf; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gerdle, Björn
The aim was to investigate the efficacy of a combination of low-dose remifentanil (REMI) and ketamine (KET) compared to the single drugs and placebo (P) on whiplash associated pain (WAD) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Twenty patients with chronic (>1 year) WAD were included. Four different drug combinations were tested in four sessions: placebo/placebo (P/P), placebo/remifentanil (P/REMI), ketamine/placebo (KET/P) and ketamine/remifentanil (KET/REMI). Target concentrations were 1 and 2ng/ml (stepwise) for remifentanil and 100ng/ml for ketamine. Habitual pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Experimental pain was assessed with electrical stimulation (single and repeated) of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, pressure pain algometry applied over infraspinatus (IS) and TA muscles and VAS scores after intramuscular hypertonic saline infusion in TA. KET/REMI significantly reduced habitual pain. KET/REMI infused at low REMI target concentration (1ng/ml) significantly elevated electrical intramuscular pain thresholds (single and repeated). Pain thresholds to electrical stimulation were similarly increased by both P/REMI and KET/REMI at 2ng/ml target concentration. Pressure pain thresholds were increased by both KET/REMI and P/REMI. VAS-scores after intramuscular saline were also similarly decreased by both REMI combinations. Seven out of 20 subjects were non-responders (<50% pain relief). No correlation was found between effects on spontaneous pain and experimental pain. KET/REMI showed an analgesic effect on habitual pain. Experimental pain was attenuated by both combinations containing the opioid, however, KET seemed to enhance the effect of REMI on electrical pain thresholds when a low REMI target concentration was used.
Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David
Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD.
Background Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have dramatic consequences for individual and public health. Risk factors for better and worse outcomes are important to optimize management. This study aimed to determine short- and mid-term associative co-factors of neck pain relief, improved physical functioning, and improved working capacity (dependent variables) in patients suffering from whiplash associated disorder who participated in a standardized, inpatient pain management program. Methods Naturalistic, observational, prospective cohort study. Outcome was measured by standardized assessment instruments. Co-factors covered sociodemographics, comorbidities, social participation, affective health, and coping abilities. Stepwise, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed at discharge and at the 6-month follow-up. Results All regression models explained high proportions of variance (53.3% – 72.1%). The corresponding baseline level was significantly associated with a change in every dependent variable (explained variances: 11.4%-56.7%). Pain relief significantly depended on improved function and vice-versa (3.4%-14.8%). Improved ability to decrease pain was associated with pain relief at discharge (9.6%). Functional improvement was associated with decreased catastrophizing (19.4%) at discharge and decreased depression (20.5%) at the 6 month follow-up. Conclusions Pain relief, improved physical function and working capacity were associated with each other. Improved coping (catastrophizing and ability to decrease pain) and reduced depression may act as important predictors for pain relief and improved function. These findings offer toe-holds for optimized therapy of chronic WAD. PMID:24739588
Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David
Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD. PMID:27484361
Pedler, Ashley; Kamper, Steven J; Sterling, Michele
The fear avoidance model (FAM) has been proposed to explain the development of chronic disability in a variety of conditions including whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). The FAM does not account for symptoms of posttraumatic stress and sensory hypersensitivity, which are associated with poor recovery from whiplash injury. The aim of this study was to explore a model for the maintenance of pain and related disability in people with WAD including symptoms of PTSD, sensory hypersensitivity, and FAM components. The relationship between individual components in the model and disability and how these relationships changed over the first 12 weeks after injury were investigated. We performed a longitudinal study of 103 (74 female) patients with WAD. Measures of pain intensity, cold and mechanical pain thresholds, symptoms of posttraumatic stress, pain catastrophising, kinesiophobia, and fear of cervical spine movement were collected within 6 weeks of injury and at 12 weeks after injury. Mixed-model analysis using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and average 24-hour pain intensity as the dependent variables revealed that overall model fit was greatest when measures of fear of movement, posttraumatic stress, and sensory hypersensitivity were included. The interactive effects of time with catastrophising and time with fear of activity of the cervical spine were also included in the best model for disability. These results provide preliminary support for the addition of neurobiological and stress system components to the FAM to explain poor outcome in patients with WAD.
Wurster, Lee Ann; Coffey, Carla; Haley, Kathy; Covert, Julia
The trauma nurse leader role was developed by a group of trauma surgeons, hospital administrators, and emergency department and trauma leaders at Nationwide Children's Hospital who recognized the need for the development of a core group of nurses who provided expert trauma care. The intent was to provide an experienced group of nurses who could identify and resolve issues in the trauma room. Through increased education, exposure, mentoring, and professional development, the trauma nurse leader role has become an essential part of the specialized pediatric trauma care provided at Nationwide Children's Hospital.
Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard
This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…
Monksfield, Peter; Whiteside, Olivia; Jaffé, Susan; Steventon, Nick; Milford, Chris
Pneumomediastinum is often an incidental finding following a blunt or penetrating trauma to the neck or chest. We report a rare case of pneumomediastinum following an isolated facial trauma that was diagnosed on imaging. We also review the clinical signs of this condition, its radiologic characteristics, and the 18 previously reported cases of pneumomediastinum following facial trauma.
Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie
Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…
Ishak, Charbel; Kanth, Nalini
Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cystography is rapidly becoming the most recommended study for evaluation of the bladder for suspected trauma. This article reviews the bladder trauma with emphasis on the application of MDCT cystography to traumatic bladder injuries using a pictorial essay based on images collected in our level I trauma center.
Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah
Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…
Despite advances in the management of liver trauma during the past 40 years, haemorrhage has remained the commonest cause of death. This article outlines the diversity of opinion between the desire to determine the extent of damage and resect devitalised tissue with its attendant risk of exacerbating haemorrhage, and the alternative of a more conservative approach. PMID:3895205
One of the biggest challenges facing Aboriginal populations increasingly is being called "intergenerational trauma." Restoring the cultural heritage is a central theme in the book, "Reclaiming Youth at Risk." That work describes the Circle of Courage model for positive development which blends Native child and youth care…
Craig, Susan E.
According to the National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention, about one quarter of children in the United States will witness or experience a traumatic event before the age of four. In this article, Susan E. Craig explains how these early trauma histories prime a child's brain to expect certain experiences,…
Bigler, Erin D.
To help educators understand the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of cerebral injury, the neuropathology of traumatic brain injury and the main neuropathological features resulting from trauma-related brain damage are reviewed. A glossary with definitions of 37 neurological terms is appended. (Author/DB)
Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…
Edwards, Norma M; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Forsythe, Raquel M; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C
Mortality has been shown to be high in patients after trauma nephrectomy (TN). However, there are little data regarding morbidity in survivors. The objective of this study was to determine the morbidity rates associated with TN with attention directed to renal failure (RF) and formation of intra-abdominal abscess (IAA). Patients who underwent TN over a 9-year period (1996 to 2004) were identified from the trauma registry. Records were reviewed for all complications after TN in patients surviving at least 48 hours. Eighty-nine patients were identified with TN; 61 per cent resulted after penetrating trauma. Overall mortality was 34 per cent. Seventy-one patients survived greater than 48 hours; 51 (72%) experienced at least one morbidity. There was no difference in morbidity rates between patients undergoing blunt trauma and those undergoing penetrating trama. Patients with morbidities were significantly older, more severely injured, and had higher mortality rates and longer hospital courses. Infectious complications were seen in 52 per cent, respiratory in 48 per cent, gastrointestinal in 30 per cent, coagulopathy in 25 per cent, and RF and IAA were each seen in 14 per cent of patients. Patients undergoing TN are severely injured with significant morbidity. The results from this study allow us to establish benchmarks to assess complication rates for patients who undergo TN, which can provide prognostic information and goals to improve patient outcomes.
Basavaraj, Prashanth; Yempalle, Supriya Baswaraj; Karnam, Lavanya
Acute external injury to the larynx is both life threatening and a potential long term management challenge. As Otorhinolaryngologist we must be prepared and well versed to manage these patients. In our study seven patients of open laryngeal traumas were managed by primary closure. In five patients nature of injury was known in other two patients exact nature of injury was not known. After primary closure five patients with known injury survived and two patients with unknown injury died. As per our experience, we recommend primary closure, if the exact nature of injury is known as the outcome is definitely favourable. PMID:28384898
Etxaniz, A; Pita, E
Bleeding is the most common preventable cause of death in trauma patients. Acute traumatic coagulopathy is a specific condition with a different pathophysiology from other causes of the massive bleeding. An early identification of the coagulopathy is fundamental to implementing rapid treatment. There have been many changes in the management of massive hemorrhage, for example, the administration of the tranexamic acid and the use of balanced transfusion ratio. This review presents these practical points, some of them with scientific evidence, in order to achieve a beneficial effect for patient outcomes.
Shariff, Zakir; Patel, Kuntal J.; Elbo, A.; Guisasola, I.
Radial head fractures are common injuries, occurring in about 20% of all acute elbow injuries. Isolated radial head fractures are not common and include about 2% of all fractures around the elbow. Bilateral radial head fractures are rare and usually associated with severe trauma and associated fractures and dislocations. We report a case of bilateral undisplaced radial head fracture in a woman, following a simple fall. Early recognition, proper management, and physical therapy led to complete recovery and full functional movement of the elbow. PMID:16369234
Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F
Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.
Solursh, D S
Emergency room and trauma unit work offers unique challenges to the nurse, both professionally and personally. One of these challenges is understanding and dealing with the behavior of victims' families. Some of the factors that impact on the behavior of families include (1) the sudden and unpredictable nature of trauma; (2) the nature of the relationship of the specific family member and the trauma victim; (3) the issues of responsibility, anger, and guilt; (4) religious beliefs; and (5) trauma sequelae. The development of organ and tissue donor programs and of psychotraumatology as ways to help ease the plight of trauma victims' families are also discussed.
Kuhlman, Kate R; Geiss, Elisa G; Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor
Individual differences in a child's sensitivity to stress may influence whether youth exposed to trauma develop symptoms of psychopathology. We examined the interaction between HPA-axis reactivity to an acute stressor and exposure to different types of childhood trauma as predictors of mental health symptoms in a sample of youth. Youth (n = 121, ages 9-16; 47% female) completed a standardized stress task, including 5 post-stress salivary cortisol samples. Parents also completed the Child Behavior Checklist as a measure of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms in the past month, and completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) as a measure of their child's trauma exposure. More emotional abuse and non-intentional trauma were associated with greater internalizing symptoms. Youth exposed to physical abuse who demonstrated slower HPA-axis reactivity had elevated internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Youth exposed to emotional abuse or non-intentional traumatic events who demonstrated faster HPA-axis reactivity had elevated internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Profiles of exaggerated or attenuated HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress may be risk factors for psychopathology in children facing different stressful social environments.
Tatekoshi, Yuki; Yuda, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuko; Kokubu, Nobuaki; Hase, Mamoru; Tachibana, Kazutoshi; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Higami, Tetsuya; Miura, Tetsuji
A 65-year-old male developed acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection and tricuspid valve injury after blunt chest trauma. Acute myocardial infarction was treated by coronary artery intervention; however, refractory heart failure with pleural effusion remained. The first transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) on admission failed to clearly visualize the tricuspid valve and right ventricle due to poor image quality. A follow-up TTE with contrast ultrasonography revealed pericardial rupture in addition to tricuspid regurgitation. Ruptures of the tricuspid papillary muscle and pericardium were confirmed during surgery and were repaired successfully. Blunt chest trauma results in various cardiac injuries including cardiac rupture, intramural hematoma, valvular injury, coronary artery injury, and electrical disturbances, leading to critical conditions and high mortality. Of such blunt trauma-induced injuries, coronary artery dissection, tricuspid valve injury, and pericardial rupture caused by blunt chest trauma are rare, and simultaneous occurrence of the three types of injuries that were successfully repaired has not been reported. In addition, this case indicates the utility of contrast ultrasonography for diagnosis of pericardial rupture caused by blunt chest trauma.
Ibrahim, N.A.; Oludara, M.A.; Ajani, A.; Mustafa, I.; Balogun, R.; Idowu, O.; Osuoji, R.; Omodele, F.O.; Aderounmu, A.O.A.; Solagberu, B.A.
Introduction Significant deaths of between 21% and 38% occur from non-trauma surgical conditions in the accident and emergency room. Access to emergency surgical care is limited in many developing countries including Nigeria. We aimed to study the spectrum of non-trauma surgical emergencies, identify challenges in management and evaluate outcomes. Methods A one year prospective cohort study of all non-trauma emergencies in adults seen at the surgical emergency room of LASUTH from 1st October, 2011 to 30th September, 2012 was conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results Of a total of 7536 patients seen, there were 7122 adults. Those with non-trauma conditions were 2065 representing 29% of adult emergencies. Age ranged between 15 and 97 years and male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Acute abdomen (30%), urological problems (18%) and malignancies (10%) were the most common. Among 985 patients requiring admission only 464 (47%) were admitted while the remaining 53% were referred to other centers. Emergency surgical intervention was carried out in 222 patients representing 48% of admitted patients. There were 12 (24%) non-trauma deaths in the emergency room. They were due to acute abdomen and malignancies in half of the cases. Conclusion Facilities for patients needing emergency care were inadequate with more than half of those requiring admission referred. Attention should be paid to the provision of emergency surgical services to the teeming number of patients seen on yearly basis in the Teaching Hospital. PMID:26566434
Solomon, Eldra P; Heide, Kathleen M
During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis and can cause both short and long-term effects on many organs and systems of the body. Our expanding knowledge of the effects of trauma on the body has inspired new approaches to treating trauma survivors. Biologically informed therapy addresses the physiological effects of trauma, as well as cognitive distortions and maladaptive behaviors. The authors suggest that the most effective therapeutic innovation during the past 20 years for treating trauma survivors has been Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), a therapeutic approach that focuses on resolving trauma using a combination of top-down (cognitive) and bottom-up (affect/body) processing.
Block, Lisa; King, Timothy W.; Gosain, Ankush
Significance: Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the initial assessment and management of traumatic and burn wounds in children. Special attention is given to wound cleansing, debridement techniques, and considerations for pain management and psychosocial support for children and families. Recent Advances: Basic and translational research over the last 5–7 years has advanced our knowledge related to the optimal care of acute pediatric traumatic and burn wounds. Data concerning methods, volume, solution and timing for irrigation of acute traumatic wounds, timing and methods of wound debridement, including hydrosurgery and plasma knife coblation, and wound dressings are presented. Additionally, data concerning the long-term psychosocial outcomes following acute injury are presented. Critical Issues: The care of pediatric trauma and burn-related wounds requires prompt assessment, pain control, cleansing, debridement, application of appropriate dressings, and close follow-up. Ideally, a knowledgeable multidisciplinary team cares for these patients. A limitation in the care of these patients is the relative paucity of data specific to the care of acute traumatic wounds in the pediatric population. Future Directions: Research is ongoing in the arenas of new debridement techniques and instruments, and in wound dressing technology. Dedicated research on these topics in the pediatric population will serve to strengthen and advance the care of pediatric patients with acute traumatic and burn wounds. PMID:26487978
Kemmler, Julia; Bindl, Ronny; McCook, Oscar; Wagner, Florian; Gröger, Michael; Wagner, Katja; Scheuerle, Angelika; Radermacher, Peter; Ignatius, Anita
In polytrauma patients a thoracic trauma is one of the most critical injuries and an important trigger of post-traumatic inflammation. About 50% of patients with thoracic trauma are additionally affected by bone fractures. The risk for fracture malunion is considerably increased in such patients, the pathomechanisms being poorly understood. Thoracic trauma causes regional alveolar hypoxia and, subsequently, hypoxemia, which in turn triggers local and systemic inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to unravel the role of oxygen in impaired bone regeneration after thoracic trauma. We hypothesized that short-term breathing of 100% oxygen in the early post-traumatic phase ameliorates inflammation and improves bone regeneration. Mice underwent a femur osteotomy alone or combined with blunt chest trauma 100% oxygen was administered immediately after trauma for two separate 3 hour intervals. Arterial blood gas tensions, microcirculatory perfusion and oxygenation were assessed at 3, 9 and 24 hours after injury. Inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress were measured in plasma, lung and fracture hematoma. Bone healing was assessed on day 7, 14 and 21. Thoracic trauma induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation and impaired bone healing. Short-term exposure to 100% oxygen in the acute post-traumatic phase significantly attenuated systemic and local inflammatory responses and improved fracture healing without provoking toxic side effects, suggesting that hyperoxia could induce anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects after severe injury. These results suggest that breathing of 100% oxygen in the acute post-traumatic phase might reduce the risk of poorly healing fractures in severely injured patients. PMID:26147725
Kemmler, Julia; Bindl, Ronny; McCook, Oscar; Wagner, Florian; Gröger, Michael; Wagner, Katja; Scheuerle, Angelika; Radermacher, Peter; Ignatius, Anita
In polytrauma patients a thoracic trauma is one of the most critical injuries and an important trigger of post-traumatic inflammation. About 50% of patients with thoracic trauma are additionally affected by bone fractures. The risk for fracture malunion is considerably increased in such patients, the pathomechanisms being poorly understood. Thoracic trauma causes regional alveolar hypoxia and, subsequently, hypoxemia, which in turn triggers local and systemic inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to unravel the role of oxygen in impaired bone regeneration after thoracic trauma. We hypothesized that short-term breathing of 100% oxygen in the early post-traumatic phase ameliorates inflammation and improves bone regeneration. Mice underwent a femur osteotomy alone or combined with blunt chest trauma 100% oxygen was administered immediately after trauma for two separate 3 hour intervals. Arterial blood gas tensions, microcirculatory perfusion and oxygenation were assessed at 3, 9 and 24 hours after injury. Inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress were measured in plasma, lung and fracture hematoma. Bone healing was assessed on day 7, 14 and 21. Thoracic trauma induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation and impaired bone healing. Short-term exposure to 100% oxygen in the acute post-traumatic phase significantly attenuated systemic and local inflammatory responses and improved fracture healing without provoking toxic side effects, suggesting that hyperoxia could induce anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects after severe injury. These results suggest that breathing of 100% oxygen in the acute post-traumatic phase might reduce the risk of poorly healing fractures in severely injured patients.
Ashwal, Stephen; Wycliffe, Nathaniel D; Holshouser, Barbara A
Physical abuse associated with nonaccidental trauma (NAT) affects approximately 144,000 children per year in the USA and, frequently, these injuries affect the developing brain. Most infants with suspected NAT are initially evaluated by skull X-rays and computed tomography to determine whether fractures are present, the severity of the acute injury and the need for urgent neurosurgical intervention. Increasingly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is conducted as it provides additional diagnostic and prognostic information about the extent and nature of the injury. In this review, we examine 4 MRI techniques as they apply to children who present acutely after NAT. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a 3-D high-resolution MRI technique that is more sensitive than conventional imaging in detecting hemorrhagic lesions that are often associated with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy acquires metabolite information reflecting neuronal integrity and function from multiple brain regions and provides a sensitive, noninvasive assessment of neurochemical alterations that offers early prognostic information regarding outcome. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is based on differences in the diffusion of water molecules within the brain and has been shown to be very sensitive in the early detection of ischemic injury. It is now being used to study the direct effects of traumatic injury as well as those due to secondary ischemia. Diffusion tensor imaging is a form of DWI and allows better evaluation of white matter fiber tracts by taking advantage of the intrinsic directionality (anisotropy) of water diffusion in the human brain. It has been shown to be useful in identifying white matter abnormalities after DAI when conventional imaging appears normal. Although these imaging methods have been studied primarily in adults and children with accidental traumatic brain injury, it is clear that they have the potential to provide additional value in the imaging
Shaukat, Nadia Maria; Copeli, Nikolai; Desai, Poonam
Pelvic trauma accounts for only 3% of all skeletal injuries but may have mortality as high as 45% in cases of severe trauma. Significant high-grade-mechanism trauma to the pelvis must always take the abdomen into consideration for evaluation. The focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has been shown to be a valuable tool in assessing the unstable trauma patient with blunt abdominal injury, though its diagnostic utility is much less well-defined than in primary pelvic trauma. This systematic review explores the utility and limitations of the FAST examination in patients with blunt pelvic trauma and discusses the timing for the examination during the trauma survey. Newer techniques for emergency department management of the unstable trauma patient are also addressed.
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs) are generally regarded to be a traumatic lesion. It was regarded as a stroke in 17th century, an inflammatory disease in 19th century. From 20th century, it became a traumatic lesion. CSH frequently occur after a trauma, however, it cannot occur when there is no enough subdural space even after a severe head injury. CSH may occur without trauma, when there is sufficient subdural space. The author tried to investigate trends in the causation of CSH. By a review of literature, the author suggested a different view on the causation of CSH. CSH usually originated from either a subdural hygroma or an acute subdural hematoma. Development of CSH starts from the separation of the dural border cell (DBC) layer, which induces proliferation of DBCs with production of neomembrane. Capillaries will follow along the neomembrane. Hemorrhage would occur into the subdural fluid either by tearing of bridge veins or repeated microhemorrhage from the neomembrane. That is the mechanism of hematoma enlargement. Trauma or bleeding tendency may precipitate development of CSH, however, it cannot lead CSH, if there is no sufficient subdural space. The key determinant for development of CSH is a sufficient subdural space, in other words, brain atrophy. The most common and universal cause of brain atrophy is the aging. Modifying Virchow's description, CSH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by degeneration of the brain. Now, it is reasonable that degeneration of brain might play pivotal role in development of CSH in the aged persons. PMID:26885279
Lerwick, Julie L
Frequently, episodes of care such as preventive clinic visits, acute care, medical procedures, and hospitalization can be emotionally threatening and psychologically traumatizing for pediatric patients. Children are often subject to psychological trauma, demonstrated by anxiety, aggression, anger, and similar expressions of emotion, because they lack control of their environment. This sense of helplessness, coupled with fear and pain can cause children to feel powerless in healthcare settings. These emotional responses can delay important medical treatment, take more time to complete and can reduce patient satisfaction. Healthcare professionals are uniquely positioned to prevent healthcare-induced trauma and reduce healthcare-induced anxiety. This article introduces a new way to choice, agenda, resilience and emotion (CARE) for pediatric patients in the healthcare setting by implementing the four following treatment principles called the care process: (1) Choices: Offer power in a powerless environment; (2) Agenda: Let patients and families know what to expect and what is expected of them; (3) Resilience: Highlight strengths and reframe negatives; and (4) Emotional support: Recognize and normalize common fears and responses. Engaging the CARE principles helps patients and families feel empowered and mitigates, reduces, and may even ameliorate risk of anxiety and trauma responses. PMID:27170924
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs) are generally regarded to be a traumatic lesion. It was regarded as a stroke in 17th century, an inflammatory disease in 19th century. From 20th century, it became a traumatic lesion. CSH frequently occur after a trauma, however, it cannot occur when there is no enough subdural space even after a severe head injury. CSH may occur without trauma, when there is sufficient subdural space. The author tried to investigate trends in the causation of CSH. By a review of literature, the author suggested a different view on the causation of CSH. CSH usually originated from either a subdural hygroma or an acute subdural hematoma. Development of CSH starts from the separation of the dural border cell (DBC) layer, which induces proliferation of DBCs with production of neomembrane. Capillaries will follow along the neomembrane. Hemorrhage would occur into the subdural fluid either by tearing of bridge veins or repeated microhemorrhage from the neomembrane. That is the mechanism of hematoma enlargement. Trauma or bleeding tendency may precipitate development of CSH, however, it cannot lead CSH, if there is no sufficient subdural space. The key determinant for development of CSH is a sufficient subdural space, in other words, brain atrophy. The most common and universal cause of brain atrophy is the aging. Modifying Virchow's description, CSH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by degeneration of the brain. Now, it is reasonable that degeneration of brain might play pivotal role in development of CSH in the aged persons.
Rösch, M; Klose, T; Leidl, R; Gebhard, F; Kinzl, L; Ebinger, T
Current clinical management after multiple trauma is expensive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the actual costs of inpatient treatment after multiple trauma in a German university hospital, to compare the actual costs with the reimbursement rates, and to identify important determinants of costs. Routine documentation of hospital costs at a patient level was not available. Therefore a method for calculating the costs of resource utilization during clinical treatment of patients was developed. The concept was based on financial and utilization data provided by the hospital administration and patient-specific data. The average costs per case in the study group (mean ISS = 37) were 73.613 DM, maximal costs were up to 292.490 DM. The most costly components were intensive care, accounting for 60%, followed by procedures in the operating room (24%). A comparison with the reimbursement rates resulted in an average loss of 23.211 DM per case. Factors significantly associated with the costs of acute care hospitalization were outcome, injury severity, pattern of injury, blood volume replacement, length of mechanical ventilation, and number of operations. Whereas patient age, CNS state, mechanism of injury, pre-hospital care, and time between accident and hospital admission revealed no effect. Given the current reimbursement rates, multiple trauma care clearly belongs to those categories of care which have to be subsidized within the hospital. Any challenge to the optimal level of care resulting from this should be avoided.
Di Saverio, S; Sibilio, A; Coniglio, C; Bianchi, E; Biscardi, A; Villani, S; Gordini, G; Tugnoli, G
Management of liver trauma is challenging and may vary widely given the heterogeneity of liver injuries' anatomical configuration, the hemodynamic status, the settings and resources available. Perhaps the use of non-operative management (NOM) may have potential drawbacks and the role of damage control surgery (DCS) and angioembolization represents a major evolving concept.1 Most severe liver trauma in polytrauma patients accounts for a significant morbidity and mortality. Major liver trauma with extensive parenchymal injury and uncontrollable bleeding is therefore a challenge for the trauma team. However a safe and effective surgical hemostasis and a carefully planned multidisciplinary approach can improve the outcome of severe liver trauma. The technique of perihepatic packing, according to DCS approach, is often required to achieve fast, early and effective control of hemorrhage in the highest grades of liver trauma and in unstable patients. A systematic and standardized technique of perihepatic packing may contribute to improve hemostatic efficacy and overall outcomes if wisely combined in a stepwise "sandwich" multimodal approach. DCS philosophy evolved alongside with damage control resuscitation (DCR) in the management of trauma patients, requiring close interaction between surgery and resuscitation. Therefore, as a result of a combined surgical and critical care clinical audit activity in our western European trauma center, a practical algorithm for multimodal sequential management of liver trauma has been developed based on a historical cohort of 253 liver trauma patients and subsequently validated on a prospective cohort of 135 patients in the period 2010-2013.
Lord, Janet M; Midwinter, Mark J; Chen, Yen-Fu; Belli, Antonio; Brohi, Karim; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Koenderman, Leo; Kubes, Paul; Lilford, Richard J
Improvements in the control of haemorrhage after trauma have resulted in the survival of many people who would otherwise have died from the initial loss of blood. However, the danger is not over once bleeding has been arrested and blood pressure restored. Two-thirds of patients who die following major trauma now do so as a result of causes other than exsanguination. Trauma evokes a systemic reaction that includes an acute, non-specific, immune response associated, paradoxically, with reduced resistance to infection. The result is damage to multiple organs caused by the initial cascade of inflammation aggravated by subsequent sepsis to which the body has become susceptible. This Series examines the biological mechanisms and clinical implications of the cascade of events caused by large-scale trauma that leads to multiorgan failure and death, despite the stemming of blood loss. Furthermore, the stark and robust epidemiological finding--namely, that age has a profound influence on the chances of surviving trauma irrespective of the nature and severity of the injury--will be explored. Advances in our understanding of the inflammatory response to trauma, the impact of ageing on this response, and how this information has led to new and emerging treatments aimed at combating immune dysregulation and reduced immunity after injury will also be discussed.
Zelenka, Ondřej; Hromádka, Tomáš; Syka, Josef
Exposure to loud sounds damages the auditory periphery and induces maladaptive changes in central parts of the auditory system. Diminished peripheral afferentation and altered inhibition influence the processing of sounds in the auditory cortex. It is unclear, however, which types of inhibitory interneurons are affected by acoustic trauma. Here we used single-unit electrophysiological recording and two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized mice to evaluate the effects of acute acoustic trauma (125 dB SPL, white noise, 5 min) on the response properties of neurons in the core auditory cortex. Electrophysiological measurements suggested the selective impact of acoustic trauma on inhibitory interneurons in the auditory cortex. To further investigate which interneuronal types were affected, we used two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of neurons in cortical layers 2/3 and 4, specifically focusing on parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SST+) interneurons. Spontaneous and pure-tone-evoked firing rates of SST+ interneurons increased in layer 4 immediately after acoustic trauma and remained almost unchanged in layer 2/3. Furthermore, PV+ interneurons with high best frequencies increased their evoked-to-spontaneous firing rate ratios only in layer 2/3 and did not change in layer 4. Finally, acoustic trauma unmasked low-frequency excitatory inputs only in layer 2/3. Our results demonstrate layer-specific changes in the activity of auditory cortical inhibitory interneurons within minutes after acoustic trauma. PMID:26823513
Lord, Janet M; Midwinter, Mark J; Chen, Yen-Fu; Belli, Antonio; Brohi, Karim; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Koenderman, Leo; Kubes, Paul; Lilford, Richard J
Improvements in the control of haemorrhage after trauma have resulted in survival of many people who would otherwise have died from the initial loss of blood. However, the danger is not over once bleeding has been arrested and blood pressure restored. Two-thirds of patients who die following major trauma now do so as a result of causes other than exsanguination. Trauma evokes a systemic reaction that include an acute, non-specific, immune response associated, paradoxically, with reduced resistance to infection. The result is damage to multiple organs caused by the initial cascade of inflammation aggravated by subsequent sepsis to which the body has become susceptible. This Series examines the biological mechanisms and clinical implications of the cascade of events caused by large-scale trauma that leads to multiorgan failure and death, despite the stemming of blood loss. Furthermore, the stark and robust epidemiological finding – namely, that age has a profound influence on the chances of surviving trauma irrespective of the nature and severity of the injury – will be explored. Advances in our understanding of the inflammatory response to trauma, the impact of ageing on this response, and how this information has led to new and emerging treatments aimed at combating immune dysregulation and reduced immunity after injury will also be discussed. PMID:25390327
Pati, Shibani; Pilia, Marcello; Grimsley, Juanita M.; Karanikas, Alexia T.; Oyeniyi, Blessing; Holcomb, John B.; Cap, Andrew P.; Rasmussen, Todd E.
ABSTRACT Trauma is a leading cause of death in both military and civilian populations worldwide. Although medical advances have improved the overall morbidity and mortality often associated with trauma, additional research and innovative advancements in therapeutic interventions are needed to optimize patient outcomes. Cell-based therapies present a novel opportunity to improve trauma and critical care at both the acute and chronic phases that often follow injury. Although this field is still in its infancy, animal and human studies suggest that stem cells may hold great promise for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries, organ injuries, and extremity injuries such as those caused by orthopedic trauma, burns, and critical limb ischemia. However, barriers in the translation of cell therapies that include regulatory obstacles, challenges in manufacturing and clinical trial design, and a lack of funding are critical areas in need of development. In 2015, the Department of Defense Combat Casualty Care Research Program held a joint military–civilian meeting as part of its effort to inform the research community about this field and allow for effective planning and programmatic decisions regarding research and development. The objective of this article is to provide a “state of the science” review regarding cellular therapies in trauma and critical care, and to provide a foundation from which the potential of this emerging field can be harnessed to mitigate outcomes in critically ill trauma patients. PMID:26428845
Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.
Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening
Ramaiah, Ramesh; Grabinsky, Andreas; Bhananker, Sanjay M
The number of children requiring sedation and analgesia for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures has increased substantially in the last decade. Both anesthesiologist and non-anesthesiologists are involved in varying settings outside the operating room to provide safe and effective sedation and analgesia. Procedural sedation has become standard of care and its primary aim is managing acute anxiety, pain, and control of movement during painful or unpleasant procedures. There is enough evidence to suggest that poorly controlled acute pain causes suffering, worse outcome, as well as debilitating chronic pain syndromes that are often refractory to available treatment options. This article will provide strategies to provide safe and effective sedation and analgesia for pediatric trauma patients. PMID:23181210
Goel, V; Kumar, N; Soni, N
Gall bladder injuries are seen in 2% of patients undergoing laparotomy for blunt trauma abdomen. Isolated gall bladder injury is a rare event with associated presence of stones is even rarer. The associated visceral injuries lead to intraoperative identification in most cases. Here we present a case of 30 years old male with isolated gall bladder laceration following blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnosis of gallbladder perforation after blunt injury may be suspected in patients with signs of an acute abdomen and hypotension that is not explained by blood loss. Early suspicion and prompt exploration is imperative. Cholecystectomy is an adequate treatment for the condition.
Carrick, Matthew M.; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S.; Mains, Charles W.
Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109
Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.
Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683
Hirshberg, A; Mattox, K L
OBJECTIVE: The authors review the physiologic basis, indications, techniques, and results of the planned reoperation approach to severe trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multivisceral trauma and exsanguinating hemorrhage lead to hypothermia, coagulopathy, and acidosis. Formal resections and reconstructions in these unstable patients often result in irreversible physiologic insult. A new surgical strategy addresses these physiologic concerns by staged control and repair of the injuries. METHOD: The authors review the literature. RESULTS: Indications for planned reoperation include avoidance of irreversible physiologic insult and inability to obtain direct hemostasis or formal abdominal closure. The three phases of the strategy include initial control, stabilization, and delayed reconstruction. Various techniques are used to obtain rapid temporary control of bleeding and hollow visceral spillage. Hypothermia, coagulopathy, and the abdominal compartment syndrome are major postoperative concerns. Definitive repair of the injuries is undertaken after stabilization. CONCLUSION: Planned reoperation offers a simple and effective alternative to the traditional surgical management of complex or multiple injuries in critically wounded patients. PMID:7618965
Frakes, Patricia; Neely, Iain; Tudoe, Robert
The emergency department (ED) education team at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, has developed a process to promote effective teamwork in major trauma management. To introduce this process to ED staff, the team developed a multiprofessional education and training programme. This article describes the development process, explains how and why it was undertaken, and provides details of the education and training programme. It also highlights the challenges met by the education team during implementation.
15 patients including several who were shot, others who were severely injured in other ways and four who ultimately died. Despite the small number...their most profound social consequences in the loss of young adults from the working population. Injury is the most common cause of the loss of years...who have an injury severity score of > 15 and must have a trauma surgeon, anaesthesiologist, orthopaedic surgeon, thoracic surgeon and neurosurgeon
intravascular coagulation (DIC), and thrombotic complications [8,10-12]. Based on the limited data avail- able at present, changes in fibrinogen...water at 4°C . Temperature of 32°C was used based on the fact that 100% mortality was observed when the temperature in trauma patients dropped...study. The amount of fibrinogen transfused was calculated based on fibrinogen amount within each blood product, such as fresh whole blood
McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Gersons, Berthold P.R.; Olff, Miranda
Background Injured trauma victims are at risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other post-trauma psychopathology. So far, interventions using cognitive behavioral techniques (CBT) have proven most efficacious in treating early PTSD in highly symptomatic individuals. No early intervention for the prevention of PTSD for all victims has yet proven effective. In the acute psychosocial care for trauma victims, there is a clear need for easily applicable, accessible, cost-efficient early interventions. Objective To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a brief Internet-based early intervention that incorporates CBT techniques with the aim of reducing acute psychological distress and preventing long-term PTSD symptoms in injured trauma victims. Method In a two armed RCT, 300 injured trauma victims from two Level-1 trauma centers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, will be assigned to an intervention or a control group. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years of age or older, having experienced a traumatic event according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV and understanding the Dutch language. The intervention group will be given access to the intervention's website (www.traumatips.nl), and are specifically requested to login within the first month postinjury. The primary clinical study outcome is PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, and social support. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention will be performed. Data are collected at one week post-injury, prior to first login (baseline), and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions in general, and Internet-based early interventions specifically, on acute stress reactions and PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after
Paul, Ashish; John, Bobby; Pawar, Basant; Sadiq, Shalinder
This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and to identify factors contributing to development of ARF in orthopaedic trauma patients. A total of 55 patients who presented over a period of one year with trauma to upper and lower limbs were studied. Patients with renal injury, chest or abdominal injury, isolated fractures of the hands, feet and axial skeleton involvement were excluded. Out of these, five developed acute renal failure, three recovered and two died. The overall incidence of ARF in this study was 9.1%. Patients with lower limb injuries are at higher risk of developing ARF. Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) > or = 7, higher age, patient presenting with shock, increased myoglobin levels in urine and serum have been correlated with a greater risk of patients developing ARF and a higher mortality. This study attempts to determine the magnitude of crush injury causing renal failure and the incidence of renal failure in patients with injuries affecting the appendicular skeleton exclusively.
Tanriverdi, F; Unluhizarci, K; Selcuklu, A; Casanueva, F F; Kelestimur, F
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent health problem and increased prevalence of neurendocrine dysfunction in patients with TBI has been reported. Sports injuries and particularly boxing may result in pituitary dysfunction. However, transient hypogonadotropic hypogonadism after an acute head trauma due to boxing and/or kickboxing has not been defined yet. We describe the case of a 20-yr-old male amateur kickboxer who was admitted to hospital complaining of decreased libido and impotence 2 weeks after an intensive bout. Basal hormone levels were compatible with mild hyperprolactinemia and hypogonadotpopic hypogonadism. GH axis was evaluated by GHRH+GHRP-6 test and peak GH level was within normal reference range. Three months later his complaints improved and abnormalities in basal hormone levels normalized. He was also re-evaluated 9 months after the first evaluation; basal hormone levels were within normal ranges and he had no complaints. In conclusion acute head trauma due to kickboxing may cause transient gonadotropin deficiency. Therefore, screening the pituitary functions of sportsmen dealing with combative sports is crucial.
Haley, Kathy; Martin, Stacey; Kilgore, Jane; Lang, Carrie; Rozzell, Monica; Coffey, Carla; Eley, Scott; Light, Andrea; Hubartt, Jeff; Kovach, Sherri; Deppe, Sharon
Trauma nursing requires mastering a highly specialized body of knowledge. Expert nursing care is expected to be offered throughout the hospital continuum, yet identifying the necessary broad-based objectives for nurses working within this continuum has often been difficult to define. Trauma nurse leaders and educators from 7 central and southeastern Ohio trauma centers and 1 regional trauma organization convened to establish an approach to standardizing trauma nursing education from a regional perspective. Forty-two trauma nursing educational objectives were identified. The Delphi method was used to narrow the list to 3 learning objectives to serve as the framework for a regional trauma nursing education guideline. Although numerous trauma nursing educational needs were identified across the continuum of care, a lack of clearly defined standards exists. Recognizing and understanding the educational preparation and defined standards required for nurses providing optimal trauma care are vital for a positive impact on patient outcomes. This regional trauma nursing education guideline is a novel model and can be used to assist trauma care leaders in standardizing trauma education within their hospital, region, or state. The use of this model may also lead to the identification of gaps within trauma educational systems.
occupant motions in military environments can result in excessive loads (forces and bending moments) to the neck structure. Axial or eccentric...and sagittal bending moment. Pinned-pinned end conditions produced posterior ligament disruptions with minor wedging of bodies, while fixed-pinned...another study, the sagittal bending moment parameter was included in addition to the vertical compressive force. Tests were done using 13 PMHS head
Wegener, Stephen T; Pollak, Andrew N; Frey, Katherine P; Hymes, Robert A; Archer, Kristin R; Jones, Clifford B; Seymour, Rachel B; OʼToole, Robert V; Castillo, Renan C; Huang, Yanjie; Scharfstein, Daniel O; MacKenzie, Ellen J
Previous research suggests that the care provided to trauma patients could be improved by including early screening and management of emotional distress and psychological comorbidity. The Trauma Collaborative Care (TCC) program, which is based on the principles of well-established models of collaborative care, was designed to address this gap in trauma center care. This article describes the TCC program and the design of a multicenter study to evaluate its effectiveness for improving patient outcomes after major, high-energy orthopaedic trauma at level 1 trauma centers. The TCC program was evaluated by comparing outcomes of patients treated at 6 intervention sites (n = 481) with 6 trauma centers where care was delivered as usual (control sites, n = 419). Compared with standard treatment alone, it is hypothesized that access to the TCC program plus standard treatment will result in lower rates of poor patient-reported function, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
The social contexts in which the mass trauma of thousands of people occur and in which their recovery should progress have qualities that distinguish it in important ways from individualised trauma in which a person is a victim of a violent attack, rape or a traffic accident. Organised violence, such as wars, oppression by dictatorships and massive terrorist attacks are extreme cases in which hundreds or thousands of people are exposed to trauma in a short period of time. As such, it has multiple consequences that extend beyond the affected individuals and the symptoms they suffer. Although the symptoms may be similar, the social contexts in which individual victimisation and exposure to organised violence happen are very different. The social milieu in which the survivors of individual trauma and survivors of mass trauma are embedded is likewise different, with important consequences for recovery. Understanding the social context of the trauma helps create the right social intervention for healing at social and personal levels.
Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I
Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.
Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E
Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.
Elhai, Jon D; Franklin, C Laurel; Gray, Matt J
We investigated the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module's trauma screen of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), a single-item traumatic event history query. Compared to the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), the SCID trauma screen was 76% sensitive in identifying trauma histories in 199 medical patients (correctly ruling out 67%) but only 66% sensitive in 253 college students (ruling out 87%). A modified, more behaviorally specific SCID trauma screen (M-SCID) yielded poorer results in identifying trauma among 245 additional college students. Based on probable PTSD diagnoses (PTSD Symptom Scale), using the SCID screen instead of the SLESQ, 3% (M-SCID screen) to 11-14% (standard SCID) of PTSD cases were missed due to not having a trauma history. Our results lend support to previous research establishing the SCID trauma screen as a useful screening device in settings where a more comprehensive trauma screen is not possible.
Zhu, Thein Hlaing; Hollister, Lisa; Scheumann, Christopher; Konger, Jennifer; Opoku, Dazar
The study evaluates (1) health care provider perception of the Rural Trauma Team Development Course (RTTDC); (2) improvement in acute trauma emergency care knowledge; and (3) early transfer of trauma patients from rural emergency departments (EDs) to a verified trauma center. A 1-day, 8-hour RTTDC was given to 101 nurses and other health care providers from nine rural community hospitals from 2011 to 2013. RTTDC participants completed questionnaires to address objectives (1) and (2). ED and trauma registry data were queried to achieve objective (3) for assessing reduction in ED time (EDT), from patient arrival to decision to transfer and ED length of stay (LOS). The RTTDC was positively perceived by health care providers (96.3% of them completed the program). Significant improvement in 13 of the 19 knowledge items was observed in nurses. Education intervention was an independent predictor in reducing EDT by 28 minutes and 95% confidence interval (CI) [-57, -0.1] at 6 months post-RTTDC, and 29 minutes and 95% CI [-53, -6] at 12 months post-RTTDC. Similar results were observed with ED LOS. The RTTDC is well-perceived as an education program. It improves acute trauma emergency care knowledge in rural health care providers. It promotes early transfer of severely injured patients to a higher level of care.
D’Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Moore, Hunter B.; Moore, Ernest E.; Wither, Matthew; Nydam, Trevor; Slaughter, Annie; Silliman, Christopher C.; Banerjee, Anirban; Hansen, Kirk C.
Background Water-soluble components in mesenteric lymph have been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and distal organ failure following trauma and haemorrhagic shock. Proteomics analyses have recently shown similarities and specificities of post-trauma/haemorrhagic shock lymph and plasma. We hypothesise that the metabolic phenotype of post-trauma/haemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph and plasma share common metabolites, but are also characterised by unique features that differentiate these two fluids. Materials and methods Matched samples were collected from 5 brain-dead organ donors who had suffered extreme trauma/haemorrhagic shock. Metabolomics analyses were performed through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results Overall, 269 metabolites were identified in either fluid. Despite significant overlapping, metabolic phenotypes of matched lymph or plasma from the same patients could be used to discriminate sample fluid or biological patient/traumatic-injury origin. Metabolites showing relatively high levels in both fluids included markers of haemolysis and cell lysis secondary to tissue injury. Discussion High positive correlations were observed between the quantitative levels of markers of systemic metabolic derangement following traumatic/haemorrhagic hypoxaemia, such as succinate, oxoproline, urate and fatty acids. These metabolites might contribute to coagulopathies of trauma and neutrophil priming driving acute lung injury. Future studies will investigate whether the observed compositional specificities mirror functional or pathological adaptations after trauma and haemorrhage. PMID:27177401
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...
Coccolini, Federico; Catena, Fausto; Moore, Ernest E; Ivatury, Rao; Biffl, Walter; Peitzman, Andrew; Coimbra, Raul; Rizoli, Sandro; Kluger, Yoram; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Ceresoli, Marco; Montori, Giulia; Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter; Fraga, Gustavo; Naidoo, Noel; Moore, Frederick A; Zanini, Nicola; Ansaloni, Luca
The severity of liver injuries has been universally classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading scale. In determining the optimal treatment strategy, however, the haemodynamic status and associated injuries should be considered. Thus the management of liver trauma is ultimately based on the anatomy of the injury and the physiology of the patient. This paper presents the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) classification of liver trauma and the management Guidelines.
Wicksell, Rikard K; Ahlqvist, Josefin; Bring, Annika; Melin, Lennart; Olsson, Gunnar L
Although 14% to 42% of people with whiplash injuries end up with chronic debilitating pain, there is still a paucity of empirically supported treatments for this group of patients. In chronic pain management, there is increasing consensus regarding the importance of a behavioural medicine approach to symptoms and disability. Cognitive behaviour therapy has proven to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic pain. An approach that promotes acceptance of, or willingness to experience, pain and other associated negative private events (e.g. fear, anxiety, and fatigue) instead of reducing or controlling symptoms has received increasing attention. Although the empirical support for treatments emphasizing exposure and acceptance (such as acceptance and commitment therapy) is growing, there is clearly a need for more outcome studies, especially randomized controlled trials. In this study, participants (N = 21) with chronic pain and whiplash-associated disorders were recruited from a patient organization and randomized to either a treatment or a wait-list control condition. Both groups continued to receive treatment as usual. In the experimental condition, a learning theory framework was applied to the analysis and treatment. The intervention consisted of a 10-session protocol emphasizing values-based exposure and acceptance strategies to improve functioning and life satisfaction by increasing the participants' abilities to behave in accordance with values in the presence of interfering pain and distress (psychological flexibility). After treatment, significant differences in favor of the treatment group were seen in pain disability, life satisfaction, fear of movements, depression, and psychological inflexibility. No change for any of the groups was seen in pain intensity. Improvements in the treatment group were maintained at 7-month follow-up. The authors discuss implications of these findings and offer suggestions for further research in this area.
Peterson, Gunnel; O’Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). Materials and Methods: A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (P<0.01) in the 2 NSE groups (29% to 48%) compared with the PPA group (5%) at 3 months. At 6 months 39% to 44% of the patients in the 2 neck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P<0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. Discussion: NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive. PMID:24918474
Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Reddy, Sai Sabharish; Rajanna, Mandya Siddalingaiah
Objective: To assess the availability of trauma care services in a district referral hospital of Southern India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during 2013 in a tertiary healthcare centre in Southern Indian. A detailed assessment of trauma care services was done in a 400 bed speciality hospital which is an apex referral hospital in the public health system using a check list based on WHO guidelines for evaluation of essential trauma care services, along with in-depth interviews of hospital stake holders and key informants. Results: The hospital had physical infrastructure in terms of emergency room, inpatient wards, operation theatres, intensive care unit and blood bank facilities. The recently constructed designated building for trauma care services was not operational and existing facilities were used beyond capacity. A designated trauma team was lacking and speciality services for managing polytrauma were deficient and thus, existing personnel were performing multiple tasks. Neurosurgeons and rehabilitative nursing staff were unavailable, and a radiographer was not available on a 24/7 basis. Existing nursing personnel had not received any formal training in trauma care and standard operating protocols were not available for trauma care. Resources for acute resuscitation were partially adequate. The hospital lacked adequate resources to manage head, abdomen, chest and spine injuries, and most of the polytrauma cases were referred to nearby city hospitals. Conclusion: District hospital, the only referral hospital in public health system for trauma victims of that region, had inadequate resources to manage trauma victims, which was probably responsible for delay in trauma care, improper referrals, high cost of care and poor outcomes. PMID:27331066
Boschin, Matthias; Vordemvenne, Thomas
Injuries remain the leading cause of death in children and young adults. Management of multiple trauma patients has improved in recent years by quality initiatives (trauma network, S3 guideline "Polytrauma"). On this basis, strong links with preclinical management, structured treatment algorithms, training standards (ATLS®), clear diagnostic rules and an established risk- and quality management are the important factors of a modern emergency room trauma care. We describe the organizational components that lead to successful management of trauma in hospital.
Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Foynes, Melissa Ming
Eight-hundred thirty-three members of an ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort study in Hawaii were surveyed about their personal exposure to several types of traumatic events, socioeconomic resources, and mental health symptoms. Results replicated findings from prior research that while men and women are exposed to similar rates of trauma overall, women report more exposure to traumas high in betrayal (HB), while men report exposure to more traumas lower in betrayal (LB). Trauma exposure was predictive of mental health symptoms, with neglect, household dysfunction, and HB traumas predicting symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and sleep disturbance, and LB traumas predicting PTSD and dissociation symptoms. Native Hawaiian ethnicity and poorer socioeconomic status were predictive of greater trauma exposure and symptoms. Results suggest that more inclusive definitions of trauma are important for gender equity, and that ethnic group variation in symptoms is better explained by factors such as differential trauma exposure and economic and social status differences, rather than minority status per se. PMID:24660048
Smith, Kurt A; Bryce, Suzanne
The management of acute trauma in the pregnant patient relies on a thorough understanding of the underlying physiology of pregnancy. This issue reviews the evidence regarding important considerations in pregnant trauma patients, including the primary and secondary survey as well as the possibility for Rh exposure, placental abruption, uterine rupture, and the need for a prompt perimortem cesarean section in the moribund patient. Because ionizing radiation is always a concern in pregnancy, the circumstances where testing provides benefits that outweigh risks to the fetus are discussed. Emergency clinicians are encouraged to advocate for trauma prevention, including proper safety restraints for motor vehicles and screening for domestic violence, as these measures have been shown to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in this population. Recommendations for monitoring, admission, discharge, and follow-up are also noted.
Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K
Based on crew resource management of the airline industry the German Society for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) was the first scientific community in Germany to develop and implement a training course for patient safety. The S:training courses contain four course formats which focus on the prehospital life support (S:PLS), the operating room (S:OR), the trauma room (S:TR) and the intensive care unit (S:ICU). In the training the importance of the human factor for the management of acute major trauma is developed by means of presentations, training videos, practical training, discussions and realistic case scenarios associated with the special working environment of the participants. A specially developed course manual acts as a work and reference book and course booking is possible at http://www.safe-trac.de.
Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.
Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666
Gross, Joel A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Linnau, Ken F; Voelzke, Bryan B; Sandstrom, Claire K
Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the kidney, ureter, and bladder permit accurate and prompt diagnosis or exclusion of traumatic injuries, without the need to move the patient to the fluoroscopy suite. Real-time review of imaging permits selective delayed imaging, reducing time on the scanner and radiation dose for patients who do not require delays. Modifying imaging parameters to obtain thicker slices and noisier images permits detection of contrast extravasation from the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, while reducing radiation dose on the delayed or cystographic imaging. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading system is discussed, along with challenges and limitations.
Becker, Jonathan A; Daily, Jennifer P; Pohlgeers, Katherine M
Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities. A delay in diagnosis and treatment, particularly in septic arthritis, can have catastrophic results including sepsis, bacteremia, joint destruction, or death. The history and physical examination can help guide the use of laboratory and imaging studies. The presence of focal bone pain or recent trauma requires radiography of the affected joint to rule out metabolic bone disease, tumor, or fracture. If there is a joint effusion in the absence of trauma or recent surgery, and signs of infection (e.g., fever, erythema, warmth) are present, subsequent arthrocentesis should be performed. Inflammatory synovial fluid containing monosodium urate crystals indicates a high probability of gout. Noninflammatory synovial fluid suggests osteoarthritis or internal derangement. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and early treatment of acute monoarthritis include failure to perform arthrocentesis, administering antibiotics before aspirating the joint when septic arthritis is suspected (or failing to start antibiotics after aspiration), and starting treatment based solely on laboratory data, such as an elevated uric acid level.
Trauma Management in South Africa A. Facilities for Prehospital Treatment B. Hospital Management C. The Johannesburg Experience IV. Special Features...Response to Heat Stroke During Islamic Pilgrimage (Hajj) V. Recommendations A. New Dimension of Experience and Knowledge for Medical Personnel, especially...Review Lactic Acidosis During Anesthesia for Grafting Procedure in Extensively Burned Patients Eight Months Experience of Acute Lung in a
transfusion-associated acute lung injury ( TRALI ) . Classically, TRALI describes pulmonary oedema and hypoxia that occurs after blood product transfusion...likely mediated by the transfer of anti-neutrophil antibodies [50,51]. Recently, a `delayed TRALI syndrome’ has been described associated with trauma
Introduction Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) among trauma patients is difficult in the early phase of trauma management. Whole-blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) tests provide immediate information about the coagulation status of acute bleeding trauma patients. We investigated their value for early prediction of MT. Methods This retrospective study included patients admitted to the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, Austria, with an injury severity score ≥16, from whom blood samples were taken immediately upon admission to the emergency room (ER). ROTEM® analyses (extrinsically-activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM), intrinsically-activated test using ellagic acid (INTEM) and fibrin-based extrinsically activated test with tissue factor and the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D (FIBTEM) tests) were performed. We divided patients into two groups: massive transfusion (MT, those who received ≥10 units red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours of admission) and non-MT (those who received 0 to 9 units). Results Of 323 patients included in this study (78.9% male; median age 44 years), 78 were included in the MT group and 245 in the non-MT group. The median injury severity score upon admission to the ER was significantly higher in the MT group than in the non-MT group (42 vs 27, P < 0.0001). EXTEM and INTEM clotting time and clot formation time were significantly prolonged and maximum clot firmness (MCF) was significantly lower in the MT group versus the non-MT group (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Of patients admitted with FIBTEM MCF 0 to 3 mm, 85% received MT. The best predictive values for MT were provided by hemoglobin and Quick value (area under receiver operating curve: 0.87 for both parameters). Similarly high predictive values were observed for FIBTEM MCF (0.84) and FIBTEM A10 (clot amplitude at 10 minutes; 0.83). Conclusions FIBTEM A10 and FIBTEM MCF provided similar predictive values for massive transfusion in trauma patients to the most predictive
Battaglia, F; Sevy, A; Moyse, E; Roche, P-H
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute-onset inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy usually triggered by an infectious disease. In some cases, GBS can occur without any preceding infectious episode, like after vaccination, epidural anaesthesia or surgery. A 73 years old woman had head and spine trauma. Body-TDM showed bilateral temporal and right frontal haematomas and fracture of the first lumbar vertebrae. Sextant and kyphoplasty were performed. She presented 14 days after surgery tetraparesis, swallowing difficulties and bilateral facial palsy. Electromyography was consistent with demyelinating neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid examination found albumino-cytological dissociation. Viral and bacterial serology and antiganglioside antibodies were negative. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins. Four months after discharge she had fully recovered except left peripheral facial palsy. GBS can rarely be triggered by head trauma or spine surgery. Physician must keep in mind this diagnosis whenever their patients present acute-onset neurological worsening in such context.
Petrović, Mateja; Kühl, Sebastian; Šlaj, Martina; Connert, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas
Handball has developed into a much faster and high-impact sport over the past few years because of rule changes. Fast sports with close body contact are especially prone to orofacial trauma. Handball belongs to a category of sports with medium risk for dental trauma. Even so, there is only little literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and the type of injuries, especially the occurrence of orofacial trauma, habits of wearing mouthguards, as well as degree of familiarity with the tooth rescue box. For this purpose, 77.1% (n=542/703) of all top athletes and coaches from the two highest Swiss leagues (National League A and National League B), namely 507 professional players and 35 coaches, were personally interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. 19.7% (n=100/507) of the players experienced dental trauma in their handball careers, with 40.8% (n=51/125) crown fractures being the most frequent by far. In spite of the relatively high risk of lip or dental trauma, only 5.7% (n=29/507) of the players wear mouthguards. The results of this study show that dental trauma is common among Swiss handball players. In spite of the high risk of dental trauma, the mouthguard as prevention is not adequately known, and correct procedure following dental trauma is rarely known at all.
Cameron, P; Dziukas, L; Hadj, A; Clark, P; Hooper, S
This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequency, distribution, cause, pattern, and outcome of patients suffering from major trauma in the State of Victoria over a 1-year period. No previous study in Australia has attempted a comprehensive regional analysis of major trauma. All major trauma admissions resulting from blunt, penetrating, and burns injury were identified, and data collected from emergency departments and intensive care log books at 25 major metropolitan and rural hospitals from the January 3, 1992 to February 28, 1993 by onsite data collectors. The total number of patients admitted into the study was 2,944. There were 1,076 major trauma cases with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 in a population of 4.2 million people. The type of injury was predominantly blunt (87.5%), with only a small percentage of penetrating injuries (6.4%) and burns (6%). Major trauma in pediatric cases is less common (132 cases). The most common causes of injury were road transport (56%) and falls (22%). The overall outcome of the group was favorable when compared with the Major Trauma Outcome Study group (Z = 1.4, M = 0.93, W = 0.52). There was an unexpectedly low number of patients suffering from major trauma. Outcome using Trauma and Injury Severity Score methodology was favorable when compared with North America.
Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah
Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…
Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan
Childhood trauma is marked by an overwhelming sense of terror and powerlessness. Loss of loving relationships is yet another type of trauma that produces the pain of sadness and grief. The resulting symptoms only reflect the neurological, biological, and emotional coping systems mobilized in the struggle to survive. These young people need new…
Davis, Marilyn Diane
Teachers have reported that they have difficulty providing support to traumatized children and youth because of a lack of training in how to identify and respond to the needs of these children. The program, "Amazing Help Skills for Teachers to Unmask Trauma in Children and Youth" (AHSUM), is a trauma-focused training program, designed…
Pence, Donna M.
Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…
Solomon, Eldra P.; Heide, Kathleen M.
During the past 20 years, the development of brain imaging techniques and new biochemical approaches has led to increased understanding of the biological effects of psychological trauma. New hypotheses have been generated about brain development and the roots of antisocial behavior. We now understand that psychological trauma disrupts homeostasis…
Adkins, Myrna Ann; Harper, Eric
This guide for teachers in times of trauma was updated after the events of September 11, 2001--the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. These traumatic events could cause refugees to experience trauma or become re-traumatized. For many refugees, their English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are the places where they…
Friedman, Matthew J; Resick, Patricia A; Bryant, Richard A; Strain, James; Horowitz, Mardi; Spiegel, David
This review examines the question of whether there should be a cluster of disorders, including the adjustment disorders (ADs), acute stress disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the dissociative disorders (DDs), in a section devoted to abnormal responses to stress and trauma in the DSM-5. Environmental risk factors, including the individual's developmental experience, would thus become a major diagnostic consideration. The relationship of these disorders to one another is examined and also their relationship to other anxiety disorders to determine whether they are better grouped with anxiety disorders or a new specific grouping of trauma and stressor-related disorders. First how stress responses have been classified since DSM-III is reviewed. The major focus is on PTSD because it has received the most attention, regarding its proper placement among the psychiatric diagnoses. It is discussed whether PTSD should be considered an anxiety disorder, a stress-induced fear circuitry disorder, an internalizing disorder, or a trauma and stressor-related disorder. Then, ASD, AD, and DD are considered from a similar perspective. Evidence is examined pro and con, and a conclsion is offered recommending inclusion of this cluster of disorders in a section entitled "Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders." The recommendation to shift ASD and PTSD out of the anxiety disorders section reflects increased recognition of trauma as a precipitant, emphasizing common etiology over common phenomenology. Similar considerations are addressed with regard to AD and DD.
Richards, John R; McGahan, John P
Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been extensively utilized and studied in blunt and penetrating trauma for the past 3 decades. Prior to FAST, invasive procedures such as diagnostic peritoneal lavage and exploratory laparotomy were commonly utilized to diagnose intraabdominal injury. Today the FAST examination has evolved into a more comprehensive study of the abdomen, heart, chest, and inferior vena cava, and many variations in technique, protocols, and interpretation exist. Trauma management strategies such as laparotomy, laparoscopy, endoscopy, computed tomographic angiography, angiographic intervention, serial imaging, and clinical observation have also changed over the years. This state of the art review will discuss the evolution of the FAST examination to its current state in 2017 and evaluate its evolving role in the acute management of the trauma patient. The authors also report on the utility of FAST in special patient populations, such as pediatric and pregnant trauma patients, and the potential for future research, applications, and portions of this examination that may be applicable to radiology-based practice. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Multiple trauma management requires the application of modem trauma care theories. Optimal treatment results can be achieved by reinforcing cooperation and stipulating a treatment plan together with other disciplines. Based on modem theories in trauma care and our understanding of the theoretical points, this paper analyzes the injury assessment strategies and methods in oral and maxillofacial multiple trauma management. Moreover, this paper discusses operating time and other influencing factors as well as proposed definitive surgical timing and indications in comprehensive management of oral and maxillofacial multiple trauma patients associated with injuries in other body parts. We hope that this paper can help stomatological physicians deepen their understanding of modem trauma care theories and improve their capacity and results in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial multiple trauma.
Utecht, Joseph; Judkins, John; Otte, J. Neil; Colvin, Terra; Rogers, Nicholas; Rose, Robert; Alvi, Maria; Hicks, Amanda; Ball, Jane; Bowman, Stephen M.; Maxson, Robert T.; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Pradhan, Rohit; Sanddal, Nels D.; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard; Winchell, Robert J.; Brochhausen, Mathias
Organizational structures of healthcare organizations has increasingly become a focus of medical research. In the CAFÉ project we aim to provide a web-service enabling ontology-driven comparison of the organizational characteristics of trauma centers and trauma systems. Trauma remains one of the biggest challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. Research has demonstrated that coordinated efforts like trauma systems and trauma centers are key components of addressing this challenge. Evaluation and comparison of these organizations is essential. However, this research challenge is frequently compounded by the lack of a shared terminology and the lack of effective information technology solutions for assessing and comparing these organizations. In this paper we present the Ontology of Organizational Structures of Trauma systems and Trauma centers (OOSTT) that provides the ontological foundation to CAFÉ's web-based questionnaire infrastructure. We present the usage of the ontology in relation to the questionnaire and provide the methods that were used to create the ontology. PMID:28217041
Xu, Guangtao; Hu, Bo; Chen, Guiqian; Yu, Xiaojun; Luo, Jianming; Lv, Junyao; Gu, Jiang
We aimed to investigate the correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the injury severity score (ISS) and serum levels of trace elements (TE) in severe trauma patients to analyze alteration of the levels of trace elements and serum biochemical indexes in the period of admission from 126 adult cases of severe brain trauma with traffic accidents. Multi-trace elements for patients in the trauma-TE groups were used. The results indicated that all patients presented an acute trace elements deficiency syndrome (ATEDs) after severe trauma, and the correlation between ISS and serum levels of Fe, Zn, and Mg was significant. Compared to the normal control group, levels of the trace elements in serum were significantly decreased after trauma, suggesting that enhancement of immunity to infection and multiple organ failure (MOF) via the monitoring and supplement of trace elements will be a good strategy to severe traumatic patients in clinics.
vs. Ped 3 33 Open tibia/fibula fracture GSW 4 35 Compartment syndrome IED 5 30 Open ankle fracture MVC 6 40 Open ankle fracture-dislocation, talus...fracture IED 12 26 Calcaneus fracture GSW 13 26 Open ankle fracture MVC 14 33 Open tibia/fibula fracture, ankle fracture, multiple midfoot fractures IED...MV, motor vehicle; MVC , motor vehicle collision; Ped, pedestrian. Figure 1. Wear of a military uniform with the IDEO. J Trauma Acute Care Surg Volume
Popovic, Nada; Djordjevic, Dragan
Immunoinflammatory response in critically ill patients is very complex. This review explores some of the new elements of immunoinflammatory response in severe sepsis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha in severe acute pancreatitis as a clinical example of immune response in sepsis, immune response in severe trauma with or without secondary sepsis, and genetic aspects of host immuno-inflammatory response to various insults in critically ill patients. PMID:24371374
Maniscalco-Theberge, M E; Elliott, D C
The former Special Assistant to the Director on Biomedical Technology, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), COL RM Satava, notes "Predicting the future trends in any profession jeopardizes the credibility of the author." Thus, we have attempted to outline current systems and prototype models in testing phases. Technologic advances will enable enhanced care of trauma patients. In the acute care setting, they also will affect the educational system in theory and practice.
Kapfhammer, H P
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) includes a distinct diagnostic group of trauma and stressor-related disorders that has been set apart from anxiety disorders. From a perspective of adult psychiatry this new disorder category includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder (ASD), and adjustment disorders. The PTSD is based on narrower trauma criteria that focus on acute life-threatening situations, serious injury, or sexual violence by way of direct confrontation, witnessing or indirect confrontation. Indirect confrontation, however, is reserved only for violent or accidental events that occurred to close family members or friends. The former A2 criterion of an intense emotional reaction to trauma has been removed. A deliberately broad approach to clinical PTSD phenomenology has created an empirically driven new cluster of persistent negative alterations in cognition and mood due to experiencing traumatic events. The ASD has been reconceptualized as an intense stress syndrome with a clear need of acute treatment during the early course after traumatic exposure. Adjustment disorders continue to emphasize maladaptive emotional and behavioral responses to unspecific, non-traumatic stressors in an intensity that is beyond social or cultural norms. Neither complex PTSD nor prolonged grief disorders have received an independent diagnostic status within DSM-5. With respect to stress-related disorders major divergences between DSM-5 and the future International Classification of Diseases 11 (ICD-11) are to be expected.
Brown, C K; Shepherd, S M
When humans encounter marine creatures a variety of maladies may occur, ranging from dermatitis to life-threatening trauma, allergy, envenomations, or intoxications. The emergency physician should be prepared to recognize quickly and address appropriately the potential life threats, which are primarily neurologic, respiratory, and cardiovascular. A high degree of suspicion for these illnesses is needed. Intoxications may be especially confusing. Although most of the syndromes are self-limited and treatment supportive, time is of the essence if neuromuscular paralysis, hypotension, or respiratory compromise is present. Much folklore exists regarding detection and prevention of these entities and should be regarded as such. The last several decades have seen a marked increase in our knowledge base regarding these fascinating envenomations and intoxications. Research in the next several decades probably will produce a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, which will further our understanding of, and ability to specifically manage, these syndromes.
Trauma from occlusion and restorative concerns may affect the tooth itself, the supporting structures inside and around the tooth's immediate structures, and the total articulating system, which includes the neuromuscular system, the temporomandibular joints, and other systems such as the impairment of hearing or vision and many other peripheral conditions. A thorough examination and a differential diagnosis procedure is essential to restore the health of the articulating system and reverse peripheral condition. This includes the ability to restore the individual tooth in its best anatomic position as a complement to the articulating system using all individual disciplines of dentistry in the finest abilities of treatment and the ability to share and distinguish the possible parafunctional habits and the need for behavioral understanding, support, and management to limit or lessen the wear and destruction of the individual tissues and to restore a healthier physical support.
Noakes, Mark W; Garcia, Pablo; Rosen, Jacob; Kapoor, Chetan; Elbert, Greg
The Trauma Pod (TP) vision is to develop a rapidly deployable robotic system to perform critical acute stabilization and/or surgical procedures autonomously or in a teleoperative mode on wounded soldiers in the battlefield who might otherwise die before treatment in a combat hospital can be provided. In the first phase of a project pursuing this vision, a robotic TP system was developed and its capability demonstrated by performing select surgical procedures on a patient phantom. The system demonstrates the feasibility of performing acute stabilization procedures with the patient being the only human in the surgical cell. The teleoperated surgical robot is supported by autonomous arms that carry out scrub-nurse and circulating-nurse functions. Tool change and supply delivery are performed automatically and at least as fast as those performed manually by nurses. The TP system also includes tomographic X-ray facility for patient diagnosis and 2-D fluoroscopic data to support interventions. The vast amount of clinical protocols generated in the TP system are recorded automatically. These capabilities form the basis for a more comprehensive acute diagnostic and management platform that will provide life-saving care in environments where surgical personnel are not present.
Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ziapour, Behrad; Deljavan, Reza
Background To decrease the burden of injuries it is essential to have an overview of trauma patterns and its management at regional trauma centers. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate some patterns of trauma and trauma-related therapeutic interventions at our trauma center. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 19530 trauma cases admitted to the emergency department and hospital wards of Shohada University Hospital during 2007-2008 were assessed. Results Of the 19530 trauma cases, 14960(76.7%) were males. Mean (SD) of age was 31(19.9) years. The elderly aged 65 and above, comprised 10% (1953) of the participants; while 44 were infants. Falls and traffic injuries were the most common cause of injuries among trauma patients. Most of the mortalities were men comprising 74% of the 57 deaths. Reduction of fractures and dislocations were the most common types of operations among trauma patients. Conclusions Young men form the target group for possible interventions to decrease the burden of trauma following falls and traffic accidents. PMID:24350134
Horst, K.; Simon, T. P.; Pfeifer, R.; Teuben, M.; Almahmoud, K.; Zhi, Q.; Santos, S. Aguiar; Wembers, C. Castelar; Leonhardt, S.; Heussen, N.; Störmann, P.; Auner, B.; Relja, B.; Marzi, I.; Haug, A. T.; van Griensven, M.; Kalbitz, M.; Huber-Lang, M.; Tolba, R.; Reiss, L. K.; Uhlig, S.; Marx, G.; Pape, H. C.; Hildebrand, F.
Chest trauma has a significant relevance on outcome after severe trauma. Clinically, impaired lung function typically occurs within 72 hours after trauma. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to establish an experimental long-term model to investigate physiological, morphologic and inflammatory changes, after severe trauma. Male pigs (sus scrofa) sustained severe trauma (including unilateral chest trauma, femur fracture, liver laceration and hemorrhagic shock). Additionally, non-injured animals served as sham controls. Chest trauma resulted in severe lung damage on both CT and histological analyses. Furthermore, severe inflammation with a systemic increase of IL-6 (p = 0.0305) and a local increase of IL-8 in BAL (p = 0.0009) was observed. The pO2/FiO2 ratio in trauma animals decreased over the observation period (p < 0.0001) but not in the sham group (p = 0.2967). Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) revealed differences between the traumatized and healthy lung (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, a clinically relevant, long-term model of blunt chest trauma with concomitant injuries has been developed. This reproducible model allows to examine local and systemic consequences of trauma and is valid for investigation of potential diagnostic or therapeutic options. In this context, EIT might represent a radiation-free method for bedside diagnostics. PMID:28000769
Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J.; Morgan, Steven J.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663
Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C
Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Our primary analyses included 670 participants (M(age) = 60.55; 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at ages 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. No differences in pre- and post-trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age-related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life-threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet-level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life-threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Life-threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events.
Kumar, Atin; Panda, Ananya; Gamanagatti, Shivanand
Blunt pancreatic trauma is an uncommon injury but has high morbidity and mortality. In modern era of trauma care, pancreatic trauma remains a persistent challenge to radiologists and surgeons alike. Early detection of pancreatic trauma is essential to prevent subsequent complications. However early pancreatic injury is often subtle on computed tomography (CT) and can be missed unless specifically looked for. Signs of pancreatic injury on CT include laceration, transection, bulky pancreas, heterogeneous enhancement, peripancreatic fluid and signs of pancreatitis. Pan-creatic ductal injury is a vital decision-making parameter as ductal injury is an indication for laparotomy. While lacerations involving more than half of pancreatic parenchyma are suggestive of ductal injury on CT, ductal injuries can be directly assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or encoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Pancreatic trauma also shows temporal evolution with increase in extent of injury with time. Hence early CT scans may underestimate the extent of injures and sequential imaging with CT or MRI is important in pancreatic trauma. Sequential imaging is also needed for successful non-operative management of pancreatic injury. Accurate early detection on initial CT and adopting a multimodality and sequential imaging strategy can improve outcome in pancreatic trauma. PMID:26981225
Paunovi, N; Lundh, L G; Ost, L G
A combined emotional Stroop, implicit memory (tachistoscopic identification) and explicit memory (free recall) task with three types of words (trauma-related, positive, and neutral) and two exposure conditions (subliminal and supraliminal) was administered to 39 crime victims with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. PTSD subjects showed supraliminal Stroop interference for trauma-related words and a similar effect on positive words. A specific explicit memory bias was found for trauma-related words among the PTSD subjects, but no preattentive bias on the subliminally presented words, nor any implicit memory bias. Findings suggest that acute PTSD subjects have an attentional and memory bias for threat-related material. Methodological limitations of the study are reviewed, and it is proposed that further studies are needed in order to elucidate whether acute PTSD Ss display a preattentive and implicit memory bias for trauma-related material.
Patients and their relatives are increasingly considered partners in health and social care decision-making. Numerous political drivers in the UK reflect a commitment to this partnership and to improving the experience of patients and relatives in emergency care environments. As a Lecturer/Practitioner in Emergency Care I recently experienced the London Trauma System as a relative. My dual perspective, as nurse and relative, allowed me to identify a gap in the quality of care akin to emotional intelligence. This paper aims to raise awareness of emotional intelligence (EI), highlight its importance in trauma care and contribute to the development of this concept in trauma nursing and education across the globe.
Min, William; Wolinsky, Philip R
The development and implementation of a dedicated orthopedic trauma operating room (OTOR) that is used for the treatment of orthopedic trauma patients has changed and improved the practice of orthopedic trauma surgery. Advantages noted with OTOR implementation include improvements in morbidity and complication rates, enhancements in the professional and personal lifestyles of the on-call surgeon, and increased physician recruitment and retention in orthopedic traumatology. However, the inappropriate use of the OTOR, which can waste valuable resources and delay the treatment of emergent cases, must be monitored and avoided.
Petrocelli, Marzia; Sbordone, Carolina; Salzano, Giovanni; Cassandro, Francesco Maria; Chiarella, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Alfonso; Romano, Antonio; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi; Cassandro, Ettore
The present study describes 3 patients of previous facial trauma who have subsequently been treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The authors want pay attention on the possible correlation between facial trauma and sinusitis. Such fractures can be the cause of onset of paranasal sinusitis or of worsening of a previous sinusitis. The correlation between these 2 pathologies could be due to the fact that facial fractures concern the anatomic structures of paranasal sinuses. The damage to these structures during the facial trauma and tissue regeneration after injury or surgical treatment subverts the anatomy and function of the sinuses in a basically compromised situation.
Hoving, Jan Lucas; O'Leary, Elizabeth F; Niere, Ken R; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle
The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) were developed to measure self-perceived disability from neck pain, including that which may arise from whiplash injury. However, there is little data specifically concerning their validity for whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the NDI and NPQ as measures of outcome in WAD by comparing them to a patient preference questionnaire, the problem elicitation technique (PET), which identifies problems that are of most importance to the individual patient. A cross-sectional study of 71 patients with varying severity and duration of WAD were recruited from a private physiotherapy practice. All patients completed a standardized self-administered questionnaire that included demographic and clinical details as well as self-perceived pain and severity of symptoms, NDI and NPQ. A trained interviewer administered the PET. Construct validity of the disability measures was examined by determining their correlation with each other and with pain and severity of symptoms by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficients. Content validity of the NDI and NPQ was assessed by comparing the items of both questionnaires to the problems identified by the PET. Participants' mean age was 40.1 years (SD=14.3) and 59 were women (83.1%). Most patients were in WAD category I (n=23, 32.1%), or II (n=42, 59.2%). Mean NDI, NPQ, and PET scores were 40.7 (SD=17.0), 38.7 (SD=15.8), and 160.2 (SD=92.0, range 6.0-509.5), respectively. Correlations between the NDI and PET, NPQ and PET, and NDI and NPQ were r=0.57, 0.56 and 0.88, respectively. The PET identified an average of 7.7 problems per patient (SD=4.2, range 1-17 problems). Problems most commonly identified were work for wages (52.1%), fatigued during the day (50.7%), participation in sports (47.9%), depression (43.7%), drive a car (43.7%), socialize with friends (33.8%), sleep through the night (31.0%), frustration
Motlagh, Leila Tafreshi; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Wan
Toni Morrison is an acknowledged master of trauma literature, however trauma theory and a gender response to trauma remain largely unaccounted for her migration literature, specifically "Jazz" (1992). In her novel, two migrant women are affected by the same trauma, a crime of passion. But they choose different reactions and coping…
Webster, Arvie M
Attaining verification as a Level II Trauma Center requires dedication, flexibility, and continuous education. This article contains the history, birth, and growth of a Level II Trauma Center through a trauma resource clinician's experiences. It is intended to share the thoughts, processes, and technological advances of establishing a Level II Trauma Center.
Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.
The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…
Millar, Ian L; McGinnes, Rosemary A; Williamson, Owen; Lind, Folke; Jansson, Karl-Åke; Hajek, Michal; Smart, David; Fernandes, Tiago; Miller, Russell; Myles, Paul; Cameron, Peter
Introduction Open fractures with significant soft tissue injury are associated with high rates of complications, such as non-union, infection, chronic pain and disability. Complications often require further inpatient care, and in many cases, multiple operations and prolonged rehabilitation. Use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunct to standard orthopaedic trauma care has the potential to reduce the complications of musculoskeletal injury and thus improve outcomes. Two previous randomised trials have suggested some positive effect, but neither functional measures nor long-term outcomes were reported. Methods and analysis An international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, clinical trial. Patients with trauma with an acute open fracture of the tibia with severe soft tissue injury (Gustilo grade 3) and high risk of injury-related complications were recruited from participating major trauma hospitals with hyperbaric facilities. Patients were enrolled with the expectation of commencing 12 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy within 48 h of injury. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of acute complications of the open fracture wound at 14 days. Other short-term outcome measures include amputation, need for fasciotomy, time until wound closure, breakdown of closed wounds, time until definitive orthopaedic fixation, number of operative procedures, intensive care stay and hospital stay. Long-term follow-up will continue for 2 years postinjury. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was given by The Alfred Health Human Ethics Committee (206/04) and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF07/4208). Approval was also obtained from the institutional research ethics committee at each participating site. This study will make a significant contribution to the trauma literature and should answer the question of whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy can significantly improve outcomes in severe lower limb trauma. Collective study results will
Anderson, Brian J.; Mangalmurti, Nilam S.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Holena, Daniel N.; Wu, Qufei; Nguyen, Ethan T.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Lanken, Paul N.; Christie, Jason D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shashaty, Michael G.S.
Background and objective ABO blood types are determined by antigen modifications on glycoproteins and glycolipids and associated with altered plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers implicated in AKI pathogenesis. We sought to determine the association of ABO blood types with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or sepsis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted two prospective cohort studies at an urban, academic, level I trauma center and tertiary referral center; 497 patients with trauma admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between 2005 and 2010 with an injury severity score >15 and 759 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit between 2008 and 2013 were followed for 6 days for the development of incident AKI. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network creatinine and dialysis criteria. Results Of 497 patients with trauma, 134 developed AKI (27%). In multivariable analysis, blood type A was associated with higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=229; adjusted risk, 0.28 versus 0.14; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.24; P=0.02). Of 759 patients with sepsis, AKI developed in 326 (43%). Blood type A again conferred higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=437; adjusted risk, 0.53 versus 0.40; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.23; P=0.01). Findings were similar when analysis was restricted to those patients who did not develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or were not transfused. We did not detect a significant association between blood type and AKI risk among individuals of African descent in either cohort. Conclusions Blood type A is independently associated with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis of European descent, suggesting a role for ABO glycans in AKI susceptibility. PMID:26342043
Matsumoto, Hisatake; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Ogura, Hiroshi; Koh, Taichin; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazu, Takeshi
Activated immune cells such as monocytes are key factors in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following trauma and sepsis. Activated monocytes induce almost all tissue factor (TF) expression contributing to inflammation and coagulation. TF and CD13 double-positive microparticles (TF/CD13MPs) are predominantly released from these activated monocytes. This study aimed to evaluate TF/CD13MPs and assess their usefulness as a biomarker of pathogenesis in early SIRS following trauma and sepsis. This prospective study comprising 24 trauma patients, 25 severe sepsis patients, and 23 healthy controls was conducted from November 2012 to February 2015. Blood samples were collected from patients within 24 h after injury and diagnosis of severe sepsis and from healthy controls. Numbers of TF/CD13MPs were measured by flow cytometry immediately thereafter. Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated at patient enrollment. APACHE II and SOFA scores and International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnostic criteria algorithm were calculated at the time of enrollment of severe sepsis patients. Numbers of TF/CD13MPs were significantly increased in both trauma and severe sepsis patients versus controls and correlated significantly with ISS and APACHE II score in trauma patients and with APACHE II and ISTH DIC scores in severe sepsis patients. Increased numbers of TF/CD13MPs correlated significantly with severities in the acute phase in trauma and severe sepsis patients, suggesting that TF/CD13MPs are important in the pathogenesis of early SIRS following trauma and sepsis.
... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...
Wurster, Lee Ann; Groner, Jonathan I; Hoffman, Jeffrey
Although many hospitals across the country have implemented an electronic medical record (EMR) for inpatient care, very few have successfully implemented an EMR for trauma resuscitations. Although there is evidence that the EMR improves patient safety, increases access to all care providers, increases workflow efficiency, and minimizes time spent on documenting thereby improving nursing care, the fast paced, complex nature of trauma resuscitations makes it difficult to implement such a system for trauma documentation. With the support of multiple disciplines with a variety of clinical knowledge, this article describes the design process that has led us to successful development and implementation of an EMR for documentation of trauma resuscitations.
Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S
Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663
Since the 1970s, the management of blunt splenic trauma has evolved from almost exclusive surgical management to selective use of nonsurgical management in hemodynamically stable patients. Understanding of the spleen's immunologic importance in protection against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection led to development first of surgical techniques for splenic salvage and later to protocols for nonsurgical management of adults with blunt splenic injury. The evolution of nonsurgical management has resulted in new patterns of postsplenic trauma complications.This article describes a pancreatic pseudocyst, one of several described delayed complications of nonsurgical management of blunt splenic trauma. Along with missed splenic injury and delayed rupture, the development of a splenic pseudocyst represents challenges for any multidisciplinary team involved in trauma care. Detection and management of these complications is discussed, as is postsplenectomy vaccination and return to activity.
... United States reported experiencing an attempted or completed rape at some time in their lives. Sexual violence, ... the CDC .* Military Sexual Trauma VA refers to sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during military service ...
Coccolini, Federico; Stahel, Philip F; Montori, Giulia; Biffl, Walter; Horer, Tal M; Catena, Fausto; Kluger, Yoram; Moore, Ernest E; Peitzman, Andrew B; Ivatury, Rao; Coimbra, Raul; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Bruno; Rizoli, Sandro; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Leppaniemi, Ari; Manfredi, Roberto; Magnone, Stefano; Chiara, Osvaldo; Solaini, Leonardo; Ceresoli, Marco; Allievi, Niccolò; Arvieux, Catherine; Velmahos, George; Balogh, Zsolt; Naidoo, Noel; Weber, Dieter; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Sartelli, Massimo; Ansaloni, Luca
Complex pelvic injuries are among the most dangerous and deadly trauma related lesions. Different classification systems exist, some are based on the mechanism of injury, some on anatomic patterns and some are focusing on the resulting instability requiring operative fixation. The optimal treatment strategy, however, should keep into consideration the hemodynamic status, the anatomic impairment of pelvic ring function and the associated injuries. The management of pelvic trauma patients aims definitively to restore the homeostasis and the normal physiopathology associated to the mechanical stability of the pelvic ring. Thus the management of pelvic trauma must be multidisciplinary and should be ultimately based on the physiology of the patient and the anatomy of the injury. This paper presents the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) classification of pelvic trauma and the management Guidelines.
Cahill, Thomas J.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Allori, Alexander C.; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Powers, David; Erdmann, Detlev; Hollenbeck, Scott T.; Levinson, Howard
Background Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Open reduction and internal fixation can be complicated by hardware exposure or infection. The literature often does not differentiate between these 2 entities; so for this study, we have considered all hardware exposures as hardware infections. Approximately 5% of adults with CMF trauma are thought to develop hardware infections. Management consists of either removing the hardware versus leaving it in situ. The optimal approach has not been investigated. Thus, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken and a resultant evidence-based approach to the treatment and management of CMF hardware infections was devised. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of journal articles was performed in parallel using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect electronic databases. Keywords and phrases used were maxillofacial injuries; facial bones; wounds and injuries; fracture fixation, internal; wound infection; and infection. Our search yielded 529 articles. To focus on CMF fractures with hardware infections, the full text of English-language articles was reviewed to identify articles focusing on the evaluation and management of infected hardware in CMF trauma. Each article’s reference list was manually reviewed and citation analysis performed to identify articles missed by the search strategy. There were 259 articles that met the full inclusion criteria and form the basis of this systematic review. The articles were rated based on the level of evidence. There were 81 grade II articles included in the meta-analysis. Result Our meta-analysis revealed that 7503 patients were treated with hardware for CMF fractures in the 81 grade II articles. Hardware infection occurred in 510 (6.8%) of these patients. Of those infections, hardware removal occurred in 264 (51.8%) patients; hardware was left in place in 166 (32.6%) patients; and in 80 (15.6%) cases
Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M
Following complex foot injuries (incidence up to 52 %) in the multiply-injured patient the ultimate goal remains the same as for all significant foot injuries: the restoration of a painless, stable and plantigrade foot to avoid corrective procedures with moderate results. In the case of a complex trauma of the foot (5 point-score) - e. g. a crush injury - primary amputation in the multiply-injured patient (PTS 3-4) is indicated. Limb salvage (PTS 1-2) depends on the intraoperative aspect during the second look (within 24-48 hours after injury): the debridement has to be radical, the selection of amputation level should be at the most distal point compatible with tissue viability and wound healing. A free tissue transfer should be done early if necessary. Single lesions presenting with a compartment syndrome need an immediate dorsal fasciotomy, in the case of a multiply-injured patient as soon as possible. Open fractures are reduced following radical debridement and temporarily stabilized with K-wires and/or tibiotarsal transfixation with an external fixateur until the definitive ORIF. Dislocation-fractures of the talus type 3 and 4 according to Hawkins' classification need open reduction and internal fixation by screws (titan). Open fractures of the calcaneus are stabilized temporarily by a medial external fixateur after debridement until the definitive treatment. If there is a compartment syndrome an immediate dermatofasciotomy is essential. Like closed, calcanear fractures in multiply-injured patients dislocation-fractures of the Chopart's joint need immediate open reduction only if it is an open fracture or associated with a compartment syndrome. The incidence of a compartment syndrome in the case of dislocation fractures of the Lisfranc's joint is high and therefore a dorsal dermatofasciotomy without delay is critical. Open reduction and internal fixation are achieved either by 1.8 mm K-wires or 3.5 mm cortical screws. To avoid further soft tissue damage a
Zwipp, H; Dahlen, C; Randt, T; Gavlik, J M
Following complex foot injuries (incidence up to 52%) in the multiply-injured patient the ultimate goal remains the same as for all significant foot injuries: the restoration of a painless, stable and plantigrade foot to avoid corrective procedures with moderate results. In the case of a complex trauma of the foot (5 point-score)--e.g. a crush injury--primary amputation in the multiply-injured patient (PTS 3-4) is indicated. Limb salvage (PTS 1-2) depends on the intraoperative aspect during the second look (within 24-48 hours after injury): the debridement has to be radical, the selection of amputation level should be at the most distal point compatible with tissue viability and wound healing. A free tissue transfer should be done early if necessary. Single lesions presenting with a compartment syndrome need an immediate dorsal fasciotomy, in the case of a multiply-injured patient as soon as possible. Open fractures are reduced following radical debridement and temporarily stabilized with K-wires and/or tibiotarsal transfixation with an external fixateur until the definitive ORIF. Dislocation-fractures of the talus type 3 and 4 according to Hawkins' classification need open reduction and internal fixation by screws (titan). Open fractures of the calcaneus are stabilized temporarily by a medial external fixateur after debridement until the definitive treatment. If there is a compartment syndrome an immediate dermatofasciotomy is essential. Like closed, calcanear fractures in multiply-injured patients dislocation-fractures of the Chopart's joint need immediate open reduction only if it is an open fracture or associated with a compartment syndrome. The incidence of a compartment syndrome in the case of dislocation fractures of the Lisfranc's joint is high and therefore a dorsal dermatofasciotomy without delay is critical. Open reduction and internal fixation are achieved either by 1.8 mm K-wires or 3.5 mm cortical screws. To avoid further soft tissue damage a delayed
Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Domingues, Cristiane de Alencar; Poggetti, Renato Sérgio; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso
Background From the perspective of nurses, trauma patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) demand a high degree of nursing workload due to hemodynamic instability and the severity of trauma injuries. This study aims to identify the factors related to the high nursing workload required for trauma victims admitted to the ICU. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional study using descriptive and correlation analyses, conducted with 200 trauma patients admitted to an ICU in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The nursing workload was measured using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS). The distribution of the NAS values into tertiles led to the identification of two research groups: medium/low workload and high workload. The Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney and multiple logistic regression tests were utilized for the analyses. Findings The majority of patients were male (82.0%) and suffered blunt trauma (94.5%), with traffic accidents (57.5%) and falls (31.0%) being prevalent. The mean age was 40.7 years (±18.6) and the mean NAS was 71.3% (±16.9). Patient gender, the presence of pulmonary failure, the number of injured body regions and the risk of death according to the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II were factors associated with a high degree of nursing workload in the first 24 hours following admission to the ICU. Conclusion Workload demand was higher in male patients with physiological instability and multiple severe trauma injuries who developed pulmonary failure. PMID:25375369
Gale, Stephen C; Arumugam, Dena; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y
Traditionally, general surgeons provide emergency general surgery (EGS) coverage by assigned call. The acute care surgery (ACS) model is new and remains confined mostly to academic centers. Some argue that in busy trauma centers, on-call trauma surgeons may be unable to also care for EGS patients. In New Jersey, all three Level 1 Trauma Centers (L1TC) have provided ACS services for many years. Analyzing NJ state inpatient data, we sought to determine whether outcomes in one common surgical illness, diverticulitis, have been different between L1TC and nontrauma centers (NTC) over a 10-year period. The NJ Medical Database was queried for patients aged 18 to 90 hospitalized from 2001 to 2010 for acute diverticulitis. Demographics, comorbidities, operative rates, and mortality were compiled and analyzed comparing L1TC to NTC. For additional comparison between L1TC and NTC, 1:1 propensity score matching with replacement was accomplished. χ(2), t test, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used. From 2001 to 2010, 88794 patients were treated in NJ for diverticulitis. 2621 patients (2.95%) were treated at L1TCs. Operative rates were similar between hospital types. Patients treated at L1TCs were more often younger (63.1 ± 0.3 vs 64.7 ± 0.1; P < 0.001), nonwhite (43.1% vs 23.1%; P < 0.0001), and uninsured (11.0% vs 5.5%; P < 0.0001). After propensity matching, neither operative mortality (9.7% vs 7.9% P = 0.45), nor nonoperative mortality (1.2% vs 1.3% P = 0.60) were different between groups. Mortality and operative rates for patients with acute diverticulitis are equivalent between LT1C and NTC in NJ. Trauma centers in NJ more commonly provide care to minority and uninsured patients.
LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Bates, David D B; Khalil, Ramy; Matherly, David; Wing, Heidi; Burke, Peter A; Soto, Jorge A
The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and interobserver agreement of individual CT findings as well as the bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) in surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was IRB approved and consent was waived. All patients 14 years or older who sustained surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2015 were included. Admission trauma MDCT scans were independently interpreted by two abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists who recorded the following CT findings: intraperitoneal fluid, mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding, bowel wall thickening/hematoma, active intravenous contrast extravasation, free intraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and focal bowel hypoenhancement. Subsequently, the electronic medical records of the included patients, admission abdominal physical exam results, admission white blood cell count, and findings at exploratory laparotomy of the included patients were recorded. Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence and interobserver agreement of the CT findings were as follows: intraperitoneal fluid 93.9 %, kappa = 0.784 (good); mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding 84.8 %, kappa = 0.718 (good); bowel wall thickening/hematoma 42.4 %, kappa = 0.491 (moderate); active IV contrast extravasation 36.3 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); free intraperitoneal air 21.2 %, kappa = 0.904 (very good), bowel wall discontinuity 6.1 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); and focal bowel hypoenhancement 6.1 %, kappa = 0.468 (moderate). An absence of the specified CT findings was encountered in 9.1 % with surgically proven bowel injuries (kappa = 1.00, perfect). In our study, 9/16 patients or 56.3 % had a bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) of 2 or more as defined by McNutt et al. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg 78(1):105-111, 2014). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid and
Richert, Mary E.; Hosier, Hillary; Weltz, Adam S.; Wise, Eric S.; Joshi, Manjari; Diaz, Jose J.
Patient: Female, 28 Final Diagnosis: Acute transverse myelitis Symptoms: Ascending paralysis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an uncommon and often overlooked complication of certain bacterial and viral infections that can have a rapid onset and result in severe neurological deficits. Case Report: This case report describes a previously healthy 28-year-old woman who presented to the trauma center after developing acute paralysis and paresthesias of all four extremities within the span of hours. The initial presumptive diagnosis was spinal cord contusion due to a fall versus an unknown mechanism of trauma, but eventual laboratory studies revealed Salmonella bacteremia, indicating a probable diagnosis of parainfectious ATM. Conclusions: This case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of parainfectious ATM in patients presenting with acute paralysis with incomplete or unobtainable medical histories. PMID:27928148
Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Burd, Randall S
This paper reports on information needs of trauma teams based on an ethnographic study in an urban teaching hospital. We focus on questions posed by trauma team members during ten trauma events. We identify major categories of questions, as well as information seekers and providers. In addition to categories known from other critical care settings, we found categories unique to trauma settings. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for information technology support for trauma teams.
Jayakumar, A. R.; Bak, L. K.; Rama Rao, K. V.; Waagepetersen, H.S.; Schousboe, A.; Norenberg, M.D.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological disorder that usually presents in acute and chronic forms. Brain edema and associated increased intracranial pressure in the early phase following TBI are major consequences of acute trauma. On the other hand, neuronal injury, leading to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, that usually develop months to years after single or repetitive episodes of head trauma, are major consequences of chronic TBI. The molecular mechanisms responsible for TBI-induced injury, however, are unclear. Recent studies have suggested that early mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent energy failure play a role in the pathogenesis of TBI. We therefore examined whether oxidative metabolism of 13C-labeled glucose, lactate or glutamine is altered early following in vitro mechanical percussion-induced trauma (5 atm) to neurons (4–24 h), and whether such events contribute to the development of neuronal injury. Cell viability was assayed using the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), together with fluorescence-based cell staining (calcein and ethidium homodimer-1 for live and dead cells, respectively). Trauma had no effect on the LDH release in neurons from 1 h to 18 h. However, a significant increase in LDH release was detected at 24 h after trauma. Similar findings were identified when traumatized neurons were stained with fluorescent markers. Additionally 13C-labeling of glutamate showed a small, but statistically significant decrease at 14 h after trauma. However, trauma had no effect on the cycling ratio of the TCA cycle at any time-period examined. These findings indicate that trauma does not cause a disturbance in oxidative metabolism of any of the substrates used for neurons. Accordingly, such metabolic disturbance does not appear to contribute to the neuronal death in the early stages following trauma. PMID:26729365
Kieffer, WKM; Michalik, DV; Gallagher, K; McFadyen, I; Bernard, J; Rogers, BA
Introduction Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. Since the inception of the trauma networks, little is known of the temporal pattern of trauma admissions. Methods Trauma Audit and Research Network data for 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2013 were collated from two large major trauma centres (MTCs) in the South East of England: Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust (BSUH) and St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (SGU). The number of admissions and the injury severity score by time of admission, by weekdays versus weekend and by month/season were analysed. Results There were 1,223 admissions at BSUH and 1,241 at SGU. There was significant variation by time of admission; there were more admissions in the afternoons (BSUH p<0.001) and evenings (SGU p<0.001). There were proportionally more admissions at the weekends than on weekdays (BSUH p<0.001, SGU p=0.028). There was significant seasonal variation in admissions at BSUH (p<0.001) with more admissions in summer and autumn. No significant seasonal variation was observed at SGU (p=0.543). Conclusions The temporal patterns observed were different for each MTC with important implications for resource planning of trauma care. This study identified differing needs for different MTCs and resource planning should be individualised to the network. PMID:26741676
Dueck, Andrew; Poenaru, Dan; Pichora, David R.
Objectives To estimate the costs of Canadian pediatric trauma and identify cost predictors. Design A chart review. Setting A regional trauma centre. Study material The charts of all 221 children who suffered traumatic injuries with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 4 or more seen over 6 years at a regional trauma centre. Main outcome measures Patient data, injury data, all hospital-based costs, excluding nursing, food and medication costs. Results Mean (and standard deviation) patient age was 12.8 (5) years. Sixty percent were boys. Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) accounted for 71% of the injuries, followed by falls (11%). The mean (and SD) total cost of care was Can$7582 (Can$12 370), and the cost of media was Can$2666. Total cost correlated directly with age (r = 0.29, p < 0.001) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and inversely with the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) (r = −0.20, p = 0.003). The presence of extremity injuries correlated significantly with total cost (r = 0.22, p = 0.001) and PTS (r = −0.25, p < 0.001) but not with the ISS. Logistic regression analysis identified runk injury, ISS and PTS as the main determinants of survival. Conclusions The cost of pediatric trauma in Canada can be predicted from admission data and trauma scores. The cost of extremity injuries is significant and can be predicted by the PTS but not the ISS. PMID:11308233
Adam, R; Stedman, M; Winn, J; Howard, M; Williams, J I; Ali, J
Identification of trauma as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Trinidad and Tobago prompted the establishment of a training programme aimed at improving trauma care in this developing country. An Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programme for physicians, funded through the Canadian International Development Agency resulted in a statistically significant improvement of in-hospital trauma patient outcome at the Port-of-Spain General Hospital (observed to expected mortality ratio of 3.16 pre-ATLS compared to 1.94 post-ATLS). A recent analysis of all motor vehicle injuries for a shorter period did not confirm this positive impact of the ATLS programme, primarily because a large number of these patients died in the pre-hospital period. Pre-hospital trauma care therefore required urgent attention to complement the positive in-hospital impact of the ATLS programme. A second training programme (the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support or PHTLS) for paramedical personnel was thus instituted in 1990. Over 250 physicians have been trained in the ATLS programme and to date over 100 paramedical personnel have been trained in the PHTLS programme. Attempts have also been made to equip the ambulances with more appropriate resuscitative devices in order to improve pre-hospital care. The combination of the PHTLS and the ATLS programme should result in further improvement in the care of patients sustaining major injuries in Trinidad and Tobago.
Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another.
Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Casali, Marco; Calderale, Stefano M; Coletti, Massimo; Alifano, Marco; Parri, Sergio N Forti; Villani, Silvia; Biscardi, Andrea; Giordano, M Chiara; Baldoni, Franco
Background The consequence of the low rate of penetrating injuries in Europe and the increase in non-operative management of blunt trauma is a decrease in surgeons' confidence in managing traumatic injuries has led to the need for new didactic tools. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the Corso di Chirurgia del Politrauma (Trauma Surgery Course), developed as a model for teaching operative trauma techniques, and assess its efficacy. Method the two-day course consisted of theoretical lectures and practical experience on large-sized swine. Data of the first 126 participants were collected and analyzed. Results All of the 126 general surgeons who had participated in the course judged it to be an efficient model to improve knowledge about the surgical treatment of trauma. Conclusion A two-day course, focusing on trauma surgery, with lectures and life-like operation situations, represents a model for simulated training and can be useful to improve surgeons' confidence in managing trauma patients. Cooperation between organizers of similar initiatives would be beneficial and could lead to standardizing and improving such courses. PMID:16759403
Watt, Melissa H; Dennis, Alexis C; Choi, Karmel W; Ciya, Nonceba; Joska, John A; Robertson, Corne; Sikkema, Kathleen J
South African women have disproportionately high rates of both sexual trauma and HIV. To understand how sexual trauma impacts HIV care engagement, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 HIV-infected women with sexual trauma histories, recruited from a public clinic in Cape Town. Interviews explored trauma narratives, coping behaviors and care engagement, and transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparison method. Participants reported multiple and complex traumas across their lifetimes. Sexual trauma hindered HIV care engagement, especially immediately following HIV diagnosis, and there were indications that sexual trauma may interfere with future care engagement, via traumatic stress symptoms including avoidance. Disclosure of sexual trauma was limited; no women had disclosed to an HIV provider. Routine screening for sexual trauma in HIV care settings may help to identify individuals at risk of poor care engagement. Efficacious treatments are needed to address the psychological and behavioral sequelae of trauma.