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Sample records for acute zinc toxicity

  1. Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

  2. The protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of depleted uranium in rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Jing; Luo, Shenglin; Ma, Ting; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

    2012-12-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities and contributes to health problems. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of DU. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with DU (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to create a toxicity model (DU group). Before and after the injection of DU, zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once a day for 2 days. The survival rates at 30 days post DU administration and the effects of zinc at 4 days post DU administration were evaluated. Our data indicate that zinc has obvious protective effects, especially pre-treatment with zinc. Rats pre-treated with zinc had significantly higher survival rates than rats in the DU group, with 60.03% more surviving. In addition, at 4 days post DU administration, the former had lower kidney uranium content, insignificant renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis and less transparent tubes. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine N-acethyl-β-d-glucosaminidase concentrations were significantly decreased; the gene expression levels of metallothionein (MT) in kidney tissues were significantly increased; and catalase levels were increased and malondialdehyde levels were decreased. In conclusion, pre-treatment with zinc significantly alleviated acute toxicity of DU, and the mechanism appeared to be related to the induction of MT synthesis and enhancement of the antioxidant function.

  3. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  4. The acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium and zinc to two hydra species.

    PubMed

    Holdway, D A; Lok, K; Semaan, M

    2001-01-01

    The potential of two hydra species, Hydra vulgaris (pink) and Hydra viridissima (green), for use as invertebrate models for toxicity testing of waterborne metals was investigated. The acute and subchronic toxicities of cadmium (a nonessential metal) and zinc (an essential metal) were determined. Results showed that both the hydra species were more sensitive to cadmium than to zinc, and that green hydra were more sensitive than pink hydra. The mean (SE) 96 h LC50 values of cadmium and zinc for pink hydra were 83 (8.5) and 2300 (150) micrograms/L, respectively. For green hydra, the respective 96 h LC50 values for cadmium and zinc were 3.0 (0.0) and 935 (46.5) micrograms/L. The respective 7-day no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) for pink hydra were < 13 and 13 micrograms/L for cadmium, and < 250 and 250 micrograms/L for zinc. The respective 7-day NOEC and LOEC values for green hydra were 0.4 and 0.8, microgram/L for cadmium, and 38 and 75 micrograms/L for zinc. Neither 1, 2, or 3 x 90-min pulse-exposures to 0.4, 0.8, or 1.5 micrograms/L of cadmium had any significant deleterious effect on total green hydra numbers after seven days in clean water. Green hydra appeared to be excellent freshwater invertebrate models for testing dissolved metals based on their sensitivity and the ability to rapidly assess population reproduction in the laboratory.

  5. Evaluation of single and joint toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and zinc to Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri: Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaoqin; Qu, Ruijuan; Yan, Liqing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-01-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and zinc have been detected in aquatic environment widely. In order to study the combined effects of PFOS and Zn, a series of experiments was conducted to explore the acute mortality, bioaccumulation and antioxidant status of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. The acute toxicity was evaluated by calculating 24h-EC50 values, and it was observed that 24h-EC50 values in single and joint treatments decreased with decreasing pH value or increasing exposure concentration. Toxic unit analysis suggested that the combined effects of the PFOS+Zn binary mixture were mostly simple addition, with 8 groups showing synergism and only one group showing antagonism. The analysis of internal Zn and PFOS concentration showed that the possible interaction between Zn and PFOS can affect the bioaccumulation of the two chemicals in L. hoffmeisteri. In addition, oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring oxidation-related biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, and the integrated biomarker response index was estimated to rank the toxicity order. Exposures to Zn and PFOS were found to evoke some changes in the antioxidant defense system, and a strong self-adaptive ability was noticed for L. hoffmeisteri after 10 d exposure.

  6. Effects of suspended solids on the acute toxicity of zinc to Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Saleh, F.Y.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.; Wilcox, D.; Entazami, A.

    1986-12-01

    Current procedures for setting site-specific water quality criteria consider abiotic and biotic factors. Suspended solids were shown to be important in reducing zinc toxicity to water column organisms. At zinc concentrations of approx. = 1 mg/L in solutions with < 100 mg/L of all suspended solids tested, zinc toxicity to D. magna was reduced. Sorption of zinc to suspended solids and/or changes in water chemistry due to the addition of suspended solids appear to have been the factors causing reductions in zinc toxicity to D. magna. Only suspended solids levels of 483-734 mg/L of a type that increased total alkalinity, total hardness, and total dissolved carbon clearly reduced the toxicity of approx. = 20 mg/L zinc to P. promelas. The toxic form of zinc to these organisms appears to reside in the aqueous phase. Characteristics of suspended solids did not influence the partition coefficient of zinc in sorption experiments of less than or equal to 96 h. The slopes of dose-response curves proved to be useful for assessing the potential of an organism to respond to changes in aqueous phase zinc concentrations, and may be a useful biological parameter when considering site-specific water quality criteria for chemicals.

  7. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  8. Influence of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia.

    PubMed

    Hyne, Ross V; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Markich, Scott J

    2005-07-01

    This study determined the influence of key water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], and hardness) on the aqueous speciation of copper and zinc and its relationship to the acute toxicity of these metals to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia. Immobilization tests were performed for 48-h in synthetic or natural waters buffered at various pH values from 5.5 to 8.4 (other chemical parameters held constant). The toxicity of copper to C. cf dubia decreased fivefold with increasing pH, whereas the toxicity of zinc increased fivefold with increasing pH. The effect of DOC on copper and zinc toxicity to C. cf dubia was determined using natural fulvic acid in the synthetic water. Increasing DOC was found to decrease linearly the toxicity of copper, with the mean effect concentration of copper that immobilized 50% of the cladocerans (EC50) value 45 times higher at 10 mg/L, relative to 0.1 mg/L DOC at pH 6.5. In contrast, the addition of 10 mg/L DOC only resulted in a very small (1.3-fold) reduction in the toxicity of zinc to C. cf dubia. Copper toxicity to C. cf dubia generally did not vary as a function of hardness, whereas zinc toxicity was reduced by a factor of only two, with an increase in water hardness from 44 to 374 mg CaCO3/L. Increasing bicarbonate alkalinity of synthetic waters (30-125 mg/L as CaCO3) decreased the toxicity of copper up to fivefold, which mainly could be attributed to the formation of copper-carbonate complexes, in addition to a pH effect. The toxicity of copper added to a range of natural waters with varying DOC content, pH, and hardness was consistent with the toxicity predicted using the data obtained from the synthetic waters.

  9. Acute toxicity and synergism of cadmium and zinc in white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, Juveniles

    SciTech Connect

    Vanegas, C.; Espina, S.; Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.

    1997-01-01

    Toxic effects of individual heavy metals on decapod crustaceans have been reported frequently, but little information exists concerning interactions. Among the non-essential heavy metals, cadmium is one of the most hazardous elements in the aquatic environment; on the other hand, zinc is an essential element, but toxic when present in greater than trace amounts. Biological effects of cadmium in aquatic organisms are complex due to the interactions with both environmental variables and other toxic agents. In decapod crustaceans, the toxicity of cadmium and zinc is modified by salinity, temperature, hypoxia, calcium ion concentrations and life-cycle stage. Heavy metal pollution has increased in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico, particularly in shrimp habitat. This study examined the toxicity of cadmium and zinc to white shrimp juveniles and looked at the interaction of the metals. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Influence of dissolved organic matter on acute toxicity of zinc to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Bringolf, Robert B; Morris, Brady A; Boese, Connie J; Santore, Robert C; Allen, Herbert E; Meyer, Joseph S

    2006-10-01

    We conducted laboratory toxicity tests in support of the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of zinc (Zn) to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). To test the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on Zn toxicity, we exposed larval fathead minnows to Zn in water containing elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in 96-h static-renewal toxicity tests. We tested DOM isolated from four surface waters: Cypress Swamp, Delaware; Edisto River, South Carolina; Suwannee River, Georgia; and Wilmington, Delaware, wastewater treatment effluent. The DOM isolates from the Edisto River and Wilmington wastewater treatment effluent contained elevated concentrations of NaCl (20-110x control NaCl) due to the use of a Na+-exchange resin to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ during the DOM isolation process. Therefore, we also performed Zn toxicity tests in which we added up to 20 mM NaCl to exposure solutions containing Cypress Swamp and Suwannee River DOM. A threshold concentration of 11 mg DOC/L was needed to decrease Zn toxicity, after which the 96 h Zn LC50 was positively correlated with DOC concentration. Elevated NaCl concentrations did not alter Zn toxicity in the presence of DOM. In conjunction with data from other studies with fish and invertebrates, results of this study were used to calibrate Version 2.1.1 of the Zn BLM. BLM-predicted LC50s for our exposure waters containing elevated DOM concentrations were within the range of acceptable deviation relative to the observed LC50s (i.e., 0.5-2x observed LC50s); however, BLM-predicted LC50s for our exposure waters containing < 1 mg DOC/L were 2-3x lower than the observed LC50s (i.e., the BLM over-predicted the toxicity). Therefore, the current composite-species BLM for Zn could be improved for fathead minnows if that species were modeled separately from the other species used to calibrate Version 2.1.1. PMID:16788742

  11. Influence of light in acute toxicity bioassays of imidacloprid and zinc pyrithione to zooplankton crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Kouichi

    2006-06-30

    The acute toxicity of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, and zinc pyrithione (Zpt), a biocide used in anti-dandruff shampoos and protective antifouling paints, to three species of ostracods and two waterfleas, including Daphnia magna, was determined and compared under light and dark conditions. Under normal laboratory conditions, UV light had no significant influence on the outcome of toxicity bioassays, although in the case of imidacloprid both EC(50) and LC(50) calculated values were twice as high under the light as in the dark. No influence of UV light was observed on bioassays conducted with Zpt, in spite of the fast aqueous photolysis exhibited by this compound. Imidacloprid 48-h LC(50) for cladocerans (65-133mg/L) were two orders of magnitude higher than for ostracods (301-715microg/L); values of EC(50) for cladocerans and ostracods were 2-6mg/L and 3-16microg/L, respectively. Toxicity of Zpt to both ostracod and cladoceran species appears to be similar, with 48-h LC(50) in the range 137-524 and 75-197microg/L for ostracods and cladocerans, respectively, and similar values for EC(50)s. The mortality endpoint (LC(50)), however, is not a reliable predictor of the effects of imidacloprid under field situations (e.g. rice paddies), because the paralysis effect induced by this insecticide takes place at much lower concentrations than those required to cause the death of the animals: regardless of the taxa, differences as large as 100- or 600-fold were observed between the EC(50) and LC(50) for the same exposures. As a consequence, immobilization tests and EC(50) values are recommended for this class of compounds, while caution should be exercised in environmental risk assessments of this and possibly other related neonicotinoid insecticides with similar activity. PMID:16690142

  12. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and

  13. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and

  14. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Lock, Koen; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-12-01

    The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail Folsomia candida was lower compared to zinc oxide and zinc powder. However, when expressed on the basis of pore water concentrations or calcium chloride extracted fractions, acute toxicity was higher for zinc salt, which indicated that dermal uptake via the pore water is not the only route of uptake. Chronic toxicity of zinc salt, zinc oxide and zinc powder was similar when based on total concentrations in the soil which again indicates that the pore water route of uptake is not the only route of exposure but that oral uptake is also important.

  16. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  17. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  18. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Mebane, Christopher A; Mount, David R; Ivey, Chris D; Kunz, James L; Greer, I Eugene; May, Thomas W; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2007-08-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 microg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 microg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 microg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 microg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 microg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 microg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  19. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323 µg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704 µg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin < other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  20. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Dillon, Frank S.; Hennessy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329μg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa; with Pb, EC50s ranged from 47 to 3,323μg/L, with westslope cutthroat trout < rainbow trout < other taxa; and with Zn, EC50s ranged from 21 to 3,704μg/L, with rainbow trout < westslope cutthroat trout ≈ sculpin << other taxa. With swim-up trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis.

  1. Modeling zinc toxicity for terrestrial invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lock, K; Janssen, C R

    2001-09-01

    Acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests with zinc were performed with the earthworm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus, and the springtail Folsomia candida. To assess the influence of the soil type on zinc toxicity for these soil invertebrates, these tests were carried out in a standard artificial soil, a sandy and a loamy field soil. Based on the results of this experimental work and data taken from literature, models were developed relating the ecotoxicity of zinc to the most important parameters controlling bioavailability: pH and cation exchange capacity. Models were developed for E. fetida and F. candida using the regression technique partial least squares projection to latent structures (PLS). Acute as well as chronic toxicity data of both organisms could be normalized on the basis of the pH and the cation exchange capacity of the test soils. For other terrestrial invertebrates, not enough data were available to develop reliable models.

  2. Zinc-associated acute pancreatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mikszewski, J S; Saunders, H M; Hess, R S

    2003-04-01

    Zinc-induced haemolytic anaemia is a common phenomenon in dogs in the USA following the ingestion of pennies minted after 1982. A case of acute pancreatitis secondary to zinc toxicosis in a dog is described. Acute pancreatitis has been reported in humans, following the ingestion of liquid zinc chloride, but zinc-associated pancreatitis has not been reported previously in the dog. The mechanism of toxicity is unknown, although the pathophysiology may relate to the role of the pancreas in zinc excretion. Acute pancreatitis as a sequela to zinc toxicosis in the dog represents a complication that may prolong hospitalisation and worsen the prognosis.

  3. Acute and subchronic toxicity of arsenite and zinc to tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum both alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, Julie Céline; Asorey, Cynthia Melina; Sztrum, Abelardo; Herkovits, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated acute and subchronic toxicity of arsenite (As(3+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) to stage 25 tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum in both single and joint laboratory exposures. LC50 values obtained for As(3+) were elevated and remained within the range of 46 to 50 mg/L of As(3+) between 4 and 17 d of exposure. Growth of tadpoles was completely inhibited with 30 mg/L of As(3+), demonstrating the presence of ecologically relevant sublethal effects at concentrations lower than those resulting in lethality. With respect to Zn(2+), a 96-h LC50 value of 2.49 mg/L was calculated in soft water. Contrary to results obtained for As(3+), LC50 values of Zn(2+) gradually decreased with increasing exposure duration, from 2.49 mg/L at 96 h to 1.30 mg/L after 21 d. In joint exposures to both metals, the type of interaction observed between As(3+) and Zn(2+) was concentration dependent. Lethal effects of As(3+) were mitigated, unaffected, or potentiated by 0.01, 0.1, and 1-2 mg/L of Zn(2+), respectively. However, although 0.01 mg/L of Zn(2+) significantly reduced lethality of As(3+)-exposed tadpoles, the same concentration of Zn(2+) did not help to reverse the stunt growth of these animals. Further studies need to examine which are the lowest concentrations As(3+) required to reduce growth and whether Zn(2+) serves to antagonize growth effects in this range of concentrations. PMID:19557616

  4. Synergism of organic zinc salts and sulfhydryl compounds (thiols) in the protection of mice against acute ethanol toxicity, and protective effects of various metal salts.

    PubMed

    Floersheim, G L

    1987-06-01

    Organic zinc salts such as zinc aspartate, zinc orotate, zinc histidine and zinc acetate protected mice against the lethality of an acute intraperitoneal challenge with ethanol. A similar activity was also provided by salts of cobalt, zirconium, lithium and magnesium. Organic zinc salts acted synergistically with sulfhydryl compounds in protecting the mice and potentiation between the two categories of agents was seen. The results are in analogy to radioprotective effects by zinc and thiols and imply that organic zinc salts may, alone or in conjunction with thiols, reduce in a wider context tissue injury caused by free radical-mediated mechanisms. PMID:3630856

  5. Toxicity assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticles using sub-acute and sub-chronic murine inhalation models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many commercial products and the potential for human exposure is increasing, few in vivo studies have addressed their possible toxic effects after inhalation. We sought to determine whether ZnO NPs induce pulmonary toxicity in mice following sub-acute or sub-chronic inhalation exposure to realistic exposure doses. Methods Mice (C57Bl/6) were exposed to well-characterized ZnO NPs (3.5 mg/m3, 4 hr/day) for 2 (sub-acute) or 13 (sub-chronic) weeks and necropsied immediately (0 wk) or 3 weeks (3 wks) post exposure. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid as well as measurements of pulmonary mechanics. Generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed in the lungs. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and Zn content. Zn concentration in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and BAL fluid was measured. Results An elevated concentration of Zn2+ was detected in BAL fluid immediately after exposures, but returned to baseline levels 3 wks post exposure. Dissolution studies showed that ZnO NPs readily dissolved in artificial lysosomal fluid (pH 4.5), but formed aggregates and precipitates in artificial interstitial fluid (pH 7.4). Sub-acute exposure to ZnO NPs caused an increase of macrophages in BAL fluid and a moderate increase in IL-12(p40) and MIP-1α, but no other inflammatory or toxic responses were observed. Following both sub-acute and sub-chronic exposures, pulmonary mechanics were no different than sham-exposed animals. Conclusions Our ZnO NP inhalation studies showed minimal pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity or lung histopathologic changes. An elevated concentration of Zn in the lung and BAL fluid indicates dissolution of ZnO NPs in the respiratory system after inhalation. Exposure concentration, exposure mode and time post

  6. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  7. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  8. Acute toxicity of chromate, DDT, PCP, TPBS, and zinc to Daphnia magna cultured in hard and soft water

    SciTech Connect

    Berglind, R.; Dave, G.

    1984-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of five chemicals to water fleas (Daphnia magna) cultured in either hard to soft water. The toxicity tests were made in reconstituted waters and the five chemicals to be tested were, p,p'-DDT, pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrapropylenbenzyl sulfonate (TPBS), potassium bichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) and zincsulfate (ZnSO/sub 4/ x 7H/sub 2/O).

  9. Acute systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Use of the test that aimed to identify the single lethal dose of a substance that kills half the animals in a test group (the LD50 test) should finally be discontinued by the end of 2002, after many years of controversy and debate. In its stead are three recently developed alternative animal tests that significantly improve animal welfare: the fixed dose procedure, the acute toxic class method, and the up and down procedure. These tests have already undergone revision, both to improve their scientific performance and, importantly, to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy of acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used (perhaps by mid-2002) as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests to improve dose level selection and reduce (at least modestly) the number of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, which will require at least 10 yr.

  10. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  11. Zinc.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    The use of zinc in metal alloys and medicinal lotions dates back before the time of Christ. Currently, most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. Some studies support the use of zinc gluconate lozenges to treat the common cold, but there are insufficient data at this time to recommend the routine use of these lozenges. Zinc is an essential co-factor in a variety of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, behavioral responses, reproduction, bone formation, growth, and wound healing. Zinc is a relatively common metal with an average concentration of 50 mg/kg soil and a range of 10-300 mg/kg soil. Meat, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains contain relatively high concentrations of zinc. The mobility of zinc in anaerobic environments is poor and therefore severe zinc contamination occurs primarily near points sources of zinc release. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc. The ingestion of 1-2 g zinc sulfate produces emesis. Zinc compounds can produce irritation and corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, along with acute renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Inhalation of high concentrations of zinc chloride from smoke bombs detonated in closed spaces may cause chemical pneumonitis and adult respiratory distress syndrome. In the occupational setting inhalation of fumes from zinc oxide is the most common cause of metal fume fever (fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste, salivation). Zinc compounds are not suspected carcinogens. Treatment of zinc toxicity is supportive. Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa2EDTA) is the chelator of choice based on case reports that demonstrate normalization of zinc concentrations, but there are few clinical data to confirm the efficacy of this agent. PMID:10382562

  12. Acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of copper, zinc, and nickel to Pimephales promelas: Evidence of more-than-additive effect.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Natalie R; Hoang, Tham C; O'Brien, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    Metal mixture toxicity has been studied for decades. However, the results are not consistent, and thus ecological risk assessment and regulation of mixtures has been difficult. The objective of the present study was to use a systematic experimental design to characterize the toxicity of binary-metal mixture of Cu, Zn, and Ni to Pimephales promelas, typically to determine whether the effect of these binary-metal mixtures on P. promelas is more-than-additive. Standard 96-h toxicity tests were conducted with larval P. promelas based on US Environmental and Protection Agency methods to determine metal mixture effects. All experiments were conducted in synthetic moderately hard water with no addition of dissolved organic matter. Three different effect analysis approaches, the MixTox model, the Finney model, and the toxic unit method, were used for comparison. The results indicate that the toxicity of Cu+Zn, Cu+Ni, and Zn+Ni mixtures to P. promelas was more-than-additive. Among the 3 mixtures, the effect of the Cu+Ni mixture was the most profound. The results of the present study are useful for applications to models such as the metal mixture biotic ligand model. More research should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity of metal mixtures.

  13. Diphacinone and zinc phosphide toxicity in a flock of Peafowl.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Galey, F

    2001-12-01

    Toxicity probably due to a combination of diphacinone and zinc phosphide was diagnosed in a flock of peafowl, in which 35 birds in a flock of 80 died over a span of 10 days without any apparent clinical signs. Chickens and guinea fowl, 30 each on the same premises, were not affected. Plastic tubes containing diphacinone and zinc phosphide were used on the premises to control ground squirrels. Most of the six dead peafowl, which ranged in age from 6 months to 4 years, had an accumulation of serosanguinous fluid in the abdominal cavity, semi-clotted blood over the liver lobes, increased pericardial fluid, and enlarged and pale kidneys. Pellets of diphacinone and zinc phosphide were found in the crop and gizzard contents from most of the birds. Microscopically, most of the birds had mild to moderate centrolobular degeneration of hepatocytes and multifocal degeneration of myofibres in the heart with infiltration by a few mononuclear cells. Acute nephrosis and mucosal oedema in the oesophagus and crop were also observed. Toxicological analysis of the crop and gizzard contents revealed the presence of diphacinone and phosphine gas, and analysis of the crop contents from two birds for heavy metals revealed zinc levels of up to 6600 parts/10 6 . It was suspected that only the peafowl and not the chickens and guinea fowl were affected because peafowl, with their longer necks, were able to reach into the plastic tubes and eat the pellets.

  14. Diphacinone and zinc phosphide toxicity in a flock of Peafowl.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Galey, F

    2001-12-01

    Toxicity probably due to a combination of diphacinone and zinc phosphide was diagnosed in a flock of peafowl, in which 35 birds in a flock of 80 died over a span of 10 days without any apparent clinical signs. Chickens and guinea fowl, 30 each on the same premises, were not affected. Plastic tubes containing diphacinone and zinc phosphide were used on the premises to control ground squirrels. Most of the six dead peafowl, which ranged in age from 6 months to 4 years, had an accumulation of serosanguinous fluid in the abdominal cavity, semi-clotted blood over the liver lobes, increased pericardial fluid, and enlarged and pale kidneys. Pellets of diphacinone and zinc phosphide were found in the crop and gizzard contents from most of the birds. Microscopically, most of the birds had mild to moderate centrolobular degeneration of hepatocytes and multifocal degeneration of myofibres in the heart with infiltration by a few mononuclear cells. Acute nephrosis and mucosal oedema in the oesophagus and crop were also observed. Toxicological analysis of the crop and gizzard contents revealed the presence of diphacinone and phosphine gas, and analysis of the crop contents from two birds for heavy metals revealed zinc levels of up to 6600 parts/10 6 . It was suspected that only the peafowl and not the chickens and guinea fowl were affected because peafowl, with their longer necks, were able to reach into the plastic tubes and eat the pellets. PMID:19184953

  15. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ratnaike, R N

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water.

  16. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  17. Metallothionein I and II protect against zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E J; Quaife, C J; Froelick, G J; Palmiter, R D

    1996-07-01

    Metallothionein (MT)-bound zinc accumulates when animals are exposed to excess zinc and is depleted under conditions of zinc deficiency, suggesting that MT serves as a means of sequestering excess zinc as well as a zinc reservoir that can be utilized when zinc is deficient. To examine the importance of MT for these processes, mice with null alleles of both MT I and MT II genes were created and the zinc concentration and histological appearance of multiple organs assessed. At birth, the hepatic zinc concentration of these MT-null mice was lower than that of wild-type controls (0.27 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.11 micromol zinc/g tissue, P < 0.05). During the next 3 wk of suckling zinc-replete (95 micrograms zinc/g diet) dams, the hepatic zinc concentration of controls fell to 0.42 +/- 0.04 micromol/g but was unchanged in the MT-null mice (0.28 +/- 0.04 micromol/g). The most prominent histological anomaly observed at 3 wk of age was the presence of swollen Bowman's capsules in the kidneys of MT-null mice. When nursing MT-null dams were fed a severely zinc-deficient (1.5 microg/g) diet, kidney development in the MT-null pups was retarded as indicated by the retention of the nephrogenic zone and incomplete tubule development. We suggest that the lack of a hepatic reservoir of zinc jeopardizes the developing kidney in the MT-null mice. In addition to being more sensitive to dietary zinc restriction, MT-null mice are more sensitive to zinc toxicity. When adult mice were challenged with a ramping dose of zinc up to a total of 3700 micromol zinc/kg body weight, MT-null mice had a greater incidence of pancreatic acinar cell degeneration compared with control mice despite accumulating less zinc (2.72 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.23 +/- 0.52 micromol zinc/g pancreas, control and MT-null, respectively, P < 0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that MT I and MT II can protect against both zinc deficiency and zinc toxicity.

  18. Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa, Magdalena; Czupryn, Artur; Wierońska, Joanna M; Brański, Piotr; Sadlik, Krystyna; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Smiałowska, Maria; Skangiel-Kramska, Jolanta; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2006-05-23

    Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic and total zinc level in the rat hippocampus. We used two methods of zinc determination: (1) zinc-selenium method, which images the pool of synaptic zinc, and (2) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, which assays the total concentration of zinc. Our results indicate that chronic (14 x 65 mg/kg), but not acute, zinc hydroaspartate administration intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the majority of rat hippocampal layers (by 72-190%), except for the stratum moleculare and stratum radiatum CA, and perforant path DG. On the other hand, no changes were found in total hippocampal zinc level, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. These data suggest that chronic zinc treatment increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the hippocampus, and this effect is similar to that observed following chronic ECS treatment. The measurement of zinc concentration in the whole hippocampus by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method is not sensitive enough to detect such subtle alteration. PMID:16674928

  19. Postsurgical mortality secondary to zinc toxicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Meurs, K M; Breitschwerdt, E B; Baty, C J; Young, M A

    1991-12-01

    Zinc may be extremely toxic when absorbed from a metallic foreign body retained in the stomach. The most common cause of zinc toxicosis in dogs appears associated with accidental ingestion of copper-coated zinc pennies minted after 1982. In a retrospective literature search, zinc toxicosis due to penny ingestion was reported in 5 dogs, 2 of which died postoperatively, and 1 was euthanatized due to severe multiorgan system failure. In this report, we describe 3 additional cases of zinc toxicosis due to penny ingestion that resulted in a fatal outcome. Two dogs died during the early postoperative period, and another dog was euthanatized 5 d postoperatively due to continued deterioration. These cases emphasize the potential of perioperative complications associated with zinc toxicosis due to penny ingestion and suggest the need for better treatment options to decrease postsurgical mortality associated with this disease entity.

  20. [Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fumes and zinc dust inhalation].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Soda, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fume inhalation and zinc powder inhalation are presented. Case 1 demonstrated acute respiratory symptoms during the work of distortion correction of iron boards, coated with a rust preventative including rich zinc using an acetylene gas burner. Case 2 occurred after the work of applying a rust preventative that included zinc powder, mainly using an airless compressor. Since both were working in a boathouse, without using protective equipment, the possible causes of Case 1 and 2 were inhalation exposure to zinc fumes and zinc powder, respectively. The two patients showed similar clinical courses, including favorable treatment outcomes, mimicking acute respiratory failure complicated by a metal fume fever. PMID:24930880

  1. [Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fumes and zinc dust inhalation].

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Soda, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome related to zinc fume inhalation and zinc powder inhalation are presented. Case 1 demonstrated acute respiratory symptoms during the work of distortion correction of iron boards, coated with a rust preventative including rich zinc using an acetylene gas burner. Case 2 occurred after the work of applying a rust preventative that included zinc powder, mainly using an airless compressor. Since both were working in a boathouse, without using protective equipment, the possible causes of Case 1 and 2 were inhalation exposure to zinc fumes and zinc powder, respectively. The two patients showed similar clinical courses, including favorable treatment outcomes, mimicking acute respiratory failure complicated by a metal fume fever.

  2. Relationship between acid volatile sulfide and the toxicity of zinc, lead and copper in marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Casas, A.M. . School of Fisheries); Crecelius, E.A. )

    1994-03-01

    It has been proposed that acid volatile sulfide (AVS) is an important sediment phase for determining the toxicity of certain trace metals. By evaluating the ratio of the molar quantities of simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) to AVS, the toxicity of metals to organisms in contact with sediment can be predicted. This study examines the role of AVS in prediction the toxicity of zinc, lead, and copper in marine sediments. Sediment samples were titrated with zinc, lead, and copper and subsequently analyzed for SEM, pore-water (PW) metal, and AVS retention. In most cases, metal was not detected in the pore waters until the AVS was exceeded, suggesting that AVS is an adequate measure of the metal-blinding capacity of a sediment. The [SEM]-to-[AVS] ratios were calculated and toxicities predicted for each spiking concentration where [SEM]/[AVS] > 1. A 10-d, flow-though, acute bioassay using the marine polychaete Capitella capita was conducted to examine the prediction of toxicity from the metal titrations and the bioassay sediment chemistry data. In most cases, mortalities occurred as predicted. AVS and the [SEM]-to-[AVS] ratio proved useful as predictors of toxicity for zinc, lead, and perhaps copper. Another tool for predicting metal toxicity in sediments may be the [PW]/LC50 value; in every case where this ratio was > 1, mortalities occurred.

  3. Acute arsenic toxicity--an opaque poison.

    PubMed

    Gray, J R; Khalil, A; Prior, J C

    1989-08-01

    We report a patient with fatal acute arsenic poisoning presenting as vomiting and diarrhea with the finding of intra-abdominal radiopacities on radiographs. These represent the classic features of acute arsenic toxicity and are detailed here as a reminder to others facing a similar puzzling patient with this potentially treatable poisoning.

  4. Modulation of zinc toxicity by tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Siddiq, Mustafa M; Tsirka, Stella E

    2004-01-01

    The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin proteolytic system mediates excitotoxin-induced neurodegeneration in vivo and in cell culture. tPA also confers neuroprotection from zinc toxicity in cell culture through a proteolysis-independent mechanism. This raises two questions: what is this non-enzymatic mechanism, and why tPA does not synergize with zinc to promote neuronal cell death? We show here that zinc binds to tPA and inhibits its activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus terminating its protease-dependent neurotoxic capacity. We extend the previously reported culture findings to demonstrate that elevated zinc is neurotoxic in vivo, and even more so when tPA is absent. Thus, physiological levels of tPA confer protection from elevated free zinc. Mechanistically, tPA promotes movement of zinc into hippocampal neuron cells through voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA/KA channels. Therefore, zinc and tPA each appear to be able to limit the potential of the other to facilitate neurodegeneration, a reciprocal set of actions that may be critical in the hippocampus where tPA is secreted during the nonpathological conditions of learning and memory at sites known to be repositories of free and sequestered zinc.

  5. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  6. Subcellular distribution of zinc in Daphnia magna and implication for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Guan, Rui

    2010-08-01

    We examined the subcellular partitioning of zinc (Zn) in Daphnia magna both under acute and chronic exposures. In the acute Zn toxicity tests, the daphnids were exposed to different Zn concentrations for 48 h or to one lethal concentration (1,000 microg/L) for different durations (time to death for up to 47 h). Significant mortality of daphnids was observed when the newly accumulated Zn concentration reached a threshold level of approximately 40 microg/g wet weight (or 320 microg/g dry wt), approximately 3.5 times higher than the background tissue concentration (92 microg/g dry wt). Chronic exposure (14 d) to Zn resulted in nonobservable effect on survivorship and growth at newly accumulated tissue concentration of over 40 microg/g wet weight. With increasing Zn acute exposure, more Zn was partitioned into the cellular debris fraction, indicating that this fraction was presumably the first targeted site of binding for Zn upon entering the animals. The importance of other subcellular fractions either decreased accordingly or remained comparable. We found that the metal-sensitive fraction (Zn distribution in the organelles and heat-denatured proteins) did not predict the acute Zn toxicity in Daphnia. During chronic exposure, however, no major change of the subcellular partitioning of Zn with increasing Zn exposure was documented. Zinc was mainly found in the organelles and heat-stable protein fractions during chronic exposure, suggesting that any subcellular repartitioning occurred primarily during acute exposure. Metallothioneins were induced upon chronic Zn exposure, but its induction evidently lagged behind the Zn accumulation. Our present study showed that the subcellular fractionation approach could not be readily used to predict the acute and chronic toxicities of Zn in Daphnia. A tissue-based Zn accumulation approach with a threshold Zn tissue concentration was better in predicting acute Zn toxicity. PMID:20821640

  7. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  8. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  9. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  11. Influence of temperature on the toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    SciTech Connect

    Spurgeon, D.J.; Tomlin, M.A.; Hopkin, S.P.

    1997-02-01

    A range of toxicity tests have been proposed to assess the potential hazards of pollutants to earthworms. Of these, the two acute toxicity tests using Eisenia fetida recommended by the OECD and EEC have become routinely used in the risk assessment and regulation of new and existing chemicals. In addition to the acute tests, procedures have also been proposed for measuring the sub-lethal effects of chemicals on parameter such as reproduction and weight change. In both the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity tests developed with worms, attempts have been made to standardise test conditions to allow results from different laboratories to be directly compared. However, variability in exposure conditions and responses are fundamental to determine the effects of pollutants under natural conditions. In the field, conditions such as light, moisture availability, pH, temperature and humidity all fluctuate over time. Such variations affect both the sensitivity and exposure of individuals to toxic chemicals. Hence when evaluating the potential effects of pollutants, it may be important to known how changes in test conditions influence toxicity. This study assessed the effects of different temperatures on the lethal and sub-lethal toxicity of zinc for the earthworm Eisenia fetida. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  13. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  14. Metallothionein-induced zinc partitioning exacerbates hyperoxic acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Min; McLaughlin, Joseph N.; Frederick, Daniel R.; Zhu, Lin; Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Wasserloos, Karla J.; Kaminski, Iris; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim; Li, Jin; Latoche, Joseph D.; Peck Palmer, Octavia M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Alcorn, John F.; Oury, Tim D.; Angus, Derek C.; Pitt, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypozincemia, with hepatic zinc accumulation at the expense of other organs, occurs in infection, inflammation, and aseptic lung injury. Mechanisms underlying zinc partitioning or its impact on extrahepatic organs are unclear. Here we show that the major zinc-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), is critical for zinc transmigration from lung to liver during hyperoxia and preservation of intrapulmonary zinc during hyperoxia is associated with an injury-resistant phenotype in MT-null mice. Particularly, lung-to-liver zinc ratios decreased in wild-type (WT) and increased significantly in MT-null mice breathing 95% oxygen for 72 h. Compared with female adult WT mice, MT-null mice were significantly protected against hyperoxic lung injury indicated by reduced inflammation and interstitial edema, fewer necrotic changes to distal airway epithelium, and sustained lung function at 72 h hyperoxia. Lungs of MT-null mice showed decreased levels of immunoreactive LC3, an autophagy marker, compared with WT mice. Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the lungs revealed similar levels of manganese-SOD activity between strains under normoxia and hyperoxia. Lung extracellular SOD activity decreased significantly in both strains at 72 h of hyperoxia, although there was no difference between strains. Copper-zinc-SOD activity was ∼4× higher under normoxic conditions in MT-null compared with WT mice but was not affected in either group by hyperoxia. Collectively the data suggest that genetic deletion of MT-I/II in mice is associated with compensatory increase in copper-zinc-SOD activity, prevention of hyperoxia-induced zinc transmigration from lung to liver, and hyperoxia-resistant phenotype strongly associated with differences in zinc homeostasis during hyperoxic acute lung injury. PMID:23275622

  15. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  16. Toxic effects of zinc on the development, growth, and survival of red sea bream Pagrus major embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Shan, Xiujuan; Xiao, Zhizhong; Wang, Qiyao; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the zinc toxicity to red sea bream Pagrus major embryos and larvae at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (33 +/- 1 per thousand in salinity) under laboratory conditions. The acute toxicity tests indicated that zinc 48-h LC50 to embryos and 96-h LC50 to larvae were 4.3 (3.3-6.3; 95% confidence limits) and 10.1 (9.0-11.4) mg l(-1), respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive than larvae to zinc exposure. The subchronic toxicity test, in which embryos and larvae were continuously exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg Zn2+ l(-1) solutions for 10 days, demonstrated that waterborne zinc had distinctly toxic effects on the development, growth, and survival of red sea bream embryos and larvae. Zinc exposure at concentrations > or = 0.5 mg l(-1) would lead to a low hatching rate (19-78%, vs. 98% in controls), high mortality (29-91%, vs. 10% in controls), and morphological abnormality (12-77%, vs. 0.3% in controls) in embryos and larvae, while it caused delay in time-to-hatch in embryos at concentrations > or = 1.0 mg l(-1). These four biological parameters were zinc concentration dependent and could be effective bioindicators for evaluating the toxicity of zinc to the early life stage of this fish. Heartbeats of embryos (9-13 beats 10 s(-1)) were relatively low and were not significantly influenced by zinc concentration, although they rose remarkably with elevated zinc concentration in larvae at the end of the test, particularly when it was > or = 1.0 mg l(-1) (36-38, vs. 31 beats 10 s(-1) in controls). The total length (LT) of the larvae at the end of the test was reduced by 12.2% and 15.6% in the 1.0 and 2.0 mg l(-1) solutions but did not vary significantly in other solutions in comparison with the controls. Heartbeat and LT were less sensitive to zinc exposure and might not be good biological parameters for determining the toxicity of zinc to the early life stage of red sea bream. PMID:19504147

  17. Massive strontium ferrite ingestion without acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Barbara M; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2006-11-01

    Ingestion of strontium ferrite is previously unreported. We document absorption of strontium without acute toxicity. A 22 year-old schizophrenic man was brought to hospital after he was witnessed to pulverize and ingest flexible adhesive magnets, which later were identified as strontium ferrite. Other than auditory hallucinations his vital signs, physical examination, ECG and routine laboratories were unremarkable. Abdominal radiographs revealed diffuse radiopaque material. He was treated with whole bowel irrigation with polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) until radiographically cleared. His initial blood and urine strontium levels were 2900 microg/l and 15,000 microg/l, respectively (reference range for urine: <240 microg/l, occupational threshold 800 microg/l). A repeat urine level one week later was 370 microg/l. His hospital course was complicated by bacteraemia secondary to a thrombophlebitis at the site of the intravenous catheter, and the patient was treated with intravenous and oral antibiotics. He remained otherwise asymptomatic and was discharged to a psychiatric unit approximately 3 weeks later. Although clearly absorbed, strontium ferrite does not appear to produce acute toxicity. Delayed, and or chronic toxicity cannot be excluded based on this report.

  18. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  19. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

    PubMed Central

    Skalny, Andrey A.; Medvedeva, Yulia S.; Alchinova, Irina B.; Karganov, Mikhail Yu.; Ajsuvakova, Olga P.; Skalny, Anatoly V.; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data indicate a

  20. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Medvedeva, Yulia S; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Yu; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair) were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals' organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data indicate a

  1. Haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis associated with zinc toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Blundell, R; Adam, F

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of zinc toxicity in a 14-month-old, female, neutered, Cavalier King Charles spaniel with a 48-hour history of haematochezia, icterus and collapse. Regenerative anaemia with a packed-cell volume of 7 per cent was seen. Prior to referral, radiography had revealed a gastric, metallic foreign body which was removed at exploratory laparotomy. On presentation, the dog was comatose, hypothermic and bradycardic - resuscitation was performed successfully, but the dog then displayed marked abdominal pain. The dog died 12 hours after presentation. At postmortem examination, the animal showed severe icterus. Both kidneys were diffusely dark red; the pancreas was diffusely pale and nodular. Histopathological examination revealed evidence of intravascular haemolysis with blood vessel lumens containing haemoglobin. The renal tubules also contained large amounts of intraluminal haemoglobin with haemoglobin crystals scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. The pancreas exhibited multifocal coagulative necrosis, surrounded by a neutrophil-dominated inflammatory infiltrate. Zinc levels were markedly increased above the normal reference range in both liver and kidney. This report describes the clinical and pathological findings of a case of acute zinc toxicity in a dog following ingestion of a metallic object which resulted in marked haemolytic anaemia and acute pancreatitis.

  2. Acute Toxic Neuropathy Mimicking Guillain Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Muhammed Jasim Abdul; Fernandez, Shirley Joan; Menon, Murali Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic PMID:25811007

  3. Dietary taurine reduces zinc-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Hsieh, You-Liang; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2011-05-01

    Taurine is an agent for treating the heavy metal intoxication and presence of metals such as zinc, copper, and iron may have a role in heavy metal toxicity, a study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on the toxicity of zinc in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups and fed different diets with or without supplement of 5% taurine and 150 to 600 ppm zinc for 2 mo. It was found that the body weight of rats, the ratios of liver and kidney weight to body weight, and the level of glutathione in the liver were decreased with increasing the dose of zinc. The levels of zinc in the liver, kidney, and plasma, the levels of malondialdehyde in the plasma, the levels of thiobarbiture acid-reactive substances in the liver, the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase in the plasma, the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the plasma of rats were increased with the increasing dose of zinc. Hence, symptoms of zinc toxicity in rats included loss of body weight, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. However, these toxic effects of zinc were significantly reduced when the rats fed diet with supplement of taurine. Furthermore, the level of zinc in the feces of rats treated with taurine and zinc was higher than that of rats treated with zinc alone. It indicated that taurine thereby leading to a decreased absorption of dietary zinc and promoted excretion. PMID:22417375

  4. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J.; Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  5. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  6. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. PMID:24929227

  7. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Salkade, Parag R; Lim, Teh Aun

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year

  8. Influence of water quality on zinc toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and sensitivity of freshwater snails to zinc.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Tong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The present study characterized the influence of water-quality characteristics on zinc (Zn) toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and the sensitivity of freshwater snails to Zn. Standard 96-h renewal acute toxicity tests were conducted with Zn and juvenile P. paludosa under 3 conditions of pH and alkalinity, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Median lethal effect concentrations (96-h LC50s), no-observed- effect concentrations, lowest-observed-effect concentrations, LC10s, and LC20s were determined for each test. The results showed that Zn toxicity to P. paludosa decreased linearly with increasing hardness, pH, and DOC. A multiple linear regression model based on pH, hardness, and DOC was able to explain 99% of the observed variability in LC50s. These results are useful for the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for P. paludosa and Zn. Zinc acute toxicity data were collected from the literature for 12 freshwater snail species in a wide range of water-quality characteristics for species sensitivity distribution analysis. The results showed that P. paludosa is the second most sensitive to Zn. The present study also suggested that aqueous ZnCO3 and ZnHCO3 (-) can be bioavailable to P. paludosa. Therefore, bioavailability models (e.g., BLM) should take these Zn species into consideration for bioavailability when applied to snails.

  9. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate whether fragrance products can produce acute toxic effects in mammals, we allowed groups of male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of five commercial colognes or toilet water for 1 h. We used the ASTM-E-981 test method to evaluate sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation. We used a computerized version of this test to measure the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration. Decreases in expiratory flow velocity indicated airflow limitation. We subjected the mice to a functional observational battery to probe for changes in nervous system function. The emissions of these fragrance products caused various combinations of sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation, decreases in expiratory airflow velocity, as well as alterations of the functional observational battery indicative of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity was more severe after mice were repeatedly exposed to the fragrance products. Evaluation of one of the test atmospheres with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of chemicals for which irritant and neurotoxic properties had been documented previously. In summary, some fragrance products emitted chemicals that caused a variety of acute toxicities in mice.

  10. Presence of acute phase changes in zinc, iron, and copper metabolism in turkey embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, K.C.; Richards, M.P.; Darcey, S.E.; Laurin, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Acute phase changes in trace mineral metabolism were examined in turkey embryos. An endotoxin injection resulted in increased concentrations of serum copper and liver zinc and decreased concentrations of serum zinc in embryos incubated either in ovo or ex ovo. Changes in zinc and copper metabolism occurred when endotoxin either was injected intramuscularly, into the amnionic fluid, or administered onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Unlike poults, embryos did not respond to an inflammatory challenge with decreased serum iron concentrations. Acute phase changes in embryo serum zinc and copper as well as liver zinc concentrations were similar to those in poults. Increased liver zinc concentrations were associated with increased zinc in metallothionein (MT). An injection of a crude interleukin 1 preparation into embryos resulted in similar increases in hepatic zinc and MT concentrations as an endotoxin injection, suggesting a role for this cytokine in mediating the acute phase changes in embryonic zinc metabolism.

  11. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU = EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50 = 0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50 = 1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective.

  12. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Moradi, Hemen; Zarei, Sadegh; Asadi, Soheila; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ghafourikhosroshahi, Abolfazl; Mortazavi, Motahareh; Ziamajidi, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) on adult male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups of six animals each were used for this study. For ten days, Groups one to four continuously received 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg nZnO, respectively. Group five served as the control group. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and histopathological study of the liver and renal tissue, sperm analysis, serum oxidative stress parameters and some liver enzymes were done. The results of this study showed that nZnO at concentration more than 50 mg/kg lead to significant changes in liver enzymes, oxidative stress, liver and renal tissue and sperm quality and quantity. In conclusion, the toxicity of nZnO is more significant when the concentration is increased; however, the use of low doses requires further investigation.

  13. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hermens, J.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms.32 references.

  14. Inter- and intra-species variation in acute zinc tolerance of field-collected cladoceran populations.

    PubMed

    Muyssen, Brita T A; Bossuyt, Bart T A; Janssen, Colin R

    2005-12-01

    Acute zinc toxicity was assessed for 10 freshwater cladoceran species collected in six different ecosystems across Europe and for two standard laboratory-reared species (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia). The collected organisms belonged to five different genera: Daphnia (subgenus Daphnia and Ctenodaphnia), Ceriodaphnia, Simocephalus, Acroperus and Chydorus. The 48-h EC50 of the field-collected organisms tested in standard laboratory water ranged from 375+/-141 to 4314+/-1513 microg Znl(-1). The laboratory clone of D. magna was less sensitive than the majority of the field-collected species, while our laboratory Ceriodaphnia dubia was the second most sensitive. Considerable inter-species variation was found within the genus of Ceriodaphnia (factor 6) and within the genus Daphnia (factor 8). Among the different (sub)genera tested, Chydorus and Ctenodaphnia were significantly more tolerant than the others (up to a factor 3 difference). A significant positive relationship (r2=0.67, p<0.05) between the mean cladoceran 48-h EC50 and the ambient zinc concentration of the different aquatic systems was demonstrated, suggesting a role of acclimation and/or adaptation. No significant correlation between the acute zinc tolerance and the length of the organisms was found. PMID:16263385

  15. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  16. The acute toxicity of coal liquefaction-derived materials.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Biles, R W; Kapp, R W; Hinz, J P

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of a series of potential streams from the EDS coal liquefaction process have been assessed in animal bioassays. In general, the materials present minimal acute toxic hazards. However, there was some evidence of ocular and dermal irritation. These results indicate that eye and dermal contact should be minimized, particularly when the process streams contain high concentrations of phenolic materials.

  17. Exploring waiving opportunities for mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Asturiol, David; Prieto, Pilar; Worth, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    A survey was carried out to explore opportunities for waiving mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests. We were interested in finding out whether data from a sub-acute toxicity test could be used to predict the outcome of an acute systemic toxicity test. The survey was directed at experts in the field of toxicity testing, and was carried out in the context of the upcoming 2018 final registration deadline for chemicals under the EU REACH Regulation. In addition to the survey, a retrospective data analysis of chemicals that had already been registered with the European Chemicals Agency, and for which both acute and sub-acute toxicity data were available, was carried out. This data analysis was focused on chemicals that were administered via the oral route. The answers to the questionnaire showed a willingness to adopt waiving opportunities. In addition, the responses showed that data from a sub-acute toxicity test or dose-range finding study might be useful for predicting chemicals that do not require classification for acute oral toxicity (LD50 > 2000mg/kg body weight). However, with the exception of substances that fall into the non-classified category, it is difficult to predict current acute oral toxicity categories. PMID:27494626

  18. A metallothionein containing a zinc finger within a four-metal cluster protects a bacterium from zinc toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Blindauer, Claudia A.; Harrison, Mark D.; Parkinson, John A.; Robinson, Andrea K.; Cavet, Jennifer S.; Robinson, Nigel J.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Zinc is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation, but excess can be toxic. A zinc-induced gene, smtA, is required for normal zinc-tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Here we report that the protein SmtA contains a cleft lined with Cys-sulfur and His-imidazole ligands that binds four zinc ions in a Zn4Cys9His2 cluster. The thiolate sulfurs of five Cys ligands provide bridges between the two ZnCys4 and two ZnCys3His sites, giving two fused six-membered rings with distorted boat conformations. The inorganic core strongly resembles the Zn4Cys11 cluster of mammalian metallothionein, despite different amino acid sequences, a different linear order of the ligands, and presence of histidine ligands. Also, SmtA contains elements of secondary structure not found in metallothioneins. One of the two Cys4-coordinated zinc ions in SmtA readily exchanges with exogenous metal (111Cd), whereas the other is inert. The thiolate sulfur ligands bound to zinc in this site are buried within the protein. Regions of β-strand and α-helix surround the inert site to form a zinc finger resembling the zinc fingers in GATA and LIM-domain proteins. Eukaryotic zinc fingers interact specifically with other proteins or DNA and an analogous interaction can therefore be anticipated for prokaryotic zinc fingers. SmtA now provides structural proof for the existence of zinc fingers in prokaryotes, and sequences related to the zinc finger motif can be identified in several bacterial genomes. PMID:11493688

  19. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  20. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5-19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  1. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Morley, N J; Crane, M; Lewis, J W

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of cadmium, zinc and cadmium/zinc mixtures at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 50000 microg/l were investigated against cercariae and metacercariae of Parorchis acanthus obtained from the dog whelk Nucella lapillus. Cercarial encystment at concentrations of 25000 microg/l or higher was significantly impaired by all test metals; however, at lower concentrations only zinc demonstrated toxicity. Mixtures of cadmium and zinc had a synergistic effect compared with single metal toxicity but only at 50000 microg/l. Excystment in vitro was only significantly affected by cercariae exposed to cadmium/zinc mixtures whilst encysting. Twenty-four h exposures of fully formed cysts had no effect on excystment in vitro. Effects on in vitro excystment rates over a 2 h period demonstrated widespread effects for cercariae-exposed P. acanthus. No effects were evident on excystment rates of cyst-exposed parasites. PMID:11197767

  2. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  3. Accumulation and regulation of zinc in Daphnia magna: links with homeostasis and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Muyssen, B T A; Janssen, C R

    2002-11-01

    Zinc accumulation in Daphnia magna was investigated, and the results were linked to the previously established optimal concentration range for zinc and D. magna. It was observed that organisms cultured in this optimal range (300-600 microg Zn/L) contained 212 +/- 57 to 254 +/- 79 microg Zn/g dry weight. Lower and higher zinc contents were obtained after acclimation to previously established culture concentrations inducing deficiency and toxicity, respectively. The calculation of bioconcentration factors indicated that zinc was actively regulated, at least up to a concentration of 600 microg Zn/L. Zinc uptake and elimination are rapid processes; major increases and decreases in body content occurred within 1 day. Zinc concentrations in daphnids exposed to 600 microg Zn/L fluctuated with 2- to 3-day intervals, suggesting a role of molting in the regulation and elimination of zinc. PMID:12399922

  4. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety. PMID:24300075

  5. A microfluidic device for continuous sensing of systemic acute toxicants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-12-01

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  6. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  7. Acute toxicity of dietary polybrominated biphenyls in Bobwhite Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.O.; Ringer, R.K.; Babish, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the acute oral toxicity of PBB to Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). The median lethal dietary concentration (LC/sub 56/) of PBB was determined over 8 days and clinical signs of intoxication are described.

  8. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  9. Zinc Modulates Nanosilver-Induced Toxicity in Primary Neuronal Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ziemińska, Elżbieta; Strużyńska, Lidia

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NAg) have recently become one of the most commonly used nanomaterials. Since the ability of nanosilver to enter the brain has been confirmed, there has been a need to investigate mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. We previously showed that primary neuronal cultures treated with nanosilver undergo destabilization of calcium homeostasis via a mechanism involving glutamatergic NMDA receptors. Considering the fact that zinc interacts with these receptors, the aim of the present study was to examine the role of zinc in mechanisms of neuronal cell death in primary cultures. In cells treated with nanosilver, we noted an imbalance between extracellular and intracellular zinc levels. Thus, the influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on nanosilver-evoked cytotoxicity was investigated by treatment with TPEN (a chelator of zinc ions), or ZnCl(2), respectively. Elimination of zinc leads to complete death of nanosilver-treated CGCs. In contrast, supplementation with ZnCl(2) increases viability of CGCs in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of zinc provided protection against the extra/intracellular calcium imbalance in a manner similar to MK-801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors. Zinc chelation by TPEN decreases the mitochondrial potential and dramatically increases the rate of production of reactive oxygen species. Our results indicate that zinc supplementation positively influences nanosilver-evoked changes in CGCs. This is presumed to be due to an inhibitory effect on NMDA-sensitive calcium channels.

  10. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  11. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  12. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity. PMID:27523482

  13. Acute and oral subchronic toxicity of D-003 in rats.

    PubMed

    Gámez, R; Mas, R; Noa, M; Menéndez, R; Alemán, C; Acosta, P; García, H; Hernández, C; Amor, A; Pérez, J; Goicochea, E

    2000-12-20

    D-003 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum) with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects experimentally proven. The present work reports the results of two studies investigating the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of D-003 in rats. Oral acute toxicity of D-003 (2000 mg/kg) was investigated according to the Acute Toxic Class (ATC) method (an alternative for the classical LD(50) test), which was performed in Wistar rats. The results obtained in this study defined D-003 oral acute toxicity as unclassified. In the subchronic study, rats of both sexes were orally treated with D-003 at 50, 200 and 1250 mg/kg for 90 days. At this time, animals were sacrificed. No evidence of treatment-related toxicity was detected during the study. Thus, data analysis of body weight gain, food consumption, clinical observations, blood biochemical, haematology, organ weight ratios and histopathological findings did not show significant differences between control and treated groups. It is concluded that D-003 orally administered to rats was safe and that no drug-related toxicity was detected even at the highest doses investigated in both acute (2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (1250 mg/kg) studies.

  14. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  15. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  17. Temperature, physiological time, and zinc toxicity in the isopod, Porcellio scaber

    SciTech Connect

    Donker, M.H.; Van Straalen, N.M.; Abdel-Lateif, H.M.; Khalil, M.A.; Bayoumi, B.M.

    1998-08-01

    Temperature is an important controlling factor in the metabolism of ectotherms, and it may interact with the toxicity of heavy metals in a variety of ways. In this work, a study on the effect of different zinc concentrations on growth of the isopod, Porcellio scaber was conducted using four temperature levels. The results demonstrated a significant effect for both zinc and temperature on the growth rate; the interaction between zinc and temperature was also significant. The Arrhenius function was used to describe the temperature-growth rate relationship, from which estimates for the activation energy were derived. A tendency for activation energy to decrease with increasing zinc concentration was observed. Isopods exposed to 13 {micro}mol Zn/g had the highest activation energy and the highest growth rate. To analyze the effect of temperature on the internal body concentration of zinc, the exposure time was transformed into physiological time, calibrated at 15 C, for all experimental groups using the activation energies estimated earlier. The rate of zinc accumulation was derived from the relationship between internal body concentration and physiological exposure time. Differences between isopods cultured at different temperatures could be explained well by the effect of physiological exposure time. The interaction between temperature and zinc toxicity seems to be due not to increased accumulation of zinc at higher temperatures as such but to a physiological interaction with the energy metabolism.

  18. Gastroprotection Studies of Schiff Base Zinc (II) Derivative Complex against Acute Superficial Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hadi, A. Hamid A; Majid, Nazia Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. Methodology/Principal Finding The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v), orally. Ethanol (95% v/v) was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10−5 M/kg) was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II) complex (2.181×10−5 and 4.362×10−5 M/kg) protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10−5 M/kg). Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II) complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism. PMID:24058648

  19. Alzheimer's disease causation by copper toxicity and treatment with zinc.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence will be presented that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) epidemic is new, the disease being very rare in the 1900s. The incidence is increasing rapidly, but only in developed countries. We postulate that the new emerging environmental factor partially causal of the AD epidemic is ingestion of inorganic copper from drinking water and taking supplement pills, along with a high fat diet. Inorganic copper can be partially directly absorbed and elevate the serum free copper pool. The Squitti group has shown that serum free copper is elevated in AD, correlates with cognition, and predicts cognition loss. Thus, our inorganic copper hypothesis fits well with the Squitti group data. We have also shown that AD patients are zinc deficient compared to age-matched controls. Because zinc is a neuronal protective factor, we postulate that zinc deficiency may also be partially causative of AD. We carried out a small 6 month double blind study of a new zinc formulation and found that in patients age 70 and over, it protected against cognition loss. Zinc therapy also significantly reduced serum free copper in AD patients, so efficacy may come from restoring normal zinc levels, or from lowering serum free copper, or from both. PMID:24860501

  20. Acute toxicity of the herbicide bromoxynil to Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Schmulbach, James C.

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicities of technical-grade bromoxynil octanoate (BO) and two commercial formulations, Buctril® and Bronate®, to < 24-h-old neonate Daphnia magna (Straus) were determined in soft, hard, and oligosaline water. In addition, effects of life stage, feeding, aging the herbicide, and exposure duration on BO toxicity to daphnids were investigated. Regardless of formulation, life stage, and water quality, BO was found to be extremely to highly toxic to daphnids in standard tests; 48-h EC50 values ranged from 41 to 161 m̈g/L. Bromoxynil octanoate was the most toxic to neonates in soft water and the least toxic in hard water. The acute toxicities of the three bromoxynil herbicides to a given age group of daphnids were similar within the same water type. Overall, neonates and 7-d-old adults were more sensitive than 14- or 15-d-old adults to each herbicide. Feeding daphnids during the toxicity test significantly decreased BO toxicity compared to not feeding them. Aging BO (as Buctril) in hard water decreased its toxicity, and the rate of deactivation was rapid, with an estimated half-life of biological activity of 13 h. Daphnids immobilized by exposures to toxic BO concentrations for ≤ 6 h recovered their mobility, whereas exposures of 18 and 24 h to BO produced toxic effects in daphnids similar to those exposed for 48 h. These results indicated that standard continuous exposure tests may not adequately predict the acute toxicity of BO to freshwater animals in the field.

  1. Use of oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion to evaluate the sublethal toxicity of cadmium and zinc on Litopenaeus schmitti (Burkenroad, 1936, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison

    2007-06-01

    Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In Brazil, Litopenaeus schmitti (L. schmitti) is a important commercially exploited species and is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of cadmium and zinc to L. schmitti and investigate their effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, investigations that have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity of cadmium and zinc to L. schmitti 24, 48, 72, and 96-hour medium lethal concentration was examined, which resulted in the following values: 0.98, 0.54, 0.32, and 0.18 mg/L for cadmium and 1.64, 1.22, 0.86, and 0.31 mg/L for zinc. Furthermore, we also found that exposure of shrimp to cadmium and zinc caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 55.92 and 44.09%, respectively, relative to the control. However, after separate exposure to cadmium and zinc, elevations in ammonium excretion were obtained, which were 174.28 and 162.5% higher than the control, respectively.

  2. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  3. Erosive oesophagitis revealing acute zinc deficiency during parenteral nutrition. A case report.

    PubMed

    Amoussou-Guenou, D; Boland, B; Rousseau, C; Lambert, M; Marbaix, E; Bourlond, J; Stein, F

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of acute zinc deficiency which occurred during parenteral nutrition in a patient with anorexia nervosa and which was characterized by a painful erosive oesophagitis preceding the typical oro-cutaneous symptoms. We also discuss the interpretation of plasma and urine zinc levels, the predisposing role of total parenteral alimentation and the specific therapeutic implications. PMID:2518587

  4. Effects of pH on the toxicities of cadmium, copper, and zinc to steelhead trout (salmo gairdneri) (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Cusimano, R.F.; Brakke, D.F.; Chapman, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Increased metal concentrations have been associated with freshwater acidification. Continuous-flow acute toxicity tests were conducted in soft water to determine the effect of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to small (1-6 g) steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). LC50 values were calculated for 96- and 168-h exposure periods in waters of pH 4.7, 5.7, and 7.0. Test fish were significantly more tolerant of the metals at the lowest pH value than at higher pHs. The 96-h LC50 values at pH 4.7, 5.7, and 7.0 were 671, 97, and 66 micrograms/L for zinc, 66.0, 4.2 and 2.8 micrograms/L for copper, and 28.0, 0.7 and less than 0.5 micrograms/L for cadmium, respectively. The 168-h results were similar to the 96-h values. The results indicate that for the metals tested, toxicity is ameliorated in depressed pH waters over short exposure periods, such as may occur during snowmelt runoff. The possibility of hydrogen-ion interference with metal uptake is postulated.

  5. On the performance of acute toxicity tests using the National Reference Toxicant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidhk, B.

    1995-12-31

    The US National Reference Toxicant Database was used to compile data from 158 Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 187 fathead minnow acute toxicity tests. The data are analyzed using the EPA flow-chart for acute toxicity tests to determine the distribution of test methods selected. The data are reanalyzed using maximum likelihood estimation assuming probit, logit and Gompertz tolerance distributions and non-parametrically using the Spearman-Karber method with and without trimming. The results of these analyses are compared with respect to mean square error for the parametric methods and confidence intervals for the point estimate for all analyses.

  6. Mechanistic studies of the toxicity of zinc gluconate in the olfactory neuronal cell line Odora.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Heidi; Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Deepe, George S; Choubey, Divaker; Shertzer, Howard G; Genter, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    Zinc is both an essential and potentially toxic metal. It is widely believed that oral zinc supplementation can reduce the effects of the common cold; however, there is strong clinical evidence that intranasal (IN) zinc gluconate (ZG) gel treatment for this purpose causes anosmia, or the loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Using the rat olfactory neuron cell line, Odora, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc exposure exerts its toxic effects on olfactory neurons. Following treatment of Odora cells with 100 and 200μM ZG for 0-24h, RNA-seq and in silico analyses revealed up-regulation of pathways associated with zinc metal response, oxidative stress, and ATP production. We observed that Odora cells recovered from zinc-induced oxidative stress, but ATP depletion persisted with longer exposure to ZG. ZG exposure increased levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β protein levels in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that zinc exposure may cause an inflammasome-mediated cell death, pyroptosis, in olfactory neurons. PMID:27179668

  7. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  8. Resolving some practical questions about Daphnia acute toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.

  9. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new therapeutant for parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. This study determined the acute toxi...

  10. Acute toxicity and QSAR of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Chambon, P.

    1986-10-01

    Chlorophenols which are released into natural waters from various industrial processes and from agricultural uses have been recognized as a group of chemical substances potentially hazardous to the aquatic environment. Therefore it is important to estimate their toxic impact on biota. Thus, the scope of this research was to obtain acute toxicity data for seventeen chlorophenols towards Daphnia magna and to explore the possibilities of deriving QSAR's (quantitative structure-activity relationship) from the above values.

  11. Serum Zinc Concentrations in Children with Acute Bloody and Watery Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Chegini, Victoria; Sahmani, Mehdi; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is controversial. This study was conducted to compare serum zinc levels in children with acute diarrhoea to those found in healthy children. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the Qazvin Children’s Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, between July 2012 and January 2013. A total of 60 children with acute diarrhoea (12 children with bloody diarrhoea and 48 children with watery diarrhoea) and 60 healthy children were included. Zinc levels for all subjects were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analysed and compared between groups. Results: Mean serum zinc levels in the patients with acute bloody diarrhoea, acute watery diarrhoea and the control group were 74.1 ± 23.7 μg/dL, 169.4 ± 62.7 μg/dL and 190.1 ± 18.0 μg/dL, respectively (P = 0.01). Hypozincaemia was observed in 50.0% of children with acute bloody diarrhoea and 12.5% of those with acute watery diarrhoea. None of the patients in the control group had hypozincaemia (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Children with acute bloody diarrhoea had significantly reduced serum zinc levels in comparison to healthy children. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to examine the significance of this trend. PMID:26629379

  12. Role of clay content in partitioning, uptake and toxicity of zinc in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Owojori, O J; Reinecke, A J; Rozanov, A B

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of clay content on the bioavailability of zinc to pre-clitellate earthworm, Eisenia fetida in the laboratory using OECD artificial soil adjusted to 5%, 20%, and 40% clay. Batches of worms were exposed to a wide range of zinc concentrations. Mortality, growth, maturation (% clitellate), cocoon production, and body zinc concentrations were assessed over and after a period of 4 weeks. Total, DTPA, and CaCl(2) extractable zinc in the substrates were also determined. The results of the biological responses showed that interaction of clay and zinc had a significant influence on mortality but not on the other biological parameters. None of the three extraction methods showed consistent and significant effect of clay content on zinc partitioning. Although total, DTPA, and CaCl(2) extracts of zinc correlated strongly with one another and were in similar relation with the observed biological responses, only the CaCl(2) extract revealed a time dependent availability of this metal. It is concluded that clay content had no significant influence on sub-lethal toxicity of zinc to this earthworm over the range of exposure concentrations. PMID:18715644

  13. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish.

    PubMed

    Exley, C; Chappell, J S; Birchall, J D

    1991-08-01

    Aluminium is acutely toxic to fish in acid waters. The gill is the principal target organ and death is due to a combination of ionoregulatory, osmoregulatory and respiratory dysfunction. The toxic mechanism has hitherto received little direct consideration and is unknown. In this paper the mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity is approached from a chemical perspective. Symptomatic evidence of toxicity is taken from the literature and combined with our own research to elucidate a biochemically sound model to describe a possible mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity in fish. The proposed model delineates the chemical conditions immediately adjacent to the gill surface and emphasizes their importance in aluminium's toxic mode of action. The mechanism is shown to be bipartite. Aluminium binding to functional groups both apically located at the gill surface and intracellularly located within lamellar epithelial cells disrupts the barrier properties of the gill epithelium. The concomitant iono- and osmoregulatory dysfunction results in accelerated cell necrosis, sloughing and death of the fish. The mechanism of epithelial cell death is proposed as a general mechanism of aluminium-induced accelerated cell death.

  14. Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hyewon; Yoon, Young Hee; Hwang, Jung Jin; Cho, Kyung Sook; Koh, Jae Young; Kim, June-Gone

    2009-03-01

    Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established. We previously reported that ethambutol caused severe vacuole formation in cultured retinal cells, and that the addition of zinc along with ethambutol aggravated vacuole formation whereas addition of the cell-permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), reduced vacuole formation. To investigate the origin of vacuoles and to obtain an understanding of drug toxicity, we used cultured primary retinal cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and imaged ethambutol-treated cells stained with FluoZin-3, zinc-specific fluorescent dye, under a confocal microscope. Almost all ethambutol-induced vacuoles contained high levels of labile zinc. Double staining with LysoTracker or MitoTracker revealed that almost all zinc-containing vacuoles were lysosomes and not mitochondria. Intracellular zinc chelation with TPEN markedly blocked both vacuole formation and zinc accumulation in the vacuole. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and cathepsin D, an acid lysosomal hydrolase, disclosed lysosomal activation after exposure to ethambutol. Immunoblotting after 12 h exposure to ethambutol showed that cathepsin D was released into the cytosol. In addition, cathepsin inhibitors attenuated retinal cell toxicity induced by ethambutol. This is consistent with characteristics of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). TPEN also inhibited both lysosomal activation and LMP. Thus, accumulation of zinc in lysosomes, and eventual LMP, may be a key mechanism of ethambutol-induced retinal cell death.

  15. Extrapolation of acute toxicity across bee species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen

    2016-10-01

    In applying cross-species extrapolation safety factors from honeybees to other bee species, some basic principles of toxicity have not been included, for example, the importance of body mass in determining a toxic dose. The present study re-analyzed published toxicity data, taking into account the reported mass of the individuals in the identified species. The analysis demonstrated a shift to the left in the distribution of sensitivity of honeybees relative to 20 other bee species when body size is taken into account, with the 95(th) percentile for contact and oral toxicity reducing from 10.7 (based on μg/individual bee) to 5.0 (based on μg/g bodyweight). Such an approach results in the real drivers of species differences in sensitivity-such as variability in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in and target-receptor binding-being more realistically reflected in the revised safety factor. Body mass can also be used to underpin the other parameter of first-tier risk assessment, that is, exposure. However, the key exposure factors that cannot be predicted from bodyweight are the effects of ecology and behavior of the different species on exposure to a treated crop. Further data are required to understand the biology of species associated with agricultural crops and the potential consequences of effects on individuals at the levels of the colony or bee populations. This information will allow the development of appropriate higher-tier refinement of risk assessments and testing strategies rather than extensive additional toxicity testing at Tier 1. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:622-626. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26595163

  16. Extrapolation of acute toxicity across bee species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen

    2016-10-01

    In applying cross-species extrapolation safety factors from honeybees to other bee species, some basic principles of toxicity have not been included, for example, the importance of body mass in determining a toxic dose. The present study re-analyzed published toxicity data, taking into account the reported mass of the individuals in the identified species. The analysis demonstrated a shift to the left in the distribution of sensitivity of honeybees relative to 20 other bee species when body size is taken into account, with the 95(th) percentile for contact and oral toxicity reducing from 10.7 (based on μg/individual bee) to 5.0 (based on μg/g bodyweight). Such an approach results in the real drivers of species differences in sensitivity-such as variability in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in and target-receptor binding-being more realistically reflected in the revised safety factor. Body mass can also be used to underpin the other parameter of first-tier risk assessment, that is, exposure. However, the key exposure factors that cannot be predicted from bodyweight are the effects of ecology and behavior of the different species on exposure to a treated crop. Further data are required to understand the biology of species associated with agricultural crops and the potential consequences of effects on individuals at the levels of the colony or bee populations. This information will allow the development of appropriate higher-tier refinement of risk assessments and testing strategies rather than extensive additional toxicity testing at Tier 1. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:622-626. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  18. Metal accumulation and toxicity: the critical accumulated concentration of metabolically available zinc in an oyster model.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-05-01

    Invertebrates typically carry out detoxification of accumulated metals. There is, therefore, no threshold total body concentration of accumulated metal initiating toxicity, the onset of toxic effects rather being related to a critical concentration of metabolically available (MA) accumulated metal. The challenge remains as to whether any particular combination of subcellular fractions of accumulated metal can be identified to represent this theoretical MA component. One candidate combined fraction is the so-termed metal sensitive fraction (MSF), consisting of metal bound to organelles and non-detoxificatory soluble proteins. In this study, we used laboratory zinc accumulation and toxicity data for four populations of the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis with different histories of zinc exposure in the field to address the challenge. We conclude that in a 'control' population of the oyster, the MSF does approximate to the theoretical metabolically available zinc concentration. In populations with a history of field exposure to raised zinc bioavailabilities, however, the MSF would include more zinc detoxified in the lysosome component of organelle-bound metal, and the MSF in such populations would deviate more from the theoretical MA metal concentration.

  19. Acute toxicity of pinnatoxins E, F and G to mice.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andrew I; Rhodes, Lesley

    2012-11-01

    The acute toxicities to mice of pinnatoxins E, F and G, members of the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins, by intraperitoneal injection and/or oral administration, have been determined. These substances were all very toxic by intraperitoneal injection, with LD(50) values between 12.7 and 57 μg/kg. Pinnatoxin E was much less toxic by oral administration than by intraperitoneal injection, but this was not the case for pinnatoxin F. The median lethal doses of the latter substance by gavage and by voluntary intake were only 2 and 4 times higher than that by injection. The high oral toxicity of pinnatoxin F raises concerns as to the possibility of adverse effects of this substance in shellfish consumers, although it should be noted that no toxic effects in humans have been recorded with pinnatoxins or with any other compound of the cyclic imine group. PMID:22813782

  20. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  1. Acute toxicity handbook of chemicals to estuarine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, F.L.

    1987-04-01

    All acute toxicity data developed by the Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, since 1961 were evaluated for quality. A data base was established for 1175 tests with 197 chemicals and 52 species of estuarine organisms. The chemicals represent all major groups of pesticides, as well as numerous industrial and inorganic chemicals.

  2. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the vehicle on penetration of skin by the test substance should be taken into account. It is... of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of treated animals when applied to the skin... need to be considered. (2) (e) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method....

  3. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the vehicle on penetration of skin by the test substance should be taken into account. It is... of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of treated animals when applied to the skin... need to be considered. (2) (e) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method....

  4. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the vehicle on penetration of skin by the test substance should be taken into account. It is... of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of treated animals when applied to the skin... need to be considered. (2) (e) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method....

  5. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Korani, M; Rezayat, S M; Gilani, K; Arbabi Bidgoli, S; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  6. Failure of zinc gluconate in treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D S; Helzner, E C; Nuttall, C E; Collins, M; Rofman, B A; Ginsberg, D; Goswick, C B; Magner, A

    1989-01-01

    Zinc is a trace metal with in vitro activity against rhinovirus, the major etiologic agent in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). A previous trial of zinc gluconate supported its efficacy in treating URIs, but the effectiveness of blinding was uncertain. We conducted a prospective randomized trial of zinc gluconate versus a taste-matched placebo of sucrose octaacetate. Lozenges containing either 23 mg of elemental zinc or placebo were taken every 2 h. Eleven URI symptoms were rated daily on a scale of 0 (not present) to 3 (severe). Duration of illness, reflected in the proportion of subjects remaining symptomatic on each day, was not significantly reduced (maximum difference of 12.6% on day 7, P = 0.09; 95% confidence interval, -6 to 31%) by either treatment. Severity of illness, assessed by using a summed severity score, was reduced incrementally by 7 to 8% on days 5 to 7 (P = 0.02) in subjects taking zinc. Adverse effects, mostly nausea and altered taste, were reported by 50% of subjects taking zinc. We conclude that while zinc gluconate may produce a small reduction in overall severity of symptoms, this is not clinically significant. Given the additional high incidence of adverse effects, zinc gluconate cannot be recommended for use in the treatment of acute URIs. PMID:2665639

  7. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  8. Assessing acute toxicity potential of persulfate ISCO treated water.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Wang, Chi-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Persulfate anion (S2O8(2-)), a widely used in situ chemical oxidation agent, is increasingly applied for environmental remediation. However, limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available for the evaluation of the environmental risk of exposure to S2O8(2-), particularly after its application. In this study, the acute toxic effects on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were employed as a model to investigate S2O8(2-), sulfate ion (decomposition product of S2O8(2-)), hydrogen/hydroxide ions and also the mixtures of these ion species. Acute toxicity test results showed 96h median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 540±23mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 4100±110mgL(-1) for SO4(2-). S2O8(2-) was considerably more toxic than its decomposition product SO4(2-). Additionally, solution pH was also an important factor influencing toxicity, and S2O8(2-) posed reduced acute toxicity when pH was in the range of 6-10. Water conductivity up to approximately 8000μScm(-1) did not appear to significantly increase fish mortality. In the mixture toxicity test (i.e., S2O8(2-)/OH(-)), LC50 values of 130±10mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 23±2mgL(-1) for OH(-) were lower than those obtained from the individual toxicity tests and therefore exhibited higher toxicity to fish. However, upon complete decomposition of S2O8(2-) in the mixture, a reduction in acute toxicity may be expected. The results of this study revealed that it may be necessary and/or desirable to control the residual S2O8(2-)and pH after S2O8(2-) addition when potential exposure to an aquatic system is a concern.

  9. Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

  10. Acute toxicity of 50 metals to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akira; Yamamuro, Masumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-07-01

    Metals are essential for human life and physiological functions but may sometimes cause disorders. Therefore, we conducted acute toxicity testing of 50 metals in Daphnia magna: EC50s of seven elements (Be, Cu, Ag, Cd, Os, Au and Hg) were < 100 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 13 elements (Al, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Y, Rh, Pt, Tl and Pb) were between 100 and 1000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 14 elements (Li, V, Mn, Fe, Ge, As, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, W and Ir) were between 1,001 and 100,000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of six elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Mo) were > 100,000 µg l(-1) ; and. 7 elements (Ti, Zr, Bi, Nb, Hf, Re and Ta) did not show EC50 at the upper limit of respective aqueous solubility, and EC50s were not obtained. Ga, Ru and Pd adhered to the body of D. magna and physically retarded the movement of D. magna. These metals formed hydroxides after adjusting the pH. Therefore, here, we distinguished this physical effect from the physiological toxic effect. The acute toxicity results of 40 elements obtained in this study were not correlated with electronegativity. Similarly, the acute toxicity results of metals including the rare metals were also not correlated with first ionization energy, atomic weight, atomic number, covalent radius, atomic radius or ionic radius.

  11. Histological alterations in gills of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; dos Santos, Jorge Abdala Dergam

    2012-11-01

    Increasing contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals has caused various morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and the gills of fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. In this context, the present work proposed to study the effects of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the histology of gills of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus) after acute exposure. Seventy-two adult males of A. aff. bimaculatus were used, the treatments were six concentrations of Zn: 0; 3; 5; 10; 15; and 20 mg/L of water, by 96 h, and gills, muscle and bone fragments were removed. Fragments of gills were fixed and included, sectioned in a rotary microtome and stained with toluidin blue. Fragments of bone, muscle and gills were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption of Zn. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) 96 h after Zn acute exposure was 10 mg/L of water. Noteworthy, Zn was highly toxic in acute exposure trials starting at the concentration 5 mg/L. The exposure of fish to the metal caused branchial histopathological changes correlated with increasing concentration, caused the death of fish at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg/L. The histological alterations observed in the gills were hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, aneurysm, destruction of the lamellar epithelium, rupture of membrane, deletion of secondary lamellar high, which presented more severity in treatments exposed to the highest concentrations. In conclusion, gills of A. aff. bimaculatus presented profound histological alterations as a result of Zn exposure, and hence, proved to be excellent indicators of environmental contamination.

  12. Toxicity of zinc on photosynthesis and thymidine incorporation -- A comparison between periphyton and epipsammon communities

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, M.; Blanck, H.; Nystroem, B.; Admiraal, W.; Ivorra, N.; Lehmann, V.; Guasch, H.; Sabatar, S.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of zinc on epipsammon and periphyton communities was investigated in the river Dommel, Belgium. One, of the sites was located upstream and another downstream a tributary, heavily contaminated with heavy metals. The third site was located within the tributary. The periphyton communities were established during two weeks on artificial substrata while epipsammon was collected directly from the three sites. Two different endpoints were chosen: {sup 14}C-carbon dioxide incorporation and {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into macromolecules, resistant to alkaline hydrolysis, reflecting photosynthesis and bacterial growth respectively. Water from a less polluted site in the river Dommel was used both for the experiments and for the preparation of zinc stock solutions. The toxicity of the water from the examined sites was also investigated. Photosynthesis was generally not inhibited by zinc up to a concentration of 1 mM, while thymidine incorporation was inhibited. The sensitivity to zinc of bacteria was highest upstream and lowest in the tributary. ``Site water`` from the tributary as well as downstream was found to inhibit photosynthesis, while thymidine incorporation was only inhibited by ``site water`` for epipsammon within the tributary. At each site there was generally no difference in the response to zinc between the periphyton and epipsammon communities.

  13. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hassan, Zurina; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim; Hussein, Nor Fuzina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant ( p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant ( p < 0.05) compared to the control (0.51 ± 0.07). Histology of the liver, spleen and brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in orally administered levodopa intercalated

  14. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  15. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  16. Acute toxicity of lead, chromium, and other heavy metals to ciliates from activated sludge plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madoni, P.; Gorbi, G. ); Davoli, D. )

    1994-09-01

    Numerous papers deal with the occurrence of heavy metals in the various components of freshwater ecosystems and sewage treatment systems. However, few papers refer to the presence and effect of heavy metals in populations of aquatic cilated protozoa. In particular, the lethal concentrations (LC50) of heavy metals in ciliate populations that colonize the activated sludge or the biofilm of waste treatment plants. Ciliated protozoa are very numerous in all types of aerobic biological-treatment systems. They play an important role in the purification process removing, through predation, the major part of dispersed bacteria that cause high turbidity in the final effluent. Changes in the community structure and types of ciliate species may affect the food web of these artifical ecosystems, and may also influence the biological performance of plants. Heavy metals can limit growth of protozoa in aquatic environments. The toxicity of heavy metals in biological treatment depends mainly upon two factors, namely, metal species and concentration. Although the resistance of biological systems to metal toxicity may be enhanced greatly by proper acclimatization, a too-high metal concentration may cause serious upsets in the system. It is important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals causing lethal effects on ciliates. Madoni recently studied the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc on six species of ciliated protozoa from activated sludge plants. The present paper describes the toxic effects of lead and chromium (VI) on 6 cilate species. The acute toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn on two other ciliates (Drepanomonas revoluta and Spirostomum teres) is also reported. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers and promoting weight gain in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Some people use zinc ... is abnormal): 25-100 mg zinc. For the eating disorder anorexia nervosa: 100 mg of zinc gluconate daily. ...

  18. Acute systemic toxicity--prospects for tiered testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Botham, P A

    2004-04-01

    After many years of controversy and debate, the LD50 test was finally deleted by the end of 2002. Three alternative animal tests, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure have been developed which give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. They have recently undergone revision to improve their scientific performance but more importantly to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy for acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests within the next year or so to improve dose level selection and thus give further modest improvements in the numbers of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, and is at least 10 years away.

  19. Bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne copper and zinc to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clearwater, Susan J.; Farag, Aida M.; Meyer, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    To date, most researchers have used dietborne metal concentrations rather than daily doses to define metal exposure and this has resulted in contradictory data within and between fish species. It has also resulted in the impression that high concentrations of dietborne Cu and Zn (e.g.>900 mg kg−1 dry diet) are relatively non-toxic to fish. We re-analyzed existing data using rations and dietborne metal concentrations and used daily dose, species and life stage to define the toxicity of dietborne Cu and Zn to fish. Partly because of insufficient information we were unable to find consistent relationships between metal toxicity in laboratory-prepared diets and any other factor including, supplemented metal compound (e.g. CuSO4 or CuCl2), duration of metal exposure, diet type (i.e. practical, purified or live diets), or water quality (flow rates, temperature, hardness, pH, alkalinity). For laboratory-prepared diets, dietborne Cu toxicity occurred at daily doses of >1 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), 1–15 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 (depending on life stage) for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and 35–45 mg kg−1 body weight d−1 for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We found that dietborne Zn toxicity has not yet been demonstrated in rainbow trout or turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) probably because these species have been exposed to relatively low doses of metal (<90 mg kg−1 body weight d−1) and effects on growth and reproduction have not been analyzed. However, daily doses of 9–12 mg Zn kg−1 body weight d−1 in laboratory-prepared diets were toxic to three other species, carp Cyprinus carpio, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and guppy Poecilia reticulata. Limited research indicates that biological incorporation of Cu or Zn into a natural diet can either increase or decrease metal bioavailability, and the relationship between bioavailability and toxicity remains unclear. We have resolved the contradictory data

  20. Mechanisms of zinc toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environments occurring both naturally, and through anthropogenic inputs. This study investigated impacts of sub-lethal Zn exposure in the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus. Known as inanga, this amphidromous fish is widespread throughout the Southern hemisphere, but to date almost nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to elevated environmental metals. Fish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of Zn (control, 8, 270 and 1000μgL(-1)) over 96h. End-points measured included those relating to ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body calcium and sodium influx), oxygen consumption (respirometry), oxidative stress (catalase activity and lipid peroxidation) and whole body accumulation of Zn. Zn exposure caused increases in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation, but only at the highest exposure level tested. Zn also significantly inhibited calcium influx, but stimulated sodium influx, at 1000μgL(-1). The sub-lethal changes induced by Zn exposure in inanga appear to be conserved relative to other, better-studied species. These data are the first to explore the sensitivity of juvenile galaxiid fish to Zn, information that will be critical to ensuring adequate environmental protection of this important species.

  1. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  3. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  4. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  5. CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, RH Jaskot, PS Gilmour, DC Christiani, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, JK McGee, A Nyska. NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC; CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hil...

  6. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  7. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  8. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nimish B; Spann, James W; Hill, Elwood F

    2009-03-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex and Phos-Chek WD881) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881 and Silv-Ex were above the predetermined 2000mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  9. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  10. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T.; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-01-01

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure–activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical–chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard. PMID:24639521

  11. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  13. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  14. Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: Consequential late damage

    SciTech Connect

    Heemsbergen, Wilma D. . E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Koper, Peter; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy can be partly explained by late effects of acute toxicity (consequential late damage). We studied whether there is a direct relationship between acute and late GI toxicity. Patients and Methods: A total of 553 evaluable patients from the Dutch dose escalation trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. We defined three outcomes for acute reactions: 1) maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity, 2) maximum acute mucous discharge (AMD), and 3) maximum acute proctitis. Within a multivariable model, late endpoints (overall toxicity and five toxicity indicators) were studied as a function of acute toxicity, pretreatment symptoms, and relevant dose parameters. Results: At multivariable analysis, AMD and acute proctitis were strong predictors for overall toxicity, 'intermittent bleeding,' and 'incontinence pads' (p {<=} 0.01). For 'stools {>=}6/day' all three were strong predictors. No significant associations were found for 'severe bleeding' and 'use of steroids.' The predictive power of the dose parameters remained at the same level or became weaker for most late endpoints. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity is an independent significant predictor of late GI toxicity. This suggests a significant consequential component in the development of late GI toxicity.

  15. Accuracy of Chronic Aquatic Toxicity Estimates Determined from Acute Toxicity Data and Two Time–Response Models.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, chronic toxicity in aquatic organisms and wildlife has been determined from either toxicity test data, acute to chronic ratios, or application of safety factors. A more recent alternative approach has been to estimate chronic toxicity by modeling the time course of...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  17. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests.

  18. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  19. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  20. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. PMID:26256397

  1. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  2. Acute methyl salicylate toxicity complicating herbal skin treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony J; Duggin, Geoffrey

    2002-06-01

    We present an interesting case of salicylism arising from the use of methyl salicylate as part of a herbal skin cream for the treatment of psoriasis. A 40-year-old man became quite suddenly and acutely unwell after receiving treatment from an unregistered naturopath. Methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) is widely available in many over the counter topical analgesic preparations and Chinese medicated oils. Transcutaneous absorption of the methyl salicylate was enhanced in this case due to the abnormal areas of skin and use of an occlusive dressing. The presence of tinnitus, vomiting, tachypnoea and typical acid/base disturbance allowed a diagnosis of salicylate toxicity to be made. Our patient had decontaminated his skin prior to presentation, limiting the extent of toxicity and was successfully treated with rehydration and establishment of good urine flow.

  3. Comparative acute toxicities of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Suprenant, D.

    1983-06-01

    Investigations of the toxicity of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates have been limited primarily to determining the effects on a few species. In this study, the 48-hr LC50 values for three surfactants are reported for six species of aquatic invertebrates. The acute toxicities (LC50) for each surfactant (mg/liter) varied 159 to 580 X and were as follows: C11.8LAS (anionic), 1.7 (Dero sp.) to 270 (Asellus sp.); C14-15 alkylethoxylate (nonionic), 1.0 (Dugesia sp.) to 6.8 (Rhabditis sp.); CTAC (cationic), 0.1 (Gammarus sp.) to 58 (Asellus sp.). When compared to previously developed data, Daphnia magna was typically found to be the most sensitive of all species tested, including fish, to the surfactants.

  4. Acute methyl salicylate toxicity complicating herbal skin treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony J; Duggin, Geoffrey

    2002-06-01

    We present an interesting case of salicylism arising from the use of methyl salicylate as part of a herbal skin cream for the treatment of psoriasis. A 40-year-old man became quite suddenly and acutely unwell after receiving treatment from an unregistered naturopath. Methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) is widely available in many over the counter topical analgesic preparations and Chinese medicated oils. Transcutaneous absorption of the methyl salicylate was enhanced in this case due to the abnormal areas of skin and use of an occlusive dressing. The presence of tinnitus, vomiting, tachypnoea and typical acid/base disturbance allowed a diagnosis of salicylate toxicity to be made. Our patient had decontaminated his skin prior to presentation, limiting the extent of toxicity and was successfully treated with rehydration and establishment of good urine flow. PMID:12147116

  5. Acute renal toxicity after ingestion of Lava light liquid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Zabaneh, R; Reid, R

    1996-06-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse and seizure disorder presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, increased anion gap acidosis, phenytoin toxicity, and acute kidney failure. The patient had ingested the liquid contents of a Lava light, which contained chlorinated paraffin, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 200), kerosene, and micro-crystalline wax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of the patient's blood produced results consistent with the same analysis of the Lava light contents. After 3 days of declining mental status and worsening kidney function, the patient required hemodialysis. After a prolonged hospitalization, the patient was discharged home with residual renal insufficiency. Although multifactorial, the associated renal toxicity was most probably related to the low molecular weight polyethylene glycol content of the lamp's liquid contents. PMID:8644972

  6. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    PubMed

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration. PMID:9805821

  7. Indium-111 WBC scan in acute toxic centrilobular hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H. )

    1989-12-01

    In this case of prolonged fever and abnormal liver functions, dual tracer scintigraphy with In-111 WBCs and Tc-99m SC led to a biopsy-proven diagnosis of severe acute toxic hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis). Correlation of the Tc-99m SC scan findings with those previously reported for pseudotumors of the liver is discussed. A pseudonormal scan pattern is described for the In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Discordance between In-111 WBC and Tc-99m SC scintigraphy in this clinical setting should raise the possibility of hepatic necrosis as a diagnostic alternative to hepatic abscess.

  8. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from contaminant concentrations the EPA regards as representing conservative screening values (i.e., EPA soil screening levels and EPA Region III risk-based concentrations for residential soils). For a set of 13 chemicals included in the analysis, contaminant doses resulting from a one-time soil pica episode (5-50 g of soil ingested) were compared with acute dosages shown to produce toxicity in humans in clinical studies or case reports. For four of these chemicals, a soil pica episode was found to result in a contaminant dose approximating or exceeding the acute human lethal dose. For five of the remaining chemicals, the contaminant dose from a soil pica episode was well within the reported dose range in humans for toxicity other than lethality. Because both the exposure episodes and the toxicological response information are derived from observations in humans, these findings are regarded as particularly relevant for human health risk assessment. They suggest that, for some chemicals, ostensibly conservative soil criteria based on chronic exposure using current EPA methodology may not be protective of children during acute soil pica episodes. PMID:9405323

  9. Acute and subacute toxicity of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Taniyama, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Kuno, T.; Saito, N.; Shuntoh, H.; Sakaue, M.; Tanaka, C. )

    1989-07-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) were investigated in the rat, according to the Good Laboratory Practice Standard for safety studies on drugs in Japan. In the acute toxicity test of 10B-BPA, LD50 values of acidic 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were 640 mg/kg for male and 710 mg/kg for female rats, and more than 1,000 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. The LD50 values of neutral 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were more than 3,000 mg/kg for male and female rats. The difference in LD50 values between acidic and neutral 10B-BPA may be attributed to the acidity of material. From the subacute toxicity test, in which the rats were injected daily subcutaneously for 28 days, the following toxic effects of 10B-BPA were observed. Increase in ketone level in the urine was induced in all rats treated with 10B-BPA. High dose of 10B-BPA (1,500 mg/kg) induced increase in spleen weight and reticulocyte count, and decrease in hemoglobin count, thereby suggesting that 10B-BPA causes hemolysis. Increases in the leukocyte count and the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes were also observed in rats treated with a high dose of 10B-BPA. This may be attributed to local reactions at the injection site. There were no significant differences in the findings between control rats and rats treated with a low dose of 10B-BPA (300 mg/kg). Thus, low doses of neutral 10B-BPA may be available for use as a drug.

  10. Application of a generalized linear mixed model to analyze mixture toxicity: survival of brown trout affected by copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Increased concerns about the toxicity of chemical mixtures have led to greater emphasis on analyzing the interactions among the mixture components based on observed effects. The authors applied a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) acutely exposed to metal mixtures that contained copper and zinc. Compared with dominant conventional approaches based on an assumption of concentration addition and the concentration of a chemical that causes x% effect (ECx), the GLMM approach has 2 major advantages. First, binary response variables such as survival can be modeled without any transformations, and thus sample size can be taken into consideration. Second, the importance of the chemical interaction can be tested in a simple statistical manner. Through this application, the authors investigated whether the estimated concentration of the 2 metals binding to humic acid, which is assumed to be a proxy of nonspecific biotic ligand sites, provided a better prediction of survival effects than dissolved and free-ion concentrations of metals. The results suggest that the estimated concentration of metals binding to humic acid is a better predictor of survival effects, and thus the metal competition at the ligands could be an important mechanism responsible for effects of metal mixtures. Application of the GLMM (and the generalized linear model) presents an alternative or complementary approach to analyzing mixture toxicity. PMID:25524054

  11. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity.

  12. Acclimation-induced changes in the toxicity of zinc and cadmium to rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Steadman, B.L.; La Point, T.W.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-12-01

    Adults and juvenile rainbow trout exposed for 21 d to sublethal levels of zinc or cadmium exhibited significant changes in their respective incipient lethal levels (ILL). Acclimation resulted in exposure-dependent changes in both tolerance (ILL concentration) and resistance (time to ILL) in both size classes of fish for each metal. The ILLs for adult rainbow trout exposed to zinc increased from 695 {micro}g/L at 131 h for nonacclimated fish to 2,025 {micro}/L at 168 h for fish previously exposed to 0.5 ILL (324 {micro}g/L zinc). The ILLs for cadmium-exposed fish increased from 6 {micro}g/L at 187 h for nonacclimated fish to 122 {micro}g/L at 266 h for fish acclimated to 0.5 ILL (10.2 {micro}g/L cadmium). Similar, although somewhat less dramatic, acclimation responses were observed for juveniles with both zinc and cadmium. Juveniles were found to be approximately three times less sensitive to the toxic effects of the metals than were adult fish.

  13. Effects of zinc supplementation on the element distribution in kidney tissue of diabetic rats subjected to acute swimming.

    PubMed

    Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Bicer, Mursel; Akil, Mustafa; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we report the effect of zinc supplementation on the distribution of elements in kidney tissue of diabetic rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. Diabetes was induced by two subcutaneous injections of 40 mg/kg of streptozotocin within a 24-h period. Zinc was given intraperitoneally at a dose of 6 mg/kg per day for a period of 4 weeks. The rats (n = 80) were equally divided into eight study groups: controls, zinc-supplemented, swimming, diabetic, zinc-supplemented diabetic, zinc-supplemented swimming, diabetic swimming, and zinc-supplemented diabetic swimming. The levels of lead, cobalt, molybdenum, chromium, boron, magnesium, iron, copper, calcium, zinc, and selenium were determined in the kidney tissue samples by ICP-AES. Higher molybdenum, calcium, zinc, and selenium values were found in both swimming and nonswimming diabetic rats. Significantly higher iron values were found in swimming, diabetic, diabetic swimming, and zinc-supplemented diabetic swimming rats (p < 0.001). Diabetic, zinc-supplemented diabetic, diabetic swimming, and zinc-supplemented diabetic swimming rats had the highest copper values. These results show that zinc supplementation normalized the higher levels of molybdenum, calcium, selenium, and iron levels seen in diabetic rats, indicating that zinc may have a regulatory effect on element metabolism in kidney tissue. PMID:22161314

  14. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Acute Toxicity of Ochratoxins A and B in Chicks 1

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, John C.; Doupnik, Ben; Jones, Oscar H.

    1971-01-01

    Ochratoxins A and B were given to 1-day-old Babcock B-300 cockerels to evaluate acute toxic effects. Two trials with ochratoxin A gave 7-day oral median lethal dose estimates of 116 μg (3.3 mg/kg) and 135 μg (3.9 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given daily oral doses of 100 μg of ochratoxin A died on the second day. Single subcutaneous doses of 400 μg of ochratoxin A were also lethal. The 7-day oral median lethal dose of B was estimated at 1,890 μg (54 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given oral doses of 100 μg of ochratoxin B daily for 10 days survived. Sublethal doses of both ochratoxins A and B resulted in growth suppression which was proportional to the amount of ochratoxin given. Visceral gout was the principal gross finding. Microscopic examinations revealed acute nephrosis, hepatic degeneration or focal necrosis, and enteritis. Suppression of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and depletion of lymphoid elements from the spleen and bursa of Fabricius were frequently seen. Both ochratoxins appeared to have similar pathological effects. This is the first report on the toxicity of ochratoxin B. PMID:4928604

  16. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26841628

  17. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  18. Zinc isotopic fractionation in Phragmites australis in response to toxic levels of zinc

    PubMed Central

    Caldelas, Cristina; Dong, Shuofei; Araus, José Luis; Jakob Weiss, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope signatures of Zn have shown great promise in elucidating changes in uptake and translocation mechanisms of this metal in plants during environmental changes. Here this potential was tested by investigating the effect of high Zn concentrations on the isotopic fractionation patterns of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Plants were grown for 40 d in a nutritive solution containing 3.2 μM (sufficient) or 2 mM (toxic) Zn. The Zn isotopic composition of roots, rhizomes, shoots, and leaves was analysed. Stems and leaves were sampled at different heights to evaluate the effect of long-distance transport on Zn fractionation. During Zn sufficiency, roots, rhizomes, and shoots were isotopically heavy (δ66ZnJMC Lyon=0.2‰) while the youngest leaves were isotopically light (–0.5‰). During Zn excess, roots were still isotopically heavier (δ66Zn=0.5‰) and the rest of the plant was isotopically light (up to –0.5‰). The enrichment of heavy isotopes at the roots was attributed to Zn uptake mediated by transporter proteins under Zn-sufficient conditions and to chelation and compartmentation in Zn excess. The isotopically lighter Zn in shoots and leaves is consistent with long-distance root to shoot transport. The tolerance response of P. australis increased the range of Zn fractionation within the plant and with respect to the environment. PMID:21193582

  19. Dexrazoxane Abrogates Acute Doxorubicin Toxicity in Marmoset Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M.; Ringelstetter, Ashley K.; Elsarrag, Mazin Z.; Abbott, David H.; Roti, Elon C. Roti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 μM Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  20. Salinity-dependent toxicities of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Yung, Mana M N; Wong, Stella W Y; Kwok, Kevin W H; Liu, F Z; Leung, Y H; Chan, W T; Li, X Y; Djurišić, A B; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2015-08-01

    This study comprehensively investigated the influences of salinity, exposure concentration and time on the aggregate size, surface charge and dissolution of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs; 20nm) in seawater, and examined the interacting effect of salinity and waterborne exposure of ZnO-NPs on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana for 96h. We found that aggregate sizes of ZnO-NPs significantly increased with increasing salinity, but generally decreased with increasing exposure concentration. Ion release decreased with increasing salinity, whereas the surface charge of the particles was not affected by salinity. The increased aggregate size and decreased ion release with increasing salinity, and consequently lower concentration of bioavailable zinc ions, resulted in decreased toxicity of ZnO-NPs at higher salinity in general in terms of growth inhibition (IC50) and chlorophyll fluorescence (EC50 - ФPo and EC50 - Ф2). However, IC50s and EC50s of ZnO-NPs were smaller than those of Zn(2+) (from ZnO-NPs ultrafiltrate and ZnCl2), indicating that dissolved Zn(2+) can only partially explain the toxicity of ZnO-NPs. SEM images showed that ZnO-NPs attached on the diatom frustule surface, suggesting that the interaction between the nanoparticles and the cell surface may acerbate the toxicity of ZnO-NPs. Our results linked the physicochemical characteristics of ZnO-NPs in seawater with their toxicities to the marine diatom and highlighted the importance of salinity as an influential environmental factor governing the aggregation, dissolution and the toxicity of ZnO-NPs.

  1. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  2. Effects of glucose concentrations on cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc toxicity to a Klebsiella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Brynhildsen, L.; Lundgren, B.V.; Allard, B.; Rosswall, T.

    1988-07-01

    The influence of glucose concentration on Cd, CU, Hg, and Zn toxicity to a Klebsiella sp. was studied by following the degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose at pH 6.0. Uptake of /sup 14/C into the cells was also determined. The carbon concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 40 mg liter/sup -1/, which are equivalent to soluble C concentrations in natural environments. The toxicity of Cu, Cd, and Zn to a Klebsiella sp. was affected considerably by the C concentration. Copper at 10/sup -5/ M was toxic when the carbon concentration was 10 or 40 mg liter/sup -1/, while at 0.01 to 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/ no toxicity was observed. Cadmium and zinc were toxic at 10/sup -2/ M in media containing 0.01 to 1.0 mg of C liter/sup -1/. At C concentrations greater than 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/, the inhibition of glucose degradation and carbon assimilation was observed at 10/sup -3/ M Cd and Zn. The toxicity of mercury seemed to be independent of the C concentration. Results of this study showed that the nutritional state of an organism may have a profound effect on its sensitivity to metals. Metals taken up by energy-driven transport system may be less toxic under conditions of C starvation. The C concentration should be taken into account when evaluating results from toxicity studies, especially as most microorganisms in nature live under energy-limited conditions.

  3. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  4. Neutral red uptake cytotoxicity tests for estimating starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S; Casati, Silvia; Strickland, Judy; Paris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used as alternative toxicity tests to reduce the total number of animals needed for acute oral toxicity tests. This unit describes two methods for determining the in vitro cytotoxicity of test substances using neutral red uptake (NRU) and using the in vitro data to determine starting doses for in vivo acute oral systemic toxicity tests, e.g., the up-and-down procedure or the acute toxic class method. The use of the NRU methods to determine starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests may reduce the number of animals required, and for relatively toxic substances, this approach may also reduce the number of animals that die or require humane euthanasia due to severe toxicity. An interlaboratory validation study has demonstrated that the methods are useful and reproducible for these purposes. Two standardized protocols provide details for performing NRU tests with rodent and human cells.

  5. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  6. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  7. A novel approach reveals that zinc oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and toxic after dietary exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Dybowska, A.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2011-01-01

    If engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, some are likely to end up associated with the food of animals due to aggregation and sorption processes. However, few studies have considered dietary exposure of nanomaterials. Here we show that zinc (Zn) from isotopically modified 67ZnO particles is efficiently assimilated by freshwater snails when ingested with food. The 67Zn from nano-sized 67ZnO appears as bioavailable as 67Zn internalized by diatoms. Apparent agglomeration of the zinc oxide (ZnO) particles did not reduce bioavailability, nor preclude toxicity. In the diet, ZnO nanoparticles damage digestion: snails ate less, defecated less and inefficiently processed the ingested food when exposed to high concentrations of ZnO. It was not clear whether the toxicity was due to the high Zn dose achieved with nanoparticles or to the ZnO nanoparticles themselves. Further study of exposure from nanoparticles in food would greatly benefit assessment of ecological and human health risks. ?? 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  8. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  9. The protective role of zinc in palm kernel cake (PKC) toxicity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hair Bejo, M; Alimon, A

    1995-03-01

    Male Malin x Polled Dorset crossbred sheep were stall-fed with grass (10%) and PKC (90%) and supplemented with either zinc at 500 ug/g, as zinc sulfate (PKC+Zn group) or zinc (113 ug/g) and ammonium molybdate (500 ug/g) (PKC+Zn+Mo group) or unsupplemented diet (PKC group) for 20 weeks. Another group which acts as a control was fed with a diet consisting of corn and fish meal (2 0%) and grass (80%). The animals were monitored daily and the body weights were recorded at a period of two weeks intervals throughout the trial. Blood samples were also collected for mineral analysis. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered. The carcasses were examined for gross lesions, whilst the right liver lobes and renal cortex were isolated for histopathological evaluation and mineral analysis. All animals in the PKC group died before the end of the trial with the main clinical signs of generalised jaundice and haemoglobinuria. The kidneys were firm, enlarged and reddened or darkened. Histologically, the hepatocytes were swollen, vacuolated and necrotized, particularly at the periacinar zone. Hepatic fibrosis was observed at the periportal zone. Cellular swelling, vacuolation and necrosis were found in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex. Neither clinical signs nor gross or remarkable histological lesions were observed in the other groups of animals. The hepatic, renal and blood copper levels In the PKC group were elevated when compared to the control. Addition of zinc either with or without ammonium molybdate in PKC diet inhibit the copper content in the organs, however the zinc contents were increased. The average daily gain of the PKC group was remained consistent to those of the other groups, except it was reduced starting at about 1 to 2 weeks prior to death. It was concluded that feeding PKC In excess in sheep can cause chronic copper toxicity. However, this effect can be prevented by dietary zinc supplementation either with or without ammonium

  10. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    PubMed

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  11. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  12. Influence of chemical and environmental stressors on acute cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.N.; Benson, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that the cytosolic protein metallothionein (MT) is induced not only by exposure to certain heavy metals but also by a variety of other factors, including environmental stress. While MT synthesis has been observed with exposure to cold temperatures, there is a paucity of data concerning the influence of cold on heavy-metal toxicity. The present investigation focused on the influence of metal and cold pretreatments on the acute toxicity of cadmium. Mortalities of 80% and 100% were observed for mice orally administered challenge doses of 100 mg Cd/kg and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. To determine a protective cadmium pretreatment dose, animals were administered 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 mg Cd/kg 24 h prior to cadmium challenge. In animals pretreated with 10 mg Cd/kg, mortalities of 20% and 70% were observed with the respective challenge doses. Immediately following cold stress (4/sup 0/C, 12 h), mortalities of 30% and 90% were observed with cadmium challenge doses of 100 and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Significant correlations were demonstrated between induced hepatic MT concentrations and cadmium pretreatment, as well as cold pretreatment. The induced tolerance to cadmium was attributed, in part, to the induction of MT synthesis. Furthermore, the induced levels of MT resulting from cold stress may confound the simplistic approach of using MT as a biological monitor of occupational exposure to cadmium.

  13. Toxicity of white phosphorus to waterfowl: acute exposure in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Gustafson, M.; Klein, P.; Karouna-Renier, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand extensive, white phosphorus (P4)-induced waterfowl mortality at Eagle River Flats, Fort Richardson, Alaska, we conducted a number of acute toxicity tests using penned mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in 1993 and 1994. The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) for P4 dissolved in oil was 6.46 mg/kg in adult males and 6.96 mg/kg in adult females. Although the median lethal doses were not statistically different, the female dose-response curve had a statistically shallower slope than that of males. The LD50 for the ecologically more relevant pelletized form of P4 in adult males was 4.05 mg/kg. In mallards, one mechanism of P4 toxicity caused rapid (3 to 10 hr) mortality and had signs consistent with anoxia. A second, slower acting mechanism resulted in hepatic and renal pathology including extensive fat deposition in the liver and cellular necrosis. White phosphorus accumulated in adipose tissues, but only for a few days.

  14. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists.

    PubMed

    Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

    2006-05-01

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC50 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l(-1), LC50) and lead (0.12 mg l(-1), LC50), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l(-1), LC50). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies.

  15. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  16. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-15

    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent.

  17. Particle-specific toxic effects of differently shaped zinc oxide nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Vijver, Martina G; Richardson, Michael K; Ahmad, Farooq; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is proposed that allows for quantifying the relative toxic contribution of ions released from metallic nanoparticles and of the particles themselves, as exemplified for the case of differently shaped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposed to zebrafish embryos. First of all, the toxicity of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (NP(total))--nanospheres, nanosticks, cuboidal submicron particles (SMPs), and Zn(NO3)2--to the embryos was assessed. The observed toxicity of ZnO NP(total) is assumed to result from the combined effect of the particles present in the suspensions (NP(particle)) and of the dissolved Zn(2+) ions released from the particles (NP(ion)). Different addition models were used to explicitly account for the toxicity of NP(particle). The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of NP(particle) of nanospheres, nanosticks, and SMPs were found to range between 7.1 mg Zn/L and 11.9 mg Zn/L (i.e., to differ by a factor of 1.7). Behavioral performance showed no significant differences among all types of the NP(particle). The median effective concentrations (EC50) of the particles were found to range between 1.0 mg Zn/L and 2.2 mg Zn/L. At the LC50 of each particle suspension, the main contribution to lethality to zebrafish embryos was from the NP(particle) (52%-72%). For hatching inhibition, the NP(particle) was responsible for 38% to 83% of the adverse effects observed. The ZnO nanosticks were more toxic than any of the other NPs with regard to the endpoints mortality and hatching inhibition. The main contribution to toxicity to zebrafish embryos was from the NP(particle) at the LC50 and EC50 of each particle suspension.

  18. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-12-21

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L(-1), or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L(-1), there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L(-1) of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L(-1) of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.

  19. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  20. Acute toxicity of methyl mercury to the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Mallatt, J.; Barron, M.G.; McDonough, C.

    1986-08-01

    Mercury compounds pollute many aquatic habitats and are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity of waterborne methyl mercury has been studied in several teleost species. Lampreys are taxonomically distant from teleosts and are used for comparative toxicological purposes. Landlocked sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, inhabit the Great Lakes region, and their larvae (ammocoetes) burrow in stream sediments. In this study, the authors present toxicity curves for ammocoetes exposed acutely to methyl mercuric chloride solutions. Susceptibility was related to temperature and animal size.

  1. Acute toxicities of four metals on the early life stages of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata from Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Laura; Andrade, Santiago; Asteasuain, Raúl; Marcovecchio, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    Acute semistatic toxicity tests were carried out for 96 h with first zoeae and young crabs of Chasmagnathus granulata. Survival curves and LC50 (lethal concentration 50, the concentration which produces the death of 50% of the exposed population) indices for copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined. Furthermore, mixture toxicity tests (Cd/Cu and Cd/Zn) with first-stage larvae were also carried out. The LC50-96 h values determined in this study were 1093.4 (881-1319) microg Pb2+ L(-1), 219.2 (188.9-248.9) microg Cu2+ L(-1), 172.1 (141.3-203.6) microg Zn2+ L(-1), and 47.8 (37.9-58.0) microg Cd2+ L(-1) for zoeae I and 130.1 (121.7-139.0) mg Cu2+ L(-1), 51.0 (41.9-61.6) mg Zn2+ L(-1), and 35.7 (30.1-41.9) mg Cd2+ L(-1) for young crabs. The LC50-96 h indices for mixture tests with zoeae I were 260.6 (227.3-286.3) microg Cd2+/Zn2+ L(-1) and 41.3 (37.4-60.7) microg Cd2+/Cu2+ L(-1). Cadmium presented the highest acute toxicity for both stages of the life cycle examined. The toxicity of the metals analyzed followed the order cadmium >zinc>copper>lead. First zoeae were more sensitive than young crabs to acute exposure to all metals analyzed. The young crabs were considered potentially dangerous agents of transference to the associated trophic chain because of their relatively elevated resistance and their capacity to bioaccumulate heavy metals in their tissues. Mixed toxicity tests carried out on first-stage larvae showed different kinds of interactions. Cadmium/copper presented an additive interaction trend while the mixture cadmium/zinc showed an antagonistic interaction. PMID:16098589

  2. Selected chemical characteristics and acute toxicity of urban stormwater, streamflow, and bed material, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical analyses indicated that urban stormwater could degrade the quality of streamflow because of oil and grease, pesticides, dissolved trace metals, and ammonia in stormwater. Ammonia, lead, cadmium, and zinc are released by urban activities and accumulate in bed material. Ammonia could be from fertilizers, fecal matter, and other sources. Lead is probably from vehicles that use leaded gasoline. Cadmium and zinc could be from particulate metal in oil, brake pads, and other sources. Samples of the initial runoff from urban drainage basins appeared to be more toxic than flow-weighted composite samples, and stormwater was more harmful to fathead minnows than to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Streamflow samples from the Salt River were not toxic to either species. The sensitivity of fathead minnows to urban stormwater from most urban drainage basins indicated that the toxicants were detrimental to fish and could be present in stormwater throughout Phoenix. Results of toxicity identification evaluations indicated the toxicity was mostly due to organic constituents. Mortality, however, did not correlate with organophosphate pesticide concentrations. Surfactants and (or) other constituents leached from asphalt could be toxic. The most toxic bed-material samples were collected from an undeveloped drainage basin. Within urban-drainage basins, bed-material samples collected where stormwater accumulates appeared to be more toxic than samples collected from areas unaffected by stormwater. Mortality rates correlated with recoverable concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium; however these rates correlated poorly with pesticide concentrations. The bioavailability of trace metals appeared to be controlled by the adsorption properties of bed material.

  3. The Role of Zinc Sulfate in Acute Bronchiolitis in Patients Aged 2 to 23 Months

    PubMed Central

    Heydarian, Farhad; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Daluee, Mohammadkhaje; Kianifar, Hamidreza; Hematian, Mohammadnasir

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluating the effect of zinc sulfate in improving the clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis in children younger than 2 years. Methods This was a double blind pilot trial on 50 patients aged 2 to 23 months at Ghaem and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad from January 2008 to March 2009. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: a case group received oral zinc sulfate and to the control group was given placebo. Findings Mean age of case group was 168.0±108.6 days and control group 169.2±90.4 days (P=0.98) with male predominance in both groups. At first there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in reducing the symptoms. But 24 hours after treating, improvement of some important manifestations including tachypnea, subcostal and intercostal retraction, wheezing and cyanosis revealed statistically significant difference in control group in comparison with case group (P=0.04). Conclusion Zinc sulfate has no benefit in improving clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis. PMID:23056793

  4. Perfluoro-n-butyl iodide: acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Hoffman, Gary; Hardy, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-butyl iodide (PFBI) is a promising alternative to chlorofluorocarbon solvents used in aircraft ground maintenance operations and other military and commercial operations, because it cleans well, has zero ozone depletion potential, and has extremely low global warming properties. Toxicity tests were performed with PFBI to determine and evaluate its health hazard. Using standard testing guidelines (e.g., Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]), tests included acute (4-h) and 4-week (6 h/day, 5 days/week) inhalation (nose-only) toxicity studies in rats, acute (10-min) inhalation cardiac sensitization study in dogs, in vitro chromosomal aberrations experiments in human lymphocytes, and in vitro mutagenic experiments in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. There were no mortalities in rats (n = 10) exposed for 4 h to 10,000 ppm PFBI, but all rats (n = 10) died within 2 h when exposed to 20,000 ppm PFBI. The 4-h LC50 (95% confidence limits) was 14,000 ppm (13,000 ppm to 16,000 ppm). Signs (nasal discharge and labored breathing) observed in the rats exposed to 10,000 ppm returned to normal within 48 h. PFBI has the potential to cause cardiac sensitization in epinephrine-challenged dogs at 6200 ppm. A concentration of 3900 ppm was a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the cardiac sensitization study. In the 4-week inhalation study (5 rats/sex/group), respiratory mucosal hypertrophy/hyperplasia was observed in rats of the 10,000-ppm group. A NOAEL of 1000 ppm was selected for the 4-week study on the basis that the mild increase in T4 observed at 1000 ppm was considered adaptive, not adverse, because of the absence of frank effects in the thyroid. In the in vitro studies, PFBI showed no evidence of either mutagenic or clastogenic activity. The toxicity profile of PFBI was compared to trifluoroiodomethane. In conclusion, the results of these studies indicate a low order of general toxicity and an absence of genotoxicity

  5. Comparative acute toxicity of twenty-four insecticides to earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Zhao, Xueping; Yu, Ruixian; Chen, Liping; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we used two different types of bioassay, a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay and a soil toxicity bioassay, to compare the acute toxicity of twenty-four insecticides belonging to six chemical categories on earthworm species, Eisenia fetida. Results of the contact filter paper toxicity bioassay indicated that neonicotinoids were super toxic to E. fetida (48 h-LC(50) value ranged from 0.0088 to 0.45 μg cm(-2)), pyrethroids were very toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 10.55 to 25.7 μg cm(-2)) and insect growth regulators (IGRs) were moderately toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 117.6 to 564.6 μg cm(-2)) to the worms. However, antibiotics, carbamates and organophosphates induced variable toxicity responses in E. fetida, and were very to extremely toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 3.64 to 75.75 μg cm(-2)). Results of the soil toxicity bioassays showed a different pattern of toxicity except that neonicotinoids were the most toxic even under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The acute toxicity of neonicotinoids was higher than those of antibiotics, carbamates, IGRs and organophosphates. In contrast, pyrethroids were the least toxic to the worms under the soil toxicity bioassay system. It was concluded that irrespective of bioassay systems, earthworms were more susceptible to neonicotinoids than other modern synthetic insecticides.

  6. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency also causes hair loss, diarrhea, eye and skin sores and loss of appetite. Weight loss, problems ... pneumonia and other infections. Zinc also helps the skin stay healthy. Some people who have skin ulcers ...

  7. Removal of toxic zinc from water/wastewater using eucalyptus seeds activated carbon: non-linear regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy; Saravanan, Anbalagan; Anish Kumar, Kodyingil; Yashwanth, Ramesh; Visvesh, Sridharan

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel activated carbon was prepared from low-cost eucalyptus seeds, which was utilised for the effectively removal of toxic zinc from the water/wastewater. The prepared adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic characterisation studies. Adsorption process was experimentally performed for optimising the influencing factors such as adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, initial zinc concentration, and temperature for the maximum removal of zinc from aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm of zinc removal was ensued Freundlich model, and the kinetic model ensued pseudo-second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for zinc removal was evaluated as 80.37 mg/g. The results of the thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption process was exothermic, thermodynamically feasible and impulsive process. Finally, a batch adsorber was planned to remove zinc from known volume and known concentration of wastewater using best obeyed model such as Freundlich. The experimental details showed the newly prepared material can be effectively utilised as a cheap material for the adsorption of toxic metal ions from the contaminated water. PMID:27463796

  8. Calcium ions rescue human lung epithelial cells from the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hanagata, Nobutaka; Morita, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory results have been reported for in vitro evaluations of whether zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are cytotoxic. Though there have been reports of ZnO NPs cytotoxicity due to Zn ions released from the nanoparticles, there have also been reports concluding that Zn ions are not cytotoxic. This inconsistency is mostly attributed to the types of cells used. In this research, we investigated the difference in the level of ZnO NPs cytotoxicity due to culturing conditions. The sensitivity of human lung epithelial cells to ZnO NPs cytotoxicity differed depending on the dispersing medium, physiological state of the cells resulting from their growth stage, and composition of the medium. Further, with regard to the toxicity of ZnO NPs, NPs internalized into cells had a greater cytotoxic effect than Zn ions released from ZnO NPs. Instead of inducing cell death, ZnO NPs internalized into cells slowed the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs depended greatly on the concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) in the medium. When the concentration of Ca2+ was low, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs increased markedly. However, the toxicity of ZnO NPs was mitigated by the addition of CaCl2 to the medium. Global gene expression analysis revealed that Ca2+ -induced upregulation of cell cycle functions could be attributable to the mitigation of ZnO NP toxicity by Ca2+.

  9. The toxicity of arsenic(III), chromium(VI) and zinc to groundwater copepods.

    PubMed

    Hose, G C; Symington, K; Lott, M J; Lategan, M J

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater ecosystems globally are threatened by anthropogenic contamination, yet there are few ecotoxicological data using obligate groundwater biota on which to base risk assessments. Copepods are found inhabiting aquifers of different geologies around the world and so are a useful taxon for use in ecotoxicological studies of groundwater. The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of obligate groundwater copepods to metal contaminants (arsenic(III), chromium(VI) and zinc) in groundwater in static 96 h, 14 days and 28 days exposure tests. The copepods were variably sensitive to As, Cr and Zn, with Cr being the most toxic across all taxa. No taxon was consistently most sensitive and there was no apparent relationship between the hardness, pH and organic carbon concentration of the diluent water and the sensitivity of biota. As expected, toxicity increased with exposure period and we encourage the use of longer exposure periods in future toxicity tests with groundwater organisms to reflect the greater exposure periods likely to be associated with groundwater contamination.

  10. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  11. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity.

  12. Effects of acid-volatile sulfide on zinc bioavailability and toxicity to benthic macroinvertebrates: A spiked sediment field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Liber, K.; Call, D.J.; Markee, T.P.; Schmude, K.L.; Balcer, M.D.; Whiteman, F.W.; Ankley, G.T.

    1996-12-01

    Acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) has been proposed as the primary normalization phase for the development of sediment quality criteria for certain cationic metals. This study was designed to assist in this development by providing necessary field data on the relationships among season, AVS concentrations, and zinc bioavailability and toxicity in freshwater sediments. Zinc was spiked into uncontaminated sediments collected from a local pond, creating five simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 12.0 {micro}mol/g dry weight. The spiked sediments were transferred to 4-L plastic trays, returned to the bottom of the pond, and sampled on five dates during 1993--1994. Results revealed a pronounced increase in AVS concentration with increasing zinc concentration. Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations in zinc-spiked sediments displayed only minor seasonal variation but were lowest in surficial (0--2 cm) sediments. Acid-volatile sulfide concentrations always exceeded SEM concentrations at {le}6.0 {micro}mol SEM/g; only at 12.0 {micro}mol SEM/g did SEM/AVS ratios exceed 1.0. Zinc was rarely detected in pore water at any treatment and never at concentrations which should have posed a hazard to benthic macroinvertebrates. No substantial effect on colonization of zinc-spiked sediments by benthic macroinvertebrates was observed. Only oligochaetes (Naididae) were significantly reduced in abundance at the high zinc treatment, although reductions were occasionally evident for other taxa. Lack of noteworthy pore-water zinc concentrations and lack of associated, ecologically meaningful effects were attributed to the increase in AVS levels observed with increasing SEM zinc sediment concentration. The increases in AVS theoretically resulted from a replacement of natural iron and manganese sulfides with the more stable zinc sulfide complex.

  13. The repeated dose toxicity of a zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke.

    PubMed

    Marrs, T C; Colgrave, H F; Edginton, J A; Brown, R F; Cross, N L

    1988-01-01

    Mice, rats and guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke produced by ignition of a zinc oxide/hexachloroethane pyrotechnic composition, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, at three different dose levels, together with controls. The animals received 100 exposures except for the high dose guinea pigs, which underwent 15 exposures, because of high death rate during the first few days of exposure. The test material had very little effect on weight gain, but there was a high rate of early deaths in the top dose of mice. A variety of incidental findings was seen in both decedents and survivors, but organ specific toxicity was, with one exception, confined to the respiratory tract. The most important of these findings was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of alveologenic carcinoma in the high dose group mice (p less than 0.01) and a statistically significant trend in the prevalence of the same tumour over all dose groups and the controls. A variety of inflammatory changes was seen in the lungs of all species and some appeared to be treatment-related. Fatty change in the mouse liver was more common in the middle and high dose groups than the controls. The aetiology of the tumour incidence is discussed and it is pointed out that hexachloroethane and zinc, as well as carbon tetrachloride, which may be present in the smoke, may be animal carcinogens in appropriate circumstances. Carbon tetrachloride is a known human carcinogen.

  14. Toxic Effects of Zinc Chloride on the Bone Development in Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822)

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Antonio; Marino, Fabio; Albano, Marco; Pecoraro, Roberta; Camiolo, Giuseppina; Tibullo, Daniele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Lombardo, Bianca M.; Saccone, Salvatore; Mazzei, Veronica; Brundo, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    The increase of heavy metals in the environment involves a high exposure of aquatic organisms to these pollutants. The present study is planned to investigate the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) on the bone embryonic development of Danio rerio and confirm the use of zebrafish as a model organism to study the teratogenic potential of this pollutant. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different ZnCl2 concentrations and analyzed by ICP-MS. The skeletal anomalies were evaluated to confocal microscope after staining with calcein solution and RhodZinTM-3,AM. The data show a delay in hatching compared with the controls, malformations in the process of calcification and significant defects in growth. In conclusion, the current work demonstrates for the first time the Zn toxic effects on calcification process and confirm zebrafish (Danio rerio) as suitable alternative vertebrate model to study the causes and the mechanisms of the skeletal malformations. PMID:27199768

  15. Toxic Effects of Zinc Chloride on the Bone Development in Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Antonio; Marino, Fabio; Albano, Marco; Pecoraro, Roberta; Camiolo, Giuseppina; Tibullo, Daniele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Lombardo, Bianca M; Saccone, Salvatore; Mazzei, Veronica; Brundo, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    The increase of heavy metals in the environment involves a high exposure of aquatic organisms to these pollutants. The present study is planned to investigate the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) on the bone embryonic development of Danio rerio and confirm the use of zebrafish as a model organism to study the teratogenic potential of this pollutant. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different ZnCl2 concentrations and analyzed by ICP-MS. The skeletal anomalies were evaluated to confocal microscope after staining with calcein solution and RhodZin(TM)-3,AM. The data show a delay in hatching compared with the controls, malformations in the process of calcification and significant defects in growth. In conclusion, the current work demonstrates for the first time the Zn toxic effects on calcification process and confirm zebrafish (Danio rerio) as suitable alternative vertebrate model to study the causes and the mechanisms of the skeletal malformations. PMID:27199768

  16. Comparative Cytogenetic Study on the Toxicity of Magnetite and Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Sunflower Root Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Capraru, Gabriela; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-01

    In this experimental study the authors present their results regarding the cellular division rate and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in the root meristematic cells of Helianthus annuus cultivated in the presence of different volume fractions of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, ranging between 20 and 100 microl/l. The aqueous magnetic colloids were prepared from chemically co-precipitated ferrites coated in sodium oleate. Tissue samples from the root meristeme of 2-3 day old germinated seeds were taken to prepare microscope slides following Squash method combined with Fuelgen techniques. Microscope investigation (cytogenetic tests) has resulted in the evaluation of mitotic index and chromosomal aberration index that appeared diminished and respectively increased following the addition of magnetic nanoparticles in the culture medium of the young seedlings. Zinc ferrite toxic influence appeared to be higher than that of magnetite, according to both cytogenetic parameters.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of zinc as adjunct therapy for acute childhood diarrhoea in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Robberstad, Bjarne; Strand, Tor; Black, Robert E.; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incremental costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of zinc used as adjunct therapy to standard treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea, including dysentery, and to reassess the cost-effectiveness of standard case management with oral rehydration salt (ORS). METHODS: A decision tree was used to model expected clinical outcomes and expected costs under four alternative treatment strategies. The best available epidemiological, clinical and economic evidence was used in the calculations, and the United Republic of Tanzania was the reference setting. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the potential impacts of uncertainty in single parameters were explored in one-way sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: ORS was found to be less cost-effective than previously thought. The use of zinc as adjunct therapy significantly improved the cost-effectiveness of standard management of diarrhoea for dysenteric as well as non-dysenteric illness. The results were particularly sensitive to mortality rates in non-dysenteric diarrhoea, but the alternative interventions can be defined as highly cost-effective even in pessimistic scenarios. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to recommend the inclusion of zinc into standard case management of both dysenteric and non-dysenteric acute diarrhoea.A direct transfer of our findings from the United Republic of Tanzania to other settings is not justified, but there are no indications of large geographical differences in the efficacy of zinc. It is therefore plausible that our findings are also applicable to other developing countries. PMID:15500284

  18. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:25694074

  19. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Zinc toxicity to the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata decreases under phosphate limiting growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Smolders, E

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that phosphorus (P) deficiency can increase the sensitivity of microalgae to toxic trace metals, potentially due to reduced metal detoxification at low cell P quota. The existing evidence is, however, inconsistent. This study was set up to determine the combined effects of zinc (Zn) and P supplies on Zn and P bioaccumulation and growth of the green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Zinc toxicity was investigated in (i) a 24h growth rate assay with cells varying in initial cell P quota (0.5-1.7% P on cell dry weight) with no supplemental P during Zn exposure (Expt. 1) and in (ii) a 48h growth assay initiated with cells at the end of a 14-days steady state culture at three P addition rates (RARs) between 0.8 and 1.6day(-1) (Expt.2). The solution Zn concentrations required to reduce final cell density by 10% relative to control (EbC10) were 5-fold (Expt.1) or 2-fold (Expt.2) lower at the highest P supply than at the lowest P supply, i.e. Zn was more toxic at higher P supply, in contrast with the suggestions from previous studies. Cell P quota increased with increasing Zn in the exposure solution (Expt.2), thereby partially overcoming P deficiency under moderate Zn toxicity compared to low Zn exposure. Similarly, cell Zn increased with increasing P supply, potentially induced by Zn-P complexation or precipitation inside the cell. A dynamic growth model accounting for effects of external Zn and internal P on the specific growth rate was calibrated to all data. This model shows that the effect of solution Zn on specific growth rate (ErC50) was statistically unaffected by cell P quota. In contrast, this model predicts that the EbC10 (i.e. EC10 based on cell numbers) varies with P supply because cell P depends on external P and Zn. Moreover, scenario analysis predicts even contrasting trends of the EbC10 with increasing P supply depending on the duration of the growth assay and the P supply scenario. Our data at two experimental

  1. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  3. Protective effects of certain environmental factors on the toxicity of zinc, mercury, and methylmercury to Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, L.C.; Gaur, J.P.; Kumar, H.D.

    1981-08-01

    The specific growth rate and final yield of Chlorella vulgaris treated with zinc, mercury, and methylmercury declined with increase in metal concentration. Methylmercury was most toxic and at 1 x 10/sup -3/ mg/liter concentration it reduced survival by about 50%. Approximately 50% mortality occurred at 25 and 0.4 mg/liter concentration of zinc and mercury, respectively. The total chlorophyll content decreased and the carotenoids/chlorophyll ratio increased with increase in heavy metal concentration. Of the various factors investigated, pH, phosphate, and calcium produced a highly significant (P < 0.001) effect on metal toxicities, and magnesium produced a less significant effect (P < 0.1). The present study suggests that alkaline and hard eutrophic waters might help protect freshwater organisms against heavy metal toxicity.

  4. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  5. Studies on polymer-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles: UV-blocking efficacy and in vivo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Girigoswami, Koyeli; Viswanathan, Meenakshi; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Girigoswami, Agnishwar

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is explicitly used in sunscreens and cosmetic products; however, its effect in vivo is toxic in some cases. The UV blocking efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles is lost due to photocatalysis. To isolate a lower toxic species of sunblockers, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with chitosan - a natural polymer (ZnO-CTS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) - a synthetic polymer (ZnO-PEG). Coating with CTS and PEG circumvented the photocatalytic activity, increased the stability and improved the UV absorption efficacy. The effect of ZnO, ZnO-CTS and ZnO-PEG nanoparticles in vivo on zebrafish embryo revealed lower deposition of ZnO-CTS and ZnO-PEG nanoparticles atop the eggs compared to ZnO. The survival of zebrafish embryos was always found to be higher in case of ZnO-CTS with respect to ZnO-treated ones. PEG coating exhibited better UV attenuation, but, in vivo it induced delayed hatching. Thus, one of the reasons for better survival could be attributed to lower aggregation of ZnO-CTS nanoparticles atop eggs thereby facilitating the breathing of embryos. PMID:26249620

  6. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  7. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  8. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  9. Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...

  10. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  11. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  12. Influence of pH on the toxic effects of zinc, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol on pure cultures of soil microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Beelen, P. van; Fleuren-Kemilae, A.K.

    1997-02-01

    In this study the effect of acidification of soil pore water on the uptake and toxicity of cationic and anionic pollutants was measured in an experimental model system. The influence of pH on the toxic effects of zinc, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol was studied in buffered suspensions of pure cultures of soil microorganisms. In this system the speciation of the toxicant, the pH, and the biomass are defined, constant, and thus easier to study than in a system with the solid soil matrix and pore water. The mineralization of [{sup 14}C]acetate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was used to measure the toxic effects of pollutants on a fungus (Aspergillus niger CBS 121.49), an actinomycete (Streptomyces lividans 66), two Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida strains (MT-2 and DSM 50026), and a gram-positive strain (Rhodococcus erythropolis A177). Large differences in sensitivity were observed between the species. For pentachlorophenol the highest EC50 was 81 mg/L for Pseudomonas putida at pH 8, whereas the lowest was 0.13 mg/L for Aspergillus niger at pH 6. Aspergillus niger was not sensitive to 1,000 mg Zn/L, whereas Pseudomonas putida at pH 7.8 showed the lowest EC50, 0.14 mg Zn/L. When pH was increased, pentachlorophenol became less toxic and showed less sorption to the biomass, whereas zinc and cadmium became more toxic and showed more sorption to the biomass. The results indicate that higher pore-water concentrations due to acidification of zinc- and cadmium-polluted soils may not be accompanied by increased toxic effects on microorganisms because of the relatively low toxicity of these metals in pore water at low pH.

  13. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  14. Understanding how data triangulation identifies acute toxicity of novel psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs"). There is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. Gold standard evidence, such as animal studies or human clinical trials, is rarely available to users or healthcare professionals. However, it is possible to use triangulation of data on the acute toxicity from multiple sources to describe the overall pattern of toxicity associated with a novel psychoactive substance. In this review, we will describe these potential data sources, which include self-reported toxicity on internet discussion fora, data from sub-population user surveys, data from regional and national poisons information services and published case reports and case series. We will then describe how pattern of acute toxicity associated with the use of the cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was established using triangulation of these different data sources.

  15. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  16. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Yoon, Seokjoo; Kim, Woo-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. In this study, the developmental toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic/larval zebrafish was investigated. The transcriptional expression profiles induced by ZnO NPs were also investigated to ascertain novel genomic responses related to their specific toxicity pathway. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L ZnO NPs for 96 h post-fertilization. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, based on their Zn concentration, was quite similar to that in embryonic/larval zebrafish exposed to corresponding ZnSO4 concentrations. Pericardial edema and yolk-sac edema were the principal malformations induced by ZnO NPs. Gene-expression profiling using microarrays demonstrated 689 genes that were differentially regulated (fold change >1.5) following exposure to ZnO NPs (498 upregulated, 191 downregulated). Several genes that were differentially regulated following ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded specifically to ZnO NPs (either in the opposite direction or were unchanged in ZnSO4 exposure). Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the responses of these genes to ZnO NPs were significantly different from their response to ZnSO4 exposure. ZnO NPs may affect genes related to inflammation and the immune system, resulting in yolk-sac edema and pericardia edema in embryonic/larval developmental stages. These results will assist in elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity of ZnO NPs during development of zebrafish. PMID:27504894

  17. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. In this study, the developmental toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic/larval zebrafish was investigated. The transcriptional expression profiles induced by ZnO NPs were also investigated to ascertain novel genomic responses related to their specific toxicity pathway. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L ZnO NPs for 96 h post-fertilization. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, based on their Zn concentration, was quite similar to that in embryonic/larval zebrafish exposed to corresponding ZnSO4 concentrations. Pericardial edema and yolk-sac edema were the principal malformations induced by ZnO NPs. Gene-expression profiling using microarrays demonstrated 689 genes that were differentially regulated (fold change >1.5) following exposure to ZnO NPs (498 upregulated, 191 downregulated). Several genes that were differentially regulated following ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded specifically to ZnO NPs (either in the opposite direction or were unchanged in ZnSO4 exposure). Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the responses of these genes to ZnO NPs were significantly different from their response to ZnSO4 exposure. ZnO NPs may affect genes related to inflammation and the immune system, resulting in yolk-sac edema and pericardia edema in embryonic/larval developmental stages. These results will assist in elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity of ZnO NPs during development of zebrafish. PMID:27504894

  18. Maternal metallothionein and zinc after acute ethanol exposure during gestation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.E. )

    1992-02-26

    Acute exposure of the rat fetus to ethanol at critical periods can cause growth retardation and brain damage; the mechanism(s) is not known. Ethanol may cause redistribution of maternal zinc which results in fetal zinc deficiency and subsequent interruption of growth and development. The purpose was to determine if acute ethanol administration to the pregnant rat alters Zn and the Zn binding protein metallothionein (MT) in selected tissues. On gestational day (gd) 14, eighteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups. By intragastric tube, ethanol treated dams were given ethanol and pairfed controls were given a 0.85% NaCl solution. On gd 15, intragastric feedings were repeated. Throughout, the Lieber-DeCarli control diet was fed (adlibitum to untreated controls and ethanol treated dams and in appropriate quantities to pair fed controls). Blood ethanol concentrations at 90 minutes after the ethanol dose were 154 {plus minus} 46 and 265 {plus minus} 110 mg% on gd 14 and 15, respectively.

  19. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  20. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) ENPs with Daphnia magna were carried out following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guidelines. Daphnia magna was found to be very sensitive to Ag ENPs (48-h 50% effective concentration 33 μg L(-1) ), and aging of the test suspensions in M7 medium (up to 48 h) did not decrease toxicity significantly. Conversely, the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM; 20 mg L(-1) ) completely alleviated Ag ENP toxicity in all testing scenarios and did not aid in stabilizing suspensions. In contrast, addition of Suwannee River NOM stabilized ZnO ENP suspensions and did not decrease toxicity. Aging for 48 h generated monotonous concentration-response curves in the presence and absence of Suwannee River NOM. At concentrations up to 100 mg L(-1) TiO2 ENPs did not cause immobilization of D. magna under any of the tested conditions. Presence of Suwannee River NOM caused agglomeration in stock suspensions. The authors' results suggest that aging and presence of Suwannee River NOM are important parameters in standard toxicity testing of ENPs, which in some cases may aid in gaining better control over the exposure conditions but in other cases might contribute to agglomeration or elimination of ENP toxicity. Therefore, modifications to the current guidelines for testing ENPs should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:497-506. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) ENPs with Daphnia magna were carried out following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guidelines. Daphnia magna was found to be very sensitive to Ag ENPs (48-h 50% effective concentration 33 μg L(-1) ), and aging of the test suspensions in M7 medium (up to 48 h) did not decrease toxicity significantly. Conversely, the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM; 20 mg L(-1) ) completely alleviated Ag ENP toxicity in all testing scenarios and did not aid in stabilizing suspensions. In contrast, addition of Suwannee River NOM stabilized ZnO ENP suspensions and did not decrease toxicity. Aging for 48 h generated monotonous concentration-response curves in the presence and absence of Suwannee River NOM. At concentrations up to 100 mg L(-1) TiO2 ENPs did not cause immobilization of D. magna under any of the tested conditions. Presence of Suwannee River NOM caused agglomeration in stock suspensions. The authors' results suggest that aging and presence of Suwannee River NOM are important parameters in standard toxicity testing of ENPs, which in some cases may aid in gaining better control over the exposure conditions but in other cases might contribute to agglomeration or elimination of ENP toxicity. Therefore, modifications to the current guidelines for testing ENPs should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:497-506. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25546145

  2. Metalloproteins and phytochelatin synthase may confer protection against zinc oxide nanoparticle induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Polak, Natasa; Read, Daniel S; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Matzke, Marianne; Kelly, Frank J; Spurgeon, David J; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are used in large quantities by the cosmetic, food and textile industries. Here we exposed Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type and a metal sensitive triple knockout mutant (mtl-1;mtl-2;pcs-1) to ZnONPs (0-50mg/L) to study strain and exposure specific effects on transcription, reactive oxygen species generation, the biomolecular phenotype (measured by Raman microspectroscopy) and key endpoints of the nematode life cycle (growth, reproduction and lifespan). A significant dissolution effect was observed, where dissolved ZnO constituted over 50% of total Zn within a two day exposure to the test medium, suggesting that the nominal exposure to pure ZnONPs represents in vivo, at best, a mixture exposure of ionic zinc and nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the analyses provided evidence that the metallothioneins (mtl-1 and mtl-2), the phytochelatin synthase (pcs-1) and an apoptotic marker (cep-1) were transcriptionally activated. In addition, the DCFH-DA assay provided in vitro evidence of the oxidative potential of ZnONPs in the metal exposure sensitive triple mutant. Raman spectroscopy highlighted that the biomolecular phenotype changes significantly in the mtl-1;mtl-2;pcs-1 triple knockout worm upon ZnONP exposure, suggesting that these metalloproteins are instrumental in the protection against cytotoxic damage. Finally, ZnONP exposure was shown to decrease growth and development, reproductive capacity and lifespan, effects which were amplified in the triple knockout. By combining diverse toxicological strategies, we identified that individuals (genotypes) housing mutations in key metalloproteins and phytochelatin synthase are more susceptible to ZnONP exposure, which underlines their importance to minimize ZnONP induced toxicity.

  3. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Kemble, Nile E; May, Thomas W; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D; Roberts, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms-amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)-in sediments from 2 lead-zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2-4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  4. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms—amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)—in sediments from 2 lead–zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2–4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  5. Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Veith, G.D.; Call, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and the energy of the triplet state of a variety of PAHs. The authors have reexamined these data and propose a more mechanistic explanation for the prediction of photo-induced PAH toxicity. They sought a molecular descriptor which could be computed from structure rather than measured empirically.

  6. Fatal cases of acute suicidal sodium and accidental zinc fluorosilicate poisoning. Review of acute intoxications due to fluoride compounds.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa

    2011-03-20

    Fluoride, of all inorganic substances, is among the least likely to be identified by a routine toxicological analysis. Acute poisonings with salts of hydrofluoric or fluorosilicic acid, however, although relatively uncommon, may occur. Some fluorosilicates, salts of fluorosilicic acid (e.g. Al, Zn, Pb, Mg) are used as stone consolidants, others (e.g. sodium fluorosilicate)--in the production of enamel and milk glass, or as insecticide. In this paper, two fatal cases of poisonings are presented: a suicide involving sodium fluorosilicate of a 39-year-old male who died in his flat, without hospitalization, and an accidental ingestion of zinc fluorosilicate solution (probably due to mistaking it for mineral water) by a 38-year-old male at his workplace (building), who died about 3h after ingestion of the liquid, in spite of intensive care at hospitals. Post-mortem samples were examined by the use of the spectrophotometric method with lanthanum nitrate and alizarin complexone for fluorine (after isolation of fluoride compounds by the microdiffusion method) and using a flame atomic absorption spectrometry method for zinc (after mineralization of biological material by sulfuric and nitric acids). In the first case, the results were: blood--130 μg F/ml, stomach--1150 μg F/g, small intestine content --19.6 μg F/g, kidney--56.0 μg F/g, and urine--1940 μg F/ml. In the second case, the contents of fluorine and zinc in blood and internal organs were the following: blood--6.03 μg F/ml, 23.8 μg Zn/ml; brain--1.39 μg F/g, 7.54 μg Zn/g; stomach--152 μg Zn/g; stomach content--293 μg F/g, 84.4 μg Zn/g; small intestine--37.5 μg Zn/g; small intestine content--63.4 μg F/g, 19.6 μg Zn/g; liver--9.49 μg F/g, 81.0 μg Zn/g; kidney--29.6 μg F/g, 39.2 μg Zn/g; and exceeded the normal levels of these elements in biological material many times. In addition, in stomach and liver large amounts of silica were detected. In the paper, a review of acute intoxications with various

  7. Study of acute toxicity of Ukrain in rats after intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Kulik, G I; Deneka, E R; Todor, I N; Karmozina, L G

    1998-01-01

    The acute toxicity of i.v. Ukrain injection in rats was studied. The interrelation between toxicity (death of animals) and dosage was determined by nonlinear regression method. White blood count (WBC) in peripheral blood, weight of animals, and weight of major organs were determined in animals during all stages of investigation. Morphological studies of toxic changes in 40 different organs of rats were performed on macro- and microscopic levels.

  8. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  9. Reversal of Lead-Induced Acute Toxicity by Lipoic Acid with Nutritional Supplements in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sangeeta; Sharma, Yamini; Shrivastava, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a pleiotropic toxicant. The potential role of oxidative stress injury that is associated with Pb poisoning suggests that antioxidants may enhance the efficacy of treatment designed to mitigate Pb-induced toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the comparative ameliorative potential of lipoic acid (LA) alone or in combination with calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Pb acetate (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 3 d. After 24 h of the last toxicant dose, LA (100 mg/kg, orally [po]) alone or in conjuction with Ca (50 mg/kg, po) and Zn (10 mg/kg, po) was administered for 3 d. Significant alterations in the concentration of urea, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione as well as alterations in enzyme activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase were observed following acute Pb exposure. These findings were also supported by elevated mean DNA damage and Pb body burden in blood and soft tissues compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Three d posttreatment with LA along with Zn and Ca could significantly restore the biochemical parameters and Pb body burden to near-normal status through antioxidant activity or by preventing bioaccumulation of Pb within the blood and tissues of experimental rats. PMID:27481494

  10. Estimates of the spatial extent of acute toxicity in sediments of selected USA estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.; Robertson, A.; Sloane, G.; Boswell, H.

    1995-12-31

    Acute toxicity has been measured in sediments collected during surveys of 18 estuaries in the USA. The spatial patterns, severity, and magnitude of toxicity have been determined during these surveys. Also, by weighting the toxicity data to the sizes of the sampling strata, the spatial extent of toxicity (expressed in kilometers{sup 2}) was estimated. The data from a battery of tests with different sensitivities were used to identify the relative severity of toxicity and to identify those areas that were most degraded. Accordingly, the spatial scales of toxicity within each estuary differed according to the sensitivities of the different tests. The spatial extent of toxicity measured in each standardized test was compared among different areas. For example, the results of the amphipod survival tests indicated that the spatial extent of toxicity ranged from 0.0% to over 85% among the different study areas.

  11. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity.

  12. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  13. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  14. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.

  15. Effects of zinc against mercury toxicity in female rats 12 and 48 hours after HgCl2 exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Mariana; Pedroso, Taíse F.; Oliveira, Cláudia S.; Oliveira, Vitor A.; do Santos, Rafael Francisco; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Pereira, Maria Ester

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the toxicity of inorganic mercury and zinc preventive effects in female rats sacrificed 12 or 48 h after HgCl2 exposure. Female Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with ZnCl2 (27 mg/kg) or saline (0.9 %), and 24 h later they were exposed to HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) or saline (0.9 %). Rats sacrificed 12 hours after Hg administration presented an increase in kidney weight and a decrease in renal ascorbic acid levels. Zinc pretreatment prevented the renal weight increase. Rats sacrificed 48 h after Hg exposure presented a decrease in body weight gain, an increase in renal weight, a decrease in renal δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, an increase in serum creatinine and urea levels, and a decrease in kidney total thiol levels. Zinc pretreatment partly prevented the decrease in body weight gain and increase in creatinine levels, in addition to totally preventing renal δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition. Mercury accumulation in the kidney and liver in both periods was observed after Hg administration. These results show the different Hg effects along the time of intoxication, and a considerably preventive effect of zinc against Hg toxicity. PMID:27330529

  16. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2013-09-15

    The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4-8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na(+) followed by K(+) (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na(+) and K(+). Overall, whole body Na(+) loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis may be a common mechanism underlying the acute additive toxicity of many contaminants in fish.

  17. Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m3) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity. PMID:27490535

  18. Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m³) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity. PMID:27490535

  19. Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m³) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity.

  20. Evaluation of 2-week repeated oral dose toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Je-Won; Hong, Eun-Taek; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Park, Jong-Il; Seong, Nak-Won; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Yun, Hyo-In

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify subacute oral dose toxicity of positively charged 100 nm zinc oxide (ZnOAE100[+]) nanoparticles (NPs) in Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOAE100[+] NPs were administered to rats of each sex by gavage at 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 14 days. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. Increased mortality and clinical signs, decreased body weight, feed consumption, hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet (PT), and lymphocyte (LYM) and increased white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils (NEUs), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and histopathological alterations in the spleen, stomach, and pancreas were observed at 2,000 mg/kg/day. Increased clinical signs, decreased body weight, feed consumption, HB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and LYM and increased WBCs, NEUs, ALP, and histopathological alterations in the spleen, stomach, and pancreas were seen at 1,000 mg/kg/day. Increased clinical signs, decreased MCV and MCH and increased histopathological alterations in the stomach and pancreas were found at 500 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that the target organs were the spleen, stomach, and pancreas in rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was <500 mg/kg for both sexes. PMID:26472967

  1. Influence of humic acid on the stability and bacterial toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in water.

    PubMed

    Akhil, K; Chandran, Preethy; Sudheer Khan, S

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated the stability of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) by the adsorption of humic acid (HA) and the mechanism of adsorption. The effect of humic acid on NP toxicity was determined by Escherichia coli (ATCC 13534), E. coli (ATCC 25922), and Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 4910). The nanoparticles showed low zeta potential and were least stable in the absence of HA. However, the negative surface charge of the particles increased in the presence of HA (0-50mg/L) that reduced the propensity of nanoparticles to aggregate in water. A decrease in absorbance of ZnO NPs at 375 nm (plasmon peak) was noted in the presence of HA by UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis. A blue shift towards 370 nm was noted when the concentration of HA was above 20mg/L. The HA adsorbed ZnO NPs showed higher zeta potential (>-30 mV) and were highly stable. HA reduced the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and at the same time increased the photostability of ZnO.

  2. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc mixtures to cercarial tail loss in Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda:Diplostomidae).

    PubMed

    Morley, N J; Crane, M; Lewis, J W

    2005-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and zinc mixtures on tail loss of the free-living cercarial stage of the parasitic fluke Diplostomum spathaceum were investigated at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10,000 microg/L. Cercariae were exposed to metal mixtures of equal concentrations, metal mixtures of unequal concentrations, and a low-dose pretreatment followed by high-dose exposure mixtures. Under control conditions as the cercarial population aged tail loss occurred naturally a few hours before death, with an increasing tail loss over time associated with a decrease in cercarial survival. Under all mixture exposures the period of tail loss was prolonged compared to single-metal exposures. In most test solutions this was associated with a similar increase in survival of cercariae. Inhibition of tail loss occurred in low concentrations (0.1-100 microg/L) of equal mixed exposures. In some unequal, and in all pretreatment mixture exposures, a significant stimulation of tail loss occurred compared to the pattern of decreasing survival over time within the cercarial population. The importance of toxic metal mixtures to cercarial tail loss and potential implications for successful parasite transmission are discussed. PMID:15482840

  3. Comparative acute toxicity of a synthetic mine effluent to Ceriodaphnia dubia, larval fathead minnow and the freshwater mussel Anodonta imbecilis

    SciTech Connect

    Masnado, R.G.; Geis, S.W.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    To determine if water quality-based effluent limitations recommended for a proposed discharger would provide adequate protection of aquatic life, site-specific acute toxicity tests were performed. The proposed discharger studied was a mine to be located in northern Wisconsin. The mine`s discharge would flow into the Flambeau River, a relatively pristine river that harbors endangered freshwater mussels. The toxicity effects of synthetic effluents, representing a mixture of five different metals under contrasting conditions of hardness, were tested on several different organisms. Results indicated that Ceriodaphnia dubia exhibited a much greater sensitivity to various mixtures of cadmium, hexavalent chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc than did either larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) or the freshwater mussel Anodonta imbecilis. Mixture o metals at the permitted discharge levels of individual metals were also found to be consistently toxic to C. dubia. Because C. dubia was found to be much more sensitive than A. imbecilis, an effluent safe for C. dubia should also be safe for A. imbecilis and the physiologically similar endangered mussels found in the river. Based on such testing, aquatic life toxicity-testing conditions and criteria suggested for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit should be protective of C. dubia and, hence, other aquatic life such as endangered mussels. Overall, effluent limitations for proposed dischargers need to be based on the combined effect of complex effluents. Aquatic toxicity testing using synthetic effluents that approximate the expected discharge characteristics provides a viable approach to determining the limits for proposed dischargers of multiple pollutants.

  4. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fixed rigidly. It should be determined by the toxic reactions, rate of onset, and length of recovery... substances are discussed in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i... to produce test groups with a range of toxic effects and mortality rates. The data must be...

  5. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  6. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively. PMID:24960624

  7. The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Plum, Laura M.; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2010-01-01

    Compared to several other metal ions with similar chemical properties, zinc is relatively harmless. Only exposure to high doses has toxic effects, making acute zinc intoxication a rare event. In addition to acute intoxication, long-term, high-dose zinc supplementation interferes with the uptake of copper. Hence, many of its toxic effects are in fact due to copper deficiency. While systemic homeostasis and efficient regulatory mechanisms on the cellular level generally prevent the uptake of cytotoxic doses of exogenous zinc, endogenous zinc plays a significant role in cytotoxic events in single cells. Here, zinc influences apoptosis by acting on several molecular regulators of programmed cell death, including caspases and proteins from the Bcl and Bax families. One organ where zinc is prominently involved in cell death is the brain, and cytotoxicity in consequence of ischemia or trauma involves the accumulation of free zinc. Rather than being a toxic metal ion, zinc is an essential trace element. Whereas intoxication by excessive exposure is rare, zinc deficiency is widespread and has a detrimental impact on growth, neuronal development, and immunity, and in severe cases its consequences are lethal. Zinc deficiency caused by malnutrition and foods with low bioavailability, aging, certain diseases, or deregulated homeostasis is a far more common risk to human health than intoxication. PMID:20617034

  8. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test. If the toxicity of the test substance is not already known, a range finding test should be... analyzed. (F) If the measured concentrations of dissolved test substance are considerably lower (e.g., of the test substance.......

  9. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test. If the toxicity of the test substance is not already known, a range finding test should be... analyzed. (F) If the measured concentrations of dissolved test substance are considerably lower (e.g., of the test substance.......

  10. Toxic and nontoxic components of botulinum neurotoxin complex are evolved from a common ancestral zinc protein

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, Ken; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Miyata, Keita; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Suzuki, Tomonori; Shikamori, Yasuyuki; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BoNT and NTNHA proteins share a similar protein architecture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA and BoNT were both identified as zinc-binding proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA does not have a classical HEXXH zinc-coordinating motif similar to that found in all serotypes of BoNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homology modeling implied probable key residues involved in zinc coordination. -- Abstract: Zinc atoms play an essential role in a number of enzymes. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most potent toxin known in nature, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. Here we identify the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), one of the BoNT-complex constituents, as a zinc-binding protein, along with BoNT. A protein structure classification database search indicated that BoNT and NTNHA share a similar domain architecture, comprising a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase-like, BoNT coiled-coil motif and concanavalin A-like domains. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that every single NTNHA molecule contains a single zinc atom. This is the first demonstration of a zinc atom in this protein, as far as we know. However, the NTNHA molecule does not possess any known zinc-coordinating motif, whereas all BoNT serotypes possess the classical HEXXH motif. Homology modeling of the NTNHA structure implied that a consensus K-C-L-I-K-X{sub 35}-D sequence common among all NTNHA serotype molecules appears to coordinate a single zinc atom. These findings lead us to propose that NTNHA and BoNT may have evolved distinct functional specializations following their branching out from a common ancestral zinc protein.

  11. Acute toxicity of commonly used forestry herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Vickie L; Borton, Dennis L; Streblow, William R; Louch, Jeffrey; Shepard, James P

    2012-12-01

    Because many herbicides selectively control specific species or types of vegetation, they are often applied as mixtures to achieve better control over undesirable vegetation. When herbicides are applied in forest ecosystems, streams, ponds, and other bodies of water are typically protected by buffer zones in which no herbicide is applied. However, in some landscapes, small wetlands and streams are difficult to see and avoid, thus the potential acute toxicity of herbicide mixtures to aquatic organisms is of interest, yet it has not been well-studied. We examined the acute toxicity of 23 different herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at environmentally relevant concentrations, and, where possible, characterized mixture interactions using Marking's Additive Index. Maximum exposure concentrations were equivalent to applying the maximum allowable rate for each component directly to the surface of a 6-in. deep pond with no dissipation following application. Under the conditions of this study, herbicide formulations containing Accord Concentrate (glyphosate), Arsenal AC (imazapyr), Chopper (imazapyr), Escort (metsulfuron methyl), Oust XP (sulfometuron methyl), and Velpar L (hexazinone) were not associated with appreciable acute toxicity to fathead minnows or C. dubia when used alone or in mixtures with each other and various surfactants and adjuvants. Herbicide mixtures for which Additive Indexes could be calculated exhibited primarily antagonistic or simple additive toxicity. In the few cases where synergistic toxicity was observed, the degree of synergism was slight, never exceeding approximately twice the effect estimated based on additive toxicity. Based on the results of this study, neither acute toxicity nor enhanced acute aquatic toxicity due to synergistic mixture effects appears to be a significant concern for applications of the herbicide mixtures most commonly used in forestry.

  12. Copper-zinc coergisms and metal toxicity at predefined ratio concentrations: Predictions based on synergistic ratio model.

    PubMed

    Obinna Obiakor, Maximilian; Damian Ezeonyejiaku, Chigozie

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of studies have centred on the single actions of heavy metals against test animals in predicting aquatic toxicity. However, practical existence of environmental toxicants is in multiple mixtures and variable undefined ratio combinatorial concentrations. Pollution abatement approaches in setting representative safe boundaries for metal contaminants is crucial with factual data on predictively modelled exposures of organisms to multiple mixtures. In continuance of our approach to toxicity of individual heavy metals, we determined the toxicity of binary mixtures of copper and zinc at predetermined ratios against tilapia species and also evaluated the coergisms based on synergistic ratio model for effective formulations of safe limits. Orecohromis niloticus species were exposed to copper and zinc (Cu:Zn) at ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 on 96hLC₅₀ index and mortality response analysed following the probit-log-dose regression with metal-metal interactions effectively modelled. The 96hLC₅₀ values for Cu:Zn were calculated to be 68.898 and 51.197 mg/l for ratios 1:1 and 1:2, respectively. The joint action toxicity of the metal mixtures was observed to differ from the metals acting singly against the same animal species. Synergistic coergisms were realized in most of the ratio mixtures except the antagonistic effect displayed by the combination of Cu:Zn in the ratio 1:1 when compared to the single action of copper. Biological toxicity of heavy metals however still appears uncertain, and consideration of multiple mixtures and interactions of toxicants in natural milieu is very crucial in environmental management of the existing and emerging contaminating metals.

  13. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    PubMed

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  14. A comparison of acute toxicity of biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nalissa; Warith, Mostafa A; Luk, Grace

    2007-03-01

    The increased demand of alternative energy sources has created interest in biodiesel and biodiesel blends; biodiesel is promoted as a diesel substitute that is safer, produces less harmful combustion emissions, and biodegrades more easily. Like diesel spills, biodiesel can have deleterious effects on the aquatic environments. The effect of neat biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on Oncorhynchus mykiss and Daphnia magna was evaluated using acute toxicity testing. Static nonrenewal bioassays of freshwater organisms containing B100, B50, B20, B5, and conventional diesel fuel were used to compare the acute effects of biodiesel to diesel. Mortality was the significant end point measured in this study; percent mortality and lethal concentration (LC50) at different exposure times were determined from the acute toxicity tests performed. Trials were considered valid if the controls exhibited > 90% survival. Based on percentage of mortality and LC50 values, a toxicity ranking of fuels was developed.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  17. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  18. Toxicity of Functional Nano-Micro Zinc Oxide Tetrapods: Impact of Cell Culture Conditions, Cellular Age and Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Papavlassopoulos, Heike; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Kaps, Sören; Paulowicz, Ingo; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Elbahri, Mady; Maser, Edmund; Adelung, Rainer; Röhl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    With increasing production and applications of nanostructured zinc oxide, e.g., for biomedical and consumer products, the question of safety is getting more and more important. Different morphologies of zinc oxide structures have been synthesized and accordingly investigated. In this study, we have particularly focused on nano-micro ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-T), because their large scale fabrication has been made possible by a newly introduced flame transport synthesis approach which will probably lead to several new applications. Moreover, ZnO-T provide a completely different morphology then classical spherical ZnO nanoparticles. To get a better understanding of parameters that affect the interactions between ZnO-T and mammalian cells, and thus their biocompatibility, we have examined the impact of cell culture conditions as well as of material properties on cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that the cell density of fibroblasts in culture along with their age, i.e., the number of preceding cell divisions, strongly affect the cytotoxic potency of ZnO-T. Concerning the material properties, the toxic potency of ZnO-T is found to be significantly lower than that of spherical ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO-T influenced cellular toxicity in contrast to surface charges modified by UV illumination or O2 treatment and to the material age. Finally, we have observed that direct contact between tetrapods and cells increases their toxicity compared to transwell culture models which allow only an indirect effect via released zinc ions. The results reveal several parameters that can be of importance for the assessment of ZnO-T toxicity in cell cultures and for particle development. PMID:24454775

  19. Toxicity of functional nano-micro zinc oxide tetrapods: impact of cell culture conditions, cellular age and material properties.

    PubMed

    Papavlassopoulos, Heike; Mishra, Yogendra K; Kaps, Sören; Paulowicz, Ingo; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Elbahri, Mady; Maser, Edmund; Adelung, Rainer; Röhl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    With increasing production and applications of nanostructured zinc oxide, e.g., for biomedical and consumer products, the question of safety is getting more and more important. Different morphologies of zinc oxide structures have been synthesized and accordingly investigated. In this study, we have particularly focused on nano-micro ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-T), because their large scale fabrication has been made possible by a newly introduced flame transport synthesis approach which will probably lead to several new applications. Moreover, ZnO-T provide a completely different morphology then classical spherical ZnO nanoparticles. To get a better understanding of parameters that affect the interactions between ZnO-T and mammalian cells, and thus their biocompatibility, we have examined the impact of cell culture conditions as well as of material properties on cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that the cell density of fibroblasts in culture along with their age, i.e., the number of preceding cell divisions, strongly affect the cytotoxic potency of ZnO-T. Concerning the material properties, the toxic potency of ZnO-T is found to be significantly lower than that of spherical ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO-T influenced cellular toxicity in contrast to surface charges modified by UV illumination or O2 treatment and to the material age. Finally, we have observed that direct contact between tetrapods and cells increases their toxicity compared to transwell culture models which allow only an indirect effect via released zinc ions. The results reveal several parameters that can be of importance for the assessment of ZnO-T toxicity in cell cultures and for particle development.

  20. Toxicity profiling of water contextual zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human oral and gastrointestinal cell systems.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Marcella; Tay, Chor Yong; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Fan, Rongli; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Leong, David Tai

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in water supply due to environmental release of ENPs as the by-products contained within the effluent of domestic and industrial run-off. The partial recycling of water laden with ENPs, albeit at ultra-low concentrations, may pose an uncharacterized threat to human health. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of three prevalent ENPs: zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide over a wide range of concentrations that encompasses drinking water-relevant concentrations, to cellular systems representing oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Based on published in silico-predicted water-relevant ENPs concentration range from 100 pg/L to 100 µg/L, we detected no cytotoxicity to all the cellular systems. Significant cytotoxicity due to the NPs set in around 100 mg/L with decreasing extent of toxicity from zinc oxide to silver to titanium dioxide NPs. We also found that noncytotoxic zinc oxide NPs level of 10 mg/L could elevate the intracellular oxidative stress. The threshold concentrations of NPs that induced cytotoxic effect are at least two to five orders of magnitude higher than the permissible concentrations of the respective metals and metal oxides in drinking water. Based on these findings, the current estimated levels of NPs in potable water pose little cytotoxic threat to the human oral and gastrointestinal systems within our experimental boundaries.

  1. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures.

  2. Lipid rafts: linking prion protein to zinc transport and amyloid-β toxicity in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Nicole T.; Griffiths, Heledd H.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of neuronal zinc homeostasis plays a major role in many processes related to brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, despite the critical role of zinc in neuronal function, the cellular mechanisms underpinning its homeostatic control are far from clear. We reported that the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is involved in the uptake of zinc into neurons. This PrPC-mediated zinc influx required the metal-binding octapeptide repeats in PrPC and the presence of the zinc permeable AMPA channel with which PrPC directly interacted. Together with the observation that PrPC is evolutionarily related to the ZIP family of zinc transporters, these studies indicate that PrPC plays a key role in neuronal zinc homeostasis. Therefore, PrPC could contribute to cognitive health and protect against age-related zinc dyshomeostasis but PrPC has also been identified as a receptor for amyloid-β oligomers which accumulate in the brains of those with AD. We propose that the different roles that PrPC has are due to its interaction with different ligands and/or co-receptors in lipid raft-based signaling/transport complexes. PMID:25364748

  3. Toxicity in relation to mode of action for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: Acute-to-chronic ratios and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ristau, Kai; Akgül, Yeliz; Bartel, Anna Sophie; Fremming, Jana; Müller, Marie-Theres; Reiher, Luise; Stapela, Frederike; Splett, Jan-Paul; Spann, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are of particular interest in chemical risk assessment. Previous studies focusing on the relationship between the size or variation of ACRs to substance classes and QSAR models were often based on data for standard test organisms, such as daphnids and fish. In the present study, acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for a total of 11 chemicals covering 3 substance classes (nonpolar narcotics: 1-propanol, ethanol, methanol, 2-butoxyethanol; metals: copper, cadmium, zinc; and carbamates: methomyl, oxamyl, aldicarb, dioxacarb). The ACRs were variable, especially for the carbamates and metals, although there was a trend toward small and less variable ACRs for nonpolar narcotic substances. The octanol-water partition coefficient was a good predictor for explaining acute and chronic toxicity of nonpolar narcotic substances to C. elegans, but not for carbamates. Metal toxicity could be related to the covalent index χm2r. Overall, the results support earlier results from ACR and QSAR studies with standard freshwater test animals. As such C. elegans as a representative of small soil/sediment invertebrates would probably be protected by risk assessment strategies already in use. To increase the predictive power of ACRs and QSARs, further research should be expanded to other species and compounds and should also consider the target sites and toxicokinetics of chemicals.

  4. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  5. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers. PMID:26408031

  6. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  7. External validation of a QSAR for the acute toxicity of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Jonsson, J. . Dept. of Organic Chemistry); Berglind, R. . NBC-Defense Research)

    1993-07-01

    The validation of the predictive capability of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a significant step toward the construction of a reliable model. This point is discussed and illustrated with data for a class of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. For this class of compounds, a QSAR concerning their acute toxicity toward rate was recently published. This QSAR is verified in this by selecting and testing an external validation set comprising six compounds. The QSAR is also used for predicting the acute toxicity of 28 nontested members of this class.

  8. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. PMID:20335011

  9. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  10. Acute fibrinous organising pneumonia: a manifestation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jamous, Fady; Ayaz, Syed Zain; Choate, Jacquelyn

    2014-10-29

    A 50-year-old man was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for acute arthritis of his right big toe. Within a few days, he developed dyspnoea, hypoxaemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Symptoms improved with discontinuation of the antibiotic but worsened again with its reintroduction. An open lung biopsy was performed. We describe the workup performed and the factors that pointed to a final diagnosis of TMP-SMX-related pulmonary toxicity in the form of acute fibrinous organising pneumonia.

  11. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    PubMed

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  12. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Sonja; Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin; Sterzing, Florian; Habl, Gregor; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  13. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Swapnil; Nicholls, Ian A.; Karlsson, Björn C. G.; Rosengren, Annika M.; Ballabio, Davide; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER) equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. PMID:25302621

  14. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on hepatic metallothionein, zinc and glutathione in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.; Harrell, B. )

    1991-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the simultaneous responses of hepatic metallothionein (MT), zinc (Zn) and glutathione (GSH) in male and female rats to an acute ethanol dose. In male rats, hepatic MT has been shown to be induced by an acute ethanol dose. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the Lieber-DeCarli control diet for a five day period and then divided into 6 groups: baseline females and males, ethanol-treated females and males, pair-fed females and males. At t=0, baseline rats were killed, ethanol-treated rats were given ethanol by intragastric tube, and pair-fed rats were given ethanol by intragastric tube, and pair-fed rats were given an isocaloric sucrose solution by intragastric tube. At t=24 h, the ethanol-treated and pair-fed rats were killed. Livers were assayed for MT. Zn and GSH. Concentrations of blood ethanol (BEC) were significantly greater for male than female rats. A two way ANOVA with the independent variables being time and sex was performed to analyze differences for hepatic MT, Zn and GSH. For rats dosed with ethanol and killed 24 h later compared with rats at baseline, hepatic MT was significantly greater and hepatic Zn and GSH were not significantly different. Hepatic MT, Zn and GSH were not significantly different by sex. A significant correlation existed between hepatic Zn/g and MT/g. In conclusion, 24 h after an acute dose of ethanol, female as well as male rats responded with the induction of hepatic MT; and enough cysteine was available for the induction of hepatic MT and the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels. The measurement of Zn bound to hepatic MT rather than total hepatic Zn would be desirable to discern if changes in Zn distribution occur.

  15. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reactions, rate of onset, and length of recovery period, and may thus be extended when considered necessary... carried out. (2) Substance to be tested. Test, control, and reference substances are described in 40 CFR... produce test groups with a range of toxic effects and mortality rates. The data collected must...

  16. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. )

    1994-05-01

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  17. Acute ZnO nanoparticles exposure induces developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage in embryo-larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuesong; Wang, Shutao; Wu, Yuan; You, Hong; Lv, Lina

    2013-07-15

    Nano-scale zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. However, the available toxicological information was inadequate to assess the potential ecological risk of nano-ZnO to aquatic organisms and the publics. In this study, the developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage of nano-ZnO embryos were investigated in the embryo-larval zebrafish, the toxicity of Zn(2+) releasing from nano-ZnO were also investigated to ascertain the relationship between the nano-ZnO and corresponding Zn(2+). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100mg/L nano-ZnO and 0.59, 2.15, 3.63, 4.07, 5.31, and 6.04 mg/L Zn(2+) for 144 h post-fertilisation (hpf), respectively. Up to 144 hpf, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, the genes related to oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in zebrafish embryos were measured. The nano-ZnO was found to exert a dose-dependent toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae, reducing the hatching rate and inducing malformation and the acute toxicity to zebrafish embryos was greater than that of the Zn(2+) solution. The generation of ROS was significantly increased at 50 and 100mg/L nano-ZnO. DNA damage of zebrafish embryo was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis and was enhanced with increasing nano-ZnO concentration. Moreover, the transcriptional expression of mitochondrial inner membrane genes related to ROS production, such as Bcl-2, in response to oxidative damage, such as Nqo1, and related to antioxidant response element such as Gstp2 were significantly down-regulated in the nano-ZnO treatment groups. However, the nano-ZnO up-regulated the transcriptional expression of Ucp2-related to ROS production. In conclusion, nano-ZnO induces developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage on zebrafish embryos and the dissolved Zn(2+) only partially

  18. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  20. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

  1. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation. PMID:24377102

  2. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  3. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol-A and other bisphenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Yu; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2002-02-01

    Although abundant data are available on the toxicity of bisphenol-A (2,2-bis (4-hydroxydiphenyl)propane; BPA), little is known about the toxicities of the structurally similar compounds, namely bisphenols (BPs). A variety of BPs were examined for their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna, mutagenicity, and estrogenic activity using the Daphtoxkit (Creasel Ltd.), the umu test system, and the yeast two-hybrid system, respectively, in comparison with BPA. BPA was moderately toxic to D. magna (48-h EC50 was 10 mg/l) according to the current U.S. EPA acute toxicity evaluation standard, and it was weakly estrogenic with 5 orders of magnitude lower activity than that of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol in the yeast screen, while no mutagenicity was observed. All seven BPs tested here showed moderate to slight acute toxicity, no mutagenicity, and weak estrogenic activity as well as BPA. Some of the BPs showed considerably higher estrogenic activity than BPA, and others exhibited much lower activity. Among the tested BPs, two compounds, i.e., bisphenol-S (bis(4-hydroxydiphenyl)sulfone) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, have never been reported for their estrogenic activity previously.

  4. Lead, zinc, and cadmium in vegetable/crops in a zinc smelting region and its potential human toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; Li, Feili; Bi, Xiangyang; Sun, Li; Liu, Taoze; Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Congqiang

    2011-11-01

    Lead, Zn, and Cd in vegetables/crops were investigated in a zinc smelting region in China, and their daily dietary intake by local residents was estimated. It is observed that Pb, Zn, and Cd were in 34.7-91.1, 242-575, and 0.199-2.23 μg g(-1) dry weight in vegetables/crops with their greatest concentrations in leafy vegetable. The daily dietary intake of Pb, Zn, and Cd by adult residents reached 3, 646, 59,295, and 186 μg day, respectively, and lettuce and cabbage together contributed 75% of the Pb, 50% of the Zn, and 70% of the Cd.

  5. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  6. Correlations of acute toxicity of metal ions and the covalent/ionic character of their bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Jacobson, K.B.; Hingerty, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have investigated correlations between physicochemical properties of 24 metal ions and their acute toxicity in mice and Drosophila. A high correlation for a softness parameter suggests that the relative covalent/ionic character of the bonds formed by the metal ions may be important in determining their toxicity. This hypothesis is reinforced by model calculations of metal binding to dinucleotides in water. Since the nature of bonds depends on ligand electronegativity, we searched for correlations involving this parameter. Although electronegativity is useful for interpreting some aspects of metal-ion behavior related to toxicity, it does not yield improved correlations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning. PMID:15995006

  8. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  10. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  11. Correlation Between Acute and Late Toxicity in 973 Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Three-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Zerini, Dario; Fodor, Cristiana

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between acute and late injury in 973 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and to evaluate the effect of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related variables on toxicity. Methods and Materials: Of the 973 patients, 542 and 431 received definitive or postprostatectomy radiotherapy, respectively. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy included a six-field technique and two-dynamic arc therapy. Toxicity was classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. The correlation between acute and late toxicity (incidence and severity) was assessed. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that age {<=}65 years (p = .06) and use of the three-dimensional, six-field technique (p <.0001) correlated significantly with greater acute rectal toxicity. The three-dimensional, six-field technique (p = .0002), dose >70 Gy (p = .014), and radiotherapy duration (p = .05) correlated with greater acute urinary toxicity. Acute rectal toxicity (p <.0001) was the only factor that correlated with late rectal injury on multivariate analysis. Late urinary toxicity correlated with acute urinary events (p <.0001) and was inversely related to the use of salvage radiotherapy (p = .018). A highly significant correlation was found between the incidence of acute and late events for both rectal (p <.001) and urinary (p <.001) reactions. The severity of acute toxicity (Grade 2 or greater) was predictive for the severity of late toxicity for both rectal and urinary events (p <.001). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the risk of acute reactions depends on both patient-related (age) and treatment-related (dose, technique) factors. Acute toxicity was an independent significant predictor of late toxicity. These findings might help to predict and prevent late radiotherapy-induced complications.

  12. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    PubMed

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause. PMID:27364782

  13. Acute toxicity screening of sediments utilizing Chydorus sphaericus

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.G.S.; Crisman, T.; Bitton, G.; Delfino, J.

    1997-08-01

    Out of over 165 species of organisms that have been proposed for use in toxicity bioassays only a few are invertebrates and even fewer have ever been cultured in the laboratory. Many of the invertebrates that have been applied in sediment toxicity tests are not benthic organisms and possess few characteristics of the ideal sediment bioassay organism. Some tests species have limited ecological ranges; some may not be widely available for testing and many are not easily maintained in the laboratory. In addition, some traditional sediment toxicity tests utilize organisms that spend no part or only part of their life cycle in contact with sediment constituents, and therefore lack, in some degree, ecological relevance. The study reported involved the development and evaluation of a 48-hour lethality bioassay employing the benthic cladoceran, Chydorus sphaericus. The bioassay is ecologically relevant because the test organism is ubiquitous and it lives associated with sediments in freshwater aquatic environments. The bioassay was evaluated by direct comparison with standard bioassays using sediment samples collected from hazardous waste sites in Florida.

  14. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Artola-Garicano, Elsa; Sinnige, Theo L; van Holsteijn, Ineke; Vaes, Wouter H J; Hermens, Joop L M

    2003-05-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benthic organisms. Polycyclic musks are frequently used fragrances, and they have been detected in different compartments of the environment. The aim of this study was to fill some empirical data gaps for AHTN and HHCB for benthic organisms. Results show that differences exist between both organisms. Chironomus riparius exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for AHTN and HHCB substantially lower than predicted for nontransformed organics. The BCFs for both chemicals increased after coexposure of the organism to the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide. Thus, the low BCF values were the result of rapid biotransformation of AHTN and HHCB in the midge larvae. Bioconcentration kinetics indicated that both chemicals induced their own cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Acute toxicity of AHTN to midge larvae was reduced compared to predicted baseline toxicity and was similar for HHCB. Bioconcentration of AHTN and HHCB in the worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) is in agreement with predictions based on the octanol-water partition coefficients of these chemicals. Acute toxicity was found to be similar to predicted values for baseline toxicity. Summarizing, for AHTN and HHCB, acute toxicity and bioconcentration behavior in L. variegatus was in accordance with predicted data for nontransformed organics. In C. riparius, bioconcentration as well as toxicity were reduced.

  15. Primary chemical and physical characterization of acute toxic components in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Svenson, A.; Linlin, Z.; Kaj, L. )

    1992-10-01

    A chemical and physical primary characterization work sheet was developed based on the Microtox test, a bacterial bioluminescence system used as a rapid estimate of acute aquatic toxic effects. Measurements of the variation in light reduction upon different pretreatments provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the main toxic component(s) in test wastewater samples. This primary characterization of a wastewater sample was performed within 1 day. Tests of pure toxic chemical compounds and wastewaters with known and unknown primary toxicants are presented. Outlines to the chemical analysis and identification of toxic components may be deduced from the primary characterization. The provisional characterization may also provide information on wastewater treatment techniques.

  16. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    King, L M; Anderson, M B; Sikka, S C; George, W J

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 micromol/kg CdCl2). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 micromol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 micromol/kg CdCl2 administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  17. SYSTEMIC IMBALANCE OF ESSENTIAL METALS AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION IN RATS FOLLOWING ACUTE PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently demonstrated that PM containing water-soluble zinc may cause cardiac injury following pulmonary exposure. To investigate if pulmonary zinc exposure causes systemic metal imbalance and direct cardiac effects, we intratracheally (IT) instilled male Wistar Kyoto (WK...

  18. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  19. Studies on the acute toxicity of fluoride ion to stickleback, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.; Holsen, T.M.; Ibay, N.C.; Block, R.M.; De Leon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have studied the acute toxicity of fluoride ion to Gasterosteus aculeatus, Fimephales promelas, and juvenile Salmo gairdneri. LC50 values varied with species and (due to precipitation) initial water hardness. Exposure to elevated fluoride levels in water resulted in increased blood fluoride levels in Salmo gairdneri.

  20. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  1. Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity associated with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nkanyezi N; Asarch, Adam; VanBeek, Marta; Swick, Brian L

    2013-06-01

    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity is not classically associated with prominent tissue eosinophilia. We present a case of acute methotrexate toxicity associated with pancytopenia and mucocutaneous erosion with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. A 79-year-old male, with a history of psoriasis vulgaris on methotrexate therapy, presented with blisters of the oral mucosa, groin, sacrum, and extremities after daily consumption of methotrexate. Examination revealed blisters and erosions localized to psoriatic plaques, the perineum, and the oral mucosa. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated pancytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, and elevated liver function tests. A skin biopsy of an eroded plaque revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia with epidermal erosion, parakeratosis, and loss of the granular cell layer. There was an underlying band-like lymphoid infiltrate with interface dermatitis, dyskeratotic keratinocytes, and numerous eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence studies were negative for the deposition of immunoreactants. Methotrexate was held, and the patient received leucovorin resulting in improvement of blood counts and cutaneous lesions. The histopathologic changes associated with acute mucocutaneous toxicity have been described as pauci-inflammatory erosions associated with dyskeratotic keratinocytes to interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes and occasionally associated eosinophils. Although these changes are most often superimposed on psoriatic plaques, they have been reported to occur on normal skin. Therefore, the differential diagnosis may include lichen planus, a lichenoid drug eruption, or a fixed drug eruption, and given the presence of mucosal ulceration, incipient pemphigus vulgaris or paraneoplastic pemphigus vulgaris. This case illustrates that acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity may be associated with both interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. PMID:23221488

  2. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  3. Partial Life-Cycle and Acute Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids to Freshwater Mussels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24–96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glo...

  4. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  5. EXTRAPOLATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AMONG AQUATIC SPECIES BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides inter-species QSARs for acute toxicity to ciliates, fish and daphnia...The inter-species QSARs can be also useful in the analysis of the relative species sensitivity to a variety of pollutants and will be useful in assisting in risk assessments of potential ...

  6. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposure and to characterize toxicologic response following acute high exposures. The latter is of... pulmonary toxicity by examining biochemical and cytologic endpoints of material from the lungs of animals... additional functional and morphological evaluations may be necessary to assess completely the...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure and to characterize toxicologic response following acute high exposures. The latter is of... pulmonary toxicity by examining biochemical and cytologic endpoints of material from the lungs of animals... additional functional and morphological evaluations may be necessary to assess completely the...

  9. Acute toxicity of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium-accumulator plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) accumulating plants, such as Astragalus spp. and Aster spp., can accumulate up to 8,000 to 13,000 ppm selenium and can cause acute toxicity when consumed by livestock or wildlife. Recent research has shown that much of the selenium in some Se-accumulating plants is stored as selenate ...

  10. Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of... detailed microscopic examination to identify adverse effects of chemical substances on this organ system... histopathologic lesions, body weight changes, effects on mortality, and any other toxic effects. These acute...

  12. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers.

  13. Interacting effects of pH acclimation, and pH and heavy metals on acute and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (Cladocera)

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, S.E.; Cherry, D.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Understanding the factors that modify the sensitivity of the zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia to toxicants is important to the interpretation of chronic toxicity data generated for granting industrial permits. Early reports of high sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia to brief pH excursions led toxicologists to question the use of C. dubia as a test organism. Acute and chronic toxicity of pH and heavy metals, pH acclimation to acidic and alkaline conditions and the role of pH in modifying heavy metal (copper and zinc) toxicities were investigated. Ceriodaphnia dubia acclimated near neutral pH had acute (48-hr) lethal concentrations of 4.6 and 10.3 SU. Reproduction and mortality were not impaired between pH 6.14-8.99 regardless of pH acclimation history. Reproduction was significantly impaired beyond these extremes. Acute exposures to both heavy metals at pH 6, 8 and 9 and in water hardness of 180, 110 and 100 mg/L showed C dubia was consistently most sensitive in low pH and low hardness waters. Reproduction and mortality were not so affected by pH in chronic exposures. Similar concentrations of metals at all pH levels resulted in equivalent reductions in offspring per female. The results strongly suggest that effluent guidelines for pH at 6-9 are sound, and that toxicant activity in chronic time frames is directed primarily by concentration and water hardness, not by pH. 34 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  15. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J.; Biddinger, G.R.; Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  16. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. PMID:22440551

  17. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days.

  18. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  19. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  20. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, K. S.; Sri Nurestri, A. M.; Sinniah, S. K.; Kim, K. H.; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. PMID:20548939

  1. [Synthesis of new mandelic acid derivatives with preservative action. Synthesis and acute toxicity study].

    PubMed

    Stan, Cătălina; Năstase, V; Pavelescu, M; Vasile, Cornelia; Dumitrache, M; Gherase, Florenţa; Năstasă, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the antiseptic action of DL mandelic acid, there were synthesized a series of esters of the mandelic acid, esters which could have preservative action. This study present the synthesis, structure validation and the acute toxicity study, for the new synthesized compounds. The esters were obtained by acylating 4-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl, ethyl, methyl esters and salicylic acid with the DL mandelic chloride (that was protected initially by the hydroxylic group). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by quantitative elemental analysis and RMN 1H spectral measurements. The acute toxicity was determined for two of the esters, who proved to had a preservative action (previously studied) and indicated that these esters have a small toxicity.

  2. Prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals in mixtures: worms Tubifex tubifex and gas/liquid distribution.

    PubMed

    Tichý, M; Borek-Dohalský, V; Matousová, D; Rucki, M; Feltl, L; Roth, Z

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is to support our proposal of the procedure for predicting acute toxicity of binary mixtures by QSAR analysis techniques. The changes of a mixture composition are described by molar ratio R and visualized in the R-plot (QCAR--quantitative composition-activity relationships). The approach was inspired by Rault and Dalton's laws, their positive and negative deviations in the behavior of a mixture of real gases, by Loewe and Muischnek isoboles and by the Finney test of additivity. Acute toxicity was determined by the laboratory test with woms Tubifex tubifex. The additivity of the acute toxicity in the binary mixture benzene + nitrobenzene was confirmed and a new interaction is described: "mixed interaction" with the binary mixture aniline + ethanol. The "mixed interaction" means that depending on mixture composition, both potentiation and inhibition can occur. As the first physicochemical descriptor of the changes caused by the changing composition of binary mixtures, the gas/liquid equilibrium was studied and a composition of the gaseous phase was determined by a gas chromatographic method. The method for determination of concentrations in the gaseous phase was described. The gaseous phase composition of benzene + nitrobenzene. benzene + ethanol, benzene + aniline and ethanol + aniline mixtures was analyzed. It was found that if the concentrations of the mixture's components in the gaseous phase behave nonideally (they are not additive), the acute toxicity of the same mixture is not additive as well. Another descriptor to distinguish between potentiation and inhibition will be, however, necessary. The properties, both gaseous phase composition and the acute toxicity, of the benzene + nitrobenzene mixture are additive. In mixtures with the mixed interaction, the R-plot of the composition of the gaseous phase is complex with a large variation of results.

  3. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  7. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  8. Antineoplastic activity of ouabain and pyrithione zinc in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tailler, M; Senovilla, L; Lainey, E; Thépot, S; Métivier, D; Sébert, M; Baud, V; Billot, K; Fenaux, P; Galluzzi, L; Boehrer, S; Kroemer, G; Kepp, O

    2012-07-26

    Despite recent progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the prognosis of this rather heterogeneous disease remains poor and novel chemotherapeutics that specifically target leukemic cells must be developed. To address this need at the preclinical level, we implemented a high content imaging-based screen for the identification of small agents that induce AML cell death in vitro. Among a panel of 1040 Food and Drug Administration-approved agents, we identified pyrithione zinc (PZ) and ouabain (OUA) as potential antileukemic compounds. Both PZ and OUA efficiently induced cell death associated with apoptotic chromatin condensation and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB survival signaling, leading to reduced expression of antiapoptotic proteins, in several AML cell lines. PZ- and OUA-induced cell death was associated with the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and led to the release of cytochrome c followed by caspase activation. Both PZ and OUA exerted significant anticancer effects in vivo, on human AML cells xenografts as well as ex vivo, on CD34(+) (but not CD34(-)) malignant myeloblasts from AML patients. Altogether, our results suggest that PZ and OUA may exhibit antileukemic effects by inducing the apoptotic demise of AML cells. PMID:22105358

  9. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Swapnil; Friedman, Ran; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS)) database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50)-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL). We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77%) and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74%) to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity. PMID:26006240

  10. Bicarbonate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis and its influence on zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina Lopez; Hyne, Ross V; Patra, Ron; Ramasamy, Sunderam; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-05-01

    Bicarbonate is often a major ionic constituent associated with produced waters from methane gas extraction and coal mining, yet few studies have determined its specific toxicity. Currently, the environmental risk of bicarbonate anion in water discharges is assessed based on the toxicity of sodium chloride or artificial seawater and is regulated via electrical conductivity. Increased NaHCO(3) added to Ceriodaphnia dubia in synthetic or natural water gave similar 48-h 10% effective concentration (EC10) values of 1750 ± 125 mg NaHCO(3)/L (mean ± standard error) and 1670 ± 180 mg NaHCO(3)/L, respectively. Bicarbonate was toxic to C. dubia in both waters with conductivities above 1900 µS/cm. In contrast, when conductivity was elevated with NaCl, toxicity to C. dubia was observed only above 2800 µS/cm. Bicarbonate also impaired C. dubia reproduction with an EC10 of 340 mg NaHCO(3)/L. Major ion composition also influenced Zn bioavailability, a common co-occurring metal contaminant in coal mine waters, with sublethal concentrations of NaHCO(3) and elevated pH increasing Zn toxicity. Higher pH was the dominant parameter determining a 10-fold increase in the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) for Zn toxicity to C. dubia at pH 8.6 of 34 µg Zn/L (95% confidence limit = 32-37 µg Zn/L) compared with the Zn toxicity at approximately circumneutral pH. Exposure of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis (Atyidae) in natural water to increasing bicarbonate gave a mean 10-d 10% lethal concentration (LC10) of 850 ± 115 mg NaHCO(3)/L, associated with a mean conductivity EC10 of 1145 µS/cm, which is considerably lower than toxicity of NaCl and artificial seawater to this species reported elsewhere. Because toxicity was influenced by salt composition, specific ions should be regulated rather than conductivity alone in mine wastewater discharges. PMID:24497317

  11. Bicarbonate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis and its influence on zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina Lopez; Hyne, Ross V; Patra, Ron; Ramasamy, Sunderam; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-05-01

    Bicarbonate is often a major ionic constituent associated with produced waters from methane gas extraction and coal mining, yet few studies have determined its specific toxicity. Currently, the environmental risk of bicarbonate anion in water discharges is assessed based on the toxicity of sodium chloride or artificial seawater and is regulated via electrical conductivity. Increased NaHCO(3) added to Ceriodaphnia dubia in synthetic or natural water gave similar 48-h 10% effective concentration (EC10) values of 1750 ± 125 mg NaHCO(3)/L (mean ± standard error) and 1670 ± 180 mg NaHCO(3)/L, respectively. Bicarbonate was toxic to C. dubia in both waters with conductivities above 1900 µS/cm. In contrast, when conductivity was elevated with NaCl, toxicity to C. dubia was observed only above 2800 µS/cm. Bicarbonate also impaired C. dubia reproduction with an EC10 of 340 mg NaHCO(3)/L. Major ion composition also influenced Zn bioavailability, a common co-occurring metal contaminant in coal mine waters, with sublethal concentrations of NaHCO(3) and elevated pH increasing Zn toxicity. Higher pH was the dominant parameter determining a 10-fold increase in the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) for Zn toxicity to C. dubia at pH 8.6 of 34 µg Zn/L (95% confidence limit = 32-37 µg Zn/L) compared with the Zn toxicity at approximately circumneutral pH. Exposure of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis (Atyidae) in natural water to increasing bicarbonate gave a mean 10-d 10% lethal concentration (LC10) of 850 ± 115 mg NaHCO(3)/L, associated with a mean conductivity EC10 of 1145 µS/cm, which is considerably lower than toxicity of NaCl and artificial seawater to this species reported elsewhere. Because toxicity was influenced by salt composition, specific ions should be regulated rather than conductivity alone in mine wastewater discharges.

  12. The Acute Toxicity of Tannic Acid Administered Intragastrically

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eldon M.

    1965-01-01

    The LD50 ± S.E. of tannic acid given orally to albino rats was found to be 2.26±0.083 g. per kg. body weight, which is higher than its apparent LD50 when given per rectum. The immediate cause of death was respiratory failure preceded by convulsions when death occurred early and by hypothermic cachexia when death was delayed. Death was associated with a progressively developing hepatic necrosis and nephritis and a temporary acute gastroenteritis. It was accompanied by loss of weight and edema in many organs, evidence of stimulation of the spleen, adrenal cortex and testes, and atrophy of the thymus. Recovery in survivors was associated with a temporary increase in weight of the spleen and testes and persistence of loss of weight in the adrenal, pyloric stomach, and skin. PMID:14291458

  13. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Li; SHAO, Wei-Wei; DING, Guo-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; YU, Miao-Ling; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas. PMID:25017745

  14. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-05-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver.

  15. Uptake and toxicity of nano-ZnO in the plant-feeding nematode, Xiphinema vuittenezi: the role of dissolved zinc and nanoparticle-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Sávoly, Zoltán; Hrács, Krisztina; Pemmer, Bernhard; Streli, Christina; Záray, Gyula; Nagy, Péter István

    2016-05-01

    Nanoparticulate ZnO is one of the most commonly applied nanomaterials. As ZnO is more soluble than many other oxide nanoparticles, its toxicity beyond the nanoparticle-specific effects can be attributed to the dissolved ionic zinc. The investigation of uptake and toxicity of nano-ZnO in the plant-feeding nematode, Xiphinema vuittenezi, which was used in previous studies as a biological model organism, was aimed. The establishment of the role of dissolved zinc and nanoparticle-specific effects in the toxicity was also the objective of our study. Zn uptake was found to be significantly higher for bulk and nano-ZnO than for ZnSO4 solution; however, treatments caused loss of potassium in the worms in a dissolved-zinc-dependent manner. The toxicity was the lowest for bulk ZnO, and it was very similar for nano-ZnO and ZnSO4 solution. Accordingly, the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles is a combination of dissolved-zinc-caused toxicity and nanoparticle-specific effects.

  16. Tigriopus fulvus: The interlaboratory comparison of the acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Faraponova, Olga; Giacco, Elisabetta; Biandolino, Francesca; Prato, Ermelinda; Del Prete, Francesco; Valenti, Alessandra; Sarcina, Stefania; Pasteris, Andrea; Montecavalli, Adele; Comin, Stefano; Cesca, Claudia; Francese, Marco; Cigar, Monica; Piazza, Veronica; Falleni, Fabrizio; Lacchetti, Ines

    2016-02-01

    The paper reports the results of an interlaboratory comparison involving 11 laboratories, with the objectives of apply and validate a new standardized ecotoxicological method on marine crustacean Tigriopus fulvus. Copper was chosen as reference toxicant as indicated in the official method. The results of two independent tests performed by all the participants, demonstrated that the new method is simple, fast and easy to learn. This is confirmed even by the values of z-score index calculated for each laboratory and the relative coefficient of variation (CV) which are 6.32% after 24h, 6.56 after 48h and 35.3% after 96h, mentioned in the ISO standards for the precision of interlaboratory assays. Therefore its use could be recommended in environmental studies and monitoring. PMID:26584461

  17. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes.

  18. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  19. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  20. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  1. Tolerance and acclimation to zinc of field-collected Daphnia magna populations.

    PubMed

    Muyssen, Brita T A; Janssen, Colin R; Bossuyt, Bart T A

    2002-01-01

    The zinc tolerance of two Daphnia magna populations collected at a zinc contaminated site was studied. One clone was isolated from each population in order to determine interclonal variation in zinc tolerance. 48hEC50-values, life table parameters, carapace lengths and cellular energy allocation (CEA) were used as test endpoints and compared with the results obtained with a standard laboratory clone. The natural clones were more tolerant to acute zinc toxicity (up to a factor of 4) and exhibited a higher reproduction rate (factor 2) and carapace length (factor 1.2). The optimal zinc concentrations for the natural clones ranged from 80 to 200 microg Zn/l. When cultured without zinc, the natural clones gradually lost their zinc tolerance. Therefore, the environmental relevance of using toxicity data obtained with organisms (natural, as well as laboratory clones) acclimated to culture media containing no or very small amounts of zinc can be questioned. PMID:11755696

  2. Development of a salinity/toxicity relationship to predict acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms. Interim final report, June 1990-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Gulley, D.D.

    1992-04-01

    Discharge of produced water to surface waters is generally regulated as part of the NPDES permit problem and, therefore, may be subject to discharge limits for aquatic toxicity. Most produced waters contain elevated (relative to fresh water) concentrations of major ions (e.g., sodium, chloride) that can be toxic to fresh water organisms regardless of other organic and inorganic constituents. The objective of the research was to develop a Salinity/Toxicity Relationship (STR) that predicts the acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms based on the concentrations of major ions in solution. Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to measure the acute toxicity of major ions to three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and fathead minnows). These laboratory toxicity data were then incorporated into multi-variate logistic regression equations that predict the acute toxicity of any combination of major ions. Logistic regression equations represented the toxicity data quite well, generally explaining in excess of 80 percent of the overall variance in survival. Application of the Ceriodaphnia STR to field data collected from surface waters receiving produced water discharges showed very strong correlation of STR predictions with the results of toxicity tests conducted on field-collected samples.

  3. Effects of zinc, copper, and lead toxicity on. cap alpha. -aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of lead, zinc and copper in the human environment has been recognized as a major toxicological factor. Lead ions have been shown to inhibit the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD), which is involved in the biosynthesis of heme. Copper also has its inhibitory effect on delta-ALAD activity. A study has shown that the delta-ALAD was activated by zinc ions at physiological concentrations. In view of these reports, it was considered worthwhile to study the poisoning effects of lead, zinc and copper on delta-ALAD activity along with the concentrations of these metal ions in the blood. A possible role of Zn/sup + +/, Cu/sup + +/, and Pb/sup + +/ interaction and their influence on delta-ALAD has been explored in the present paper.

  4. Toxicity assessment of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione using early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the early stages of development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Larval morphological abnormalities were studied after the exposure of C. intestinalis embryos at different stages of development. The median effective concentrations (EC50) ranged from 226-590 nM. The larval settlement stage was the most sensitive to Zpt. Toxic effects of Zpt on larval settlement were detected at 9 nM (EC10). The inhibition of C. intestinalis embryonic development was also used to study the loss of toxicity in Zpt solutions exposed to direct sunlight and laboratory UV light. The results showed that the toxicity of Zpt solutions decreased but did not disappear after 4 h exposure to direct sunlight (EC50 = 484 nM) or UV light (EC50 = 453 nM), compared to control Zpt solutions prepared in dark conditions. On the basis of the present data, predicted no effect concentrations of Zpt to C. intestinalis larvae are lower than predicted environmental concentrations of Zpt in certain polluted areas and therefore, may pose a risk to C. intestinalis populations. PMID:16522542

  5. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals. PMID:10777248

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  7. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Darsana, R; Chandrasehar, G; Deepa, V; Gowthami, Y; Chitrikha, T; Ayyappan, S; Goparaju, A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95% confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L(-1), respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L(-1). Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea. PMID:26350898

  8. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  9. Mitigation of acute toxicity of coal-derived liquids by hydrotreatment. [Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dumont, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Acute toxicity of 12 coal-derived liquids representing 3 different technologies and 4 different severities of hydrotreatment has been examined with the Tetrahymena population growth bioassay. Tetrahymena were exposed to various concentrations of the organic materials and growth impairment was monitored. In addition, analyses of the major organic elements in the coal liquids are presented. Coal-derived liquids have a greater heteroatom and aromatic content than do natural crude oils. Hydrotreatment, the catalytic addition of hydrogen, concomitantly reduces toxicity as well as heteroatom content and aromaticity. Regression analysis of log toxicity vs. % weight of the major organic elements suggests hydrogen content may be a good indicator of relative toxicity of coal-derived liquids.

  10. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  11. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. PMID:23847016

  12. Nrf2-dependent protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Yuji; Nguyen, Vu Thanh; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-08-15

    Transcription factor Nrf2 induces a number of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins to confer protection against the toxic effects of a diverse range of chemicals including inorganic arsenicals. Although a number of studies using cultured cells have demonstrated that Nrf2 has a cell-protective function against acute and high-dose arsenic toxicity, there is no clear in vivo evidence of this effect. In the present study, we genetically investigated the protective role of Nrf2 against acute sodium arsenite toxicity using the zebrafish Nrf2 mutant, nrf2a(fh318). After treatment with 1mM sodium arsenite, the survival of nrf2a(fh318) larvae was significantly shorter than that of wild-type siblings, suggesting that Nrf2 protected the zebrafish larvae against high-dose arsenite exposure. To understand the molecular basis of the Nrf2-dependent protection, we analyzed the gene expression profiles after arsenite exposure, and found that the genes involved in the antioxidative function (prdx1 and gclc), arsenic metabolism (gstp1) and xenobiotic elimination (abcc2) were induced in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Furthermore, pre-treatment with sulforaphane, a well-known Nrf2 activator improved the survival of zebrafish larvae after arsenic exposure. Based on these results, we concluded that Nrf2 plays a fundamental and conserved role in protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity.

  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of six anticancer drugs on rotifers and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Fiumano, Vittorio; Isidori, Marina

    2014-11-01

    The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mgL(-)(1), higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil showed the highest toxic potential in all test organisms, inducing 50% reproduction inhibition in crustaceans at concentrations on the order of μgL(-)(1). Rotifers were less susceptible to these pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low effective concentrations suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study could be an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances.

  14. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p<0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. PMID:27612832

  15. Acute toxicity of vipoxin and its components: is the acidic component an "inhibitor" of PLA2 toxicity?

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Vasil N; Stoykova, Silviya; Goranova, Yana; Mitewa, Mariana; Petrova, Svetla

    2012-12-01

    Vipoxin is a heterodimeric neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Bulgarian long-nosed viper Vipera ammodytes meridionalis. Vipoxin represents a noncovalent association of two subunits - a basic and toxic phospholipase A2 enzyme, and an acidic non-enzymatic component (vipoxin's acidic component). It was postulated that the phospholipase A2 subunit was more toxic than the whole vipoxin complex and the function of the acidic component was to reduce the enzymatic and toxic activities of the basic phospholipase A2. In the present study, we report new data on the acute toxicity (LD50) of vipoxin and its individual separated components. Vipoxin LD50 (mice, i.p. and i.v.) values were found to be 0.7-1.2 mg/kg b.w. (i.p.) and 0.9-1.3 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.). The established LD50 values for the separated pure phospholipase A2 subunit are higher - 10.0-13.0 mg/kg b.w (i.p.) and 2.2-3.0 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.), i.e. the individual phospholipase A2 subunit displays less toxic activity than vipoxin, contrary to the data published in the literature. The reconstituted vipoxin complex (obtained after preliminary incubation of pure separated phospholipase A2 and acidic component showed enzyme activity and toxicity comparable to that of the native vipoxin complex. Addition of acidic component to the phospholipase A2 subunit showed a positive effect on the enzymatic activity, reaching maximal enzyme reaction rate of acidic component to phospholipase A2 molar ratio of 0.8:1 on using 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid as substrate. For the first time we showed that the acidic subunit was absolutely required for the toxic activity of vipoxin. Based on the obtained results, we assume that the function of the acidic component is to stabilize the neurotoxin's quaternary structure, required for its toxic and enzymatic activities, similarly to the role of the acidic component of crotoxin. PMID:23554559

  16. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  17. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  18. Effectiveness of a propolis and zinc solution in preventing acute otitis media in children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, P; Esposito, S; Bianchini, S; Desantis, C; Galeone, C; Nazzari, E; Pignataro, L; Principi, N

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) is frequently encountered in infants and children and the lack of any definitive treatment has led parents and physicians to try complementary and alternative therapies. We evaluated the efficacy of a propolis and zinc suspension in preventing AOM in 122 children aged 1-5 years with a documented history of rAOM, who were prospectively, blindly, randomized 1:1 to receive the suspension plus elimination of environmental risk factors or elimination of environmental risk factors only. AOM- and respiratory-related morbidity were assessed at study entry and every four weeks. In the 3-month treatment period AOM was diagnosed in 31 (50.8%) children given the propolis and zinc suspension and in 43 (70.5%) controls (p=0.04). The mean number of episodes of AOM per child/month was 0.23+/-0.26 in the propolis and zinc group and 0.34+/-0.29 in controls (reduction 32.0%, p=0.03). The administration of a propolis and zinc suspension to children with a history of rAOM can significantly reduce the risk of new AOM episodes and AOM-related antibiotic courses, with no problem of safety or tolerability, and with a very good degree of parental satisfaction. No effect can be expected on respiratory infections other than AOM.

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota. PMID:27448754

  20. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rat using local lazy learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute toxicity means the ability of a substance to cause adverse effects within a short period following dosing or exposure, which is usually the first step in the toxicological investigations of unknown substances. The median lethal dose, LD50, is frequently used as a general indicator of a substance’s acute toxicity, and there is a high demand on developing non-animal-based prediction of LD50. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurately predict compound LD50 using a single QSAR model, because the acute toxicity may involve complex mechanisms and multiple biochemical processes. Results In this study, we reported the use of local lazy learning (LLL) methods, which could capture subtle local structure-toxicity relationships around each query compound, to develop LD50 prediction models: (a) local lazy regression (LLR): a linear regression model built using k neighbors; (b) SA: the arithmetical mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (c) SR: the weighted mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (d) GP: the projection point of the compound on the line defined by its two nearest neighbors. We defined the applicability domain (AD) to decide to what an extent and under what circumstances the prediction is reliable. In the end, we developed a consensus model based on the predicted values of individual LLL models, yielding correlation coefficients R2 of 0.712 on a test set containing 2,896 compounds. Conclusion Encouraged by the promising results, we expect that our consensus LLL model of LD50 would become a useful tool for predicting acute toxicity. All models developed in this study are available via http://www.dddc.ac.cn/admetus. PMID:24959207

  1. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were <45 microg Cu/L or <12 mg N/L and were often at or below the final acute values (FAVs) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 acute water quality criterion (WQC) for copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  3. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  4. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (p<0.05). The experimental results for mixtures containing unequal ratios of IBU and APAP indicated that mixtures with high APAP concentrations and low IBU concentrations exhibited markedly greater toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=4.78 mg/L) than APAP or IBU alone. However, mixtures with high IBU concentrations and low APAP concentrations exhibited lower toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=6.78 mg/L) than IBU or APAP alone. This study demonstrated that different mixtures of IBU and APAP were associated with different toxic effects in green neon shrimp. PMID:24860956

  5. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (p<0.05). The experimental results for mixtures containing unequal ratios of IBU and APAP indicated that mixtures with high APAP concentrations and low IBU concentrations exhibited markedly greater toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=4.78 mg/L) than APAP or IBU alone. However, mixtures with high IBU concentrations and low APAP concentrations exhibited lower toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=6.78 mg/L) than IBU or APAP alone. This study demonstrated that different mixtures of IBU and APAP were associated with different toxic effects in green neon shrimp.

  6. Polymorphic Variants in Oxidative Stress Genes and Acute Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Elisa Eugenia; Abba, Martín Carlos; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Fernánde, Eduardo; Güerci, Alba Mabel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as an indirect product of radiation therapy (RT). Genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism may influence the level of RT-induced adverse effects. We evaluated the potential association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–related response to radiotherapy injury in breast cancer patients undergoing RT. Materials and Methods Eighty patients receiving conventional RT were included. Acute effects were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scores. DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swab samples. SNPs were genotyped for GSTP1, GSTA1, SOD2, and NOS3 genes by polymerase chain reaction–based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate analysis (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) and principal component analysis were used for correlation of SNPs and factors related to risk of developing ≥ grade 2 acute effects. Results Sixty-five patients (81.2%) showed side effects, 32 (40%) presented moderate to severe acute skin toxicity, and 33 (41.2%) manifested minimal acute skin reactions by the end of treatment. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, nominally significant associations were found among body mass index (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 8.5338 to 1.1274; p=0.022), breast size (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 17.04 to 1.54; p=0.004), and grade ≥ 2 acute radiation skin toxicity. A significant association was also observed between NOS3 G894T polymorphism (OR, 9.8; 95% CI, 211.6 to 0.45; p=0.041) and grade ≥ 2 acute radiation skin toxicity in patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Conclusion The analysis of the factors involved in individual radiosensitivity contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this trait. PMID:26790968

  7. Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Anderson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high concentrations of metals in soil are associated with reductions in decomposer populations. We have here determined the relation between the concentrations of lead and zinc added as oxides to soil litter and the survival and reproduction of a decomposer population under controlled conditions. Laboratory populations of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latr) were fed soil litter treated with lead or zinc at concentrations that ranged from 100 to 12,800 ppm. The survival of the adults, the maximum number of young alive, and the average number of young alive, were recorded over 64 weeks. Lead at 12,800 ppm and zinc at 1,600 ppm or more had statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative effects on the populations. These results agree with field observations suggesting that lead and zinc have reduced populations of decomposers in contaminated forest soil litter, and concentrations are similar to those reported to be associated with reductions in natural populations of decomposers. Poisoning of decomposers may disrupt nutrient cycling, reduce the numbers of invertebrates available to other wildlife for food, and contribute to the contamination of food chains.

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in results of purple urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) toxicity tests with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, B.M.; Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    Purple urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) were maintained in year-round spawning condition in the laboratory for use in fertilization and larval development experiments designed to assess temporal variability in response to zinc. Results of these tests were compared to those from tests using gametes obtained from a field-collected population. Fertilization and larval development tests were also conducted comparing field-collected purple urchins from three geographically distinct groups on the West Coast of the United States. Fertilization tests conducted to assess temporal variability produced variable median effects concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 4.1 to >100 {micro}g/L zinc. Larval development tests did not demonstrate significant differences in response to zinc between geographically distinct purple urchin populations. Fertilization test variability was examined in terms of sperm concentration and sperm collection method during two seasons. Reduced variability was found with dry sperm collection in tests conducted in March 1995 but increased again in tests conducted in June 1995, regardless of sperm collection method. Increased variability in response to zinc may be caused by seasonal temperature effects.

  9. DOSE-DEPENDENT TRANSITIONS IN MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY: ZINC CASE EXAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element. Maternal Zn deficiency can result in complications of pregnancy and inadequate supply of Zn to the conceptus can interfere with the development of numerous organ systems. Maternal dietary Zn deficiency has been shown to be teratogenic in a...

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  12. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Bradbury, S.P.; Niemi, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aqueous toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a mode-of-action database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted.

  13. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems. PMID:27539747

  14. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  15. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species.

  16. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems.

  17. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  18. Species comparison of acute inhalation toxicity of ozone and phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.; Stead, A.G.; Graham, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O/sub 3/) and phosgene (COCl/sub 2/) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation toxicity studies. The effect of 4-h exposures to ozone at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm, and to COCl/sub 2/ and 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm was determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, and mice. Lavage fluid protein (LFP) accumulation 18-20 h after exposure was used as the indicator of O3- and COCl/sub 2/-induced pulmonary edema. All species had similar basal levels of LFP (250-350 mg/ml) when a volume of saline that approximated the total lung capacity was used to lavage the collapsed lungs. Ozone effects were most marked in guinea pigs, which showed significant effects at 0.2 ppm and above. Mice, hamsters, and rats showed effects at 1.0 ppm O3 and above, while rabbits responded only at 2.0 ppm O3. Phosgene similarly affected mice, hamsters, and rats at 0.2 ppm and above, while guinea pigs and rabbits were affected at 0.5 ppm and above. Percent recovery of lavage fluid varied significantly between species, guinea pigs having lower recovery than other species with both gases. Lavage fluid recovery was lower following exposure to higher levels of O3 but not COCl/sub 2/. Results of this study indicate that significant species differences are seen in the response to low levels of O3 and COCl/sub 2/. These differences do not appear to be related in a simple manner to body weight.

  19. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  20. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, R A

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared. Images Figure 1

  1. Effect of sulfate concentration on acute toxicity of selenite and selenate to invertebrates and fish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; McCauley, D.J.; McCool, P.; Winkler, N.; DeGraeve, M.

    1998-12-01

    The effect of sulfate concentration on the acute toxicity of selenite (Se IV) and selenate (Se VI) to freshwater organisms was evaluated using toxicity test data generated from this study and toxicity data obtained from the open literature. The acute toxicity of Se IV and Se VI to fathead minnows and two amphipod species, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Hyalella azteca, were determined in four different sulfate concentrations. The newly generated toxicity data combined with the data obtained from the literature were evaluated using analysis of covariance to determine if there was a significant relationship between acute toxicity and sulfate concentration. The analysis of the Se IV data indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the acute toxicity of Se IV and sulfate concentration. A significant relationship was found between the acute toxicity of Se VI to freshwater organisms and sulfate concentration. Statistically significant slopes describing the relationship between Se VI toxicity and sulfate concentration were determined for individual species and for the combined data. A sulfate-based equation was constructed using the pooled slope to modify the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for selenate: CMC = e{sup [0.4259(ln[sulfate]) + 4.6305]}.

  2. Acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium pentachlorophenate to daphnids and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Paulson, R.L.; Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.

    1986-08-01

    When estimating the toxicity of effluents it is desirable to use organisms sensitive to a wide range of pollutants. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommends the use of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas to assess the toxicity of freshwater effluents. Ceriodaphnia sp. has also received increased attention as a standard toxicity test organism due to its sensitivity, short generation time, and ubiquitous distribution. Comparison of toxicity data generated by different investigators is often difficult because of differences in test procedures, dilution waters, or nutritional history of test organisms. The primary objectives of this research were to compare the sensitivity of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia reticulata, and Pimephales promelas to the reference toxicants CdCl/sub 2/ and sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP) and to compare results with those obtained by other investigators. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dilution waters on the acute toxicity of these reference toxicants to the above test organisms.

  3. Clinical & pathological features of acute toxicity due to Cassia occidentalis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, V M; John, T J; Kumar, Amod

    2009-07-01

    Cassia occidentalis is an annual shrub found in many countries including India. Although bovines and ovines do not eat it, parts of the plant are used in some traditional herbal medicines. Several animal studies have documented that fresh or dried beans are toxic. Ingestion of large amounts by grazing animals has caused serious illness and death. The toxic effects in large animals, rodents and chicken are on skeletal muscles, liver, kidney and heart. The predominant systems involved depend upon the animal species and the dose of the beans consumed. Brain functions are often affected. Gross lesions at necropsy consist of necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres and hepatic centrilobular necrosis; renal tubular necrosis is less frequent. Muscle and liver cell necrosis is reflected in biochemical abnormalities. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) is 1 g/kg for mice and rats. Toxicity is attributed to various anthraquinones and their derivatives and alkaloids, but the specific toxins have not been identified. Data on human toxicity are extremely scarce. This review summarizes information available on Cassia toxicity in animals and compares it with toxic features reported in children. The clinical spectrum and histopathology of C. occidentalis poisoning in children resemble those of animal toxicity, affecting mainly hepatic, skeletal muscle and brain tissues. The case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 per cent in children. PMID:19700797

  4. [Acute toxicity of three typical pollutants to aquatic organisms and their water quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Two species of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and a red worm Chironomidae larvae were selected as test organisms in determining the acute toxicity effects of Cr (VI), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and nitrobenzene. The results were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. The 96 h-EC50 values of Cr (VI), TCP and nitrobenzene on C. pyrenoidosa were 1.34 mg x L(-1, 4.55 mg x L(-1) and 86.58 mg x L(-1), respectively, while those of S. obliqnus were 19.52 mg x L(-1), 3.71 mg x L(-1) and 74.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The mortality of C. larvae was 15% when the concentration of Cr(VI) was increased to 1,500 mg x L(-1). The 48 h-LC50 values of TCP and nitrobenzene on C. larvae were 9.29 mg x L(-1) and 98.34 mg x L(-1), respectively. These results indicated that Cr( VI) showed higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa, while only moderate toxicity to S. obliqnus; TCP had higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa and S. oblignus; while nitrobenzene was only moderately toxic to both species of microalgae. The toxicity among the three pollutants to C. larvae was in the order of TCP > nitrobenzene > Cr (VI). PMID:24720216

  5. Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of zinc or vitamin A supplementation in young children with acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D; Haque, S S; Fuchs, G J; Habte, D

    1999-02-01

    In a double-blind, controlled trial with a factorial design, 684 patients (aged 6 months to 2 y; excludes 6 early dropouts) with acute watery diarrhoea of 3 d or less and some dehydration, who were attending a hospital, were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive: (a) vitamin A 4500 microg retinol equivalent daily for 15 d; (b) 14.2 mg elemental zinc as acetate for the first 417 patients and 40 mg of the remaining 273 patients randomized to this group for 15 d; (c) both vitamin A 4500 microg retinol equivalent and zinc at the above doses daily for 15 d; or (d) placebo mixtures for 15 d. Patients were observed in the hospital for 24 h and followed up at home for 15 d. All received ascorbic acid 30 mg with each dose of medicine or placebo. Zinc supplementation was associated with a reduced duration of diarrhoea (13%, p = 0.03) and markedly reduced rate (43%, p = 0.017) of prolonged diarrhoea (>7 d). Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a nonsignificant trend for reduced rate of prolonged diarrhoea (p = 0.089). In conclusion, zinc supplementation as adjunct therapy had a substantial impact on the rate of prolonged diarrhoea and some impact on duration and may be beneficial in children with diarrhoea in developing countries. PMID:10102147

  6. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  7. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Shedd, T.R.; Widder, M.W.; Toussaint, M.W.; Sunkel, M.C.; Hull, E.

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.

  8. Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioral changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Atindra Kumar; Nagpure, N S; Trivedi, Sunil P; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Lakra, Wazir S

    2011-10-01

    Acute toxicity of an organophosphate pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2- chlorophenyl-O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) to freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch), was studied in a static bioassay. Estimated 96-hour LC(50) of profenofos was found to be 2.68 μgL(-1). On the basis of the obtained LC(50) values for 96-hour exposure intervals, profenofos can be rated as highly toxic to C. punctatus. Fish exposed to profenofos showed hyper excitability, discoloration, erratic swimming, and secretion of excess amounts of mucus on the body and gills with eventual exhaustion and death. PMID:21770742

  9. Pharmacogenetics predictive of response and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lin; Ontiveros, Evelena P.; Griffiths, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, James E.; Wang, Eunice S.; Wetzler, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively rare disease in adults accounting for no more than 20% of all cases of acute leukemia. By contrast with the pediatric population, in whom significant improvements in long term survival and even cure have been achieved over the last 30 years, adult ALL remains a significant challenge. Overall survival in this group remains a relatively poor 20–40%. Modern research has focused on improved pharmacokinetics, novel pharmacogenetics and personalized principles to optimize the efficacy of the treatment while reducing toxicity. Here we review the pharmacogenetics of medications used in the management of patients with ALL, including L-asparaginase, glucocorticoids, 6-mercaptopruine, methotrexate, vincristine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Incorporating recent pharmacogenetic data, mainly from pediatric ALL, will provide novel perspective of predicting response and toxicity in both pediatric and adult ALL therapy. PMID:25614322

  10. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  12. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  13. Acute Toxicity in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Androgen Suppression and Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pervez, Nadeem; Small, Cormac; MacKenzie, Marc; Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Ghosh, Sunita; Mihai, Alina; Amanie, John; Murtha, Albert; Field, Colin; Murray, David; Fallone, Gino; Pearcey, Robert

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.

  14. Iron sulfide attenuates the methanogenic toxicity of elemental copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles and their soluble metal ion analogs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-04-01

    Elemental copper (Cu(0)) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) toxicity to methanogens has been attributed to the release of soluble metal ions. Iron sulfide (FeS) partially controls the soluble concentration of heavy metals and their toxicity in aquatic environments. Heavy metals displace the Fe from FeS forming poorly soluble metal sulfides in the FeS matrix. Therefore, FeS may be expected to attenuate the NP toxicity. This work assessed FeS as an attenuator of the methanogenic toxicity of Cu(0) and ZnO NPs and their soluble salt analogs. The toxicity attenuation capacity of fine (25-75μm) and coarse (500 to 1200μm) preparations of FeS (FeS-f and FeS-c respectively) was tested in the presence of highly inhibitory concentrations of CuCl2, ZnCl2 Cu(0) and ZnO NPs. FeS-f attenuated methanogenic toxicity better than FeS-c. The results revealed that 2.5× less FeS-f than FeS-c was required to recover the methanogenic activity to 50% (activity normalized to uninhibited controls). The results also indicated that a molar FeS-f/Cu(0) NP, FeS-f/ZnO NP, FeS-f/ZnCl2, and FeS-f/CuCl2 ratio of 2.14, 2.14, 4.28, and 8.56 respectively, was necessary to recover the methanogenic activity to >75%. Displacement experiments demonstrated that CuCl2 and ZnCl2 partially displaced Fe from FeS. As a whole, the results indicate that not all the sulfide in FeS was readily available to react with the soluble Cu and Zn ions which may explain the need for a large stoichiometric excess of FeS to highly attenuate Cu and Zn toxicity. Overall, this study provides evidence that FeS attenuates the toxicity caused by Cu(0) and ZnO NPs and their soluble ion analogs to methanogens.

  15. Silicon (Si) alleviates cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from zinc (Zn) toxicity stress by limiting Zn uptake and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Anwaar, Shad Ali; Ali, Shafaqat; Ali, Skhawat; Ishaque, Wajid; Farid, Mujahid; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Najeeb, Ullah; Abbas, Farhat; Sharif, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Silicon (Si) is as an important fertilizer element, which has been found effective in enhancing plant tolerance to variety of biotic and a-biotic stresses. This study investigates the Si potential to alleviate zinc (Zn) toxicity stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponics and exposed to different Zn concentration, 0, 25, and 50 μM, alone and/or in combination with 1 mM Si. Incremental Zn concentration in growth media instigated the cellular oxidative damage that was evident from elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and consequently inhibited cotton growth, biomass, chlorophyll pigments, and photosynthetic process. Application of Si significantly suppressed Zn accumulation in various plant parts, i.e., roots, stems, and leaves and thus promoted biomass, photosynthetic, growth parameters, and antioxidant enzymes activity of Zn-stressed as well unstressed plants. In addition, Si reduced the MDA and H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage suggesting its role in protecting cotton plants from Zn toxicity-induced oxidative damage. Thus, the study indicated that exogenous Si application could improve growth and development of cotton crop experiencing Zn toxicity stress by limiting Zn bioavailability and oxidative damage.

  16. Acute rejection in low-toxicity regimens: clinical impact and risk factors in the Symphony study.

    PubMed

    Frei, Ulrich; Daloze, Pierre; Vítko, Stefan; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael; Titiz, Izzet; Fricke, Lutz; Bernasconi, Corrado; Ekberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The Symphony study assessed whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based regimens containing reduced doses of adjunct immunosuppressants could reduce toxicity while maintaining efficacy. Here, we examined the impact of acute rejection and associated risk factors. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection in the low-dose tacrolimus group was approximately half that of the standard-dose cyclosporine and low-dose cyclosporine groups, and a third of that in the low-dose sirolimus group. The low-dose cyclosporine group had more severe rejection episodes (≥grade II) compared with other groups. Acute rejection was associated with a 10 mL/min glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction and a 5.3% absolute increase in graft loss at 12 months. Overall, the highest GFR was found in both rejecters and non-rejecters receiving low-dose tacrolimus, both in an intent-to-treat analysis and in patients successfully treated according to the protocol. In Cox regression models, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches and expanded criteria donors increased the acute rejection risk, while recipient age, living related donor, and MMF dose were associated with a reduced risk. Acute rejection was associated with worse outcome but did not entirely explain the differences among the treatment groups. The 2 g MMF plus low-dose tacrolimus combination appears to be the most efficient of all regimens examined regardless of acute rejection.

  17. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  18. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency.

  19. Enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and dissipation in vegetables of the chiral triazole fungicide flutriafol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Hua, Xiu-de; Shi, Hai-yan; Liu, Ji-song; Tian, Ming-ming; Wang, Ming-hua

    2015-03-01

    The enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and stereoselective degradation of the chiral triazole fungicide flutriafol in vegetables were investigated for the first time using the (R)-, (S)- and rac-flutriafol. The order of the bioactivity against five target pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Pyricularia grisea, Gibberella zeae, Botrytis cinerea) was found to be (R)-flutriafol>rac-flutriafol>(S)-flutriafol. The fungicidal activity of (R)-flutriafol was 1.49-6.23 times higher than that of (S)-flutriafol. The (R)-flutriafol also showed 2.17-3.52 times higher acute toxicity to Eisenia fetida and Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-flutriafol. The stereoselective degradation of flutriafol in tomato showed that the active (R)-flutriafol degraded faster, resulting in an enrichment of inactive (S)-form, and the half-lives were 9.23 d and 10.18 d, respectively. Inversely, the (S)-flutriafol, with a half-life of 4.76 d, was preferentially degraded in cucumber. In conclusion, the systemic assessments of the triazole fungicide flutriafol stereoisomers on the enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and environmental behavior may have implications for better environmental and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25463219

  20. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  1. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-02-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes - lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compound, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes. The author focuses on four of the classes. The PAHs are products of fuel combustion and components of fossil fuels. The other three classes principally originate from industrial applications (alkyl halides), as fossil fuels, insecticides, solvents, and in perfumes (cyclic alkanes); and as herbicides and insecticides (heterocyclic nitrogen compounds). The authors purpose is to report results of static acute toxicity tests in which larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as the test fish and to compare results of acute toxicity tests with previous studies.

  2. [Alteration of the acute toxicity and various pharmacologic effects of streptomycin sulfate by calcium 4'-phosphopantothenate].

    PubMed

    Dorofeev, B F; Korablev, M V; Kopelevich, V M

    1983-10-01

    The effect of calcium 4'-phosphopantothenate (CPP) on acute toxicity of streptomycin and the decrease by the antibiotic of the muscle working capacity, "holes" reflex, body temperature and oxygen intake was studied on 258 albino mice weighing 22-26 g. Medical calcium pantothenate (CPA) was used for control purposes. CPP is an antagonist of streptomycin sulfate. In a dose of 1/10 or 1/5 of the LD50 injected intraperitoneally CPP lowered acute toxicity of streptomycin and prevented its effect in a dose of 0.11--1.1 g/kg injected subcutaneously on the muscle working capacity, "holes" reflex and body temperature. The spectrum index of the CPP antitoxic effect was equal to 22.5. By its acute toxicity CPP (LD50 1.18 +/- 0.07 g/kg) did not differ from CPA (LD50 1.25 +/- 0.08 g/kg). The efficacy of CPP, by its antitoxic spectrum, was 1.8 times higher than that of CPA. CPA lowered the streptomycin effect on the "holes" reflex and body temperature, while CPP prevented it. Both the drugs did not influence the decrease in the oxygen consumption induced by streptomycin. PMID:6651265

  3. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article

  4. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  5. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  6. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats treated by two different routes: single intravenous injection and single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Heyjin; Kim, Pilje; Jo, Eunhye; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2015-01-01

    Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was studied in rats via a single intravenous (iv) injection and a single oral administration (3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg), respectively. Blood concentrations of zinc (Zn) were monitored for 7 d and tissue distribution were determined in liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, thymus, brain, and testes. To ascertain the excretion of ZnONP, Zn levels in urine and feces were measured for 7 d. ZnONP were not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after oral administration and were excreted mostly in feces. When the nanoparticles were injected iv to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, peak concentration appeared at 5 min but returned to normal range by d 2 (48 h after injection). ZnONP were distributed mainly to liver, kidneys, lung, and spleen, but not to thymus, brain, and testes. The distribution level was significantly decreased to normal by d 7. Feces excretion levels after iv injection supported biliary excretion of ZnONP. In rats injected iv with 30 mg/kg, mitotic figures in hepatocytes were significantly increased and multifocal acute injuries with dark brown pigment were noted in lungs, while no significant damage was observed in rats treated orally with the same dosage.

  7. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. PMID:24386634

  8. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  9. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  10. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  11. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. PMID:27379341

  12. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. PMID:24934557

  13. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Shin; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. PMID:25654094

  14. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  15. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  16. Consideration of reactivity to acute fish toxicity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Aoki, Y; Shiraishi, H

    2012-01-01

    To understand the key factor for fish toxicity of 11 α,β-unsaturated carbonyl aldehydes and ketones, we used quantum chemical calculations to investigate their Michael reactions with methanethiol or glutathione. We used two reaction schemes, with and without an explicit water molecule (Scheme-1wat and Scheme-0wat, respectively), to account for the effects of a catalytic water molecule on the reaction pathway. We determined the energies of the reactants, transition states (TS), and products, as well as the activation energies of the reactions. The acute fish toxicities of nine of the carbonyl compounds were evaluated to correlate with their hydrophobicities; no correlation was observed for acrolein and crotonaldehyde. The most toxic compound, acrolein, had the lowest activation energy. The activation energy of the reaction could be estimated with Scheme-1wat but not with Scheme-0wat. The complexity of the reaction pathways of the compounds was reflected in the difficulty of the TS structure searches when Scheme-1wat was used with the polarizable continuum model. The theoretical estimations of activation energies of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with catalytic molecules or groups including hydrogen-bond networks may complement traditional tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicities of compounds that cannot be easily obtained experimentally. PMID:22150015

  17. Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1980-08-01

    Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

  18. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests. PMID:26370277

  19. Bupivacaine induced cardiac toxicity mimicking an acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ho Yoel; Kim, Jang-Young; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Yoon, Junghan; Yoo, Byung-Su; Choe, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2007-04-30

    Bupivacaine is widely used as a local anesthetic. Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular toxicity are well known side effects. However, there has been no report of bupivacaine-induced myocardial injury. We present a case of bupivacaine cardiac toxicity mimicking an acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, which was eventually diagnosed as bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity without CNS toxicity. As soon as a healthy young woman at a private clinic was given a spinal anesthesia of 6mg bupivacaine for hemorrhoidectomy, she developed arrhythmia and hypotension. She was transferred to our emergency room. There was an accelerated idioventricular rhythm with ST segment depression on electrocardiogram, coarse breathing sounds with rales on whole lung field and a butterfly sign on the chest radiograph. 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed reduced left ventricle systolic ejection fraction (approximately 27%). There was regional wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle on 2D TTE and the cardiac marker was increased. We diagnosed the patient as having acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction but her impaired cardiac function improved gradually. On the seventh day from admission, there was a complete spontaneous recovery of cardiac function, and coronary angiography revealed a normal coronary artery. Therefore, we firmly believe that bupivacaine directly injures the cardiac cell.

  20. Effect of copper status on acute toxicity of cocaine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Reddy, P.P.; Seung, S.K.; Combs, G.F.; Dulin, A.M.; Danford, D.E. )

    1989-02-09

    Both copper (Cu) nutriture and cocaine (Coc) ingestion have been shown to affect cardiovascular integrity. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine if Cu status affects the acute toxicity of Coc. 20 weanling male rats (45 {plus minus} 5 g) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 1 fed a copper deficient (CuD) (<1ppmCu) and the other a copper supplemented (CuS) diet (ca.6ppm, Cu). After 7 wks, the rats, paired for Cu status, were injected (ip) with Coc-HCl at reported LD{sub 50} doses ranging from 80-90 mg/kg bw. The CuD was established by cardiac hypertrophy, depressed hematocrit, lowered serum, liver and heart Cu compared to the CuS controls. The acute toxicity resulted in tachycardia and hyperactivity followed by ataxia with isolated muscle twitchings and violent grand-mal type seizures. For those animals that died, death was apparently due to respiratory arrest followed by ventricular fibrillation; animals that survived were killed by exsanguination. The severity of toxicity was greater for the CuD rats as evidenced by 100% exhibiting seizures compared to 80% for the CuS group. In addition, the incidence of death was 60% for the CuD group compared to 20% for the CuS rats. Although these results suggest that CuD exacerbates the toxic effects of Coc, it is not established that the effects are specific for this essential nutrient.

  1. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.

  2. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.

  3. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased.

  4. Acute toxicity of some hydrazine compounds to salamander larvae, Ambystoma spp

    SciTech Connect

    Slonim, A.R.

    1986-11-01

    Although hydrazine compounds have been used extensively by industry for a very long time, they have become important in recent years as propellants for aerospace operations. The study of hydrazine compounds in this laboratory began about two decades ago and developed into a large pharmacological and toxicological research program that included also environmental considerations. Subsequently, acute toxicity studies were conducted on the common guppy (Lebistes reticulatus Peters) using four hydrazine compounds of interest. The toxicity of these propellants were evaluated next on other species of aquatic organisms such as mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) and amphibians. Two different studies were conducted on amphibians: One utilized amphibian eggs and the other amphibian larvae. The larvae of spotted and marbled salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum and A. opacum, respectively) were used primarily in numerous static bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of hydrazine, UDMH and Aerozine-50 on these organisms. The remaining larvae were used in other tests mainly to corroborate previous experimental results (e.g., to see whether toxicity is affected by organism size, aeration of test solutions, and water hardness). The results on the larvae are presented in this paper.

  5. Acute toxicity and in vivo biodistribution of monodispersed mesoporous bioactive glass spheres in intravenously exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Hu, Qing; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from laboratories to clinics requires exhaustive and elaborate studies involving the biodistribution, clearance, and biocompatibility of biomaterials for in vivo biomedical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity and biodistribution of intravenously administrated sub-micrometer mesoporous bioactive glass spheres (SMBGs) in mice. The lethal dose 50 (LD50) of SMBGs was higher than 250 mg/kg. The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 days after intravenous injection of SMBGs at 20, 100 and 180 mg/kg in ICR mice. The mortality, coefficients of major organs, hematology data and blood biochemical indexes revealed the low in vivo toxicity of SMBGs at all doses. However, the histological examination showed lymphocytic infiltration and granuloma formation in hepatocyte and megakaryocyte hyperplasia in the spleen at high dose. The silicon content analysis using ICP-OES and TEM results indicated that SMBGs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the liver and spleen, and could be cleared from the body more than 2 weeks. These findings can be important for the toxicity assessment of sub-micrometer particles and the development of bioactive glass based drug delivery system for biomedical applications.

  6. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests.

  7. Acute toxicity and superficial damage to goldfish from the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Zeng, Shi-Hu; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Liu, Li; Ma, Shuai; Wang, Jian-Ji

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, goldfish toxicity and superficial damage from 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8 mim]Br) exposure were evaluated by an acute toxicity test. These results show that the 24-h 50% lethal concentration for [C8 mim]Br in goldfish is 244 mg L(-1) , and this indicates that [C8 mim]Br is a chemical with moderate or low toxicity to organisms. Scanning electronic microscope and histological observations revealed that acute exposure to [C8 mim]Br induced obvious superficial damage to the skin, gill filaments, and intestinal villi of the goldfish, and this suggests that the skin, gills, and intestines may be the first direct targets of the ionic liquid in this fish. Histological examination also indicated that [C8 mim]Br-exposure caused damage to the goldfish's hepatopancreas and kidney, consisting mainly of hepatic cords in a loose connection, hepatic cytoplasmic vacuolation, renal parenchyma vacuolization, and intumescence of the renal tubule. In addition, we found that [C8 mim]Br caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the hepatopancreases from these goldfish, and thus we suggest that the MDA level may be a biomarker of [C8 mim]Br-toxicity in goldfish.

  8. The Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats from the Pyrolysis Products of Four Fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V. L., Jr.; Bafus, D. A.; Warrington, H. P.; Harris, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225?250 g) were exposed to the thermal degradation products from four fluoropolymers. The three polymers containing vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) were pyrolyzed at 550? and 800?C, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was pyrolyzed at 625 and 800?C. At the lower temperatures, the pyrolysate from the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) was less toxic than the pyrolysates from either the terpolymer of vinyidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene, and tetrafluoroethylene (VF2/HFP/TFE) or the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene with ?additives? (VF2/HFP-A). However, the pyrolysates from the VF2/HFP-containing materials produced less toxic products than the pyrolysate from PTFE at 625?C. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased to 800?C, very little difference was noted between the pyrolysis toxicity for any of the VF2/HFP-containing polymers with the most toxic pyrolysate again produced by PTFE. Carbon monoxide levels were all sublethal. No correlation could be established between hydrolyzable fluoride levels and the lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48 hr due to acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Survival of this acute phase was followed by alveolar lymphocytic infiltration and peribronchial tissue proliferation.

  9. Economic evaluation of zinc and copper use in treating acute diarrhea in children: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Archana B; Dhande, Leena A; Rawat, Manwar S

    2003-01-01

    Background The therapeutic effects of zinc and copper in reducing diarrheal morbidity have important cost implications. This health services research study evaluated the cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea in the hospital, the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the mean predicted costs and its cost-effectiveness as compared to using only standard oral rehydration solution (ORS), from the patient's and government's (providers) perspective. Methods Children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention or control. The intervention was a daily dose of 40 mg of zinc sulfate and 5 mg of copper sulfate powder dissolved in a liter of standard ORS (n = 102). The control was 50 mg of standard ORS powder dissolved in a liter of standard ORS (n = 98). The cost measures were the total mean cost of treating acute diarrhea, which included the direct medical, the direct non-medical and the indirect costs. The effectiveness measures were the probability of diarrhea lasting ≤ 4 days, the disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and mortality. Results The mean total cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea was US $14 of which the government incurred an expenditure of 66%. The factors that increased the total were the number of stools before admission (p = 0.01), fever (p = 0.01), increasing grade of dehydration (p = 0.00), use of antibiotics (p = 0.00), use of intra-venous fluids (p = 0.00), hours taken to rehydrate a child (p = 0.00), the amount of oral rehydration fluid used (p = 0.00), presence of any complications (p = 0.00) and the hospital stay (p = 0.00). The supplemented group had a 8% lower cost of treating acute diarrhea, their cost per unit health (diarrhea lasting ≤ 4 days) was 24% less and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated cost savings (in Rupees) with the intervention [-452; 95%CI (-11306, 3410)]. However these differences failed to reach conventional levels of

  10. Acute toxicity of vegetable oil factory effluent to some freshwater teleosts in relation to size.

    PubMed

    Kondal, J K; Gupta, S; Saxena, P K

    1984-05-01

    Specimens of Cirrhina mrigala (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Channa punctatus (Bl.) falling in the size (total length) range of 5.5 +/- 1.0 cm to 27.0 +/- 2.0 cm were exposed to different concentrations of the vegetable oil factory effluent for evaluating the influence of size on the acute toxicity of the factory effluent. The results suggest that relative toxicity of the effluent decreased with increase in the size of the fish. However, for specimens exceeding 20.0 +/- 1.6 cm in size, the toxicity of the effluent increased with an increase in size of the fish. The results also indicate that C. mrigala was most susceptible, while C. punctatus was least susceptible to the effluent.

  11. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment

  12. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment

  13. Glucose deprivation stimulates Cu(2+) toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons and Cu(2+)-dependent zinc release.

    PubMed

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Genrikhs, Elisaveta E; Aleksandrova, Olga P; Zelenova, Elena A; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2016-05-27

    Copper chloride (0.01mM, 2h) did not have significant influence on the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) incubated in balanced salt solution. However, CuCl2 caused severe neuronal damage by glucose deprivation (GD). The glutamate NMDA-receptors blocker MK-801 partially and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or Zn(2+) chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) almost entirely protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Measurements of intracellular calcium ions using Fluo-4 AM, or zinc ions with FluoZin-3 AM demonstrated that 1 h-exposure to GD induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence in neurons. The supplementation of solution with CuCl2 caused an increase of FluoZin-3, Fluo-4 and CellROX Green (reactive oxygen species probe) fluorescence by GD. The stimulation of Fluo-4 but not FluoZin-3 fluorescence by copper could be prevented partially by MK-801 and as well as CellROX Green fluorescence by NAC at GD. This data imply that during GD copper ions induce intense displacement zinc ions from intracellular stores, in addition free radical production, glutamate release and Ca(2+) overload of CGNs, that causes death of neurons as a result. PMID:27063646

  14. Protective effect of ginger and zinc chloride mixture on the liver and kidney alterations induced by malathion toxicity.

    PubMed

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Attia, Hossam F; Soliman, Mohamed M; Makrum, Omar

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out on four groups of male Wistar rats, 10 rats per group. Group I got open access to food intake and water with normal balanced diet. Group II was administered 400 mg ginger per kg body weight (BW) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water for 4 months. Group III was administered malathion at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW/day in 0.2 mL corn oil via gavages for 4 months. This dose equal to 1/50 of the LD50. Group IV was given a mixture of 400 mg ginger per kg BW and ZnCl2 (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water in addition to 100 mg malathion/kg BW for 4 months. The liver showed histopathological changes include congestion, edema, and leucocytic infiltrations which were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. The kidney showed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration of the renal tubules. These changes were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. Ki67 immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane. Its expression was estimated as the percentage of cells positively stained by the antibody in the different groups. In conclusion, malathion was toxic to the liver and kidney and must be avoided and protected by the addition of ginger and zinc mixture. PMID:25816415

  15. Levels of cadmium and zinc in soil and plants following the toxic spill from a pyrite mine, Aznalcollar, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pain, Deborah J; Meharg, Andrew; Sinclair, Gillian; Powell, Nicola; Finnie, Jill; Williams, Robert; Hilton, Geoff

    2003-02-01

    On 25 April 1998, a breach of the tailings dam of the Los Frailes pyrite mine in southwestern Spain resulted in the release of 6 million m3 of acidic water and toxic sludge high in heavy metals. Contaminated material extended 40 km downstream, affecting agricultural land and parts of the wildlife-rich Doñana Natural and National Parks, including the Entremuros, a very important area for birds. We report on the concentrations, distributions and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium in soil and vegetation from the Entremuros in November 1998 and October 1999, following 2 'cleanup' operations. Levels of Zn and Cd in soil increased significantly over this period, although this was not reflected consistently in metal concentrations in emergent macrophytes. We recommend monitoring of further cleanup attempts in order to develop means of minimizing potential impacts to wildlife in the area.

  16. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed.

  17. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical.

  18. The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Lemna minor (L.) is predominantly caused by dissolved Zn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; O'Halloran, John; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2016-05-01

    Nano-ZnO particles have been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms, although it is debated whether this is caused by nanoparticles per sé, or rather dissolved Zn. This study investigated the role of dissolved Zn in nano-ZnO toxicity to Lemna minor. The technical approach was based on modulating nano-ZnO dissolution by either modifying the pH of the growth medium and/or surface coating of nano-ZnO, and measuring resulting impacts on L. minor growth and physiology. Results show rapid and total dissolution of nano-ZnO in the medium (pH 4.5). Quantitatively similar toxic effects were found when L. minor was exposed to nano-ZnO or the "dissolved Zn equivalent of dissolved nano-ZnO". The conclusion that nano-ZnO toxicity is primarily caused by dissolved Zn was further supported by the observation that phytotoxicity was absent on medium with higher pH-values (>7), where dissolution of nano-ZnO almost ceased. Similarly, the reduced toxicity of coated nano-ZnO, which displays a slower Zn dissolution, is also consistent with a major role for dissolved Zn in nano-ZnO toxicity.

  19. The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Lemna minor (L.) is predominantly caused by dissolved Zn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; O'Halloran, John; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2016-05-01

    Nano-ZnO particles have been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms, although it is debated whether this is caused by nanoparticles per sé, or rather dissolved Zn. This study investigated the role of dissolved Zn in nano-ZnO toxicity to Lemna minor. The technical approach was based on modulating nano-ZnO dissolution by either modifying the pH of the growth medium and/or surface coating of nano-ZnO, and measuring resulting impacts on L. minor growth and physiology. Results show rapid and total dissolution of nano-ZnO in the medium (pH 4.5). Quantitatively similar toxic effects were found when L. minor was exposed to nano-ZnO or the "dissolved Zn equivalent of dissolved nano-ZnO". The conclusion that nano-ZnO toxicity is primarily caused by dissolved Zn was further supported by the observation that phytotoxicity was absent on medium with higher pH-values (>7), where dissolution of nano-ZnO almost ceased. Similarly, the reduced toxicity of coated nano-ZnO, which displays a slower Zn dissolution, is also consistent with a major role for dissolved Zn in nano-ZnO toxicity. PMID:26918949

  20. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV

  1. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  2. Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Ranville, James F; Pontasch, Mandee; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Adams, William J

    2015-04-01

    Standard static-exposure acute lethality tests were conducted with Daphnia magna neonates exposed to binary or ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn in moderately hard reconstituted water that contained 3 mg dissolved organic carbon/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. These experiments were conducted to test for additive toxicity (i.e., the response to the mixture can be predicted by combining the responses obtained in single-metal toxicity tests) or nonadditive toxicity (i.e., the response is less than or greater than additive). Based on total metal concentrations (>90% dissolved) the toxicity of the tested metal mixtures could be categorized into all 3 possible additivity categories: less-than-additive toxicity (e.g., Cd-Zn and Cd-Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cu was titrated into Cd-containing waters), additive toxicity (e.g., some Cu-Zn mixtures), or more-than-additive toxicity (some Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cd was titrated into Cu-containing waters). Exposing the organisms to a range of sublethal to supralethal concentrations of the titrated metal was especially helpful in identifying nonadditive interactions. Geochemical processes (e.g., metal-metal competition for binding to dissolved organic matter and/or the biotic ligand, and possibly supersaturation of exposure waters with the metals in some high-concentration exposures) can explain much of the observed metal-metal interactions. Therefore, bioavailability models that incorporate those geochemical (and possibly some physiological) processes might be able to predict metal mixture toxicity accurately.

  3. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  4. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    PubMed

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F

    1996-02-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function. PMID:8744925

  5. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  6. Effects of salinity on short-term waterborne zinc uptake, accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Blewett, Tamzin A; Gallagher, Trevor; Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Wood, Chris M

    2016-09-01

    Waterborne zinc (Zn) is known to cause toxicity to freshwater animals primarily by disrupting calcium (Ca) homeostasis during acute exposure, but its effects in marine and estuarine animals are not well characterized. The present study investigated the effects of salinity on short-term Zn accumulation and sub-lethal toxicity in the euryhaline green shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The kinetic and pharmacological properties of short-term branchial Zn uptake were also examined. Green crabs (n=10) were exposed to control (no added Zn) and 50μM (3.25mgL(-1)) of waterborne Zn (∼25% of 96h LC50 in 100 seawater) for 96h at 3 different salinity regimes (100%, 60% and 20% seawater). Exposure to waterborne Zn increased tissue-specific Zn accumulation across different salinities. However, the maximum accumulation occurred in 20% seawater and no difference was recorded between 60% and 100% seawater. Gills appeared to be the primary site of Zn accumulation, since the accumulation was significantly higher in the gills relative to the hepatopancreas, haemolymph and muscle. Waterborne Zn exposure induced a slight increase in haemolymph osmolality and chloride levels irrespective of salinity. In contrast, Zn exposure elicited marked increases in both haemolymph and gill Ca levels, and these changes were more pronounced in 20% seawater relative to that in 60% or 100% seawater. An in vitro gill perfusion technique was used to examine the characteristics of short-term (1-4h) branchial Zn uptake over an exposure concentration range of 3-12μM (200-800μgL(-1)). The rate of short-term branchial Zn uptake did not change significantly after 2h, and no difference was recorded in the rate of uptake between the anterior (respiratory) and posterior (ion transporting) gills. The in vitro branchial Zn uptake occurred in a concentration-dependent manner across different salinities. However, the rate of uptake was consistently higher in 20% seawater relative to 60% or 100% seawater - similar to

  7. The potentiation of zinc toxicity by soil moisture in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Owojori, Olugbenga J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Northern boreal forests often experience forest dieback as a result of metal ore mining and smelting. The common solution is to lime the soil, which increases pH, reducing metal toxicity and encouraging recovery. In certain situations, however, such as in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, liming has yielded only moderate benefits, with some locations responding well to liming and other locations not at all. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the ecorestoration strategy, the authors investigated if these differences in liming responsiveness were linked to differences in toxicity. Toxicity of metal-impacted Flin Flon soils on the oribatid mite Oppia nitens and the collembolan Folsomia candida was assessed, with a view toward identifying the metal of concern in the area. The effects of moisture content on metal sorption, uptake, and toxicity to the invertebrates were also investigated. Toxicity tests with the invertebrates were conducted using either Flin Flon soils or artificial soils with moisture content adjusted to 30%, 45%, 60%, or 75% of the maximum water-holding capacity of the soil samples. The Relative to Cd Toxicity Model identified Zn as the metal of concern in the area, and this was confirmed using validation tests with field contaminated soils. Furthermore, increasing the moisture content in soils increased the amount of mobile Zn available for uptake with the ion exchange resin. Survival and reproduction of both invertebrates were reduced under Zn exposure as moisture level increased. Thus, moisture-collecting landforms, which are often also associated with high Zn concentrations at Flin Flon, have, as a result, higher Zn toxicity to the soil ecosystem because of increases in soil moisture.

  8. The potentiation of zinc toxicity by soil moisture in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Owojori, Olugbenga J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-03-01

    Northern boreal forests often experience forest dieback as a result of metal ore mining and smelting. The common solution is to lime the soil, which increases pH, reducing metal toxicity and encouraging recovery. In certain situations, however, such as in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, liming has yielded only moderate benefits, with some locations responding well to liming and other locations not at all. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the ecorestoration strategy, the authors investigated if these differences in liming responsiveness were linked to differences in toxicity. Toxicity of metal-impacted Flin Flon soils on the oribatid mite Oppia nitens and the collembolan Folsomia candida was assessed, with a view toward identifying the metal of concern in the area. The effects of moisture content on metal sorption, uptake, and toxicity to the invertebrates were also investigated. Toxicity tests with the invertebrates were conducted using either Flin Flon soils or artificial soils with moisture content adjusted to 30%, 45%, 60%, or 75% of the maximum water-holding capacity of the soil samples. The Relative to Cd Toxicity Model identified Zn as the metal of concern in the area, and this was confirmed using validation tests with field contaminated soils. Furthermore, increasing the moisture content in soils increased the amount of mobile Zn available for uptake with the ion exchange resin. Survival and reproduction of both invertebrates were reduced under Zn exposure as moisture level increased. Thus, moisture-collecting landforms, which are often also associated with high Zn concentrations at Flin Flon, have, as a result, higher Zn toxicity to the soil ecosystem because of increases in soil moisture. PMID:25502519

  9. The Role of Copper and Zinc Toxicity in Innate Immune Defense against Bacterial Pathogens*

    PubMed Central

    Djoko, Karrera Y.; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y.; Walker, Mark J.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are essential for optimal innate immune function, and nutritional deficiency in either metal leads to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Recently, the decreased survival of bacterial pathogens with impaired Cu and/or Zn detoxification systems in phagocytes and animal models of infection has been reported. Consequently, a model has emerged in which the host utilizes Cu and/or Zn intoxication to reduce the intracellular survival of pathogens. This review describes and assesses the potential role for Cu and Zn intoxication in innate immune function and their direct bactericidal function. PMID:26055706

  10. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  11. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  12. Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  13. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    PubMed

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  14. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four